WorldWideScience

Sample records for galaxies luminosity-velocity relation

  1. The dynamics of aggregates of galaxies as related to their main galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, J.; Joeveer, M.; Kaasik, A.; Vennik, J.

    1976-01-01

    The dynamics of the aggregates of galaxies is compared with the dynamics of their member galaxies. It is demonstrated that within a factor 1.5-2 the dispersion of relative line-of-sight velocities is constant from the nuclei of main galaxies to the periphery of an aggregate. This isothermality of aggregates of galaxies is observed in all aggregates studied so far, from poor groups to rich clusters. The fact that the velocity dispersion of stars in galaxies is equal to that of galaxies in aggregates applies only to main galaxies. The stars in all companion galaxies have a smaller velocity dispersion of stars. The dynamical evolution of both galaxies and aggregates of galaxies is very slow. Thus the above data suggest that galaxies and their aggregates were formed together. (orig.) [de

  2. The Fundamental Relations of Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, R.; Lucey, J. R.; Bower, R. G.

    1993-12-01

    We investigate the basic laws that determine the global structure and metal abundance of elliptical galaxies. The existence of the Fundamental Plane has been considered to imply that the virial theorem is the only structural constraint for giant ellipticals. However, we show that giant ellipticals do not uniformly cover the Fundamental Plane, but are located in a band which is not the result of selection effects. This `Fundamental Band' implies a second constraint between scalelength and galaxy mass. On the basis of this result, we present a new framework in which the structure and metal abundance of giant ellipticals are determined by only three fundamental relations: M is proportional to R, M is proportional to Rzeta^ and Z is proportional to xi where M is the galaxy mass, R is the half-mass radius, is the mean square speed of the system's stars and Z is the average metallicity of the stellar population; ζ and ξ are constants. ξ is uniquely determined from the observations. The value of ζ, however, depends on the assumed scaling laws that relate M and R to the observed luminosity and half-light radius. We assume M/L is proportional to Meta^ and R/R_e_ is proportional to Mlambda^. The two constants η and λ are mutually constrained by observations, but their values are not uniquely determined. All the wide variety of observed global correlations can be derived as simple combinations of these fundamental relations. This simple framework provides new insights into the intrinsic differences between giant and dwarf ellipticals. The observed universality of the luminosity- and metallicity-velocity dispersion correlations strongly suggests a simple solution within our framework in which ξ, ζ and η adopt the same values for both dwarf and giant ellipticals. In this case, we show that the dependence of R/R_e_ on galaxy mass is the only difference between the two galaxy families. We compare this framework with a theoretical scenario of galaxy formation that

  3. Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Normal galaxies, radio galaxies, and Seyfert galaxies are considered. The large magellanic cloud and the great galaxy in Andromedia are highlighted. Quasars and BL lacertae objects are also discussed and a review of the spectral observations of all of these galaxies and celestial objects is presented

  4. Stellar-to-halo mass relation of cluster galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemiec, Anna; Jullo, Eric; Limousin, Marceau; Giocoli, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    In the formation of galaxy groups and clusters, the dark matter haloes containing satellite galaxies are expected to be tidally stripped in gravitational interactions with the host. We use galaxy-galaxy weak lensing to measure the average mass of dark matter haloes of satellite galaxies as a function of projected distance to the centre of the host, since stripping is expected to be greater for satellites closer to the centre of the cluster. We further classify the satellites according to their stellar mass: assuming that the stellar component of the galaxy is less disrupted by tidal stripping, stellar mass can be used as a proxy of the infall mass. We study the stellar to halo mass relation of satellites as a function of the cluster-centric distance to measure tidal stripping. We use the shear catalogues of the DES science veri cation archive, the CFHTLenS and the CFHT Stripe 82 surveys, and we select satellites from the redMaPPer catalogue of clusters. For galaxies located in the outskirts of clusters, we nd a stellar to halo mass relation in good agreement with the theoretical expectations from Moster, Naab & White (2013) for central galaxies. In the centre of the cluster, we nd that this relation is shifted to smaller halo mass for a given stellar mass. We interpret this nding as further evidence for tidal stripping of dark matter haloes in high density environments.

  5. A Local Baseline of the Black Hole Mass - Host Galaxy Scaling Relations for Active Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennert, Vardha

    2017-08-01

    The discovery of relations between supermassive black holes (BHs) and their host-galaxy properties has sparked many observational studies pertaining both to the local Universe and cosmic history. Nevertheless, a clear understanding of their origin and fundamental drivers still eludes us. Studying the evolution of these relations depends on our understanding of the slope and scatter of local relations for active galaxies (AGNs). We propose a SNAP program of a unique sample of 84 local type-1 AGNs, spanning a wide range of BH masses (MBH), morphologies, and stellar masses. The high resolution WFC3/F814W images are essential for a detailed decomposition of the host-galaxy in the presence of a bright AGN point source, resulting in precise measurements of the different host-galaxy components and AGN luminosity free of host-galaxy contamination for a robust determination of MBH. When complemented with spatially-resolved Keck spectra to determine stellar-velocity dispersion within bulge effective radius, this yields a most complete baseline of host-galaxy properties over the entire range of MBH scaling relations. A typical SNAP completion rate results in a sample of 30 objects which will be used to calibrate existing Gemini NIRI and SDSS images. We will study slope and scatter of the relations, dependencies and fundamental drivers. The frequency of pseudo-bulges, bars, and (minor) mergers will reveal the dominant growth mechanism of spheroids. The homogeneous sample will identify any selection biases in the reverberation-mapped AGN sample which serves as a MBH calibrator for the entire Universe. Results will be compared with state-of-the-art semi-analytical models.

  6. Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The size and nature of any large-scale anisotropy in the three-dimensional distribution of galaxies is still little understood. Recent studies have indicated that large fluctuations in the matter distribution on a scale from tens up to several hundreds of megaparsecs may exist. Work at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) in recent years has made major contributions to studies of the large scale distribution of galaxies, as well as to solving the problems of the galactic and extragalactic distance scale. Other studies of galaxies undertaken at SAAO include: quasars in the fields of nearby galaxies; dwarf irregular galaxies; IRAS galaxies; Seyfert galaxies; 'hot spot' galaxies; supernovae in NGC 5128 and NGC 1559 and superclusters. 4 figs

  7. Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In studies of the large scale structure of the universe there is a continuing need for extensive galaxy redshift determinations. Optically selected redshift surveys are of particular importance, since flux-limited samples record much higher space densities of galaxies than samples of similar size selected in other wavebands. A considerable amount of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) observing time is currently being devoted to carrying out a large southern galaxy redshift survey. A recently completed study, the Durham-SAAO redshift survey suggests that the mean density of matter is well below the critical limit for a closed universe and also that the universe may be homogenous at very large scales. Other research conducted by the SAAO include studies on: the distribution of galaxies; Seyfert galaxies; starburst and IRAS galaxies; interacting and compact galaxies; a re-evaluation of the Cepheid distance to NGC 300, and a search for quasars behind galaxies. 1 fig

  8. THE SIZE-VIRIAL RADIUS RELATION OF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2013-01-01

    I use the abundance matching ansatz, which has proven to be successful in reproducing galaxy clustering and other statistics, to derive estimates of the virial radius, R 200 , for galaxies of different morphological types and a wide range of stellar masses. I show that over eight orders of magnitude in stellar mass galaxies of all morphological types follow an approximately linear relation between half-mass radius of their stellar distribution, r 1/2 , and virial radius, r 1/2 ≈ 0.015 R 200 , with scatter of ≈0.2 dex. Such scaling is in remarkable agreement with the expectation of models that assume that galaxy sizes are controlled by halo angular momentum, r 1/2 ∝λR 200 , where λ is the spin of galaxy parent halo. The scatter about the relation is comparable with the scatter expected from the distribution of λ. Moreover, I show that when the stellar and gas surface density profiles of galaxies of different morphological types are rescaled by the radius r n = 0.015 R 200 , the rescaled profiles follow approximately universal exponential (for late types) and de Vaucouleurs (for early types) form with scatter of only ≈30%-50% at R ≈ 1-3r n . Remarkably, both late- and early-type galaxies have similar mean stellar surface density profiles at R ∼> 1r n . The main difference between their stellar distributions is thus at R n . The results of this study imply that galaxy sizes and radial distribution of baryons are shaped primarily by properties of their parent halos and that the sizes of both late-type disks and early-type spheroids are controlled by halo angular momentum.

  9. The mass-temperature relation for clusters of galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, J.; Oukbir, J.; van Kampen, E.

    1998-01-01

    A tight mass-temperature relation, M(r)/r proportional to T-x, is expected in most cosmological models if clusters of galaxies are homologous and the intracluster gas is in global equilibrium with the dark matter. We here calibrate this relation using eight clusters with well-defined global...... with wide-held HST imaging could provide a sensitive test of the normalization and intrinsic scatter of the relation, resulting in a powerful and expedient way of measuring masses of clusters of galaxies. In addition, as M(r)/r las derived from lensing) is dependent on the cosmological model at high...

  10. Scaling relations for galaxy clusters: Properties and evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giodini, S.; Lovisari, L.; Pointecouteau, E.; Ettori, S.; Reiprich, T.H.; Hoekstra, H.

    2013-01-01

    Well-calibrated scaling relations between the observable properties and the total masses of clusters of galaxies are important for understanding the physical processes that give rise to these relations. They are also a critical ingredient for studies that aim to constrain cosmological parameters

  11. Color-magnitude relations of late-type galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Ruixiang; Shen, Shiyin; Hou, Jinliang; Shu, Chenggang; Shao, Zhengyi

    2006-01-01

    We use a large sample of galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Two Micro All Sky Survey (2MASS) to present Color-Magnitude Relations (CMRs) for late-type galaxies in both optical and optical-infrared bands. A sample from SDSS Data Release 4 (DR4) is selected to investigate the optical properties. Optical-infrared colors are estimated from a position matched sample of DR4 and 2MASS, in which the photometric aperture mismatch between these two surveys is carefully correcte...

  12. DOES THE MILKY WAY OBEY SPIRAL GALAXY SCALING RELATIONS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licquia, Timothy C.; Newman, Jeffrey A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O’Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Bershady, Matthew A., E-mail: tcl15@pitt.edu, E-mail: janewman@pitt.edu, E-mail: mab@astro.wisc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 N. Charter St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    It is crucial to understand how the Milky Way (MW), the galaxy we can study in the most intimate detail, fits in among other galaxies. Key considerations include the Tully–Fisher relation (TFR)—i.e., the tight correlation between luminosity ( L ) and rotational velocity ( V {sub rot})—and the three-dimensional luminosity–velocity–radius ( LVR ) scaling relation. Several past studies have characterized the MW as a 1–1.5 σ outlier to the TFR. This study re-examines such comparisons using new estimates of MW properties that are robust to many of the systematic uncertainties that have been a problem in the past and are based on assumptions consistent with those used for other spiral galaxies. Comparing to scaling relations derived from modern extragalactic data, we find that our Galaxy’s properties are in excellent agreement with TFRs defined using any Sloan Digital Sky Survey-filter absolute magnitude, stellar mass, or baryonic mass as the L proxy. We next utilize disk scale length ( R {sub d}) measurements to extend this investigation to the LVR relation. Here we find that our Galaxy lies farther from the relation than ∼90% of other spiral galaxies, yielding ∼9.5 σ evidence that it is unusually compact for its L and V {sub rot} (based on MW errors alone), a result that holds for all of the L proxies considered. The expected R {sub d} for the MW from the LVR relation is ∼5 kpc, nearly twice as large as the observed value, with error estimates placing the two in tension at the ∼1.4 σ level. The compact scale length of the Galactic disk could be related to other ways in which the MW has been found to be anomalous.

  13. DO QUIESCENT AND ACTIVE GALAXIES HAVE DIFFERENT MBH-σ* RELATIONS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Jong-Hak; Park, Daeseong; Kang, Wol-Rang; Schulze, Andreas; Kim, Sang Chul; Riechers, Dominik A.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the validity of the assumption that quiescent galaxies and active galaxies follow the same black hole mass (M BH )-stellar velocity dispersion (σ * ) relation, as required for the calibration of M BH estimators for broad line active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we determine and compare the M BH -σ * relations, respectively, for quiescent and active galaxies. For the quiescent galaxy sample, composed of 72 dynamical M BH measurements, we update σ * for 28 galaxies using homogeneous H-band measurements that are corrected for galaxy rotation. For active galaxies, we collect 25 reverberation-mapped AGNs and improve σ * measurement for two objects. Combining the two samples, we determine the virial factor f, first by scaling the active galaxy sample to the M BH -σ * relation of quiescent galaxies, and second by simultaneously fitting the quiescent and active galaxy samples, as f=5.1 -1.1 +1.5 and f=5.9 -1.5 +2.1 , respectively. The M BH -σ * relation of active galaxies appears to be shallower than that of quiescent galaxies. However, the discrepancy is caused by a difference in the accessible M BH distribution at given σ * , primarily due to the difficulty of measuring reliable stellar velocity dispersion for the host galaxies of luminous AGNs. Accounting for the selection effects, we find that active and quiescent galaxies are consistent with following intrinsically the same M BH -σ * relation

  14. Alignment of galaxies relative to their local environment in SDSS-DR8

    OpenAIRE

    Hirv, A.; Pelt, J.; Saar, E.; Tago, E.; Tamm, A.; Tempel, E.; Einasto, M.

    2016-01-01

    We study the alignment of galaxies relative to their local environment in SDSS-DR8 and, using these data, we discuss evolution scenarios for different types of galaxies. We defined a vector field of the direction of anisotropy of the local environment of galaxies. We summed the unit direction vectors of all close neighbours of a given galaxy in a particular way to estimate this field. We found the alignment angles between the spin axes of disc galaxies, or the minor axes of elliptical galaxie...

  15. Mass-Discrepancy Acceleration Relation: A Natural Outcome of Galaxy Formation in Cold Dark Matter Halos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Aaron D; Benítez-Llambay, Alejandro; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom; Frenk, Carlos S; Bower, Richard; Schaye, Joop; Crain, Robert A; Navarro, Julio F; Fattahi, Azadeh; Oman, Kyle A

    2017-04-21

    We analyze the total and baryonic acceleration profiles of a set of well-resolved galaxies identified in the eagle suite of hydrodynamic simulations. Our runs start from the same initial conditions but adopt different prescriptions for unresolved stellar and active galactic nuclei feedback, resulting in diverse populations of galaxies by the present day. Some of them reproduce observed galaxy scaling relations, while others do not. However, regardless of the feedback implementation, all of our galaxies follow closely a simple relationship between the total and baryonic acceleration profiles, consistent with recent observations of rotationally supported galaxies. The relation has small scatter: Different feedback implementations-which produce different galaxy populations-mainly shift galaxies along the relation rather than perpendicular to it. Furthermore, galaxies exhibit a characteristic acceleration g_{†}, above which baryons dominate the mass budget, as observed. These observations, consistent with simple modified Newtonian dynamics, can be accommodated within the standard cold dark matter paradigm.

  16. The Tully–Fisher Relations of the Eridanus Group of Galaxies A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    constant rotation velocity in the outer regions of galaxies is believed to be due to dark matter, and the stellar luminosity directly correlates with the stellar mass, which is the dominant component of the baryonic mass in a galaxy. The cold dark matter mod- els of galaxy formation predict a relation (Mbaryon ∼ V α rot) between ...

  17. The mass-temperature relation for clusters of galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, J.; Oukbir, J.; van Kampen, E.

    1998-01-01

    temperatures measured with ASCA and masses inferred from weak and strong gravitational lensing. The surface lensing masses are deprojected in accordance with N-body simulations and analytic results. The data are well-fitted by the mass-temperature relation and are consistent with the empirical normalization...... with wide-held HST imaging could provide a sensitive test of the normalization and intrinsic scatter of the relation, resulting in a powerful and expedient way of measuring masses of clusters of galaxies. In addition, as M(r)/r las derived from lensing) is dependent on the cosmological model at high...

  18. The dynamical masses, densities, and star formation scaling relations of Lyα galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Richardson, Mark L. A.; McLinden, Emily M.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Fynbo, Johan P. U.; Tilvi, Vithal S.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first dynamical mass measurements for Lyα galaxies at high redshift, based on velocity dispersion measurements from rest-frame optical emission lines and size measurements from Hubble Space Telescope imaging, for nine galaxies drawn from four surveys. We use these measurements to study Lyα galaxies in the context of galaxy scaling relations. The resulting dynamical masses range from 10 9 to 10 10 M ☉ . We also fit stellar population models to our sample and use them to place the Lyα sample on a stellar mass versus line width relation. The Lyα galaxies generally follow the same scaling relation as star-forming galaxies at lower redshift, although, lower stellar mass fits are also acceptable in ∼1/3 of the Lyα galaxies. Using the dynamical masses as an upper limit on gas mass, we show that Lyα galaxies have unusually active star formation for their gas mass surface density. This behavior is consistent with what is observed in starburst galaxies, despite the typically smaller masses and sizes of the Lyα galaxy population. Finally, we examine the mass densities of these galaxies and show that their future evolution likely requires dissipational ('wet') merging. In short, we find that Lyα galaxies are low-mass cousins of larger starbursts.

  19. The relation between galaxy morphology and colour in the EAGLE simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Camila A.; Schaye, Joop; Clauwens, Bart; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom; Thob, Adrien C. R.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the relation between kinematic morphology, intrinsic colour and stellar mass of galaxies in the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulation. We calculate the intrinsic u - r colours and measure the fraction of kinetic energy invested in ordered corotation of 3562 galaxies at z = 0 with stellar masses larger than 1010 M⊙. Inspection of gri-composite images suggests that the kinematic morphology is a useful proxy for visual morphology. EAGLE produces a galaxy population for which morphology is tightly correlated with the location in the colour-mass diagram, with the red sequence mostly populated by elliptical galaxies and the blue cloud by disc galaxies. Satellite galaxies are more likely to be on the red sequence than centrals, and for satellites the red sequence is morphologically more diverse. These results show that the connection between mass, intrinsic colour and morphology arises from galaxy-formation models that reproduce the observed galaxy mass function and sizes.

  20. THE EVOLUTION OF BLACK HOLE SCALING RELATIONS IN GALAXY MERGERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Peter H.; Burkert, Andreas; Naab, Thorsten

    2009-01-01

    We study the evolution of black holes (BHs) on the M BH -σ and M BH -M bulge planes as a function of time in disk galaxies undergoing mergers. We begin the simulations with the progenitor BH masses being initially below (Δlog M BH,i ∼ -2), on (Δlog M BH,i ∼ 0), and above (Δlog M BH,i ∼ 0.5) the observed local relations. The final relations are rapidly established after the final coalescence of the galaxies and their BHs. Progenitors with low initial gas fractions (f gas = 0.2) starting below the relations evolve onto the relations (Δlog M BH,f ∼ -0.18), progenitors on the relations stay there (Δlog M BH,f ∼ 0), and finally progenitors above the relations evolve toward the relations, but still remain above them (Δlog M BH,f ∼ 0.35). Mergers in which the progenitors have high initial gas fractions (f gas = 0.8) evolve above the relations in all cases (Δlog M BH,f ∼ 0.5). We find that the initial gas fraction is the prime source of scatter in the observed relations, dominating over the scatter arising from the evolutionary stage of the merger remnants. The fact that BHs starting above the relations do not evolve onto the relations indicates that our simulations rule out the scenario in which overmassive BHs evolve onto the relations through gas-rich mergers. By implication our simulations thus disfavor the picture in which supermassive BHs develop significantly before their parent bulges.

  1. X-Ray Scaling Relations of Early-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babyk, Iu. V.; McNamara, B. R.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Hogan, M. T.; Vantyghem, A. N.; Russell, H. R.; Pulido, F. A.; Edge, A. C.

    2018-04-01

    X-ray luminosity, temperature, gas mass, total mass, and their scaling relations are derived for 94 early-type galaxies (ETGs) using archival Chandra X-ray Observatory observations. Consistent with earlier studies, the scaling relations, L X ∝ T 4.5±0.2, M ∝ T 2.4±0.2, and L X ∝ M 2.8±0.3, are significantly steeper than expected from self-similarity. This steepening indicates that their atmospheres are heated above the level expected from gravitational infall alone. Energetic feedback from nuclear black holes and supernova explosions are likely heating agents. The tight L X –T correlation for low-luminosity systems (i.e., below 1040 erg s‑1) are at variance with hydrodynamical simulations, which generally predict higher temperatures for low-luminosity galaxies. We also investigate the relationship between total mass and pressure, Y X = M g × T, finding M\\propto {Y}X0.45+/- 0.04. We explore the gas mass to total mass fraction in ETGs and find a range of 0.1%–1.0%. We find no correlation between the gas-to-total mass fraction with temperature or total mass. Higher stellar velocity dispersions and higher metallicities are found in hotter, brighter, and more massive atmospheres. X-ray core radii derived from β-model fitting are used to characterize the degree of core and cuspiness of hot atmospheres.

  2. The relative spatial distributions of high- and low-luminosity galaxies toward Coma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzer, J.J.; Hanson, M.M.; Gavazzi, G.

    1990-01-01

    The relative spatial distributions of low- and high-mass galaxies which lie in a field in the direction of the Coma Supercluster are investigated. Three tests are used to compare the distributions of high-luminosity and low-luminosity galaxies in the field: correlation functions, nearest neighbor distributions, and local density environments. All three tests indicate that the low-luminosity galaxies are significantly less confined to the structure defined by the luminous galaxies than are the luminous galaxies themselves. Several galaxies in the low-luminosity subsample are within voids. These findings lend support to various models for the formation of large-scale structure that include biased galaxy formation. In particular, the ratio of the amplitudes of the correlation functions for dwarfs and giants agrees closely with the predictions of the cold dark matter models of White et al. (1987). 54 refs

  3. Galaxy metallicity scaling relations in the EAGLE simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rossi, María Emilia; Bower, Richard G.; Font, Andreea S.; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2017-12-01

    We quantify the correlations between gas-phase and stellar metallicities and global properties of galaxies, such as stellar mass, halo mass, age and gas fraction, in the Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. The slope of the correlation between stellar mass and metallicity of star-forming (SF) gas (M*-ZSF,gas relation) depends somewhat on resolution, with the higher resolution run reproducing a steeper slope. This simulation predicts a non-zero metallicity evolution, increasing by ≈0.5 dex at ∼109 M⊙ since z = 3. The simulated relation between stellar mass, metallicity and star formation rate at z ≲ 5 agrees remarkably well with the observed fundamental metallicity relation. At M* ≲ 1010.3 M⊙ and fixed stellar mass, higher metallicities are associated with lower specific star formation rates, lower gas fractions and older stellar populations. On the other hand, at higher M*, there is a hint of an inversion of the dependence of metallicity on these parameters. The fundamental parameter that best correlates with the metal content, in the simulations, is the gas fraction. The simulated gas fraction-metallicity relation exhibits small scatter and does not evolve significantly since z = 3. In order to better understand the origin of these correlations, we analyse a set of lower resolution simulations in which feedback parameters are varied. We find that the slope of the simulated M*-ZSF,gas relation is mostly determined by stellar feedback at low stellar masses (M* ≲ 1010 M⊙), and at high masses (M* ≳ 1010 M⊙) by the feedback from active galactic nuclei.

  4. Metal Abundances of KISS Galaxies. VI. New Metallicity Relations for the KISS Sample of Star-forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschauer, Alec S.; Salzer, John J.; Janowiecki, Steven; Wegner, Gary A.

    2018-02-01

    We present updated metallicity relations for the spectral database of star-forming galaxies (SFGs) found in the KPNO International Spectroscopic Survey (KISS). New spectral observations of emission-line galaxies obtained from a variety of telescope facilities provide oxygen abundance information. A nearly fourfold increase in the number of KISS objects with robust metallicities relative to our previous analysis provides for an empirical abundance calibration to compute self-consistent metallicity estimates for all SFGs in the sample with adequate spectral data. In addition, a sophisticated spectral energy distribution fitting routine has provided robust calculations of stellar mass. With these new and/or improved galaxy characteristics, we have developed luminosity–metallicity (L–Z) relations, mass–metallicity (M *–Z) relations, and the so-called fundamental metallicity relation (FMR) for over 1450 galaxies from the KISS sample. This KISS M *–Z relation is presented for the first time and demonstrates markedly lower scatter than the KISS L–Z relation. We find that our relations agree reasonably well with previous publications, modulo modest offsets due to differences in the strong emission line metallicity calibrations used. We illustrate an important bias present in previous L–Z and M *–Z studies involving direct-method (T e ) abundances that may result in systematically lower slopes in these relations. Our KISS FMR shows consistency with those found in the literature, albeit with a larger scatter. This is likely a consequence of the KISS sample being biased toward galaxies with high levels of activity.

  5. The scatter in the near-infrared colour-magnitude relation in spiral galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, RF; de Grijs, R

    1998-01-01

    We have determined a dust-free colour-magnitude (CM) relation for spiral galaxies, by using I - K colours in edge-on galaxies above the plane. We find that the scatter in this relation is small and approximately as large as can be explained by observational uncertainties. The slope of the near-IR CM

  6. The L_X-M relation of Clusters of Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rykoff, E.S.; Evrard, A.E.; McKay, T.A.; Becker, M.R.; Johnston, D.E.; Koester, B.P.; Nord, B.; Rozo, E.; Sheldon, E.S.; Stanek, R.; Wechsler, R.H.

    2008-05-16

    We present a new measurement of the scaling relation between X-ray luminosity and total mass for 17,000 galaxy clusters in the maxBCG cluster sample. Stacking sub-samples within fixed ranges of optical richness, N200, we measure the mean 0.1-2.4 keV X-ray luminosity, , from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. The mean mass, , is measured from weak gravitational lensing of SDSS background galaxies (Johnston et al. 2007). For 9 {le} N{sub 200} < 200, the data are well fit by a power-law, /10{sup 42} h{sup -2} ergs{sup -1} = (12.6{sub -1.3}{sup +1.4}(stat) {+-} 1.6 (sys)) (/10{sup 14} h{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}}){sup 1.65{+-}0.13}. The slope agrees to within 10% with previous estimates based on X-ray selected catalogs, implying that the covariance in L{sub X} and N{sub 200} at fixed halo mass is not large. The luminosity intercept is 30%, or 2{sigma}, lower than determined from the X-ray flux-limited sample of Reiprich & Boehringer (2002), assuming hydrostatic equilibrium. This slight difference could arise from a combination of Malmquist bias and/or systematic error in hydrostatic mass estimates, both of which are expected. The intercept agrees with that derived by Stanek et al. (2006) using a model for the statistical correspondence between clusters and halos in a WMAP3 cosmology with power spectrum normalization {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.85. Similar exercises applied to future data sets will allow constraints on the covariance among optical and hot gas properties of clusters at fixed mass.

  7. Implicit Priors in Galaxy Cluster Mass and Scaling Relation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantz, A.; Allen, S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Deriving the total masses of galaxy clusters from observations of the intracluster medium (ICM) generally requires some prior information, in addition to the assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium and spherical symmetry. Often, this information takes the form of particular parametrized functions used to describe the cluster gas density and temperature profiles. In this paper, we investigate the implicit priors on hydrostatic masses that result from this fully parametric approach, and the implications of such priors for scaling relations formed from those masses. We show that the application of such fully parametric models of the ICM naturally imposes a prior on the slopes of the derived scaling relations, favoring the self-similar model, and argue that this prior may be influential in practice. In contrast, this bias does not exist for techniques which adopt an explicit prior on the form of the mass profile but describe the ICM non-parametrically. Constraints on the slope of the cluster mass-temperature relation in the literature show a separation based the approach employed, with the results from fully parametric ICM modeling clustering nearer the self-similar value. Given that a primary goal of scaling relation analyses is to test the self-similar model, the application of methods subject to strong, implicit priors should be avoided. Alternative methods and best practices are discussed.

  8. EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES WITH TIDAL DEBRIS AND THEIR SCALING RELATIONS IN THE SPITZER SURVEY OF STELLAR STRUCTURE IN GALAXIES (S4G)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taehyun; Sheth, Kartik; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos; Hinz, Joannah L.; Zaritsky, Dennis; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Knapen, Johan H.; Schinnerer, Eva; Ho, Luis C.; Madore, Barry F.; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert; De Swardt, Bonita; Comerón, Sébastien; Regan, Michael W.; Menéndez-Delmestre, Karín; De Paz, Armando Gil

    2012-01-01

    Tidal debris around galaxies can yield important clues on their evolution. We have identified tidal debris in 11 early-type galaxies (T ≤ 0) from a sample of 65 early types drawn from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S 4 G). The tidal debris includes features such as shells, ripples, and tidal tails. A variety of techniques, including two-dimensional decomposition of galactic structures, were used to quantify the residual tidal features. The tidal debris contributes ∼3%-10% to the total 3.6 μm luminosity of the host galaxy. Structural parameters of the galaxies were estimated using two-dimensional profile fitting. We investigate the locations of galaxies with tidal debris in the fundamental plane and Kormendy relation. We find that galaxies with tidal debris lie within the scatter of early-type galaxies without tidal features. Assuming that the tidal debris is indicative of recent gravitational interaction or merger, this suggests that these galaxies have either undergone minor merging events so that the overall structural properties of the galaxies are not significantly altered, or they have undergone a major merging events but already have experienced sufficient relaxation and phase mixing so that their structural properties become similar to those of the non-interacting early-type galaxies.

  9. THE SLACS SURVEY. VIII. THE RELATION BETWEEN ENVIRONMENT AND INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treu, Tommaso; Gavazzi, Raphael; Gorecki, Alexia; Marshall, Philip J.; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Bolton, Adam S.; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Burles, Scott

    2009-01-01

    We study the relation between the internal structure of early-type galaxies and their environment using 70 strong gravitational lenses from the SLACS Survey. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database is used to determine two measures of overdensity of galaxies around each lens-the projected

  10. Is the velocity-distance relation for galaxies linear?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, S

    1993-01-01

    Diameters of ScI galaxies, the luminosities of supernovae of type Ia at maximum light, and the brightness of central galaxies in rich clusters are examined as potential yardsticks or standard candles for study of the velocity-distance relationship. Both supergiant ScI galaxies and supernovae Ia (which have luminosities that differ by up to a factor of approximately 10) are found to be unsuitable for such a study. The remarkably small luminosity dispersion of first-ranked cluster galaxies (which is not yet understood physically) suggests that deviations from a linear velocity-distance relationship are less, approximately 20% out to red shifts of approximately 40,000 km.s-1. Images Fig. 1 PMID:11607389

  11. THE OBSERVED RELATION BETWEEN STELLAR MASS, DUST EXTINCTION, AND STAR FORMATION RATE IN LOCAL GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahid, H. J.; Kewley, L. J.; Kudritzki, R. P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Yates, R. M. [Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    In this study, we investigate the relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and star formation rate (SFR) using {approx}150,000 star-forming galaxies from SDSS DR7. We show that the relation between dust extinction and SFR changes with stellar mass. For galaxies at the same stellar mass, dust extinction is anti-correlated with the SFR at stellar masses <10{sup 10} M {sub Sun }. There is a sharp transition in the relation at a stellar mass of 10{sup 10} M {sub Sun }. At larger stellar masses, dust extinction is positively correlated with the SFR for galaxies at the same stellar mass. The observed relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and SFR presented in this study helps to confirm similar trends observed in the relation between stellar mass, metallicity, and SFR. The relation reported in this study provides important new constraints on the physical processes governing the chemical evolution of galaxies. The correlation between SFR and dust extinction for galaxies with stellar masses >10{sup 10} M {sub Sun} is shown to extend to the population of quiescent galaxies suggesting that the physical processes responsible for the observed relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and SFR may be related to the processes leading to the shutdown of star formation in galaxies.

  12. THE OBSERVED RELATION BETWEEN STELLAR MASS, DUST EXTINCTION, AND STAR FORMATION RATE IN LOCAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahid, H. J.; Kewley, L. J.; Kudritzki, R. P.; Yates, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and star formation rate (SFR) using ∼150,000 star-forming galaxies from SDSS DR7. We show that the relation between dust extinction and SFR changes with stellar mass. For galaxies at the same stellar mass, dust extinction is anti-correlated with the SFR at stellar masses 10 M ☉ . There is a sharp transition in the relation at a stellar mass of 10 10 M ☉ . At larger stellar masses, dust extinction is positively correlated with the SFR for galaxies at the same stellar mass. The observed relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and SFR presented in this study helps to confirm similar trends observed in the relation between stellar mass, metallicity, and SFR. The relation reported in this study provides important new constraints on the physical processes governing the chemical evolution of galaxies. The correlation between SFR and dust extinction for galaxies with stellar masses >10 10 M ☉ is shown to extend to the population of quiescent galaxies suggesting that the physical processes responsible for the observed relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and SFR may be related to the processes leading to the shutdown of star formation in galaxies.

  13. Projection Of The Stellar To Halo Mass Relation Into The Scaling Relations Of A Disc Galaxy Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancillas, Brisa; Ávila-Reese, Vladimir; Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo; Valls-Gabaud, David

    2017-06-01

    Several pieces of evidence suggest that disk formation is the generic process of assembly of galaxies, while the spheroidal component arises from the merging/interactions of disks as well as from their secular evolution. To understand galaxy formation and evolution, a cosmological framework is required. The current cosmological paradigm is summarized in the so-called Λ-cold dark matter model (ΛCDM). The statistical connection between the masses of the observed galaxies and those of the simulated CDM halos in large volumes leads us to the galaxy-halo mass relation, which summarizes the main astrophysical processes of galaxy formation and evolution (gas heating and cooling, SF, SN- and AGN-driven feedback, etc.). An important question is how this relation constrained by semi-empirical methods (e.g., Rodriguez-Puebla et al. 2014) is "projected" into the disk galaxy scaling relations and other galaxy correlations. To explore this question, we generate a synthetic catalog of thousands of disk/halo systems by means of an extended Mo, Mao & White (1998) model, and by using as input the baryonic-to-halo mass relation, fbar(Mh), of local disk galaxy as recently constrained by Calette et al. (2015).

  14. New HI scaling relations to probe the HI content of galaxies via global HI-deficiency maps

    OpenAIRE

    Dénes, Helga; Kilborn, Virginia A.; Koribalski, Bärbel S.

    2014-01-01

    We present new multi-wavelength scaling relations between the neutral hydrogen content (HI) and the stellar properties of nearby galaxies selected from the HI Parkes All-Sky Survey (HIPASS). We use these new scaling relations to investigate the environmental dependency of the HI content of galaxies. We find that galaxies in high density environments tend to have on average less HI than galaxies with the same stellar mass in the low density environment. Our new HI scaling relations allow us to...

  15. THE RELATION BETWEEN COMPACT, QUIESCENT HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES AND MASSIVE NEARBY ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES: EVIDENCE FOR HIERARCHICAL, INSIDE-OUT GROWTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezanson, Rachel; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Tal, Tomer; Marchesini, Danilo; Coppi, Paolo; Kriek, Mariska; Franx, Marijn

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that massive quiescent galaxies at high redshift are much more compact than present-day galaxies of the same mass. Here we compare the radial stellar density profiles and the number density of a sample of massive galaxies at z ∼ 2.3 to nearby massive elliptical galaxies. We confirm that the average stellar densities of the z ∼ 2.3 galaxies within the effective radius, ρ( e ), are two orders of magnitude higher than those of local elliptical galaxies of the same stellar mass. However, we also find that the densities measured within a constant physical radius of 1 kpc, ρ( 1+2 /r 1 ) ∼ (M 1+2 /M 1 ) 2 . A simple model where compact galaxies with masses ∼10 11 M sun primarily grow through minor mergers produces descendants with the approximate sizes, stellar densities, and number density of elliptical galaxies with masses 2-3 x 10 11 M sun in the local universe. We note that this model also predicts evolution in the M BH - σ relation, such that the progenitors of elliptical galaxies have lower black hole masses at fixed velocity dispersion. The main observational uncertainty is the conversion from light to mass; measurements of kinematics are needed to calibrate the masses and stellar densities of the high-redshift galaxies.

  16. Relations between the Sizes of Galaxies and Their Dark Matter Halos at Redshifts 0 < z < 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Kuang-Han [University of California Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Fall, S. Michael; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Van der Wel, Arjen [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Lee, Seong-Kook [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pérez-González, Pablo G. [Departamento de Astrofísica, Facultad de CC. Física, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040, Madrid (Spain); Wuyts, Stijn, E-mail: khhuang@ucdavis.edu [Department of Physics, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-20

    We derive relations between the effective radii R {sub eff} of galaxies and the virial radii R {sub 200} {sub c} of their dark matter halos over the redshift range 0 < z < 3. For galaxies, we use the measured sizes from deep images taken with Hubble Space Telescope for the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey; for halos, we use the inferred sizes from abundance matching to cosmological dark matter simulations via a stellar mass–halo mass (SMHM) relation. For this purpose, we derive a new SMHM relation based on the same selection criteria and other assumptions as for our sample of galaxies with size measurements. As a check on the robustness of our results, we also derive R {sub eff}–R {sub 200} {sub c} relations for three independent SMHM relations from the literature. We find that galaxy R {sub eff} is proportional on average to halo R {sub 200} {sub c}, confirming and extending to high redshifts the z = 0 results of Kravtsov. Late-type galaxies (with low Sérsic index and high specific star formation rate (sSFR)) follow a linear R {sub eff}– R {sub 200} {sub c} relation, with effective radii at 0.5 < z < 3 close to those predicted by simple models of disk formation; at z < 0.5, the sizes of late-type galaxies appear to be slightly below this prediction. Early-type galaxies (with high Sérsic index and low sSFR) follow a roughly parallel R {sub eff}– R {sub 200} {sub c} relation, ∼0.2–0.3 dex below the one for late-type galaxies. Our observational results, reinforced by recent hydrodynamical simulations, indicate that galaxies grow quasi-homologously with their dark matter halos.

  17. THE NATURE OF THE SECOND PARAMETER IN THE IRX-β RELATION FOR LOCAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasha, Kathryn; Calzetti, Daniela; Andrews, Jennifer E.; Lee, Janice C.; Dale, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of 98 galaxies of low-dust content, selected from the Spitzer Local Volume Legacy survey, aimed at examining the relation between the ultraviolet (UV) color and dust attenuation in normal star-forming galaxies. The IRX-β diagram relates the total dust attenuation in a galaxy, traced by the far-IR (FIR) to UV ratio, to the observed UV color, indicated by β. Previous research has indicated that while starburst galaxies exhibit a relatively tight IRX-β relation, normal star-forming galaxies do not, and have a much larger spread in the total-IR to far-UV (FUV) luminosity for a fixed UV color. We examine the role that the age of the stellar population plays as the ''second parameter'' responsible for the observed deviation and spread of star-forming galaxies from the starburst relation. We model the FUV to FIR spectral energy distribution of each galaxy according to two broad bins of star formation history (SFH): constant and instantaneous burst. We find clear trends between stellar population mean age estimators (extinction-corrected FUV/NIR, U – B, and EW(Hα)) and the UV color β; the trends are mostly driven by the galaxies best-described by instantaneous burst populations. We also find a significant correlation between β and the mean age directly determined from the best-fit instantaneous models. As already indicated by other authors, the UV attenuation in star-forming galaxies may not be recovered with the UV color alone and is highly influenced by the stellar population's mean age and SFH. Overall, the scatter in the IRX-β diagram is better correlated with β than with the perpendicular distance, d p

  18. The radial acceleration relation in disc galaxies in the MassiveBlack-II simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenneti, Ananth; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Kosowsky, Arthur; Zago, Fernando; Zentner, Andrew R.

    2018-03-01

    A strong correlation has been measured between the observed centripetal accelerations in galaxies and the accelerations implied by the baryonic components of galaxies. This empirical radial acceleration relation must be accounted for in any viable model of galaxy formation. We measure and compare the radial accelerations contributed by baryons and by dark matter in disc galaxies in the MassiveBlack-II hydrodynamic galaxy formation simulation. The sample of 1594 galaxies spans three orders of magnitude in luminosity and four in surface brightness, comparable to the observed sample from the Spitzer Photometry and Accurate Rotation Curves (SPARC) data set used by McGaugh, Lelli & Schombert. We find that radial accelerations contributed by baryonic matter only and by total matter are highly correlated, with only small scatter around their mean or median relation, despite the wide ranges of galaxy luminosity and surface brightness. We further find that the radial acceleration relation in this simulation differs from that of the SPARC sample, and can be described by a simple power law in the acceleration range we are probing.

  19. THE EFFECT OF DRY MERGERS ON THE COLOR-MAGNITUDE RELATION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skelton, Rosalind E.; Bell, Eric F.; Somerville, Rachel S.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the effect of dry merging on the color-magnitude relation (CMR) of galaxies and find that the amount of merging predicted by a hierarchical model results in a red sequence that compares well with the observed low-redshift relation. A sample of ∼ 29,000 early-type galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6 shows that the bright end of the CMR has a shallower slope and smaller scatter than the faint end. This magnitude dependence is predicted by a simple toy model in which gas-rich mergers move galaxies onto a 'creation red sequence' (CRS) by quenching their star formation, and subsequent mergers between red, gas-poor galaxies (so-called 'dry' mergers) move galaxies along the relation. We use galaxy merger trees from a semianalytic model of galaxy formation to test the amplitude of this effect and find a change in slope at the bright end that brackets the observations, using gas fraction thresholds of 10%-30% to separate wet and dry mergers. A more realistic model that includes scatter in the CRS shows that dry merging decreases the scatter at the bright end. Contrary to previous claims, the small scatter in the observed CMR thus cannot be used to constrain the amount of dry merging.

  20. How do spiral arm contrasts relate to bars, disc breaks and other fundamental galaxy properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Adrian; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Athanassoula, Evangelie; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Bosma, Albert; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos

    2017-10-01

    We investigate how the properties of spiral arms relate to other fundamental galaxy properties, including bars and disc breaks. We use previously published measurements of those properties, and our own measurements of arm and bar contrasts for a large sample of galaxies, using 3.6 μm images from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies. Flocculent galaxies are clearly distinguished from other spiral arm classes, especially by their lower stellar mass and surface density. Multi-armed and grand-design galaxies are similar in most of their fundamental parameters, excluding some bar properties and the bulge-to-total ratio. Based on these results, we revisit the sequence of spiral arm classes, and discuss classical bulges as a necessary condition for standing spiral wave modes in grand-design galaxies. We find a strong correlation between bulge-to-total ratio and bar contrast, and a weaker correlation between arm and bar contrasts. Barred and unbarred galaxies exhibit similar arm contrasts, but the highest arm contrasts are found exclusively in barred galaxies. Interestingly, the bar contrast, and its increase from flocculent to grand-design galaxies, is systematically more significant than that of the arm contrast. We corroborate previous findings concerning a connection between bars and disc breaks. In particular, in grand-design galaxies, the bar contrast correlates with the normalized disc break radius. This does not hold for other spiral arm classes or the arm contrast. Our measurements of arm and bar contrast and radial contrast profiles are publicly available.

  1. Galaxy mergers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, N.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis contains a series of four papers dealing with the effects of interactions among galaxies during the epoch of cluster formation. Galaxy interactions are investigated and the results incorporated in numerical simulations of the formation of groups and clusters of galaxies. The role of galaxy interactions is analysed in the more general context of simulations of an expanding universe. The evolution of galaxies in rich clusters is discussed. The results of the investigations are presented and their relation to other work done in the field are briefly reviewed and an attempt is made to link galaxy mergers to the occurrence of activity in galactic nuclei. (Auth.)

  2. The scaling relation of early-type galaxies in clusters II. Spectroscopic data for galaxies in eight nearby clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bettoni, D.; Moles, M.; Fasano, G.

    2006-01-01

    Galaxies: elliptical and lenticulars, cD, distances and redshifts - clusters: general Udgivelsesdato: June......Galaxies: elliptical and lenticulars, cD, distances and redshifts - clusters: general Udgivelsesdato: June...

  3. Active Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilerci Eser, Ece

    Galaxy formation and evolution is one of the main research themes of modern astronomy. Active galaxies such as Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) are important evolutionary stages of galaxies. The ULIRG stage is mostly associated with galaxy mergers...... and interactions. During the interactions of gas-rich galaxies, the gas inflows towards the centers of the galaxies and can trigger both star formation and AGN activity. The ULIRG stage includes rapid star formation activity and fast black hole growth that is enshrouded by dust. Once the AGN emission...... one is related to the mass estimates of supermassive black holes (SMBHs). Mass estimates of SMBHs are important to understand the formation and evolution of SMBHs and their host galaxies. Black hole masses in Type 1 AGN are measured with the reverberation mapping (RM) technique. Reverberation mapping...

  4. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof...... is important, since it helps constraining chemical evolution models at high redshift. A new project studying how the population of galaxies hosting GRBs relate to other galaxy population is outlined in the conclusion of this thesis. The core of this project will be to quantify how the stellar mass function...

  5. The Universal Stellar Mass-Stellar Metallicity Relation for Dwarf Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, Evan N.; Cohen, Judith G.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Cheng, Lucy; Bullock, James S.; Gallazzi, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We present spectroscopic metallicities of individual stars in seven gas-rich dwarf irregular galaxies (dIrrs), and we show that dIrrs obey the same massmetallicity relation as the dwarf spheroidal (dSph) satellites of both the Milky Way and M31: Z * σ M * 0.30±0. 02 . The uniformity of the relation is in contradiction to previous estimates of metallicity based on photometry. This relationship is roughly continuous with the stellar massstellar metallicity relation for galaxies as massive asM*...

  6. THE RELATION BETWEEN MID-PLANE PRESSURE AND MOLECULAR HYDROGEN IN GALAXIES: ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, Robert; Hernandez, Jose; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) is the primary component of the reservoirs of cold, dense gas that fuel star formation in our Galaxy. While the H 2 abundance is ultimately regulated by physical processes operating on small scales in the interstellar medium (ISM), observations have revealed a tight correlation between the ratio of molecular to atomic hydrogen in nearby spiral galaxies and the pressure in the mid-plane of their disks. This empirical relation has been used to predict H 2 abundances in galaxies with potentially very different ISM conditions, such as metal-deficient galaxies at high redshifts. Here, we test the validity of this approach by studying the dependence of the pressure-H 2 relation on environmental parameters of the ISM. To this end, we follow the formation and destruction of H 2 explicitly in a suite of hydrodynamical simulations of galaxies with different ISM parameters. We find that a pressure-H 2 relation arises naturally in our simulations for a variety of dust-to-gas ratios or strengths of the interstellar radiation field in the ISM. Fixing the dust-to-gas ratio and the UV radiation field to values measured in the solar neighborhood results in fair agreement with the relation observed in nearby galaxies with roughly solar metallicity. However, the parameters (slope and normalization) of the pressure-H 2 relation vary in a systematical way with ISM properties. A particularly strong trend is the decrease of the normalization of the relation with a lowering of the dust-to-gas ratio of the ISM. We show how this trend and other properties of the pressure-H 2 relation arise from the atomic-to-molecular phase transition in the ISM caused by a combination of H 2 formation, destruction, and shielding mechanisms.

  7. The MUSIC of Galaxy Clusters - III. Properties, evolution and Y-M scaling relation of protoclusters of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembolini, Federico; De Petris, Marco; Yepes, Gustavo; Foschi, Emma; Lamagna, Luca; Gottlöber, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we study the properties of protoclusters of galaxies by employing the MultiDark SImulations of galaxy Clusters (MUSIC) set of hydrodynamical simulations, featuring a sample of 282 resimulated clusters with available merger trees up to z = 4. We study the characteristics and redshift evolution of the mass and the spatial distribution for all the protoclusters, which we define as the most massive progenitors of the clusters identified at z = 0. We extend the study of the baryon content to redshifts larger than 1 also in terms of gas and stars budgets: no remarkable variations with redshift are discovered. Furthermore, motivated by the proven potential of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich surveys to blindly search for faint distant objects, we compute the scaling relation between total object mass and integrated Compton y-parameter. We find that the slope of this scaling law is steeper than what expected for a self-similarity assumption among these objects, and it increases with redshift mainly when radiative processes are included. We use three different criteria to account for the dynamical state of the protoclusters, and find no significant dependence of the scaling parameters on the level of relaxation. We exclude the dynamical state as the cause of the observed deviations from self-similarity in protoclusters.

  8. The H I Tully-Fisher relation of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, Milan; Oosterloo, Tom A.; Serra, Paolo; Józsa, Gyula I. G.; Kerp, Jürgen; Morganti, Raffaella; Cappellari, Michele; Davis, Timothy A.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Krajnović, Davor; McDermid, Richard M.; Naab, Torsten; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; de Zeeuw, P. Tim

    We study the H iK-band Tully-Fisher relation and the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation for a sample of 16 early-type galaxies, taken from the ATLAS3D sample, which all have very regular H i disks extending well beyond the optical body (≳ 5 Reff). We use the kinematics of these disks to estimate the

  9. THE SCALING RELATIONS AND THE FUNDAMENTAL PLANE FOR RADIO HALOS AND RELICS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Z. S.; Han, J. L.; Wen, Z. L.

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse radio emission in galaxy clusters is known to be related to cluster mass and cluster dynamical state. We collect the observed fluxes of radio halos, relics, and mini-halos for a sample of galaxy clusters from the literature, and calculate their radio powers. We then obtain the values of cluster mass or mass proxies from previous observations, and also obtain the various dynamical parameters of these galaxy clusters from optical and X-ray data. The radio powers of relics, halos, and mini-halos are correlated with the cluster masses or mass proxies, as found by previous authors, while the correlations concerning giant radio halos are in general the strongest. We found that the inclusion of dynamical parameters as the third dimension can significantly reduce the data scatter for the scaling relations, especially for radio halos. We therefore conclude that the substructures in X-ray images of galaxy clusters and the irregular distributions of optical brightness of member galaxies can be used to quantitatively characterize the shock waves and turbulence in the intracluster medium responsible for re-accelerating particles to generate the observed diffuse radio emission. The power of radio halos and relics is correlated with cluster mass proxies and dynamical parameters in the form of a fundamental plane

  10. Mass and metallicity scaling relations of high-redshift star-forming galaxies selected by GRBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabsalmani, M.; Møller, P.; Perley, D. A.; Freudling, W.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Le Floc'h, E.; Zwaan, M. A.; Schulze, S.; Tanvir, N. R.; Christensen, L.; Levan, A. J.; Jakobsson, P.; Malesani, D.; Cano, Z.; Covino, S.; D'Elia, V.; Goldoni, P.; Gomboc, A.; Heintz, K. E.; Sparre, M.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Vergani, S. D.

    2018-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the relations between gas kinematics, metallicity and stellar mass in a sample of 82 gamma-ray burst (GRB)-selected galaxies using absorption and emission methods. We find the velocity widths of both emission and absorption profiles to be a proxy of stellar mass. We also investigate the velocity-metallicity correlation and its evolution with redshift. Using 33 GRB hosts with measured stellar mass and metallicity, we study the mass-metallicity relation for GRB host galaxies in a stellar mass range of 108.2-1011.1 M⊙ and a redshift range of z ∼ 0.3-3.4. The GRB-selected galaxies appear to track the mass-metallicity relation of star-forming galaxies but with an offset of 0.15 towards lower metallicities. This offset is comparable with the average error bar on the metallicity measurements of the GRB sample and also the scatter on the mass-metallicity relation of the general population. It is hard to decide whether this relatively small offset is due to systematic effects or the intrinsic nature of GRB hosts. We also investigate the possibility of using absorption-line metallicity measurements of GRB hosts to study the mass-metallicity relation at high redshifts. Our analysis shows that the metallicity measurements from absorption methods can significantly differ from emission metallicities and assuming identical measurements from the two methods may result in erroneous conclusions.

  11. Revisiting Scaling Relations for Giant Radio Halos in Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassano, R.; Ettori, S.; Brunetti, G.; Giacintucci, S.; Pratt, G. W.; Venturi, T.; Kale, R.; Dolag, K.; Markevitch, Maxim L.

    2013-01-01

    Many galaxy clusters host megaparsec-scale radio halos, generated by ultrarelativistic electrons in the magnetized intracluster medium. Correlations between the synchrotron power of radio halos and the thermal properties of the hosting clusters were established in the last decade, including the connection between the presence of a halo and cluster mergers. The X-ray luminosity and redshift-limited Extended GMRT Radio Halo Survey provides a rich and unique dataset for statistical studies of the halos. We uniformly analyze the radio and X-ray data for the GMRT cluster sample, and use the new Planck Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) catalog to revisit the correlations between the power of radio halos and the thermal properties of galaxy clusters. We find that the radio power at 1.4 GHz scales with the cluster X-ray (0.1-2.4 keV) luminosity computed within R(sub 500) as P(sub 1.4) approx. L(2.1+/-0.2) - 500). Our bigger and more homogenous sample confirms that the X-ray luminous (L(sub 500) > 5 × 10(exp 44) erg/s)) clusters branch into two populations-radio halos lie on the correlation, while clusters without radio halos have their radio upper limits well below that correlation. This bimodality remains if we excise cool cores from the X-ray luminosities. We also find that P(sub 1.4) scales with the cluster integrated SZ signal within R(sub 500), measured by Planck, as P(sub 1.4) approx. Y(2.05+/-0.28) - 500), in line with previous findings. However, contrary to previous studies that were limited by incompleteness and small sample size, we find that "SZ-luminous" Y(sub 500) > 6×10(exp -5) Mpc(exp 2) clusters show a bimodal behavior for the presence of radio halos, similar to that in the radio-X-ray diagram. Bimodality of both correlations can be traced to clusters dynamics, with radio halos found exclusively in merging clusters. These results confirm the key role of mergers for the origin of giant radio halos, suggesting that they trigger the relativistic particle acceleration.

  12. THE SIZE-STAR FORMATION RELATION OF MASSIVE GALAXIES AT 1.5 < z < 2.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toft, S.; Franx, M.; Van Dokkum, P.; Foerster Schreiber, N. M.; Labbe, I.; Wuyts, S.; Marchesini, D.

    2009-01-01

    We study the relation between size and star formation activity in a complete sample of 225 massive (M * > 5 x 10 10 M sun ) galaxies at 1.5 PSF ∼ 0.''45) ground-based ISAAC data, we confirm and improve the significance of the relation between star formation activity and compactness found in previous studies, using a large, complete mass-limited sample. At z ∼ 2, massive quiescent galaxies are significantly smaller than massive star-forming galaxies, and a median factor of 0.34 ± 0.02 smaller than galaxies of similar mass in the local universe. Thirteen percent of the quiescent galaxies are unresolved in the ISAAC data, corresponding to sizes <1 kpc, more than five times smaller than galaxies of similar mass locally. The quiescent galaxies span a Kormendy relation which, compared to the relation for local early types, is shifted to smaller sizes and brighter surface brightnesses and is incompatible with passive evolution. The progenitors of the quiescent galaxies were likely dominated by highly concentrated, intense nuclear starbursts at z ∼ 3-4, in contrast to star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 2 which are extended and dominated by distributed star formation.

  13. The Tully–Fisher Relations of the Eridanus Group of Galaxies A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Tully–Fisher relation can possibly be best attributed to a tight correlation between dark matter and the total baryonic matter embedded in it. This is because the constant rotation velocity in the outer regions of galaxies is believed to be due to dark matter, and the stellar luminosity directly correlates with the stellar mass, ...

  14. The SAURON project : XVIII. The integrated UV-line-strength relations of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bureau, Martin; Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Schawinski, Kevin; Houghton, Ryan C. W.; Davies, Roger L.; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; Sarzi, Marc; Sohn, Young-Jong; Thomas, Daniel; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn

    Using far-ultraviolet (FUV) and near-ultraviolet (NUV) photometry from guest investigator programmes on the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) satellite, optical photometry from the MDM Observatory and optical integral-field spectroscopy from SAURON, we explore the UV-line-strength relations of the

  15. The SAURON project - XVIII. The integrated UV-line-strength relations of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bureau, Martin; Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Schawinski, Kevin; Houghton, Ryan C. W.; Davies, Roger L.; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; Sarzi, Marc; Sohn, Young-Jong; Thomas, Daniel; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn

    Using far-ultraviolet (FUV) and near-ultraviolet (NUV) photometry from guest investigator programmes on the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) satellite, optical photometry from the MDM Observatory and optical integral-field spectroscopy from SAURON, we explore the UV-line-strength relations of the

  16. Weak Lensing Calibrated M-T Scaling Relation of Galaxy Groups in the COSMOS Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kettula, K.; Finoguenov, A.; Massey, R.; Rhodes, J.; Hoekstra, H.; Taylor, J.; Spinelli, P.; Tanaka, M.; Ilbert, O.; Capak, P.; McCracken, H.; Koekemoer, A.

    2013-01-01

    The scaling between X-ray observables and mass for galaxy clusters and groups is instrumental for cluster-based cosmology and an important probe for the thermodynamics of the intracluster gas. We calibrate a scaling relation between the weak lensing mass and X-ray spectroscopic temperature for 10

  17. Updating the (supermassive black hole mass)-(spiral arm pitch angle) relation: a strong correlation for galaxies with pseudobulges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Benjamin L.; Graham, Alister W.; Seigar, Marc S.

    2017-10-01

    We have conducted an image analysis of the (current) full sample of 44 spiral galaxies with directly measured supermassive black hole (SMBH) masses, MBH, to determine each galaxy's logarithmic spiral arm pitch angle, ϕ. For predicting black hole masses, we have derived the relation: log (MBH/M⊙) = (7.01 ± 0.07) - (0.171 ± 0.017)[|ϕ| - 15°]. The total root mean square scatter associated with this relation is 0.43 dex in the log MBH direction, with an intrinsic scatter of 0.30 ± 0.08 dex. The MBH-ϕ relation is therefore at least as accurate at predicting SMBH masses in spiral galaxies as the other known relations. By definition, the existence of an MBH-ϕ relation demands that the SMBH mass must correlate with the galaxy discs in some manner. Moreover, with the majority of our sample (37 of 44) classified in the literature as having a pseudobulge morphology, we additionally reveal that the SMBH mass correlates with the large-scale spiral pattern and thus the discs of galaxies hosting pseudobulges. Furthermore, given that the MBH-ϕ relation is capable of estimating black hole masses in bulge-less spiral galaxies, it therefore has great promise for predicting which galaxies may harbour intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs, MBH < 105 M⊙). Extrapolating from the current relation, we predict that galaxies with |ϕ| ≥ 26.7° should possess IMBHs.

  18. DISK GALAXY SCALING RELATIONS IN THE SFI++: INTRINSIC SCATTER AND APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saintonge, Amelie; Spekkens, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    We study the scaling relations between the luminosities, sizes, and rotation velocities of disk galaxies in the SFI++, with a focus on the size-luminosity (RL) and size-rotation velocity (RV) relations. Using isophotal radii instead of disk scale lengths as a size indicator, we find relations that are significantly tighter than previously reported: the correlation coefficients of the template RL and RV relations are r = 0.97 and r= 0.85, respectively, which rival that of the more widely studied LV (Tully-Fisher) relation. The scatter in the SFI++ RL relation is 2.5-4 times smaller than previously reported for various samples, which we attribute to the reliability of isophotal radii relative to disk scale lengths. After carefully accounting for all measurement errors, our scaling relation error budgets are consistent with a constant intrinsic scatter in the LV and RV relations for velocity widths log W ∼> 2.4, with evidence for increasing intrinsic scatter below this threshold. The scatter in the RL relation is consistent with constant intrinsic scatter that is biased by incompleteness at the low-L end. Possible applications of the unprecedentedly tight SFI++ RV and RL relations are investigated. Just like the Tully-Fisher relation, the RV relation can be used as a distance indicator: we derive distances to galaxies with primary Cepheid distances that are accurate to 25%, and reverse the problem to measure a Hubble constant H 0 = 72 ± 7 km s -1 Mpc -1 . Combining the small intrinsic scatter of our RL relation (ε int = 0.034 ± 0.001log [h -1 kpc]) with a simple model for disk galaxy formation, we find an upper limit in the range of disk spin parameters that is a factor of ∼7 smaller than that of the halo spin parameters predicted by cosmological simulations. This likely implies that the halos hosting Sc galaxies have a much narrower distribution of spin parameters than previously thought.

  19. Surface density: a new parameter in the fundamental metallicity relation of star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Tetsuya; Goto, Tomotsugu; Momose, Rieko

    2018-04-01

    Star-forming galaxies display a close relation among stellar mass, metallicity, and star formation rate (or molecular-gas mass). This is known as the fundamental metallicity relation (FMR) (or molecular-gas FMR), and it has a profound implication on models of galaxy evolution. However, there still remains a significant residual scatter around the FMR. We show here that a fourth parameter, the surface density of stellar mass, reduces the dispersion around the molecular-gas FMR. In a principal component analysis of 29 physical parameters of 41 338 star-forming galaxies, the surface density of stellar mass is found to be the fourth most important parameter. The new 4D fundamental relation forms a tighter hypersurface that reduces the metallicity dispersion to 50 per cent of that of the molecular-gas FMR. We suggest that future analyses and models of galaxy evolution should consider the FMR in a 4D space that includes surface density. The dilution time-scale of gas inflow and the star-formation efficiency could explain the observational dependence on surface density of stellar mass.

  20. An accurate measurement of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation with heavily gas-dominated ALFALFA galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papastergis, E.; Adams, E. A. K.; van der Hulst, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    We use a sample of 97 galaxies selected from the Arecibo legacy fast ALFA (ALFALFA) 21 cm survey to make an accurate measurement of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation (BTFR). These galaxies are specifically selected to be heavily gas-dominated (Mgas/M∗ ≳ 2.7) and to be oriented edge-on. The former

  1. Photometric properties and scaling relations of early-type Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F. S.; Xia, X. Y.; Mao, Shude; Wu, Hong; Deng, Z. G.

    2008-03-01

    We investigate the photometric properties of the early-type Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) using a carefully selected sample of 85 BCGs from the C4 cluster catalogue with a redshift of less than 0.1. We perform accurate background subtractions and surface photometry for these BCGs to 25magarcsec-2 in the Sloan r band. By quantitatively analysing the gradient of the Petrosian profiles of BCGs, we find that a large fraction of BCGs have extended stellar envelopes in their outskirts; more luminous BCGs tend to have more extended stellar haloes that are likely to be connected with mergers. A comparison sample of elliptical galaxies was chosen with similar apparent magnitude and redshift ranges, for which the same photometric analysis procedure is applied. We find that BCGs have steeper size-luminosity (R ~ Lα) and Faber-Jackson (L ~ σβ) relations than the bulk of early-type galaxies. Furthermore, the power-law indices (α and β) in these relations increase as the isophotal limits become deeper. For isophotal limits from 22 to 25magarcsec-2, BCGs are usually larger than the bulk of early-type galaxies, and a large fraction (~49 per cent) of BCGs have discy isophotal shapes. The differences in the scaling relations are consistent with a scenario where the dynamical structure and formation route of BCGs may be different from the bulk of early-type galaxies; in particular dry (dissipationless) mergers may play a more important role in their formation. We highlight several possible dry merger candidates in our sample.

  2. THE KENNICUTT–SCHMIDT RELATION IN EXTREMELY METAL-POOR DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, M. E.; Almeida, J. Sánchez; Muñoz-Tuñón, C. [Instituto Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Amorín, R. [National Institute for Astrophysics, Astronomical Observatory of Rome, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone (Rome) (Italy); Elmegreen, B. G. [IBM, T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Elmegreen, D. M., E-mail: mfilho@astro.up.pt [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Kennicutt–Schmidt (KS) relation between the gas mass and star formation rate (SFR) describes the star formation regulation in disk galaxies. It is a function of gas metallicity, but the low-metallicity regime of the KS diagram is poorly sampled. We have analyzed data for a representative set of extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs), as well as auxiliary data, and compared these to empirical and theoretical predictions. The majority of the XMPs possess high specific SFRs, similar to high-redshift star-forming galaxies. On the KS plot, the XMP H i data occupy the same region as dwarfs and extend the relation for low surface brightness galaxies. Considering the H i gas alone, a considerable fraction of the XMPs already fall off the KS law. Significant quantities of “dark” H{sub 2} mass (i.e., not traced by CO) would imply that XMPs possess low star formation efficiencies (SFE{sub gas}). Low SFE{sub gas} in XMPs may be the result of the metal-poor nature of the H i gas. Alternatively, the H i reservoir may be largely inert, the star formation being dominated by cosmological accretion. Time lags between gas accretion and star formation may also reduce the apparent SFE{sub gas}, as may galaxy winds, which can expel most of the gas into the intergalactic medium. Hence, on global scales, XMPs could be H i-dominated, high-specific-SFR (≳10{sup −10} yr{sup −1}), low-SFE{sub gas} (≲10{sup −9} yr{sup −1}) systems, in which the total H i mass is likely not a good predictor of the total H{sub 2} mass, nor of the SFR.

  3. THE L∝σ8 CORRELATION FOR ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES WITH CORES: RELATION WITH BLACK HOLE MASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormendy, John; Bender, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    We construct the Faber-Jackson correlation between velocity dispersion σ and total galaxy luminosity L V separately for elliptical galaxies with and without cores. The coreless ellipticals show the well-known, steep relationship dlog σ/dlog L V = 0.268 or L V ∝σ 3.74 . This corresponds to dlog σ/dlog M = 0.203, where M is the stellar mass and we use M/L∝L 0.32 . In contrast, the velocity dispersions of core ellipticals increase much more slowly with L V and M: dlog σ/dlog L V = 0.120, L V ∝σ 8.33 , and dlog σ/dlog M = 0.091. Dissipationless major galaxy mergers are expected to preserve σ according to the simplest virial-theorem arguments. However, numerical simulations show that σ increases slowly in dry major mergers, with dlog σ/dlog M ≅ +0.15. In contrast, minor mergers cause σ to decrease, with dlog σ/dlog M ≅ –0.05. Thus, the observed relation argues for dry major mergers as the dominant growth mode of the most massive ellipticals. This is consistent with what we know about the formation of cores. We know no viable way to explain galaxy cores except through dissipationless mergers of approximately equal-mass galaxies followed by core scouring by binary supermassive black holes. The observed, shallow σ∝L V +0.12 relation for core ellipticals provides further evidence that they formed in dissipationless and predominantly major mergers. Also, it explains the observation that the correlation of supermassive black hole mass with velocity dispersion, M . ∝σ 4 , ''saturates'' at high M . such that M . becomes almost independent of σ.

  4. FURTHER DEFINITION OF THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS AROUND BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockcroft, Robert; Harris, William E.; Wehner, Elizabeth M. H.; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Rothberg, Barry

    2009-01-01

    We combine the globular cluster (GC) data for 15 brightest cluster galaxies and use this material to trace the mass-metallicity relations (MMRs) in their globular cluster systems (GCSs). This work extends previous studies which correlate the properties of the MMR with those of the host galaxy. Our combined data sets show a mean trend for the metal-poor subpopulation that corresponds to a scaling of heavy-element abundance with cluster mass Z ∼ M 0.30±0.05 . No trend is seen for the metal-rich subpopulation which has a scaling relation that is consistent with zero. We also find that the scaling exponent is independent of the GCS specific frequency and host galaxy luminosity, except perhaps for dwarf galaxies. We present new photometry in (g',i') obtained with Gemini/GMOS for the GC populations around the southern giant ellipticals NGC 5193 and IC 4329. Both galaxies have rich cluster populations which show up as normal, bimodal sequences in the color-magnitude diagram. We test the observed MMRs and argue that they are statistically real, and not an artifact caused by the method we used. We also argue against asymmetric contamination causing the observed MMR as our mean results are no different from other contamination-free studies. Finally, we compare our method to the standard bimodal fitting method (KMM or RMIX) and find our results are consistent. Interpretation of these results is consistent with recent models for GC formation in which the MMR is determined by GC self-enrichment during their brief formation period.

  5. Probing galaxy growth through metallicity scaling relations over the past 12 Gyr of cosmic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Ryan; MOSDEF team

    2018-01-01

    A primary goal of galaxy evolution studies is to understand the processes governing the growth of the baryonic content of galaxies over cosmic history. Observations of galaxy metallicity scaling relations and their evolution with redshift, in combination with chemical evolution models, provide unique insight into the interplay between star formation, gas accretion, and feedback/outflows. I present measurements of the stellar mass-gas phase metallicity relation and its evolution over the past 12 Gyr from z~0 to z~3.5, utilizing data from the Mosfire Deep Evolution Field survey that uniquely provides rest-frame optical spectra of >1000 uniformly-selected galaxies at z=1.3-3.8. We find evolution towards lower metallicity at fixed stellar mass with increasing redshift that is consistent with current cosmological simulations including chemical evolution, with a large evolution of ~0.3 dex from z~0 to z~2.5 and minor evolution of z~2.5 to z~3.5. We unambiguously confirm the existence of star-formation rate dependence of the mass-metallicity relation at high redshift for the first time. A clear view of cosmic chemical evolution requires accounting for systematic biases in galaxy metallicity measurements at both low and high redshifts. We use a set of empirically-based models to correct for diffuse ionized gas contamination that biases metallicity estimates from z~0 global galaxy spectra. Evolving properties of ionized gas such as electron density, ionization parameter, hardness of the ionizing spectrum, and chemical abundance patterns may render locally-calibrated metallicity estimators unreliable at high redshifts. Using strong-line ratios alone, it is extremely difficult to break degenerate solutions between pure metallicity evolution and additional evolution of the ionization parameter and/or shape of the ionizing spectrum. Temperature-sensitive auroral-line measurements provide a way to directly and independently measure metallicities, breaking these degeneracies. We

  6. ABOUT THE LINEARITY OF THE COLOR-MAGNITUDE RELATION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN THE VIRGO CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith Castelli, Analía V.; Faifer, Favio R.; González, Nélida M.; Forte, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the color-magnitude relation of Virgo Cluster early-type galaxies in order to explore its alleged nonlinearity. To this aim, we reanalyze the relation already published from data obtained within the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey of the Hubble Space Telescope and perform our own photometry and analysis of the images of 100 early-type galaxies observed as part of this survey. In addition, we compare our results with those reported in the literature from data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We have found that when the brightest galaxies and untypical systems are excluded from the sample, a linear relation arises in agreement with what is observed in other groups and clusters. The central regions of the brightest galaxies also follow this relation. In addition, we notice that Virgo contains at least four compact elliptical galaxies besides the well-known object VCC 1297 (NGC 4486B). Their locations in the (μ eff )-luminosity diagram define a trend different from that followed by normal early-type dwarf galaxies, setting an upper limit in effective surface brightness and a lower limit in the effective radius for their luminosities. Based on the distribution of different galaxy sub-samples in the color-magnitude and (μ eff )-luminosity diagrams, we draw some conclusions on their formation and the history of their evolution

  7. Extrinsic Sources of Scatter in the Richness-Mass Relation of Galaxy Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozo, Eduardo; /Chicago U. /Chicago U., KICP; Rykoff, Eli; /LBL, Berkeley; Koester, Benjamin; /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Nord, Brian; /Michigan U.; Wu, Hao-Yi; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Evrard, August; /Michigan U.; Wechsler, Risa; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2012-03-27

    Maximizing the utility of upcoming photometric cluster surveys requires a thorough understanding of the richness-mass relation of galaxy clusters. We use Monte Carlo simulations to study the impact of various sources of observational scatter on this relation. Cluster ellipticity, photometric errors, photometric redshift errors, and cluster-to-cluster variations in the properties of red-sequence galaxies contribute negligible noise. Miscentering, however, can be important, and likely contributes to the scatter in the richness - mass relation of galaxy maxBCG clusters at the low mass end, where centering is more difficult. We also investigate the impact of projection effects under several empirically motivated assumptions about cluster environments. Using SDSS data and the maxBCG cluster catalog, we demonstrate that variations in cluster environments can rarely ({approx} 1%-5% of the time) result in significant richness boosts. Due to the steepness of the mass/richness function, the corresponding fraction of optically selected clusters that suffer from these projection effects is {approx} 5%-15%. We expect these numbers to be generic in magnitude, but a precise determination requires detailed, survey-specific modeling.

  8. Confirmation of general relativity on large scales from weak lensing and galaxy velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Reinabelle; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Seljak, Uros; Baldauf, Tobias; Gunn, James E; Lombriser, Lucas; Smith, Robert E

    2010-03-11

    Although general relativity underlies modern cosmology, its applicability on cosmological length scales has yet to be stringently tested. Such a test has recently been proposed, using a quantity, E(G), that combines measures of large-scale gravitational lensing, galaxy clustering and structure growth rate. The combination is insensitive to 'galaxy bias' (the difference between the clustering of visible galaxies and invisible dark matter) and is thus robust to the uncertainty in this parameter. Modified theories of gravity generally predict values of E(G) different from the general relativistic prediction because, in these theories, the 'gravitational slip' (the difference between the two potentials that describe perturbations in the gravitational metric) is non-zero, which leads to changes in the growth of structure and the strength of the gravitational lensing effect. Here we report that E(G) = 0.39 +/- 0.06 on length scales of tens of megaparsecs, in agreement with the general relativistic prediction of E(G) approximately 0.4. The measured value excludes a model within the tensor-vector-scalar gravity theory, which modifies both Newtonian and Einstein gravity. However, the relatively large uncertainty still permits models within f(R) theory, which is an extension of general relativity. A fivefold decrease in uncertainty is needed to rule out these models.

  9. Galaxy-galaxy lensing constraints on the relation between baryons and dark matter in galaxies in the Red Sequence Cluster Survey 2

    OpenAIRE

    van Uitert, Edo; Hoekstra, Henk; Velander, Malin; Gilbank, David G.; Gladders, Michael D.; Yee, H. K. C.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a study of weak gravitational lensing by galaxies using imaging data that were obtained as part of the second Red Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS2). In order to compare to the baryonic properties of the lenses we focus here on the ~300 square degrees that overlap with the DR7 of the SDSS. The depth and image quality of the RCS2 enables us to significantly improve upon earlier work for luminous galaxies at z>=0.3. Comparison with dynamical masses from the SDSS shows a go...

  10. SDSS IV MaNGA: Dependence of Global and Spatially Resolved SFR–M ∗ Relations on Galaxy Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hsi-An; Lin, Lihwai; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Sánchez, Sebastián F.; Ibarra-Medel, Héctor; Boquien, Médéric; Lacerna, Ivan; Argudo-Fernández, Maria; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Cano-Díaz, Mariana; Drory, Niv; Gao, Yang; Masters, Karen; Pan, Kaike; Tabor, Martha; Tissera, Patricia; Xiao, Ting

    2018-02-01

    The galaxy integrated Hα star formation rate–stellar mass relation, or SFR(global)–M *(global) relation, is crucial for understanding star formation history and evolution of galaxies. However, many studies have dealt with SFR using unresolved measurements, which makes it difficult to separate out the contamination from other ionizing sources, such as active galactic nuclei and evolved stars. Using the integral field spectroscopic observations from SDSS-IV MaNGA, we spatially disentangle the contribution from different Hα powering sources for ∼1000 galaxies. We find that, when including regions dominated by all ionizing sources in galaxies, the spatially resolved relation between Hα surface density (ΣHα (all)) and stellar mass surface density (Σ*(all)) progressively turns over at the high Σ*(all) end for increasing M *(global) and/or bulge dominance (bulge-to-total light ratio, B/T). This in turn leads to the flattening of the integrated Hα(global)–M *(global) relation in the literature. By contrast, there is no noticeable flattening in both integrated Hα(H II)–M *(H II) and spatially resolved ΣHα (H II)–Σ*(H II) relations when only regions where star formation dominates the ionization are considered. In other words, the flattening can be attributed to the increasing regions powered by non-star-formation sources, which generally have lower ionizing ability than star formation. An analysis of the fractional contribution of non-star-formation sources to total Hα luminosity of a galaxy suggests a decreasing role of star formation as an ionizing source toward high-mass, high-B/T galaxies and bulge regions. This result indicates that the appearance of the galaxy integrated SFR–M * relation critically depends on their global properties (M *(global) and B/T) and relative abundances of various ionizing sources within the galaxies.

  11. Evolution of the stellar-to-dark matter relation: Separating star-forming and passive galaxies from z = 1 to 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinker, Jeremy L. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Leauthaud, Alexie; Bundy, Kevin [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); George, Matthew R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Behroozi, Peter; Wechsler, Risa H. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Physics Department, Stanford University, and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Massey, Richard [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Rhodes, Jason, E-mail: jeremy.tinker@nyu.edu [California Institute of Technology, MC 350-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We use measurements of the stellar mass function, galaxy clustering, and galaxy-galaxy lensing within the COSMOS survey to constrain the stellar-to-halo mass relation (SHMR) of star forming and quiescent galaxies over the redshift range z = [0.2, 1.0]. For massive galaxies, M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 10.6} M {sub ☉}, our results indicate that star-forming galaxies grow proportionately as fast as their dark matter halos while quiescent galaxies are outpaced by dark matter growth. At lower masses, there is minimal difference in the SHMRs, implying that the majority low-mass quiescent galaxies have only recently been quenched of their star formation. Our analysis also affords a breakdown of all COSMOS galaxies into the relative numbers of central and satellite galaxies for both populations. At z = 1, satellite galaxies dominate the red sequence below the knee in the stellar mass function. But the number of quiescent satellites exhibits minimal redshift evolution; all evolution in the red sequence is due to low-mass central galaxies being quenched of their star formation. At M {sub *} ∼ 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, the fraction of central galaxies on the red sequence increases by a factor of 10 over our redshift baseline, while the fraction of quenched satellite galaxies at that mass is constant with redshift. We define a 'migration rate' to the red sequence as the time derivative of the passive galaxy abundances. We find that the migration rate of central galaxies to the red sequence increases by nearly an order of magnitude from z = 1 to z = 0. These results imply that the efficiency of quenching star formation for centrals is increasing with cosmic time, while the mechanisms that quench the star formation of satellite galaxies in groups and clusters is losing efficiency.

  12. The Cluster-EAGLE project: velocity bias and the velocity dispersion-mass relation of cluster galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Thomas J.; Barnes, David J.; Kay, Scott T.; Bahé, Yannick M.; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Crain, Robert A.; Theuns, Tom

    2018-03-01

    We use the Cluster-EAGLE simulations to explore the velocity bias introduced when using galaxies, rather than dark matter particles, to estimate the velocity dispersion of a galaxy cluster, a property known to be tightly correlated with cluster mass. The simulations consist of 30 clusters spanning a mass range 14.0 ≤ log10(M200 c/M⊙) ≤ 15.4, with their sophisticated subgrid physics modelling and high numerical resolution (subkpc gravitational softening), making them ideal for this purpose. We find that selecting galaxies by their total mass results in a velocity dispersion that is 5-10 per cent higher than the dark matter particles. However, selecting galaxies by their stellar mass results in an almost unbiased (<5 per cent) estimator of the velocity dispersion. This result holds out to z = 1.5 and is relatively insensitive to the choice of cluster aperture, varying by less than 5 per cent between r500 c and r200 m. We show that the velocity bias is a function of the time spent by a galaxy inside the cluster environment. Selecting galaxies by their total mass results in a larger bias because a larger fraction of objects have only recently entered the cluster and these have a velocity bias above unity. Galaxies that entered more than 4 Gyr ago become progressively colder with time, as expected from dynamical friction. We conclude that velocity bias should not be a major issue when estimating cluster masses from kinematic methods.

  13. The Spectroscopy and H-band Imaging of Virgo Cluster Galaxies (SHIVir) Survey: Scaling Relations and the Stellar-to-total Mass Relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouellette, Nathalie N.-Q.; Courteau, Stéphane [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Holtzman, Jon A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, 88003-8001 (United States); Dutton, Aaron A. [Department of Physics, New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Cappellari, Michele [Sub-department of Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Dalcanton, Julianne J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195 (United States); McDonald, Michael [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, Cambridge, MA, 02139 (United States); Roediger, Joel C.; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Taylor, James E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Tully, R. Brent [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822-1839 (United States); Peng, Eric W. [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2017-07-01

    We present parameter distributions and fundamental scaling relations for 190 Virgo cluster galaxies in the SHIVir survey. The distribution of galaxy velocities is bimodal about V {sub circ} ∼ 125 km s{sup −1}, hinting at the existence of dynamically unstable modes in the inner regions of galaxies. An analysis of the Tully-Fisher relation (TFR) of late-type galaxies (LTGs) and the fundamental plane (FP) of early-type galaxies (ETGs) is presented, yielding a compendium of galaxy scaling relations. The slope and zero-point of the Virgo TFR match those of field galaxies, while scatter differences likely reflect distinct evolutionary histories. The velocities minimizing scatter for the TFR and FP are measured at large apertures where the baryonic fraction becomes subdominant. While TFR residuals remain independent of any galaxy parameters, FP residuals (i.e., the FP “tilt”) correlate strongly with the dynamical-to-stellar mass ratio, yielding stringent galaxy formation constraints. We construct a stellar-to-total mass relation (STMR) for ETGs and LTGs and find linear but distinct trends over the range M {sub *} = 10{sup 8–11} M {sub ⊙}. Stellar-to-halo mass relations (SHMRs), which probe the extended dark matter halo, can be scaled down to masses estimated within the optical radius, showing a tight match with the Virgo STMR at low masses; possibly inadequate halo abundance matching prescriptions and broad radial scalings complicate this comparison at all masses. While ETGs appear to be more compact than LTGs of the same stellar mass in projected space, their mass-size relations in physical space are identical. The trends reported here may soon be validated through well-resolved numerical simulations.

  14. Galaxies in the Illustris simulation as seen by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey - II. Size-luminosity relations and the deficit of bulge-dominated galaxies in Illustris at low mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottrell, Connor; Torrey, Paul; Simard, Luc; Ellison, Sara L.

    2017-05-01

    The interpretive power of the newest generation of large-volume hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation rests upon their ability to reproduce the observed properties of galaxies. In this second paper in a series, we employ bulge+disc decompositions of realistic dust-free galaxy images from the Illustris simulation in a consistent comparison with galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Examining the size-luminosity relations of each sample, we find that galaxies in Illustris are roughly twice as large and 0.7 mag brighter on average than galaxies in the SDSS. The trend of increasing slope and decreasing normalization of size-luminosity as a function of bulge fraction is qualitatively similar to observations. However, the size-luminosity relations of Illustris galaxies are quantitatively distinguished by higher normalizations and smaller slopes than for real galaxies. We show that this result is linked to a significant deficit of bulge-dominated galaxies in Illustris relative to the SDSS at stellar masses log M_{\\star }/M_{⊙}≲ 11. We investigate this deficit by comparing bulge fraction estimates derived from photometry and internal kinematics. We show that photometric bulge fractions are systematically lower than the kinematic fractions at low masses, but with increasingly good agreement as the stellar mass increases.

  15. Scaling relations for galaxies of all types with CALIFA and MaNGA surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino-Ortíz, E.; Sánchez-Sánchez, S. F.; Valenzuela, O.; Cano-Díaz, M.; Hernández-Toledo, H.

    2016-06-01

    We used gas and stellar kinematics for the final Data Release of 667 spatially resolved galaxies publicly available from Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey (CALIFA) with the aim of study dynamical scaling relations as Tully & Fisher for rotation velocity, Faber & Jackson for velocity dispersion and also a combination of them through the S_{K} parameter defined as S_{K}^2 = KV_{rot}^2 + σ^2. We found a offset between gas and stellar kinematics in Tully & Fisher and Faber & Jackson relations, however when we used the S_{K} parameter all galaxies regardless of the morphological type lie in this M_{*} vs S_{k} scaling relation with a significant improvement compared with the M_{*} vs V_{rot} and M_{*} vs σ relations, in agreement with previous studies with SAMI survey, however the slope ant zero-point are different with them. We also explored different values of the K parameter, as well as different proxys to estimate V_{rot} in order to understand and characterize the physical source of scatter, slope and zero-point.

  16. Gravitational redshift of galaxies in clusters as predicted by general relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtak, Radosław; Hansen, Steen H; Hjorth, Jens

    2011-09-28

    The theoretical framework of cosmology is mainly defined by gravity, of which general relativity is the current model. Recent tests of general relativity within the Lambda Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM) model have found a concordance between predictions and the observations of the growth rate and clustering of the cosmic web. General relativity has not hitherto been tested on cosmological scales independently of the assumptions of the ΛCDM model. Here we report an observation of the gravitational redshift of light coming from galaxies in clusters at the 99 per cent confidence level, based on archival data. Our measurement agrees with the predictions of general relativity and its modification created to explain cosmic acceleration without the need for dark energy (the f(R) theory), but is inconsistent with alternative models designed to avoid the presence of dark matter. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  17. Measurement of Galaxy Cluster Integrated Comptonization and Mass Scaling Relations with the South Pole Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliwanchik, B. R.; et al.

    2015-01-22

    We describe a method for measuring the integrated Comptonization (Y (SZ)) of clusters of galaxies from measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in multiple frequency bands and use this method to characterize a sample of galaxy clusters detected in the South Pole Telescope (SPT) data. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to fit a β-model source profile and integrate Y (SZ) within an angular aperture on the sky. In simulated observations of an SPT-like survey that include cosmic microwave background anisotropy, point sources, and atmospheric and instrumental noise at typical SPT-SZ survey levels, we show that we can accurately recover β-model parameters for inputted clusters. We measure Y (SZ) for simulated semi-analytic clusters and find that Y (SZ) is most accurately determined in an angular aperture comparable to the SPT beam size. We demonstrate the utility of this method to measure Y (SZ) and to constrain mass scaling relations using X-ray mass estimates for a sample of 18 galaxy clusters from the SPT-SZ survey. Measuring Y (SZ) within a 0.'75 radius aperture, we find an intrinsic log-normal scatter of 21% ± 11% in Y (SZ) at a fixed mass. Measuring Y (SZ) within a 0.3 Mpc projected radius (equivalent to 0.'75 at the survey median redshift z = 0.6), we find a scatter of 26% ± 9%. Prior to this study, the SPT observable found to have the lowest scatter with mass was cluster detection significance. We demonstrate, from both simulations and SPT observed clusters that Y (SZ) measured within an aperture comparable to the SPT beam size is equivalent, in terms of scatter with cluster mass, to SPT cluster detection significance.

  18. MEASUREMENT OF GALAXY CLUSTER INTEGRATED COMPTONIZATION AND MASS SCALING RELATIONS WITH THE SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliwanchik, B. R.; Montroy, T. E. [Physics Department, Center for Education and Research in Cosmology and Astrophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Aird, K. A. [University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bayliss, M. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, 17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bocquet, S.; Desai, S. [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München (Germany); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Cho, H. M. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway, Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Clocchiatti, A. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica (Chile); De Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dudley, J. P. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Foley, R. J.; Forman, W. R., E-mail: benjamin.saliwanchik@case.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); and others

    2015-02-01

    We describe a method for measuring the integrated Comptonization (Y {sub SZ}) of clusters of galaxies from measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in multiple frequency bands and use this method to characterize a sample of galaxy clusters detected in the South Pole Telescope (SPT) data. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to fit a β-model source profile and integrate Y {sub SZ} within an angular aperture on the sky. In simulated observations of an SPT-like survey that include cosmic microwave background anisotropy, point sources, and atmospheric and instrumental noise at typical SPT-SZ survey levels, we show that we can accurately recover β-model parameters for inputted clusters. We measure Y {sub SZ} for simulated semi-analytic clusters and find that Y {sub SZ} is most accurately determined in an angular aperture comparable to the SPT beam size. We demonstrate the utility of this method to measure Y {sub SZ} and to constrain mass scaling relations using X-ray mass estimates for a sample of 18 galaxy clusters from the SPT-SZ survey. Measuring Y {sub SZ} within a 0.'75 radius aperture, we find an intrinsic log-normal scatter of 21% ± 11% in Y {sub SZ} at a fixed mass. Measuring Y {sub SZ} within a 0.3 Mpc projected radius (equivalent to 0.'75 at the survey median redshift z = 0.6), we find a scatter of 26% ± 9%. Prior to this study, the SPT observable found to have the lowest scatter with mass was cluster detection significance. We demonstrate, from both simulations and SPT observed clusters that Y {sub SZ} measured within an aperture comparable to the SPT beam size is equivalent, in terms of scatter with cluster mass, to SPT cluster detection significance.

  19. Planck intermediate results: III. the relation between galaxy cluster mass and Sunyaev-Zeldovich signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartlett, J.G.; Bucher, M.; Cardoso, J.-F.

    2013-01-01

    on hydrostatic X-ray mass-proxy relations. We verify that our SZ effect measurements are in excellent agreement with previous determinations from Planck data. For the present sample, the hydrostatic X-ray masses at R500 are on average ~ 20 percent larger than the corresponding weak lensing masses, which......We examine the relation between the galaxy cluster mass M and Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect signal DA2 Y500 for a sample of 19 objects for which weak lensing (WL) mass measurements obtained from Subaru Telescope data are available in the literature. Hydrostatic X-ray masses are derived from XMM......-Newton archive data, and the SZ effect signal is measured from Planck all-sky survey data. We find an MWL-D A2 Y500 relation that is consistent in slope and normalisation with previous determinations using weak lensing masses; however, there is a normalisation offset with respect to previous measures based...

  20. Galaxy spin as a formation probe: the stellar-to-halo specific angular momentum relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posti, Lorenzo; Pezzulli, Gabriele; Fraternali, Filippo; Di Teodoro, Enrico M.

    2018-03-01

    We derive the stellar-to-halo specific angular momentum relation (SHSAMR) of galaxies at z = 0 by combining (i) the standard Λcold dark matter tidal torque theory, (ii) the observed relation between stellar mass and specific angular momentum (the Fall relation), and (iii) various determinations of the stellar-to-halo mass relation (SHMR). We find that the ratio fj = j*/jh of the specific angular momentum of stars to that of the dark matter (i) varies with mass as a double power law, (ii) always has a peak in the mass range explored and iii) is three to five times larger for spirals than for ellipticals. The results have some dependence on the adopted SHMR and we provide fitting formulae in each case. For any choice of the SHMR, the peak of fj occurs at the same mass where the stellar-to-halo mass ratio f* = M*/Mh has a maximum. This is mostly driven by the straightness and tightness of the Fall relation, which requires fj and f* to be correlated with each other roughly as f_j∝ f_\\ast ^{2/3}, as expected if the outer and more angular momentum rich parts of a halo failed to accrete on to the central galaxy and form stars (biased collapse). We also confirm that the difference in the angular momentum of spirals and ellipticals at a given mass is too large to be ascribed only to different spins of the parent dark-matter haloes (spin bias).

  1. Examining the effect of galaxy evolution on the stellar-halo mass relation in the EAGLE simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulier, Andrea; Padilla, Nelson; Schaye, Joop; Crain, Robert; Schaller, Matthieu; Bower, Richard; Theuns, Tom; Paillas, Enrique

    2018-01-01

    The EAGLE hydrodynamical simulation was used in Matthee et al. 2016 to examine the scatter in the stellar mass-halo mass relation of central galaxies, finding that the stellar mass (M*) correlates well with the maximum circular velocity (Vmax) of the host halo, but with a substantial scatter that does not correlate significantly with other host halo properties. Here we further examine the scatter in the stellar mass-halo mass relation of central galaxies in EAGLE, its correlation with other properties, and its origin. We find that at fixed Vmax, galaxies with lower concentration have younger stellar populations, as expected from the relationship between concentration and halo assembly time. However, at fixed Vmax and halo concentration, galaxies with larger M* have younger stellar ages, so that combining the two effects, galaxies with younger stellar ages at fixed halo mass have higher stellar masses. The host halos of galaxies with larger M* at fixed Vmax and concentration also contain more gas than those with smaller stellar masses at z = 0.1, i.e. the baryon fraction of the halos is larger. There is an even stronger correlation between the scatter in M* at z = 0.1 and the scatter in the baryon fraction of the galaxy's progenitors at z ~ 1, such that the latter sets ~50% of the scatter in M* at z = 0.1. We conclude that most of the scatter between Vmax and M* at z = 0.1 is set at earlier redshifts by the scatter in the baryon fraction of halos, which in turn is primarily the result of differences in feedback strength within halos.

  2. Morphology of Seyfert Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yen-Chen; Hwang, Chorng-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    We probed the relation between properties of Seyfert nuclei and morphology of their host galaxies. We selected Seyfert galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with redshifts less 0.2 identified by the V\\'{e}ron Catalog (13th). We used the "{\\it{FracDev}}" parameter from SDSS galaxy fitting models to represent the bulge fractions of the Seyfert host galaxies. We found that the host galaxies of Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 are dominated by large bulge fractions, and Seyfert 2 galaxies are more li...

  3. Planck early results. XI. Calibration of the local galaxy cluster Sunyaev-Zeldovich scaling relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.; Polenta, G.

    2011-01-01

    We present precise Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect measurements in the direction of 62 nearby galaxy clusters (z data set. The sample spans approximately a decade in total mass, 2 × 1014 M ... signal analogue YX,500 = Mg,500 × TX, and total mass M500. After correction for the effect of selection bias on the scaling relations, we find results that are in excellent agreement with both X-ray predictions and recently-published ground-based data derived from smaller samples. The present data yield...... corresponding to a total density contrast of 500. Combining these high quality Planck measurements with deep XMM-Newton X-ray data, we investigate the relations between DA2 Y500, the integrated Compton parameter due to the SZ effect, and the X-ray-derived gas mass M g,500, temperature TX, luminosity LX,500, SZ...

  4. The X-ray luminosity-temperature relation of a complete sample of low-mass galaxy clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, S.; Maughan, B. J.; Giles, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    that there is no evidence for the slope, normalization, or scatter of the L-T relation of galaxy groups being different than that of massive clusters. The exception to this is that in the special case of the most relaxed systems, the slope of the core-excised L-T relation appears to steepen from the self-similar value...

  5. Verifying the mass-metallicity relation in damped Lyman-alpha selected galaxies at 0.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lise Bech; Møller, P.; Fynbo, J. P. U.

    2014-01-01

    A scaling relation has recently been suggested to combine the galaxy mass-metallicity (MZ) relation with metallicities of damped Lyman-alpha systems (DLAs) in quasar spectra. Based on this relation the stellar masses of the absorbing galaxies can be predicted. We test this prediction by measuring...

  6. Anisotropy of the galaxy cluster X-ray luminosity-temperature relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migkas, Konstantinos; Reiprich, Thomas H.

    2018-03-01

    We introduce a new test to study the cosmological principle with galaxy clusters. Galaxy clusters exhibit a tight correlation between the luminosity and temperature of the X-ray-emitting intracluster medium. While the luminosity measurement depends on cosmological parameters through the luminosity distance, the temperature determination is cosmology-independent. We exploit this property to test the isotropy of the luminosity distance over the full extragalactic sky, through the normalization a of the LX-T scaling relation and the cosmological parameters Ωm and H0. To this end, we use two almost independent galaxy cluster samples: the ASCA Cluster Catalog (ACC) and the XMM Cluster Survey (XCS-DR1). Interestingly enough, these two samples appear to have the same pattern for a with respect to the Galactic longitude. More specifically, we identify one sky region within l (-15°, 90°) (Group A) that shares very different best-fit values for the normalization of the LX-T relation for both ACC and XCS-DR1 samples. We use the Bootstrap and Jackknife methods to assess the statistical significance of these results. We find the deviation of Group A, compared to the rest of the sky in terms of a, to be 2.7σ for ACC and 3.1σ for XCS-DR1. This tension is not significantly relieved after excluding possible outliers and is not attributed to different redshift (z), temperature (T), or distributions of observable uncertainties. Moreover, a redshift conversion to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) frame does not have an important impact on our results. Using also the HIFLUGCS sample, we show that a possible excess of cool-core clusters in this region, is not able to explain the obtained deviations. Furthermore, we tested for a dependence of the results on supercluster environment, where the fraction of disturbed clusters might be enhanced, possibly affecting the LX-T relation. We indeed find a trend in the XCS-DR1 sample for supercluster members to be underluminous compared to

  7. The Kormendy Relation of Galaxies in the Frontier Fields Clusters: Abell S1063 and MACS J1149.5+2223

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorelli, Luca; Mercurio, Amata; Paolillo, Maurizio; Rosati, Piero; Gargiulo, Adriana; Gobat, Raphael; Balestra, Italo; Caminha, G. B.; Annunziatella, Marianna; Grillo, Claudio; Lombardi, Marco; Nonino, Mario; Rettura, Alessandro; Sartoris, Barbara; Strazzullo, Veronica

    2018-03-01

    We analyse the Kormendy relations (KRs) of the two Frontier Fields clusters, Abell S1063, at z = 0.348, and MACS J1149.5+2223, at z = 0.542, exploiting very deep Hubble Space Telescope photometry and VLT/MUSE integral field spectroscopy. With this novel dataset, we are able to investigate how the KR parameters depend on the cluster galaxy sample selection and how this affects studies of galaxy evolution based on the KR. We define and compare four different galaxy samples according to: (a) Sérsic indices: early-type ('ETG'), (b) visual inspection: 'ellipticals', (c) colours: 'red', (d) spectral properties: 'passive'. The classification is performed for a complete sample of galaxies with mF814W ≤ 22.5 ABmag (M* ≳ 1010.0 M⊙). To derive robust galaxy structural parameters, we use two methods: (1) an iterative estimate of structural parameters using images of increasing size, in order to deal with closely separated galaxies and (2) different background estimations, to deal with the Intracluster light contamination. The comparison between the KRs obtained from the different samples suggests that the sample selection could affect the estimate of the best-fitting KR parameters. The KR built with ETGs is fully consistent with the one obtained for ellipticals and passive. On the other hand, the KR slope built on the red sample is only marginally consistent with those obtained with the other samples. We also release the photometric catalogue with structural parameters for the galaxies included in the present analysis.

  8. The Mean and Scatter of the Velocity Dispersion-Optical Richness Relation for MaxBCG Galaxy Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, M.R.; McKay, T.A.; /Michigan U.; Koester, B.; /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Wechsler, R.H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Rozo, E.; /Ohio State U.; Evrard, A.; /Michigan U. /Michigan U., MCTP; Johnston, D.; /Caltech, JPL; Sheldon, E.; /New York U.; Annis, J.; /Fermilab; Lau, E.; /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Nichol, R.; /Portsmouth U., ICG; Miller, C.; /Michigan U.

    2007-06-05

    The distribution of galaxies in position and velocity around the centers of galaxy clusters encodes important information about cluster mass and structure. Using the maxBCG galaxy cluster catalog identified from imaging data obtained in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we study the BCG--galaxy velocity correlation function. By modeling its non-Gaussianity, we measure the mean and scatter in velocity dispersion at fixed richness. The mean velocity dispersion increases from 202 {+-} 10 km s{sup -1} for small groups to more than 854 {+-} 102 km s{sup -1} for large clusters. We show the scatter to be at most 40.5{+-}3.5%, declining to 14.9{+-}9.4% in the richest bins. We test our methods in the C4 cluster catalog, a spectroscopic cluster catalog produced from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR2 spectroscopic sample, and in mock galaxy catalogs constructed from N-body simulations. Our methods are robust, measuring the scatter to well within one-sigma of the true value, and the mean to within 10%, in the mock catalogs. By convolving the scatter in velocity dispersion at fixed richness with the observed richness space density function, we measure the velocity dispersion function of the maxBCG galaxy clusters. Although velocity dispersion and richness do not form a true mass--observable relation, the relationship between velocity dispersion and mass is theoretically well characterized and has low scatter. Thus our results provide a key link between theory and observations up to the velocity bias between dark matter and galaxies.

  9. The galaxy population of Abell 1367: the stellar mass-metallicity relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouhcine, M.; Kriwattanawong, W.; James, P. A.

    2011-04-01

    Using wide baseline broad-band photometry, we analyse the stellar population properties of a sample of 72 galaxies, spanning a wide range of stellar masses and morphological types, in the nearby spiral-rich and dynamically young galaxy cluster Abell 1367. The sample galaxies are distributed from the cluster centre out to approximately half the cluster Abell radius. The optical/near-infrared colours are compared with simple stellar population synthesis models from which the luminosity-weighted stellar population ages and metallicities are determined. The locus of the colours of elliptical galaxies traces a sequence of varying metallicity at a narrow range of luminosity-weighted stellar ages. Lenticular galaxies in the red sequence, however, exhibit a substantial spread of luminosity-weighted stellar metallicities and ages. For red-sequence lenticular galaxies and blue cloud galaxies, low-mass galaxies tend to be on average dominated by stellar populations of younger luminosity-weighted ages. Sample galaxies exhibit a strong correlation between integrated stellar mass and luminosity-weighted stellar metallicity. Galaxies with signs of morphological disturbance and ongoing star formation activity, tend to be underabundant with respect to passive galaxies in the red sequence of comparable stellar masses. We argue that this could be due to tidally driven gas flows towards the star-forming regions, carrying less enriched gas and diluting the pre-existing gas to produce younger stellar populations with lower metallicities than would be obtained prior to the interaction. Finally, we find no statistically significant evidence for changes in the luminosity-weighted ages and metallicities for either red-sequence or blue-cloud galaxies, at fixed stellar mass, with location within the cluster. We dedicate this work to the memory of our friend and colleague C. Moss who died suddenly recently.

  10. A NEW SCALING RELATION FOR H II REGIONS IN SPIRAL GALAXIES: UNVEILING THE TRUE NATURE OF THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Díaz, A. I.; Sánchez, S. F.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Vílchez, J. M.; Mast, D.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Husemann, B.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of a local mass, metallicity, star formation relation using spatially resolved optical spectroscopy of H II regions in the local universe. One of the projections of this distribution—the local mass-metallicity relation—extends over a wide range in this parameter space: three orders of magnitude in mass and a factor of eight in metallicity. We explain the new relation as the combined effect of the differential distributions of mass and metallicity in the disks of galaxies, and a selective star formation efficiency. We use this local relation to reproduce—with a noticeable agreement—the mass-metallicity relation seen in galaxies, and conclude that the latter is a scale-up integrated effect of a local relation, supporting the inside-out growth and downsizing scenarios of galaxy evolution.

  11. Evolution of the mass-metallicity relations in passive and star-forming galaxies from SPH-cosmological simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velonà, A. D Romeo; Sommer-Larsen, J.; Napolitano, N. R.

    2013-01-01

    be inferred that the bulk of the slope evolution of the ZM relation is driven by the more massive passive objects. The scatter of the passive sample is dominated by low-mass galaxies at all redshifts and keeps constant over cosmic times. The mean metallicity is highest in cluster cores and lowest in normal...... with redshift at given mass, especially at z ≳ 1. The expected increasing trend with mass is recovered when only considering the more massive galaxies. We discuss these results in terms of the mechanisms driving the evolution within the high- and low-mass regimes at different epochs: mergers, feedback...

  12. Do galaxy global relationships emerge from local ones? The SDSS IV MaNGA surface mass density-metallicity relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge K.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Zhu, Guangtun B.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Law, David; Wake, David; Green, Jenny E.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Oravetz, Daniel; Simmons, Audrey; Malanushenko, Elena; Pan, Kaike; Roman Lopes, Alexandre; Lane, Richard R.

    2016-12-01

    We present the stellar surface mass density versus gas metallicity (Σ*-Z) relation for more than 500 000 spatially resolved star-forming resolution elements (spaxels) from a sample of 653 disc galaxies included in the SDSS IV MaNGA survey. We find a tight relation between these local properties, with higher metallicities as the surface density increases. This relation extends over three orders of magnitude in the surface mass density and a factor of 4 in metallicity. We show that this local relationship can simultaneously reproduce two well-known properties of disc galaxies: their global mass-metallicity relationship and their radial metallicity gradients. We also find that the Σ*-Z relation is largely independent of the galaxy's total stellar mass and specific star formation rate (sSFR), except at low stellar mass and high sSFR. These results suggest that in the present-day universe local properties play a key role in determining the gas-phase metallicity in typical disc galaxies.

  13. The radio continuum-star formation rate relation in WSRT sings galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heesen, Volker; Brinks, Elias; Leroy, Adam K.; Heald, George; Braun, Robert; Bigiel, Frank; Beck, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the spatially resolved radio continuum-star formation rate (RC-SFR) relation using state-of-the-art star formation tracers in a sample of 17 THINGS galaxies. We use SFR surface density (Σ SFR ) maps created by a linear combination of GALEX far-UV (FUV) and Spitzer 24 μm maps. We use RC maps at λλ22 and 18 cm from the WSRT SINGS survey and Hα emission maps to correct for thermal RC emission. We compare azimuthally averaged radial profiles of the RC and FUV/mid-IR (MIR) based Σ SFR maps and study pixel-by-pixel correlations at fixed linear scales of 1.2 and 0.7 kpc. The ratio of the integrated SFRs from the RC emission to that of the FUV/MIR-based SF tracers is R int =0.78±0.38, consistent with the relation by Condon. We find a tight correlation between the radial profiles of the radio and FUV/MIR-based Σ SFR for the entire extent of the disk. The ratio R of the azimuthally averaged radio to FUV/MIR-based Σ SFR agrees with the integrated ratio and has only quasi-random fluctuations with galactocentric radius that are relatively small (25%). Pixel-by-pixel plots show a tight correlation in log-log diagrams of radio to FUV/MIR-based Σ SFR , with a typical standard deviation of a factor of two. Averaged over our sample we find (Σ SFR ) RC ∝(Σ SFR ) hyb 0.63±0.25 , implying that data points with high Σ SFR are relatively radio dim, whereas the reverse is true for low Σ SFR . We interpret this as a result of spectral aging of cosmic-ray electrons (CREs), which are diffusing away from the star formation sites where they are injected into the interstellar medium. This is supported by our finding that the radio spectral index is a second parameter in pixel-by-pixel plots: those data points dominated by young CREs are relatively radio dim, while those dominated by old CREs are slightly more RC bright than what would be expected from a linear extrapolation. We studied the ratio R of radio to FUV/MIR-based integrated SFR as a function of

  14. Effect of primordial non-Gaussianities on galaxy clusters scaling relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, A. M. M.; da Silva, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    Galaxy clusters are a valuable source of cosmological information. Their formation and evolution depends on the underlying cosmology and on the statistical nature of the primordial density fluctuations. Here we investigate the impact of primordial non-Gaussianities (PNG) on the scaling properties of galaxy clusters. We performed a series of hydrodynamic N-body simulations featuring adiabatic gas physics and different levels of non-Gaussianity within the Λ cold dark matter framework. We focus on the T-M, S-M, Y-M and YX-M scalings relating the total cluster mass with temperature, entropy and Sunyaev-Zeld'ovich integrated pressure that reflect the thermodynamic state of the intracluster medium. Our results show that PNG have an impact on cluster scalings laws. The scalings mass power-law indexes are almost unaffected by the existence of PNG, but the amplitude and redshift evolution of their normalizations are clearly affected. Changes in the Y-M and YX-M normalizations are as high as 22 per cent and 16 per cent when fNL varies from -500 to 500, respectively. Results are consistent with the view that positive/negative fNL affect cluster profiles due to an increase/decrease of cluster concentrations. At low values of fNL, as suggested by present Planck constraints on a scale invariant fNL, the impact on the scaling normalizations is only a few per cent. However, if fNL varies with scale, PNG may have larger amplitudes at clusters scales; thus, our results suggest that PNG should be taken into account when cluster data are used to infer or forecast cosmological parameters from existing or future cluster surveys.

  15. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Probing the Kinematic Morphology–Density Relation of Early-type Galaxies with MaNGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, J. E.; Leauthaud, A.; Emsellem, E.; Goddard, D.; Ge, J.; Andrews, B. H.; Brinkman, J.; Brownstein, J. R.; Greco, J.; Law, D.; Lin, Y.-T.; Masters, K. L.; Merrifield, M.; More, S.; Okabe, N.; Schneider, D. P.; Thomas, D.; Wake, D. A.; Yan, R.; Drory, N.

    2017-12-01

    The “kinematic” morphology–density relation for early-type galaxies posits that those galaxies with low angular momentum are preferentially found in the highest-density regions of the universe. We use a large sample of galaxy groups with halo masses {10}12.5MaNGA) survey to examine whether there is a correlation between local environment and rotational support that is independent of stellar mass. We find no compelling evidence for a relationship between the angular momentum content of early-type galaxies and either local overdensity or radial position within the group at fixed stellar mass.

  16. The MUSIC of galaxy clusters - II. X-ray global properties and scaling relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffi, V.; Sembolini, F.; De Petris, M.; Valdarnini, R.; Yepes, G.; Gottlöber, S.

    2014-03-01

    We present the X-ray properties and scaling relations of a large sample of clusters extracted from the Marenostrum MUltidark SImulations of galaxy Clusters (MUSIC) data set. We focus on a sub-sample of 179 clusters at redshift z ˜ 0.11, with 3.2 × 1014 h-1 M⊙ observations and derive observable-like global properties of the intracluster medium (ICM), as X-ray temperature (TX) and luminosity (LX). TX is found to slightly underestimate the true mass-weighted temperature, although tracing fairly well the cluster total mass. We also study the effects of TX on scaling relations with cluster intrinsic properties: total (M500 and gas Mg,500 mass; integrated Compton parameter (YSZ) of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) thermal effect; YX = Mg,500 TX. We confirm that YX is a very good mass proxy, with a scatter on M500-YX and YSZ-YX lower than 5 per cent. The study of scaling relations among X-ray, intrinsic and SZ properties indicates that simulated MUSIC clusters reasonably resemble the self-similar prediction, especially for correlations involving TX. The observational approach also allows for a more direct comparison with real clusters, from which we find deviations mainly due to the physical description of the ICM, affecting TX and, particularly, LX.

  17. THE RELATION BETWEEN GALAXY STRUCTURE AND SPECTRAL TYPE: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE BUILDUP OF THE QUIESCENT GALAXY POPULATION AT 0.5 < z < 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Michael; Kriek, Mariska [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Wel, Arjen van der [Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Whitaker, Katherine E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    We present the relation between galaxy structure and spectral type, using a K-selected galaxy sample at 0.5 < z < 2.0. Based on similarities between the UV-to-NIR spectral energy distributions (SEDs), we classify galaxies into 32 spectral types. The different types span a wide range in evolutionary phases, and thus—in combination with available CANDELS/F160W imaging—are ideal to study the structural evolution of galaxies. Effective radii (R{sub e}) and Sérsic parameters (n) have been measured for 572 individual galaxies, and for each type, we determine R{sub e} at fixed stellar mass by correcting for the mass-size relation. We use the rest-frame U − V versus V − J diagram to investigate evolutionary trends. When moving into the direction perpendicular to the star-forming sequence, in which we see the Hα equivalent width and the specific star formation rate (sSFR) decrease, we find a decrease in R{sub e} and an increase in n. On the quiescent sequence we find an opposite trend, with older redder galaxies being larger. When splitting the sample into redshift bins, we find that young post-starburst galaxies are most prevalent at z > 1.5 and significantly smaller than all other galaxy types at the same redshift. This result suggests that the suppression of star formation may be associated with significant structural evolution at z > 1.5. At z < 1, galaxy types with intermediate sSFRs (10{sup −11.5}–10{sup −10.5} yr{sup −1}) do not have post-starburst SED shapes. These galaxies have similar sizes as older quiescent galaxies, implying that they can passively evolve onto the quiescent sequence, without increasing the average size of the quiescent galaxy population.

  18. Cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters: X-ray scaling relations and their evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, N.; Rasia, E.; Mazzotta, P.; Planelles, S.; Biffi, V.; Fabjan, D.; Beck, A. M.; Borgani, S.; Dolag, K.; Gaspari, M.; Granato, G. L.; Murante, G.; Ragone-Figueroa, C.; Steinborn, L. K.

    2018-03-01

    We analyse cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters to study the X-ray scaling relations between total masses and observable quantities such as X-ray luminosity, gas mass, X-ray temperature, and YX. Three sets of simulations are performed with an improved version of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics GADGET-3 code. These consider the following: non-radiative gas, star formation and stellar feedback, and the addition of feedback by active galactic nuclei (AGN). We select clusters with M500 > 1014 M⊙E(z)-1, mimicking the typical selection of Sunyaev-Zeldovich samples. This permits to have a mass range large enough to enable robust fitting of the relations even at z ˜ 2. The results of the analysis show a general agreement with observations. The values of the slope of the mass-gas mass and mass-temperature relations at z = 2 are 10 per cent lower with respect to z = 0 due to the applied mass selection, in the former case, and to the effect of early merger in the latter. We investigate the impact of the slope variation on the study of the evolution of the normalization. We conclude that cosmological studies through scaling relations should be limited to the redshift range z = 0-1, where we find that the slope, the scatter, and the covariance matrix of the relations are stable. The scaling between mass and YX is confirmed to be the most robust relation, being almost independent of the gas physics. At higher redshifts, the scaling relations are sensitive to the inclusion of AGNs which influences low-mass systems. The detailed study of these objects will be crucial to evaluate the AGN effect on the ICM.

  19. The stellar-to-halo mass relation of GAMA galaxies from 100 deg2 of KiDS weak lensing data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uitert, Edo; Cacciato, Marcello; Hoekstra, Henk; Brouwer, Margot; Sifón, Cristóbal; Viola, Massimo; Baldry, Ivan; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brough, Sarah; Brown, M. J. I.; Choi, Ami; Driver, Simon P.; Erben, Thomas; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Joachimi, Benjamin; Kuijken, Konrad; Liske, Jochen; Loveday, Jon; Mc Farland, J.; Miller, Lance; Nakajima, Reiko; Peacock, John; Radovich, Mario; Robotham, A. S. G.; Schneider, Peter; Sikkema, Gert; Taylor, Edward N.; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs

    2016-01-01

    We study the stellar-to-halo mass relation of central galaxies in the range 9.7 10(M*/h- 2 M⊙) ) ) 2 of KiDS data to study the lensing signal around galaxies for which spectroscopic redshifts and stellar masses were determined by GAMA. We show that lensing alone results in poor constraints on the

  20. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey - X. Nuclear star clusters in low-mass early-type galaxies : scaling relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Brok, Mark; Peletier, Reynier F.; Seth, Anil; Balcells, Marc; Dominguez, Lilian; Graham, Alister W.; Carter, David; Erwin, Peter; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Guzman, Rafael; Hoyos, Carlos; Jogee, Shardha; Lucey, John; Phillipps, Steven; Puzia, Thomas; Valentijn, Edwin; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Weinzirl, Tim

    2014-01-01

    We present scaling relations between structural properties of nuclear star clusters and their host galaxies for a sample of early-type dwarf galaxies observed as part of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Coma Cluster Survey. We have analysed the light profiles of 200

  1. The abundance properties of nearby late-type galaxies. II. The relation between abundance distributions and surface brightness profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilyugin, L. S.; Grebel, E. K.; Zinchenko, I. A.; Kniazev, A. Y.

    2014-01-01

    The relations between oxygen abundance and disk surface brightness (OH–SB relation) in the infrared W1 band are examined for nearby late-type galaxies. The oxygen abundances were presented in Paper I. The photometric characteristics of the disks are inferred here using photometric maps from the literature through bulge-disk decomposition. We find evidence that the OH–SB relation is not unique but depends on the galactocentric distance r (taken as a fraction of the optical radius R 25 ) and on the properties of a galaxy: the disk scale length h and the morphological T-type. We suggest a general, four-dimensional OH–SB relation with the values r, h, and T as parameters. The parametric OH–SB relation reproduces the observed data better than a simple, one-parameter relation; the deviations resulting when using our parametric relation are smaller by a factor of ∼1.4 than that of the simple relation. The influence of the parameters on the OH–SB relation varies with galactocentric distance. The influence of the T-type on the OH–SB relation is negligible at the centers of galaxies and increases with galactocentric distance. In contrast, the influence of the disk scale length on the OH–SB relation is at a maximum at the centers of galaxies and decreases with galactocentric distance, disappearing at the optical edges of galaxies. Two-dimensional relations can be used to reproduce the observed data at the optical edges of the disks and at the centers of the disks. The disk scale length should be used as a second parameter in the OH–SB relation at the center of the disk while the morphological T-type should be used as a second parameter in the relation at optical edge of the disk. The relations between oxygen abundance and disk surface brightness in the optical B and infrared K bands at the center of the disk and at optical edge of the disk are also considered. The general properties of the abundance–surface brightness relations are similar for the three

  2. Scaling Relations for the Efficiency of Radial Migration in Disk Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Kathryne J.

    2018-01-01

    Radial migration is frequently recognized as an internal, secular process that could play an important role in disk galaxy evolution. The driving mechanism for radial migration is transient spiral patterns, which rearrange the orbital angular momentum distribution of disk stars around corotation without causing kinematic heating. Should radial migration be an efficient process, it could cause a substantial fraction of disk stars to move large radial distances over the lifetime of the disk, thus having a significant impact on the disk’s kinematic, structural and chemical evolution. Observational and simulated data are consistent with radial migration being important for kinematically cold stellar populations and less so for populations with hot kinematics. I will present an analytic criterion that determines which stars are in orbits that could lead to radial migration. I will then show some scaling relations for the efficacy of radial migration that result from applying this analytic criterion to a series of models that have a variety of distribution functions and spiral patterns in systems with an assumed flat rotation curve. Most importantly, I will argue that these scaling relations can be used to place constraints on the efficiency of radial migration, where stronger spiral patterns and kinematically cold populations will lead to a higher fraction of stars in orbits that can lead to radial migration.

  3. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Relation Between Galaxy Cluster Optical Richness and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Neelima; Addison, Graeme; Battaglia, Nick; Battistelli, Elia S.; Bond, J. Richard; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Dunkley, Joanna; Duenner, Rolando; Gralla, Megan; hide

    2012-01-01

    MaxBCG sample, a lower normalization of the mass-richness relation, radio or infrared galaxy contamination of the SZ flux, and a low intrinsic SZ signal. In the latter two cases, the effects would need to be preferentially more significant in the optically-selected MaxBCG sample than in the MCXC X-ray sample.

  4. ULTRAVIOLET COLOR-COLOR RELATION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT 0.05 < z < 0.12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ree, Chang H.; Jeong, Hyunjin; Lee, Joon Hyeop; Kim, Sang Chul; Kyeong, Jaemann; Oh, Kyuseok; Chung, Chul

    2012-01-01

    We present the ultraviolet (UV) color-color relation of early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the nearby universe (0.05 < z < 0.12) to investigate the properties of hot stellar populations responsible for the UV excess (UVX). The initial sample of ETGs is selected by the spectroscopic redshift and the morphology parameter from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7, and then cross-matched with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) GR6 data. The cross-matched ETG sample is further classified by their emission line characteristics in the optical spectra into quiescent, star-forming, and active galactic nucleus categories. Contaminations from early-type spiral galaxies, mergers, and morphologically disturbed galaxies are removed by visual inspection. By drawing the FUV-NUV (as a measure of UV spectral shape) versus FUV – r (as a measure of UVX strength) diagram for the final sample of ∼3700 quiescent ETGs, we find that the 'old and dead' ETGs consist of a well-defined sequence in UV colors, the 'UV red sequence', so that the stronger UVX galaxies should have a harder UV spectral shape systematically. However, the observed UV spectral slope is too steep to be reproduced by the canonical stellar population models in which the UV flux is mainly controlled by age or metallicity parameters. Moreover, 2 mag of color spreads both in FUV-NUV and FUV – r appear to be ubiquitous among any subsets in distance or luminosity. This implies that the UVX in ETGs could be driven by yet another parameter which might be even more influential than age or metallicity.

  5. THE GAS PHASE MASS METALLICITY RELATION FOR DWARF GALAXIES: DEPENDENCE ON STAR FORMATION RATE AND HI GAS MASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimmy; Tran, Kim-Vy [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Saintonge, Amélie; Accurso, Gioacchino [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Place, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Brough, Sarah; Oliva-Altamirano, Paola [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)

    2015-10-20

    Using a sample of dwarf galaxies observed using the VIMOS IFU on the Very Large Telescope, we investigate the mass–metallicity relation (MZR) as a function of star formation rate (FMR{sub SFR}) as well as HI-gas mass (FMR{sub HI}). We combine our IFU data with a subsample of galaxies from the ALFALFA HI survey crossmatched to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to study the FMR{sub SFR} and FMR{sub HI} across the stellar mass range 10{sup 6.6}–10{sup 8.8} M{sub ⊙}, with metallicities as low as 12 + log(O/H) = 7.67. We find the 1σ mean scatter in the MZR to be 0.05 dex. The 1σ mean scatter in the FMR{sub SFR} (0.02 dex) is significantly lower than that of the MZR. The FMR{sub SFR} is not consistent between the IFU observed galaxies and the ALFALFA/SDSS galaxies for SFRs lower than 10{sup −2.4} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, however, this could be the result of limitations of our measurements in that regime. The lowest mean scatter (0.01 dex) is found in the FMR{sub HI}. We also find that the FMR{sub HI} is consistent between the IFU observed dwarf galaxies and the ALFALFA/SDSS crossmatched sample. We introduce the fundamental metallicity luminosity counterpart to the FMR, again characterized in terms of SFR (FML{sub SFR}) and HI-gas mass (FML{sub HI}). We find that the FML{sub HI} relation is consistent between the IFU observed dwarf galaxy sample and the larger ALFALFA/SDSS sample. However, the 1σ scatter for the FML{sub HI} relation is not improved over the FMR{sub HI} scenario. This leads us to conclude that the FMR{sub HI} is the best candidate for a physically motivated fundamental metallicity relation.

  6. Searching for deviations from the general relativity theory with gas mass fraction of galaxy clusters and complementary probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, R. F. L.; Pereira, S. H.; Santos da Costa, S.

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays, thanks to the improved precision of cosmological data, it has become possible to search for deviation from the general relativity theory with tests on large cosmic scales. Particularly, there is a class of modified gravity theories that breaks the Einstein equivalence principle (EEP) in the electromagnetic sector, generating variations of the fine structure constant, violations of the cosmic distance duality relation, and the evolution law of cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. In recent papers, this class of theories has been tested with angular diameter distances from galaxy clusters, type Ia supernovae, and CMB temperature. In this work we propose a new test by considering the most recent x-ray surface brightness observations of galaxy clusters jointly with type Ia supernovae and CMB temperature. The crucial point here is that we take into account the dependence of the x-ray gas mass fraction of galaxy clusters on possible variations of the fine structure constant and violations of the cosmic distance duality relation. Our basic result is that this new approach is competitive with the previous one, and it also does not show significant deviations from general relativity.

  7. The mass-metallicity relations for gas and stars in star-forming galaxies: strong outflow versus variable IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jianhui; Thomas, Daniel; Maraston, Claudia; Goddard, Daniel; Comparat, Johan; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Ventura, Paolo

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the mass-metallicity relations for the gaseous (MZRgas) and stellar components (MZRstar) of local star-forming galaxies based on a representative sample from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12. The mass-weighted average stellar metallicities are systematically lower than the gas metallicities. This difference in metallicity increases towards galaxies with lower masses and reaches 0.4-0.8 dex at 109 M⊙ (depending on the gas metallicity calibration). As a result, the MZRstar is much steeper than the MZRgas. The much lower metallicities in stars compared to the gas in low-mass galaxies imply dramatic metallicity evolution with suppressed metal enrichment at early times. The aim of this paper is to explain the observed large difference in gas and stellar metallicity and to infer the origin of the mass-metallicity relations. To this end we develop a galactic chemical evolution model accounting for star formation, gas inflow and outflow. By combining the observed mass-metallicity relation for both gas and stellar components to constrain the models, we find that only two scenarios are able to reproduce the observations. Either strong metal outflow or a steep initial mass function (IMF) slope at early epochs of galaxy evolution is needed. Based on these two scenarios, for the first time we successfully reproduce the observed MZRgas and MZRstar simultaneously, together with other independent observational constraints in the local Universe. Our model also naturally reproduces the flattening of the MZRgas at the high-mass end leaving the MZRstar intact, as seen in observational data.

  8. On the mass-metallicity relation, velocity dispersion and gravitational well depth of GRB host galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arabsalmani, Maryam; Møller, Palle; Fynbo, Johan P. U.

    2015-01-01

    away from the metallicity in the centre of the galaxy, second the path of the sightline through different parts of the potential well of the dark matter halo will cause different velocity fields to be sampled. We report evidence suggesting that this second effect may have been detected....... the same underlying population. GRB host galaxies and QSO-DLAs are found to have different impact parameter distributions and we briefly discuss how this may affect statistical samples. The impact parameter distribution has two effects. First any metallicity gradient will shift the measured metallicity...

  9. New Period-Luminosity and Period-Color relations of classical Cepheids: I. Cepheids in the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammann, G. A.; Sandage, A.; Reindl, B.

    2003-06-01

    321 Galactic fundamental-mode Cepheids with good B, V, and (in most cases) I photometry by Berdnikov et al. (\\cite{Berdnikov:etal:00}) and with homogenized color excesses E(B-V) based on Fernie et al. (\\cite{Fernie:etal:95}) are used to determine their period-color (P-C) relation in the range 0.4BBW) distances (Gieren et al. \\cite{Gieren:etal:98}) are used in a first step to determine the absorption coefficients {cal R}B=4.17, {cal R}V=3.17, and {cal R}I=1.89 appropriate for Cepheids of intermediate color. The two sets of Galactic Cepheids with known distances define two independent P-L relations which agree very well in slope; their zero points agree to within 0fm12 +/-0fm04 . They are therefore combined into a single mean Galactic P-LB,V,I relation. The analysis of HIPPARCOS parallaxes by Groenewegen & Oudmaijer (\\cite{Groenewegen:Oudmaijer:00}) gives absolute magnitudes which are brighter by 0fm21 +/-0fm11 in V and 0fm18 +/-0fm12 in I at log P=0.85. Agreement with P-L relations from different model calculations for the case [Fe/H] = 0 is impressive to poor. Galactic Cepheids are redder in (B-V)0 than those in LMC and SMC as shown by the over 1000 Cloud Cepheids with good standard B, V, I photometry by Udalski et al. (\\cite{Udalski:etal:99b},c); the effect is less pronounced in (V-I)0. Also the (B-V)0, (V-I)0 two-color diagrams differ between Cepheids in the Galaxy and the Clouds, attributed both to the effects of metallicity differences on the spectral energy distributions of the Cepheids and to a shift in the effective temperature of the middle of the instability strip for LMC and SMC relative to the Galaxy by about Delta log Te ~ 0.02 at MV=-4fm0 , hotter for both LMC and SMC. Differences in the period-color relations between the Galaxy and the Clouds show that there cannot be a universal P-L relation from galaxy-to-galaxy in any given color. The inferred non-uniqueness of the slope of the P-L relations in the Galaxy, LMC, and SMC is born out by the

  10. Is there really a luminosity-surface brightness relation for dwarf galaxies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Davies, J.I.; Disney, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    A simple test is used to argue that the luminosity-surface brightness correlation found by several authors in eye-selected samples of cluster dwarf galaxies is likely to be merely the result of selection effects. There are therefore likely to be many more dwarfs in clusters like Virgo than is generally assumed. (author)

  11. NEAR-INFRARED ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING OF INFRARED LUMINOUS GALAXIES: THE BRIGHTEST CLUSTER MAGNITUDE-STAR FORMATION RATE RELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randriamanakoto, Z.; Väisänen, P.; Escala, A.; Kankare, E.; Kotilainen, J.; Mattila, S.; Ryder, S.

    2013-01-01

    We have established a relation between the brightest super star cluster (SSC) magnitude in a galaxy and the host star formation rate (SFR) for the first time in the near-infrared (NIR). The data come from a statistical sample of ∼40 luminous IR galaxies (LIRGs) and starbursts utilizing K-band adaptive optics imaging. While expanding the observed relation to longer wavelengths, less affected by extinction effects, it also pushes to higher SFRs. The relation we find, M K ∼ –2.6log SFR, is similar to that derived previously in the optical and at lower SFRs. It does not, however, fit the optical relation with a single optical to NIR color conversion, suggesting systematic extinction and/or age effects. While the relation is broadly consistent with a size-of-sample explanation, we argue physical reasons for the relation are likely as well. In particular, the scatter in the relation is smaller than expected from pure random sampling strongly suggesting physical constraints. We also derive a quantifiable relation tying together cluster-internal effects and host SFR properties to possibly explain the observed brightest SSC magnitude versus SFR dependency

  12. No evidence for a dependence of the mass-size relation of early-type galaxies on environment in the local universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huertas-Company, M.; Shankar, F.; Mei, S. [GEPI, Paris Observatory, 77 Avenue, Denfert-Rochereau 75014, Paris (France); Bernardi, M.; Meert, A.; Vikram, V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Aguerri, J. A. L. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2013-12-10

    The early-type galaxy (ETG) mass-size relation has largely been studied to understand how these galaxies assembled their mass. One key observational result of the last years is that massive galaxies increased their size by a factor of a few at fixed stellar mass from z ∼ 2. Hierarchical models favor minor mergers as a plausible driver of this size growth. Some of these models predict a significant environmental dependence in the sense that galaxies residing in more massive halos tend to be larger than galaxies in lower mass halos, at fixed stellar mass and redshift. At present, observational results of this environmental dependence are contradictory. In this paper we revisit this issue in the local universe, by investigating how the sizes of massive ETGs depend on a large-scale environment using an updated and accurate sample of ETGs in different environments—field, group, and clusters—from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7. Our analysis does not show any significant environmental dependence of the sizes of central and satellite ETGs at fixed stellar mass at z ∼ 0. The size-mass relation of early-type galaxies at z ∼ 0 seems to be universal, i.e., independent of the mass of the host halo and of the position of the galaxy in that halo (central or satellite). The result is robust to different galaxy selections based on star formation, morphology, or central density. Considering our observational errors and the size of the sample, any size ratio larger than 30%-40% between massive galaxies (log(M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) > 11) living in clusters and in the field can be ruled out at 3σ level.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS IN CLUSTERS: MODIFIED FAR-INFRARED-RADIO RELATIONS WITHIN VIRGO CLUSTER GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E. J.; Kenney, J. D. P.; Helou, G.; Chung, A.; Howell, J. H.

    2009-01-01

    We present a study on the effects of the intracluster medium (ICM) on the interstellar medium (ISM) of 10 Virgo Cluster galaxies using Spitzer far-infrared (FIR) and Very Large Array radio continuum imaging. Relying on the FIR-radio correlation within normal galaxies, we use our infrared data to create model radio maps, which we compare to the observed radio images. For six of our sample galaxies, we find regions along their outer edges that are highly deficient in the radio compared with our models. We also detect FIR emission slightly beyond the observed radio disk along these outer edges. We believe these observations are the signatures of ICM ram pressure. For NGC 4522, we find the radio-deficit region to lie just exterior to a region of high radio polarization and flat radio spectral index, although the total 20 cm radio continuum in this region does not appear strongly enhanced. These characteristics seem consistent for other galaxies with radio polarization data in the literature. The strength of the radio deficit is inversely correlated with the time since peak pressure as inferred from stellar population studies and gas-stripping simulations, consistent with the strength of the radio deficit being a good indicator of the strength of the current ram pressure. We also find that galaxies having local radio deficits appear to have enhanced global radio fluxes. Our preferred physical picture is that the observed radio-deficit regions arise from the ICM wind sweeping away cosmic-ray (CR) electrons and the associated magnetic field, thereby creating synchrotron tails as observed for some of our galaxies. We propose that CR particles are also reaccelerated by ICM-driven shocklets behind the observed radio-deficit regions which, in turn, enhances the remaining radio disk brightness. The high radio polarization and lack of precisely coincident enhancement in the total synchrotron power for these regions suggest shearing, and possibly mild compression of the magnetic

  14. An accurate measurement of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation with heavily gas-dominated ALFALFA galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastergis, E.; Adams, E. A. K.; van der Hulst, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    We use a sample of 97 galaxies selected from the Arecibo legacy fast ALFA (ALFALFA) 21 cm survey to make an accurate measurement of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation (BTFR). These galaxies are specifically selected to be heavily gas-dominated (Mgas/M∗ ≳ 2.7) and to be oriented edge-on. The former property ensures that the error on the galactic baryonic mass is small, despite the large systematic uncertainty involved in galactic stellar mass estimates. The latter property means that rotational velocities can be derived directly from the width of the 21 cm emission line, without any need for inclination corrections. We measure a slope for the linewidth-based BTFR of α = 3.75 ± 0.11, a value that is somewhat steeper than (but in broad agreement with) previous literature results. The relation is remarkably tight, with almost all galaxies being located within a perpendicular distance of ± 0.1 dex from the best fit line. The low observational error budget for our sample enables us to establish that, despite its tightness, the measured linewidth-based BTFR has some small (I.e., non-zero) intrinsic scatter. We furthermore find a systematic difference in the BTFR of galaxies with "double-horned" 21 cm line profiles - suggestive of flat outer galactic rotation curves - and those with "peaked" profiles - suggestive of rising rotation curves. When we restrict our sample of galaxies to objects in the former category, we measure a slightly steeper slope of α = 4.13 ± 0.15. Overall, the high-accuracy measurement of the BTFR presented in this article is intended as a reliable observational benchmark against which to test theoretical expectations. Here we consider a representative set of semi-analytic models and hydrodynamic simulations in the lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) context, as well as modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND). In the near future, interferometric follow-up observations of several sample members will enable us to further refine the BTFR measurement, and

  15. Diversity among galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struble, M.F.; Rood, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The classification of galaxy clusters is discussed. Consideration is given to the classification scheme of Abell (1950's), Zwicky (1950's), Morgan, Matthews, and Schmidt (1964), and Morgan-Bautz (1970). Galaxies can be classified based on morphology, chemical composition, spatial distribution, and motion. The correlation between a galaxy's environment and morphology is examined. The classification scheme of Rood-Sastry (1971), which is based on clusters's morphology and galaxy population, is described. The six types of clusters they define include: (1) a cD-cluster dominated by a single large galaxy, (2) a cluster dominated by a binary, (3) a core-halo cluster, (4) a cluster dominated by several bright galaxies, (5) a cluster appearing flattened, and (6) an irregularly shaped cluster. Attention is also given to the evolution of cluster structures, which is related to initial density and cluster motion

  16. Isolated galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, Maret

    1990-01-01

    To test for the possible presence of really isolated galaxies, which form a randomly distributed population in voids, we compare the distribution of most isolated galaxies in an observed sample with distributions of the same number of random points using the nearest neighbour test. The results show that the random population of really isolated galaxies does not exist - even the most isolated galaxies are connected with systems of galaxies, forming their outlying parts. (author)

  17. Amazing Andromeda Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The many 'personalities' of our great galactic neighbor, the Andromeda galaxy, are exposed in this new composite image from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the Spitzer Space Telescope. The wide, ultraviolet eyes of Galaxy Evolution Explorer reveal Andromeda's 'fiery' nature -- hotter regions brimming with young and old stars. In contrast, Spitzer's super-sensitive infrared eyes show Andromeda's relatively 'cool' side, which includes embryonic stars hidden in their dusty cocoons. Galaxy Evolution Explorer detected young, hot, high-mass stars, which are represented in blue, while populations of relatively older stars are shown as green dots. The bright yellow spot at the galaxy's center depicts a particularly dense population of old stars. Swaths of red in the galaxy's disk indicate areas where Spitzer found cool, dusty regions where stars are forming. These stars are still shrouded by the cosmic clouds of dust and gas that collapsed to form them. Together, Galaxy Evolution Explorer and Spitzer complete the picture of Andromeda's swirling spiral arms. Hints of pinkish purple depict regions where the galaxy's populations of hot, high-mass stars and cooler, dust-enshrouded stars co-exist. Located 2.5 million light-years away, the Andromeda is our largest nearby galactic neighbor. The galaxy's entire disk spans about 260,000 light-years, which means that a light beam would take 260,000 years to travel from one end of the galaxy to the other. By comparison, our Milky Way galaxy's disk is about 100,000 light-years across. This image is a false color composite comprised of data from Galaxy Evolution Explorer's far-ultraviolet detector (blue), near-ultraviolet detector (green), and Spitzer's multiband imaging photometer at 24 microns (red).

  18. ELUCID. IV. Galaxy Quenching and its Relation to Halo Mass, Environment, and Assembly Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiyuan; Mo, H. J.; Chen, Sihan; Yang, Yang; Yang, Xiaohu; Wang, Enci; van den Bosch, Frank C.; Jing, Yipeng; Kang, Xi; Lin, Weipeng; Lim, S. H.; Huang, Shuiyao; Lu, Yi; Li, Shijie; Cui, Weiguang; Zhang, Youcai; Tweed, Dylan; Wei, Chengliang; Li, Guoliang; Shi, Feng

    2018-01-01

    We examine the quenched fraction of central and satellite galaxies as a function of galaxy stellar mass, halo mass, and the matter density of their large-scale environment. Matter densities are inferred from our ELUCID simulation, a constrained simulation of the local universe sampled by SDSS, while halo masses and central/satellite classification are taken from the galaxy group catalog of Yang et al. The quenched fraction for the total population increases systematically with the three quantities. We find that the “environmental quenching efficiency,” which quantifies the quenched fraction as a function of halo mass, is independent of stellar mass. And this independence is the origin of the stellar mass independence of density-based quenching efficiency found in previous studies. Considering centrals and satellites separately, we find that the two populations follow similar correlations of quenching efficiency with halo mass and stellar mass, suggesting that they have experienced similar quenching processes in their host halo. We demonstrate that satellite quenching alone cannot account for the environmental quenching efficiency of the total galaxy population, and that the difference between the two populations found previously arises mainly from the fact that centrals and satellites of the same stellar mass reside, on average, in halos of different mass. After removing these effects of halo mass and stellar mass, there remains a weak, but significant, residual dependence on environmental density, which is eliminated when halo assembly bias is taken into account. Our results therefore indicate that halo mass is the prime environmental parameter that regulates the quenching of both centrals and satellites.

  19. Linking black hole growth with host galaxies: the accretion-stellar mass relation and its cosmic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G.; Brandt, W. N.; Vito, F.; Chen, C.-T. J.; Trump, J. R.; Luo, B.; Sun, M. Y.; Xue, Y. Q.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Schneider, D. P.; Vignali, C.; Wang, J.-X.

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies suggest that the growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) may be fundamentally related to host-galaxy stellar mass (M⋆). To investigate this SMBH growth-M⋆ relation in detail, we calculate long-term SMBH accretion rate as a function of M⋆ and redshift [\\overlineBHAR(M_{\\star }, z)] over ranges of log (M⋆/M⊙) = 9.5-12 and z = 0.4-4. Our \\overlineBHAR(M_{\\star }, z) is constrained by high-quality survey data (GOODS-South, GOODS-North and COSMOS), and by the stellar mass function and the X-ray luminosity function. At a given M⋆, \\overlineBHAR is higher at high redshift. This redshift dependence is stronger in more massive systems [for log (M⋆/M⊙) ≈ 11.5, \\overlineBHAR is three decades higher at z = 4 than at z = 0.5], possibly due to AGN feedback. Our results indicate that the ratio between \\overlineBHAR and average star formation rate (\\overlineSFR) rises towards high M⋆ at a given redshift. This \\overlineBHAR/\\overlineSFR dependence on M⋆ does not support the scenario that SMBH and galaxy growth are in lockstep. We calculate SMBH mass history [MBH(z)] based on our \\overlineBHAR(M_{\\star }, z) and the M⋆(z) from the literature, and find that the MBH-M⋆ relation has weak redshift evolution since z ≈ 2. The MBH/M⋆ ratio is higher towards massive galaxies: it rises from ≈1/5000 at log M⋆ ≲ 10.5 to ≈1/500 at log M⋆ ≳ 11.2. Our predicted MBH/M⋆ ratio at high M⋆ is similar to that observed in local giant ellipticals, suggesting that SMBH growth from mergers is unlikely to dominate over growth from accretion.

  20. Interactions between intergalactic medium and galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, J.; Saar, E.

    1977-01-01

    The interaction of galaxies with the environmental gas both in clusters and in small groups of galaxies is investigated. Interaction between galaxies and the ambient medium can be considered simply as final touches in the process of galaxy formation. Large relative velocities of galaxies in their clusters and of the intercluster gas result in a loss of the intergalactic gas, that in its turn affects the morphology of cluster galaxies. Interaction between the coronal clouds and the gas in the disk of spiral galaxies may result in regular patterns of star formation and in the bending of planes of galaxies

  1. The abundance of ultra-diffuse galaxies from groups to clusters : UDGs are relatively more common in more massive haloes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, Remco F. J.; Hoekstra, Henk; Muzzin, Adam; Sifon, Cristobal; Viola, Massimo; Bremer, Malcolm N.; Brough, Sarah; Driver, Simon P.; Erben, Thomas; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Holwerda, Benne W.; Klaes, Dominik; Kuijken, Konrad; McGee, Sean; Nakajima, Reiko; Napolitano, Nicola; Norberg, Peder; Taylor, Edward N.; Valentijn, Edwin

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, multiple studies have reported substantial populations of large, low-surface-brightness galaxies in local galaxy clusters. Various theories that aim to explain the presence of such ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) have since been proposed. A key question that will help to differentiate

  2. The relation between stellar populations, structure and environment for dwarf elliptical galaxies from the MAGPOP-ITP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, D.; Boselli, A.; Conselice, C. J.; Toloba, E.; Whiley, I. M.; Aragon-Salamanca, A.; Balcells, M.; Cardiel, N.; Cenarro, A. J.; Gorgas, J.; Peletier, R. F.; Vazdekis, A.

    2008-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies, as the most numerous type of galaxy, offer the potential to study galaxy formation and evolution in detail in the nearby universe. Although they seem to be simple systems at first view, they remain poorly understood. In an attempt to alleviate this situation, the MAGPOP EU Research

  3. Spectroscopic characterization of galaxy clusters in RCS-1: spectroscopic confirmation, redshift accuracy, and dynamical mass-richness relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbank, David G.; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Ellingson, Erica; Blindert, Kris; Yee, H. K. C.; Anguita, T.; Gladders, M. D.; Hall, P. B.; Hertling, G.; Infante, L.; Yan, R.; Carrasco, M.; Garcia-Vergara, Cristina; Dawson, K. S.; Lidman, C.; Morokuma, T.

    2018-05-01

    We present follow-up spectroscopic observations of galaxy clusters from the first Red-sequence Cluster Survey (RCS-1). This work focuses on two samples, a lower redshift sample of ˜30 clusters ranging in redshift from z ˜ 0.2-0.6 observed with multiobject spectroscopy (MOS) on 4-6.5-m class telescopes and a z ˜ 1 sample of ˜10 clusters 8-m class telescope observations. We examine the detection efficiency and redshift accuracy of the now widely used red-sequence technique for selecting clusters via overdensities of red-sequence galaxies. Using both these data and extended samples including previously published RCS-1 spectroscopy and spectroscopic redshifts from SDSS, we find that the red-sequence redshift using simple two-filter cluster photometric redshifts is accurate to σz ≈ 0.035(1 + z) in RCS-1. This accuracy can potentially be improved with better survey photometric calibration. For the lower redshift sample, ˜5 per cent of clusters show some (minor) contamination from secondary systems with the same red-sequence intruding into the measurement aperture of the original cluster. At z ˜ 1, the rate rises to ˜20 per cent. Approximately ten per cent of projections are expected to be serious, where the two components contribute significant numbers of their red-sequence galaxies to another cluster. Finally, we present a preliminary study of the mass-richness calibration using velocity dispersions to probe the dynamical masses of the clusters. We find a relation broadly consistent with that seen in the local universe from the WINGS sample at z ˜ 0.05.

  4. Spectroscopic Characterisation of Galaxy Clusters in RCS-1: spectroscopic confirmation, redshift accuracy, and dynamical mass-richness relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbank, David G.; Felipe Barrientos, L.; Ellingson, Erica; Blindert, Kris; Yee, H. K. C.; Anguita, T.; Gladders, M. D.; Hall, P. B.; Hertling, G.; Infante, L.; Yan, R.; Carrasco, M.; Garcia-Vergara, Cristina; Dawson, K. S.; Lidman, C.; Morokuma, T.

    2018-02-01

    We present follow-up spectroscopic observations of galaxy clusters from the first Red-sequence Cluster Survey (RCS-1). This work focuses on two samples, a lower redshift sample of ˜30 clusters ranging in redshift from z˜0.2-0.6 observed with multi-object spectroscopy (MOS) on 4-6.5-m class telescopes and a z˜1 sample of ˜10 clusters 8-m class telescope observations. We examine the detection efficiency and redshift accuracy of the now widely-used red-sequence technique for selecting clusters via overdensities of red-sequence galaxies. Using both these data and extended samples including previously-published RCS-1 spectroscopy and spectroscopic redshifts from SDSS, we find that the red-sequence redshift using simple two-filter cluster photometric redshifts is accurate to σz ≈ 0.035(1 + z) in RCS-1. This accuracy can potentially be improved with better survey photometric calibration. For the lower redshift sample, ˜5% of clusters show some (minor) contamination from secondary systems with the same red-sequence intruding into the measurement aperture of the original cluster. At z˜1 the rate rises to ˜20%. ˜10% of projections are expected to be serious, where the two components contribute significant numbers of their red-sequence galaxies to another cluster. Finally, we present a preliminary study of the mass-richness calibration using velocity dispersions to probe the dynamical masses of the clusters. We find a relation broadly consistent with that seen in the local universe from the WINGS sample at z˜0.05.

  5. Measuring the Mean and Scatter of the X-ray Luminosity -- Optical Richness Relation for maxBCG Galaxy Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rykoff, E.S.; McKay, T.A.; Becker, M.A.; Evrard, A.; Johnston, D.E.; Koester, B.P.; Rozo, E.; Sheldon, E.S.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2007-10-02

    We interpret and model the statistical weak lensing measurements around 130,000 groups and clusters of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey presented by Sheldon et al. (2007). We present non-parametric inversions of the 2D shear profiles to the mean 3D cluster density and mass profiles in bins of both optical richness and cluster i-band luminosity. Since the mean cluster density profile is proportional to the cluster-mass correlation function, the mean profile is spherically symmetric by the assumptions of large-scale homogeneity and isotropy. We correct the inferred 3D profiles for systematic effects, including non-linear shear and the fact that cluster halos are not all precisely centered on their brightest galaxies. We also model the measured cluster shear profile as a sum of contributions from the brightest central galaxy, the cluster dark matter halo, and neighboring halos. We infer the relations between mean cluster virial mass and optical richness and luminosity over two orders of magnitude in cluster mass; the virial mass at fixed richness or luminosity is determined with a precision of {approx} 13% including both statistical and systematic errors. We also constrain the halo concentration parameter and halo bias as a function of cluster mass; both are in good agreement with predictions from N-body simulations of LCDM models. The methods employed here will be applicable to deeper, wide-area optical surveys that aim to constrain the nature of the dark energy, such as the Dark Energy Survey, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and space-based surveys.

  6. Cross-correlation Weak Lensing of SDSS galaxy Clusters II: Cluster Density Profiles and the Mass--Richness Relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, David E.; Sheldon, Erin S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Rozo, Eduardo; Koester, Benjamin P.; Frieman, Joshua A.; McKay, Timothy A.; Evrard, August E.; Becker, Matthew; Annis, James

    2007-09-28

    We interpret and model the statistical weak lensing measurements around 130,000 groups and clusters of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey presented by Sheldon et al. (2007). We present non-parametric inversions of the 2D shear profiles to the mean 3D cluster density and mass profiles in bins of both optical richness and cluster i-band luminosity. Since the mean cluster density profile is proportional to the cluster-mass correlation function, the mean profile is spherically symmetric by the assumptions of large-scale homogeneity and isotropy. We correct the inferred 3D profiles for systematic effects, including non-linear shear and the fact that cluster halos are not all precisely centered on their brightest galaxies. We also model the measured cluster shear profile as a sum of contributions from the brightest central galaxy, the cluster dark matter halo, and neighboring halos. We infer the relations between mean cluster virial mass and optical richness and luminosity over two orders of magnitude in cluster mass; the virial mass at fixed richness or luminosity is determined with a precision of {approx} 13% including both statistical and systematic errors. We also constrain the halo concentration parameter and halo bias as a function of cluster mass; both are in good agreement with predictions from N-body simulations of LCDM models. The methods employed here will be applicable to deeper, wide-area optical surveys that aim to constrain the nature of the dark energy, such as the Dark Energy Survey, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and space-based surveys.

  7. The new semi-analytic code GalICS 2.0 - reproducing the galaxy stellar mass function and the Tully-Fisher relation simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, A.; Blaizot, J.; Devriendt, J. E. G.; Mamon, G. A.; Tollet, E.; Dekel, A.; Guiderdoni, B.; Kucukbas, M.; Thob, A. C. R.

    2017-10-01

    GalICS 2.0 is a new semi-analytic code to model the formation and evolution of galaxies in a cosmological context. N-body simulations based on a Planck cosmology are used to construct halo merger trees, track subhaloes, compute spins and measure concentrations. The accretion of gas on to galaxies and the morphological evolution of galaxies are modelled with prescriptions derived from hydrodynamic simulations. Star formation and stellar feedback are described with phenomenological models (as in other semi-analytic codes). GalICS 2.0 computes rotation speeds from the gravitational potential of the dark matter, the disc and the central bulge. As the rotation speed depends not only on the virial velocity but also on the ratio of baryons to dark matter within a galaxy, our calculation predicts a different Tully-Fisher relation from models in which vrot ∝ vvir. This is why, GalICS 2.0 is able to reproduce the galaxy stellar mass function and the Tully-Fisher relation simultaneously. Our results are also in agreement with halo masses from weak lensing and satellite kinematics, gas fractions, the relation between star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass, the evolution of the cosmic SFR density, bulge-to-disc ratios, disc sizes and the Faber-Jackson relation.

  8. Gas accretion onto galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Davé, Romeel

    2017-01-01

    This edited volume presents the current state of gas accretion studies from both observational and theoretical perspectives, and charts our progress towards answering the fundamental yet elusive question of how galaxies get their gas. Understanding how galaxies form and evolve has been a central focus in astronomy for over a century. These studies have accelerated in the new millennium, driven by two key advances: the establishment of a firm concordance cosmological model that provides the backbone on which galaxies form and grow, and the recognition that galaxies grow not in isolation but within a “cosmic ecosystem” that includes the vast reservoir of gas filling intergalactic space. This latter aspect in which galaxies continually exchange matter with the intergalactic medium via inflows and outflows has been dubbed the “baryon cycle”. The topic of this book is directly related to the baryon cycle, in particular its least well constrained aspect, namely gas accretion. Accretion is a rare area of ast...

  9. Visibility of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that counts of galaxies could be seriously biased by selection effects, largely influenced by the brightness of the night sky. To illustrate this suppose the Earth were situated near the center of a giant elliptical galaxy. The mean surface brightness of the sky would then appear some 8 to 9 mag. brighter than is observed from our position in the Galaxy. Extragalactic space would then appear to be empty void; spiral and irregular galaxies would be invisible, and all that could be easily detected would be the core regions of galaxy ellipticals very similar to our own. Much of the Universe would be blinded by the surface brightness of the parent galaxy. This blinding, however, is a relative matter and the question arises as to what extent we are blinded by the spiral galaxy in which we exist. Strong indirect evidence exists that our knowledge of galaxies is heavily biased by the sky background, and the true population of extragalactic space may be very different from that seen. Other relevant work is also discussed, and further investigational work is indicated. (U.K.)

  10. A Subhalo-Galaxy Correspondence Model of Galaxy Biasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juhan; Park, Changbom; Choi, Yun-Young

    2008-08-01

    We propose a model for allocating galaxies in cosmological N-body simulations. We identify each subhalo with a galaxy and assign luminosity and morphological type, assuming that the galaxy luminosity is a monotonic function of the host subhalo mass. Morphology is assigned using two simple relations between the subhalo mass and galaxy luminosity for different galaxy types. The first uses a constant luminosity ratio between early-type (E/SO) and late-type (S/Irr) galaxies at a fixed subhalo mass. The other assumes that galaxies of different morphological types but equal luminosity have a constant ratio of subhalo mass. We made a series of comparisons of the properties of these mock galaxies with those of SDSS galaxies. The resulting mock galaxy sample is found to successfully reproduce the observed local number density distribution except in high-density regions. We study the luminosity function as a function of local density, and find that the observed luminosity functions in different local density environments are overall well reproduced by the mock galaxies. A discrepancy is found at the bright end of the luminosity function of early types in the underdense regions and at the faint end of both morphological types in very high density regions. A significant fraction of the observed early-type galaxies in voids seem to have undergone relatively recent star formation and become brighter. The lack of faint mock galaxies in dense regions may be due to the strong tidal force of the central halo, which destroys less massive satellite subhalos around the simulation. The mass-to-light ratio is found to depend on the local density in a way similar to that observed in the SDSS sample. We have found an impressive agreement between our mock galaxies and the SDSS galaxies in the dependence of central velocity dispersion on the local density and luminosity.

  11. Supergalactic studies. IV. Systematic orientation of galaxy clouds relative to the supergalactic plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Vaucouleurs, G.

    1975-01-01

    The major nearby clouds of galaxies tend to be elongated in directions roughly parallel to the supergalactic plane. Out of 11 clouds (or 12 including the Local Cloud, Paper I) with major axes a>10degree and sufficiently elongated (b/a -5 (or 1x10 -5 if the Local Cloud is included). In lower supergalactic latitudes (vertical-barBvertical-bar =20degree with =0.49; in higher latitudes (10degree =23degree with =0.62. Several possible mechanisms leading to this systematic orientation in a flat supercluster are noted. This effect adds greatly to the difficulty of explaining the ''supercluster effect'' as a random clumping accident. The combined probability that the observed distribution of objects discussed in Papers I to IV could arise by chance in the random clumping hypothesis is of the order of 10 -12

  12. Galaxy number counts: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, N.; Shanks, T.; Fong, R.; Jones, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    Using the Prime Focus CCD Camera at the Isaac Newton Telescope we have determined the form of the B and R galaxy number-magnitude count relations in 12 independent fields for 21 m ccd m and 19 m ccd m 5. The average galaxy count relations lie in the middle of the wide range previously encompassed by photographic data. The field-to-field variation of the counts is small enough to define the faint (B m 5) galaxy count to ±10 per cent and this variation is consistent with that expected from galaxy clustering considerations. Our new data confirm that the B, and also the R, galaxy counts show evidence for strong galaxy luminosity evolution, and that the majority of the evolving galaxies are of moderately blue colour. (author)

  13. Stellar Absorption Line Analysis of Local Star-forming Galaxies: The Relation between Stellar Mass, Metallicity, Dust Attenuation, and Star Formation Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabran Zahid, H.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Ho, I-Ting; Conroy, Charlie; Andrews, Brett

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the optical continuum of star-forming galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey by fitting stacked spectra with stellar population synthesis models to investigate the relation between stellar mass, stellar metallicity, dust attenuation, and star formation rate. We fit models calculated with star formation and chemical evolution histories that are derived empirically from multi-epoch observations of the stellar mass–star formation rate and the stellar mass–gas-phase metallicity relations, respectively. We also fit linear combinations of single-burst models with a range of metallicities and ages. Star formation and chemical evolution histories are unconstrained for these models. The stellar mass–stellar metallicity relations obtained from the two methods agree with the relation measured from individual supergiant stars in nearby galaxies. These relations are also consistent with the relation obtained from emission-line analysis of gas-phase metallicity after accounting for systematic offsets in the gas-phase metallicity. We measure dust attenuation of the stellar continuum and show that its dependence on stellar mass and star formation rate is consistent with previously reported results derived from nebular emission lines. However, stellar continuum attenuation is smaller than nebular emission line attenuation. The continuum-to-nebular attenuation ratio depends on stellar mass and is smaller in more massive galaxies. Our consistent analysis of stellar continuum and nebular emission lines paves the way for a comprehensive investigation of stellar metallicities of star-forming and quiescent galaxies.

  14. Galaxies and clusters of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salpeter, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    Stellar populations and massive halos, the properties of individual galaxies, and the clusters of galaxies are discussed. Baade's concept of the two stellar populations in our Galaxy had an important influence on the theories of stellar evolution. In Baade's day, there were two puzzling questions. Population II stars manage to form more rapidly than population I stars. Population II has lower rotational velocity than population I. This story is affected by the presence of an extended, massive halo which was not known in Baade's day. It is known from galaxy rotation curves that massive halos extend much further out. The most striking feature about the variation amongst galaxies is the separation between elliptical and spiral galaxies, with SO-galaxies occupying an intermediate position. The absolute luminosity L of a galaxy provides the second parameter in a two-dimensional classification scheme. In many ways, elliptical galaxies bear the same relationship to late-type spirals as does our stellar population II to population I. Most galaxies occur in some kind of groupings, ranging from a small group such as Local Group to a rich and dense cluster such as the Coma cluster. The formation of galaxies is connected with the formation of clusters. Various models are presented and discussed. (Kato, T.)

  15. xGASS: total cold gas scaling relations and molecular-to-atomic gas ratios of galaxies in the local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catinella, Barbara; Saintonge, Amélie; Janowiecki, Steven; Cortese, Luca; Davé, Romeel; Lemonias, Jenna J.; Cooper, Andrew P.; Schiminovich, David; Hummels, Cameron B.; Fabello, Silvia; Geréb, Katinka; Kilborn, Virginia; Wang, Jing

    2018-05-01

    We present the extended GALEX Arecibo SDSS Survey (xGASS), a gas fraction-limited census of the atomic hydrogen (H I) gas content of 1179 galaxies selected only by stellar mass (M⋆ = 109-1011.5 M⊙) and redshift (0.01 < z < 0.05). This includes new Arecibo observations of 208 galaxies, for which we release catalogues and H I spectra. In addition to extending the GASS H I scaling relations by one decade in stellar mass, we quantify total (atomic+molecular) cold gas fractions and molecular-to-atomic gas mass ratios, Rmol, for the subset of 477 galaxies observed with the IRAM 30 m telescope. We find that atomic gas fractions keep increasing with decreasing stellar mass, with no sign of a plateau down to log M⋆/M⊙ = 9. Total gas reservoirs remain H I-dominated across our full stellar mass range, hence total gas fraction scaling relations closely resemble atomic ones, but with a scatter that strongly correlates with Rmol, especially at fixed specific star formation rate. On average, Rmol weakly increases with stellar mass and stellar surface density μ⋆, but individual values vary by almost two orders of magnitude at fixed M⋆ or μ⋆. We show that, for galaxies on the star-forming sequence, variations of Rmol are mostly driven by changes of the H I reservoirs, with a clear dependence on μ⋆. Establishing if galaxy mass or structure plays the most important role in regulating the cold gas content of galaxies requires an accurate separation of bulge and disc components for the study of gas scaling relations.

  16. Galaxies in the Early Universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogager, Jens-Kristian

    Understanding how galaxies evolved from the early Universe through cosmic time is a fundamental part of modern astrophysics. In order to study this evolution it is important to sample the galaxies at various times in a consistent way through time. In regular luminosity selected samples, our...... analyses are biased towards the brightest galaxies at all times (as these are easier to observe and identify). A complementary method relies on the absorption imprint from neutral gas in galaxies, the so-called damped Ly absorbers (DLAs) seen towards distant bright objects. This thesis seeks to understand...... how the absorption selected galaxies relate to the emission selected galaxies by identifying the faint glow from the absorbing galaxies at redshift z 2. In Chapters 2 and 3, the emission properties of DLAs are studied in detail using state-of-the-art instrumentation. The specific DLA studied...

  17. The MUSIC of galaxy clusters - I. Baryon properties and scaling relations of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembolini, Federico; Yepes, Gustavo; De Petris, Marco; Gottlöber, Stefan; Lamagna, Luca; Comis, Barbara

    2013-02-01

    We introduce the Marenostrum-MultiDark SImulations of galaxy Clusters (MUSIC) data set. It constitutes one of the largest samples of hydrodynamically simulated galaxy clusters with more than 500 clusters and 2000 groups. The objects have been selected from two large N-body simulations and have been resimulated at high resolution using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) together with relevant physical processes that include cooling, UV photoionization, star formation and different feedback processes associated with supernovae explosions. In this first paper we focus on the analysis of the baryon content (gas and star) of clusters in the MUSIC data set as a function of both aperture radius and redshift. The results from our simulations are compared with a compilation of the most recent observational estimates of the gas fraction in galaxy clusters at different overdensity radii. We confirm, as in previous simulations, that the gas fraction is overestimated if radiative physics are not properly taken into account. On the other hand, when the effects of cooling and stellar feedbacks are included, the MUSIC clusters show a good agreement with the most recent observed gas fractions quoted in the literature. A clear dependence of the gas fractions with the total cluster mass is also evident. However, we do not find a significant evolution with redshift of the gas fractions at aperture radius corresponding to overdensities smaller than 1500 with respect to critical density. At smaller radii, the gas fraction does exhibit a decrease with redshift that is related to the gas depletion due to star formation in the central region of the clusters. The impact of the aperture radius choice, when comparing integrated quantities at different redshifts, is tested. The standard, widely used definition of radius at a fixed overdensity with respect to critical density is compared with a definition of aperture radius based on the redshift dependent overdensity with respect to

  18. The SINS Survey : Modeling the Dynamics of z ~ 2 Galaxies and the High-z Tully-Fisher Relation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cresci, G.; Hicks, E. K. S.; Genzel, R.; Schreiber, N. M. Förster; Davies, R.; Bouché, N.; Buschkamp, P.; Genel, S.; Shapiro, K.; Tacconi, L.; Sommer-Larsen, J.; Burkert, A.; Eisenhauer, F.; Gerhard, O.; Lutz, D.; Naab, T.; Sternberg, A.; Cimatti, A.; Daddi, E.; Erb, D. K.; Kurk, J.; Lilly, S. L.; Renzini, A.; Shapley, A.; Steidel, C. C.; Caputi, K.

    2009-01-01

    We present the modeling of SINFONI integral field dynamics of 18 star-forming galaxies at z ~ 2 from Hα line emission. The galaxies are selected from the larger sample of the SINS survey, based on the prominence of ordered rotational motions with respect to more complex merger-induced dynamics. The

  19. Galaxy Zoo: dust in spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert; Bamford, Steven; Mosleh, Moein; Lintott, Chris J.; Andreescu, Dan; Edmondson, Edward M.; Keel, William C.; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M. Jordan; Schawinski, Kevin; Slosar, Anže; Szalay, Alexander S.; Thomas, Daniel; Vandenberg, Jan

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the effect of dust on spiral galaxies by measuring the inclination dependence of optical colours for 24276 well-resolved Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies visually classified via the Galaxy Zoo project. We find clear trends of reddening with inclination which imply a total extinction from face-on to edge-on of 0.7, 0.6, 0.5 and 0.4mag for the ugri passbands (estimating 0.3mag of extinction in z band). We split the sample into `bulgy' (early-type) and `discy' (late-type) spirals using the SDSS fracdeV (or fDeV) parameter and show that the average face-on colour of `bulgy' spirals is redder than the average edge-on colour of `discy' spirals. This shows that the observed optical colour of a spiral galaxy is determined almost equally by the spiral type (via the bulge-disc ratio and stellar populations), and reddening due to dust. We find that both luminosity and spiral type affect the total amount of extinction, with discy spirals at Mr ~ -21.5mag having the most reddening - more than twice as much as both the lowest luminosity and most massive, bulge-dominated spirals. An increase in dust content is well known for more luminous galaxies, but the decrease of the trend for the most luminous has not been observed before and may be related to their lower levels of recent star formation. We compare our results with the latest dust attenuation models of Tuffs et al. We find that the model reproduces the observed trends reasonably well but overpredicts the amount of u-band attenuation in edge-on galaxies. This could be an inadequacy in the Milky Way extinction law (when applied to external galaxies), but more likely indicates the need for a wider range of dust-star geometries. We end by discussing the effects of dust on large galaxy surveys and emphasize that these effects will become important as we push to higher precision measurements of galaxy properties and their clustering. This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than

  20. Compact radio sources in the starburst galaxy M82 and the Sigma-D relation for supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z. P.; Thuan, T. X.; Chevalier, R. A.; Condon, J. J.; Yin, Q. F.

    1994-01-01

    We have obtained an 8.4 GHz Very Large Array (VLA) A-array map of the starburst galaxy M82 with a resolution Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) approximately 0.182 sec. About 50 compact radio sources in the central region of M82 were detected with a peak surface brightness approximately greater than 10(exp -17) W/Hz/sq m/sr. Comparison with previous observations shows that most sources are declining in flux. Three previously visible sources have faded into the background of our map (approximately less than 0.2 mJy/beam), while a few sources, including the second and third brightest radio sources in M82, may have increased slightly in flux over the last decade. No new radio supernova was found. The birth rate of the compact radio sources is estimated to be 0.11 + or - 0.05/yr. We attribute the population of such bright, small supernova remnants (SNRs) in M82 to the high pressure in the central region that can truncate the mass loss during a red supergiant phase or allow dense ionized clouds to be present. The compact radio sources obey a Sigma(radio surface brightness) - D(diameter) relation which is remarkably similar to that followed by supernova remnants in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds and by two of the strongest known extragalactic radio supernovae: SN 1986J and SN 1979C. A least-squares fit to the SNR data gives: Sigma(sub 8.4 GHz) (W/Hz/sq m/sr) = 4.4 x 10(exp -16) D(sub pc)(exp -3.5 +/- 0.1) covering seven orders of magnitude in Sigma. Possible selection effects are discussed and a theoretical discussion of the correlation is presented.

  1. MASSIV: Mass Assembly Survey with SINFONI in VVDS. IV. Fundamental relations of star-forming galaxies at 1 < z < 1.6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergani, D.; Epinat, B.; Contini, T.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Amram, P.; Garilli, B.; Kissler-Patig, M.; Le Fèvre, O.; Moultaka, J.; Paioro, L.; Queyrel, J.; López-Sanjuan, C.

    2012-10-01

    Aims: How mass assembly occurs in galaxies and which process(es) contribute to this activity are among the most highly debated questions in galaxy formation and evolution theories. This has motivated our survey MASSIV (Mass Assembly Survey with SINFONI in VVDS) of 0.9 limited VVDS redshift survey. Methods: We evaluate the characteristic size and stellar mass of 46 MASSIV galaxies at 1 integral field spectrograph mounted at the Very Large Telescope, to derive the stellar mass-size-velocity relations. We use the Kennicutt-Schmidt formulation to estimate the gas content and compute its contribution to the total baryonic mass in MASSIV galaxies. Results: For the first time, we derive the relations between galaxy size, mass, and internal velocity, and the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation, from a statistically representative sample of star-forming galaxies at 1 reports of an abnormal evolution in the galactic spin. The scatter in the Tully-Fisher relation is smaller when we introduce the S05 index, which we interpret as evidence of an increase in the contribution to galactic kinematics of turbulent motions with cosmic time. We report a persistently large scatter for rotators in our relations, that we suggest is intrinsic, and possibly caused by complex physical mechanism(s) at work in our stellar mass/luminosity regime and redshift range. Conclusions: Our results consistently point towards a mild, net evolution of these relations, comparable to those predicted by cosmological simulations of disc formation. In a conflictual picture where earlier studies reported discrepant results, we place on firmer ground the measurement of a lack of any large evolution of the fundamental relations of star-forming galaxies in at least the past 8 Gyr and evidence that dark halo is strongly coupled with galactic spectrophotometric properties. This work is based mainly on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope, Paranal, Chile, as part of the

  2. ON THE INTERMEDIATE-REDSHIFT CENTRAL STELLAR MASS-HALO MASS RELATION, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE EVOLUTION OF THE MOST MASSIVE GALAXIES SINCE z ∼ 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankar, Francesco; Buchan, Stewart [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Guo, Hong; Zheng, Zheng [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, UT 84112 (United States); Bouillot, Vincent [Centre for Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravitation, Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Cape Town 7701 (South Africa); Rettura, Alessandro [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 169-234, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Meert, Alan; Bernardi, Mariangela; Sheth, Ravi; Vikram, Vinu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kravtsov, Andrey [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Marchesini, Danilo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Behroozi, Peter [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Maraston, Claudia; Capozzi, Diego [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Ascaso, Begoña; Huertas-Company, Marc [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Univ. Paris Diderot, 5 Place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); Lemaux, Brian C. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Gal, Roy R. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Lubin, Lori M., E-mail: F.Shankar@soton.ac.uk [University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); and others

    2014-12-20

    The stellar mass-halo mass relation is a key constraint in all semi-analytic, numerical, and semi-empirical models of galaxy formation and evolution. However, its exact shape and redshift dependence remain under debate. Several recent works support a relation in the local universe steeper than previously thought. Based on comparisons with a variety of data on massive central galaxies, we show that this steepening holds up to z ∼ 1 for stellar masses M {sub star} ≳ 2 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}. Specifically, we find significant evidence for a high-mass end slope of β ≳ 0.35-0.70 instead of the usual β ≲ 0.20-0.30 reported by a number of previous results. When including the independent constraints from the recent Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey clustering measurements, the data, independent of any systematic errors in stellar masses, tend to favor a model with a very small scatter (≲ 0.15 dex) in stellar mass at fixed halo mass, in the redshift range z < 0.8 and for M {sub star} > 3 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}, suggesting a close connection between massive galaxies and host halos even at relatively recent epochs. We discuss the implications of our results with respect to the evolution of the most massive galaxies since z ∼ 1.

  3. Galaxy Disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kruit, P. C.; Freeman, K. C.

    The disks of disk galaxies contain a substantial fraction of their baryonic matter and angular momentum, and much of the evolutionary activity in these galaxies, such as the formation of stars, spiral arms, bars and rings, and the various forms of secular evolution, takes place in their disks. The

  4. THE RELATION BETWEEN STAR FORMATION RATE AND STELLAR MASS FOR GALAXIES AT 3.5 ≤ z ≤ 6.5 IN CANDELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, Brett; Papovich, Casey; Tilvi, Vithal [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Finkelstein, Steven L. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Finlator, Kristian [DARK fellow, Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Behroozi, Peter; Lu, Yu; Wechsler, Risa H. [Physics Department, Stanford University, Particle Astrophysics, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Dahlen, Tomas; Ferguson, Henry C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Davé, Romeel [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Dekel, Avishai [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Dickinson, Mark [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ (United States); Giavalisco, Mauro [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Long, James [Department of Statistics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3143 (United States); Mobasher, Bahram; Reddy, Naveen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Somerville, Rachel S., E-mail: bsalmon@physics.tamu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Distant star-forming galaxies show a correlation between their star formation rates (SFRs) and stellar masses, and this has deep implications for galaxy formation. Here, we present a study on the evolution of the slope and scatter of the SFR-stellar mass relation for galaxies at 3.5 ≤ z ≤ 6.5 using multi-wavelength photometry in GOODS-S from the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and Spitzer Extended Deep Survey. We describe an updated, Bayesian spectral-energy distribution fitting method that incorporates effects of nebular line emission, star formation histories that are constant or rising with time, and different dust-attenuation prescriptions (starburst and Small Magellanic Cloud). From z = 6.5 to z = 3.5 star-forming galaxies in CANDELS follow a nearly unevolving correlation between stellar mass and SFR that follows SFR ∼ M{sub ⋆}{sup a} with a =0.54 ± 0.16 at z ∼ 6 and 0.70 ± 0.21 at z ∼ 4. This evolution requires a star formation history that increases with decreasing redshift (on average, the SFRs of individual galaxies rise with time). The observed scatter in the SFR-stellar mass relation is tight, σ(log SFR/M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) < 0.3-0.4 dex, for galaxies with log M {sub *}/M {sub ☉} > 9 dex. Assuming that the SFR is tied to the net gas inflow rate (SFR ∼ M-dot {sub gas}), then the scatter in the gas inflow rate is also smaller than 0.3–0.4 dex for star-forming galaxies in these stellar mass and redshift ranges, at least when averaged over the timescale of star formation. We further show that the implied star formation history of objects selected on the basis of their co-moving number densities is consistent with the evolution in the SFR-stellar mass relation.

  5. THE RELATION BETWEEN GAS DENSITY AND VELOCITY POWER SPECTRA IN GALAXY CLUSTERS: QUALITATIVE TREATMENT AND COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuravleva, I.; Allen, S. W. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Churazov, E. M.; Gaspari, M. [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Schekochihin, A. A. [The Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Lau, E. T.; Nagai, D. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Nelson, K. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Parrish, I. J., E-mail: zhur@stanford.edu [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2014-06-10

    We address the problem of evaluating the power spectrum of the velocity field of the intracluster medium using only information on the plasma density fluctuations, which can be measured today by Chandra and XMM-Newton observatories. We argue that for relaxed clusters there is a linear relation between the rms density and velocity fluctuations across a range of scales, from the largest ones, where motions are dominated by buoyancy, down to small, turbulent scales: (δρ{sub k}/ρ){sup 2}=η{sub 1}{sup 2}(V{sub 1,k}/c{sub s}){sup 2}, where δρ {sub k}/ρ is the spectral amplitude of the density perturbations at wavenumber k, V{sub 1,k}{sup 2}=V{sub k}{sup 2}/3 is the mean square component of the velocity field, c{sub s} is the sound speed, and η{sub 1} is a dimensionless constant of the order of unity. Using cosmological simulations of relaxed galaxy clusters, we calibrate this relation and find η{sub 1} ≈ 1 ± 0.3. We argue that this value is set at large scales by buoyancy physics, while at small scales the density and velocity power spectra are proportional because the former are a passive scalar advected by the latter. This opens an interesting possibility to use gas density power spectra as a proxy for the velocity power spectra in relaxed clusters across a wide range of scales.

  6. Dark matter halo properties from galaxy-galaxy lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brimioulle, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    redshift and galaxy shape catalogs. The complete galaxy sample consists of a total number of 5 x 10 6 lens galaxies within a redshift range of 0.05 phot ≤1 and 1.7 x 10 6 corresponding source galaxies with redshifts of 0.05 phot ≤2 and successfully extracted shapes. Assuming that the galaxy halos can be described by analytic profiles, the scaling relations with absolute luminosity for the galaxy masses, their mass-to-light ratios and the corresponding halo parameters have been extracted. Based on the obtained scaling relations, the average values for the corresponding halo parameters and the mean galaxy masses for a given luminosity were derived as a function of considered halo model, the galaxy SED and the local environment density. We obtain a total mass of M total =23.2 +2.8 -2.5 x 10 11 h -1 M s un for an average galaxy with chosen reference luminosity of L * =1.6 x 10 10 h -2 L s un. In contrast, the mean total masses for red galaxies of same luminosity exceed the value of the average galaxy about 130%, while the mass of a blue galaxy is about 65% below the value of an average fiducial galaxy. Investigating the influence of the environmental density on the galaxy properties we observe a significant increase of the total integrated masses with galaxy density, however the velocity dispersions are not affected. This indicates that the central galaxy matter density mostly depends on the galaxy luminosity but not on the environment. Simulations based on the extracted scientific results were built, verifying the robustness of the scientific results. They give a clear hint that multiple deflections on different lens galaxies have to be properly accounted for in order to avoid systematically biased results.

  7. Investigating the Relation between Galaxy Properties and the Gaussianity of the Velocity Distribution of Groups and Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, R. R.; Ribeiro, A. L. B.; Stalder, D. H.; Rosa, R. R.; Costa, A. P.; Moura, T. C.

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the dependence of stellar population properties of galaxies on group dynamical stage for a subsample of the Yang catalog. We classify groups according to their galaxy velocity distribution into Gaussian (G) and Non-Gaussian (NG). Using two totally independent approaches, we have shown that our measurement of Gaussianity is robust and reliable. Our sample covers Yang’s groups in the redshift range 0.03 ≤slant z ≤slant 0.1, with mass ≥slant {10}14{M}⊙ . The new method, called Hellinger Distance, to determine whether a group has a velocity distribution Gaussian or NG is very effective in distinguishing between the two families. NG groups present halo masses higher than the G ones, confirming previous findings. Examining the skewness and kurtosis of the velocity distribution of G and NG groups, we find that faint galaxies in NG groups are mainly infalling, for the first time, into the groups. We show that considering only faint galaxies in the outskirts; those in NG groups are older and more metal-rich than those in G groups. Also, examining the Projected Phase Space of cluster galaxies, we see that bright and faint galactic systems in G groups are in dynamical equilibrium—which does not seem to be the case in NG groups. These findings suggest that NG systems have a higher infall rate, assembling more galaxies that have experienced preprocessing before entering the group.

  8. Constraining the baryon-dark matter relative velocity with the large-scale three-point correlation function of the SDSS BOSS DR12 CMASS galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepian, Zachary; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Blazek, Jonathan A.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Ho, Shirley; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; McEwen, Joseph E.; Percival, Will J.; Ross, Ashley J.; Rossi, Graziano; Seo, Hee-Jong; Slosar, Anže; Vargas-Magaña, Mariana

    2018-02-01

    We search for a galaxy clustering bias due to a modulation of galaxy number with the baryon-dark matter relative velocity resulting from recombination-era physics. We find no detected signal and place the constraint bv baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) method measurements of the cosmic distance scale using the two-point clustering. Our limit on the relative velocity bias indicates a systematic shift of no more than 0.3 per cent rms in the distance scale inferred from the BAO feature in the BOSS two-point clustering, well below the 1 per cent statistical error of this measurement. This constraint is the most stringent currently available and has important implications for the ability of upcoming large-scale structure surveys such as the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) to self-protect against the relative velocity as a possible systematic.

  9. Planck Intermediate Results. XI: The gas content of dark matter halos: the Sunyaev-Zeldovich-stellar mass relation for locally brightest galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.

    2013-01-01

    gas, and that this gas must be less concentrated than the dark matter in such halos in order to remain consistent with X-ray observations. At the high-mass end, the measured SZ signal is 20% lower than found from observations of X-ray clusters, a difference consistent with Malmquist bias effects......We present the scaling relation between Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) signal and stellar mass for almost 260,000 locally brightest galaxies (LBGs) selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). These are predominantly the central galaxies of their dark matter halos. We calibrate the stellar-to-halo...... indication of signal at even lower stellar mass. We derive the scaling relation between SZ signal and halo mass by assigning halo properties from our mock catalogues to the real LBGs and simulating the Planck observation process. This relation shows no evidence for deviation from a power law over a halo mass...

  10. THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: RELATION BETWEEN GALAXY CLUSTER OPTICAL RICHNESS AND SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH EFFECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, Neelima; Hlozek, Renee [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Addison, Graeme; Dunkley, Joanna; Louis, Thibaut [Department of Astrophysics, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Battaglia, Nick [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Battistelli, Elia S. [Department of Physics, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Bond, J. Richard; Hajian, Amir; Hincks, Adam D. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Das, Sudeep [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, LBL and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Devlin, Mark J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Duenner, Rolando [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Gralla, Megan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hilton, Matt [Centre for Astronomy and Particle Theory, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Hughes, John P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Kosowsky, Arthur [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Lin, Yen-Ting [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); and others

    2013-04-10

    explain the difference in measured signals, include a larger percentage of false detections in the MaxBCG sample, a lower normalization of the mass-richness relation, radio or infrared galaxy contamination of the SZ flux, and a low intrinsic SZ signal. In the latter two cases, the effects would need to be preferentially more significant in the optically selected MaxBCG sample than in the MCXC X-ray sample.

  11. Preharvest boron application and its relation with the quality of 'Galaxy' apples after harvest and controlled atmosphere storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri Brackmann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of preharvest boron application on the physical and chemical quality of 'Galaxy' apples after harvest and in controlled atmosphere storage during eight months, plus seven days of shelf life at 20°C. The experiment was performed with two treatments applied on the field: [1] Control (fruit without boron application and [2] Foliar application of boron (four applications of 1.5kg ha-1. Findings showed that the boron application promoted a higher ethylene production and respiratory rate and it application also reduced the flesh firmness in relation to the fruits without it. A similar result was obtained after eight months of storage plus seven days of shelf life. The preharvest application of boron makes it possible to harvest apples earlier due to the fact that it accelerates the fruit metabolism. However, the fruits end up presenting a lower storage potential as a result of the higher ethylene production, respiration rate, decay incidence, mealiness and a reduction of the healthy fruit percentage and flesh firmness after CA storage.

  12. Occurrence of LINER galaxies within the galaxy group environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldwell, Georgina V.; Pereyra, Luis; Alonso, Sol; Donoso, Emilio; Duplancic, Fernanda

    2017-05-01

    We study the properties of a sample of 3967 low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER) galaxies selected from SDSS-DR7, with respect to their proximity to galaxy groups. The host galaxies of LINERs have been analysed and compared with a well-defined control sample of 3841 non-LINER galaxies matched in redshift, luminosity, colour, morphology, age and stellar mass content. We find no difference between LINER and control galaxies in terms of the colour and age of stellar population as a function of the virial mass and distance to the geometric centre of the group. However, we find that LINERs are more likely to populate low-density environments in spite of their morphology, which is typical of high-density regions such as rich galaxy clusters. For rich (poor) galaxy groups, the occurrence of LINERs is approximately two times lower (higher) than the occurrence of matched, non-LINER galaxies. Moreover, LINER hosts do not seem to follow the expected morphology-density relation in groups of high virial mass. The high frequency of LINERs in low-density regions could be due to the combination of a sufficient gas reservoir to power the low-ionization emission and/or enhanced galaxy interaction rates benefiting the gas flow towards their central regions.

  13. Constraints on Dark Energy, Observable-mass Scaling Relations, Neutrino Properties and Gravity from Galaxy Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapetti Serra, David Angelo

    Using a data set of 238 cluster detections drawn from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey and X-ray follow-up observations from the Chandra X-ray Observatory and/or ROSAT for 94 of those clusters we obtain tight constraints on dark energy, both luminosity-mass and temperature-mass scaling relations, neutrino...... properties and gravity. I will present the novel statistical framework we employed to self-consistently and simultaneously constrain cosmology and observable-mass scaling relations accounting for survey biases, parameter covariances and systematic uncertainties. Allowing the dark energy equation of state...... and the linear growth index to take any constant values, we find no evidence for departures from the standard cosmological paradigm – General Relativity plus a cosmological constant and cold dark matter. I will review in detail our results and demonstrate the power of X-ray cluster studies to constrain both...

  14. Deficiency of normal galaxies among Markaryan galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyeveer, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Comparison of the morphological types of Markaryan galaxies and other galaxies in the Uppsala catalog indicates a strong deficiency of normal ellipticals among the Markaryan galaxies, for which the fraction of type E galaxies is ≤ 1% against 10% among the remaining galaxies. Among the Markaryan galaxies, an excess of barred galaxies is observed - among the Markaryan galaxies with types Sa-Scd, approximately half or more have bars, whereas among the remaining galaxies of the same types bars are found in about 1/3

  15. Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Longair, Malcolm S

    2008-01-01

    This second edition of Galaxy Formation is an up-to-date text on astrophysical cosmology, expounding the structure of the classical cosmological models from a contemporary viewpoint. This forms the background to a detailed study of the origin of structure and galaxies in the Universe. The derivations of many of the most important results are derived by simple physical arguments which illuminate the results of more advanced treatments. A very wide range of observational data is brought to bear upon these problems, including the most recent results from WMAP, the Hubble Space Telescope, galaxy surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, studies of Type 1a supernovae, and many other observations.

  16. Constraints on Dark Energy, Observable-mass Scaling Relations, Neutrino Properties and Gravity from Galaxy Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapetti Serra, David Angelo

    Using a data set of 238 cluster detections drawn from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey and X-ray follow-up observations from the Chandra X-ray Observatory and/or ROSAT for 94 of those clusters we obtain tight constraints on dark energy, both luminosity-mass and temperature-mass scaling relations, neutrin...

  17. Galaxy Clustering and Merging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Z. L.

    2011-09-01

    Cosmic structure formation and galaxy evolution are important subjects in astrophysics. The thesis consists of two parts: (1) identification of galaxy clusters and studies of their properties; (2) identification of the mergers of luminous early-type galaxies and gravitational waves (GWs). Most of the galaxy clusters in the previous catalogs have redshifts z≤0.3 with richnesses not well determined. Using the photometric redshifts of galaxies from the Sixth Data Release of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR6), we identify 39716 clusters in the redshift range of 0.05contamination rate and the completeness of member galaxies are found to be ˜20% and ∼90%, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations show that the cluster detection rate is larger than 90% for the massive (M_{200}>2×10^{14} M_{⊙}) clusters with z≤0.42. The false detection rate is ˜5%. We obtain the richness, the summed luminosity and the gross galaxy number. They are tightly correlated with the X-ray luminosity and the temperature of clusters. The cluster mass is also found to be tightly related to the richness and summed luminosity in the form of M_{200}∝ R^{1.90±0.04} and M_{200}∝ L_r^{1.64±0.03}, respectively. In addition, 790 new candidates of X-ray clusters are found by cross-identification of our clusters with the unidentified source list of the ROSAT X-ray survey. By visual inspections of the detected clusters, we recognize 13 gravitational lensing candidates. Among all the candidates, four can be sure strong lensing systems even without further spectroscopic identification, five are more probable and four are possible lenses. In the second part, we discuss the merger rates of luminous early-type galaxies and GWs from the mergers of supermassive black holes (SMBHs). The merger rates of massive galaxies in the local universe are still not clear so far. We select a large sample (1209) of close pairs of galaxies with projected separations 7 kpc

  18. The Metallicity of Void Dwarf Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreckel, K.; Croxall, K.; Groves, B.; van de Weygaert, R.; Pogge, R. W.

    The current ΛCDM cosmological model predicts that galaxy evolution proceeds more slowly in lower density environments, suggesting that voids are a prime location to search for relatively pristine galaxies that are representative of the building blocks of early massive galaxies. To test the

  19. Dark Matter in Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, W. J. G. de; McGaugh, S. S.

    1996-01-01

    Abstract: Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies form a large population of disc galaxies that extend the Hubble sequence towards extreme late-types. They are only slowly evolving, and still in an early evolutionary state. The Tully-Fisher relation and rotation curves of LSB galaxies both show that

  20. Dark matter in low surface brightness galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Blok, WJG; McGaugh, SS; Persic, M; Salucci, P

    1997-01-01

    Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies form a large population of disc galaxies that extend the Hubble sequence towards extreme late-types. They are only slowly evolving, and still in an early evolutionary state. The Tully-Fisher relation and rotation curves of LSB galaxies both show that LSB

  1. The ATLAS3D Project - XXX. Star formation histories and stellar population scaling relations of early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermid, Richard M.; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2015-04-01

    We present the stellar population content of early-type galaxies from the ATLAS3D survey. Using spectra integrated within apertures covering up to one effective radius, we apply two methods: one based on measuring line-strength indices and applying single stellar population (SSP) models to derive SSP-equivalent values of stellar age, metallicity, and alpha enhancement; and one based on spectral fitting to derive non-parametric star formation histories, mass-weighted average values of age, metallicity, and half-mass formation time-scales. Using homogeneously derived effective radii and dynamically determined galaxy masses, we present the distribution of stellar population parameters on the Mass Plane (MJAM, σe, R^maj_e), showing that at fixed mass, compact early-type galaxies are on average older, more metal-rich, and more alpha-enhanced than their larger counterparts. From non-parametric star formation histories, we find that the duration of star formation is systematically more extended in lower mass objects. Assuming that our sample represents most of the stellar content of today's local Universe, approximately 50 per cent of all stars formed within the first 2 Gyr following the big bang. Most of these stars reside today in the most massive galaxies (>1010.5 M⊙), which themselves formed 90 per cent of their stars by z ˜ 2. The lower mass objects, in contrast, have formed barely half their stars in this time interval. Stellar population properties are independent of environment over two orders of magnitude in local density, varying only with galaxy mass. In the highest density regions of our volume (dominated by the Virgo cluster), galaxies are older, alpha-enhanced, and have shorter star formation histories with respect to lower density regions.

  2. Soft x-ray emission from clusters of galaxies and related phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Mittaz, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    Since the discovery of the cluster soft excess (CSE) over eight years ago, its properties and origin have been the subject of debate With the recent launch of new missions such as XMM-Newton and FUSE, we are beginning to answer some of the complex issues regarding the phenomenon This conference proceedings is an attempt to bring together the latest research results and covers both observational and theoretical work on the CSE and related topics One of the main topics is the possible relationship between the CSE and the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM), which is believed to harbor 50% of the baryons in the near Universe New data from both XMM-Newton and FUSE have indicated a possible causal link between the WHIM and CSE Evidence is based on the apparent detection of O VII emission lines in the soft excess spectrum of the outskirts of several clusters, as well as reports of absorption lines at local and higher redshifts (seen in the spectra of distant sources) as signature of the WHIM However, while there h...

  3. Creating lenticular galaxies with mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querejeta, Miguel; Eliche-Moral, M. Carmen; Tapia, Trinidad; Borlaff, Alejandro; van de Ven, Glenn; Lyubenova, Mariya; Martig, Marie; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Méndez-Abreu, Jairo; Zamorano, Jaime; Gallego, Jesús

    2017-03-01

    Lenticular galaxies (S0s) represent the majority of early-type galaxies in the local Universe, but their formation channels are still poorly understood. While galaxy mergers are obvious pathways to suppress star formation and increase bulge sizes, the marked parallelism between spiral and lenticular galaxies (e.g. photometric bulge-disc coupling) seemed to rule out a potential merger origin. Here, we summarise our recent work in which we have shown, through N-body numerical simulations, that disc-dominated lenticulars can emerge from major mergers of spiral galaxies, in good agreement with observational photometric scaling relations. Moreover, we show that mergers simultaneously increase the light concentration and reduce the angular momentum relative to their spiral progenitors. This explains the mismatch in angular momentum and concentration between spirals and lenticulars recently revealed by CALIFA observations, which is hard to reconcile with simple fading mechanisms (e.g. ram-pressure stripping).

  4. Dwarf galaxies with ionizing radiation feedback. II. Spatially resolved star formation relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Krumholz, Mark R.; Wise, John H.; Turk, Matthew J.; Goldbaum, Nathan J.; Abel, Tom

    2013-11-15

    AWe investigate the spatially resolved star formation relation using a galactic disk formed in a comprehensive high-resolution (3.8 pc) simulation. Our new implementation of stellar feedback includes ionizing radiation as well as supernova explosions, and we handle ionizing radiation by solving the radiative transfer equation rather than by a subgrid model. Photoheating by stellar radiation stabilizes gas against Jeans fragmentation, reducing the star formation rate (SFR). Because we have self-consistently calculated the location of ionized gas, we are able to make simulated, spatially resolved observations of star formation tracers, such as Hα emission. We can also observe how stellar feedback manifests itself in the correlation between ionized and molecular gas. Applying our techniques to the disk in a galactic halo of 2.3 × 1011 M , we find that the correlation between SFR density (estimated from mock Hα emission) and H2 density shows large scatter, especially at high resolutions of ≲ 75 pc that are comparable to the size of giant molecular clouds (GMCs). This is because an aperture of GMC size captures only particular stages of GMC evolution and because Hα traces hot gas around star-forming regions and is displaced from the H2 peaks themselves. By examining the evolving environment around star clusters, we speculate that the breakdown of the traditional star formation laws of the Kennicutt-Schmidt type at small scales is further aided by a combination of stars drifting from their birthplaces and molecular clouds being dispersed via stellar feedback.

  5. A FUNDAMENTAL LINE FOR ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Preethi; Van den Bergh, Sidney; Abraham, Roberto G.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that massive galaxies in the distant universe are surprisingly compact, with typical sizes about a factor of three smaller than equally massive galaxies in the nearby universe. It has been suggested that these massive galaxies grow into systems resembling nearby galaxies through a series of minor mergers. In this model the size growth of galaxies is an inherently stochastic process, and the resulting size-luminosity relationship is expected to have considerable environmentally dependent scatter. To test whether minor mergers can explain the size growth in massive galaxies, we have closely examined the scatter in the size-luminosity relation of nearby elliptical galaxies using a large new database of accurate visual galaxy classifications. We demonstrate that this scatter is much smaller than has been previously assumed, and may even be so small as to challenge the plausibility of the merger-driven hierarchical models for the formation of massive ellipticals.

  6. Cosmic strings and galaxy formation: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbins, A.

    1987-04-01

    Successes and remaining problems with cosmic string theories of galaxy formation are outlined. Successes of the theory include predictions for the correct amplitude of initial inhomogeneities leading to galaxy formation, the distribution of observed inhomogeneities, the observed correlation function of clusters, and the density profiles of dark matter halos. Potentially serious problems which have been raised are the biased galaxy production (why do galaxies occur in clusters?), the core radius problem (density profiles of galactic halos do not match predictions), the maximal rotation velocity problem (why is there a sharp cutoff in observed rotational velocity of galaxies?), the small galaxy problem (why are all the galaxies relatively small structures?), the angular momentum problem (where do baryons acquire their angular momentum in order to form spirals), and the large-scale structure problem (why do most galaxies appear to lie on surfaces surrounding voids?). Possible approaches to each of these problems are suggested and the future of cosmic string theory is discussed. 25 refs

  7. Statistical study of some Lee galaxy groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Sabry A.; Fouad, Ahmed M.

    2017-12-01

    Compact groups of galaxies are systems of small number of galaxies close to each other. They are a good laboratory to study galaxy properties, such as structure, morphology and evolution which are affected by the environment and galaxy interactions. We applied the tree clustering technique (the Euclidean separation distance coefficients) to test the physical reality of groups and used certain criteria (Sabry et al., 2009) depending on the physical attributes of the galaxies. The sample of the data is the quintets groups of Lee compact groups of galaxies (Lee et al., 2004). It is based on a modified version of Hickson's criteria (Hickson, 1982). The results reveal the membership of each galaxy and how it is related to its group. The tables of groups and their members are included. Our results indicates that 12 Groups are real groups with real members while 18 Groups have one galaxy that has attribute discordant and should be discarded from its group.

  8. Seeing Baby Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Visible/DSS Click on image for larger version Ultraviolet/GALEX Click on image for larger version Poster Version Click on image for larger version The unique ultraviolet vision of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer reveals, for the first time, dwarf galaxies forming out of nothing more than pristine gas likely leftover from the early universe. Dwarf galaxies are relatively small collections of stars that often orbit around larger galaxies like our Milky Way. The forming dwarf galaxies shine in the far ultraviolet spectrum, rendered as blue in the call-out on the right hand side of this image. Near ultraviolet light, also obtained by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, is displayed in green, and visible light from the blue part of the spectrum here is represented by red. The clumps (in circles) are distinctively blue, indicating they are primarily detected in far ultraviolet light. The faint blue overlay traces the outline of the Leo Ring, a huge cloud of hydrogen and helium that orbits around two massive galaxies in the constellation Leo (left panel). The cloud is thought likely to be a primordial object, an ancient remnant of material that has remained relatively unchanged since the very earliest days of the universe. Identified about 25 years ago by radio waves, the ring cannot be seen in visible light. Only a portion of the Leo Ring has been imaged in the ultraviolet, but this section contains the telltale ultraviolet signature of recent massive star formation within this ring of pristine gas. Astronomers have previously only seen dwarf galaxies form out of gas that has already been cycled through a galaxy and enriched with metals elements heavier than helium produced as stars evolve. The visible data come from the Digitized Sky Survey of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Md. The Leo Ring visible image (left

  9. The SAURON project : XXI. The spatially resolved UV-line strength relations of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Bureau, Martin; Davies, Roger L.; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; Sarzi, Marc; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn

    The unexpected rising flux of early-type galaxies at decreasing ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths is a long-standing mystery. One important observational constraint is the correlation between UVoptical colours and Mg2 line strengths found by Burstein et al. The simplest interpretation of this phenomenon

  10. MOND implications for spectral line profiles of shell galaxies: shell formation history and mass-velocity scaling relations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bílek, Michal; Jungwiert, Bruno; Ebrová, Ivana; Bartošková, Kateřina

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 575, March (2015), A29/1-A29/8 ISSN 0004-6361 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : galaxies * gravitation * kinematics and dynamic Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  11. The ATLAS3D Project - XXX. Star formation histories and stellar population scaling relations of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDermid, Richard M.; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    We present the stellar population content of early-type galaxies from the ATLAS3D survey. Using spectra integrated within apertures covering up to one effective radius, we apply two methods: one based on measuring line-strength indices and applying single stellar population (SSP) models to derive

  12. The space density of primordial gas clouds near galaxies and groups and their relation to galactic high-velocity clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, MA; Briggs, FH

    2000-01-01

    The Arecibo H I Strip Survey probed the halos of similar to 300 cataloged galaxies and the environments of similar to 14 groups with sensitivity to neutral hydrogen masses greater than or equal to 10(7) M-circle dot. The survey detected no objects with properties resembling the high-velocity clouds

  13. Formation of double galaxies by tidal capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alladin, S.M.; Potdar, A.; Sastry, K.S.

    1975-01-01

    The conditions under which double galaxies may be formed by tidal capture are considered. Estimates for the increase in the internal energy of colliding galaxies due to tidal effects are used to determine the magnitudes Vsub(cap) and Vsub(dis) of the maximum relative velocities at infinite separation required for tidal capture and tidal disruption respectively. A double galaxy will be formed by tidal capture without tidal disruption of a component if Vsub(cap)>Vsub(i) and Vsub(cap)>Vsub(dis) where Vsub(i) is the initial relative speed of the two galaxies at infinite separation. If the two galaxies are of the same dimension, formulation of double galaxies by tidal capture is possible in a close collision either if the two galaxies do not differ much in mass and density distribution or if the more massive galaxy is less centrally concentrated than the other. If it is assumed as statistics suggest, that the mass of a galaxy is proportional to the square of its radius, it follows that the probability of the formation of double galaxies by tidal capture increases with the increase in mass of the galaxies and tidal distribution does not occur in a single collision for any distance of closest approach of the two galaxies. (Auth.)

  14. Optical photometry of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comte, G.

    1981-01-01

    The present status of the optical and near-infrared photometry of galaxies is reviewed. Part I introduces to the goals and general methods of both photographic surface photometry and integrated multicolor aperture photoelectric photometry for extended stellar systems, with a summary of the necessary corrections to the observed magnitudes and colors. Part II (surface photometry) summarizes recent results on the empirical luminosity laws for spheroidal systems and the separation of components in disk-plus-bulge systems. Part III (color problems) discusses integrated color effects (color and gas content, color-absolute magnitude relation for early-type systems, colors of interacting galaxies) and color gradient across spheroidal and disk galaxies. In part IV are summarized some constraints on the luminosity function of the stellar population in spheroidal systems given by narrow-band photometry [fr

  15. Large-scale galaxy bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Donghui; Desjacques, Vincent; Schmidt, Fabian

    2018-01-01

    Here, we briefly introduce the key results of the recent review (arXiv:1611.09787), whose abstract is as following. This review presents a comprehensive overview of galaxy bias, that is, the statistical relation between the distribution of galaxies and matter. We focus on large scales where cosmic density fields are quasi-linear. On these scales, the clustering of galaxies can be described by a perturbative bias expansion, and the complicated physics of galaxy formation is absorbed by a finite set of coefficients of the expansion, called bias parameters. The review begins with a detailed derivation of this very important result, which forms the basis of the rigorous perturbative description of galaxy clustering, under the assumptions of General Relativity and Gaussian, adiabatic initial conditions. Key components of the bias expansion are all leading local gravitational observables, which include the matter density but also tidal fields and their time derivatives. We hence expand the definition of local bias to encompass all these contributions. This derivation is followed by a presentation of the peak-background split in its general form, which elucidates the physical meaning of the bias parameters, and a detailed description of the connection between bias parameters and galaxy (or halo) statistics. We then review the excursion set formalism and peak theory which provide predictions for the values of the bias parameters. In the remainder of the review, we consider the generalizations of galaxy bias required in the presence of various types of cosmological physics that go beyond pressureless matter with adiabatic, Gaussian initial conditions: primordial non-Gaussianity, massive neutrinos, baryon-CDM isocurvature perturbations, dark energy, and modified gravity. Finally, we discuss how the description of galaxy bias in the galaxies' rest frame is related to clustering statistics measured from the observed angular positions and redshifts in actual galaxy catalogs.

  16. Large-scale galaxy bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjacques, Vincent; Jeong, Donghui; Schmidt, Fabian

    2018-02-01

    This review presents a comprehensive overview of galaxy bias, that is, the statistical relation between the distribution of galaxies and matter. We focus on large scales where cosmic density fields are quasi-linear. On these scales, the clustering of galaxies can be described by a perturbative bias expansion, and the complicated physics of galaxy formation is absorbed by a finite set of coefficients of the expansion, called bias parameters. The review begins with a detailed derivation of this very important result, which forms the basis of the rigorous perturbative description of galaxy clustering, under the assumptions of General Relativity and Gaussian, adiabatic initial conditions. Key components of the bias expansion are all leading local gravitational observables, which include the matter density but also tidal fields and their time derivatives. We hence expand the definition of local bias to encompass all these contributions. This derivation is followed by a presentation of the peak-background split in its general form, which elucidates the physical meaning of the bias parameters, and a detailed description of the connection between bias parameters and galaxy statistics. We then review the excursion-set formalism and peak theory which provide predictions for the values of the bias parameters. In the remainder of the review, we consider the generalizations of galaxy bias required in the presence of various types of cosmological physics that go beyond pressureless matter with adiabatic, Gaussian initial conditions: primordial non-Gaussianity, massive neutrinos, baryon-CDM isocurvature perturbations, dark energy, and modified gravity. Finally, we discuss how the description of galaxy bias in the galaxies' rest frame is related to clustering statistics measured from the observed angular positions and redshifts in actual galaxy catalogs.

  17. Observing and Simulating Galaxy Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen Pardos

    It remains a quest for modern astronomy to answer what main mechanisms set the star formation rate (SFR) of galaxies. Massive galaxies present a good starting point for such a quest due to their relatively easy detection at every redshift. Since stars form out of cold and dense gas, a comprehensive...... model for galaxy evolution should explain any observed connection between SFR and the amount and properties of the molecular gas of the interstellar medium (ISM). In proposed models of that kind, an active galactic nucleus (AGN) phase is often invoked as the cause for the decrease or cease of star...... formation. This thesis consists of models and observations of gas and AGNs in massive galaxies at z _ 2, and how they may affect the overall SFR and the subsequent evolutionary trajectory of massive galaxies to z = 0. For an improved understanding of how observed gas emission lines link to the underlying...

  18. S0 galaxies in Formax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedregal...[], A. G.; Aragón-Salamanca, A.; Merrifield, M. R.

    2006-01-01

    Galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD: galaxies: kinematics and dynamics Udgivelsesdato: Oct.1......Galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD: galaxies: kinematics and dynamics Udgivelsesdato: Oct.1...

  19. Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect and X-ray Scaling Relations from Weak-Lensing Mass Calibration of 32 SPT Selected Galaxy Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, J.P.; et al.

    2017-11-14

    Uncertainty in the mass-observable scaling relations is currently the limiting factor for galaxy cluster based cosmology. Weak gravitational lensing can provide a direct mass calibration and reduce the mass uncertainty. We present new ground-based weak lensing observations of 19 South Pole Telescope (SPT) selected clusters and combine them with previously reported space-based observations of 13 galaxy clusters to constrain the cluster mass scaling relations with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE), the cluster gas mass $M_\\mathrm{gas}$, and $Y_\\mathrm{X}$, the product of $M_\\mathrm{gas}$ and X-ray temperature. We extend a previously used framework for the analysis of scaling relations and cosmological constraints obtained from SPT-selected clusters to make use of weak lensing information. We introduce a new approach to estimate the effective average redshift distribution of background galaxies and quantify a number of systematic errors affecting the weak lensing modelling. These errors include a calibration of the bias incurred by fitting a Navarro-Frenk-White profile to the reduced shear using $N$-body simulations. We blind the analysis to avoid confirmation bias. We are able to limit the systematic uncertainties to 6.4% in cluster mass (68% confidence). Our constraints on the mass-X-ray observable scaling relations parameters are consistent with those obtained by earlier studies, and our constraints for the mass-SZE scaling relation are consistent with the the simulation-based prior used in the most recent SPT-SZ cosmology analysis. We can now replace the external mass calibration priors used in previous SPT-SZ cosmology studies with a direct, internal calibration obtained on the same clusters.

  20. Supernova rates, galaxy emission, and Hubble type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Bergh, S.

    1991-01-01

    Supernova discovery frequency is found to correlate with emission-line (H-alpha + forbidden N II line) equivalent width, except for the most active galaxies in which some supernovae might be hidden by dust. SNII occur preferentially in active galaxies with emission-line EW not less than 20 A, whereas SNIa favor less active galaxies with EW less than 20 A. The intrinsic frequency of supernovae is found to be an order of magnitude higher in Sc galaxies than it is in early type spirals. The relatively high frequency of SNIa in late-type galaxies suggests that not all such objects have old progenitors. 13 refs

  1. Neutral hydrogen in elliptical and IO galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottinelli, L.; Gouguenheim, L.

    1979-01-01

    New HI detections have been obtained using the Nancay radiotelescope for NGC 2974 and 3962. These results and the large scale distribution obtained for NGC 3962 indicate that the HI-rich elliptical galaxies exhibit common properties which are not easily explained by accretion of an intergalactic cloud. The field aroud NGC 1052 has been mapped and there is an HI connection with the neighbouring galaxies. The HI content of several IO galaxies indicates that the galaxies which are members of groups are relatively HI-rich; this could be produced by additional HI coming from companion galaxies [fr

  2. The cosmic web of the Local Universe: cosmic variance, matter content and its relation to galaxy morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuza, Sebastián E.; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Heß, Steffen; Libeskind, Noam I.; Müller, Volker

    2014-11-01

    We present, for the first time, a Local Universe (LU) characterization using high-precision constrained N-body simulations based on self-consistent phase-space reconstructions of the large-scale structure in the Two-Micron All-Sky Galaxy Redshift Survey. We analyse whether we live in a special cosmic web environment by estimating cosmic variance from a set of unconstrained ΛCDM simulations as a function of distance to random observers. By computing volume and mass filling fractions for voids, sheets, filaments and knots, we find that the LU displays a typical scatter of about 1σ at scales r ≳ 15 h-1 Mpc, in agreement with ΛCDM, converging to a fair unbiased sample when considering spheres of about 60 h-1 Mpc radius. Additionally, we compute the matter density profile of the LU and we have found a reasonable agreement with the estimates of Karachentsev only when considering the contribution of dark haloes. This indicates that observational estimates might be biased towards low-density values. As a first application of our reconstruction, we investigate the likelihood that different galaxy morphological types inhabit certain cosmic web environments. In particular, we find that, irrespective of the method used to define the web, either based on the density or the peculiar velocity field, elliptical galaxies show a clear tendency to preferentially reside in clusters as opposed to voids (up to levels of 5.3σ and 9.8σ, respectively) and conversely for spiral galaxies (up to levels of 5.6σ and 5.4σ, respectively). These findings are compatible with previous works, albeit at higher confidence levels.

  3. Merger relics of cluster galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, S. K.; Lee, J.; Jung, I.; Ji, I.; Sheen, Y.-K.

    2013-06-01

    Context. Sheen and collaborators recently found that a surprisingly large portion (38%) of massive early-type galaxies in heavy clusters show strong merger-related disturbed features. This contradicts the general understanding that massive clusters are hostile environments for galaxy mergers. Considering the significance of mergers in galaxy evolution, it is important to understand this. Aims: We aim to present a theoretical foundation that explains galaxy mergers in massive clusters. Methods: We used the N-body simulation technique to perform a cosmological-volume simulation and derive dark-halo merger trees. Then, we used the semi-analytic modeling technique to populate each halo with galaxies. We ran hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy mergers to estimate the lifetime of merger features for the imaging condition used by Sheen and collaborators. We applied this merger feature lifetime to our semi-analytic models. Finally, we counted the massive early-type galaxies in heavy model clusters that would show strong merger features. Results: While there still are substantial uncertainties, our preliminary results are remarkably close to the observed fraction of galaxies with merger features. Key ingredients for the success are twofold: firstly, the subhalo motion in dark haloes has been accurately traced, and, second, the lifetime of merger features has been properly estimated. As a result, merger features are expected to last very long in cluster environments. Many massive early-type galaxies in heavy clusters therefore show merger features not because they experience mergers in the current clusters in situ, but because they still carry their merger features from their previous halo environments. Conclusions: Investigating the merger relics of cluster galaxies is potentially important, because it uniquely allows us to backtrack the halo merger history.

  4. Measuring the Scatter of the Mass–Richness Relation in Galaxy Clusters in Photometric Imaging Surveys by Means of Their Correlation Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campa, Julia; Estrada, Juan; Flaugher, Brenna

    2017-02-03

    The knowledge of the scatter in the mass-observable relation is a key ingredient for a cosmological analysis based on galaxy clusters in a photometric survey. We demonstrate here how the linear bias measured in the correlation function for clusters can be used to determine the value of the scatter. The new method is tested in simulations of a 5.000 square degrees optical survey up to z~1, similar to the ongoing Dark Energy Survey. The results indicate that the scatter can be measured with a precision of 5% using this technique.

  5. Crashing galaxies, cosmic fireworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    The study of binary systems is reviewed. The history of the study of interacting galaxies, the behavior of gas in binary systems, studies to identify the processes that occur when galaxies interact, and the relationship of Seyfert galaxies and quasars to binary systems are discussed. The development of an atlas of peculiar galaxies (Arp, 1966) and methods for modeling galaxy interactions are examined

  6. Stellar populations in distant radio galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilly, S.J.; Longair, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    A homogeneous data set of infrared observations of 83 3CR galaxies with redshifts 0< z<1.6, selected from a statistically complete sample of 90 radio sources, is used to study the colours and magnitudes of these galaxies as a function of their redshifts. New infrared observations are presented for 66 radio galaxies, in addition to new optical results obtained from a re-analysis of existing CCD images. It is shown that the infrared colours do not deviate from the predicted relations with redshift for a standard giant elliptical galaxy spectrum. The optical to infrared colours, however, show substantial deviations at high redshift. No galaxies have been found that are significantly redder than a passively evolving galaxy, and there is a significant scatter of colours bluewards from this model. The excess of ultraviolet light responsible for these colours is not concentrated at the nucleus, and is interpreted as resulting from bursts of star formation, throughout the galaxy. (author)

  7. The SAURON project - XIII. SAURON-GALEX study of early-type galaxies : the ultraviolet colour-magnitude relations and Fundamental Planes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Bureau, Martin; Davies, Roger L.; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; van de Ven, Glenn; Peletier, Reynier F.; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; de Zeeuw, Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Sarzi, Marc; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.

    2009-01-01

    We present Galaxy Evolution Explorer far-ultraviolet (FUV) and near-ultraviolet (NUV) imaging of 34 nearby early-type galaxies from the SAURON representative sample of 48 E/S0 galaxies, all of which have ground-based optical imaging from the MDM Observatory. The surface brightness profiles of nine

  8. Dark and luminous matter in the NGC 3992 group of galaxies - II. The dwarf companions UGC 6923, UGC 6940, UGC 6969, and the Tully-Fisher relation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottema, R

    Detailed neutral hydrogen observations have been obtained of the large barred spiral galaxy NGC 3992 and its three small companion spiral galaxies, UGC 6923, UGC 6940, and UGC 6969. Contrary to the large galaxy, for the companions the Hi distribution ends quite abruptly at the optical edges.

  9. Separate Ways: The Mass–Metallicity Relation Does Not Strongly Correlate with Star Formation Rate in SDSS-IV MaNGA Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Heckman, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg Center, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sánchez, S. F. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-264, 04510 México, D.F., México (Mexico); Blanc, G. A., E-mail: jbarrer3@jhu.edu [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Collaboration: MaNGA Team

    2017-07-20

    We present the integrated stellar mass–metallicity relation (MZR) for more than 1700 galaxies included in the integral field area SDSS-IV MaNGA survey. The spatially resolved data allow us to determine the metallicity at the same physical scale (effective radius, R {sub eff}) using a heterogeneous set of 10 abundance calibrators. In addition to scale factors, the shape of the MZR is similar for all calibrators, consistent with those reported previously using single-fiber and integral field spectroscopy. We compare the residuals of this relation against the star formation rate (SFR) and specific SFR (sSFR). We do not find a strong secondary relation of the MZR with either SFR or sSFR for any of the calibrators, in contrast with previous single-fiber spectroscopic studies. Our results agree with a scenario in which metal enrichment happens at local scales, with global outflows playing a secondary role in shaping the chemistry of galaxies and cold-gas inflows regulating the stellar formation.

  10. Separate Ways: The Mass–Metallicity Relation Does Not Strongly Correlate with Star Formation Rate in SDSS-IV MaNGA Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Heckman, T.; Sánchez, S. F.; Blanc, G. A.

    2017-01-01

    We present the integrated stellar mass–metallicity relation (MZR) for more than 1700 galaxies included in the integral field area SDSS-IV MaNGA survey. The spatially resolved data allow us to determine the metallicity at the same physical scale (effective radius, R eff ) using a heterogeneous set of 10 abundance calibrators. In addition to scale factors, the shape of the MZR is similar for all calibrators, consistent with those reported previously using single-fiber and integral field spectroscopy. We compare the residuals of this relation against the star formation rate (SFR) and specific SFR (sSFR). We do not find a strong secondary relation of the MZR with either SFR or sSFR for any of the calibrators, in contrast with previous single-fiber spectroscopic studies. Our results agree with a scenario in which metal enrichment happens at local scales, with global outflows playing a secondary role in shaping the chemistry of galaxies and cold-gas inflows regulating the stellar formation.

  11. Separate Ways: The Mass-Metallicity Relation Does Not Strongly Correlate with Star Formation Rate in SDSS-IV MaNGA Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Sánchez, S. F.; Heckman, T.; Blanc, G. A.; The MaNGA Team

    2017-07-01

    We present the integrated stellar mass-metallicity relation (MZR) for more than 1700 galaxies included in the integral field area SDSS-IV MaNGA survey. The spatially resolved data allow us to determine the metallicity at the same physical scale (effective radius, R eff) using a heterogeneous set of 10 abundance calibrators. In addition to scale factors, the shape of the MZR is similar for all calibrators, consistent with those reported previously using single-fiber and integral field spectroscopy. We compare the residuals of this relation against the star formation rate (SFR) and specific SFR (sSFR). We do not find a strong secondary relation of the MZR with either SFR or sSFR for any of the calibrators, in contrast with previous single-fiber spectroscopic studies. Our results agree with a scenario in which metal enrichment happens at local scales, with global outflows playing a secondary role in shaping the chemistry of galaxies and cold-gas inflows regulating the stellar formation.

  12. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: first 1000 galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. T.

    2015-02-01

    The Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey is an ongoing project to obtain integral field spectroscopic observations of ~3400 galaxies by mid-2016. Including the pilot survey, a total of ~1000 galaxies have been observed to date, making the SAMI Galaxy Survey the largest of its kind in existence. This unique dataset allows a wide range of investigations into different aspects of galaxy evolution. The first public data from the SAMI Galaxy Survey, consisting of 107 galaxies drawn from the full sample, has now been released. By giving early access to SAMI data for the entire research community, we aim to stimulate research across a broad range of topics in galaxy evolution. As the sample continues to grow, the survey will open up a new and unique parameter space for galaxy evolution studies.

  13. Statistical study of some Lee galaxy groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry A. Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Compact groups of galaxies are systems of small number of galaxies close to each other. They are a good laboratory to study galaxy properties, such as structure, morphology and evolution which are affected by the environment and galaxy interactions. We applied the tree clustering technique (the Euclidean separation distance coefficients to test the physical reality of groups and used certain criteria (Sabry et al., 2009 depending on the physical attributes of the galaxies. The sample of the data is the quintets groups of Lee compact groups of galaxies (Lee et al., 2004. It is based on a modified version of Hickson’s criteria (Hickson, 1982. The results reveal the membership of each galaxy and how it is related to its group. The tables of groups and their members are included.Our results indicates that 12 Groups are real groups with real members while 18 Groups have one galaxy that has attribute discordant and should be discarded from its group. Keywords: Galaxies, Cluster analysis, Galaxy groups, Lee galaxy groups

  14. The Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS): A Large-Scale Structure at z=0.73 and the Relation of Galaxy Morphologies to Local Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzo, L.; Cassata, P.; Finoguenov, A.; Massey, R.; Scoville, N. Z.; Capak, P.; Ellis, R. S.; Mobasher, B.; Taniguchi, Y.; Thompson, D.; Ajiki, M.; Aussel, H.; Böhringer, H.; Brusa, M.; Calzetti, D.; Comastri, A.; Franceschini, A.; Hasinger, G.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Kitzbichler, M. G.; Kneib, J.-P.; Koekemoer, A.; Leauthaud, A.; McCracken, H. J.; Murayama, T.; Nagao, T.; Rhodes, J.; Sanders, D. B.; Sasaki, S.; Shioya, Y.; Tasca, L.; Taylor, J. E.

    2007-09-01

    We have identified a large-scale structure at z~=0.73 in the COSMOS field, coherently described by the distribution of galaxy photometric redshifts, an ACS weak-lensing convergence map, and the distribution of extended X-ray sources in a mosaic of XMM-Newton observations. The main peak seen in these maps corresponds to a rich cluster with TX=3.51+0.60-0.46 keV and LX=(1.56+/-0.04)×1044 ergs s-1 (0.1-2.4 keV band). We estimate an X-ray mass within r500 corresponding to M500~=1.6×1014 Msolar and a total lensing mass (extrapolated by fitting a NFW profile) MNFW=(6+/-3)×1015 Msolar. We use an automated morphological classification of all galaxies brighter than IAB=24 over the structure area to measure the fraction of early-type objects as a function of local projected density Σ10, based on photometric redshifts derived from ground-based deep multiband photometry. We recover a robust morphology-density relation at this redshift, indicating, for comparable local densities, a smaller fraction of early-type galaxies than today. Interestingly, this difference is less strong at the highest densities and becomes more severe in intermediate environments. We also find, however, local ``inversions'' of the observed global relation, possibly driven by the large-scale environment. In particular, we find direct correspondence of a large concentration of disk galaxies to (the colder side of) a possible shock region detected in the X-ray temperature map and surface brightness distribution of the dominant cluster. We interpret this as potential evidence of shock-induced star formation in existing galaxy disks, during the ongoing merger between two subclusters. Our analysis reveals the value of combining various measures of the projected mass density to locate distant structures and their potential for elucidating the physical processes at work in the transformation of galaxy morphologies. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space

  15. Dwarf spheroidal galaxies: Keystones of galaxy evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, John S., III; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    1994-01-01

    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are the most insignificant extragalactic stellar systems in terms of their visibility, but potentially very significant in terms of their role in the formation and evolution of much more luminous galaxies. We discuss the present observational data and their implications for theories of the formation and evolution of both dwarf and giant galaxies. The putative dark-matter content of these low-surface-brightness systems is of particular interest, as is their chemical evolution. Surveys for new dwarf spheroidals hidden behind the stars of our Galaxy and those which are not bound to giant galaxies may give new clues as to the origins of this unique class of galaxy.

  16. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigroux, Laurent

    1979-01-01

    This research thesis addresses theories on the chemical evolution of galaxies which aim at explaining abundances of different elements in galaxies, and more particularly aims at improving the model by modifying hypotheses. After a description of the simple model and of its uncertainties, the author shows how it is possible to understand the evolution of the main elements. Predictions obtained with this model are then compared with the present knowledge on galaxies by considering them according to an increasing complexity: Sun's neighbourhood, our galaxy, other spiral galaxies, elliptical galaxies, and finally galaxy clusters. A specific attention is given to irregular galaxies which are the simplest systems [fr

  17. The Pan-STARRS1 medium-deep survey: The role of galaxy group environment in the star formation rate versus stellar mass relation and quiescent fraction out to z ∼ 0.8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Lihwai; Chen, Chin-Wei; Coupon, Jean; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Jian, Hung-Yu; Foucaud, Sebastien; Norberg, Peder; Bower, R. G.; Cole, Shaun; Arnalte-Mur, Pablo; Draper, P.; Heinis, Sebastien; Phleps, Stefanie; Chen, Wen-Ping; Lee, Chien-Hsiu; Burgett, William; Chambers, K. C.; Denneau, L.; Flewelling, H.; Hodapp, K. W.

    2014-01-01

    Using a large optically selected sample of field and group galaxies drawn from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium-Deep Survey (PS1/MDS), we present a detailed analysis of the specific star formation rate (SSFR)—stellar mass (M * ) relation, as well as the quiescent fraction versus M * relation in different environments. While both the SSFR and the quiescent fraction depend strongly on stellar mass, the environment also plays an important role. Using this large galaxy sample, we confirm that the fraction of quiescent galaxies is strongly dependent on environment at a fixed stellar mass, but that the amplitude and the slope of the star-forming sequence is similar between the field and groups: in other words, the SSFR-density relation at a fixed stellar mass is primarily driven by the change in the star-forming and quiescent fractions between different environments rather than a global suppression in the star formation rate for the star-forming population. However, when we restrict our sample to the cluster-scale environments (M > 10 14 M ☉ ), we find a global reduction in the SSFR of the star-forming sequence of 17% at 4σ confidence as opposed to its field counterpart. After removing the stellar mass dependence of the quiescent fraction seen in field galaxies, the excess in the quiescent fraction due to the environment quenching in groups and clusters is found to increase with stellar mass, although deeper and larger data from the full PS1/MDS will be required to draw firm conclusions. We argue that these results are in favor of galaxy mergers to be the primary environment quenching mechanism operating in galaxy groups whereas strangulation is able to reproduce the observed trend in the environment quenching efficiency and stellar mass relation seen in clusters. Our results also suggest that the relative importance between mass quenching and environment quenching depends on stellar mass—the mass quenching plays a dominant role in producing quiescent galaxies for more

  18. Cosmology with void-galaxy correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaus, Nico; Wandelt, Benjamin D; Sutter, P M; Lavaux, Guilhem; Warren, Michael S

    2014-01-31

    Galaxy bias, the unknown relationship between the clustering of galaxies and the underlying dark matter density field is a major hurdle for cosmological inference from large-scale structure. While traditional analyses focus on the absolute clustering amplitude of high-density regions mapped out by galaxy surveys, we propose a relative measurement that compares those to the underdense regions, cosmic voids. On the basis of realistic mock catalogs we demonstrate that cross correlating galaxies and voids opens up the possibility to calibrate galaxy bias and to define a static ruler thanks to the observable geometric nature of voids. We illustrate how the clustering of voids is related to mass compensation and show that volume-exclusion significantly reduces the degree of stochasticity in their spatial distribution. Extracting the spherically averaged distribution of galaxies inside voids from their cross correlations reveals a remarkable concordance with the mass-density profile of voids.

  19. Globular Clusters - Guides to Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Richtler, Tom; Joint ESO-FONDAP Workshop on Globular Clusters

    2009-01-01

    The principal question of whether and how globular clusters can contribute to a better understanding of galaxy formation and evolution is perhaps the main driving force behind the overall endeavour of studying globular cluster systems. Naturally, this splits up into many individual problems. The objective of the Joint ESO-FONDAP Workshop on Globular Clusters - Guides to Galaxies was to bring together researchers, both observational and theoretical, to present and discuss the most recent results. Topics covered in these proceedings are: internal dynamics of globular clusters and interaction with host galaxies (tidal tails, evolution of cluster masses), accretion of globular clusters, detailed descriptions of nearby cluster systems, ultracompact dwarfs, formations of massive clusters in mergers and elsewhere, the ACS Virgo survey, galaxy formation and globular clusters, dynamics and kinematics of globular cluster systems and dark matter-related problems. With its wide coverage of the topic, this book constitute...

  20. IRAC Imaging of LSB Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schombert, James; McGaugh, Stacy; Lelli, Federico

    2017-04-01

    We propose a program to observe a large sample of Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies. Large galaxy surveys conducted with Spitzer suffer from the unavoidable selection bias against LSB systems (e.g., the S4G survey). Even those programs thathave specifically targeted LSB galaxies have usually been restricted objects of intermediate surface brightness (between 22 and 23 B mag/ []). Our sample is selected to be of a more extreme LSB nature (with central surface brightness fainter than 23 Bmag/[]). Even warm, Spitzer is the ideal instrument to image these low contrast targets in the near infrared: our sample goes a considerable way towards remedying this hole in the Spitzer legacy archive, also increasing coverage in terms of stellar mass, gas mass, and SFR. The sample will be used to address the newly discovered radial acceleration relation (RAR) in disk galaxies. While issues involving the connection between baryons and dark matter have been known since the development of the global baryonic Tully-Fisher (bTF) relation, it is only in the last six months that the particle physics and theoretical communities have recognized and responded to the local coupling between dark and baryonic matter represented by the RAR. This important new correlation is effectively a new natural law for galaxies. Spitzer photometry has been at the forefront of resolving the stellar mass component in galaxies that make-up the RAR and is the primary reason for the discovery of this new kinematic law.

  1. Brightest group galaxies - II: the relative contribution of BGGs to the total baryon content of groups at z < 1.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozaliasl, Ghassem; Finoguenov, Alexis; Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Henriques, Bruno M. B.; Tanaka, Masayuki; Ilbert, Olivier; Wuyts, Stijn; McCracken, Henry J.; Montanari, Francesco

    2018-04-01

    We performed a detailed study of the evolution of the star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass of the brightest group galaxies (BGGs) and their relative contribution to the total baryon budget within R200 (f^{BGG}_{b,200}). The sample comprises 407 BGGs selected from X-ray groups (M200 = 1012.8-1014 M⊙) out to z ˜ 1.3 identified in the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS), XMM Large-Scale Structure survey (XMM-LSS), and the All-Wavelength Extended Groth strip International Survey (AEGIS) fields. We find that BGGs constitute two distinct populations of quiescent and star-forming galaxies and their mean SFR is ˜2 dex higher than the median SFR at z 2 dex. We take into account the halo mass growth of groups in selecting the sample of BGGs and find that the mean (median) stellar mass of BGGs has grown by 0.3 dex since z = 1.3 to the present day. We show that up to ˜ 45 per cent of the stellar mass growth in a star-forming BGG can be due to its star formation activity. With respect to f^{BGG}_{b,200}, we find it to increase with decreasing redshift by ˜0.35 dex, while decreasing with halo mass in a redshift-dependent manner. We show that the slope of the relation between f^{BGG}_{b,200} and halo mass increases negatively with decreasing redshift. This trend is driven by an insufficient star formation in BGGs, compared to the halo growth rate. We separately show the BGGs with the 20 per cent highest f^{BGG}_{b,200} are generally non-star-forming galaxies and grow in mass by processes not related to star formation (e.g. dry mergers and tidal striping). We present the M⋆-Mh and M⋆/Mh-Mh relations and compare them with semi-analytic model predictions and a number of results from the literature. We quantify the intrinsic scatter in stellar mass of BGGs at fixed halo mass (σ _{log M_{\\star}}) and find that σ _{{log }M_{\\star}} increases from 0.3 dex at z ˜ 0.2-0.5 dex at z ˜ 1.0 due to the bimodal distribution of stellar mass.

  2. Colors and the evolution of amorphous galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.S. III; Hunter, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    UBVRI and H-alpha photometric observations are presented for 16 amorphous galaxies and a comparison sample of Magellanic irregular (Im) and Sc spiral galaxies. These data are analyzed in terms of star-formation rates and histories in amorphous galaxies. Amorphous galaxies have mean global colors and star-formation rates per unit area that are similar to those in giant Im systems, despite differences in spatial distributions of star-forming centers in these two galactic structural classes. Amorphous galaxies differ from giant Im systems in having somewhat wider scatter in relationships between B - V and U - B colors, and between U - B and L(H-alpha)/L(B). This scatter is interpreted as resulting from rapid variations in star-formation rates during the recent past, which could be a natural consequence of the concentration of star-forming activity into centrally located, supergiant young stellar complexes in many amorphous galaxies. While the unusual spatial distribution and intensity of star formation in some amorphous galaxies is due to interactions with other galaxies, several amorphous galaxies are relatively isolated and thus the processes must be internal. The ultimate evolutionary fate of rapidly evolving amorphous galaxies remains unknown. 77 references

  3. Testing the galaxy cluster mass-observable relations at z = 1 with XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of XLSSJ022403.9-041328

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, B. J.; Jones, L. R.; Pierre, M.; Andreon, S.; Birkinshaw, M.; Bremer, M. N.; Pacaud, F.; Ponman, T. J.; Valtchanov, I.; Willis, J.

    2008-07-01

    We present an analysis of deep XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of the z = 1.05 galaxy cluster XLSSJ022403.9-041328 (hereafter XLSSC029), detected in the XMM-Newton Large Scale Structure survey. Density and temperature profiles of the X-ray emitting gas were used to perform a hydrostatic mass analysis of the system. This allowed us to measure the total mass and gas fraction in the cluster and define overdensity radii R500 and R2500. The global properties of XLSSC029 were measured within these radii and compared with those of the local population. The gas mass fraction was found to be consistent with local clusters. The mean metal abundance was 0.18+0.17-0.15Zsolar, with the cluster core regions excluded, consistent with the predicted and observed evolution. The properties of XLSSC029 were then used to investigate the position of the cluster on the M-kT, YX-M and LX-M scaling relations. In all cases the observed properties of XLSSC029 agreed well with the simple self-similar evolution of the scaling relations. This is the first test of the evolution of these relations at z > 1 and supports the use of the scaling relations in cosmological studies with distant galaxy clusters. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA. E-mail: ben.maughan@bristol.ac.uk ‡ Chandra fellow.

  4. Selection bias in dynamically measured supermassive black hole samples: scaling relations and correlations between residuals in semi-analytic galaxy formation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barausse, Enrico; Shankar, Francesco; Bernardi, Mariangela; Dubois, Yohan; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2017-07-01

    Recent work has confirmed that the scaling relations between the masses of supermassive black holes and host-galaxy properties such as stellar masses and velocity dispersions may be biased high. Much of this may be caused by the requirement that the black hole sphere of influence must be resolved for the black hole mass to be reliably estimated. We revisit this issue with a comprehensive galaxy evolution semi-analytic model. Once tuned to reproduce the (mean) correlation of black hole mass with velocity dispersion, the model cannot account for the correlation with stellar mass. This is independent of the model's parameters, thus suggesting an internal inconsistency in the data. The predicted distributions, especially at the low-mass end, are also much broader than observed. However, if selection effects are included, the model's predictions tend to align with the observations. We also demonstrate that the correlations between the residuals of the scaling relations are more effective than the relations themselves at constraining models for the feedback of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). In fact, we find that our model, while in apparent broad agreement with the scaling relations when accounting for selection biases, yields very weak correlations between their residuals at fixed stellar mass, in stark contrast with observations. This problem persists when changing the AGN feedback strength, and is also present in the hydrodynamic cosmological simulation Horizon-AGN, which includes state-of-the-art treatments of AGN feedback. This suggests that current AGN feedback models are too weak or simply not capturing the effect of the black hole on the stellar velocity dispersion.

  5. HI on large and small scales in starburst radio galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T.; Tadhunter, C.; Emonts, B.; Moorsel, G. van

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: The study of the optical continuum of radio galaxies shows that about 30% have a young stellar population component. Among them are the most far-IR bright radio galaxies. A further indication of the relatively gas rich environment of these galaxies (possibly related to the recent merger

  6. Galaxy evolution in clusters since z=1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-Salamanca, A.

    2011-11-01

    It is now 30 years since Alan Dressler published his seminal paper onthe morphology-density relation. Although there is still much to learnon the effect of the environment on galaxy evolution, extensive progress has been made since then both observationally and theoretically.Galaxy clusters provide some of the most extreme environments in which galaxies evolve, making them excellent laboratories to study the age old question of "nature'' vs. "nurture'' in galaxy evolution. Here I review some of the key observational results obtained during the last decade on the evolution of the morphology, structure, dynamics, star-formation history and stellar populations of cluster galaxies since the time when the universe was half its present age.Many of the results presented here have been obtainedwithin the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS) and Space Telescope A901/02 Galaxy Evolution Survey (STAGES) collaborations.

  7. AGN feedback in dwarf galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashyan, Gohar; Silk, Joseph; Mamon, Gary A.; Dubois, Yohan; Hartwig, Tilman

    2018-02-01

    Dwarf galaxy anomalies, such as their abundance and cusp-core problems, remain a prime challenge in our understanding of galaxy formation. The inclusion of baryonic physics could potentially solve these issues, but the efficiency of stellar feedback is still controversial. We analytically explore the possibility of feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in dwarf galaxies and compare AGN and supernova (SN) feedback. We assume the presence of an intermediate-mass black hole within low-mass galaxies and standard scaling relations between the relevant physical quantities. We model the propagation and properties of the outflow and explore the critical condition for global gas ejection. Performing the same calculation for SNe, we compare the ability of AGNs and SNe to drive gas out of galaxies. We find that a critical halo mass exists below which AGN feedback can remove gas from the host halo and that the critical halo mass for an AGN is greater than the equivalent for SNe in a significant part of the parameter space, suggesting that an AGN could provide an alternative and more successful source of negative feedback than SNe, even in the most massive dwarf galaxies.

  8. Star Formation in Tadpole Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casiana Muñoz-Tuñon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tadpole Galaxies look like a star forming head with a tail structure to the side. They are also named cometaries. In a series of recent works we have discovered a number of issues that lead us to consider them extremely interesting targets. First, from images, they are disks with a lopsided starburst. This result is rmly  established with long slit spectroscopy in a nearby representative sample. They rotate with the head following the rotation pattern but displaced from the rotation center. Moreover, in a search for extremely metal poor (XMP galaxies, we identied tadpoles as the dominant shapes in the sample - nearly 80% of the local XMP galaxies have a tadpole morphology. In addition, the spatially resolved analysis of the metallicity shows the remarkable result that there is a metallicity drop right at the position of the head. This is contrary to what intuition would say and dicult to explain if star formation has happened from gas processed in the disk. The result could however be understood if the star formation is driven by pristine gas falling into the galaxy disk. If conrmed, we could be unveiling, for the rst time, cool  ows in action in our nearby world. The tadpole class is relatively frequent at high redshift - 10% of resolvable galaxies in the Hubble UDF but less than 1% in the local Universe. They are systems that could track cool ows and test models of galaxy formation.

  9. The FMOS-COSMOS survey of star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 1.6. II. The mass-metallicity relation and the dependence on star formation rate and dust extinction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahid, H. J.; Sanders, D. B.; Chu, J.; Hasinger, G. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kashino, D. [Division of Particle and Astrophysical Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya, 464-8602 (Japan); Silverman, J. D. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8583 (Japan); Kewley, L. J. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Daddi, E. [CEA-Saclay, Service d' Astrophysique, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Renzini, A. [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Rodighiero, G. [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Università di Padova, vicolo dell Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Nagao, T. [The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8302 (Japan); Arimoto, N. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Subaru Telescope, 650 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Kartaltepe, J. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Lilly, S. J.; Carollo, C. M. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-strasse 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Maier, C. [Vienna University, Department of Astrophysics, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, 1180 Vienna (Austria); Geller, M. J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Capak, P. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ilbert, O. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, 13388, Marseille (France); Kajisawa, M., E-mail: jabran@ifa.hawaii.edu [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Collaboration: COSMOS Team; and others

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the relationships between stellar mass, gas-phase oxygen abundance (metallicity), star formation rate (SFR), and dust content of star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 1.6 using Subaru/FMOS spectroscopy in the COSMOS field. The mass-metallicity (MZ) relation at z ∼ 1.6 is steeper than the relation observed in the local universe. The steeper MZ relation at z ∼ 1.6 is mainly due to evolution in the stellar mass where the MZ relation begins to turnover and flatten. This turnover mass is 1.2 dex larger at z ∼ 1.6. The most massive galaxies at z ∼ 1.6 (∼10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}) are enriched to the level observed in massive galaxies in the local universe. The MZ relation we measure at z ∼ 1.6 supports the suggestion of an empirical upper metallicity limit that does not significantly evolve with redshift. We find an anti-correlation between metallicity and SFR for galaxies at a fixed stellar mass at z ∼ 1.6, which is similar to trends observed in the local universe. We do not find a relation between stellar mass, metallicity, and SFR that is independent of redshift; rather, our data suggest that there is redshift evolution in this relation. We examine the relation between stellar mass, metallicity, and dust extinction, and find that at a fixed stellar mass, dustier galaxies tend to be more metal rich. From examination of the stellar masses, metallicities, SFRs, and dust extinctions, we conclude that stellar mass is most closely related to dust extinction.

  10. The Distance to M54 using Infrared Photometry of RR Lyrae Variable Stars and the Implications of its Relation to the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arvind F.; Beaton, Rachael L.; Majewski, Steven R.; SMHASH Team

    2018-01-01

    CDM cosmological models predict that dark matter halo density profiles will have central cusps. Yet for many dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs), this expectation is in contrast with observations of cored, rather than cusped, halos. This 'cusp-core problem' is apparent in the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy (Sgr), one of the largest satellites of the Milky Way. The globular cluster M54, one of several clusters associated with Sgr, coincides in on-sky position with the center of the main body of Sgr. While several studies find that M54 lies within the center of Sgr, other findings show that M54 is offset from the center by several kiloparsecs along our line of sight. The latter requires Sgr to have a cored dark matter distribution. In the presence of a cuspy halo, the orbit of M54 would have decayed via dynamical friction and the cluster would have fallen to the center of Sgr. A clear determination of the relation of the two bodies may help us better understand the distribution of dark matter in Sgr and other dSphs. Here we present a measurement of the distance modulus to M54 using a set of RR Lyrae variable stars in near-infrared Magellan data mid-infrared Spitzer data. The magnitudes of individual stars are measured using multi-epoch PSF photometry and light curve fitting. From precise RR Lyrae period-luminosity relations at these wavelengths, we then find the mean M54 distance modulus to be 17.126 ± 0.023 (ran) ± 0.080 (sys). Our result is consistent with a distance measurement to Sgr derived via nearly identical methods and thus also consistent with the expectation of a central cusp in the dark matter density profile of Sgr.

  11. GALAXY CLUSTERING TOPOLOGY IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY MAIN GALAXY SAMPLE: A TEST FOR GALAXY FORMATION MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun-Young; Kim, Juhan; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Park, Changbom; Gott, J. Richard; Weinberg, David H.; Vogeley, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    We measure the topology of the main galaxy distribution using the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, examining the dependence of galaxy clustering topology on galaxy properties. The observational results are used to test galaxy formation models. A volume-limited sample defined by M r -1 Mpc smoothing scale, with 4.8% uncertainty including all systematics and cosmic variance. The clustering topology over the smoothing length interval from 6 to 10 h -1 Mpc reveals a mild scale dependence for the shift (Δν) and void abundance (A V ) parameters of the genus curve. We find substantial bias in the topology of galaxy clustering with respect to the predicted topology of the matter distribution, which varies with luminosity, morphology, color, and the smoothing scale of the density field. The distribution of relatively brighter galaxies shows a greater prevalence of isolated clusters and more percolated voids. Even though early (late)-type galaxies show topology similar to that of red (blue) galaxies, the morphology dependence of topology is not identical to the color dependence. In particular, the void abundance parameter A V depends on morphology more strongly than on color. We test five galaxy assignment schemes applied to cosmological N-body simulations of a ΛCDM universe to generate mock galaxies: the halo-galaxy one-to-one correspondence model, the halo occupation distribution model, and three implementations of semi-analytic models (SAMs). None of the models reproduces all aspects of the observed clustering topology; the deviations vary from one model to another but include statistically significant discrepancies in the abundance of isolated voids or isolated clusters and the amplitude and overall shift of the genus curve. SAM predictions of the topology color dependence are usually correct in sign but incorrect in magnitude. Our topology tests indicate that, in these models, voids should be emptier and more connected and the threshold for

  12. The zCOSMOS 10k-sample: the role of galaxy stellar mass in the colour-density relation up to z ~ 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cucciati, O.; Iovino, A.; Kovač, K.; Scodeggio, M.; Lilly, S. J.; Bolzonella, M.; Bardelli, S.; Vergani, D.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Zucca, E.; Zamorani, G.; Pozzetti, L.; Knobel, C.; Oesch, P.; Lamareille, F.; Caputi, K.; Kampczyk, P.; Tresse, L.; Maier, C.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fèvre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Bongiorno, A.; Coppa, G.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Le Brun, V.; Mignoli, M.; Pellò, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez-Montero, E.; Ricciardelli, E.; Silverman, J. D.; Tanaka, M.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Scoville, N.; Abbas, U.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cassata, P.; Cimatti, A.; Guzzo, L.; Leauthaud, A.; Maccagni, D.; Marinoni, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Memeo, P.; Meneux, B.; Porciani, C.; Scaramella, R.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: With the first ˜10 000 spectra of the flux limited zCOSMOS sample (IAB ≤ 22.5) we want to study the evolution of environmental effects on galaxy properties since z ~ 1.0, and to disentangle the dependence among galaxy colour, stellar mass and local density. Methods: We use our previously

  13. SUPERDENSE MASSIVE GALAXIES IN WINGS LOCAL CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentinuzzi, T.; D'Onofrio, M.; Fritz, J.; Poggianti, B. M.; Bettoni, D.; Fasano, G.; Moretti, A.; Omizzolo, A.; Varela, J.; Cava, A.; Couch, W. J.; Dressler, A.; Moles, M.; Kjaergaard, P.; Vanzella, E.

    2010-01-01

    Massive quiescent galaxies at z > 1 have been found to have small physical sizes, and hence to be superdense. Several mechanisms, including minor mergers, have been proposed for increasing galaxy sizes from high- to low-z. We search for superdense massive galaxies in the WIde-field Nearby Galaxy-cluster Survey (WINGS) of X-ray selected galaxy clusters at 0.04 10 M sun , are mostly S0 galaxies, have a median effective radius (R e ) = 1.61 ± 0.29 kpc, a median Sersic index (n) = 3.0 ± 0.6, and very old stellar populations with a median mass-weighted age of 12.1 ± 1.3 Gyr. We calculate a number density of 2.9 x 10 -2 Mpc -3 for superdense galaxies in local clusters, and a hard lower limit of 1.3 x 10 -5 Mpc -3 in the whole comoving volume between z = 0.04 and z = 0.07. We find a relation between mass, effective radius, and luminosity-weighted age in our cluster galaxies, which can mimic the claimed evolution of the radius with redshift, if not properly taken into account. We compare our data with spectroscopic high-z surveys and find that-when stellar masses are considered-there is consistency with the local WINGS galaxy sizes out to z ∼ 2, while a discrepancy of a factor of 3 exists with the only spectroscopic z > 2 study. In contrast, there is strong evidence for a large evolution in radius for the most massive galaxies with M * > 4 x 10 11 M sun compared to similarly massive galaxies in WINGS, i.e., the brightest cluster galaxies.

  14. Starburst Galaxy NGC 3310

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Scientists using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope are studying the colors of star clusters to determine the age and history of starburst galaxies, a technique somewhat similar to the process of learning the age of a tree by counting its rings. This month's Hubble Heritage image showcases the galaxy NGC 3310. It is one of several starburst galaxies, which are hotbeds of star formation, being studied by Dr. Gerhardt Meurer and a team of scientists at Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, Md. The picture, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, is online at http://heritage.stsci.edu and http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2001/26 and http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Most galaxies form new stars at a fairly slow rate, but starburst galaxies blaze with extremely active star formation. Measuring the clusters' colors yields information about stellar temperatures. Since young stars are blue and older stars redder, the colors relate to their ages. NGC 3310 is forming clusters of new stars at a prodigious rate. The new image shows several hundred star clusters, visible as the bright blue, diffuse objects that trace the galaxy's spiral arms. Each of these star clusters represents the formation of up to about a million stars, a process that takes less than 100,000 years. In addition, hundreds of individual young, luminous stars can be seen throughout the galaxy. The star clusters become redder with age as the most massive and bluest stars exhaust their fuel and burn out. Measurements in this image of the wide range of cluster colors show their ages range between about one million and more than one hundred million years. This suggests that the starburst 'turned on' more than 100 million years ago. It may have been triggered when NGC 3310 collided with a companion galaxy. These observations may change astronomers' view of starbursts. Starbursts were once thought to be brief

  15. ANGULAR-MOMENTUM IN BINARY SPIRAL GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OOSTERLOO, T

    In order to investigate the relative orientations of spiral galaxies in pairs, the distribution of the angle between the spin-vectors for a new sample of 40 binary spiral galaxies is determined. From this distribution it is found, contrary to an earlier result obtained by Helou (1984), that there is

  16. Supermassive Black Holes and Galaxy Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    The formation of supermassive black holes (SMBH) is intimately related to galaxy formation, although precisely how remains a mystery. I speculate that formation of, and feedback from, SMBH may alleviate problems that have arisen in our understanding of the cores of dark halos of galaxies.

  17. THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: DYNAMICAL MASSES AND SCALING RELATIONS FOR A SAMPLE OF MASSIVE SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH EFFECT SELECTED GALAXY CLUSTERS {sup ,}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifon, Cristobal; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Gonzalez, Jorge; Infante, Leopoldo; Duenner, Rolando [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Menanteau, Felipe; Hughes, John P.; Baker, Andrew J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Hasselfield, Matthew [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Marriage, Tobias A.; Crichton, Devin; Gralla, Megan B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Addison, Graeme E.; Dunkley, Joanna [Sub-department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Battaglia, Nick; Bond, J. Richard; Hajian, Amir [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Das, Sudeep [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, LBL and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Devlin, Mark J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Hilton, Matt [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-07-20

    We present the first dynamical mass estimates and scaling relations for a sample of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) selected galaxy clusters. The sample consists of 16 massive clusters detected with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) over a 455 deg{sup 2} area of the southern sky. Deep multi-object spectroscopic observations were taken to secure intermediate-resolution (R {approx} 700-800) spectra and redshifts for Almost-Equal-To 60 member galaxies on average per cluster. The dynamical masses M{sub 200c} of the clusters have been calculated using simulation-based scaling relations between velocity dispersion and mass. The sample has a median redshift z = 0.50 and a median mass M{sub 200c}{approx_equal}12 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} h{sub 70}{sup -1} M{sub sun} with a lower limit M{sub 200c}{approx_equal}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} h{sub 70}{sup -1} M{sub sun}, consistent with the expectations for the ACT southern sky survey. These masses are compared to the ACT SZE properties of the sample, specifically, the match-filtered central SZE amplitude y{sub 0}-tilde, the central Compton parameter y{sub 0}, and the integrated Compton signal Y{sub 200c}, which we use to derive SZE-mass scaling relations. All SZE estimators correlate with dynamical mass with low intrinsic scatter ({approx}< 20%), in agreement with numerical simulations. We explore the effects of various systematic effects on these scaling relations, including the correlation between observables and the influence of dynamically disturbed clusters. Using the three-dimensional information available, we divide the sample into relaxed and disturbed clusters and find that {approx}50% of the clusters are disturbed. There are hints that disturbed systems might bias the scaling relations, but given the current sample sizes, these differences are not significant; further studies including more clusters are required to assess the impact of these clusters on the scaling relations.

  18. Polar ring galaxies in the Galaxy Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, Ido; Funes, José G.; Brosch, Noah

    2012-05-01

    We report observations of 16 candidate polar-ring galaxies (PRGs) identified by the Galaxy Zoo project in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data base. Deep images of five galaxies are available in the SDSS Stripe82 data base, while to reach similar depth we observed the remaining galaxies with the 1.8-m Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope. We derive integrated magnitudes and u-r colours for the host and ring components and show continuum-subtracted Hα+[N II] images for seven objects. We present a basic morphological and environmental analysis of the galaxies and discuss their properties in comparison with other types of early-type galaxies. Follow-up photometric and spectroscopic observations will allow a kinematic confirmation of the nature of these systems and a more detailed analysis of their stellar populations.

  19. The systematic effect in catalogues of galaxies and clusters of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnicki, K.; Obryk, B.; Raczka, J.

    1989-01-01

    The systematic effects in observation of galaxies and clusters of galaxies related to zenith distance, galactic latitude, distance from the galactic centre and supergalactic latitude are investigated. These effects are defined in terms of relative number of objects catalogued in various regions of the celestial sphere. A special calculation algorithm is developed for this purpose. The effect of zenith distance and that of galactic latitude are the most distinct and clear in interpretation. It is shown that the atmospheric extinction as well as the interstellar one manifest themselves in a somewhat different way in counts of stars than in counts of galaxies and galaxy clusters. 10 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs. (author)

  20. Combining Galaxy-Galaxy Lensing and Galaxy Clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Youngsoo [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Krause, Elisabeth [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Dodelson, Scott [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Jain, Bhuvnesh [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Amara, Adam [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Becker, Matt [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Bridle, Sarah [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Clampitt, Joseph [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Crocce, Martin [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Honscheid, Klaus [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gaztanaga, Enrique [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Sanchez, Carles [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Wechsler, Risa [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Combining galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering is a promising method for inferring the growth rate of large scale structure, a quantity that will shed light on the mechanism driving the acceleration of the Universe. The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a prime candidate for such an analysis, with its measurements of both the distribution of galaxies on the sky and the tangential shears of background galaxies induced by these foreground lenses. By constructing an end-to-end analysis that combines large-scale galaxy clustering and small-scale galaxy-galaxy lensing, we also forecast the potential of a combined probes analysis on DES datasets. In particular, we develop a practical approach to a DES combined probes analysis by jointly modeling the assumptions and systematics affecting the different components of the data vector, employing a shared halo model, HOD parametrization, photometric redshift errors, and shear measurement errors. Furthermore, we study the effect of external priors on different subsets of these parameters. We conclude that DES data will provide powerful constraints on the evolution of structure growth in the universe, conservatively/ optimistically constraining the growth function to 8%/4.9% with its first-year data covering 1000 square degrees, and to 4%/2.3% with its full five-year data covering 5000 square degrees.

  1. Do Galaxies Follow Darwinian Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Using VIMOS on ESO's Very Large Telescope, a team of French and Italian astronomers have shown the strong influence the environment exerts on the way galaxies form and evolve. The scientists have for the first time charted remote parts of the Universe, showing that the distribution of galaxies has considerably evolved with time, depending on the galaxies' immediate surroundings. This surprising discovery poses new challenges for theories of the formation and evolution of galaxies. The 'nature versus nurture' debate is a hot topic in human psychology. But astronomers too face similar conundrums, in particular when trying to solve a problem that goes to the very heart of cosmological theories: are the galaxies we see today simply the product of the primordial conditions in which they formed, or did experiences in the past change the path of their evolution? ESO PR Photo 17/06 ESO PR Photo 45/06 Galaxy Distribution in Space In a large, three-year long survey carried out with VIMOS [1], the Visible Imager and Multi-Object Spectrograph on ESO's VLT, astronomers studied more than 6,500 galaxies over a wide range of distances to investigate how their properties vary over different timescales, in different environments and for varying galaxy luminosities [2]. They were able to build an atlas of the Universe in three dimensions, going back more than 9 billion years. This new census reveals a surprising result. The colour-density relation, that describes the relationship between the properties of a galaxy and its environment, was markedly different 7 billion years ago. The astronomers thus found that the galaxies' luminosity, their initial genetic properties, and the environments they reside in have a profound impact on their evolution. "Our results indicate that environment is a key player in galaxy evolution, but there's no simple answer to the 'nature versus nurture' problem in galaxy evolution," said Olivier Le Fèvre from the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille

  2. Galaxy Structure, Dark Matter, and Galaxy Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Weinberg, David H.

    1996-01-01

    The structure of galaxies, the nature of dark matter, and the physics of galaxy formation were the interlocking themes of DM 1996: Dark and Visible Matter in Galaxies and Cosmological Implications. In this conference summary report, I review recent observational and theoretical advances in these areas, then describe highlights of the meeting and discuss their implications. I include as an appendix the lyrics of The Dark Matter Rap: A Cosmological History for the MTV Generation.

  3. Weak Lensing by Galaxy Troughs in DES Science Verification Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruen, D. [Ludwig Maximilian Univ., Munich (Germany); Max Planck Inst. for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching (Germany). et al.

    2015-09-29

    We measure the weak lensing shear around galaxy troughs, i.e. the radial alignment of background galaxies relative to underdensities in projections of the foreground galaxy field over a wide range of redshift in Science Verification data from the Dark Energy Survey. Our detection of the shear signal is highly significant (10σ–15σ for the smallest angular scales) for troughs with the redshift range z ϵ [0.2, 0.5] of the projected galaxy field and angular diameters of 10 arcmin…1°. These measurements probe the connection between the galaxy, matter density, and convergence fields. By assuming galaxies are biased tracers of the matter density with Poissonian noise, we find agreement of our measurements with predictions in a fiducial Λ cold dark matter model. Furthermore, the prediction for the lensing signal on large trough scales is virtually independent of the details of the underlying model for the connection of galaxies and matter. Our comparison of the shear around troughs with that around cylinders with large galaxy counts is consistent with a symmetry between galaxy and matter over- and underdensities. In addition, we measure the two-point angular correlation of troughs with galaxies which, in contrast to the lensing signal, is sensitive to galaxy bias on all scales. Finally, the lensing signal of troughs and their clustering with galaxies is therefore a promising probe of the statistical properties of matter underdensities and their connection to the galaxy field.

  4. Globular Clusters for Faint Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    .The most striking feature of these galaxies, however, is that they are surrounded by a large number of compact objects that appear to be globular clusters. From the observations, Van Dokkum and collaborators estimate that Dragonfly 44 and DFX1 have approximately 74 and 62 globulars, respectively significantly more than the low numbers expected for galaxies of this luminosity.Armed with this knowledge, the authors went back and looked at archival observations of 14 other UDGs also located in the Coma cluster. They found that these smaller and fainter galaxies dont host quite as many globular clusters as Dragonfly 44 and DFX1, but more than half also show significant overdensities of globulars.Main panel: relation between the number of globular clusters and total absolute magnitude for Coma UDGs (solid symbols) compared to normal galaxies (open symbols). Top panel: relation between effective radius and absolute magnitude. The UDGs are significantly larger and have more globular clusters than normal galaxies of the same luminosity. [van Dokkum et al. 2017]Evidence of FailureIn general, UDGs appear to have more globular clusters than other galaxies of the same total luminosity, by a factor of nearly 7. These results are consistent with the scenario in which UDGs are failed galaxies: they likely have the halo mass to have formed a large number of globular clusters, but they were quenched before they formed a disk and bulge. Because star formation never got going in UDGs, they are now much dimmer than other galaxies of the same size.The authors suggest that the next step is to obtain dynamical measurements of the UDGs to determine whether these faint galaxies really do have the halo mass suggested by their large numbers of globulars. Future observations will continue to help us pin down the origin of these dim giants.CitationPieter van Dokkum et al 2017 ApJL 844 L11. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa7ca2

  5. Observational properties of compact groups of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickson, P.

    1990-01-01

    Compact groups are small, relatively isolated, systems of galaxies with projected separations comparable to the diameters of the galaxies themselves. Two well-known examples are Stephan's Quintet (Stephan, 1877) and Seyfert's Sextet (Seyfert 1948a,b). In groups such as these, the apparent space density of galaxies approaches 10(exp 6) Mpc(sub -3), denser even than the cores of rich clusters. The apparent unlikeliness of the chance occurrence of such tight groupings lead Ambartsumyan (1958, 1975) to conclude that compact groups must be physically dense systems. This view is supported by clear signs of galaxy interactions that are seen in many groups. Spectroscopic observations reveal that typical relative velocities of galaxies in the groups are comparable to their internal stellar velocities. This should be conducive to strong gravitational interactions - more so than in rich clusters, where galaxy velocities are typically much higher. This suggests that compact groups could be excellent laboratories in which to study galaxy interactions and their effects. Compact groups often contain one or more galaxies whose redshift differs greatly from those of the other group members. If these galaxies are at the same distance as the other members, either entire galaxies are being ejected at high velocities from these groups, or some new physical phenomena must be occurring. If their redshifts are cosmological, we must explain why so many discordant galaxies are found in compact groups. In recent years much progress has been made in addressing these questions. Here, the author discusses the current observational data on compact groups and their implications

  6. On the galaxy-halo connection in the EAGLE simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Harry; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Wechsler, Risa H.; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop

    2017-10-01

    Empirical models of galaxy formation require assumptions about the correlations between galaxy and halo properties. These may be calibrated against observations or inferred from physical models such as hydrodynamical simulations. In this Letter, we use the EAGLE simulation to investigate the correlation of galaxy size with halo properties. We motivate this analysis by noting that the common assumption of angular momentum partition between baryons and dark matter in rotationally supported galaxies overpredicts both the spread in the stellar mass-size relation and the anticorrelation of size and velocity residuals, indicating a problem with the galaxy-halo connection it implies. We find the EAGLE galaxy population to perform significantly better on both statistics, and trace this success to the weakness of the correlations of galaxy size with halo mass, concentration and spin at fixed stellar mass. Using these correlations in empirical models will enable fine-grained aspects of galaxy scalings to be matched.

  7. Peering Into an Early Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-04-01

    Thirteen billion years ago, early galaxies ionized the gas around them, producing some of the first light that brought our universe out of its dark ages. Now the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has provided one of the first detailed looks into the interior of one of these early, distant galaxies.Sources of LightArtists illustration of the reionization of the universe (time progresses left to right), in which ionized bubbles that form around the first sources of light eventually overlap to form the fully ionized universe we observe today. [Avi Loeb/Scientific American]For the first roughly hundred million years of its existence, our universe expanded in relative darkness there were no sources of light at that time besides the cosmic microwave background. But as mass started to condense to form the first objects, these objects eventually shone as the earliest luminous sources, contributing to the reionization of the universe.To learn about the early production of light in the universe, our best bet is to study in detail the earliest luminous sources stars, galaxies, or quasars that we can hunt down. One ideal target is the galaxy COSMOS Redshift 7, known as CR7 for short.Targeting CR7CR7 is one of the oldest, most distant galaxies known, lying at a redshift of z 6.6. Its discovery in 2015 and subsequent observations of bright, ultraviolet-emitting clumps within it have led to broad speculation about the source of its emission. Does this galaxy host an active nucleus? Or could it perhaps contain the long-theorized first generation of stars, metal-free Population III stars?To determine the nature of CR7 and the other early galaxies that contributed to reionization, we need to explore their gas and dust in detail a daunting task for such distant sources! Conveniently, this is a challenge that is now made possible by ALMAs incredible capabilities. In a new publication led by Jorryt Matthee (Leiden University, the Netherlands), a team of scientists now

  8. LINER galaxy properties and the local environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldwell, Georgina V.; Alonso, Sol; Duplancic, Fernanda; Mesa, Valeria

    2018-05-01

    We analyse the properties of a sample of 5560 low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER) galaxies selected from SDSS-DR12 at low red shift, for a complete range of local density environments. The host LINER galaxies were studied and compared with a well-defined control sample of 5553 non-LINER galaxies matched in red shift, luminosity, morphology and local density. By studying the distributions of galaxy colours and the stellar age population, we find that LINERs are redder and older than the control sample over a wide range of densities. In addition, LINERs are older than the control sample, at a given galaxy colour, indicating that some external process could have accelerated the evolution of the stellar population. The analysis of the host properties shows that the control sample exhibits a strong relation between colours, ages and the local density, while more than 90 per cent of the LINERs are redder and older than the mean values, independently of the neighbourhood density. Furthermore, a detailed study in three local density ranges shows that, while control sample galaxies are redder and older as a function of stellar mass and density, LINER galaxies mismatch the known morphology-density relation of galaxies without low-ionization features. The results support the contribution of hot and old stars to the low-ionization emission although the contribution of nuclear activity is not discarded.

  9. Cosmology and galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    Implications of the massive halos and ''missing mass'' for galaxy formation are addressed; it is suggested that this mass consists of ''Population III'' stars that formed before the galaxies did. 19 references

  10. A galaxy lacking dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dokkum, Pieter; Danieli, Shany; Cohen, Yotam; Merritt, Allison; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Abraham, Roberto; Brodie, Jean; Conroy, Charlie; Lokhorst, Deborah; Mowla, Lamiya; O'Sullivan, Ewan; Zhang, Jielai

    2018-03-01

    Studies of galaxy surveys in the context of the cold dark matter paradigm have shown that the mass of the dark matter halo and the total stellar mass are coupled through a function that varies smoothly with mass. Their average ratio Mhalo/Mstars has a minimum of about 30 for galaxies with stellar masses near that of the Milky Way (approximately 5 × 1010 solar masses) and increases both towards lower masses and towards higher masses. The scatter in this relation is not well known; it is generally thought to be less than a factor of two for massive galaxies but much larger for dwarf galaxies. Here we report the radial velocities of ten luminous globular-cluster-like objects in the ultra-diffuse galaxy NGC1052–DF2, which has a stellar mass of approximately 2 × 108 solar masses. We infer that its velocity dispersion is less than 10.5 kilometres per second with 90 per cent confidence, and we determine from this that its total mass within a radius of 7.6 kiloparsecs is less than 3.4 × 108 solar masses. This implies that the ratio Mhalo/Mstars is of order unity (and consistent with zero), a factor of at least 400 lower than expected. NGC1052–DF2 demonstrates that dark matter is not always coupled with baryonic matter on galactic scales.

  11. A galaxy lacking dark matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dokkum, Pieter; Danieli, Shany; Cohen, Yotam; Merritt, Allison; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Abraham, Roberto; Brodie, Jean; Conroy, Charlie; Lokhorst, Deborah; Mowla, Lamiya; O'Sullivan, Ewan; Zhang, Jielai

    2018-03-28

    Studies of galaxy surveys in the context of the cold dark matter paradigm have shown that the mass of the dark matter halo and the total stellar mass are coupled through a function that varies smoothly with mass. Their average ratio M halo /M stars has a minimum of about 30 for galaxies with stellar masses near that of the Milky Way (approximately 5 × 10 10 solar masses) and increases both towards lower masses and towards higher masses. The scatter in this relation is not well known; it is generally thought to be less than a factor of two for massive galaxies but much larger for dwarf galaxies. Here we report the radial velocities of ten luminous globular-cluster-like objects in the ultra-diffuse galaxy NGC1052-DF2, which has a stellar mass of approximately 2 × 10 8 solar masses. We infer that its velocity dispersion is less than 10.5 kilometres per second with 90 per cent confidence, and we determine from this that its total mass within a radius of 7.6 kiloparsecs is less than 3.4 × 10 8 solar masses. This implies that the ratio M halo /M stars is of order unity (and consistent with zero), a factor of at least 400 lower than expected. NGC1052-DF2 demonstrates that dark matter is not always coupled with baryonic matter on galactic scales.

  12. On order and chaos in the mergers of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervoort, Peter O.

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes a low-dimensional model of the merger of two galaxies. The governing equations are the complete sets of moment equations of the first and second orders derived from the collisionless Boltzmann equations representing the galaxies. The moment equations reduce to an equation governing the relative motion of the galaxies, tensor virial equations, and equations governing the kinetic energy tensors. We represent the galaxies as heterogeneous ellipsoids with Gaussian stratifications of their densities, and we represent the mean stellar motions in terms of velocity fields that sustain those densities consistently with the equation of continuity. We reduce and solve the governing equations for a head-on encounter of a dwarf galaxy with a giant galaxy. That reduction includes the effect of dynamical friction on the relative motion of the galaxies. Our criterion for chaotic behaviour is sensitivity of the motion to small changes in the initial conditions. In a survey of encounters and mergers of a dwarf galaxy with a giant galaxy, chaotic behaviour arises mainly in non-linear oscillations of the dwarf galaxy. The encounter disrupts the dwarf, excites chaotic oscillations of the dwarf, or excites regular oscillations. Dynamical friction can drive a merger to completion within a Hubble time only if the dwarf is sufficiently massive. The survey of encounters and mergers is the basis for a simple model of the evolution of a `Local Group' consisting of a giant galaxy and a population of dwarf galaxies bound to the giant as satellites on radial orbits.

  13. ENVIRONMENTALLY DRIVEN GLOBAL EVOLUTION OF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cen Renyue

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing high-resolution large-scale galaxy formation simulations of the standard cold dark matter model, we examine global trends in the evolution of galaxies due to gravitational shock heating by collapse of large halos and large-scale structure. We find two major global trends. (1) The mean specific star formation rate (sSFR) at a given galaxy mass is a monotonically increasing function with increasing redshift. (2) The mean sSFR at a given redshift is a monotonically increasing function of decreasing galaxy mass that steepens with decreasing redshift. The general dimming trend with time merely reflects the general decline of gas inflow rate with increasing time. The differential evolution of galaxies of different masses with redshift is a result of gravitational shock heating of gas due to formation of large halos (groups and clusters) and large-scale structure that moves a progressively larger fraction of galaxies and their satellites into environments where gas has too high an entropy to cool to continue feeding resident galaxies. Overdense regions where larger halos are preferentially located begin to be heated earlier and have higher temperatures than lower density regions at any given time, causing sSFR of larger galaxies to fall below the general dimming trend at higher redshift than less massive galaxies and galaxies with high sSFR to gradually shift to lower density environments at lower redshift. We find that several noted cosmic downsizing phenomena are different manifestations of these general trends. We also find that the great migration of galaxies from blue cloud to red sequence as well as color-density relation, among others, may arise naturally in this picture.

  14. Statistical properties of galaxy distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sylos Labini

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent availability of complete three dimensional samples of galaxies and clusters permits a direct study of their spatial properties. We present a brief review of galaxy correlations based on the methods modern statistical Physics. These methods which able to identify self-similar and non-analytical prop ties, allow us to test the usual homogeneity assumption of luminous matter distribution. We conclude that both the three dimensional prop ties, and the angular log N - log S relation, point out the fact that the distribution of galaxies and clusters fractal with D ≈ 2 up to the deepest scale probed luminous matter (≈≥ 1000h-1 Mpc. This result has important implications for the theoretical framework that should be adopted.

  15. Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibata, R.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Sagittarius DWARF GALAXY is the closest member of the Milky Way's entourage of satellite galaxies. Discovered by chance in 1994, its presence had previously been overlooked because it is largely hidden by the most crowded regions of our own Galaxy with which it is merging....

  16. Accretion by the Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binney, J.; Fraternali, F.; Reylé, C.; Robin, A.; Schultheis, M.

    Cosmology requires at least half of the baryons in the Universe to be in the intergalactic medium, much of which is believed to form hot coronae around galaxies. Star-forming galaxies must be accreting from their coronae. Hi observations of external galaxies show that they have Hi halos associated

  17. Evolution of stars and galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baade, W.

    1975-01-01

    Transcriptions of recorded lectures given by the author have been edited into book form. Topics covered include: historical introduction, classification of galaxies; observation of galaxies; photography of galaxies; the andromeda nebula, spiral structure; dust and gas in galaxies; outline of stellar evolution; the distances to the galaxies; galactic clusters; stellar associations; the T Tauri stars; globular clusters: color-magnitude diagrams; spectra of population II stars; variable stars in globular clusters; elliptical galaxies; irregular galaxies and star formation; the magellanic clouds; the andromeda nebula, photometry; evolution of galaxies; the structure of the galaxy; the galactic nucleus; the galactic disk; and kinematics and evolution of the galaxy. 27 tables, 26 figures

  18. Spectroscopy of superluminous supernova host galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leloudas, G.; Kruehler, T.; Schulze, S

    2015-01-01

    Superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) are very bright explosions that were only discovered recently and that show a preference for occurring in faint dwarf galaxies. Understanding why stellar evolution yields different types of stellar explosions in these environments is fundamental in order to both...... uncover the elusive progenitors of SLSNe and to study star formation in dwarf galaxies. In this paper, we present the first results of our project to study SUperluminous Supernova Host galaxIES, focusing on the sample for which we have obtained spectroscopy. We show that SLSNe-I and SLSNe-R (hydrogen......-poor) often (~50% in our sample) occur in a class of galaxies that is known as Extreme Emission Line Galaxies (EELGs). The probability of this happening by chance is negligible and we therefore conclude that the extreme environmental conditions and the SLSN phenomenon are related. In contrast, SLSNe...

  19. Galaxy motions cause trouble for cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan-Kolchin, Michael

    2018-02-01

    According to the widely accepted dark energy plus cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model, dark matter is responsible for both the growth of cosmological structures and the motions of galaxies relative to the expansion of the universe. The dynamics of small galaxies orbiting larger ones provides a crucial window into this mysterious dark matter, which leaves its gravitational mark throughout the universe but has not yet been detected directly. On page 534 of this issue, Müller et al. (1) describe observations of satellite galaxies around Centaurus A, the largest galaxy system in the vicinity of the Milky Way. The results may lead to either a better understanding of galaxy formation within the ΛCDM model or a push to overthrow its underlying assumptions.

  20. Manganese in dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, P.; Cescutti, G.; Jablonka, P.; Hill, V.; Shetrone, M.; Letarte, B.; Lemasle, B.; Venn, K. A.; Battaglia, G.; Tolstoy, E.; Irwin, M. J.; Primas, F.; François, P.

    2012-05-01

    We provide manganese abundances (corrected for the effect of the hyperfine structure) for a large number of stars in the dwarf spheroidal galaxies Sculptor and Fornax, and for a smaller number in the Carina and Sextans dSph galaxies. Abundances had already been determined for a number of other elements in these galaxies, including α and iron-peak ones, which allowed us to build [Mn/Fe] and [Mn/α] versus [Fe/H] diagrams. The Mn abundances imply sub-solar [Mn/Fe] ratios for the stars in all four galaxies examined. In Sculptor, [Mn/Fe] stays roughly constant between [Fe/H] ~ -1.8 and -1.4 and decreases at higher iron abundance. In Fornax, [Mn/Fe] does not vary in any significant way with [Fe/H]. The relation between [Mn/α] and [Fe/H] for the dSph galaxies is clearly systematically offset from that for the Milky Way, which reflects the different star formation histories of the respective galaxies. The [Mn/α] behavior can be interpreted as a result of the metal-dependent Mn yields of Type II and Type Ia supernovae. We also computed chemical evolution models for star formation histories matching those determined empirically for Sculptor, Fornax, and Carina, and for the Mn yields of SNe Ia, which were assumed to be either constant or variable with metallicity. The observed [Mn/Fe] versus [Fe/H] relation in Sculptor, Fornax, and Carina can be reproduced only by the chemical evolution models that include a metallicity-dependent Mn yield from the SNe Ia. Based on observations made with the FLAMES-GIRAFFE multi-object spectrograph mounted on the Kuyen VLT telescope at ESO-Paranal Observatory (programs 171.B-0588, 074.B-0415 and 076.B-0146).Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  1. Evolution of the Stellar Mass–Metallicity Relation. I. Galaxies in the z ∼ 0.4 Cluster Cl0024

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leethochawalit, Nicha; Kirby, Evan N.; Moran, Sean M.; Ellis, Richard S.; Treu, Tommaso

    2018-03-01

    We present the stellar mass–stellar metallicity relationship (MZR) in the galaxy cluster Cl0024+1654 at z ∼ 0.4 using full-spectrum stellar population synthesis modeling of individual quiescent galaxies. The lower limit of our stellar mass range is M * = 109.7 M ⊙, the lowest galaxy mass at which individual stellar metallicity has been measured beyond the local universe. We report a detection of an evolution of the stellar MZR with observed redshift at 0.037 ± 0.007 dex per Gyr, consistent with the predictions from hydrodynamical simulations. Additionally, we find that the evolution of the stellar MZR with observed redshift can be explained by an evolution of the stellar MZR with the formation time of galaxies, i.e., when the single stellar population (SSP)-equivalent ages of galaxies are taken into account. This behavior is consistent with stars forming out of gas that also has an MZR with a normalization that decreases with redshift. Lastly, we find that over the observed mass range, the MZR can be described by a linear function with a shallow slope ([{Fe}/{{H}}]\\propto (0.16+/- 0.03){log}{M}* ). The slope suggests that galaxy feedback, in terms of mass-loading factor, might be mass-independent over the observed mass and redshift range.

  2. Coevolution of Supermassive Black Holes and Their Host Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiner, Kyle Devon

    The role of black holes in galaxy evolution has come under intense scrutiny since it was discovered that every galaxy in the local universe contains a supermassive black hole (SMBH) at its nucleus. The existence of scaling relations between the SMBH and its host galaxy show that their presence is not coincidental, but rather that SMBHs and their hosts have a shared evolution. The nature of this coevolution is still debated with some proposing it to be a natural result of hierarchical merging models, while others invoke SMBH feedback mechanisms that couple BH growth with that of the host galaxy. In this dissertation, I examine different regimes of SMBH activity and host galaxy properties. I investigate a sample of post-starburst galaxies to gain insight into the morphological and spectrophotometric evolution of galaxies through galaxy interactions and mergers. I plot detailed comparisons of the galaxy kinematics as measured from different stellar populations. I also investigate post-starburst galaxies that simultaneously host an AGN. I develop a technique to study the properties of both the host galaxy and the SMBH in these objects, directly investigating the scaling relation between the two. I describe analysis performed on red quasars in another study that directly probes the scaling relations in the non-local universe. Lastly, I conduct SED fitting of quasars to illuminate the differences between two major spectral types, and investigate host galaxy properties including star formation. All of these projects focus on the relationship between the SMBH and host galaxy. I show that a range of galaxy interactions can lead to black hole growth and are part of galaxy evolution over cosmic time.

  3. KINEMATICS OF M51-TYPE INTERACTING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Günthardt, G. I.; Agüero, M. P. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Laprida 854, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Díaz, R. J., E-mail: guillermo.gunthardt@unc.edu.ar, E-mail: mpaguero@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: rdiaz@gemini.edu [Gemini Observatory, AURA (United States)

    2016-11-01

    We present a kinematic catalog for 21 M51-type galaxies. It consists of radial velocity distributions observed with long-slit spectroscopy along different position angles, for both the main and satellite components. We detect deviations from circular motion in most of the main galaxies of each pair, due to the gravitational perturbation produced by the satellite galaxy. However, some systems do not show significant distortions in their radial velocity curves. We found some differences between the directions of the photometric and kinematic major axes in the main galaxies with a bar subsystem. The Tully–Fisher relation in the B -band and Ks -band for the present sample of M51-type systems is flatter than in isolated galaxies. Using the radial velocity data set, we built a synthetic normalized radial velocity distribution, as a reference for future modeling of these peculiar systems. The synthetic rotation curve, representing the typical rotation curve of the main galaxy in an M51-type pair, is near to solid body-like inside 4 kpc, and then is nearly flat within the radial range 5–15 kpc. The relative position angles between the major axis of the main galaxy and the companion’s location, as well as the amplitude of the velocity difference, indicate that the orbital motion of the satellite has a large projection on the equatorial plane of the main galaxy. In addition, the differences in radial velocity between the two galaxies indicate that the satellite’s orbital motion is within the range of amplitudes of the rotation curve of the main galaxy, and all the M51-type systems studied here, except for one, are gravitationally bound.

  4. Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Spinrad, Hyron

    2005-01-01

    The evolution in the form and structure of galaxies which has taken place since the universe was in its infancy is one of the most closely studied by astrophysicists and cosmologists today. It has profound implications for our understanding of how the universe itself has evolved over the past 12 billion years or so. This book will discuss the evolution of galaxies in detail, emphasising the boundaries of our knowledge about the most distant galaxies, but demonstrating how it is possible to make important comparisons between nearby galaxies and the most distant current observed. The author will also review galaxy morphology and its likely (but as yet unproven) history.

  5. The Unexpected Past of a Dwarf Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-01

    in this way effectively `eats' the smaller one. Thus the Milky Way may contain the remains of many smaller galaxies it has met and consumed in the past. A natural consequence of this theory is that the Milky Way halo may at least partially consist of stars which originally belonged to these smaller galaxies. However, it is also possible that some of the halo stars formed during the early collapse of the gas cloud from which the Milky Way formed. Like the Milky Way, the two nearest, large spiral galaxies (the Andromeda nebula and M33 in the neighbouring Triangulum constellation) are also surrounded by halos of old stars. Contrarily, investigations of the smaller galaxies in the Local Group have until now not shown that they possess such halos. These dwarf galaxies greatly outnumber the large spiral galaxies - to date about two dozen are known - and they are considered to be the last survivors of the earlier cannibalism phase. The nearest are the well-known Magellanic Clouds, about 170,000 (Large Cloud) and 250,000 light years distant (Small Cloud). They can be seen with the unaided eye from the Southern hemisphere. Recent studies indicate that they orbit the Milky Way and that they may eventually fall prey to our galaxy in a future round of cannibalism. So far, no evidence has been found of an old halo around the Magellanic Clouds. This does not necessarily imply that all dwarf galaxies must likewise lack halos: it is also possible that the halos of the Magellanic Clouds were stripped away when they came too close to the Milky Way sometime in the past. The isolated WLM dwarf galaxy Down in the southern sky, in the constellation of Cetus (the Whale or the Sea Monster), lies a relative faint and distant, small galaxy which astronomers normally refer to as the WLM dwarf galaxy . It was first seen in 1909 by the famous astrophotographer Max Wolf on photographic plates obtained at the Heidelberg Observatory (Germany), but it was only in 1926 that its true nature was

  6. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Matteucci, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The term “chemical evolution of galaxies” refers to the evolution of abundances of chemical species in galaxies, which is due to nuclear processes occurring in stars and to gas flows into and out of galaxies. This book deals with the chemical evolution of galaxies of all morphological types (ellipticals, spirals and irregulars) and stresses the importance of the star formation histories in determining the properties of stellar populations in different galaxies. The topic is approached in a didactical and logical manner via galaxy evolution models which are compared with observational results obtained in the last two decades: The reader is given an introduction to the concept of chemical abundances and learns about the main stellar populations in our Galaxy as well as about the classification of galaxy types and their main observables. In the core of the book, the construction and solution of chemical evolution models are discussed in detail, followed by descriptions and interpretations of observations of ...

  7. Galaxy Zoo: dust in spiral galaxies star

    OpenAIRE

    Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert; Bamford, Steven; Mosleh, Moein; Lintott, Chris J.; Andreescu, Dan; Edmondson, Edward M.; Keel, William C.; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M. Jordan; Schawinski, Kevin; Slosar, Anze; Szalay, Alexander S.; Thomas, Daniel; Vandenberg, Jan

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effect of dust on spiral galaxies by measuring the inclination dependence of optical colours for 24 276 well-resolved Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies visually classified via the Galaxy Zoo project. We find clear trends of reddening with inclination which imply a total extinction from face-on to edge-on of 0.7, 0.6, 0.5 and 0.4 mag for the ugri passbands (estimating 0.3 mag of extinction in z band). We split the sample into ‘bulgy’ (early-type) and ‘discy’ (late-typ...

  8. The universal galaxy cluster pressure profile from a representative sample of nearby systems (REXCESS) and the YSZ - M500 relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, M.; Pratt, G. W.; Piffaretti, R.; Böhringer, H.; Croston, J. H.; Pointecouteau, E.

    2010-07-01

    We investigate the regularity of cluster pressure profiles with REXCESS, a representative sample of 33 local (z history and non-gravitational physics. Comparison with scaled data from several state of the art numerical simulations shows good agreement outside the core. Combining the observational data in the radial range [0.03-1] R500 with simulation data in the radial range [1-4] R500, we derive a robust measure of the universal pressure profile, that, in an analytical form, defines the physical pressure profile of clusters as a function of mass and redshift up to the cluster "boundary". Using this profile and direct spherical integration of the observed pressure profiles, we estimate the integrated Compton parameter Y and investigate its scaling with M500 and LX, the soft band X-ray luminosity. We consider both the spherically integrated quantity, Ysph(R), proportional to the gas thermal energy, and the cylindrically integrated quantity, Ycyl(R)=YSZ DA2, which is directly related to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect signal. From the low scatter of the observed Ysph(R500) - YX relation we show that variations in pressure profile shape do not introduce extra scatter into the Ysph(R500) - M500 relation as compared to that from the YX - M500 relation. The Ysph(R500) - M500 and Ysph(R500) - LX relations derived from the data are in excellent agreement with those expected from the universal profile. This profile is used to derive the expected YSZ - M500 and YSZ - LX relations for any aperture.

  9. Planck early results. X. Statistical analysis of Sunyaev-Zeldovich scaling relations for X-ray galaxy clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.; Polenta, G.

    2011-01-01

    to be in excellent agreement over the whole explored luminosity range. No significant deviation from standard evolution of the scaling relations is detected. For the first time the intrinsic scatter in the scaling relation between SZ signal and X-ray luminosity is measured and found to be consistent with the one...... a wide range in X-ray luminosity. The SZ signal is extracted for each object individually, and the statistical significance of the measurement is maximised by averaging the SZ signal in bins of X-ray luminosity, total mass, or redshift. The SZ signal is detected at very high significance over more than...

  10. The Herschel Exploitation of Local Galaxy Andromeda (HELGA). IV. Dust scaling relations at sub-kpc resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viaene, S.; Fritz, J.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L.; Boquien, M.; Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Cortese, L.; De Looze, I.; Gear, W. K.; Gentile, G.; Hughes, T. M.; Jarrett, T.; Karczewski, O. Ł.; Smith, M. W. L.; Spinoglio, L.; Tamm, A.; Tempel, E.; Thilker, D.; Verstappen, J.

    Context. Dust and stars play a complex game of interactions in the interstellar medium and around young stars. The imprints of these processes are visible in scaling relations between stellar characteristics, star formation parameters, and dust properties. Aims: In the present work, we aim to

  11. Companions of Bright Barred Shapley Ames Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Barreto, J. Antonio; Carrillo, Rene; Vera-Villamizar, Nelson

    2003-01-01

    Companion galaxy environment for a subset of 78 bright and nearby barred galaxies from the Shapley Ames Catalog is presented. Among spiral barred galaxies there are Seyfert galaxies, galaxies with circumnuclear structures, galaxies not associated with any large scale galaxy cloud structure, galaxies with peculiar disk morphology (crooked arms) and galaxies with normal disk morphology; the list includes all Hubble types. The companion galaxy list includes number of companion galaxies within 20...

  12. Resolving Gas-Phase Metallicity In Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, David

    2017-06-01

    Chapter 2: As part of the Bluedisk survey we analyse the radial gas-phase metallicity profiles of 50 late-type galaxies. We compare the metallicity profiles of a sample of HI-rich galaxies against a control sample of HI-'normal' galaxies. We find the metallicity gradient of a galaxy to be strongly correlated with its HI mass fraction {M}{HI}) / {M}_{\\ast}). We note that some galaxies exhibit a steeper metallicity profile in the outer disc than in the inner disc. These galaxies are found in both the HI-rich and control samples. This contradicts a previous indication that these outer drops are exclusive to HI-rich galaxies. These effects are not driven by bars, although we do find some indication that barred galaxies have flatter metallicity profiles. By applying a simple analytical model we are able to account for the variety of metallicity profiles that the two samples present. The success of this model implies that the metallicity in these isolated galaxies may be in a local equilibrium, regulated by star formation. This insight could provide an explanation of the observed local mass-metallicity relation. Chapter 3 We present a method to recover the gas-phase metallicity gradients from integral field spectroscopic (IFS) observations of barely resolved galaxies. We take a forward modelling approach and compare our models to the observed spatial distribution of emission line fluxes, accounting for the degrading effects of seeing and spatial binning. The method is flexible and is not limited to particular emission lines or instruments. We test the model through comparison to synthetic observations and use downgraded observations of nearby galaxies to validate this work. As a proof of concept we also apply the model to real IFS observations of high-redshift galaxies. From our testing we show that the inferred metallicity gradients and central metallicities are fairly insensitive to the assumptions made in the model and that they are reliably recovered for galaxies

  13. Isolated galaxies, pairs, and groups of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuneva, I.; Kalinkov, M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors searched for isolated galaxies, pairs and groups of galaxies in the CfA survey (Huchra et al. 1983). It was assumed that the distances to galaxies are given by R = V/H sub o, where H sub o = 100 km s(exp -1) Mpc(exp -1) and R greater than 6 Mpc. The searching procedure is close to those, applied to find superclusters of galaxies (Kalinkov and Kuneva 1985, 1986). A sphere with fixed radius r (asterisk) is described around each galaxy. The mean spatial density in the sphere is m. Let G 1 be any galaxy and G 2 be its nearest neighbor at a distance R 2 . If R sub 2 exceeds the 95 percent quintile in the distribution of the distances of the second neighbors, then G 1 is an isolated galaxy. Let the midpoint of G 1 and G 2 be O 2 and r 2 =R 2 2. For the volume V 2 , defined with the radius r 2 , the density D 2 less than k mu, the galaxy G 2 is a single one and the procedure for searching for pairs and groups, beginning with this object is over and we have to pass to another object. Here the authors present the groups - isolated and nonisolated - with n greater than 3, found in the CfA survey in the Northern galactic hemisphere. The parameters used are k = 10 and r (asterisk) = 5 Mpc. Table 1 contains: (1) the group number, (2) the galaxy, nearest to the multiplet center, (3) multiplicity n, (4) the brightest galaxy if it is not listed in (2); (5) and (6) are R.A. and Dec. (1950), (7) - mean distance D in Mpc. Further there are the mean density rho (8) of the multiplet (galaxies Mpc (exp -3)), (9) the density rho (asterisk) for r (asterisk) = 5 Mpc and (10) the density rho sub g for the group with its nearest neighbor. The parenthesized digits for densities in the last three columns are powers of ten

  14. Galaxy Cluster Smashes Distance Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    he most distant galaxy cluster yet has been discovered by combining data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and optical and infrared telescopes. The cluster is located about 10.2 billion light years away, and is observed as it was when the Universe was only about a quarter of its present age. The galaxy cluster, known as JKCS041, beats the previous record holder by about a billion light years. Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound objects in the Universe. Finding such a large structure at this very early epoch can reveal important information about how the Universe evolved at this crucial stage. JKCS041 is found at the cusp of when scientists think galaxy clusters can exist in the early Universe based on how long it should take for them to assemble. Therefore, studying its characteristics - such as composition, mass, and temperature - will reveal more about how the Universe took shape. "This object is close to the distance limit expected for a galaxy cluster," said Stefano Andreon of the National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF) in Milan, Italy. "We don't think gravity can work fast enough to make galaxy clusters much earlier." Distant galaxy clusters are often detected first with optical and infrared observations that reveal their component galaxies dominated by old, red stars. JKCS041 was originally detected in 2006 in a survey from the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT). The distance to the cluster was then determined from optical and infrared observations from UKIRT, the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope in Hawaii and NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. Infrared observations are important because the optical light from the galaxies at large distances is shifted into infrared wavelengths because of the expansion of the universe. The Chandra data were the final - but crucial - piece of evidence as they showed that JKCS041 was, indeed, a genuine galaxy cluster. The extended X-ray emission seen by Chandra shows that hot gas has been detected

  15. Some problems of the origin of galaxy nests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metlov, V.G.

    1979-01-01

    The origin of galaxy nests have been studied. The nests of galaxies consist of a few (more than two) galaxies in contact with each other and strongly distorted by mutual interaction. Their colour, geometrical and morphological characteristics are compared with ones of ordinary galaxies and groups of galaxies. Conclusions are drawn that 5% to 15% of the total number of nests may be the evolutionary products of tight groups of galaxies (with diameter 11 Msub(Sun)). About half of such objects consist of elliptical galaxies. Galaxies in sufficiently tight groups may merge in consequence of dynamical friction. The remaining (85-95%) nests origin may be possibly explained by different kinds of instabilities in certain flat galaxies, with transformation of one galaxy to the nest, or by interaction of two galaxies containing large amounts of gas and consequent intensive star formation in very large regions, or by other causes. To establish relative contribution of each possible phenomenon in nests origin, it is required to carry out further detailed investigations of these objects

  16. Dependence between the colour of galaxies in pairs (Holmberg effect)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demin, V.V.; Zasov, A.V.; Dibaj, Eh.A.; Tomov, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Proceeding from the data of photoelectric photometpy by Tomov, the colours of galaxies in double systems are studied For the most of the paips formed by elliptical (EE) or by spiral (SS) galaxies, the difference between the corrected colour indices (B-V)sub(T)sup(0) of components does not exceed 0.10 and does not depend on the difference ΔT of their morphological types The correlation between the colours of galaxies in EE-pairs can be explained by the similaritins of element abundances but not of the luminosities of galaxies. The elliptical and SO-galaxies in pairs with the spiral galaxies ape noticeably bluep on the avepage. The relation between the colours of galaxies in ES-pairs is possible. The colours of early-type spiral galaxies (T < 4) in most of the SS-systems are more blue as compared to the mean colours of galaxies of the same type T. A similarity of the colours of the galaxies in many of the SS-pairs can be a result of the periodically repeated bursts of star formation which take place in both galaxies simultaneously

  17. Galaxy formation and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, Houjun; White, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of galaxy formation lies at the interface between astronomy, particle physics, and cosmology. Covering diverse topics from these disciplines, all of which are needed to understand how galaxies form and evolve, this book is ideal for researchers entering the field. Individual chapters explore the evolution of the Universe as a whole and its particle and radiation content; linear and nonlinear growth of cosmic structure; processes affecting the gaseous and dark matter components of galaxies and their stellar populations; the formation of spiral and elliptical galaxies; central supermassive black holes and the activity associated with them; galaxy interactions; and the intergalactic medium. Emphasizing both observational and theoretical aspects, this book provides a coherent introduction for astronomers, cosmologists, and astroparticle physicists to the broad range of science underlying the formation and evolution of galaxies.

  18. Dual Active Galactic Nuclei in Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mousumi; Rubinur, Khatun; Karb, Preeti; Varghese, Ashlin; Novakkuni, Navyasree; James, Atul

    2018-04-01

    Galaxy mergers play a crucial role in the formation of massive galaxies and the buildup of their bulges. An important aspect of the merging process is the in-spiral of the supermassive black-holes (SMBHs) to the centre of the merger remnant and the eventual formation of a SMBH binary. If both the SMBHs are accreting they will form a dual or binary active galactic nucleus (DAGN). The final merger remnant is usually very bright and shows enhanced star formation. In this paper we summarise the current sample of DAGN from previous studies and describe methods that can be used to identify strong DAGN candidates from optical and spectroscopic surveys. These methods depend on the Doppler separation of the double peaked AGN emission lines, the nuclear velocity dispersion of the galaxies and their optical/UV colours. We describe two high resolution, radio observations of DAGN candidates that have been selected based on their double peaked optical emission lines (DPAGN). We also examine whether DAGN host galaxies have higher star formation rates (SFRs) compared to merging galaxies that do not appear to have DAGN. We find that the SFR is not higher for DAGN host galaxies. This suggests that the SFRs in DAGN host galaxies is due to the merging process itself and not related to the presence of two AGN in the system.

  19. Galaxies in the Universe - 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparke, Linda S.; Gallagher, John S., III

    2006-04-01

    This extensively illustrated book presents the astrophysics of galaxies since their beginnings in the early Universe. It has been thoroughly revised to take into account the most recent observational data, and recent discoveries such as dark energy. There are new sections on galaxy clusters, gamma ray bursts and supermassive black holes. The authors explore the basic properties of stars and the Milky Way before working out towards nearby galaxies and the distant Universe. They discuss the structures of galaxies and how galaxies have developed, and relate this to the evolution of the Universe. The book also examines ways of observing galaxies across the whole electromagnetic spectrum, and explores dark matter and its gravitational pull on matter and light. This book is self-contained and includes several homework problems with hints. It is ideal for advanced undergraduate students in astronomy and astrophysics. • Completely updated to take into account the latest observational data and theoretical concepts • Throughly revised with new sections on dark energy, gamma ray bursts, and central black holes in galaxies • Contains problems with hints to the solutions

  20. The origin of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    The existence of galaxies implies that the early Universe must have contained initial density fluctuations. Overdense regions would then expand more slowly than the background and eventually - providing the fluctuations were not damped out first - they would stop expanding altogether and collapse to form bound objects. To understand how galaxies form we therefore need to know: how the initial density fluctuations arise, under what circumstances they evolve into bound objects, and how the bound objects develop the observed characteristics of galaxies. (author)

  1. HI in elliptical galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Sadler, Elaine M.; Oosterloo, Tom; Morganti, Raffaella

    2002-01-01

    Neutral hydrogen is an important component of the interstellar medium in elliptical galaxies as well as a potentially valuable mass tracer. Until recently, HI surveys of early-type galaxies have been sparse and inhomogeneous but this has changed with the advent of the HI Parkes All-Sky Survey (HIPASS; Barnes et al. 2001). We discuss HIPASS observations of a sample of ~2500 nearby E/S0 galaxies, as well as detailed HI imaging of a range of individual objects.

  2. Galaxy evolution. Galactic paleontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstoy, Eline

    2011-07-08

    Individual low-mass stars have very long lives, comparable to the age of the universe, and can thus be used to probe ancient star formation. At present, such stars can be identified and studied only in the Milky Way and in the very closest of our neighboring galaxies, which are predominantly small dwarf galaxies. These nearby ancient stars are a fossil record that can provide detailed information about the physical processes that dominated the epoch of galaxy formation and subsequent evolution.

  3. Galaxies: The Long Wavelength View

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fischer, J

    2000-01-01

    ... (more than 2 orders of magnitude) in the [C II]/FIR ratios in galaxies extending from blue compact dwarfs, to normal and starburst galaxies, down to elliptical and ultraluminous galaxies (ULICs...

  4. EVIDENCE FOR MORPHOLOGY AND LUMINOSITY TRANSFORMATION OF GALAXIES AT HIGH REDSHIFTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Ho Seong; Park, Changbom

    2009-01-01

    We study the galaxy morphology-luminosity-environmental relation and its redshift evolution using a spectroscopic sample of galaxies in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey. In the redshift range of 0.4 ≤ z ≤ 1.0, we detect conformity in morphology between neighboring galaxies. The realm of conformity is confined within the virialized region associated with each galaxy plus dark matter halo system. When a galaxy is located within the virial radius of its nearest neighbor galaxy, its morphology strongly depends on the neighbor's distance and morphology: the probability for a galaxy to be an early type (f E ) increases as it approaches an early-type neighbor, but decreases as it approaches a late-type neighbor. We find that f E evolves much faster in high-density regions than in low-density regions, and that the morphology-density relation becomes significantly weaker at z ∼ 1. This may be because the rate of galaxy-galaxy interactions is higher in high-density regions, and a series of interactions and mergers over the course of galaxy life eventually transform late types into early types. We find more isolated galaxies are more luminous, which supports luminosity transformation through mergers at these redshifts. Our results are consistent with those from nearby galaxies, and demonstrate that galaxy-galaxy interactions have been strongly affecting the galaxy evolution over a long period of time.

  5. The EAGLE simulations of galaxy formation: Public release of halo and galaxy catalogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, S.; Helly, J. C.; Schaller, M.; Trayford, J. W.; Qu, Y.; Furlong, M.; Bower, R. G.; Crain, R. A.; Schaye, J.; Theuns, T.; Dalla Vecchia, C.; Frenk, C. S.; McCarthy, I. G.; Jenkins, A.; Rosas-Guevara, Y.; White, S. D. M.; Baes, M.; Camps, P.; Lemson, G.

    2016-04-01

    We present the public data release of halo and galaxy catalogues extracted from the EAGLE suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation. These simulations were performed with an enhanced version of the GADGET code that includes a modified hydrodynamics solver, time-step limiter and subgrid treatments of baryonic physics, such as stellar mass loss, element-by-element radiative cooling, star formation and feedback from star formation and black hole accretion. The simulation suite includes runs performed in volumes ranging from 25 to 100 comoving megaparsecs per side, with numerical resolution chosen to marginally resolve the Jeans mass of the gas at the star formation threshold. The free parameters of the subgrid models for feedback are calibrated to the redshift z = 0 galaxy stellar mass function, galaxy sizes and black hole mass-stellar mass relation. The simulations have been shown to match a wide range of observations for present-day and higher-redshift galaxies. The raw particle data have been used to link galaxies across redshifts by creating merger trees. The indexing of the tree produces a simple way to connect a galaxy at one redshift to its progenitors at higher redshift and to identify its descendants at lower redshift. In this paper we present a relational database which we are making available for general use. A large number of properties of haloes and galaxies and their merger trees are stored in the database, including stellar masses, star formation rates, metallicities, photometric measurements and mock gri images. Complex queries can be created to explore the evolution of more than 105 galaxies, examples of which are provided in the Appendix. The relatively good and broad agreement of the simulations with a wide range of observational datasets makes the database an ideal resource for the analysis of model galaxies through time, and for connecting and interpreting observational datasets.

  6. Evolutionary phenomena in galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, J.E.; Pagel, B.E.J.

    1989-01-01

    This book reviews the subject of evolutionary phenomena in galaxies, bringing together contributions by experts on all the relevant physics and astrophysics necessary to understand galaxies and how they work. The book is based on the proceedings of a conference held in July 1988 in Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife which was timed to coincide with the first year of operation of the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope. The broad topics covered include formation of galaxies and their ages, stellar dynamics, galactic scale gas and its role in star formation and the production and distribution of the chemical elements within galaxies. (author)

  7. Spectrophotometry of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4593

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacAlpine, G.M.; Williams, G.A.; Lewis, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Spectrophotometry of the bright class 1 Seyfert galaxy NGC 4593 is presented. The emission-line characteristics are briefly discussed and compared with those of other Seyfert galaxies. The measured hydrogen Balmer-line ratios are reasonably consistent with expected recombination values, and the emission intensities of Fe II, He I 5876, and forbidden O III 4363 relative to other lines are stronger than average in NGC 4593

  8. The formation of spiral galaxies: adiabatic compression with Young's algorithm and the relation of dark matter haloes to their primordial antecedents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katz, Harley; McGaugh, Stacy S.; Sellwood, J. A.; de Blok, W. J. G.

    We utilize Young's algorithm to model the adiabatic compression of the dark matter haloes of galaxies in the THINGS survey to determine the relationship between the halo fit to the rotation curve and the corresponding primordial halo prior to compression. Young's algorithm conserves radial action

  9. The SAURON project - XX. The Spitzer [3.6] - [4.5] colour in early-type galaxies : colours, colour gradients and inverted scaling relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, Reynier F.; Kutdemir, Elif; van der Wolk, Guido; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Bacon, Roland; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Shapiro, Kristen L.; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn

    We investigate the [3.6]-[4.5] Spitzer-IRAC colour behaviour of the early-type galaxies of the SAURON survey, a representative sample of 48 nearby ellipticals and lenticulars. We investigate how this colour, which is unaffected by dust extinction, can be used to constrain the stellar populations in

  10. The zCOSMOS 10k-sample : the role of galaxy stellar mass in the colour-density relation up to z similar to 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cucciati, O.; Iovino, A.; Kovac, K.; Scodeggio, M.; Lilly, S. J.; Bolzonella, M.; Bardelli, S.; Vergani, D.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Zucca, E.; Zamorani, G.; Pozzetti, L.; Knobel, C.; Oesch, P.; Lamareille, F.; Caputi, K.; Kampczyk, P.; Tresse, L.; Maier, C.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J. -P.; Le Fevre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Bongiorno, A.; Coppa, G.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Le Borgne, J. -F.; Le Brun, V.; Mignoli, M.; Pello, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez-Montero, E.; Ricciardelli, E.; Silverman, J. D.; Tanaka, M.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Scoville, N.; Abbas, U.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cassata, P.; Cimatti, A.; Guzzo, L.; Leauthaud, A.; Maccagni, D.; Marinoni, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Memeo, P.; Meneux, B.; Porciani, C.; Scaramella, R.

    2010-01-01

    Aims. With the first similar to 10 000 spectra of the flux limited zCOSMOS sample (I-AB Methods. We use our previously derived 3D local density contrast delta, computed with the 5th nearest neighbour approach, to study the evolution with z of the environmental effects on galaxy U-B colour, D4000

  11. Galaxy And Mass Assembly: the 1.4 GHz SFR indicator, SFR-M* relation and predictions for ASKAP-GAMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davies, L. J. M.; Huynh, M. T.; Hopkins, A. M.; Seymour, N.; Driver, S. P.; Robotham, A. G. R.; Baldry, I. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bourne, N.; Bremer, M. N.; Brown, M. J. I.; Brough, S.; Cluver, M.; Grootes, M. W.; Jarvis, M.; Loveday, J.; Moffet, A.; Owers, M.; Phillipps, S.; Sadler, E.; Wang, L.; Wilkins, S.; Wright, A.

    2017-01-01

    We present a robust calibration of the 1.4 GHz radio continuum star formation rate (SFR) using a combination of the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey and the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm (FIRST) survey. We identify individually detected 1.4 GHz GAMA-FIRST sources and use a

  12. Search for galaxy-ICM interaction in rich clusters of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, L.; Gandhi, P.; Inada, N.; Kawaharada, M.; Kodama, T.; Konami, S.; Nakazawa, K.; Shimasaku, K.; Xu, Haiguang; Makishima, K.

    2013-04-01

    Based on optical and X-ray data for a sample of 34 relaxed rich clusters with redshift of 0.1-0.9, we studied the relative spatial distribution of the two major baryon contents, the cluster galaxies and the hot plasmas. Using photometric data taken with the UH88 telescope, we determined the integrated radial light profiles of member galaxies in each cluster using two independent approaches, i.e., the field background subtraction and the color-magnitude filtering. The ICM mass profile of each cluster in our sample was derived from a spatially-resolved spectral analysis using XMM-Newton and Chandra data. When the sample is divided into three subsamples with redshift intervals of z= 0.11-0.22, 0.22-0.45, and 0.45-0.89, the galaxy light vs. ICM mass ratio profiles for the central 0.65R500 regions were found to steepen from the higher- to lower- redshift subsamples, meaning that the galaxies become more concentrated in the ICM sphere towards lower redshifts. Besides, the galaxy light vs. total mass ratio profiles also exhibit gradual concentration towards lower redshift. We interpret that the galaxies, the ICM, and the dark matter components followed a similar spatial distribution in the early phase (z>0.5), while the galaxies have fallen towards the center relative to the ICM and dark matter. Such galaxy infall is likely to be caused by ICM drag when galaxies move through the ICM, even though the dynamical friction can enhance the infall of the most massive galaxies.

  13. A relationship of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon features with galaxy merger in star-forming galaxies at z < 0.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Katsuhiro L.; Yamada, Rika; Oyabu, Shinki; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Ishihara, Daisuke; Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Kokusho, Takuma; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T.

    2017-11-01

    Using the AKARI, Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data, we investigated the relation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mass (MPAH), very small grain mass (MVSG), big grain mass (MBG) and stellar mass (Mstar) with galaxy merger for 55 star-forming galaxies at redshift z 0.1, we divided the galaxies into merger galaxies and non-merger galaxies with the morphological parameter asymmetry A, and quantified merging stages of galaxies based on the morphological indicators, the second-order momentum of the brightest 20 per cent region M20 and the Gini coefficient. We find that MPAH/MBG of merger galaxies tend to be lower than that of non-merger galaxies and there are no systematic differences of MVSG/MBG and MBG/Mstar between merger galaxies and non-merger galaxies. We find that galaxies with very low MPAH/MBG seem to be merger galaxies at late stages. These results suggest that PAHs are partly destroyed at late stages of merging processes. Furthermore, we investigated MPAH/MBG variations in radiation field intensity strength G0 and the emission line ratio of [O I] λ 6300/Hα that is a shock tracer for merger galaxies and find that MPAH/MBG decreases with increasing both G0 and [O I]/Hα. PAH destruction is likely to be caused by two processes: strong radiation fields and large-scale shocks during merging processes of galaxies.

  14. Star formation suppression in compact group galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatalo, K.; Appleton, P. N.; Lisenfeld, U.

    2015-01-01

    We present CO(1-0) maps of 12 warm H-2-selected Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs), covering 14 individually imaged warm H2 bright galaxies, with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy. We found a variety of molecular gas distributions within the HCGs, including regularly rotating disks......, bars, rings, tidal tails, and possibly nuclear outflows, though the molecular gas morphologies are more consistent with spirals and earlytype galaxies than mergers and interacting systems. Our CO-imaged HCG galaxies, when plotted on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, shows star formation (SF) suppression......-to-dust ratios of these galaxies to determine if an incorrect LCO-M(H2) conversion caused the apparent suppression and find that HCGs have normal gas-to-dust ratios. It is likely that the cause of the apparent suppression in these objects is associated with shocks injecting turbulence into the molecular gas...

  15. The Evolution of Galaxies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palouš, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 17, - (2007), s. 34-40 ISSN 1220-5168. [Heliospere and galaxy. Sinaia, 03.05.2007-05.05.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : ISM structure * stars formation * evolution of galaxies Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  16. Hubble's Menagerie of Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 3. Hubble's Managerie of Galaxies. Biman Nath. General Article Volume 14 Issue 3 March 2009 pp 226-235. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/014/03/0226-0235. Keywords. Galaxies ...

  17. Our galaxy is exploding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Closets, Francois de.

    1977-01-01

    Improvements made in radioastronomy, and infrared, X and γ emission studies of the Galaxy have allowed to study the galactic nucleus, which is characterized by an intense activity. The most recent hypotheses made to explain this activity and replace it in the general context of the evolution of the galaxies are presented [fr

  18. Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, N.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES were first identified by Shapley, who had noticed two very diffuse collections of stars on Harvard patrol plates. Although these systems had about as many stars as a GLOBULAR CLUSTER, they were of much lower density, and hence much larger radius, and thus were considered distinct galaxies. These two, named Fornax and Sculptor after the constellations in which they ap...

  19. Hubble's Menagerie of Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    astronom ers have even w ondered ifH ubble's galaxy typ es form an evolutionary sequence: does one type of galaxy evolve into another? 1. T he D iscovery of G alaxies. A stronom ers began to ponder these issues only after they discovered w hat ...

  20. Jets in Active Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jets in active galaxies are signatures of energy supply via collimatedbeams of plasma from the galactic nucleus to the extendedregions of emission. These jets, which occur acrossthe electromagnetic spectrum, are powered by supermassiveblack holes in the centres of the host galaxies. Jets are seenon the scale of parsecs ...

  1. The Mutable Galaxies -10 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of spectacular explosions, called supernovae. The next generation stars which ... nova explosion of massive stars. Galaxies then must go throug;h this 'chemical' evolution, slowly changing the abundance of heavy elements in its gas and in stars. A spectacular .... small, which is the case in our galaxy. One finds that p is of ...

  2. Starbursts and IRAS galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belfort, P.

    1987-01-01

    Several observational hints suggest that most of the IRAS galaxies are undergoing bursts of star formation. A simple photometric model of starburst galaxy was developed in order to check whether starburst events are really able to account for the far-infrared and optical properties of all the IRAS galaxies with HII region-like spectra. FIR activities up to a few hundred are actually easily reached with rather small bursts in red host-galaxies, and L IR /L B , EW(Hα) and U-B) versus (B-V) diagrams can be used to estimate burst strength and extinction. But more observations are required to conclude about the most extreme cases. Four typical infrared-selected IRAS galaxies are presented and their burst strength and extinction estimated

  3. MULTIPLE GALAXY COLLISIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Here is a sampling of 15 ultraluminous infrared galaxies viewed by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Hubble's sharp vision reveals more complexity within these galaxies, which astronomers are interpreting as evidence of a multiple-galaxy pileup. These images, taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are part of a three-year study of 123 galaxies within 3 billion light-years of Earth. The study was conducted in 1996, 1997, and 1999. False colors were assigned to these photos to enhance fine details within these coalescing galaxies. Credits: NASA, Kirk Borne (Raytheon and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.), Luis Colina (Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, Spain), and Howard Bushouse and Ray Lucas (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md.)

  4. Statistical properties of Faraday rotation measure in external galaxies - I: intervening disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Aritra; Mao, S. A.; Fletcher, Andrew; Kanekar, Nissim; Shukurov, Anvar; Schnitzeler, Dominic; Vacca, Valentina; Junklewitz, Henrik

    2018-03-01

    Deriving the Faraday rotation measure (RM) of quasar absorption line systems, which are tracers of high-redshift galaxies intervening background quasars, is a powerful tool for probing magnetic fields in distant galaxies. Statistically comparing the RM distributions of two quasar samples, with and without absorption line systems, allows one to infer magnetic field properties of the intervening galaxy population. Here, we have derived the analytical form of the probability distribution function (PDF) of RM produced by a single galaxy with an axisymmetric large-scale magnetic field. We then further determine the PDF of RM for one random sight line traversing each galaxy in a population with a large-scale magnetic field prescription. We find that the resulting PDF of RM is dominated by a Lorentzian with a width that is directly related to the mean axisymmetric large-scale field strength ⟨B0⟩ of the galaxy population if the dispersion of B0 within the population is smaller than ⟨B0⟩. Provided that RMs produced by the intervening galaxies have been successfully isolated from other RM contributions along the line of sight, our simple model suggests that ⟨B0⟩ in galaxies probed by quasar absorption line systems can be measured within ≈50 per cent accuracy without additional constraints on the magneto-ionic medium properties of the galaxies. Finally, we discuss quasar sample selection criteria that are crucial to reliably interpret observations, and argue that within the limitations of the current database of absorption line systems, high-metallicity damped Lyman-α absorbers are best suited to study galactic dynamo action in distant disc galaxies.

  5. The galaxy ancestor problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, M. J.; Lang, R. H.

    2012-11-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) findsgalaxies whose Tolman dimming exceeds 10 mag. Could evolution alone explain these as our ancestor galaxies or could they be representatives of quite a different dynasty whose descendants are no longer prominent today? We explore the latter hypothesis and argue that surface brightness selection effects naturally bring into focus quite different dynasties from different redshifts. Thus, the HST z = 7 galaxies could be examples of galaxies whose descendants are both too small and too choked with dust to be recognizable in our neighbourhood easily today. Conversely, the ancestors of the Milky Way and its obvious neighbours would have completely sunk below the sky at z > 1.2, unless they were more luminous in the past, although their diffused light could account for the missing re-ionization flux. This Succeeding Prominent Dynasties Hypothesis (SPDH) fits the existing observations both naturally and well even without evolution, including the bizarre distributions of galaxy surface brightness found in deep fields, the angular size ˜(1 + z)-1 law, 'downsizing' which turns out to be an 'illusion' in the sense that it does not imply evolution, 'infant mortality', that is, the discrepancy between stars born and stars seen, the existence of 'red nuggets', and finally the recently discovered and unexpected excess of quasar absorption line damped Lyα systems at high redshift. If galaxies were not significantly brighter in the past and the SPDH were true, then a large proportion of galaxies could remain sunk from sight, possibly at all redshifts, and these sunken galaxies could supply the missing re-ionization flux. We show that fishing these sunken galaxies out of the sky by their optical emissions alone is practically impossible, even when they are nearby. More ingenious methods are needed to detect them. It follows that disentangling galaxy evolution through studying ever higher redshift galaxies may be a forlorn hope because one could

  6. ECO and RESOLVE: Galaxy Disk Growth in Environmental Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, Amanda J.; Kannappan, Sheila J.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Eckert, Kathleen D.; Stark, David V.; Hendel, David; Norris, Mark A.; Grogin, Norman A.

    2015-10-01

    We study the relationships between galaxy environments and galaxy properties related to disk (re)growth, considering two highly complete samples that are approximately baryonic mass limited into the high-mass dwarf galaxy regime, the Environmental COntext catalog (data release herein) and the B-semester region of the REsolved Spectroscopy Of a Local VolumE survey. We quantify galaxy environments using both group identification and smoothed galaxy density field methods. We use by-eye and quantitative morphological classifications plus atomic gas content measurements and estimates. We find that blue early-type (E/S0) galaxies, gas-dominated galaxies, and UV-bright disk host galaxies all become distinctly more common below group halo mass ˜ {10}11.5 {M}⊙ , implying that this low group halo mass regime may be a preferred regime for significant disk growth activity. We also find that blue early-type and blue late-type galaxies inhabit environments of similar group halo mass at fixed baryonic mass, consistent with a scenario in which blue early-types can regrow late-type disks. In fact, we find that the only significant difference in the typical group halo mass inhabited by different galaxy classes is for satellite galaxies with different colors, where at fixed baryonic mass red early- and late-types have higher typical group halo masses than blue early- and late-types. More generally, we argue that the traditional morphology-environment relation (i.e., that denser environments tend to have more early-types) can be largely attributed to the morphology-galaxy mass relation for centrals and the color-environment relation for satellites.

  7. Monolithic View of Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Chiosi

    2014-07-01

    model galaxies closely resemble those of the real galaxies. In this context, we also try to cast light on the physical causes of the Stellar Mass-Radius Relation (MRR of galaxies. The MRR is the result of two complementary mechanisms: i.e., local physical processes that fix the stellar mass and the radius of each galaxy and cosmological global, statistical principles, which shape the distribution of galaxies in the MR-plane. Finally, we also briefly comment on the spectro-photometric properties of the model galaxies and how nicely they match the observational data. The picture emerging from this analysis is that the initial physical conditions of a proto-galaxy, i.e., nature, seem to play the dominant role in building up the ETGs we see today, whereas nurture by recurrent captures of small objects is a secondary actor of the fascinating and intriguing story of galaxy formation and evolution.

  8. LOW CO LUMINOSITIES IN DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schruba, Andreas; Walter, Fabian; Sandstrom, Karin; Leroy, Adam K.; Bigiel, Frank; Brinks, Elias; De Blok, W. J. G.; Kramer, Carsten; Rosolowsky, Erik; Schuster, Karl; Usero, Antonio; Weiss, Axel; Wiesemeyer, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    We present maps of 12 COJ = 2-1 emission covering the entire star-forming disks of 16 nearby dwarf galaxies observed by the IRAM HERACLES survey. The data have 13'' angular resolution, ∼250 pc at our average distance of D = 4 Mpc, and sample the galaxies by 10-1000 resolution elements. We apply stacking techniques to perform the first sensitive search for CO emission in dwarf galaxies outside the Local Group ranging from individual lines of sight, stacking over IR-bright regions of embedded star formation, and stacking over the entire galaxy. We detect five galaxies in CO with total CO luminosities of L CO2-1 = (3-28) × 10 6 K km s –1 pc 2 . The other 11 galaxies remain undetected in CO even in the stacked images and have L CO2-1 ∼ 6 K km s –1 pc 2 . We combine our sample of dwarf galaxies with a large sample of spiral galaxies from the literature to study scaling relations of L CO with M B and metallicity. We find that dwarf galaxies with metallicities of Z ≈ 1/2-1/10 Z ☉ have L CO of 2-4 orders of magnitude smaller than massive spiral galaxies and that their L CO per unit L B is 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller. A comparison with tracers of star formation (FUV and 24 μm) shows that L CO per unit star formation rate (SFR) is 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller in dwarf galaxies. One possible interpretation is that dwarf galaxies form stars much more efficiently: we argue that the low L CO /SFR ratio is due to the fact that the CO-to-H 2 conversion factor, α CO , changes significantly in low-metallicity environments. Assuming that a constant H 2 depletion time of τ dep = 1.8 Gyr holds in dwarf galaxies (as found for a large sample of nearby spirals) implies α CO values for dwarf galaxies with Z ≈ 1/2-1/10 Z ☉ that are more than one order of magnitude higher than those found in solar metallicity spiral galaxies. Such a significant increase of α CO at low metallicity is consistent with previous studies, in particular those of Local Group dwarf

  9. Neutral Hydrogen in Local Group Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grcevich, Jana

    constant velocity and density wind which emulates relative motion of the dwarf and the host's hot halo. These simulations resolve instabilities which can contribute to gas loss, such as the effects of the Kelvin Helmholtz instability. The results of these simulations support the hypothesis that rapid gas loss occurs when the ram pressure stripping criterion is met, with complete stripping occurs with a timescale of about half a Gyr. This stripping would occur in less than an orbital period for ultra-faint like dwarfs. Models which do not meet the ram-pressure stripping criterion show slower but constant mass loss which does not depend on the residual dwarf's gas mass. Extrapolating the stripping timescales, we show low-mass dwarf galaxies can be stripped on timescales between 1.1 and 3.3 Gyrs. These simulations are a first step towards accurate ram-pressure and dynamical mass loss rates for low mass Local Group galaxies orbiting within a hot halo. They suggest that the lack of low mass galaxies within 250 kpc of the Milky Way can be explained via ram-pressure and dynamical interactions between the satellite galaxy's gas and the hot halo.

  10. The new galaxy evolution paradigm revealed by the Herschel surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eales, Stephen; Smith, Dan; Bourne, Nathan; Loveday, Jon; Rowlands, Kate; van der Werf, Paul; Driver, Simon; Dunne, Loretta; Dye, Simon; Furlanetto, Cristina; Ivison, R. J.; Maddox, Steve; Robotham, Aaron; Smith, Matthew W. L.; Taylor, Edward N.; Valiante, Elisabetta; Wright, Angus; Cigan, Philip; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Jarvis, Matt J.; Marchetti, Lucia; Michałowski, Michał J.; Phillipps, Steven; Viaene, Sebastien; Vlahakis, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory has revealed a very different galaxyscape from that shown by optical surveys which presents a challenge for galaxy-evolution models. The Herschel surveys reveal (1) that there was rapid galaxy evolution in the very recent past and (2) that galaxies lie on a single Galaxy Sequence (GS) rather than a star-forming 'main sequence' and a separate region of 'passive' or 'red-and-dead' galaxies. The form of the GS is now clearer because far-infrared surveys such as the Herschel ATLAS pick up a population of optically red star-forming galaxies that would have been classified as passive using most optical criteria. The space-density of this population is at least as high as the traditional star-forming population. By stacking spectra of H-ATLAS galaxies over the redshift range 0.001 high stellar masses, high star-formation rates but, even several billion years in the past, old stellar populations - they are thus likely to be relatively recent ancestors of early-type galaxies in the Universe today. The form of the GS is inconsistent with rapid quenching models and neither the analytic bathtub model nor the hydrodynamical EAGLE simulation can reproduce the rapid cosmic evolution. We propose a new gentler model of galaxy evolution that can explain the new Herschel results and other key properties of the galaxy population.

  11. TURBULENCE AND STAR FORMATION IN A SAMPLE OF SPIRAL GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Erin; Chien, Li-Hsin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University 527 S Beaver Street, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States); Hunter, Deidre A., E-mail: erin-maier@uiowa.edu, E-mail: Lisa.Chien@nau.edu, E-mail: dah@lowell.edu [Lowell Observatory 1400 W Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    We investigate turbulent gas motions in spiral galaxies and their importance to star formation in far outer disks, where the column density is typically far below the critical value for spontaneous gravitational collapse. Following the methods of Burkhart et al. on the Small Magellanic Cloud, we use the third and fourth statistical moments, as indicators of structures caused by turbulence, to examine the neutral hydrogen (H i) column density of a sample of spiral galaxies selected from The H i Nearby Galaxy Survey. We apply the statistical moments in three different methods—the galaxy as a whole, divided into a function of radii and then into grids. We create individual grid maps of kurtosis for each galaxy. To investigate the relation between these moments and star formation, we compare these maps with their far-ultraviolet images taken by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer satellite.We find that the moments are largely uniform across the galaxies, in which the variation does not appear to trace any star-forming regions. This may, however, be due to the spatial resolution of our analysis, which could potentially limit the scale of turbulent motions that we are sensitive to greater than ∼700 pc. From comparison between the moments themselves, we find that the gas motions in our sampled galaxies are largely supersonic. This analysis also shows that the Burkhart et al. methods may be applied not just to dwarf galaxies but also to normal spiral galaxies.

  12. The influence of environment on galaxy evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Dennis William

    We study the influence of environment on galaxy evolution by focusing on two galaxy types known for their connection to dense environments, S0s and Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs). Our goal is to identify the mechanisms responsible for the properties of galaxies in groups and clusters. We first examine the effects of environment on S0 formation over the past ~7 Gyr by tracing the increasing S0 fraction in clusters at two mass scales. We find the build-up of S0s driven by groups/clusters with velocity dispersions of σ less-massive halos identified as the site for S0 formation, we test whether another route to S0 formation exists, not in isolated groups but rather in a system of four merging groups (SG1120). We place limits on how recent the S0s in that system could have formed, and finding no star formation, conclude they formed > 1 Gyr prior to SG1120's current configuration, when they were in more isolated groups. We next explore cluster outskirts to constrain the number of infalling galaxies that need to be transformed and whether that process has already begun. We find the red fraction of infalling galaxies is elevated relative to the field, and that red galaxies are more clustered than blue ones, a signature of "pre-processing". We disentangle the relative strength of global versus local environment on galaxy transformation by comparing the correlation of red fraction with radius and local density. We find that both parameters are connected with the red fraction of galaxies. Finally, we measure the frequency of galaxies falling into the cluster that are bright enough to supplant the current BCG and compare the results to models. We find in ~85% of our clusters that the BCG is secure and remains in its priviledged state until z ~ 0. From these analyses, we find that intermediate density environments (groups and cluster outskirts) are the key site to forming S0 galaxies, and that BCGs, while not exclusively a cluster phenomenon, are well established by the

  13. Evolution of dwarf galaxy properties in local group environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arraki, Kenza Sigrid

    Understanding galaxy evolution depends on connecting large-scale structures determined by the ACDM model with, at minimum, the small-scale physics of gas, star formation, and stellar feedback. Formation of galaxies within dark matter halos is sensitive to the physical phenomena occurring within and around the halo. This is especially true for dwarf galaxies, which have smaller potential wells and are more susceptible to the effects of tidal stripping and gas ionization and removal than larger galaxies. At dwarf galaxies scales comparisons of dark matter-only simulations with observations has unveiled various differences such as the core-cusp, the missing satellites, and the too big to fail problems. We have run suites of collisionless and hydrodynamical simulations of dwarf galaxies evolution in massive host environments to address these issues. We performed controlled, numerical simulations, which mimic the effects of baryons, in order to examine the assumptions implicitly made by dark matter-only simulations. The too big to fail problem is due to the overabundance of relatively massive, dense satellite galaxies found in simulations of Milky Way-like environments. We found that the removal of a small baryonic component from the central regions of forming dwarf spheroidal galaxies and the inclusion of a disk component in the host galaxy can substantially reduce the central dark matter density of satellites, bringing simulations and observations of satellites into agreement. Additionally, we studied hydrodynamical simulations of massive host galaxies and their surrounding dwarf galaxy populations. The VELA simulation suite of cosmological zoom-in simulations is run with the ART code, stochastic star formation, and stellar feedback (supernovae feedback, stellar winds, radiation pressure, and photoionization pressure). The suite includes host galaxies with Mvir(z=0)=1011-10 12M ⊙ and their satellite dwarf galaxies and local isolated dwarf galaxies around each

  14. Are spiral galaxies heavy smokers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.; Disney, M.; Phillipps, S

    1990-01-01

    The dustiness of spiral galaxies is discussed. Starburst galaxies and the shortage of truly bright spiral galaxies is cited as evidence that spiral galaxies are far dustier than has been thought. The possibility is considered that the dust may be hiding missing mass

  15. Characterization of star-forming dwarf galaxies at 0.1 ≲z ≲ 0.9 in VUDS: probing the low-mass end of the mass-metallicity relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, A.; Amorín, R.; Fontana, A.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Lemaux, B. C.; Ribeiro, B.; Bardelli, S.; Castellano, M.; Contini, T.; De Barros, S.; Garilli, B.; Grazian, A.; Guaita, L.; Hathi, N. P.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Pentericci, L.; Schaerer, D.; Talia, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Zucca, E.

    2017-05-01

    Context. The study of statistically significant samples of star-forming dwarf galaxies (SFDGs) at different cosmic epochs is essential for the detailed understanding of galaxy assembly and chemical evolution. However, the main properties of this large population of galaxies at intermediate redshift are still poorly known. Aims: We present the discovery and spectrophotometric characterization of a large sample of 164 faint (IAB 23-25 mag) SFDGs at redshift 0.13 ≤ z ≤ 0.88 selected by the presence of bright optical emission lines in the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS). We investigate their integrated physical properties and ionization conditions, which are used to discuss the low-mass end of the mass-metallicity relation (MZR) and other key scaling relations. Methods: We use optical VUDS spectra in the COSMOS, VVDS-02h, and ECDF-S fields, as well as deep multi-wavelength photometry that includes HST-ACS F814W imaging, to derive stellar masses, extinction-corrected star-formation rates (SFR), and gas-phase metallicities of SFDGs. For the latter, we use the direct method and a Te-consistent approach based on the comparison of a set of observed emission lines ratios with the predictions of detailed photoionization models. Results: The VUDS SFDGs are compact (median re 1.2 kpc), low-mass (M∗ 107-109M⊙) galaxies with a wide range of star-formation rates (SFR(Hα) 10-3-101M⊙/yr) and morphologies. Overall, they show a broad range of subsolar metallicities (12 +log (O/H) =7.26-8.7; 0.04 ≲Z/Z⊙≲ 1). Nearly half of the sample are extreme emission-line galaxies (EELGs) characterized by high equivalent widths and emission line ratios indicative of higher excitation and ionization conditions. The MZR of SFDGs shows a flatter slope compared to previous studies of galaxies in the same mass range and redshift. We find the scatter of the MZR is partly explained in the low mass range by varying specific SFRs and gas fractions amongst the galaxies in our sample. In

  16. Models of hot galactic coronae around early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Tucker, W.

    1994-01-01

    We have computed simple non-steady state models of X-ray-emitting, hot galactic coronae which are observed around early-type galaxies. Our models, appropriate for elliptical galaxies, include the effect of the formation of new stars which occurs as the gas radiatively cools and the effect of supernova explosions which serve to heat the cooling gas component from which the stars are forming. We develop scaling relations for the galaxy parameters including the optical galaxy as well as a dark matter halo which we use to generate galaxy models spanning a range of absolute magnitudes from -19.5 to -22.5. We compare our models to a sample of approximately 150 galaxies with measured X-ray luminosities. We show that our simple model does exhibit the observed correlation between X-ray and optical luminosity. However, the model cannot explain the broad range in X-ray luminosity at a given optical luminosity.

  17. Dynamical Constraints On The Galaxy-Halo Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Harry

    2017-07-01

    Dark matter halos comprise the bulk of the universe's mass, yet must be probed by the luminous galaxies that form within them. A key goal of modern astrophysics, therefore, is to robustly relate the visible and dark mass, which to first order means relating the properties of galaxies and halos. This may be expected not only to improve our knowledge of galaxy formation, but also to enable high-precision cosmological tests using galaxies and hence maximise the utility of future galaxy surveys. As halos are inaccessible to observations - as galaxies are to N-body simulations - this relation requires an additional modelling step.The aim of this thesis is to develop and evaluate models of the galaxy-halo connection using observations of galaxy dynamics. In particular, I build empirical models based on the technique of halo abundance matching for five key dynamical scaling relations of galaxies - the Tully-Fisher, Faber-Jackson, mass-size and mass discrepancy-acceleration relations, and Fundamental Plane - which relate their baryon distributions and rotation or velocity dispersion profiles. I then develop a statistical scheme based on approximate Bayesian computation to compare the predicted and measured values of a number of summary statistics describing the relations' important features. This not only provides quantitative constraints on the free parameters of the models, but also allows absolute goodness-of-fit measures to be formulated. I find some features to be naturally accounted for by an abundance matching approach and others to impose new constraints on the galaxy-halo connection; the remainder are challenging to account for and may imply galaxy-halo correlations beyond the scope of basic abundance matching.Besides providing concrete statistical tests of specific galaxy formation theories, these results will be of use for guiding the inputs of empirical and semi-analytic galaxy formation models, which require galaxy-halo correlations to be imposed by hand. As

  18. The Galaxy Clustering Crisis in Abundance Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Duncan; van den Bosch, Frank C.; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Zentner, Andrew R.; Lange, Johannes U.; Jiang, Fangzhou; Villarreal, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    Galaxy clustering on small scales is significantly under-predicted by sub-halo abundance matching (SHAM) models that populate (sub-)haloes with galaxies based on peak halo mass, Mpeak. SHAM models based on the peak maximum circular velocity, Vpeak, have had much better success. The primary reason Mpeak based models fail is the relatively low abundance of satellite galaxies produced in these models compared to those based on Vpeak. Despite success in predicting clustering, a simple Vpeak based SHAM model results in predictions for galaxy growth that are at odds with observations. We evaluate three possible remedies that could "save" mass-based SHAM: (1) SHAM models require a significant population of "orphan" galaxies as a result of artificial disruption/merging of sub-haloes in modern high resolution dark matter simulations; (2) satellites must grow significantly after their accretion; and (3) stellar mass is significantly affected by halo assembly history. No solution is entirely satisfactory. However, regardless of the particulars, we show that popular SHAM models based on Mpeak cannot be complete physical models as presented. Either Vpeak truly is a better predictor of stellar mass at z ˜ 0 and it remains to be seen how the correlation between stellar mass and Vpeak comes about, or SHAM models are missing vital component(s) that significantly affect galaxy clustering.

  19. Dwarf galaxies : Important clues to galaxy formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, E

    2003-01-01

    The smallest dwarf galaxies are the most straight forward objects in which to study star formation processes on a galactic scale. They are typically single cell star forming entities, and as small potentials in orbit around a much larger one they are unlikely to accrete much (if any) extraneous

  20. Suites of dwarfs around Nearby giant galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karachentsev, Igor D.; Kaisina, Elena I.; Makarov, Dmitry I.

    2014-01-01

    The Updated Nearby Galaxy Catalog (UNGC) contains the most comprehensive summary of distances, radial velocities, and luminosities for 800 galaxies located within 11 Mpc from us. The high density of observables in the UNGC makes this sample indispensable for checking results of N-body simulations of cosmic structures on a ∼1 Mpc scale. The environment of each galaxy in the UNGC was characterized by a tidal index Θ 1 , depending on the separation and mass of the galaxy's main disturber (MD). We grouped UNGC galaxies with a common MD in suites, and ranked suite members according to their Θ 1 . All suite members with positive Θ 1 are assumed to be physical companions of the MD. About 58% of the sample are members of physical groups. The distribution of suites by the number of members, n, follows a relation N(n) ∼ n –2 . The 20 most populated suites contain 468 galaxies, i.e., 59% of the UNGC sample. The fraction of MDs among the brightest galaxies is almost 100% and drops to 50% at M B = –18 m . We discuss various properties of MDs, as well as galaxies belonging to their suites. The suite abundance practically does not depend on the morphological type, linear diameter, or hydrogen mass of the MD, the tightest correlation being with the MD dynamical mass. Dwarf galaxies around MDs exhibit well-known segregation effects: the population of the outskirts has later morphological types, richer H I contents, and higher rates of star formation activity. Nevertheless, there are some intriguing cases where dwarf spheroidal galaxies occur at the far periphery of the suites, as well as some late-type dwarfs residing close to MDs. Comparing simulation results with galaxy groups, most studies assume the Local Group is fairly typical. However, we recognize that the nearby groups significantly differ from each other and there is considerable variation in their properties. The suites of companions around the Milky Way and M31, consisting of the Local Group, do not

  1. Accretion by the Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binney J.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cosmology requires at least half of the baryons in the Universe to be in the intergalactic medium, much of which is believed to form hot coronae around galaxies. Star-forming galaxies must be accreting from their coronae. Hi observations of external galaxies show that they have Hi halos associated with star formation. These halos are naturally modelled as ensembles of clouds driven up by supernova bubbles. These models can fit the data successfully only if clouds exchange mass and momentum with the corona. As a cloud orbits, it is ablated and forms a turbulent wake where cold high-metallicity gas mixes with hot coronal gas causing the prompt cooling of the latter. As a consequence the total mass of Hi increases. This model has recently been used to model the Leiden-Argentina-Bonn survey of Galactic Hi. The values of the model’s parameters that are required to model NGC 891, NGC 2403 and our Galaxy show a remarkable degree of consistency, despite the very different natures of the two external galaxies and the dramatic difference in the nature of the data for our Galaxy and the external galaxies. The parameter values are also consistent with hydrodynamical simulations of the ablation of individual clouds. The model predicts that a galaxy that loses its cool-gas disc for instance through a major merger cannot reform it from its corona; it can return to steady star formation only if it can capture a large body of cool gas, for example by accreting a gas-rich dwarf. Thus the model explains how major mergers can make galaxies “red and dead.”

  2. Extended emission-line regions in active galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchings, J.B.; Hickson, P.

    1988-01-01

    Long-slit spectra of four active galaxies in the redshift range 0.06-0.10 are presented. Two have interacting companions. Spectra of the galaxies show extended narrow emission lines in all cases. Continuum color changes, emision-line ratio changes, and velocity changes with 1 arcsec resolution can be detected. Relative velocities between AGN and companion galaxies are also given. These objects appear to lie in galaxies in which there is considerable star-formation activity, and very extended line emision. 20 references

  3. Classifying the Optical Morphology of Shocked POststarburst Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Tess; SPOGs Team

    2018-01-01

    The Shocked POststarburst Galaxy Survey (SPOGS) is a sample of galaxies in transition from blue, star forming spirals to red, inactive ellipticals. These galaxies are earlier in the transition than classical poststarburst samples. We have classified the physical characteristics of the full sample of 1067 SPOGs in 7 categories, covering (1) their shape; (2) the relative prominence of their nuclei; (3) the uniformity of their optical color; (4) whether the outskirts of the galaxy were indicative of on-going star formation; (5) whether they are engaged in interactions with other galaxies, and if so, (6) the kinds of galaxies with which they are interacting; and (7) the presence of asymmetrical features, possibly indicative of recent interactions. We determined that a plurality of SPOGs are in elliptical galaxies, indicating morphological transformations may tend to conclude before other indicators of transitions have faded. Further, early-type SPOGs also tend to have the brightest optical nuclei. Most galaxies do not show signs of current or recent interactions. We used these classifications to search for correlations between qualitative and quantitative characteristics of SPOGs using Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer magnitudes. We find that relative optical nuclear brightness is not a good indicator of the presence of an active galactic nuclei and that galaxies with visible indications of active star formation also cluster in optical color and diagnostic line ratios.

  4. Analysis of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect mass-observable relations using South Pole Telescope observations of an X-ray selected sample of low-mass galaxy clusters and groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.; Mohr, J.; Saro, A.; Aird, K. A.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bautz, M.; Bayliss, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Bocquet, S.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Chiu, I.; Cho, H. M.; Clocchiatti, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; de Haan, T.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Dobbs, M. A.; Foley, R. J.; Gangkofner, D.; George, E. M.; Gladders, M. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Halverson, N. W.; Hennig, C.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hrubes, J. D.; Jones, C.; Keisler, R.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Lueker, M.; Luong-Van, D.; McDonald, M.; McMahon, J. J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mocanu, L.; Murray, S. S.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Rest, A.; Ruel, J.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Sayre, J. T.; Schaffer, K. K.; Shirokoff, E.; Spieler, H. G.; Stalder, B.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K.;  uhada, R.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Vikhlinin, A.; Williamson, R.; Zahn, O.; Zenteno, A.

    2015-02-25

    We use microwave observations from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) to examine the Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect (SZE) signatures of a sample of 46 X-ray selected groups and clusters drawn from ~6 deg2 of the XMM–Newton Blanco Cosmology Survey. These systems extend to redshift z = 1.02 and probe the SZE signal to the lowest X-ray luminosities (≥1042 erg s-1) yet; these sample characteristics make this analysis complementary to previous studies. We develop an analysis tool, using X-ray luminosity as a mass proxy, to extract selection-bias-corrected constraints on the SZE significance and Y_500 mass relations. The former is in good agreement with an extrapolation of the relation obtained from high-mass clusters. However, the latter, at low masses, while in good agreement with the extrapolation from the high-mass SPT clusters, is in tension at 2.8σ with the Planck constraints, indicating the low-mass systems exhibit lower SZE signatures in the SPT data. We also present an analysis of potential sources of contamination. For the radio galaxy point source population, we find 18 of our systems have 843 MHz Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey sources within 2 arcmin of the X-ray centre, and three of these are also detected at significance >4 by SPT. Of these three, two are associated with the group brightest cluster galaxies, and the third is likely an unassociated quasar candidate. We examine the impact of these point sources on our SZE scaling relation analyses and find no evidence of biases. We also examine the impact of dusty galaxies using constraints from the 220 GHz data. The stacked sample provides 2.8σ significant evidence of dusty galaxy flux, which would correspond to an average underestimate of the SPT Y_500 signal that is (17 ± 9)per cent in this sample of low-mass systems. Finally, we explore the impact of future data from SPTpol and XMM-XXL, showing that it will lead to a factor of 4 to 5 tighter

  5. Growing Galaxies Gently

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    New observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope have, for the first time, provided direct evidence that young galaxies can grow by sucking in the cool gas around them and using it as fuel for the formation of many new stars. In the first few billion years after the Big Bang the mass of a typical galaxy increased dramatically and understanding why this happened is one of the hottest problems in modern astrophysics. The results appear in the 14 October issue of the journal Nature. The first galaxies formed well before the Universe was one billion years old and were much smaller than the giant systems - including the Milky Way - that we see today. So somehow the average galaxy size has increased as the Universe has evolved. Galaxies often collide and then merge to form larger systems and this process is certainly an important growth mechanism. However, an additional, gentler way has been proposed. A European team of astronomers has used ESO's Very Large Telescope to test this very different idea - that young galaxies can also grow by sucking in cool streams of the hydrogen and helium gas that filled the early Universe and forming new stars from this primitive material. Just as a commercial company can expand either by merging with other companies, or by hiring more staff, young galaxies could perhaps also grow in two different ways - by merging with other galaxies or by accreting material. The team leader, Giovanni Cresci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri) says: "The new results from the VLT are the first direct evidence that the accretion of pristine gas really happened and was enough to fuel vigorous star formation and the growth of massive galaxies in the young Universe." The discovery will have a major impact on our understanding of the evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present day. Theories of galaxy formation and evolution may have to be re-written. The group began by selecting three very distant galaxies to see if they could find evidence

  6. (Almost) Dark Galaxies in the ALFALFA Survey: HI-bearing Ultra-Diffuse Galaxies, and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisman, Luke; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; ALFALFA Almost Darks Team

    2017-01-01

    Scaling relations between HI and stars in galaxies suggest strong ties between their atomic gas content and star formation laws. The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) blind extragalactic HI survey is well positioned to locate very low surface brightness sources that lie off these relations, the most extreme of which may fall below optical detection limits. Thus, the ALFALFA (Almost) Darks Project has been investigating extreme outliers from these relations by studying the ~1% of ALFALFA sources without apparent stellar counterparts in major optical surveys. We have obtained deep HI and optical imaging of 25 of these candidate "dark" sources. We find that most "dark" sources are not extreme "(almost) dark" galaxies. A few are rare OH Megamasers, redshifted into the ALFALFA bandpass, and many are part of large galactic plumes, stretching as far as 600 kpc from their host galaxy. However, a small handful of sources appear to be galaxies with extreme stellar systems. We find multiple systems with HI mass to stellar mass ratios an order of magnitude larger than typical gas rich dwarfs. Further, we find an isolated population of HI-bearing "ultra diffuse" galaxies (UDGs), with stellar masses of dwarfs, but HI and optical radii of L* galaxies. We suggest that these sources may be related to recently reported gas poor, quiescent UDGs.

  7. USING COLORS TO IMPROVE PHOTOMETRIC METALLICITY ESTIMATES FOR GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Levesque, E. M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a well known correlation between the mass and metallicity of star-forming galaxies. Because mass is correlated with luminosity, this relation is often exploited, when spectroscopy is not available, to estimate galaxy metallicities based on single band photometry. However, we show that galaxy color is typically more effective than luminosity as a predictor of metallicity. This is a consequence of the correlation between color and the galaxy mass-to-light ratio and the recently discovered correlation between star formation rate (SFR) and residuals from the mass-metallicity relation. Using Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopy of ∼180, 000 nearby galaxies, we derive 'LZC relations', empirical relations between metallicity (in seven common strong line diagnostics), luminosity, and color (in 10 filter pairs and four methods of photometry). We show that these relations allow photometric metallicity estimates, based on luminosity and a single optical color, that are ∼50% more precise than those made based on luminosity alone; galaxy metallicity can be estimated to within ∼0.05-0.1 dex of the spectroscopically derived value depending on the diagnostic used. Including color information in photometric metallicity estimates also reduces systematic biases for populations skewed toward high or low SFR environments, as we illustrate using the host galaxy of the supernova SN 2010ay. This new tool will lend more statistical power to studies of galaxy populations, such as supernova and gamma-ray burst host environments, in ongoing and future wide-field imaging surveys

  8. IMPROVED MOCK GALAXY CATALOGS FOR THE DEEP2 GALAXY REDSHIFT SURVEY FROM SUBHALO ABUNDANCE AND ENVIRONMENT MATCHING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerke, Brian F.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Behroozi, Peter S.; Cooper, Michael C.; Yan, Renbin; Coil, Alison L.

    2013-01-01

    We develop empirical methods for modeling the galaxy population and populating cosmological N-body simulations with mock galaxies according to the observed properties of galaxies in survey data. We use these techniques to produce a new set of mock catalogs for the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey based on the output of the high-resolution Bolshoi simulation, as well as two other simulations with different cosmological parameters, all of which we release for public use. The mock-catalog creation technique uses subhalo abundance matching to assign galaxy luminosities to simulated dark-matter halos. It then adds color information to the resulting mock galaxies in a manner that depends on the local galaxy density, in order to reproduce the measured color-environment relation in the data. In the course of constructing the catalogs, we test various models for including scatter in the relation between halo mass and galaxy luminosity, within the abundance-matching framework. We find that there is no constant-scatter model that can simultaneously reproduce both the luminosity function and the autocorrelation function of DEEP2. This result has implications for galaxy-formation theory, and it restricts the range of contexts in which the mock catalogs can be usefully applied. Nevertheless, careful comparisons show that our new mock catalogs accurately reproduce a wide range of the other properties of the DEEP2 catalog, suggesting that they can be used to gain a detailed understanding of various selection effects in DEEP2

  9. IMPROVED MOCK GALAXY CATALOGS FOR THE DEEP2 GALAXY REDSHIFT SURVEY FROM SUBHALO ABUNDANCE AND ENVIRONMENT MATCHING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, Brian F.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Behroozi, Peter S. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, M/S 29, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Cooper, Michael C. [Center for Galaxy Evolution, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Yan, Renbin [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Coil, Alison L., E-mail: bgerke@slac.stanford.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., MC 0424, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    We develop empirical methods for modeling the galaxy population and populating cosmological N-body simulations with mock galaxies according to the observed properties of galaxies in survey data. We use these techniques to produce a new set of mock catalogs for the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey based on the output of the high-resolution Bolshoi simulation, as well as two other simulations with different cosmological parameters, all of which we release for public use. The mock-catalog creation technique uses subhalo abundance matching to assign galaxy luminosities to simulated dark-matter halos. It then adds color information to the resulting mock galaxies in a manner that depends on the local galaxy density, in order to reproduce the measured color-environment relation in the data. In the course of constructing the catalogs, we test various models for including scatter in the relation between halo mass and galaxy luminosity, within the abundance-matching framework. We find that there is no constant-scatter model that can simultaneously reproduce both the luminosity function and the autocorrelation function of DEEP2. This result has implications for galaxy-formation theory, and it restricts the range of contexts in which the mock catalogs can be usefully applied. Nevertheless, careful comparisons show that our new mock catalogs accurately reproduce a wide range of the other properties of the DEEP2 catalog, suggesting that they can be used to gain a detailed understanding of various selection effects in DEEP2.

  10. The interstellar medium in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    It has been more than five decades ago that Henk van de Hulst predicted the observability of the 21-cm line of neutral hydrogen (HI ). Since then use of the 21-cm line has greatly improved our knowledge in many fields and has been used for galactic structure studies, studies of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the Milky Way and other galaxies, studies of the mass distribution of the Milky Way and other galaxies, studies of spiral struc­ ture, studies of high velocity gas in the Milky Way and other galaxies, for measuring distances using the Tully-Fisher relation etc. Regarding studies of the ISM, there have been a number of instrumen­ tal developments over the past decade: large CCD's became available on optical telescopes, radio synthesis offered sensitive imaging capabilities, not only in the classical 21-cm HI line but also in the mm-transitions of CO and other molecules, and X-ray imaging capabilities became available to measure the hot component of the ISM. These developments meant that Milky Way was n...

  11. A Catalog of Edge-on Disk Galaxies: From Galaxies with a Bulge to Superthin Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Kautsch, S. J.; Grebel, E. K.; Barazza, F. D.; Gallagher, J. S.

    2005-01-01

    The formation and evolution of disk-dominated galaxies is difficult to explain, yet these objects exist. We therefore embarked on a study aimed at a better understanding of these enigmatic objects. We used data from the SDSS DR1 in order to identify edge-on galaxies with disks in a uniform, reproducible, automated fashion. We identified 3169 edge-on disk galaxies, which we subdivided into disk galaxies with bulge, intermediate types, and simple disk galaxies without any obvious bulge componen...

  12. Cosmology and galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.J.T.; Gonzalez, E.M.

    1985-05-01

    The aim of the present series of lectures is to be unashamedly pedagogical and present, in simple terms, an overview of our current thinking about our universe and the way in which we believe galaxies have formed. (orig./WL)

  13. Evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroczkin, D.

    1973-01-01

    The theory of Truran and Cameron concerning the chemical evolution of the Galaxy is described, as well as the photometric properties obtained from the galactic models calculations. Also few observational facts are given. (author)

  14. Galaxy Zoo: Morphological Classification of Galaxy Images from the Illustris  Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Hugh; Fortson, Lucy; Lintott, Chris; Scarlata, Claudia; Willett, Kyle; Bamford, Steven; Beck, Melanie; Cardamone, Carolin; Galloway, Melanie; Simmons, Brooke; Keel, William; Kruk, Sandor; Masters, Karen; Vogelsberger, Mark; Torrey, Paul; Snyder, Gregory F.

    2018-02-01

    Modern large-scale cosmological simulations model the universe with increasing sophistication and at higher spatial and temporal resolutions. These ongoing enhancements permit increasingly detailed comparisons between the simulation outputs and real observational data. Recent projects such as Illustris are capable of producing simulated images that are designed to be comparable to those obtained from local surveys. This paper tests the degree to which Illustris achieves this goal across a diverse population of galaxies using visual morphologies derived from Galaxy Zoo citizen scientists. Morphological classifications provided by these volunteers for simulated galaxies are compared with similar data for a compatible sample of images drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Legacy Survey. This paper investigates how simple morphological characterization by human volunteers asked to distinguish smooth from featured systems differs between simulated and real galaxy images. Significant differences are identified, which are most likely due to the limited resolution of the simulation, but which could be revealing real differences in the dynamical evolution of populations of galaxies in the real and model universes. Specifically, for stellar masses {M}\\star ≲ {10}11 {M}ȯ , a substantially larger proportion of Illustris galaxies that exhibit disk-like morphology or visible substructure, relative to their SDSS counterparts. Toward higher masses, the visual morphologies for simulated and observed galaxies converge and exhibit similar distributions. The stellar mass threshold indicated by this divergent behavior confirms recent works using parametric measures of morphology from Illustris simulated images. When {M}\\star ≳ {10}11 {M}ȯ , the Illustris data set contains substantially fewer galaxies that classifiers regard as unambiguously featured. In combination, these results suggest that comparison between the detailed properties of observed and simulated galaxies

  15. Imprints of reionization in galaxy clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Fabian; Beutler, Florian

    2017-10-01

    Reionization, the only phase transition in the Universe since recombination, is a key event in the cosmic history of baryonic matter. We derive, in the context of the large-scale bias expansion, the imprints of the epoch of reionization in the large-scale distribution of galaxies and identify two contributions of particular importance. First, the Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons off the free electrons lead to a drag force on the baryon fluid. This drag induces a relative velocity between baryons and cold dark matter, which is of the same order of magnitude as the primordially induced relative velocity, and enters in the evolution of the relative velocity as calculated by Boltzmann codes. This leads to a unique contribution to galaxy bias involving the matter velocity squared. The second important effect is a modulation of the galaxy density by the ionizing radiation field through radiative-transfer effects, which is captured in the bias expansion by so-called higher-derivative terms. We constrain both of these imprints using the power spectrum of the BOSS DR12 galaxy sample. While they do not lead to a shift in the baryon acoustic oscillation scale, including these terms is important for unbiased cosmology constraints from the shape of the galaxy power spectrum.

  16. Galaxies at High Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F. E.

    2014-10-01

    Recent years have seen tremendous progress in finding and charactering star-forming galaxies at high redshifts across the electromagnetic spectrum, giving us a more complete picture of how galaxies evolve, both in terms of their stellar and gas content, as well as the growth of their central supermassive black holes. A wealth of studies now demonstrate that star formation peaked at roughly half the age of the Universe and drops precariously as we look back to very early times, and that their central monsters apparently growth with them. At the highest-redshifts, we are pushing the boundaries via deep surveys at optical, X-ray, radio wavelengths, and more recently using gamma-ray bursts. I will review some of our accomplishments and failures. Telescope have enabled Lyman break galaxies to be robustly identified, but the UV luminosity function and star formation rate density of this population at z = 6 - 8 seems to be much lower than at z = 2 - 4. High escape fractions and a large contribution from faint galaxies below our current detection limits would be required for star-forming galaxies to reionize the Universe. We have also found that these galaxies have blue rest-frame UV colours, which might indicate lower dust extinction at z > 5. There has been some spectroscopic confirmation of these Lyman break galaxies through Lyman-α emission, but the fraction of galaxies where we see this line drops at z > 7, perhaps due to the onset of the Gunn-Peterson effect (where the IGM is opaque to Lyman-α).

  17. Automated galaxy surface photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawson, M.G.M.; Kibblewhite, E.J.; Disney, M.J.; Phillipps, S.

    1987-01-01

    Two-dimensional surface photometry of a very large number of galaxies on a deep Schmidt plate has been obtained using the Automatic Plate Measuring System (APM). A method of photometric calibration, suitable for APM measurements, via pixel-by-pixel comparison with CCD frames of a number of the brighter galaxies is described and its advantages are discussed. The same method is used to demonstrate the consistency of measurement of the APM machine when used for surface photometry. (author)

  18. Hubble's Menagerie of Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    and barred spirals, in a se- quence of gradually loos- ening of spiral arms and diminishing brightness of the central bulge. one cannot infer its true shape. A galaxy m ay look °at- tened by a di®erent degree if view ed from a di®erent d irectio n . Spiral galaxies are m arked by spiral `arm s' around a bright,nuclear region,often ...

  19. A tight relation between the age distributions of stellar clusters and the properties of the interstellar medium in the host galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miholics, Meghan; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Sills, Alison

    2017-09-01

    The age distributions of stellar cluster populations have long been proposed to probe the recent formation history of the host galaxy. However, progress is hampered by the limited understanding of cluster disruption by evaporation and tidal shocks. We study the age distributions of clusters in smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of isolated disc galaxies, which include a self-consistent, physical model for the formation and dynamical evolution of the cluster population and account for the variation of cluster disruption in time and space. We show that the downward slope of the cluster age distribution due to disruption cannot be reproduced with a single functional form, because the disruption rate exhibits systematic trends with cluster age (the 'cruel cradle effect'). This problem is resolved by using the median cluster age to trace cluster disruption. Across 120 independent galaxy snapshots and simulated cluster populations, we perform two-dimensional power-law fits of the median cluster age to various macroscopic physical quantities and find that it scales as t_med∝ Σ ^{-0.51± 0.03}σ _1D^{-0.85± 0.10}M_min^γ, for the gas surface density Σ, gas velocity dispersion σ1D, and minimum cluster mass Mmin. This scaling accurately describes observed cluster populations and indicates disruption by impulsive tidal shocks from the interstellar medium. The term M_min^γ provides a model-independent way to measure the mass dependence of the cluster disruption time γ. Finally, the ensemble-average cluster lifetime depends on the gas density less strongly than the instantaneous disruption time of single clusters. These results reflect the variation of cluster disruption in time and space. We provide quantitative ways of accounting for these physics in cluster population studies.

  20. Emission-line galaxies toward the booetes void

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Galaxies with strong emission are potentially useful as probes of the large-scale galaxian distribution. However, to serve as probes, their relative frequency and clustering properties must be known. This dissertation presents a study of these properties for field galaxies having [OIII] λ5007 emission equivalent widths greater than 10 A and reports on a search for galaxies with [OIII] λ5007 emission in the direction of the Booetes void, a volume located at α = 4/sup h/48/sup m/, δ = 47 0 , and cz = 15,000 km/sec that has been demonstrated to be under-abundant in galaxies by a factor of at least four. The study of field emission-line galaxies was done in two magnitude limited surveys consisting of 341 galaxies from both the north and south galactic caps having previously published redshifts and photometry. The galaxy spectra used for redshifts were examined and supplemented by new observations for 56 objects, primarily those with confirmed or suspected emission. Emission-line galaxies were found to comprise 8.8% of galaxies in a Illa-J selected sample or 6.6% of galaxies in a Illa-F selected sample. A search for emission-line galaxies towards the Booetes void was undertaken using the Burrell Schmidt telescope and an objective prism giving a reciprocal dispersion of 900 A/mm at Hβ. Three galaxies were found to lie within it, a result consistent with distributions through the void ranging from uniform to under-abundant by a factor of three

  1. Evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palous, J.

    1987-01-01

    The proceedings contain 87 papers divided into 8 chapters. The chapter Bipolar outflows and star formations contains papers on optical and infrared observations of young bipolar outflow objects and the theory thereof, and on observations of cometary nebulae. The chapter Masers and early stellar evolution discusses molecular masers and star forming regions. The following chapter contains papers on initial mass function and star formation rates in galaxies. The chapter Clusters and star formation contains data on OB associations and open star clusters, their development and observations, CO and H 2 in our galaxy, the four vector model of radio emission and an atlas of the wavelength dependence of ultraviolet extinction in the Galaxy. The most voluminous is the chapter Evolution of galaxies. It contains papers on the theories of the physical and chemodynamic development of galaxies of different types, rotation research and rotation velocities of galaxies and their arms, and on mathematical and laboratory models of morphological development. Chapter seven contains papers dealing with active extragalactic objects, quasars and active galactic nuclei. The last chapter discusses cosmological models, the theory of the inflationary universe, and presents an interpretation of the central void and X-ray background. (M.D.). 299 figs., 48 tabs., 1651 refs

  2. Dwarf elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Henry C.; Binggeli, Bruno

    1994-01-01

    Dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies, with blue absolute magnitudes typically fainter than M(sub B) = -16, are the most numerous type of galaxy in the nearby universe. Tremendous advances have been made over the past several years in delineating the properties of both Local Group satellite dE's and the large dE populations of nearby clusters. We review some of these advances, with particular attention to how well currently availiable data can constrain (a) models for the formation of dE's, (b) the physical and evolutionary connections between different types of galaxies that overlap in the same portion of the mass-spectrum of galaxies, (c) the contribution of dE's to the galaxy luminosity functions in clusters and the field, (d) the star-forming histories of dE's and their possible contribution to faint galaxy counts, and (e) the clustering properties of dE's. In addressing these issues, we highlight the extent to which selection effects temper these constraints, and outline areas where new data would be particularly valuable.

  3. Statistical Properties of Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/joaa/035/03/0267-0270 ... A statistical analysis of gamma-ray burst host galaxies is presented and a clear metallicity-stellar mass relation is found in our sample. A trend that a more massive host galaxy tends to have a higher star-formation rate is also found.

  4. Fossil evidence for spin alignment of SDSS galaxies in filaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Bernard J.T.; Weygaert, Rien van de; Arag´on-Calvo, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    We search for and find fossil evidence that the distribution of the spin axes of galaxies in cosmic web filaments relative to their host filaments are not randomly distributed. This would indicate that the action of large scale tidal torques effected the alignments of galaxies located in cosmic

  5. GMRT Hv Observations of the Eridanus Group of Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... ... curves are presented. The velocity fields are analysed separately for the approaching and the receding sides of the galaxies. These data will be used to study the H I and the radio continuum properties, the Tully–Fisher relations, the dark matter halos, and the kinematical and H I lopsidedness in galaxies.

  6. All-sky catalog of local radio galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velzen, S.; Falcke, H.

    2013-07-01

    The final episode in the history of black hole accretion and galaxy formation takes place in our cosmic backyard, the local universe. Within this volume must also reside the - until now unknown - sources of observed ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). A thorough study of the local universe requires full-sky coverage to obtain a sizable sample and map the matter anisotropy. We recently constructed the first catalog of radio-emitting galaxies that meets this requirement. The sample contains all radio galaxies similar to Centaurus~A out to ~100 Mpc. Only 3% of the hosts of the powerful radio jets are classified as Spiral galaxies, while for non-radio galaxies of similar mass, this fraction is 34%. The energy injected by radio jets per unit volume indicates that Cen A-like radio galaxies have in principle sufficient power to accelerate cosmic rays to ultra-high energies. A significantly enhanced clustering of radio-loud galaxies compared to normal galaxies of the same luminosity is observed. This indicates a causal relation between galaxy environment and jet power, independent of black hole mass.

  7. Matching Supernovae to Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    One of the major challenges for modern supernova surveys is identifying the galaxy that hosted each explosion. Is there an accurate and efficient way to do this that avoids investing significant human resources?Why Identify Hosts?One problem in host galaxy identification. Here, the supernova lies between two galaxies but though the centroid of the galaxy on the right is closer in angular separation, this may be a distant background galaxy that is not actually near the supernova. [Gupta et al. 2016]Supernovae are a critical tool for making cosmological predictions that help us to understand our universe. But supernova cosmology relies on accurately identifying the properties of the supernovae including their redshifts. Since spectroscopic followup of supernova detections often isnt possible, we rely on observations of the supernova host galaxies to obtain redshifts.But how do we identify which galaxy hosted a supernova? This seems like a simple problem, but there are many complicating factors a seemingly nearby galaxy could be a distant background galaxy, for instance, or a supernovas host could be too faint to spot.The authors algorithm takes into account confusion, a measure of how likely the supernova is to be mismatched. In these illustrations of low (left) and high (right) confusion, the supernova is represented by a blue star, and the green circles represent possible host galaxies. [Gupta et al. 2016]Turning to AutomationBefore the era of large supernovae surveys, searching for host galaxies was done primarily by visual inspection. But current projects like the Dark Energy Surveys Supernova Program is finding supernovae by the thousands, and the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will likely discover hundreds of thousands. Visual inspection will not be possible in the face of this volume of data so an accurate and efficient automated method is clearly needed!To this end, a team of scientists led by Ravi Gupta (Argonne National Laboratory) has recently

  8. Statistical Properties of Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxies Jie-Min ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A statistical analysis of gamma-ray burst host galaxies is pre- sented and a clear metallicity-stellar mass relation is found in our sample. A trend that a more massive host galaxy tends to have a higher star- formation rate is also found. No correlation is found between AV and NH. GRB host galaxies at a higher ...

  9. Radio Jets Clearing the Way Through a Galaxy: Watching Feedback in Action in the Seyfert Galaxy IC 5063

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Frieswijk, W.; Tadhunter, C. N.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution (0.5 arcsec) CO(2-1) observations performed with the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array have been used to trace the kinematics of the molecular gas in the Seyfert 2 galaxy{IC 5063}. Although one of the most radio-loud Seyfert galaxy, IC 5063 is a relatively weak radio

  10. The Galaxy Evolution Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Jason; Galaxy Evolution Probe Team

    2018-01-01

    The Galaxy Evolution Probe (GEP) is a concept for a far-infrared observatory to survey large regions of sky for star-forming galaxies from z = 0 to beyond z = 3. Our knowledge of galaxy formation is incomplete and requires uniform surveys over a large range of redshifts and environments to accurately describe mass assembly, star formation, supermassive black hole growth, interactions between these processes, and what led to their decline from z ~ 2 to the present day. Infrared observations are sensitive to dusty, star-forming galaxies, which have bright polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features and warm dust continuum in the rest-frame mid infrared and cooler thermal dust emission in the far infrared. Unlike previous far-infrared continuum surveys, the GEP will measure photometric redshifts commensurate with galaxy detections from PAH emission and Si absorption features, without the need for obtaining spectroscopic redshifts of faint counterparts at other wavelengths.The GEP design includes a 2 m diameter telescope actively cooled to 4 K and two instruments: (1) An imager covering 10 to 300 um with 25 spectral resolution R ~ 8 bands (with lower R at the longest wavelengths) to detect star-forming galaxies and measure their redshifts photometrically. (2) A 23 – 190 um, R ~ 250 dispersive spectrometer for redshift confirmation and identification of obscured AGN using atomic fine-structure lines. Lines including [Ne V], [O IV], [O III], [O I], and [C II] will probe gas physical conditions, radiation field hardness, and metallicity. Notionally, the GEP will have a two-year mission: galaxy surveys with photometric redshifts in the first year and a second year devoted to follow-up spectroscopy. A comprehensive picture of star formation in galaxies over the last 10 billion years will be assembled from cosmologically relevant volumes, spanning environments from field galaxies and groups, to protoclusters, to dense galaxy clusters.Commissioned by NASA, the

  11. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: gas content and interaction as the drivers of kinematic asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, J. V.; Croom, S. M.; Bryant, J. J.; Schaefer, A. L.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Callingham, J.; Cortese, L.; Federrath, C.; Scott, N.; van de Sande, J.; D'Eugenio, F.; Sweet, S.; Tonini, C.; Allen, J. T.; Goodwin, M.; Green, A. W.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Lawrence, J.; Lorente, N.; Medling, A. M.; Owers, M. S.; Richards, S. N.; Sharp, R.

    2018-05-01

    In order to determine the causes of kinematic asymmetry in the Hα gas in the SAMI (Sydney-AAO Multi-object IFS) Galaxy Survey sample, we investigate the comparative influences of environment and intrinsic properties of galaxies on perturbation. We use spatially resolved Hα velocity fields from the SAMI Galaxy Survey to quantify kinematic asymmetry (\\overline{v_asym}) in nearby galaxies and environmental and stellar mass data from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly survey. We find that local environment, measured as distance to nearest neighbour, is inversely correlated with kinematic asymmetry for galaxies with log (M*/M⊙) > 10.0, but there is no significant correlation for galaxies with log (M*/M⊙) galaxies [log (M*/M⊙) galaxies. We propose that secular effects derived from gas fraction and gas mass may be the primary causes of asymmetry in low-mass galaxies. High gas fraction is linked to high σ _m/V (where σm is Hα velocity dispersion and V the rotation velocity), which is strongly correlated with \\overline{v_asym}, and galaxies with log (M*/M⊙) galaxies with log (M*/M⊙) galaxies may lead to asymmetric distribution of gas clouds, leading to increased relative turbulence.

  12. EXTREMELY METAL-POOR GALAXIES: THE ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, M. E. [Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria–Universidad de La Laguna, CIE Canarias: Tri-Continental Atlantic Campus, Canary Islands (Spain); Almeida, J. Sánchez; Muñoz-Tuñón, C. [Instituto Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Nuza, S. E.; Kitaura, F.; Heß, S., E-mail: mfilho@astro.up.pt [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    We have analyzed bibliographical observational data and theoretical predictions, in order to probe the environment in which extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxies (XMPs) reside. We have assessed the H i component and its relation to the optical galaxy, the cosmic web type (voids, sheets, filaments and knots), the overdensity parameter and analyzed the nearest galaxy neighbors. The aim is to understand the role of interactions and cosmological accretion flows in the XMP observational properties, particularly the triggering and feeding of the star formation. We find that XMPs behave similarly to Blue Compact Dwarfs; they preferably populate low-density environments in the local universe: ∼60% occupy underdense regions, and ∼75% reside in voids and sheets. This is more extreme than the distribution of irregular galaxies, and in contrast to those regions preferred by elliptical galaxies (knots and filaments). We further find results consistent with previous observations; while the environment does determine the fraction of a certain galaxy type, it does not determine the overall observational properties. With the exception of five documented cases (four sources with companions and one recent merger), XMPs do not generally show signatures of major mergers and interactions; we find only one XMP with a companion galaxy within a distance of 100 kpc, and the H i gas in XMPs is typically well-behaved, demonstrating asymmetries mostly in the outskirts. We conclude that metal-poor accretion flows may be driving the XMP evolution. Such cosmological accretion could explain all the major XMP observational properties: isolation, lack of interaction/merger signatures, asymmetric optical morphology, large amounts of unsettled, metal-poor H i gas, metallicity inhomogeneities, and large specific star formation.

  13. Violence in the hearts of galaxies: aberration or adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, Carole G

    2002-12-15

    Violent activity in the nuclei of galaxies has long been considered a curiosity in its own right; manifestations of this phenomenon include distant quasars in the early Universe and comparatively nearby Seyfert galaxies, both thought to be powered by the release of gravitational potential energy as material from the host galaxy accretes onto a central supermassive black hole (SMBH). Traditionally, the broader study of the formation, structure and evolution of galaxies has largely excluded active galactic nuclei. Recently, however, this situation has changed dramatically, both observationally and theoretically, with the realization that the growth and influence of the SMBH, the origin and development of galaxies and nuclear activity at different epochs in the Universe may be intimately related. The most spectacular fireworks seen in distant quasars may be relatively easy to explain, since the era of greatest quasar activity seems to coincide with turbulent dynamics at the epoch of galaxy formation in the young, gas-rich Universe. Ubiquitous black holes are believed to be a legacy of this violent birth. Alternatively, black holes may be the seeds that drive galaxy formation in the first place. Closer to home, and hence more recently in the history of the Universe, a fraction of comparatively ordinary galaxies, similar to our own, has reignited their central engines, albeit at a lower level of activity. Since these galaxies are more established than their younger and more distant counterparts, the activity here is all the more puzzling. Whatever the mechanisms involved, they are likely to play an important role in galaxy evolution. I review the intriguing evidence for causal links between SMBHs, nuclear activity and the formation and evolution of galaxies, and describe opportunities for testing these relationships using the next generation of earthbound and space-borne astronomical facilities.

  14. Violence in the hearts of galaxies: aberration or adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, Carole G.

    2002-12-01

    Violent activity in the nuclei of galaxies has long been considered a curiosity in its own right; manifestations of this phenomenon include distant quasars in the early Universe and comparatively nearby Seyfert galaxies, both thought to be powered by the release of gravitational potential energy as material from the host galaxy accretes onto a central supermassive black hole (SMBH). Traditionally, the broader study of the formation, structure and evolution of galaxies has largely excluded active galactic nuclei. Recently, however, this situation has changed dramatically, both observationally and theoretically, with the realization that the growth and influence of the SMBH, the origin and development of galaxies and nuclear activity at different epochs in the Universe may be intimately related. The most spectacular fireworks seen in distant quasars may be relatively easy to explain, since the era of greatest quasar activity seems to coincide with turbulent dynamics at the epoch of galaxy formation in the young, gas-rich Universe. Ubiquitous black holes are believed to be a legacy of this violent birth. Alternatively, black holes may be the seeds that drive galaxy formation in the first place. Closer to home, and hence more recently in the history of the Universe, a fraction of comparatively ordinary galaxies, similar to our own, has reignited their central engines, albeit at a lower level of activity. Since these galaxies are more established than their younger and more distant counterparts, the activity here is all the more puzzling. Whatever the mechanisms involved, they are likely to play an important role in galaxy evolution. I review the intriguing evidence for causal links between SMBHs, nuclear activity and the formation and evolution of galaxies, and describe opportunities for testing these relationships using the next generation of earthbound and space-borne astronomical facilities.

  15. IRAS galaxies versus POTENT mass - Density fields, biasing, and Omega

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, Avishai; Bertschinger, Edmund; Yahil, Amos; Strauss, Michael A.; Davis, Marc; Huchra, John P.

    1993-01-01

    A comparison of the galaxy density field extracted from a complete redshift survey of IRAS galaxies brighter than 1.936 Jy with the mass-density field reconstructed by the POTENT procedure from the observed peculiar velocities of 493 objects is presented. A strong correlation is found between the galaxy and mass-density fields; both feature the Great Attractor, part of the Perseus-Pisces supercluster, and the large void between them. Monte Carlo noise simulations show that the data are consistent with the hypotheses that the smoothed fluctuations of galaxy and mass densities at each point are proportional to each other with the 'biasing' factor of IRAS galaxies, b(I), and that the peculiar velocity field is related to the mass-density field as expected according to the gravitational instability theory. Under these hypotheses, the two density fields can be related by specifying b(I) and the cosmological density parameter, Omega.

  16. CHEMODYNAMIC EVOLUTION OF DWARF GALAXIES IN TIDAL FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, David; Martel, Hugo [Département de physique, de génie physique et d’optique, Université Laval, Québec, QC, G1V 0A6 (Canada); Romeo, Alessandro B., E-mail: david-john.williamson.1@ulaval.ca [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    The mass–metallicity relation shows that the galaxies with the lowest mass have the lowest metallicities. As most dwarf galaxies are in group environments, interaction effects such as tides could contribute to this trend. We perform a series of smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of dwarf galaxies in external tidal fields to examine the effects of tides on their metallicities and metallicity gradients. In our simulated galaxies, gravitational instabilities drive gas inwards and produce centralized star formation and a significant metallicity gradient. Strong tides can contribute to these instabilities, but their primary effect is to strip the outer low-metallicity gas, producing a truncated gas disk with a large metallicity. This suggests that the effect of tides on the mass–metallicity relation is to move dwarf galaxies to higher metallicities.

  17. Optical emission line spectra of Seyfert galaxies and radio galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterbrock, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Many radio galaxies have strong emission lines in their optical spectra, similar to the emission lines in the spectra of Seyfert galaxies. The range of ionization extends from [O I] and [N I] through [Ne V] and [Fe VII] to [Fe X]. The emission-line spectra of radio galaxies divide into two types, narrow-line radio galaxies whose spectra are indistinguishable from Seyfert 2 galaxies, and broad-line radio galaxies whose spectra are similar to Seyfert 1 galaxies. However on the average the broad-line radio galaxies have steeper Balmer decrements, stronger [O III] and weaker Fe II emission than the Seyfert 1 galaxies, though at least one Seyfert 1 galaxy not known to be a radio source has a spectrum very similar to typical broad-line radio galaxies. Intermediate-type Seyfert galaxies exist that show various mixtures of the Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 properties, and the narrow-line or Seyfert 2 property seems to be strongly correlated with radio emission. (Auth.)

  18. Tidal alignment of galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, Jonathan; Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš

    2015-08-01

    We develop an analytic model for galaxy intrinsic alignments (IA) based on the theory of tidal alignment. We calculate all relevant nonlinear corrections at one-loop order, including effects from nonlinear density evolution, galaxy biasing, and source density weighting. Contributions from density weighting are found to be particularly important and lead to bias dependence of the IA amplitude, even on large scales. This effect may be responsible for much of the luminosity dependence in IA observations. The increase in IA amplitude for more highly biased galaxies reflects their locations in regions with large tidal fields. We also consider the impact of smoothing the tidal field on halo scales. We compare the performance of this consistent nonlinear model in describing the observed alignment of luminous red galaxies with the linear model as well as the frequently used "nonlinear alignment model," finding a significant improvement on small and intermediate scales. We also show that the cross-correlation between density and IA (the "GI" term) can be effectively separated into source alignment and source clustering, and we accurately model the observed alignment down to the one-halo regime using the tidal field from the fully nonlinear halo-matter cross correlation. Inside the one-halo regime, the average alignment of galaxies with density tracers no longer follows the tidal alignment prediction, likely reflecting nonlinear processes that must be considered when modeling IA on these scales. Finally, we discuss tidal alignment in the context of cosmic shear measurements.

  19. Irregular Dwarf Galaxy IC 1613

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet image (left) and visual image (right) of the irregular dwarf galaxy IC 1613. Low surface brightness galaxies, such as IC 1613, are more easily detected in the ultraviolet because of the low background levels compared to visual wavelengths.

  20. RADIO GALAXY FEEDBACK IN X-RAY-SELECTED GROUPS FROM COSMOS: THE EFFECT ON THE INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giodini, S.; Finoguenov, A.; Boehringer, H.; Pierini, D.; Smolcic, V.; Massey, R.; BIrzan, L.; Zamorani, G.; Oklopcic, A.; Pratt, G. W.; Schinnerer, E.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D. B.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Thompson, D.

    2010-01-01

    We quantify the importance of the mechanical energy released by radio galaxies inside galaxy groups. We use scaling relations to estimate the mechanical energy released by 16 radio-active galactic nuclei located inside X-ray-detected galaxy groups in the COSMOS field. By comparing this energy output to the host groups' gravitational binding energy, we find that radio galaxies produce sufficient energy to unbind a significant fraction of the intragroup medium. This unbinding effect is negligible in massive galaxy clusters with deeper potential wells. Our results correctly reproduce the breaking of self-similarity observed in the scaling relation between entropy and temperature for galaxy groups.

  1. Can mergers make slowly rotating elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, S.D.M.

    1979-01-01

    The results of numerical experiments are used to guide an analytic discussion of hyperbolic mergers among an uncorrelated galaxy population. The expected merger rate is derived as a function of progenitor mass and relative angular momentum, and is used to predict the distribution of the parameter V/sub c//sigma 0 for merger products where V/sub c/ is the maximum observed rotation velocity in a galaxy and sigma 0 is its central velocity dispersion. The median value of this parameter for mergers between comparable galaxies is estimated to be 0.65 and is higher than the observed value in any of the 14 galaxies for which data are available. It seems unlikely that most elliptical galaxies are the result of single or multiple mergers between initially unbound stellar systems; further observational and theoretical work is suggested which should lead to a conclusive test of this picture. The present arguments cannot, however, exclude formation from low angular momentum elliptical orbits

  2. Velocity-metallicity correlation for high-z DLA galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledoux, C.; Petitjean, P.; Fynbo, J.P.U.

    2006-01-01

    Galaxies: halos, galaxies: high-redshift, galaxies: ISM, quasars: absorption lines, cosmology: observations Udgivelsesdato: Oct.......Galaxies: halos, galaxies: high-redshift, galaxies: ISM, quasars: absorption lines, cosmology: observations Udgivelsesdato: Oct....

  3. Detection of Lyman/alpha emission from a DLA galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, P.; Fynbo, Johan Peter Uldall; Fall, S.M

    2004-01-01

    HIGH-REDSHIFT; BREAK GALAXIES; STARFORMATION; DISK GALAXIES; METAL ENRICHMENT; HOST GALAXY; ABSORPTION; ABSORBER; SYSTEMS; SPECTROSCOPY......HIGH-REDSHIFT; BREAK GALAXIES; STARFORMATION; DISK GALAXIES; METAL ENRICHMENT; HOST GALAXY; ABSORPTION; ABSORBER; SYSTEMS; SPECTROSCOPY...

  4. Are dusty galaxies blue? Insights on UV attenuation from dust-selected galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, C. M.; Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Scoville, N. Z. [California Institute of Technology, 1216 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sanders, D. B.; Lee, N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Finkelstein, S. L. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Capak, P. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Conley, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy 389-UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); De Zotti, G. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 2, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Farrah, D. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Fu, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Le Floc' h, E. [CEA-Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, bât. 709, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Ilbert, O. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de marseille, UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Ivison, R. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Takeuchi, T. T. [Nagoya University, Division of Particle and Astrophysical Science, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2014-12-01

    Galaxies' rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) properties are often used to directly infer the degree to which dust obscuration affects the measurement of star formation rates (SFRs). While much recent work has focused on calibrating dust attenuation in galaxies selected at rest-frame ultraviolet wavelengths, locally and at high-z, here we investigate attenuation in dusty, star forming galaxies (DSFGs) selected at far-infrared wavelengths. By combining multiwavelength coverage across 0.15-500 μm in the COSMOS field, in particular making use of Herschel imaging, and a rich data set on local galaxies, we find an empirical variation in the relationship between the rest-frame UV slope (β) and the ratio of infrared-to-ultraviolet emission (L {sub IR}/L {sub UV} ≡ IRX) as a function of infrared luminosity, or total SFR. Both locally and at high-z, galaxies above SFR ≳ 50 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} deviate from the nominal IRX-β relation toward bluer colors by a factor proportional to their increasing IR luminosity. We also estimate contamination rates of DSFGs on high-z dropout searches of <<1% at z ≲ 4-10, providing independent verification that contamination from very dusty foreground galaxies is low in Lyman-break galaxy searches. Overall, our results are consistent with the physical interpretation that DSFGs, e.g., galaxies with >50 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, are dominated at all epochs by short-lived, extreme burst events, producing many young O and B stars that are primarily, yet not entirely, enshrouded in thick dust cocoons. The blue rest-frame UV slopes of DSFGs are inconsistent with the suggestion that most DSFGs at z ∼ 2 exhibit steady-state star formation in secular disks.

  5. Simple stellar population modelling of low S/N galaxy spectra and quasar host galaxy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, G.; Tremonti, C. A.; Hooper, E. J.; Wolf, M. J.; Sheinis, A. I.; Richards, J. W.

    2015-02-01

    To study the effect of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) on their host galaxies it is important to study the hosts when the SMBH is near its peak activity. A method to investigate the host galaxies of high luminosity quasars is to obtain optical spectra at positions offset from the nucleus where the relative contribution of the quasar and host is comparable. However, at these extended radii the galaxy surface brightness is often low (20-22 mag arcsec-2) and the resulting spectrum might have such low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) that it hinders analysis with standard stellar population modelling techniques. To address this problem, we have developed a method that can recover galaxy star formation histories (SFHs) from rest-frame optical spectra with S/N ˜ 5 Å-1. This method uses the statistical technique diffusion k-means to tailor the stellar population modelling basis set. Our diffusion k-means minimal basis set, composed of four broad age bins, is successful in recovering a range of galaxy SFHs. Additionally, using an analytic prescription for seeing conditions, we are able to simultaneously model scattered quasar light and the SFH of quasar host galaxies (QHGs). We use synthetic data to compare results of our novel method with previous techniques. We also present the modelling results on a previously published QHG and show that galaxy properties recovered from a diffusion k-means basis set are less sensitive to noise added to this QHG spectrum. Our new method has a clear advantage in recovering information from QHGs and could also be applied to the analysis of other low S/N galaxy spectra such as those typically obtained for high redshift objects or integral field spectroscopic surveys.

  6. The role of galaxy merging in the life of massive galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Allison W. S.; Zirm, Andrew; Toft, Sune

    2015-08-01

    In the local Universe, the most massive galaxies of above 10^11 solar masses are typically situated at the centres of galaxy clusters or groups, and have elliptical light profiles. They have uniformly old stellar populations with the majority of stars formed when the Universe was only 2-3 Gyrs old. Merging has been invoked as an important driver for their evolution, possibly responsible for morphological transformations, size growth, ignition of active galactic nuclei as well as both triggering and quenching of star formation. Accurate measurements of the merging history of massive galaxies is thus instrumental to understand their evolution. While several measurements of the merging fraction of massive galaxies up to z~3 exist to date, they lead to discrepant conclusions of whether the fraction is increasing or diminishing.My recent work resolves these discrepancies through the accurate measurement of the galaxy merger fraction up to z=3 in the COSMOS field. Combining the large area, near-infrared survey of UltraVISTA with the smaller area, but deeper and higher resolution HST/CANDELS dataset, yields the largest, most complete photometrically identified sample of mergers at z>1. The discrepancy of previous studies is found to be due to a selection effect. Selecting galaxy pairs by stellar mass ratio leads to a diminishing merger fraction at z~2, while selecting by flux ratio leads to an increasing trend. Flux-ratio selection is biased towards low M/L satellites, while stellar mass ratio selected mergers are likely biased against gas-rich satellites at z>2. I argue that the total baryon mass ratio is the least biased probe of the "true" merger rate of galaxies, and discuss future plans for examining the role of galaxy merging in the global star formation history, as well as its relation to star formation quenching.

  7. Clustering of galaxies around AGNs in the HSC Wide survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Yuji; Akiyama, Masayuki; Nagao, Tohru; Toba, Yoshiki; He, Wanqiu; Ohishi, Masatoshi; Mizumoto, Yoshihiko; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nishizawa, Atsushi J.; Usuda, Tomonori

    2018-01-01

    We have measured the clustering of galaxies around active galactic nuclei (AGNs) for which single-epoch virial masses of the super-massive black hole (SMBH) are available to investigate the relation between the large-scale environment of AGNs and the evolution of SMBHs. The AGN samples used in this work were derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) observations and the galaxy samples were from the 240 deg2 S15b data of the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program (HSC-SSP). The investigated redshift range is 0.6-3.0, and the masses of the SMBHs lie in the range 107.5-1010 M⊙. The absolute magnitude of the galaxy samples reaches to Mλ310 ˜ -18 at rest-frame wavelength 310 nm for the low-redshift end of the samples. More than 70% of the galaxies in the analysis are blue. We found a significant dependence of the cross-correlation length on redshift, which primarily reflects the brightness-dependence of the galaxy clustering. At the lowest redshifts the cross-correlation length increases from 7 h-1 Mpc around Mλ310 = -19 mag to >10 h-1 Mpc beyond Mλ310 = -20 mag. No significant dependence of the cross-correlation length on BH mass was found for whole galaxy samples dominated by blue galaxies, while there was an indication of BH mass dependence in the cross-correlation with red galaxies. These results provides a picture of the environment of AGNs studied in this paper being enriched with blue star-forming galaxies, and a fraction of the galaxies are evolving into red galaxies along with the evolution of SMBHs in that system.

  8. Distance determinations to shield galaxies from Hubble space telescope imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Cannon, John M.; Cave, Ian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Salzer, John J. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Haynes, Martha P.; Adams, Elizabeth; Giovanelli, Riccardo [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Elson, Ed C. [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Ott, Juërgen [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Saintonge, Amélie, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu [Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, D-85741 Garching (Germany)

    2014-04-10

    The Survey of H I in Extremely Low-mass Dwarf (SHIELD) galaxies is an ongoing multi-wavelength program to characterize the gas, star formation, and evolution in gas-rich, very low-mass galaxies. The galaxies were selected from the first ∼10% of the H I Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey based on their inferred low H I mass and low baryonic mass, and all systems have recent star formation. Thus, the SHIELD sample probes the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function for star-forming galaxies. Here, we measure the distances to the 12 SHIELD galaxies to be between 5 and 12 Mpc by applying the tip of the red giant method to the resolved stellar populations imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope. Based on these distances, the H I masses in the sample range from 4 × 10{sup 6} to 6 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}, with a median H I mass of 1 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}. The tip of the red giant branch distances are up to 73% farther than flow-model estimates in the ALFALFA catalog. Because of the relatively large uncertainties of flow-model distances, we are biased toward selecting galaxies from the ALFALFA catalog where the flow model underestimates the true distances. The measured distances allow for an assessment of the native environments around the sample members. Five of the galaxies are part of the NGC 672 and NGC 784 groups, which together constitute a single structure. One galaxy is part of a larger linear ensemble of nine systems that stretches 1.6 Mpc from end to end. Three galaxies reside in regions with 1-9 neighbors, and four galaxies are truly isolated with no known system identified within a radius of 1 Mpc.

  9. Dark-ages reionization and galaxy formation simulation - IX. Economics of reionizing galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Alan R.; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Geil, Paul M.; Kim, Han-Seek; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2017-09-01

    Using a series of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations we show that during the rapid growth of high-redshift (z > 5) galaxies, reserves of molecular gas are consumed over a time-scale of 300 Myr, almost independent of feedback scheme. We find that there exists no such simple relation for the total gas fractions of these galaxies, with little correlation between gas fractions and specific star formation rates. The bottleneck or limiting factor in the growth of early galaxies is in converting infalling gas to cold star-forming gas. Thus, we find that the majority of high-redshift dwarf galaxies are effectively in recession, with demand (of star formation) never rising to meet supply (of gas), irrespective of the baryonic feedback physics modelled. We conclude that the basic assumption of self-regulation in galaxies - that they can adjust total gas consumption within a Hubble time - does not apply for the dwarf galaxies thought to be responsible for providing most UV photons to reionize the high-redshift Universe. We demonstrate how this rapid molecular time-scale improves agreement between semi-analytic model predictions of the early Universe and observed stellar mass functions.

  10. Galaxy Zoo: A Catalog of Overlapping Galaxy Pairs for Dust Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, William C.; Manning, Anna M.; Holwerda, Benne W.; Mezzoprete, Massimo; Lintott, Chris J.; Schawinski, Kevin; Gay, Pamela; Masters, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of galaxies with overlapping images offers a direct way to probe the distribution of dust extinction and its effects on the background light. We present a catalog of 1990 such galaxy pairs selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) by volunteers of the Galaxy Zoo project. We highlight subsamples which are particularly useful for retrieving such properties of the dust distribution as UV extinction, the extent perpendicular to the disk plane, and extinction in the inner parts of disks. The sample spans wide ranges of morphology and surface brightness, opening up the possibility of using this technique to address systematic changes in dust extinction or distribution with galaxy type. This sample will form the basis for forthcoming work on the ranges of dust distributions in local disk galaxies, both for their astrophysical implications and as the low-redshift part of a study of the evolution of dust properties. Separate lists and figures show deep overlaps, where the inner regions of the foreground galaxy are backlit, and the relatively small number of previously-known overlapping pairs outside the SDSS DR7 sky coverage.

  11. Small-Scale Systems of Galaxies. II. Properties of the NGC 4756 Group of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützbauch, R.; Kelm, B.; Focardi, P.; Trinchieri, G.; Rampazzo, R.; Zeilinger, W. W.

    2005-04-01

    This paper is part of a series that focuses on investigating galaxy formation and evolution in small-scale systems of galaxies in low-density environments. We present results from a study of the NGC 4756 group, which is dominated by the elliptical galaxy NGC 4756. The characteristics of the group are investigated through (1) the detailed investigation of the morphological, photometric, and spectroscopic properties of nine galaxies among the dominant members of the group; (2) the determination of the photometric parameters of the faint galaxy population in an area of 34'×34' centered on NGC 4756 and (3) an analysis of the X-ray emission in the area based on archival data. The nine member galaxies are located in the core part of the NGC 4756 group (a strip ~300 kpc in diameter, H0=70 km s-1 Mpc-1), which has a very loose configuration. The central part of the NGC 4756 group contains a significant fraction of early-type galaxies. Three new group members with previously unknown systemic velocities are identified, one of which is type dE. At about 7.5 arcmin southwest of NGC 4756 a substructure of the group is detected, including IC 829, MCG -2-33-35, MCG -2-33-36, and MCG -2-33-38, that meets the Hickson criteria for being a compact group. Most of the galaxies in this substructure show interaction signatures. We do not detect apparent fine structure and signatures of recent interaction events in the early-type galaxy population, with the exception of a strong dust lane in the elliptical galaxy MCG -2-33-38. However, this galaxy displays signatures of nuclear activity. Strong [O III], [N II], and [S II] line emission, combined with comparatively weak but broad Hα emission, suggests an intermediate Seyfert type classification. Although the area is heavily contaminated by the background cluster A1631, X-ray data suggest the presence of a hot intergalactic medium related to the detected X-ray emission of the group. The present results are discussed in the context of

  12. Photometry and mass modeling of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, S.

    1987-01-01

    Recent estimates of the relative contributions of dark and luminous matter to the mass of spiral galaxies are reviewed. In these studies, the galactic mass distribution is modeled on the basis of photometric and kinematic observational data. The accuracy of current photometry is discussed; the three-dimensional structure of spiral galaxies and the techniques used in bulge-disk decomposition are examined; and mass models incorporating rotation curves are presented. The disk mass/luminosity ratios in the red band (corrected for internal extinction) are found to range from 1.6 to 3.2, with no particular radius at which dark matter dominates. 20 references

  13. Hot interstellar matter in elliptical galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Dong-Woo

    2012-01-01

    Based on a number of new discoveries resulting from 10 years of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations and corresponding theoretical works, this is the first book to address significant progress in the research of the Hot Interstellar Matter in Elliptical Galaxies. A fundamental understanding of the physical properties of the hot ISM in elliptical galaxies is critical, because they are directly related to the formation and evolution of elliptical galaxies via star formation episodes, environmental effects such as stripping, infall, and mergers, and the growth of super-massive black holes. Thanks to the outstanding spatial resolution of Chandra and the large collecting area of XMM-Newton, various fine structures of the hot gas have been imaged in detail and key physical quantities have been accurately measured, allowing theoretical interpretations/predictions to be compared and tested against observational results. This book will bring all readers up-to-date on this essential field of research.

  14. Cold gas accretion in galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sancisi, Renzo; Fraternali, Filippo; Oosterloo, Tom; van der Hulst, Thijs

    Evidence for the accretion of cold gas in galaxies has been rapidly accumulating in the past years. HI observations of galaxies and their environment have brought to light new facts and phenomena which are evidence of ongoing or recent accretion: (1) A large number of galaxies are accompanied by

  15. Alignment between galaxies and large-scale structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltenbacher, A.; Li Cheng; White, Simon D. M.; Jing, Yi-Peng; Mao Shude; Wang Jie

    2009-01-01

    Based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR6 (SDSS) and the Millennium Simulation (MS), we investigate the alignment between galaxies and large-scale structure. For this purpose, we develop two new statistical tools, namely the alignment correlation function and the cos(2θ)-statistic. The former is a two-dimensional extension of the traditional two-point correlation function and the latter is related to the ellipticity correlation function used for cosmic shear measurements. Both are based on the cross correlation between a sample of galaxies with orientations and a reference sample which represents the large-scale structure. We apply the new statistics to the SDSS galaxy catalog. The alignment correlation function reveals an overabundance of reference galaxies along the major axes of red, luminous (L ∼ * ) galaxies out to projected separations of 60 h- 1 Mpc. The signal increases with central galaxy luminosity. No alignment signal is detected for blue galaxies. The cos(2θ)-statistic yields very similar results. Starting from a MS semi-analytic galaxy catalog, we assign an orientation to each red, luminous and central galaxy, based on that of the central region of the host halo (with size similar to that of the stellar galaxy). As an alternative, we use the orientation of the host halo itself. We find a mean projected misalignment between a halo and its central region of ∼ 25 deg. The misalignment decreases slightly with increasing luminosity of the central galaxy. Using the orientations and luminosities of the semi-analytic galaxies, we repeat our alignment analysis on mock surveys of the MS. Agreement with the SDSS results is good if the central orientations are used. Predictions using the halo orientations as proxies for central galaxy orientations overestimate the observed alignment by more than a factor of 2. Finally, the large volume of the MS allows us to generate a two-dimensional map of the alignment correlation function, which shows the reference

  16. LOCAL TADPOLE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Putko, Joseph; Dewberry, Janosz; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Sánchez Almeida, Jorge; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana

    2012-01-01

    Tadpole galaxies have a giant star-forming region at the end of an elongated intensity distribution. Here we use Sloan Digital Sky Survey data to determine the ages, masses, and surface densities of the heads and tails in 14 local tadpoles selected from the Kiso and Michigan surveys of UV-bright galaxies, and we compare them to tadpoles previously studied in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. The young stellar mass in the head scales linearly with rest-frame galaxy luminosity, ranging from ∼10 5 M ☉ at galaxy absolute magnitude U = –13 mag to 10 9 M ☉ at U = –20 mag. The corresponding head surface density increases from several M ☉ pc –2 locally to 10-100 M ☉ pc –2 at high redshift, and the star formation rate (SFR) per unit area in the head increases from ∼0.01 M ☉ yr –1 kpc –2 locally to ∼1 M ☉ yr –1 kpc –2 at high z. These local values are normal for star-forming regions, and the increases with redshift are consistent with other cosmological SFRs, most likely reflecting an increase in gas abundance. The tails in the local sample look like bulge-free galaxy disks. Their photometric ages decrease from several Gyr to several hundred Myr with increasing z, and their surface densities are more constant than the surface densities of the heads. The far-outer intensity profiles in the local sample are symmetric and exponential. We suggest that most local tadpoles are bulge-free galaxy disks with lopsided star formation, perhaps from environmental effects such as ram pressure or disk impacts, or from a Jeans length comparable to half the disk size.

  17. Spectroscopy of the galaxy components of N and Seyfert galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroson, T.A.; Oke, J.B.; Palomar Observatory, Pasadena, CA)

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear and off-nuclear spectra of nine active galaxies are presented. The sample consists of four Seyfert galaxies, two N galaxies, one Seyfert radio galaxy, and one liner/Seyfert 2 galaxy. All of the objects show continuum emission off the nucleus. Four clearly show absorption features from a stellar population. Velocities have been measured for the off-nuclear emission and absorption lines. In the case of I Zw 1, the absorption-line velocities are inconsistent with 21-cm H I measurements of this object. 26 references

  18. Galaxy bias from the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data: combining galaxy density maps and weak lensing maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.; Pujol, A.; Gaztañaga, E.; Amara, A.; Réfrégier, A.; Bacon, D.; Becker, M. R.; Bonnett, C.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Crocce, M.; Fosalba, P.; Giannantonio, T.; Hartley, W.; Jarvis, M.; Kacprzak, T.; Ross, A. J.; Sheldon, E.; Troxel, M. A.; Vikram, V.; Zuntz, J.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Cunha, C. E.; D' Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; Jain, B.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.

    2016-04-15

    We measure the redshift evolution of galaxy bias from a magnitude-limited galaxy sample by combining the galaxy density maps and weak lensing shear maps for a $\\sim$116 deg$^{2}$ area of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data. This method was first developed in Amara et al. (2012) and later re-examined in a companion paper (Pujol et al., in prep) with rigorous simulation tests and analytical treatment of tomographic measurements. In this work we apply this method to the DES SV data and measure the galaxy bias for a magnitude-limited galaxy sample. We find the galaxy bias and 1$\\sigma$ error bars in 4 photometric redshift bins to be 1.33$\\pm$0.18 (z=0.2-0.4), 1.19$\\pm$0.23 (z=0.4-0.6), 0.99$\\pm$0.36 ( z=0.6-0.8), and 1.66$\\pm$0.56 (z=0.8-1.0). These measurements are consistent at the 1-2$\\sigma$ level with mea- surements on the same dataset using galaxy clustering and cross-correlation of galaxies with CMB lensing. In addition, our method provides the only $\\sigma_8$-independent constraint among the three. We forward-model the main observational effects using mock galaxy catalogs by including shape noise, photo-z errors and masking effects. We show that our bias measurement from the data is consistent with that expected from simulations. With the forthcoming full DES data set, we expect this method to provide additional constraints on the galaxy bias measurement from more traditional methods. Furthermore, in the process of our measurement, we build up a 3D mass map that allows further exploration of the dark matter distribution and its relation to galaxy evolution.

  19. The RSA survey of dwarf galaxies, 1: Optical photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vader, J. Patricia; Chaboyer, Brian

    1994-01-01

    We present detailed surface photometry, based on broad B-band charge coupled device (CCD) images, of about 80 dwarf galaxies. Our sample represents approximately 10% of all dwarf galaxies identified in the vicinity of Revised Shapley-Ames (RSA) galaxies on high resolution blue photographic plates, referred to as the RSA survey of dwarf galaxies. We derive global properties and radial surface brightness profiles, and examine the morphologies. The radial surface brightness profiles of dwarf galaxies, whether early or late type, display the same varieties in shape and complexity as those of classical giant galaxies. Only a few are well described by a pure r(exp 1/4) law. Exponential profiles prevail. Features typical of giant disk galaxies, such as exponential profiles with a central depression, lenses, and even, in one case (IC 2041), a relatively prominent bulge are also found in dwarf galaxies. Our data suggest that the central region evolves from being bulge-like, with an r(exp 1/4) law profile, in bright galaxies to a lens-like structure in dwarf galaxies. We prove detailed surface photometry to be a helpful if not always sufficient tool in investigating the structure of dwarf galaxies. In many cases kinematic information is needed to complete the picture. We find the shapes of the surface brightness profiles to be loosely associated with morphological type. Our sample contains several new galaxies with properties intermediate between those of giant and dwarf ellipticals (but no M32-like objects). This shows that such intermediate galaxies exist so that at least a fraction of early-type dwarf ellipticals is structurally related to early-type giants instead of belonging to a totally unrelated, disjunct family. This supports an origin of early-type dwarf galaxies as originally more massive systems that acquired their current morphology as a result of substantial, presumable supernova-driven, mass loss. On the other hand, several early-type dwarfs in our sample are

  20. Galaxy S II

    CERN Document Server

    Gralla, Preston

    2011-01-01

    Unlock the potential of Samsung's outstanding smartphone with this jargon-free guide from technology guru Preston Gralla. You'll quickly learn how to shoot high-res photos and HD video, keep your schedule, stay in touch, and enjoy your favorite media. Every page is packed with illustrations and valuable advice to help you get the most from the smartest phone in town. The important stuff you need to know: Get dialed in. Learn your way around the Galaxy S II's calling and texting features.Go online. Browse the Web, manage email, and download apps with Galaxy S II's 3G/4G network (or create you

  1. Optical Observations of X-ray Bright, Optically Normal Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadun, Alberto C.; Aryan, N. S.; Ghosh, K. K.

    2007-05-01

    X-ray bright, optically normal galaxies (XBONGs) are galaxies that seem to have normal spectra and morphology, but are relatively bright x-ray sources. The large ratio of the x-ray to optical emission suggests that some activity, similar to that of active galactic nuclei (AGN), is occurring. Since the galaxies do not show any obvious sign of nuclear activity in their optical spectra, one possible explanation is that these galaxies do not have an optically thick accretion disk at small radii, as previously assumed. Previous data for NGC 7626 classifies it as an XBONG, and so we are studying optical features of this galaxy in order to determine better its features. After confirming an x-ray jet, we are now comparing this to optical features that we have found, including warped dust lanes and a possible optical jet.

  2. Selection effects in the bivariate brightness distribution for spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.

    1986-01-01

    The joint distribution of total luminosity and characteristic surface brightness (the bivariate brightness distribution) is investigated for a complete sample of spiral galaxies in the Virgo cluster. The influence of selection and physical limits of various kinds on the apparent distribution are detailed. While the distribution of surface brightness for bright galaxies may be genuinely fairly narrow, faint galaxies exist right across the (quite small) range of accessible surface brightnesses so no statement can be made about the true extent of the distribution. The lack of high surface brightness bright galaxies in the Virgo sample relative to an overall RC2 sample (mostly field galaxies) supports the contention that the star-formation rate is reduced in the inner region of the cluster for environmental reasons. (author)

  3. Dwarf elliptical galaxies with kinematically decoupled cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rijcke, S.; Dejonghe, H.; Zeilinger, W. W.; Hau, G. K. T.

    2004-10-01

    We present, for the first time, photometric and kinematical evidence, obtained with FORS2 on the VLT, for the existence of kinematically decoupled cores (KDCs) in two dwarf elliptical galaxies; FS76 in the NGC 5044 group and FS373 in the NGC 3258 group. Both kinematically peculiar subcomponents rotate in the same sense as the main body of their host galaxy but betray their presence by a pronounced bump in the rotation velocity profiles at a radius of about 1''. The KDC in FS76 rotates at 10 ± 3 km s-1, with the host galaxy rotating at 15 ± 6 km s-1; the KDC in FS373 has a rotation velocity of 6 ± 2 km s-1 while the galaxy itself rotates at 20 ± 5 km s-1. FS373 has a very complex rotation velocity profile with the velocity changing sign at 1.5 Re. The velocity and velocity dispersion profiles of FS76 are asymmetric at larger radii. This could be caused by a past gravitational interaction with the giant elliptical NGC 5044, which is at a projected distance of 50 kpc. We argue that these decoupled cores are most likely not produced by mergers in a group or cluster environment because of the prohibitively large relative velocities. A plausible alternative is offered by flyby interactions between a dwarf elliptical or its disky progenitor and a massive galaxy. The tidal forces during an interaction at the relative velocities and impact parameters typical for a group environment exert a torque on the dwarf galaxy that, according to analytical estimates, transfers enough angular momentum to its stellar envelope to explain the observed peculiar kinematics.

  4. Dwarf galaxy evolution within the environments of massive galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arraki, Kenza S.; Klypin, Anatoly A.; Ceverino, Daniel; Trujillo-Gomez, Sebastian; Primack, Joel R.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding galaxy evolution depends on connecting large-scale structure determined by the ΛCDM model with, at minimum, the small-scale physics of gas, star formation, and stellar feedback. Formation of galaxies within dark matter halos is sensitive to the physical phenomena occurring within and around the halo. This is especially true for dwarf galaxies, which have the smallest potential wells and are more susceptible to the effects of gas ionization and removal than larger galaxies. At dwarf galaxies scales comparisons of dark matter-only simulations with observations has unveiled various differences including the core-cusp, the missing satellites, and the too-big-to-fail problems. We have run a new suite of hydrodynamical simulations using the ART code to examine the evolution of dwarf galaxies in massive host environments. These are cosmological zoom-in simulations including deterministic star formation and stellar feedback in the form of supernovae feedback, stellar winds, radiation pressure, and photoionization pressure. We simulates galaxies with final halo masses on the order of 1012 M⊙ with high resolution, allowing us to examine the satellite dwarf galaxies and local isolated dwarf galaxies around each primary galaxy. We analyzed the abundance and structure of these dwarfs specifically the velocity function, their star formation rates, core creation and the circumgalactic medium. By reproducing observations of dwarf galaxies in simulations we show how including baryons in simulations relieves tensions seen in comparing dark matter only simulations with observations.

  5. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: gas content and interaction as the drivers of kinematic asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, J. V.; Croom, S. M.; Bryant, J. J.; Schaefer, A. L.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Callingham, J.; Cortese, L.; Federrath, C.; Scott, N.; Sande, J. van de; D'Eugenio, F.; Sweet, S.; Tonini, C.; Allen, J. T.; Goodwin, M.; Green, A. W.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Lawrence, J.; Lorente, N.; Medling, A. M.; Owers, M. S.; Richards, S. N.; Sharp, R.

    2018-02-01

    In order to determine the causes of kinematic asymmetry in the Hα gas in the SAMI Galaxy Survey sample, we investigate the comparative influences of environment and intrinsic properties of galaxies on perturbation. We use spatially resolved Hα velocity fields from the SAMI Galaxy Survey to quantify kinematic asymmetry (\\overline{v_{asym}}) in nearby galaxies and environmental and stellar mass data from the GAMA survey. We find that local environment, measured as distance to nearest neighbour, is inversely correlated with kinematic asymmetry for galaxies with log (M_*/M_⊙ )>10.0, but there is no significant correlation for galaxies with log (M_*/M_⊙ )galaxies (log (M_*/M_⊙ )galaxies. We propose that secular effects derived from gas fraction and gas mass may be the primary causes of asymmetry in low mass galaxies. High gas fraction is linked to high σ m/V (where σm is Hα velocity dispersion and V the rotation velocity), which is strongly correlated with \\overline{v_{asym}}, and galaxies with log (M*/M⊙) galaxies with log (M*/M⊙) dwarf galaxies may lead to asymmetric distribution of gas clouds, leading to increased relative turbulence.

  6. EVOLUTION OF THE GALAXY-DARK MATTER CONNECTION AND THE ASSEMBLY OF GALAXIES IN DARK MATTER HALOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Xiaohu; Zhang Youcai; Han Jiaxin [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Nandan Road 80, Shanghai 200030 (China); Mo, H. J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-9305 (United States); Van den Bosch, Frank C., E-mail: xhyang@shao.ac.cn [Astronomy Department, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)

    2012-06-10

    We present a new model to describe the galaxy-dark matter connection across cosmic time, which unlike the popular subhalo abundance-matching technique is self-consistent in that it takes account of the facts that (1) subhalos are accreted at different times and (2) the properties of satellite galaxies may evolve after accretion. Using observations of galaxy stellar mass functions (SMFs) out to z {approx} 4, the conditional SMF at z {approx} 0.1 obtained from Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxy group catalogs, and the two-point correlation function (2PCF) of galaxies at z {approx} 0.1 as a function of stellar mass, we constrain the relation between galaxies and dark matter halos over the entire cosmic history from z {approx} 4 to the present. This relation is then used to predict the median assembly histories of different stellar mass components within dark matter halos (central galaxies, satellite galaxies, and halo stars). We also make predictions for the 2PCFs of high-z galaxies as function of stellar mass. Our main findings are the following: (1) Our model reasonably fits all data within the observational uncertainties, indicating that the {Lambda}CDM concordance cosmology is consistent with a wide variety of data regarding the galaxy population across cosmic time. (2) At low-z, the stellar mass of central galaxies increases with halo mass as M{sup 0.3} and M{sup {approx}>4.0} at the massive and low-mass ends, respectively. The ratio M{sub *,c}/M reveals a maximum of {approx}0.03 at a halo mass M {approx} 10{sup 11.8} h{sup -1} M{sub Sun }, much lower than the universal baryon fraction ({approx}0.17). At higher redshifts the maximum in M{sub *,c}/M remains close to {approx}0.03, but shifts to higher halo mass. (3) The inferred timescale for the disruption of satellite galaxies is about the same as the dynamical friction timescale of their subhalos. (4) The stellar mass assembly history of central galaxies is completely decoupled from the assembly history of its host

  7. What Are S0 Galaxies?

    OpenAIRE

    Bergh, Sidney van den

    2009-01-01

    The data collected in the Shapley-Ames catalog of bright galaxies show that lenticular (S0) galaxies are typically about a magnitude fainter than both elliptical (E) and early spiral (Sa) galaxies. Hubble (1936) was therefore wrong to regard S0 galaxies as being intermediate between morphological types E and Sa. The observation that E5-E7 galaxies are significantly fainter than objects of sub-types E0-E5 suggests that many of the flattest 'ellipticals' may actually be misclassified lenticular...

  8. The correlation functions for the clustering of galaxies and Abell clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.J.T.; Jones, J.E.; Copenhagen Univ.

    1985-01-01

    The difference in amplitudes between the galaxy-galaxy correlation function and the correlation function between Abell clusters is a consequence of two facts. Firstly, most Abell clusters with z<0.08 lie in a relatively small volume of the sampled space, and secondly, the fraction of galaxies lying in Abell clusters differs considerably inside and outside of this volume. (The Abell clusters are confined to a smaller volume of space than are the galaxies.) We discuss the implications of this interpretation of the clustering correlation functions and present a simple model showing how such a situation may arise quite naturally in standard theories for galaxy formation. (orig.)

  9. The structure of nearby clusters of galaxies Hierarchical clustering and an application to the Leo region

    CERN Document Server

    Materne, J

    1978-01-01

    A new method of classifying groups of galaxies, called hierarchical clustering, is presented as a tool for the investigation of nearby groups of galaxies. The method is free from model assumptions about the groups. The scaling of the different coordinates is necessary, and the level from which one accepts the groups as real has to be determined. Hierarchical clustering is applied to an unbiased sample of galaxies in the Leo region. Five distinct groups result which have reasonable physical properties, such as low crossing times and conservative mass-to-light ratios, and which follow a radial velocity- luminosity relation. Only 4 out of 39 galaxies were adopted as field galaxies. (27 refs).

  10. Featured Image: Identifying Weird Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    Hoags Object, an example of a ring galaxy. [NASA/Hubble Heritage Team/Ray A. Lucas (STScI/AURA)]The above image (click for the full view) shows PanSTARRSobservationsof some of the 185 galaxies identified in a recent study as ring galaxies bizarre and rare irregular galaxies that exhibit stars and gas in a ring around a central nucleus. Ring galaxies could be formed in a number of ways; one theory is that some might form in a galaxy collision when a smaller galaxy punches through the center of a larger one, triggering star formation around the center. In a recent study, Ian Timmis and Lior Shamir of Lawrence Technological University in Michigan explore ways that we may be able to identify ring galaxies in the overwhelming number of images expected from large upcoming surveys. They develop a computer analysis method that automatically finds ring galaxy candidates based on their visual appearance, and they test their approach on the 3 million galaxy images from the first PanSTARRS data release. To see more of the remarkable galaxies the authors found and to learn more about their identification method, check out the paper below.CitationIan Timmis and Lior Shamir 2017 ApJS 231 2. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/aa78a3

  11. Lopsided spiral galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lopsided distribution highlighted first: Baldwin, Lynden-Bell, & Sancisi (1980) · Lopsidedness also seen in an edge-on galaxy : NGC 891 · Slide 7 · Origin of m=1 disk distribution? Early Theoretical models: · Disk response to a lopsided halo potential (Jog 1997, 2002): · Isophotal shapes in a lopsided potential. Distribution of ...

  12. Simulations of galaxy mergers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villumsen, J.V.; Yale Univ., New Haven, CT

    1982-01-01

    A number of N-body simulations of mergers of equal and unequal galaxies are presented. A new code is presented which determines the potential from a mass distribution by a fourth-order expansion in Tesseral harmonics in three dimensions as an approximation to a collisionless system. The total number of particles in the system is 1200. Two galaxies, each a spherical non-rotating system with isothermal or Hubble density profile, are put in orbit around each other where tidal effects and dynamical friction lead to merging. The final system has a Hubble profile, and in some mergers an 'isothermal' halo forms as found in cD galaxies. Equal mass mergers are more flattened than unequal mass mergers. The central surface brightness decreases except in a merger of isothermal galaxies which shows a major redistribution of energy towards a Hubble profile. Mixing is severe in equal mass mergers, where radial gradients are weakened, while in unequal mass encounters gradients can build up due to less mixing and the formation of a halo. Oblate systems with strong rotation form in high angular momentum encounters while prolate systems with little rotation are formed in near head-on collisions. (author)

  13. Outskirts of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Janice; Paz, Armando

    2017-01-01

    This book consists of invited reviews written by world-renowned experts on the subject of the outskirts of galaxies, an upcoming field which has been understudied so far. These regions are faint and hard to observe, yet hide a tremendous amount of information on the origin and early evolution of galaxies. They thus allow astronomers to address some of the most topical problems, such as gaseous and satellite accretion, radial migration, and merging. The book is published in conjunction with the celebration of the end of the four-year DAGAL project, an EU-funded initial training network, and with a major international conference on the topic held in March 2016 in Toledo. It thus reflects not only the views of the experts, but also the scientific discussions and progress achieved during the project and the meeting. The reviews in the book describe the most modern observations of the outer regions of our own Galaxy, and of galaxies in the local and high-redshift Universe. They tackle disks, haloes, streams, and a...

  14. From gas to galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, J.M.; Sadler, E.M.; Jackson, C.A.; Hunt, L.K.; Verheijen, M.; van Gorkom, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    The unsurpassed sensitivity and resolution of the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) will make it possible for the first time to probe the continuum emission of normal star forming galaxies out to the edges of the universe. This opens the possibility for routinely using the radio continuum emission from

  15. Forming galaxies with MOND

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, R. H.

    2008-01-01

    Beginning with a simple model for the growth of structure, I consider the dissipationless evolution of a MOND-dominated region in an expanding universe by means of a spherically symmetric N-body code. I demonstrate that the final virialized objects resemble elliptical galaxies with well-defined

  16. Galaxy Masses : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Courteau, Stephane; Cappellari, Michele; Jong, Roelof S. de; Dutton, Aaron A.; Koopmans, L.V.E.

    2013-01-01

    Galaxy masses play a fundamental role in our understanding of structure formation models. This review addresses the variety and reliability of mass estimators that pertain to stars, gas, and dark matter. The dierent sections on masses from stellar populations, dynamical masses of gas-rich and

  17. Formation of Triaxial Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang-Hyeon Park

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of N-body simulation of dissipationless cold collapse of spherical gravitating system are presented. We compared the results with properties of elliptical galaxies. The system gradually evolved to triaxial system. The projected density profile is in good agreement with observations. In addition to triaxial instability, it seems that there is another instability.

  18. An over-massive black hole in the compact lenticular galaxy NGC 1277.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Remco C E; Gebhardt, Karl; Gültekin, Kayhan; van de Ven, Glenn; van der Wel, Arjen; Walsh, Jonelle L

    2012-11-29

    Most massive galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centres, and the masses of the black holes are believed to correlate with properties of the host-galaxy bulge component. Several explanations have been proposed for the existence of these locally established empirical relationships, including the non-causal, statistical process of galaxy-galaxy merging, direct feedback between the black hole and its host galaxy, and galaxy-galaxy merging and the subsequent violent relaxation and dissipation. The empirical scaling relations are therefore important for distinguishing between various theoretical models of galaxy evolution, and they furthermore form the basis for all black-hole mass measurements at large distances. Observations have shown that the mass of the black hole is typically 0.1 per cent of the mass of the stellar bulge of the galaxy. Until now, the galaxy with the largest known fraction of its mass in its central black hole (11 per cent) was the small galaxy NGC 4486B. Here we report observations of the stellar kinematics of NGC 1277, which is a compact, lenticular galaxy with a mass of 1.2 × 10(11) solar masses. From the data, we determine that the mass of the central black hole is 1.7 × 10(10) solar masses, or 59 per cent of its bulge mass. We also show observations of five other compact galaxies that have properties similar to NGC 1277 and therefore may also contain over-massive black holes. It is not yet known if these galaxies represent a tail of a distribution, or if disk-dominated galaxies fail to follow the usual black-hole mass scaling relations.

  19. Mergers of elliptical galaxies and the fundamental plane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, AC; van Albada, TS; AvilaReese,; Firmani, C; Frenk, CS; Allen, YC

    2003-01-01

    N-body simulations have been carried out in order to explore the final state of elliptical galaxies after encounters and more expecifically whether the Fundamental Plane (FP hereafter) relation is affected by merging.

  20. The evolution of early-type galaxies in distant clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanford, S.A.; Eisenhardt, P.R.; Dickinson, M.

    1998-01-01

    We present results from an optical-infrared photometric study of early-type (E+S0) galaxies in 19 galaxy clusters out to z=0.9. The galaxy sample is selected on the basis of morphologies determined from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 images and is photometrically defined in the K band in order to minimize redshift-dependent selection biases. Using new ground-based photometry in five optical and infrared bands for each cluster, we examine the evolution of the color-magnitude relation for early-type cluster galaxies, considering its slope, intercept, and color scatter around the mean relation. New multiwavelength photometry of galaxies in the Coma Cluster is used to provide a baseline sample at z∼0 with which to compare the distant clusters. The optical - IR colors of the early-type cluster galaxies become bluer with increasing redshift in a manner consistent with the passive evolution of an old stellar population formed at an early cosmic epoch. The degree of color evolution is similar for clusters at similar redshift and does not depend strongly on the optical richness or X-ray luminosity of the cluster, which suggests that the history of early-type galaxies is relatively insensitive to environment, at least above a certain density threshold. The slope of the color-magnitude relationship shows no significant change out to z=0.9, which provides evidence that it arises from a correlation between galaxy mass and metallicity, not age. Finally, the intrinsic scatter in the optical - IR colors of the galaxies is small and nearly constant with redshift, which indicates that the majority of giant, early-type galaxies in clusters share a common star formation history, with little perturbation due to uncorrelated episodes of later star formation. Taken together, our results are consistent with models in which most early-type galaxies in rich clusters are old, formed the majority of their stars at high redshift in a well-synchronized fashion, and evolved quiescently

  1. Black Hole Caught Zapping Galaxy into Existence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    across the whole electromagnetic spectrum; particularly spectacular is the case of quasars, where the active core is so overwhelmingly bright that it outshines the luminosity of the host galaxy. [2] This part of the study is based on observations performed at mid-infrared wavelengths, with the powerful VLT spectrometer and imager for the mid-infrared (VISIR) instrument at the VLT, combined with additional data including: spectra acquired using VLT-FORS, optical and infrared images from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, and radio observations from the Australia Telescope National Facility. [3] Most galaxies in the local Universe contain a supermassive black hole with a mass about 1/700th the mass of the stellar bulge. The origin of this black hole mass versus stellar mass relation is one of the most debated subjects in modern astrophysics. More information This research was presented in papers published in the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics: "Quasar induced galaxy formation: a new paradigm?" by Elbaz et al., and in the Astrophysical Journal "The QSO HE0450-2958: Scantily dressed or heavily robed? A normal quasar as part of an unusual ULIRG" by Jahnke et al. The team is composed of David Elbaz (Service d'Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, France), Knud Jahnke (Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, Germany), Eric Pantin (Service d'Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, France), Damien Le Borgne (Paris University 6 and CNRS, Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, France) and Géraldine Letawe (Institut d'Astrophysique et de Géophysique, Université de Liège, Belgium). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design

  2. HOST GALAXIES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE FROM THE NEARBY SUPERNOVA FACTORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childress, M.; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kim, A. G.; Loken, S.; Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Guy, J.; Baltay, C.; Buton, C.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Kowalski, M.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E.

    2013-01-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of galaxies hosting Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed by the Nearby Supernova Factory. Combining Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) UV data with optical and near-infrared photometry, we employ stellar population synthesis techniques to measure SN Ia host galaxy stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and reddening due to dust. We reinforce the key role of GALEX UV data in deriving accurate estimates of galaxy SFRs and dust extinction. Optical spectra of SN Ia host galaxies are fitted simultaneously for their stellar continua and emission lines fluxes, from which we derive high-precision redshifts, gas-phase metallicities, and Hα-based SFRs. With these data we show that SN Ia host galaxies present tight agreement with the fiducial galaxy mass-metallicity relation from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) for stellar masses log(M * /M ☉ ) > 8.5 where the relation is well defined. The star formation activity of SN Ia host galaxies is consistent with a sample of comparable SDSS field galaxies, though this comparison is limited by systematic uncertainties in SFR measurements. Our analysis indicates that SN Ia host galaxies are, on average, typical representatives of normal field galaxies.

  3. The Stability of Galaxy Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, K. B.; Andersen, D. R.; Bershady, M. A.; Martinsson, T. P. K.; Swaters, R. A.; Verheijen, M. A. W.

    2014-03-01

    We calculate the stellar surface mass density (Σ*) and two-component (gas+stars) disk stability (QRW) for 25 late-type galaxies from the DiskMass Survey. These calculations are based on fits of a dynamical model to our ionized-gas and stellar kinematic data performed using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the Bayesian posterior. Marginalizing over all galaxies, we find a median value of QRW = 2.0±0.9 at 1.5 scale lengths. We also find that QRW is anti-correlated with the star-formation rate surface density (Σ*), which can be predicted using a closed set of empirical scaling relations. Finally, we find that the star-formation efficiency (Σ*/Σg) is correlated with Σ* and weakly anti-correlated with QRW. The former is consistent with an equilibrium prediction of Σ*/Σg ∝ Σ*1/2. Despite its order-of-magnitude range, we find no correlation of Σ*/ΣgΣ*1/2 with any other physical quantity derived by our study.

  4. The Galaxy in action space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binney, James

    It is generally better to think of galaxies as made of orbits rather than stars. Orbits in most axisymmetric potentials form a three-dimensional continuum. The natural coordinates for the description of this continuum are action integrals. Thus, one is led to the view that the Galaxy inhabits a three-dimensional Euclidean space called action space. In this space the density of stars belonging to each galactic component is given by the distribution function of that component. The structure and evolution of the disk within action space is described. The most natural disk distribution function turns out to violate the classical relation between Oort's constants and the ratio of principal velocity dispersions of disk stars. The Schwarzschild velocity ellipsoid is not a self-similar solution of the equation that governs the diffusion of disk stars through action space if scattering of stars by molecular clouds is the sole cause of the diffusion. A general procedure for choosing the distribution functions of hot components such as the classical populations II is described and illustrated by several worked examples.

  5. Submillimeter Array/Plateau de Bure Interferometer Multiple Line Observations of the Nearby Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 1068: Shock-related Gas Kinematics and Heating in the Central 100 pc?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krips, M.; Martin, S.; Eckart, A.; Neri, R.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Matsushita, S.; Peck, A.; Stoklasová, Ivana; Petitpas, G.; Usero, A.; Combes, F.; Schinnerer, E.; Humphreys, L.; Baker, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 736, 1-4 (2011), 37/1-37/27 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : galaxies * active galaxies * NGC 1068 Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 6.024, year: 2011

  6. Metallicity of Young and Old Stars in Irregular Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, N. A.

    2018-01-01

    Based on archived images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, stellar photometry for 105 irregular galaxies has been conducted. We have shown the red supergiant and giant branches in the obtained Hertzsprung-Russel diagrams. Using the TRGB method, distances to galaxies and metallicity of red giants have been determined. The color index ( V - I) of the supergiant branch at the luminosity level M I = -7 was chosen as the metallicity index of red supergiants. For the galaxies under study, the diagrams have been built, in which the correlation can be seen between the luminosity of galaxies ( M B ) and metallicity of red giants and supergiants. The main source of variance of the results in the obtained diagrams is, in our opinion, uncertainty inmeasurements of galaxy luminosities and star-forming outburst. The relation between metallicity of young and old stars shows that main enrichment of galaxies with metals has taken place in the remote past. Deviations of some galaxies in the obtained relation can possibly be explained with the fall of the intergalactic gas on them, although, this inconsiderably affects metallicities of the stellar content.

  7. Gas and Dust Properties in Dwarf Irregular Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. P.; Madden, S. C.; Colgan, S. W. J.; Geis, N.; Haas, M.; Maloney, P.; Nikola, T.; Poglitsch, A.

    1997-01-01

    We present a study of the 158 (micron)meter [C II] fine structure emission line from a sample of 11 low metallicity irregular galaxies using the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). Our preliminary results demonstrate that the ratio of the 158 (micron)meter [C II] emission to the CO-12(1 yields 0) emission ranges from 6,000 to 46,000. These ratios are significantly enhanced relative to clouds within the Galaxy and to normal metallicity galaxies, which typically have values in the range 2,000 to 6,300. We also find that the [C II] emission in dwarf irregular galaxies can be up to 5% of the far-infrared (FIR) emission, a higher fraction of the FIR than in normal metallicity galaxies. We discuss these results for the dwarf irregular galaxies and compare them to those observed in normal metallicity galaxies. The enhanced 158 (micron)meter [C II] emission relative to CO-12(1 yields 0) emission can be understood in terms of the increased penetration depth of ultraviolet (UV) photons into the clouds in low metallicity environments.

  8. Connecting Galaxies, Halos, and Star Formation Rates Across Cosmic Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, Charlie; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2008-06-02

    A simple, observationally-motivated model is presented for understanding how halo masses, galaxy stellar masses, and star formation rates are related, and how these relations evolve with time. The relation between halo mass and galaxy stellar mass is determined by matching the observed spatial abundance of galaxies to the expected spatial abundance of halos at multiple epochs--i.e. more massive galaxies are assigned to more massive halos at each epoch. This 'abundance matching' technique has been shown previously to reproduce the observed luminosity- and scale-dependence of galaxy clustering over a range of epochs. Halos at different epochs are connected by halo mass accretion histories estimated from N-body simulations. The halo-galaxy connection at fixed epochs in conjunction with the connection between halos across time provides a connection between observed galaxies across time. With approximations for the impact of merging and accretion on the growth of galaxies, one can then directly infer the star formation histories of galaxies as a function of stellar and halo mass. This model is tuned to match both the observed evolution of the stellar mass function and the normalization of the observed star formation rate--stellar mass relation to z {approx} 1. The data demands, for example, that the star formation rate density is dominated by galaxies with M{sub star} {approx} 10{sup 10.0-10.5} M{sub {circle_dot}} from 0 < z < 1, and that such galaxies over these epochs reside in halos with M{sub vir} {approx} 10{sup 11.5-12.5} M{sub {circle_dot}}. The star formation rate--halo mass relation is approximately Gaussian over the range 0 < z < 1 with a mildly evolving mean and normalization. This model is then used to shed light on a number of issues, including (1) a clarification of 'downsizing', (2) the lack of a sharp characteristic halo mass at which star formation is truncated, and (3) the dominance of star formation over merging to the stellar

  9. The formation of cluster galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancone, Conor L.

    2012-06-01

    In this work I sought to understand the formation and evolution of galaxies. Specifically, I studied three key aspects of galaxy formation: star formation, mass assembly, and structural evolution. Past research has shown that the formation of a galaxy is strongly coupled to its local environment (i.e. the local galaxy density). Therefore, I studied the evolution of cluster galaxies because clusters are the highest density environments that exist in the universe. In turn, the observational results found herein form a foundation upon which to test theories of galaxy formation in the densest environments. I used the latest sample of galaxy clusters from the Bootes region to measure the near-infrared luminosity function (NIR LF) of cluster galaxies from 0 1.3. I used deeper IRAC imaging to study the NIR LF of high redshift cluster galaxies (1 pulsating AGB stars, which are poorly understood observationally but contribute substantially to the NIR light of a stellar population. I also created the Python Galaxy Fitter (PyGFit), a program which measures PSF matched photometry from crowded imaging with disparate PSFs and resolutions. This enabled accurate measurement of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in crowded cluster fields.

  10. The onset of galactic winds in early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christine

    1992-01-01

    We completed the spectral analysis of 31 early-type galaxies to investigate whether their x-ray emission was predominantly due to thermal bremsstrahlung from a hot gaseous corona or emission from discrete, galactic sources such as x-ray binaries. If a corona dominates the x-ray emission, its spectra is expected to be relatively cool (0.5 - 1 keV) compared to the harder emission associated with x-ray binaries in our galaxy, the Magellanic Clouds and M31. While it is generally accepted that the x-ray emission in luminous E and S0 galaxies arises from hot coronae, the status of hot gas in lower luminosity (and hence lower mass) galaxies is less clear. Calculations show that, for a given supernova rate, a critical galaxy luminosity (mass) exists below which the gas cannot be gravitationally confined and a galactic wind is predicted to be effective in expelling gas from the galaxy. Since significant mass (a dark halo) is required to hold a hot, gaseous corona around a galaxy, we expect that the faintest, smallest galaxies will not have a hot corona, but their x-ray emission will be dominated by galactic sources or by an active galactic nuclei. In the sample we tested which spanned the absolute magnitude range from -21.5 to -19.5, we found that except for two galaxies whose x-ray emission was dominated by an active nucleus, that the others were consistent with emission from hot gas. We also found that there is a correlation between gas temperature and galaxy magnitude (mass), such that the brighter, more luminous galaxies have hotter gas temperatures. Thus even at relatively faint magnitudes, the dominant emission from early-type galaxies appears to be hot gas. We also carried out an investigation of the x-ray surface brightness distribution of the x-ray emission for about 100 early type galaxies to determine whether the x-ray emission from galaxies are extended. Extended x-ray emission is expected if the emission is due to a hot gaseous corona. We determined the ratio

  11. ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND GALAXY FORMATION REVISITED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Fall, S. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by a new wave of kinematical tracers in the outer regions of early-type galaxies (ellipticals and lenticulars), we re-examine the role of angular momentum in galaxies of all types. We present new methods for quantifying the specific angular momentum j, focusing mainly on the more challenging case of early-type galaxies, in order to derive firm empirical relations between stellar j * and mass M * (thus extending earlier work by Fall). We carry out detailed analyses of eight galaxies with kinematical data extending as far out as 10 effective radii, and find that data at two effective radii are generally sufficient to estimate total j * reliably. Our results contravene suggestions that ellipticals could harbor large reservoirs of hidden j * in their outer regions owing to angular momentum transport in major mergers. We then carry out a comprehensive analysis of extended kinematic data from the literature for a sample of ∼100 nearby bright galaxies of all types, placing them on a diagram of j * versus M * . The ellipticals and spirals form two parallel j * -M * tracks, with log-slopes of ∼0.6, which for the spirals are closely related to the Tully-Fisher relation, but for the ellipticals derives from a remarkable conspiracy between masses, sizes, and rotation velocities. The ellipticals contain less angular momentum on average than spirals of equal mass, with the quantitative disparity depending on the adopted K-band stellar mass-to-light ratios of the galaxies: it is a factor of ∼3-4 if mass-to-light ratio variations are neglected for simplicity, and ∼7 if they are included. We decompose the spirals into disks and bulges and find that these subcomponents follow j * -M * trends similar to the overall ones for spirals and ellipticals. The lenticulars have an intermediate trend, and we propose that the morphological types of galaxies reflect disk and bulge subcomponents that follow separate, fundamental j * -M * scaling relations. This provides a

  12. ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND GALAXY FORMATION REVISITED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanowsky, Aaron J. [University of California Observatories, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Fall, S. Michael [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Motivated by a new wave of kinematical tracers in the outer regions of early-type galaxies (ellipticals and lenticulars), we re-examine the role of angular momentum in galaxies of all types. We present new methods for quantifying the specific angular momentum j, focusing mainly on the more challenging case of early-type galaxies, in order to derive firm empirical relations between stellar j{sub *} and mass M{sub *} (thus extending earlier work by Fall). We carry out detailed analyses of eight galaxies with kinematical data extending as far out as 10 effective radii, and find that data at two effective radii are generally sufficient to estimate total j{sub *} reliably. Our results contravene suggestions that ellipticals could harbor large reservoirs of hidden j{sub *} in their outer regions owing to angular momentum transport in major mergers. We then carry out a comprehensive analysis of extended kinematic data from the literature for a sample of {approx}100 nearby bright galaxies of all types, placing them on a diagram of j{sub *} versus M{sub *}. The ellipticals and spirals form two parallel j{sub *}-M{sub *} tracks, with log-slopes of {approx}0.6, which for the spirals are closely related to the Tully-Fisher relation, but for the ellipticals derives from a remarkable conspiracy between masses, sizes, and rotation velocities. The ellipticals contain less angular momentum on average than spirals of equal mass, with the quantitative disparity depending on the adopted K-band stellar mass-to-light ratios of the galaxies: it is a factor of {approx}3-4 if mass-to-light ratio variations are neglected for simplicity, and {approx}7 if they are included. We decompose the spirals into disks and bulges and find that these subcomponents follow j{sub *}-M{sub *} trends similar to the overall ones for spirals and ellipticals. The lenticulars have an intermediate trend, and we propose that the morphological types of galaxies reflect disk and bulge subcomponents that follow

  13. Accretion of satellites onto central galaxies in clusters: merger mass ratios and orbital parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nipoti, Carlo; Giocoli, Carlo; Despali, Giulia

    2018-02-01

    We study the statistical properties of mergers between central and satellite galaxies in galaxy clusters in the redshift range 0 central region of the cluster, down to ≈0.06rvir, which can be considered a proxy for the accretion of satellite galaxies onto central galaxies. We find that the characteristic merger mass ratio increases for increasing values of Δc: more than 60% of the mass accreted by central galaxies since z ≈ 1 comes from major mergers. The orbits of satellites accreting onto central galaxies tend to be more tangential and more bound than orbits of haloes accreting at the virial radius. The obtained distributions of merger mass ratios and orbital parameters are useful to model the evolution of the high-mass end of the galaxy scaling relations without resorting to hydrodynamic cosmological simulations.

  14. Does environment affect the chemical evolution of star-forming galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anshu; Yuan, Tiantian; Kewley, Lisa; Tran, Kim-Vy; Martizzi, Davide; Torrey, Paul; Vogelsberger, Mark; Anshu Gupta

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the relative significance of gravitational and hydrodynamic interactions on the chemical evolution of cluster galaxies is fascinating and challenging. In this talk, I will present my observation of a cluster-scale gradient in the metallicity of star-forming galaxies as a complementary method to discern the impact of environment on chemical evolution. Our observations for MACS J1115+0129 show that cluster galaxies near the cluster center are more metal-rich compared to galaxies in the cluster outskirts. Using a semi-analytic model of ram pressure stripping, we prove that removal of low-metallicity gas is not sufficient to reproduce the metallicity gradient. I will also present our recent results from IllustrisTNG simulations predicting the "pre-enrichment" of progenitor cluster galaxies. Using tracer particles from IllustrisTNG simulations, we prove that inflow of enriched gas is the prime driver of the higher metal fraction in cluster galaxies compared to field galaxies.

  15. The effects of host galaxy properties on merging compact binaries detectable by LIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, R.; Bellovary, J. M.; Brooks, A.; Shen, S.; Governato, F.; Christensen, C. R.

    2017-01-01

    Cosmological simulations of galaxy formation can produce present-day galaxies with a large range of assembly and star formation histories. A detailed study of the metallicity evolution and star formation history of such simulations can assist in predicting Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO)-detectable compact object binary mergers. Recent simulations of compact binary evolution suggest that the compact object merger rate depends sensitively on the progenitor's metallicity. Rare low-metallicity star formation during galaxy assembly can produce more detected compact binaries than typical star formation. Using detailed simulations of galaxy and chemical evolution, we determine how sensitively the compact binary populations of galaxies with a similar present-day appearance depend on the details of their assembly. We also demonstrate by concrete example the extent to which dwarf galaxies overabundantly produce compact binary mergers, particularly binary black holes, relative to more massive galaxies. We discuss the implications for transient multimessenger astronomy with compact binary sources.

  16. Gas Kinematics In and Around Edge-on Galaxies from MaNGA Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizyaev, D.

    2016-06-01

    Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA) is a massive Integral Field Unit survey of a large number of relatively nearby galaxies that started in 2014 as a part of SDSS-IV at the Apache Point Observatory. After the first year of observations MaNGA has obtained IFU spectra of about a thousand of objects, with several dozens of edge-on galaxies among them. The two-dimensional spectra help us constrain parameters of galactic components with superior rotation curves. There is a significant fraction of galaxies in which the extra-planar gas emission is confidently detected. The extra-planar gas velocity fields in several galaxies show signs of lagging rotation with respect to the gas motion close to the galactic plane. We show progress of MaNGA survey in observations of edge-on galaxies and discuss their impact on our understanding of gas kinematics in and around spiral galaxies after finishing the survey.

  17. Chandra Early Type Galaxy Atals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Woo; Anderson, Craig; Burke, Douglas J.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Fruscione, Antonella; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael; Morgan, Douglas; Mossman, Amy; O'Sullivan, Ewan; Paggi, Alessandro; Vrtilek, Saeqa Dil; Trinchieri, Ginevra

    2017-08-01

    The hot gas in early type galaxies (ETGs) plays a crucial role in understanding their formation and evolution. As the hot gas is often extended to the outskirts beyond the optical size, the large scale structural features identified by Chandra (including jets, cavities, cold fronts, filaments and tails) point to key evolutionary mechanisms, e.g., AGN feedback, merging history, accretion, stripping and star formation and its quenching. We have systematically analyzed the archival Chandra data of ~100 ETGs to study the hot ISM. We produce the uniformly derived data products with spatially resolved spectral information and will make them accessible via a public web site. With 2D spectral infomation, we further discuss gas morphology, scaling relations, X-ray based mass profiles and their implications related to various physical mechanisms (e.g., stellar and AGN feedback).

  18. The Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey IX: the isolated galaxy sample

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minchin, R.F.; Auld, R.; Davies, J.I.; Karachentsev, I.D.; Keenan, O.; Momjian, E.; Rodriguez, R.; Taber, T.; Taylor, Rhys

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 455, č. 4 (2016), s. 3430-3435 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14013; GA ČR GAP209/12/1795 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : individual galaxies NGC 1156 * individual galaxies NGC 5523 * individual galaxies UGC 2082 Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.961, year: 2016

  19. Inclination effects on the recognition of Seyfert galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    Axial ratios have been measured from images of 91 Seyfert galaxies thought to be disk systems, and their distribution as a function of axial ratio compared to that of field spirals similarly distributed in distance. There is a deficiency of nearly edge-on Seyfert 1 galaxies relative to the comparison sample. Examination of the visibility of nuclei in a sample of nearby spirals indicates that the effect is too large to be caused by absorption in the disks of normal spiral galaxies, while no absorption other than that expected from such disks is found in non-Seyfert Markarian spirals with bright, condensed nuclei

  20. The Galaxy's Eating Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, M. E.; Thom, C.; Gibson, B. K.; Staveley-Smith, L.

    2004-06-01

    The possibility of a gaseous halo stream which was stripped from the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy is presented. The total mass of the neutral hydrogen along the orbit of the Sgr dwarf in the direction of the Galactic Anti-Center is 4 - 10 × 106 M⊙ (at 36 kpc, the distance to the stellar debris in this region). Both the stellar and gaseous components have negative velocities in this part of the sky, but the gaseous component extends to higher negative velocities. We suggest this gaseous stream was stripped from the main body of the dwarf 0.2 - 0.3 Gyr ago during its current orbit after a passage through a diffuse edge of the Galactic disk with a density > 10-4 cm-3. The gas would then represent the dwarf's last source of star formation fuel and explains how the galaxy was forming stars 0.5-2 Gyr ago.

  1. The Anatomy of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Mauro; Rampazzo, Roberto; Zaggia, Simone; Longair, Malcolm S.; Ferrarese, Laura; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; van der Kruit, Pieter C.; Laurikainen, Eija; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Combes, Françoise; Bertin, Giuseppe; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Calzetti, Daniela; Moss, David L.; Matteucci, Francesca; Djorgovski, Stanislav George; Fraix-Burnet, Didier; Graham, Alister W. McK.; Tully, Brent R.

    Just after WWII Astronomy started to live its "Golden Age", not differently to many other sciences and human activities, especially in the west side countries. The improved resolution of telescopes and the appearance of new efficient light detectors (e.g. CCDs in the middle eighty) greatly impacted the extragalactic researches. The first morphological analysis of galaxies were rapidly substituted by "anatomic" studies of their structural components, star and gas content, and in general by detailed investigations of their properties. As for the human anatomy, where the final goal was that of understanding the functionality of the organs that are essential for the life of the body, galaxies were dissected to discover their basic structural components and ultimately the mystery of their existence.

  2. (Almost) Dark Galaxies in the ALFALFA Survey: Isolated H i-bearing Ultra-diffuse Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leisman, Lukas; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo [Cornell Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Janowiecki, Steven [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Hallenbeck, Gregory [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Union College, Schenectady, NY 12308 (United States); Józsa, Gyula [SKA South Africa Radio Astronomy Research Group, 3rd Floor, The Park, Park Road, Pinelands 7405 (South Africa); Adams, Elizabeth A. K. [ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Neira, David Bernal [Departamento de Física, Universidad de los Andes, Cra. 1 No. 18A-10, Edificio Ip, Bogotá (Colombia); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Janesh, William F.; Rhode, Katherine L.; Salzer, John J. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)

    2017-06-20

    We present a sample of 115 very low optical surface brightness, highly extended, H i-rich galaxies carefully selected from the ALFALFA survey that have similar optical absolute magnitudes, surface brightnesses, and radii to recently discovered “ultra-diffuse” galaxies (UDGs). However, these systems are bluer and have more irregular morphologies than other UDGs, are isolated, and contain significant reservoirs of H i. We find that while these sources have normal star formation rates for H i-selected galaxies of similar stellar mass, they have very low star formation efficiencies. We further present deep optical and H i-synthesis follow-up imaging of three of these H i-bearing ultra-diffuse sources. We measure H i diameters extending to ∼40 kpc, but note that while all three sources have large H i diameters for their stellar mass, they are consistent with the H i mass–H i radius relation. We further analyze the H i velocity widths and rotation velocities for the unresolved and resolved sources, respectively, and find that the sources appear to inhabit halos of dwarf galaxies. We estimate spin parameters, and suggest that these sources may exist in high spin parameter halos, and as such may be potential H i-rich progenitors to the ultra-diffuse galaxies observed in cluster environments.

  3. (Almost) Dark Galaxies in the ALFALFA Survey: Isolated H I-bearing Ultra-diffuse Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisman, Lukas; Haynes, Martha P.; Janowiecki, Steven; Hallenbeck, Gregory; Józsa, Gyula; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Bernal Neira, David; Cannon, John M.; Janesh, William F.; Rhode, Katherine L.; Salzer, John J.

    2017-06-01

    We present a sample of 115 very low optical surface brightness, highly extended, H I-rich galaxies carefully selected from the ALFALFA survey that have similar optical absolute magnitudes, surface brightnesses, and radii to recently discovered “ultra-diffuse” galaxies (UDGs). However, these systems are bluer and have more irregular morphologies than other UDGs, are isolated, and contain significant reservoirs of H I. We find that while these sources have normal star formation rates for H I-selected galaxies of similar stellar mass, they have very low star formation efficiencies. We further present deep optical and H I-synthesis follow-up imaging of three of these H I-bearing ultra-diffuse sources. We measure H I diameters extending to ˜40 kpc, but note that while all three sources have large H I diameters for their stellar mass, they are consistent with the H I mass-H I radius relation. We further analyze the H I velocity widths and rotation velocities for the unresolved and resolved sources, respectively, and find that the sources appear to inhabit halos of dwarf galaxies. We estimate spin parameters, and suggest that these sources may exist in high spin parameter halos, and as such may be potential H I-rich progenitors to the ultra-diffuse galaxies observed in cluster environments.

  4. Quenching or Bursting: Star Formation Acceleration—A New Methodology for Tracing Galaxy Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D. Christopher; Gonçalves, Thiago S.; Darvish, Behnam; Seibert, Mark; Schiminovich, David

    2017-06-01

    We introduce a new methodology for the direct extraction of galaxy physical parameters from multiwavelength photometry and spectroscopy. We use semianalytic models that describe galaxy evolution in the context of large-scale cosmological simulation to provide a catalog of galaxies, star formation histories, and physical parameters. We then apply models of stellar population synthesis and a simple extinction model to calculate the observable broadband fluxes and spectral indices for these galaxies. We use a linear regression analysis to relate physical parameters to observed colors and spectral indices. The result is a set of coefficients that can be used to translate observed colors and indices into stellar mass, star formation rate, and many other parameters, including the instantaneous time derivative of the star formation rate, which we denote the Star Formation Acceleration (SFA), We apply the method to a test sample of galaxies with GALEX photometry and SDSS spectroscopy, deriving relationships between stellar mass, specific star formation rate, and SFA. We find evidence for a mass-dependent SFA in the green valley, with low-mass galaxies showing greater quenching and higher-mass galaxies greater bursting. We also find evidence for an increase in average quenching in galaxies hosting an active galactic nucleus. A simple scenario in which lower-mass galaxies accrete and become satellite galaxies, having their star-forming gas tidally and/or ram-pressure stripped, while higher-mass galaxies receive this gas and react with new star formation, can qualitatively explain our results.

  5. Quenching or Bursting: Star Formation Acceleration—A New Methodology for Tracing Galaxy Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D. Christopher; Darvish, Behnam; Seibert, Mark [California Institute of Technology, MC 405-47, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gonçalves, Thiago S. [Observatorio do Valongo, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ladeira Pedro Antonio, 43, Saude, Rio de Janeiro-RJ 20080-090 (Brazil); Schiminovich, David [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2017-06-10

    We introduce a new methodology for the direct extraction of galaxy physical parameters from multiwavelength photometry and spectroscopy. We use semianalytic models that describe galaxy evolution in the context of large-scale cosmological simulation to provide a catalog of galaxies, star formation histories, and physical parameters. We then apply models of stellar population synthesis and a simple extinction model to calculate the observable broadband fluxes and spectral indices for these galaxies. We use a linear regression analysis to relate physical parameters to observed colors and spectral indices. The result is a set of coefficients that can be used to translate observed colors and indices into stellar mass, star formation rate, and many other parameters, including the instantaneous time derivative of the star formation rate, which we denote the Star Formation Acceleration (SFA), We apply the method to a test sample of galaxies with GALEX photometry and SDSS spectroscopy, deriving relationships between stellar mass, specific star formation rate, and SFA. We find evidence for a mass-dependent SFA in the green valley, with low-mass galaxies showing greater quenching and higher-mass galaxies greater bursting. We also find evidence for an increase in average quenching in galaxies hosting an active galactic nucleus. A simple scenario in which lower-mass galaxies accrete and become satellite galaxies, having their star-forming gas tidally and/or ram-pressure stripped, while higher-mass galaxies receive this gas and react with new star formation, can qualitatively explain our results.

  6. A Near-infrared Census of the Multicomponent Stellar Structure of Early-type Dwarf Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Lisker, T.; Salo, H.; Peletier, R. F.; Niemi, S.-M.; Toloba, E.; Hensler, G.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Boselli, A.; den Brok, M.; Hansson, K. S. A.; Meyer, H. T.; Ryś, A.; Paudel, S.

    The fraction of star-forming to quiescent dwarf galaxies varies from almost infinity in the field to zero in the centers of rich galaxy clusters. What is causing this pronounced morphology-density relation? What do quiescent dwarf galaxies look like when studied in detail, and what conclusions can

  7. Black holes and galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Propst, Raphael J

    2010-01-01

    Galaxies are the basic unit of cosmology. The study of galaxy formation is concerned with the processes that formed a heterogeneous universe from a homogeneous beginning. The physics of galaxy formation is complicated because it deals with the dynamics of stars, thermodynamics of gas and energy production of stars. A black hole is a massive object whose gravitational field is so intense that it prevents any form of matter or radiation to escape. It is hypothesized that the most massive galaxies in the universe- "elliptical galaxies"- grow simultaneously with the supermassive black holes at their centers, giving us much stronger evidence that black holes control galaxy formation. This book reviews new evidence in the field.

  8. A Century of Galaxy Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Vera C.

    1995-10-01

    The first successful spectrum of a galaxy, M31, was obtained in 1898 and published in a two-page paper in the young Astrophysical Journal (Scheiner 1899). Thus the first century of galaxy spectroscopy and the first century of the Astrophysical Journal are almost coincident; I celebrate both in this paper. I describe the very early history of the determination of internal kinematics in spiral galaxies, often by quoting the astronomers' own published words. By mid-century, observations with improved optical and radio telescopes offered evidence that much of the matter in a galaxy is dark. As the century ends, research interests have enlarged to include study of spheroidal and disk galaxies with complex nuclear (and other) kinematics. These complicated velocity patterns are understood as the result of interactions, acquisitions, and mergers, and offer clear evidence of the important role of gravitational effects in galaxy evolution.

  9. The environments of Markarian galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackenty, J.W.; Simpson, C.; Mclean, B.

    1990-01-01

    The extensively studied Markarian sample of 1500 ultraviolet excess galaxies contains many Seyfert, starburst, and peculiar galaxies. Using the 20 minute V plates obtained for the construction of the Hubble Space Telescope Guide Star Catalog, the authors investigated the morphologies of the Markarian galaxies and the environments in which they are located. The relationship between the types of nuclear activity and the morphologies and environments of the Markarian galaxies is discussed. The authors conclude that the type of nuclear activity present in the galaxies of the Markarian sample is not dependent on either the morphology or the local environment of the galaxy. This is not to imply that nuclear activity per se is not influenced by the environment in which the nucleus is located. Rather the type of nuclear activity (at least in the Markarian population) does not appear to be determined by the environment

  10. UVES Abundances of Stars in Nearby Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstoy, Eline; Venn, Kim; Shetrone, Matt; Primas, Francesca; Hill, Vanessa; Kaufer, Andreas; Szeifert, Thomas

    2002-07-01

    It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a galaxy in possession of a good quantity of gas must want to form stars. It is the details of how and why that baffle us all. The simplest theories either would have this process a carefully self-regulated affair, or one that goes completely out of control and is capable of wrecking the galaxy which hosts it. Of course the majority of galaxies seem to amble along somewhere between these two extremes, and the mean properties tend to favour a quiescent self-regulated evolutionary scenario. But there area variety of observations which require us to invoke transitory ‘bursts’ of star-formation at one time or another in most galaxy types. Several nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies have clearly determined star-formation histories with apparent periods of zero star formation followed by periods of fairly active star formation. If we are able to understand what separated these bursts we would understand several important phenomena in galaxy evolution. Were these galaxies able to clear out their gas reservoir in a burst of star formation? How did this gas return? or did it? Have these galaxies receieved gas from the IGM instead? Could stars from these types of galaxy contribute significantly to the halo population in our Galaxy? To answer these questions we need to combine accurate stellar photometry and Colour-Magnitude Diagram interpretation with detailed metal abundances to combine a star-formation rate versus time with a range of element abundances with time. Different elements trace different evolutionary process (e.g., relative contributions of type I and II supernovae). We often aren't even sure of the abundance spread in these galaxies. We have collected detailed high resolution UVES spectra of four nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies (Sculptor, Fornax, Leo I & Carina) to begin to answer these questions. This is a precursor study to a more complete study with FLAMES. We presented at this meeting the initial results for

  11. Simulations of galaxy mergers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villumsen, J.V.

    1982-01-01

    This work is a theoretical investigation of the mechanisms and results of mergers of elliptical galaxies. An N-body code is developed to simulate the dynamics of centrally concentrated collisionless systems. It is used for N-body simulations of the mergers of galaxies with mass ratios of 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1 with a total of 1200 or 2400 particles. The initial galaxies are spherical and non-rotating with Hubble type profiles and isotropic velocity distributions. The remnants are flattened (up to E4) and are oblate, triaxial or prolate depending on the impact parameter. Equal mass mergers are more flattened than unequal mass mergers and have significant velocity anisotropies. The remnants have Hubble type profiles with decreased central surface brightness and increased core radii and tidal radii. In some unequal mass mergers ''isothermal'' haloes tend to form. The density profiles are inconsistent with De Vaucouleurs profiles even though the initial profiles were not. The central velocity dispersion increases in 1:1 and 2:1 mass mergers but decreases in 3:1 mass mergers. Near head-on mergers lead to prolate systems with little rotation while high angular momentum mergers lead to oblate systems with strong rotation. The rotation curves show solid body rotation out to the half mass radius followed by a slow decline. Radial mixing is strong in equal mass mergers where it will weaken radial gradients. In unequal mass mergers there is little radial mixing but matter from the smaller galaxy ends up in the outer parts of the system where it can give rise to colour gradient

  12. On Density Waves in Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosbol, P.; Patsis, P. A.

    The spiral structure of five ordinary spiral galaxies was studied using deep BVIK' surface photometry maps obtained at the 2.2m ESO/MPI telescope. The detailed shape of the arms was analyzed in terms of the spiral density wave theory. Grand design spirals were found on the K' maps in all five galaxies although at least two would be classified as flocculent on the blue images. In several of the galaxies, bulges with weak oval distortion (~10%) were observed. Dust spirals also continue, in some cases, inside the ILR where the stellar arms terminate. This emphasizes the strong bias of morphological classifications of spiral galaxies based on blue image due to dust and young stars. The 2--armed spirals were systematically found to be wound tighter on I than on K' maps suggesting the existence of a density wave. Locations of the ILR and the 4/1 resonance were estimated based on the arm morphology and the amplitude ratio between the m = 2,4 Fourier components. The wavenumber of the stellar 2--armed pattern is increasing towards the ILR which could suggest that the density wave is associated to the long waved branch of the dispersion relation. A possible scenario is discussed.

  13. SPECTRAL IMAGING OF GALAXY CLUSTERS WITH PLANCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdin, H.; Mazzotta, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Roma “Tor Vergata,” via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Rasia, E., E-mail: herve.bourdin@roma2.infn.it [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico of Trieste, via Tiepolo 11, I-34121 Trieste (Italy)

    2015-12-20

    The Sunyaev–Zeldovich (SZ) effect is a promising tool for detecting the presence of hot gas out to the galaxy cluster peripheries. We developed a spectral imaging algorithm dedicated to the SZ observations of nearby galaxy clusters with Planck, with the aim of revealing gas density anisotropies related to the filamentary accretion of materials, or pressure discontinuities induced by the propagation of shock fronts. To optimize an unavoidable trade-off between angular resolution and precision of the SZ flux measurements, the algorithm performs a multi-scale analysis of the SZ maps as well as of other extended components, such as the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and the Galactic thermal dust. The demixing of the SZ signal is tackled through kernel-weighted likelihood maximizations. The CMB anisotropies are further analyzed through a wavelet analysis, while the Galactic foregrounds and SZ maps are analyzed via a curvelet analysis that best preserves their anisotropic details. The algorithm performance has been tested against mock observations of galaxy clusters obtained by simulating the Planck High Frequency Instrument and by pointing at a few characteristic positions in the sky. These tests suggest that Planck should easily allow us to detect filaments in the cluster peripheries and detect large-scale shocks in colliding galaxy clusters that feature favorable geometry.

  14. Paired and interacting galaxies: Conference summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    The author gives a summary of the conference proceedings. The conference began with the presentation of the basic data sets on pairs, groups, and interacting galaxies with the latter being further discussed with respect to both global properties and properties of the galactic nuclei. Then followed the theory, modelling and interpretation using analytic techniques, simulations and general modelling for spirals and ellipticals, starbursts and active galactic nuclei. Before the conference the author wrote down the three questions concerning pairs, groups and interacting galaxies that he hoped would be answered at the meeting: (1) How do they form, including the role of initial conditions, the importance of subclustering, the evolution of groups to compact groups, and the fate of compact groups; (2) How do they evolve, including issues such as relevant timescales, the role of halos and the problem of overmerging, the triggering and enhancement of star formation and activity in the galactic nuclei, and the relative importance of dwarf versus giant encounters; and (3) Are they important, including the frequency of pairs and interactions, whether merging and interactions are very important aspects of the life of a normal galaxy at formation, during its evolution, in forming bars, shells, rings, bulges, etc., and in the formation and evolution of active galaxies? Where possible he focuses on these three central issues in the summary

  15. STAR CLUSTERS, GALAXIES, AND THE FUNDAMENTAL MANIFOLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.

    2011-01-01

    We explore whether global observed properties, specifically half-light radii, mean surface brightness, and integrated stellar kinematics, suffice to unambiguously differentiate galaxies from star clusters, which presumably formed differently and lack dark matter halos. We find that star clusters lie on the galaxy scaling relationship referred to as the fundamental manifold (FM), on the extension of a sequence of compact galaxies, and so conclude that there is no simple way to differentiate star clusters from ultracompact galaxies. By extending the validity of the FM over a larger range of parameter space and a wider set of objects, we demonstrate that the physics that constrains the resulting baryon and dark matter distributions in stellar systems is more general than previously appreciated. The generality of the FM implies (1) that the stellar spatial distribution and kinematics of one type of stellar system do not arise solely from a process particular to that set of systems, such as violent relaxation for elliptical galaxies, but are instead the result of an interplay of all processes responsible for the generic settling of baryons in gravitational potential wells, (2) that the physics of how baryons settle is independent of whether the system is embedded within a dark matter halo, and (3) that peculiar initial conditions at formation or stochastic events during evolution do not ultimately disturb the overall regularity of baryonic settling. We also utilize the relatively simple nature of star clusters to relate deviations from the FM to the age of the stellar population and find that stellar population models systematically and significantly overpredict the mass-to-light ratios of old, metal-rich clusters. We present an empirical calibration of stellar population mass-to-light ratios with age and color. Finally, we use the FM to estimate velocity dispersions for the low surface brightness, outer halo clusters that lack such measurements.

  16. Black-hole-regulated star formation in massive galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Navarro, Ignacio; Brodie, Jean P; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Ruiz-Lara, Tomás; van de Ven, Glenn

    2018-01-18

    Supermassive black holes, with masses more than a million times that of the Sun, seem to inhabit the centres of all massive galaxies. Cosmologically motivated theories of galaxy formation require feedback from these supermassive black holes to regulate star formation. In the absence of such feedback, state-of-the-art numerical simulations fail to reproduce the number density and properties of massive galaxies in the local Universe. There is, however, no observational evidence of this strongly coupled coevolution between supermassive black holes and star formation, impeding our understanding of baryonic processes within galaxies. Here we report that the star formation histories of nearby massive galaxies, as measured from their integrated optical spectra, depend on the mass of the central supermassive black hole. Our results indicate that the black-hole mass scales with the gas cooling rate in the early Universe. The subsequent quenching of star formation takes place earlier and more efficiently in galaxies that host higher-mass central black holes. The observed relation between black-hole mass and star formation efficiency applies to all generations of stars formed throughout the life of a galaxy, revealing a continuous interplay between black-hole activity and baryon cooling.

  17. Black-hole-regulated star formation in massive galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Navarro, Ignacio; Brodie, Jean P.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Ruiz-Lara, Tomás; van de Ven, Glenn

    2018-01-01

    Supermassive black holes, with masses more than a million times that of the Sun, seem to inhabit the centres of all massive galaxies. Cosmologically motivated theories of galaxy formation require feedback from these supermassive black holes to regulate star formation. In the absence of such feedback, state-of-the-art numerical simulations fail to reproduce the number density and properties of massive galaxies in the local Universe. There is, however, no observational evidence of this strongly coupled coevolution between supermassive black holes and star formation, impeding our understanding of baryonic processes within galaxies. Here we report that the star formation histories of nearby massive galaxies, as measured from their integrated optical spectra, depend on the mass of the central supermassive black hole. Our results indicate that the black-hole mass scales with the gas cooling rate in the early Universe. The subsequent quenching of star formation takes place earlier and more efficiently in galaxies that host higher-mass central black holes. The observed relation between black-hole mass and star formation efficiency applies to all generations of stars formed throughout the life of a galaxy, revealing a continuous interplay between black-hole activity and baryon cooling.

  18. BVRI SURFACE PHOTOMETRY OF ISOLATED GALAXY TRIPLETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Toledo, H. M.; Mendez-Hernandez, H.; Aceves, H.; OlguIn, L.

    2011-01-01

    Optical broadband BVRI observations of 54 galaxies selected from the Catalog of Isolated Triplets of Galaxies in the Northern Hemisphere have been carried out at San Pedro Martir National Observatory to evaluate their photometric and morphological properties. We complement our analysis with Two-Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) images and look for signatures likely related to interactions/mergers. We report apparent/absolute BVRI magnitudes and colors for the 54 galaxies. The membership of these galaxies is re-evaluated by imposing a reasonable condition of concordant redshifts upon the original selection criteria, rendering a final sample of 34 galaxies in 13 triplets, 12 galaxies in close pairs, and 8 galaxy outliers. The triplets are spiral-dominated systems in different dynamical stages from loosely interacting to almost merged objects. The incidence fraction of features likely associated with interactions is ∼56%, similar to those found in northern and southern compact groups. The average fraction of bars is 35% with a mean value of maximum bar ellipticity ε max ∼ 0.4. Bars are hosted in the late-type triplet spirals, almost twice more than in early-type spirals. The global fraction of rings is 20%, all in the late-type components. The overdensity of triplets with respect to the background and their current dynamical status, as devised from our estimate of their dynamical parameters, namely the harmonic radius R H , velocity dispersion σ, dimensionless crossing time H 0 τ c , and virial mass M V , appear to be sufficient to favor galaxy transformations similar to those seen in dense groups and clusters. By contrast, the lower fraction of bonafide ellipticals and the relatively higher fraction of late-type spirals make these triplets essentially different from the Hickson Compact Groups and more representative of the field. A modest 1.6 enhancement factor in the optical luminosity of the late-type triplet components

  19. Galaxies on the Blue Edge

    OpenAIRE

    Cabanela, J. E.; Dickey, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    We have successfully constructed a catalog of HI-rich galaxies selected from the Minnesota Automated Plate Scanner Catalog of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (POSS I) based solely on optical criteria. We identify HI-rich candidates by selecting the bluest galaxies at a given apparent magnitude, those galaxies on the "blue edge" of POSS I color-magnitude parameter space. Subsequent 21-cm observations on the upgraded Arecibo 305m dish detected over 50% of the observed candidates. The detecte...

  20. X-Ray Emission from Ultraviolet Luminous Galaxies and Lyman Break Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornschemeier, Ann; Ptak, A. F.; Salim, S.; Heckman, T. P.; Overzier, R.; Mallery, R.; Rich, M.; Strickland, D.; Grimes, J.

    2009-01-01

    We present results from an XMM mini-survey of GALEX-selected Ultraviolet-Luminous Galaxies (UVLGs) that appear to include an interesting subset that are analogs to the distant (3Break Galaxies (LBGs). The 2-10 kev X-ray emission of LBGs appear to be broadly similar to that of galaxies in the local Universe, possibly indicating similarity in the production of accreting binaries over large evolutionary timescales in the Universe. We have detected luminous X-ray emission from one UVLG that permits basic X-ray spectroscopic analysis, and have direct X-ray constraints on a total of 6 UVLGs. We find evidence for likely large scatter in the assumed X-ray/star-formation rate relation for LBGs.

  1. AGN feedback in galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Antonuccio-Delogu, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, convincing evidence has been accumulated concerning the effect of active galactic nuclei (AGN) activity on the internal and external environment of their host galaxies. Featuring contributions from well-respected researchers in the field, and bringing together work by specialists in both galaxy formation and AGN, this volume addresses a number of key questions about AGN feedback in the context of galaxy formation. The topics covered include downsizing and star-formation time scales in massive elliptical galaxies, the connection between the epochs of supermassive black h

  2. Dark matter and galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umemura, Masayuki

    1987-01-01

    We propose a hybrid model of universe for galaxy formation, that is, an Einstein- de Sitter universe dominated by two-component dark matter: massive neutrinos and cold dark matter. In this hybrid model, the first luminous objects are dwarf galaxies. The neutrino density fluctuations produce large-scale high density and low density regions, which consequently evolve to superclusters of galaxies and voids, respectively. Dwarf galaxies are formed preferentially in supercluster regions. In voids, the formation of dwarf galaxies is fairly suppressed by diffuse UV flux from QSOs, and instead a number of expanding clouds are born, which produce Lyα forest as seen in QSO spectra. Ordinary galaxies are expected to form as aggregations of dwarf galaxies. In this model, some galaxies are born also in voids, and they tend to evolve to spiral galaxies. Additionally, if the same number of globular clusters are formed in a dwarf, the specific globular cluster frequencies are expected to be much larger in ellipticals than in spirals. (author)

  3. Galaxies a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John

    2008-01-01

    Galaxies: A Very Short Introduction explores the building blocks of the Universe. Standing like islands in space, each is made up of many hundreds of millions of stars in which the chemical elements are made, around which planets form, and where on at least one of those planets intelligent life has emerged. Our own galaxy, the Milky Way, is just one of several hundred million other galaxies. Yet it was only in the 1920s that we realised that there is more to the Universe. Since then, many exciting discoveries have been made about our own galaxy and about those beyond.

  4. An Exploration of Dusty Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-04-01

    Submillimeter galaxies i.e., galaxies that we detect in the submillimeter wavelength range are mysterious creatures. Its only within the last couple decades that weve had telescope technology capable of observing them, and were only now getting to the point where angular resolution limits allow us to examine them closely. A new study has taken advantage of new capabilities to explore the properties of a sample of 52 of thesegalaxies.Dusty Star FormationSubmillimeter galaxies are generally observed in the early universe. Though theyre faint in other wavebands, theyre extremely luminous in infrared and submillimeter their infrared luminosities are typically trillions of times the Suns luminosity. This is thought to be because these galaxies are very actively forming stars at rates of hundreds of times that of the Milky Way!Example 10 10 true-color images of ten submillimeter galaxies in the authors ALMA-identified sample. [Simpson et al. 2017]Submillimeter galaxies are also extremely dusty, so we dont see their star formation directly in optical wavelengths. Instead, we see the stellar light after its been absorbed and reemitted by interstellar dust lanes were indirectly observing heavily obscured star formation.Why look for submillimeter galaxies? Studying them can help us to learn about galaxy and star formation early in our universes history, and help us to understand how the universe has evolved into what we see locally today.Submillimeter StrugglesDue to angular resolution limitations in the past, we often couldnt pin down the exact locations of submillimeter galaxies, preventing us from examining them properly. But now a team of scientists has used the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter array (ALMA) to precisely locate 52 submillimeter galaxies identified by the Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA-2) in the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey field.The precise locations made possible by ALMA allowed the team led by James Simpson (University of Edinburgh

  5. The intrinsic shape of galaxies in SDSS/Galaxy Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Silvio; Padilla, Nelson D.

    2013-09-01

    By modelling the axis ratio distribution of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 galaxies, we find the intrinsic 3D shapes of spirals and ellipticals. We use morphological information from the Galaxy Zoo project and assume a non-parametric distribution intrinsic of shapes, while taking into account dust extinction. We measure the dust extinction of the full sample of spiral galaxies and find a smaller value than previous estimations, with an edge-on extinction of E_0 = 0.284^{+0.015}_{-0.026} in the SDSS r band. We also find that the distribution of minor to major axis ratio has a mean value of 0.267 ± 0.009, slightly larger than previous estimates mainly due to the lower extinction used; the same affects the circularity of galactic discs, which are found to be less round in shape than in previous studies, with a mean ellipticity of 0.215 ± 0.013. For elliptical galaxies, we find that the minor to major axis ratio, with a mean value of 0.584 ± 0.006, is larger than previous estimations due to the removal of spiral interlopers present in samples with morphological information from photometric profiles. These interlopers are removed when selecting ellipticals using Galaxy Zoo data. We find that the intrinsic shapes of galaxies and their dust extinction vary with absolute magnitude, colour and physical size. We find that bright elliptical galaxies are more spherical than faint ones, a trend that is also present with galaxy size, and that there is no dependence of elliptical galaxy shape with colour. For spiral galaxies, we find that the reddest ones have higher dust extinction as expected, due to the fact that this reddening is mainly due to dust. We also find that the thickness of discs increases with luminosity and size, and that brighter, smaller and redder galaxies have less round discs.

  6. THE DENSEST GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Seth, Anil C. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Forbes, Duncan A.; Pota, Vincenzo; Usher, Christopher [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Romanowsky, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San José State University, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States); Brodie, Jean P.; Arnold, Jacob A. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Conroy, Charlie, E-mail: strader@pa.msu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    We report the discovery of a remarkable ultra-compact dwarf galaxy around the massive Virgo elliptical galaxy NGC 4649 (M60), which we call M60-UCD1. With a dynamical mass of 2.0 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉} but a half-light radius of only ∼24 pc, M60-UCD1 is more massive than any ultra-compact dwarfs of comparable size, and is arguably the densest galaxy known in the local universe. It has a two-component structure well fit by a sum of Sérsic functions, with an elliptical, compact (r{sub h} = 14 pc; n ∼ 3.3) inner component and a round, exponential, extended (r{sub h} = 49 pc) outer component. Chandra data reveal a variable central X-ray source with L{sub X} ∼ 10{sup 38} erg s{sup –1} that could be an active galactic nucleus associated with a massive black hole or a low-mass X-ray binary. Analysis of optical spectroscopy shows the object to be old (∼> 10 Gyr) and of solar metallicity, with elevated [Mg/Fe] and strongly enhanced [N/Fe] that indicates light-element self-enrichment; such self-enrichment may be generically present in dense stellar systems. The velocity dispersion (σ ∼ 70 km s{sup –1}) and resulting dynamical mass-to-light ratio (M/L{sub V} = 4.9 ± 0.7) are consistent with—but slightly higher than—expectations for an old, metal-rich stellar population with a Kroupa initial mass function. The presence of a massive black hole or a mild increase in low-mass stars or stellar remnants is therefore also consistent with this M/L{sub V} . The stellar density of the galaxy is so high that no dynamical signature of dark matter is expected. However, the properties of M60-UCD1 suggest an origin in the tidal stripping of a nucleated galaxy with M{sub B} ∼ –18 to –19.

  7. The luminosity function of field galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Mahtessian, A. P.

    2011-01-01

    Schmidt's method for construction of luminosity function of galaxies is generalized by taking into account the dependence of density of galaxies from the distance in the near Universe. The logarithmical luminosity function (LLF) of field galaxies depending on morphological type is constructed. We show that the LLF for all galaxies, and also separately for elliptical and lenticular galaxies can be presented by Schechter function in narrow area of absolute magnitudes. The LLF of spiral galaxies...

  8. Found: A Galaxy's Missing Gamma Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    Recent reanalysis of data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has resulted in the first detection of high-energy gamma rays emitted from a nearby galaxy. This discovery reveals more about how supernovae interact with their environments.Colliding Supernova RemnantAfter a stellar explosion, the supernovas ejecta expand, eventually encountering the ambient interstellar medium. According to models, this generates a strong shock, and a fraction of the kinetic energy of the ejecta is transferred into cosmic rays high-energy radiation composed primarily of protons and atomic nuclei. Much is still unknown about this process, however. One open question is: what fraction of the supernovas explosion power goes into accelerating these cosmic rays?In theory, one way to answer this is by looking for gamma rays. In a starburst galaxy, the collision of the supernova-accelerated cosmic rays with the dense interstellar medium is predicted to produce high-energy gamma rays. That radiation should then escape the galaxy and be visible to us.Pass 8 to the RescueObservational tests of this model, however, have beenstumped by Arp 220. This nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxy is the product of a galaxy merger ~700 million years ago that fueled a frenzy of starbirth. Due to its dusty interior and extreme levels of star formation, Arp 220 has long been predicted to emit the gamma rays produced by supernova-accelerated cosmic rays. But though weve looked, gamma-ray emission has never been detected from this galaxy until now.In a recent study, a team of scientists led by Fang-Kun Peng (Nanjing University) reprocessed 7.5 years of Fermi observations using the new Pass 8 analysis software. The resulting increase in resolution revealed the first detection of GeV emission from Arp 220!Acceleration EfficiencyGamma-ray luminosity vs. total infrared luminosity for LAT-detected star-forming galaxies and Seyferts. Arp 220s luminosities are consistent with the scaling relation. [Peng et al. 2016

  9. DARK AND LUMINOUS MATTER IN THINGS DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Se-Heon; De Blok, W. J. G.; Brinks, Elias; Walter, Fabian; Kennicutt, Robert C. Jr.

    2011-01-01

    We present mass models for the dark matter component of seven dwarf galaxies taken from 'The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey' (THINGS) and compare these with those taken from numerical Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) simulations. The THINGS high-resolution data significantly reduce observational uncertainties and thus allow us to derive accurate dark matter distributions in these systems. We here use the bulk velocity fields when deriving the rotation curves of the galaxies. Compared to other types of velocity fields, the bulk velocity field minimizes the effect of small-scale random motions more effectively and traces the underlying kinematics of a galaxy more properly. The 'Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey' 3.6 μm and ancillary optical data are used for separating the baryons from their total matter content in the galaxies. The sample dwarf galaxies are found to be dark matter dominated over most radii. The relation between total baryonic (stars + gas) mass and maximum rotation velocity of the galaxies is roughly consistent with the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation calibrated from a larger sample of gas-dominated low-mass galaxies. We find discrepancies between the derived dark matter distributions of the galaxies and those of ΛCDM simulations, even after corrections for non-circular motions have been applied. The observed solid body-like rotation curves of the galaxies rise too slowly to reflect the cusp-like dark matter distribution in cold dark matter halos. Instead, they are better described by core-like models such as pseudo-isothermal halo models dominated by a central constant-density core. The mean value of the logarithmic inner slopes of the mass density profiles is α = -0.29 ± 0.07. They are significantly different from the steep slope of ∼ - 1.0 inferred from previous dark-matter-only simulations, and are more consistent with shallower slopes found in recent ΛCDM simulations of dwarf galaxies in which the effects of baryonic feedback processes are

  10. A general relativistic hydrostatic model for a galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojman, R.; Pena, L.; Zamorano, N.

    1991-08-01

    The existence of huge amounts of mass laying at the center of some galaxies has been inferred by data gathered at different wavelengths. It seems reasonable then, to incorporate general relativity in the study of these objects. A general relativistic hydrostatic model for a galaxy is studied. We assume that the galaxy is dominated by the dark mass except at the nucleus, where the luminous matter prevails. It considers four different concentric spherically symmetric regions, properly matched and with a specific equation of state for each of them. It yields a slowly raising orbital velocity for a test particle moving in the background gravitational field of the dark matter region. In this sense we think of this model as representing a spiral galaxy. The dependence of the mass on the radius in cluster and field spiral galaxies published recently, can be used to fix the size of the inner luminous core. A vanishing pressure at the edge of the galaxy and the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium everywhere generates a jump in the density and the orbital velocity at the shell enclosing the galaxy. This is a prediction of this model. The ratio between the size core and the shells introduced here are proportional to their densities. In this sense the model is scale invariant. It can be used to reproduce a galaxy or the central region of a galaxy. We have also compared our results with those obtained with the Newtonian isothermal sphere. The luminosity is not included in our model as an extra variable in the determination of the orbital velocity. (author). 29 refs, 10 figs

  11. Dusty star-forming galaxies at high redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Caitlin M., E-mail: cmcasey.astro@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai’i, 2680 Woodlawn Dr, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Narayanan, Desika [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Haverford College, 370 Lancaster Avenue, Haverford, PA 19041 (United States); Cooray, Asantha [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2014-08-10

    Far-infrared and submillimeter wavelength surveys have now established the important role of dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) in the assembly of stellar mass and the evolution of massive galaxies in the Universe. The brightest of these galaxies have infrared luminosities in excess of 10{sup 13}L{sub ⊙} with implied star-formation rates of thousands of solar masses per year. They represent the most intense starbursts in the Universe, yet many are completely optically obscured. Their easy detection at submm wavelengths is due to dust heated by ultraviolet radiation of newly forming stars. When summed up, all of the dusty, star-forming galaxies in the Universe produce an infrared radiation field that has an equal energy density as the direct starlight emission from all galaxies visible at ultraviolet and optical wavelengths. The bulk of this infrared extragalactic background light emanates from galaxies as diverse as gas-rich disks to mergers of intense starbursting galaxies. Major advances in far-infrared instrumentation in recent years, both space-based and ground-based, has led to the detection of nearly a million DSFGs, yet our understanding of the underlying astrophysics that govern the start and end of the dusty starburst phase is still in nascent stage. This review is aimed at summarizing the current status of DSFG studies, focusing especially on the detailed characterization of the best-understood subset (submillimeter galaxies, who were summarized in the last review of this field over a decade ago, Blain et al., 2002), but also the selection and characterization of more recently discovered DSFG populations. We review DSFG population statistics, their physical properties including dust, gas and stellar contents, their environments, and current theoretical models related to the formation and evolution of these galaxies.

  12. Ultraviolet Extinction in Backlit Galaxies - from Galaxy Zoo to GALEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, William C.; Manning, A.; Holwerda, B. W.; Lintott, C.; Schawinski, K.; Galaxy Zoo Team

    2012-01-01

    We examine the ultraviolet extinction of galaxies on large scales, combining optical and GALEX UV data on backlit galaxies (most found in the Galaxy Zoo citizen-science project). We analyze the images in matching ways, modelling both foreground and background galaxies by symmetry or elliptical isophote families as appropriate, and using the non-overlapping regions of the galaxies to estimate errors in the derived transmission T=e-κ. Spirals appear less symmetric in the UV, as star-forming regions become more dominant, so that our most reliable results are mean values across multiple regions and multiple galaxies. Our mean effective extinction curve is dominated by the contribution of luminous spirals,and shows a fairly flat gray" extinction law into the ultraviolet. For example, the median of κNUV/κB in spiral arms is only 1.3. Along with previous high-resolution HST studies of a few nearby backlit galaxies, this suggests that on kpc scales the effective extinction is dominated by the dust clumping rather than the intrinsic reddening law. This implies that extrapolation of local properties to short wavelengths, a step toward the history of dust in galaxies through comparison of local properties with a similar analysis in deep HST fields, can be done without introducing much additional error. This work was supported by NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX10AD54G.

  13. The dwarf galaxy population of nearby galaxy clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisker, Thorsten; Wittmann, Carolin; Pak, Mina; Janz, Joachim; Bialas, Daniel; Peletier, Reynier; Grebel, Eva; Falcon Barroso, Jesus; Toloba, Elisa; Smakced Collaboration, Focus Collaboration

    The Fornax, Virgo, Ursa Major and Perseus galaxy clusters all have very different characteristics, in terms of their density, mass, and large-scale environment. We can regard these clusters as laboratories for studying environmental influence on galaxy evolution, using the sensitive low-mass

  14. 3D spectroscopy in distant radio galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca-Volmerange, B.

    Star formation rates in distant radio galaxies are crucial for understanding the evolution of galaxies. Most processes at works in these targets observed at the most remote epochs are directly or not related to primeval sources of star formation: interplays of starbursts and AGNs, interactions of radio jets with environmental clouds, cooling flows, metal enrichment and dust distributions. Signatures of typical star formation (emission line ratios, equivalent widths, stellar continua) are observed in distant galaxies. However in most cases, they are superimposed to signatures of other processes (shocks, AGN light scattering), in particular at high z with the decrease of angular resolution and surface brightness. A larger variety of environmental components (lobes, jets, clouds and nucleus) simultaneously contribute to the global emission. So that to separate the various emission processes becomes rapidly essential with higher distances. The 3D spectroscopy is unique to disentangle the various physical processes triggering star formation at high redshifts. Shocks and regions photoionized by the central AGN are identified from their typical features and may be localized in the various zones of the radio galaxy extended to its environment. We present results of a long term observational program with the successive Integral Field Units (IFU) TIGER and OASIS at CFHT. The present sample consists of three galaxies of increasing z: 3C 171 (z = 0.238), 3C 435A (z = 0.470) and 4C 41.17 (z = 3.8). Line ratios, continua and velocity fields are locally measured. Interpretations of emission line ratios, velocity fields, equivalent widths, are possible with a coupled code based on CLOUDY and MAPPINGSIII results, as proposed by Moy et al. (2000, 2001). Stellar and nebular continua are interpreted with the help of our evolutionary synthesis model PÉGASE2. All models take into account metallicity effects.

  15. Low surface brightness spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanishin, W.

    1980-01-01

    This dissertation presents an observational overview of a sample of low surface brightness (LSB) spiral galaxies. The sample galaxies were chosen to have low surface brightness disks and indications of spiral structure visible on the Palomar Sky Survey. They are of sufficient angular size (diameter > 2.5 arcmin), to allow detailed surface photometry using Mayall 4-m prime focus plates. The major findings of this dissertation are: (1) The average disk central surface brightness of the LSB galaxies is 22.88 magnitude/arcsec 2 in the B passband. (2) From broadband color measurements of the old stellar population, we infer a low average stellar metallicity, on the order of 1/5 solar. (3) The spectra and optical colors of the HII regions in the LSB galaxies indicate a lack of hot ionizing stars compared to HII regions in other late-type galaxies. (4) The average surface mass density, measured within the radius containing half the total mass, is less than half that of a sample of normal late-type spirals. (5) The average LSB galaxy neutral hydrogen mass to blue luminosity ratio is about 0.6, significantly higher than in a sample of normal late-type galaxies. (6) We find no conclusive evidence of an abnormal mass-to-light ratio in the LSB galaxies. (7) Some of the LSB galaxies exhibit well-developed density wave patterns. (8) A very crude calculation shows the lower metallicity of the LSB galaxies compared with normal late-type spirals might be explained simply by the deficiency of massive stars in the LSB galaxies

  16. Interstellar Hydrogen in Galaxies: Radio observations of neutral hydrogen yield valuable information on the properties of galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M S

    1974-02-01

    Measurement of the 21-cm line radiation originating from the interstellar neutral hydrogen in a galaxy yields information on the total mass and total hydrogen content of the galaxy. The ratio of these two quantities is correlated with structural type in the sense that the later type galaxies contain a higher fraction of their total mass in the form of interstellar hydrogen This ratio is one of the few physical parameters known to correlate with structural type. It need not, however, reflect an evolutionary sequence, such as more hydrogen implying a younger galaxy. Efficiency of conversion of hydrogen to stars can just as easily explain the correlation. Except for the very latest systems, the total mass of a spiral does not appear to be correlated with type. Red shifts of galaxies measured at optical wavelengths and at 21 cm are in excellent agreement. The form of the Doppler expression has been shown to hold over a wavelength range of 5 x 105. All spirals earlier than type Ir which have been studied with adequate resolution show a central minimum in their hydrogen distribution. The region of maximum projected HI surface density occurs at some distance from the center. In the earlier type spirals the optical arms are located in the region of this maximum surface density. In the later type spirals the maximum HI density and prominent optical arms are less well correlated and, at times, are anticorrelated. Detailed studies of the HI distribution and motions within a galaxy require the high relative resolution of beam synthesis arrays. We may expect significant new information from such studies, which are now in progress. Filled-aperture telescopes will supply the necessary observations at zero spacing and vital statistical information on large numbers of galaxies, peculiar systems and groups and clusters of galaxies. The two types of telescope systems will complement one another. In the near future we should have a much better description of spiral galaxies and, we

  17. The Ultraviolet Attenuation Law in Backlit Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, William C.; Manning, Anna M.; Holwerda, Benne W.; Lintott, Chris J.; Schawinski, Kevin

    2014-02-01

    The effective extinction law (attenuation behavior) in galaxies in the emitted ultraviolet (UV) regime is well known only for actively star-forming objects and combines effects of the grain properties, fine structure in the dust distribution, and relative distributions of stars and dust. We use Galaxy Evolution Explorer, XMM Optical Monitor, and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data to explore the UV attenuation in the outer parts of spiral disks which are backlit by other UV-bright galaxies, starting with the candidate list of pairs provided by Galaxy Zoo participants. New optical images help to constrain the geometry and structure of the target galaxies. Our analysis incorporates galaxy symmetry, using non-overlapping regions of each galaxy to derive error estimates on the attenuation measurements. The entire sample has an attenuation law across the optical and UV that is close to the Calzetti et al. form; the UV slope for the overall sample is substantially shallower than found by Wild et al., which is a reasonable match to the more distant galaxies in our sample but not to the weighted combination including NGC 2207. The nearby, bright spiral NGC 2207 alone gives an accuracy almost equal to the rest of our sample, and its outer arms have a very low level of foreground starlight. Thus, this widespread, fairly "gray" law can be produced from the distribution of dust alone, without a necessary contribution from differential escape of stars from dense clouds. Our results indicate that the extrapolation needed to compare attenuation between backlit galaxies at moderate redshifts from HST data, and local systems from Sloan Digital Sky Survey and similar data, is mild enough to allow the use of galaxy overlaps to trace the cosmic history of dust in galaxies. For NGC 2207, HST data in the near-UV F336W band show that the covering factor of clouds with small optical attenuation becomes a dominant factor farther into the UV, which opens the possibility that widespread

  18. The population of early-type galaxies: how it evolves with time and how it differs from passive and late-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburri, S.; Saracco, P.; Longhetti, M.; Gargiulo, A.; Lonoce, I.; Ciocca, F.

    2014-10-01

    Aims: There are two aims to our analysis. On the one hand we are interested in addressing whether a sample of morphologically selected early-type galaxies (ETGs) differs from a sample of passive galaxies in terms of galaxy statistics. On the other hand we study how the relative abundance of galaxies, the number density, and, the stellar mass density for different morphological types change over the redshift range 0.6 ≤ z ≤ 2.5. Methods: From the 1302 galaxies brighter than Ks(AB) = 22 selected from the GOODS-MUSIC catalogue, we classified the ETGs, i.e. elliptical (E) and spheroidal galaxies (E/S0), on the basis of their morphology and the passive galaxies on the basis of their specific star formation rate (sSFR ≤ 10-11 yr-1). Since the definition of a passive galaxy depends on the model parameters assumed to fit the spectral energy distribution of the galaxy, in addition to the assumed sSFR threshold, we probed the dependence of this definition and selection on the stellar initial mass function (IMF). Results: We find that spheroidal galaxies cannot be distinguished from the other morphological classes on the basis of their low star formation rate, irrespective of the IMF adopted in the models. In particular, we find that a large fraction of passive galaxies (>30%) are disc-shaped objects and that the passive selection misses a significant fraction (~26%) of morphologically classified ETGs. Using the sample of 1302 galaxies morphologically classified into spheroidal galaxies (ETGs) and non-spheroidal galaxies (LTGs), we find that the fraction of these two morphological classes is constant over the redshift range 0.6 ≤ z ≤ 2.5, being 20-30% the fraction of ETGs and 70-80% the fraction of LTGs. However, at z 3-4 × 1011 M⊙) does not increase from z ~ 2.5, contrary to the lower mass galaxies. This suggests that the most massive galaxies formed at z> 2.5-3 and that the assembly of such high-mass galaxies is not effective at lower redshift.

  19. Extended Schmidt law holds for faint dwarf irregular galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychowdhury, Sambit; Chengalur, Jayaram N.; Shi, Yong

    2017-12-01

    Context. The extended Schmidt law (ESL) is a variant of the Schmidt which relates the surface densities of gas and star formation, with the surface density of stellar mass added as an extra parameter. Although ESL has been shown to be valid for a wide range of galaxy properties, its validity in low-metallicity galaxies has not been comprehensively tested. This is important because metallicity affects the crucial atomic-to-molecular transition step in the process of conversion of gas to stars. Aims: We empirically investigate for the first time whether low metallicity faint dwarf irregular galaxies (dIrrs) from the local universe follow the ESL. Here we consider the "global" law where surface densities are averaged over the galactic discs. dIrrs are unique not only because they are at the lowest end of mass and star formation scales for galaxies, but also because they are metal-poor compared to the general population of galaxies. Methods: Our sample is drawn from the Faint Irregular Galaxy GMRT Survey (FIGGS) which is the largest survey of atomic hydrogen in such galaxies. The gas surface densities are determined using their atomic hydrogen content. The star formation rates are calculated using GALEX far ultraviolet fluxes after correcting for dust extinction, whereas the stellar surface densities are calculated using Spitzer 3.6 μm fluxes. The surface densities are calculated over the stellar discs defined by the 3.6 μm images. Results: We find dIrrs indeed follow the ESL. The mean deviation of the FIGGS galaxies from the relation is 0.01 dex, with a scatter around the relation of less than half that seen in the original relation. In comparison, we also show that the FIGGS galaxies are much more deviant when compared to the "canonical" Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. Conclusions: Our results help strengthen the universality of the ESL, especially for galaxies with low metallicities. We suggest that models of star formation in which feedback from previous generations

  20. Some statistical properties of spiral galaxies along the Hubble sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Zhao, Jun-liang; Zhang, Fei-peng; Peng, Qiu-he

    A statistical study has been made for the variations along the Hubble sequence, os such parameters as the degree of tightness of winding of spiral arm λ, the pitch angle μ, the flatness of the disk H/ D25 and the thickness H along the Hubble sequence for 365 spiral galaxies published in A&Ap Supplement Series. The mean values of these quantities for the various Hubble types have been obtained for the first time. The results of the statistics show clearly 1) that the Hubble classification of spiral galaxies is one which has only a qualitative and statistical significance, and 2) that the dispersion relation in the density wave theory is valid for most spiral galaxies, i.e., the arms of most spiral galaxies satisfy the requirements of being tightly wound.

  1. Redshift space clustering of galaxies and cold dark matter model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahcall, Neta A.; Cen, Renyue; Gramann, Mirt

    1993-01-01

    The distorting effect of peculiar velocities on the power speturm and correlation function of IRAS and optical galaxies is studied. The observed redshift space power spectra and correlation functions of IRAS and optical the galaxies over the entire range of scales are directly compared with the corresponding redshift space distributions using large-scale computer simulations of cold dark matter (CDM) models in order to study the distortion effect of peculiar velocities on the power spectrum and correlation function of the galaxies. It is found that the observed power spectrum of IRAS and optical galaxies is consistent with the spectrum of an Omega = 1 CDM model. The problems that such a model currently faces may be related more to the high value of Omega in the model than to the shape of the spectrum. A low-density CDM model is also investigated and found to be consistent with the data.

  2. Far-infrared line images of dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poglitsch, A.; Geis, N.; Herrmann, F.; Madden, S. C.; Stacey, G. J.; Townes, C. H.; Genzel, R.

    1993-01-01

    Irregular dwarf galaxies are about ten times more widespread in the universe than regular spiral galaxies. They are characterized by a relatively low metallicity, i.e., lower abundance of the heavier elements (metals) with respect to hydrogen than in the solar neighborhood. These heavier elements in the form of molecules, atoms, or ions, which have radiative transitions in the infrared play a decisive role in the energy balance of the ISM and thereby for the formation of stars. Dwarf galaxies are thus model cases for the physical conditions in the early phase of the universe. Large Magellanic Cloud: 30 Doradus. The two nearest dwarf galaxies are the Magellanic clouds at a distance approximately 50 kpc. The LMC contains 30 Dor, a region with young, extremely massive stars which strongly interact with the surrounding ISM on account of their stellar winds and intense UV radiation. 30 Dor is the brightest object in the LMC at almost all wavelengths.

  3. Simple Stellar Population Modeling of Quasar Host Galaxies with Diffusion K-Means Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, Gregory; Moravec, E. A.; Tremonti, C. A.; Wolf, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, the correlation of the masses of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxy stellar spheroid velocity dispersions (the M-sigma relation) was greeted as clear evidence for the co-evolution of host galaxies and their SMBHs. However, studies in the last five years have posited that this relation could arise from central-limit properties of hierarchical formation alone. To address the question of whether and how often the SMBHs evolve with their host galaxies, it is necessary to look at galaxies whose SMBHs are actively growing—quasars—and determine the host galaxy properties. The central nuclei of quasar host galaxies complicate this type of study because their high luminosity tends to wash out their host galaxies. But, by using 3-D spectroscopy with the integral field unit (IFU) Sparsepak on the WIYN telescope, we have shown that the quasar light can be mostly isolated to one fiber in order to obtain the spectra of the quasar and the host galaxy concurrently. We can then model simultaneously the scattered quasar light and the stellar populations in the host galaxy fiber using a new simple stellar population (SSP) modeling method called diffusion k-means (DFK). The objectives of the research presented in this poster are to model synthetic quasar host galaxies using a DFK basis and a more traditional basis, compare the accuracy of both modeling methods, and test the affects of various prescriptions for masking the quasar lines in the host galaxy fiber. We present results from our SSP modeling and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) results for DFK and traditional modeling schemes using synthetic data. By determining and then using the more robust stellar population modeling method, we can more confidently study quasar host galaxies to answer remaining questions in galaxy evolution. This work was partially supported by a National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship (NSF Grant DGE-0718123) and through the NSF's REU program (NSF Award

  4. Mass distributions in disk galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinsson, Thomas; Verheijen, Marc; Bershady, Matthew; Westfall, Kyle; Andersen, David; Swaters, Rob

    We present results on luminous and dark matter mass distributions in disk galaxies from the DiskMass Survey. As expected for normal disk galaxies, stars dominate the baryonic mass budget in the inner region of the disk; however, at about four optical scale lengths (hR ) the atomic gas starts to

  5. The Cool ISM in Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, J. M.; Blok, W. J. G. de; Oswalt, Terry D.; Keel, William C.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes the different constituents of the observable interstellar medium (ISM) in galaxies and reviews the relationships between the ISM and the star formation in galaxies. The emphasis is on the component which is most widespread and most easily observable, the neutral atomic

  6. Optical appearance of distant galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchet, C.; Kline, M.I.

    1981-01-01

    We have used the recent evolutionary and K-corrections of Bruzual and Kron to predict the optical appearance of galaxies spanning a wide range of magnitudes and redshifts. It is found that nearly all galaxies with J< or approx. =25 are resolved in 1-arcsec seeing. At fixed apparent magnitude, galaxies with large redshifts are more diffuse in appearance than those at small z. This fact causes the most distant galaxies at any magnitude level to be missed, and, depending on the measurement algorithm employed, may cause the luminosities of detected galaxies to be seriously underestimated. Both of these effects deserve consideration when attempting to interpret number counts of faint galaxies. Observations made with the Space Telescope are expected to resolve nearly all galaxies at J< or approx. =27.5; however, several factors conspire to render Space Telescope observations less effective than certain ground-based CCD observations for the optical detection of distant galaxies. Finally, we note that most of our conclusions are unaffected by changes in the assumed cosmology

  7. Radio galaxies and their environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Breugel, W.

    1993-01-01

    The relationships between radio galaxies and their environment are varied, complex, and evolve with cosmic epoch. Basic questions are what role the environment plays in triggering and fuelling (radio) galaxy activity what the effects of this activity are on its environment, and how radio galaxies and environment evolve. Clearly, this could be the topic of a workshop all in itself and the scope of this review will necessarily be limited. A review of the connections between environment and galaxy activity in general has been given by Heckman. First, I will briefly summarize the relationships between parent galaxy and cluster environments, and radio galaxies. A more detailed discussion of various aspects of this will be given elsewhere by F. Owen, J.0. Burns and R. Perley. I will then discuss the current status of investigations of extended emission-line regions in radio galaxies, again referring elsewhere in this volume for more detailed discussions of some particular aspects (kinematics and ionization mechanisms by K. Meisenheimer; polarization and spectral index lobe asymmetries by G. Pooley). I will conclude with a brief discussion of the current status of observations of high redshift radio galaxies

  8. Dust tori in radio galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wolk, G.; Barthel, P. D.; Peletier, R. F.; Pel, J. W.

    Aims. We investigate the quasar - radio galaxy unification scenario and detect dust tori within radio galaxies of various types. Methods. Using VISIR on the VLT, we acquired sub-arcsecond (similar to 0.40 '') resolution N-band images, at a wavelength of 11.85 mu m, of the nuclei of a sample of 27

  9. Three types of galaxy disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohlen, M.; Erwin, P.; Trujillo, I.; Beckman, J. E.; Knapen, JH; Mahoney, TJ; Vazdekis, A

    2008-01-01

    We present our new scheme for the classification of radial stellar surface brightness profiles for disk galaxies. We summarize the current theoretical attempts to understand their origin and give an example of an application by comparing local galaxies with their counterparts at high redshift (z

  10. QSO Pairs across Active Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Several QSO pairs have been reported and their redshifts determined, where the two objects in each pair are located across an active galaxy. The usually accepted explanation of such occurrences is that the pair is ejected from the parent galaxy. Currently interpreted redshifted spectra for both the QSOs ...

  11. Nuclear activity in nearby galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filho, Mercedes Esteves

    2003-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis has been the search for and study of low luminosity AGN. We have detected severa low luminosity AGN in nearby galaxies, revealing that this type of activity can occur in a broad range of galaxy types and powers. Furthermore, we have been able to establish importan

  12. Red galaxies at high redshift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuyts, Stijn Elisabeth Raphaël

    2007-01-01

    From its origin at the center of a star to the edge, through the surrounding gas and dust in the distant galaxy, through the intergalactic medium, traveling billions of light years only to be reflected by a mirror and captured by a detector; the little amount of light observed from galaxies in the

  13. STAR FORMATION IN PARTIALLY GAS-DEPLETED SPIRAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, James A.; Miner, Jesse; Levy, Lorenza; Robertson, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Broadband B and R and Hα images have been obtained with the 4.1 m SOAR telescope atop Cerro Pachon, Chile, for 29 spiral galaxies in the Pegasus I galaxy cluster and for 18 spirals in non-cluster environments. Pegasus I is a spiral-rich cluster with a low-density intracluster medium and a low galaxy velocity dispersion. When combined with neutral hydrogen (H I) data obtained with the Arecibo 305 m radio telescope, acquired by Levy et al. (2007) and by Springob et al. (2005b), we study the star formation rates in disk galaxies as a function of their H I deficiency. To quantify H I deficiency, we use the usual logarithmic deficiency parameter, DEF. The specific star formation rate (SSFR) is quantified by the logarithmic flux ratio of Hα flux to R-band flux, and thus roughly characterizes the logarithmic SFR per unit stellar mass. We find a clear correlation between the global SFR per unit stellar mass and DEF, such that the SFR is lower in more H I-deficient galaxies. This correlation appears to extend from the most gas-rich to the most gas-poor galaxies. We also find a correlation between the central SFR per unit mass relative to the global values, in the sense that the more H I-deficient galaxies have a higher central SFR per unit mass relative to their global SFR values than do gas-rich galaxies. In fact, approximately half of the H I-depleted galaxies have highly elevated SSFRs in their central regions, indicative of a transient evolutionary state. In addition, we find a correlation between gas depletion and the size of the Hα disk (relative to the R-band disk); H I-poor galaxies have truncated disks. Moreover, aside from the elevated central SSFR in many gas-poor spirals, the SSFR is otherwise lower in the Hα disks of gas-poor galaxies than in gas-rich spirals. Thus, both disk truncation and lowered SSFR levels within the star-forming part of the disks (aside from the enhanced nuclear SSFR) correlate with H I deficiency, and both phenomena are found to

  14. Star Formation in Merging Clusters of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansheim, Alison Seiler

    abstracts of each paper. The Chapter 1 contains an introduction to the topic and motivation to fill a vacuum in knowledge using our hypothesis. Chapter 4, following the meat of the thesis in Chapters 2 and 3, gives closure and looks to the future. In Chapter 2, we investigate star formation in DLSCL J0916.2+2953, a dissociative merger of two clusters at z = 0.53 that has progressed 1.1 +1.3-0.4 Gyr since first pass-through. We attempt to reveal the effects a collision may have had on the evolution of the cluster galaxies by tracing their star formation history. We probe current and recent activity to identify a possible star formation event at the time of the merger using EW(Hdelta), EW(OII) and Dn(4000) measured from the composite spectra of 64 cluster and 153 coeval field galaxies. We supplement Keck DEIMOS spectra with DLS and HST imaging to determine the color, stellar mass, and morphology of each galaxy and conduct a comprehensive study of the populations in this complex structure. Spectral results indicate the average cluster and cluster red sequence galaxies experienced no enhanced star formation relative to the surrounding field during the merger, ruling out a predominantly merger-quenched population. We find that the average blue galaxy in the North cluster is currently active and in the South cluster is currently post-starburst having undergone a recent star formation event. While the North activity could be latent or long-term merger effects, a young blue stellar population and irregular geometry suggest the cluster was still forming prior the collision. While the South activity coincides with the time of the merger, the blue early-type population could be a result of secular cluster processes. The evidence suggests that the dearth or surfeit of activity is indiscernible from normal cluster galaxy evolution. In Chapter 3, we examine the effects of an impending cluster merger on galaxies in the large scale structure (LSS) RX Cl J0910 at z =1.105. Using multi

  15. Relic galaxies: where are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta de Arriba, L.; Quilis, V.; Trujillo, I.; Cebrián, M.; Balcells, M.

    2017-03-01

    The finding that massive galaxies grow with cosmic time fired the starting gun for the search of objects which could have survived up to the present day without suffering substantial changes (neither in their structures, neither in their stellar populations). Nevertheless, and despite the community efforts, up to now only one firm candidate to be considered one of these relics is known: NGC 1277. Curiously, this galaxy is located at the centre of one of the most rich near galaxy clusters: Perseus. Is its location a matter of chance? Should relic hunters focus their search on galaxy clusters? In order to reply this question, we have performed a simultaneous and analogous analysis using simulations (Millennium I-WMAP7) and observations (New York University Value-Added Galaxy Catalogue). Our results in both frameworks agree: it is more probable to find relics in high density environments.

  16. Observing and Simulating Galaxy Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen Pardos

    model for galaxy evolution should explain any observed connection between SFR and the amount and properties of the molecular gas of the interstellar medium (ISM). In proposed models of that kind, an active galactic nucleus (AGN) phase is often invoked as the cause for the decrease or cease of star...... formation. This thesis consists of models and observations of gas and AGNs in massive galaxies at z _ 2, and how they may affect the overall SFR and the subsequent evolutionary trajectory of massive galaxies to z = 0. For an improved understanding of how observed gas emission lines link to the underlying......, and sheds light on the AGN-host co-evolution by connecting the fraction and luminosity of AGNs with galaxy properties. By analyzing a large survey in X-ray, AGNs of high and low X-ray luminosity are extracted among massive galaxies at z _ 2 via AGN classification methods, and stacking techniques of non...

  17. Galaxies and gas in a cold dark matter universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Neal; Hernquist, Lars; Weinberg, David H.

    1992-01-01

    We use a combined gravity/hydrodynamics code to simulate the formation of structure in a random 22 Mpc cube of a cold dark matter universe. Adiabatic compression and shocks heat much of the gas to temperatures of 10 exp 6 - 10 exp 7 K, but a fraction of the gas cools radiatively to about 10 exp 4 K and condenses into discrete, highly overdense lumps. We identify these lumps with galaxies. The high-mass end of their baryonic mass function fits the form of the observed galaxy luminosity function. They retain independent identities after their dark halos merge, so gravitational clustering produces groups of galaxies embedded in relatively smooth envelopes of hot gas and dark matter. The galaxy correlation function is approximately an r exp -2.1 power law from separations of 35 kpc to 7 Mpc. Galaxy fluctuations are biased relative to dark matter fluctuations by a factor b about 1.5. We find no significant 'velocity bias' between galaxies and dark matter particles. However, virial analysis of the simulation's richest group leads to an estimated Omega of about 0.3, even though the simulation adopts Omega = 1.

  18. DGSAT: Dwarf Galaxy Survey with Amateur Telescopes. II. A catalogue of isolated nearby edge-on disk galaxies and the discovery of new low surface brightness systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, C.; Javanmardi, B.; Martínez-Delgado, D.; Kroupa, P.; Teuwen, K.

    2017-07-01

    The connection between the bulge mass or bulge luminosity in disk galaxies and the number, spatial and phase space distribution of associated dwarf galaxies is a discriminator between cosmological simulations related to galaxy formation in cold dark matter and generalised gravity models. Here, a nearby sample of isolated Milky Way-class edge-on galaxies is introduced, to facilitate observational campaigns to detect the associated families of dwarf galaxies at low surface brightness. Three galaxy pairs with at least one of the targets being edge-on are also introduced. Approximately 60% of the catalogued isolated galaxies contain bulges of different size, while the remaining objects appear to be bulgeless. Deep images of NGC 3669 (small bulge, with NGC 3625 at the edge of the image) and NGC 7814 (prominent bulge), obtained with a 0.4 m aperture, are also presented, resulting in the discovery of two new dwarf galaxy candidates, NGC 3669-DGSAT-3 and NGC 7814-DGSAT-7. Eleven additional low surface brightness galaxies are identified, previously notified with low quality measurement flags in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Integrated magnitudes, surface brightnesses, effective radii, Sersic indices, axis ratios, and projected distances to their putative major hosts are displayed. At least one of the galaxies, NGC 3625-DGSAT-4, belongs with a surface brightness of μr ≈ 26 mag arcsec-2 and effective radius >1.5 kpc to the class of ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs). NGC 3669-DGSAT-3, the galaxy with the lowest surface brightness in our sample, may also be an UDG.

  19. Correlations Between Central Massive Objects And Their Host Galaxies: From Bulgeless Spirals to Ellipticals

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuexing; Haiman, Zoltán; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark

    2006-01-01

    Recent observations by Ferrarese et al. (2006) and Wehner et al. (2006) reveal that a majority of galaxies contain a central massive object (CMO), either a supermassive black hole (SMBH) or a compact stellar nucleus, regardless of the galaxy mass or morphological type, and that there is a tight relation between the masses of CMOs and those of the host galaxies. Several recent studies show that feedback from black holes can successfully explain the $\\msigma$ correlation in massive elliptical g...

  20. The HORIZON-AGN simulation: morphological diversity of galaxies promoted by AGN feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Yohan; Peirani, Sébastien; Pichon, Christophe; Devriendt, Julien; Gavazzi, Raphaël; Welker, Charlotte; Volonteri, Marta

    2016-12-01

    The interplay between cosmic gas accretion on to galaxies and galaxy mergers drives the observed morphological diversity of galaxies. By comparing the state-of-the-art hydrodynamical cosmological simulations HORIZON-AGN and HORIZON-NOAGN, we unambiguously identify the critical role of active galactic nuclei (AGN) in setting up the correct galaxy morphology for the massive end of the population. With AGN feedback, typical kinematic and morpho-metric properties of galaxy populations as well as the galaxy-halo mass relation are in much better agreement with observations. Only AGN feedback allows massive galaxies at the centre of groups and clusters to become ellipticals, while without AGN feedback those galaxies reform discs. It is the merger-enhanced AGN activity that is able to freeze the morphological type of the post-merger remnant by durably quenching its quiescent star formation. Hence morphology is shown to be driven not only by mass but also by the nature of cosmic accretion: at constant galaxy mass, ellipticals are galaxies that are mainly assembled through mergers, while discs are preferentially built from the in situ star formation fed by smooth cosmic gas infall.

  1. Is the cluster environment quenching the Seyfert activity in elliptical and spiral galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, R. S.; Dantas, M. L. L.; Krone-Martins, A.; Cameron, E.; Coelho, P.; Hattab, M. W.; de Val-Borro, M.; Hilbe, J. M.; Elliott, J.; Hagen, A.; COIN Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    We developed a hierarchical Bayesian model (HBM) to investigate how the presence of Seyfert activity relates to their environment, herein represented by the galaxy cluster mass, M200, and the normalized cluster centric distance, r/r200. We achieved this by constructing an unbiased sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, with morphological classifications provided by the Galaxy Zoo Project. A propensity score matching approach is introduced to control the effects of confounding variables: stellar mass, galaxy colour, and star formation rate. The connection between Seyfert-activity and environmental properties in the de-biased sample is modelled within an HBM framework using the so-called logistic regression technique, suitable for the analysis of binary data (e.g. whether or not a galaxy hosts an AGN). Unlike standard ordinary least square fitting methods, our methodology naturally allows modelling the probability of Seyfert-AGN activity in galaxies on their natural scale, I.e. as a binary variable. Furthermore, we demonstrate how an HBM can incorporate information of each particular galaxy morphological type in an unified framework. In elliptical galaxies our analysis indicates a strong correlation of Seyfert-AGN activity with r/r200, and a weaker correlation with the mass of the host cluster. In spiral galaxies these trends do not appear, suggesting that the link between Seyfert activity and the properties of spiral galaxies are independent of the environment.

  2. The Galaxy Cluster Merger Catalog: An Online Repository of Mock Observations from Simulated Galaxy Cluster Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZuHone, J. A.; Kowalik, K.; Öhman, E.; Lau, E.; Nagai, D.

    2018-01-01

    We present the “Galaxy Cluster Merger Catalog.” This catalog provides an extensive suite of mock observations and related data for N-body and hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy cluster mergers and clusters from cosmological simulations. These mock observations consist of projections of a number of important observable quantities in several different wavebands, as well as along different lines of sight through each simulation domain. The web interface to the catalog consists of easily browsable images over epoch and projection direction, as well as download links for the raw data and a JS9 interface for interactive data exploration. The data are presented within a consistent format so that comparison between simulations is straightforward. All of the data products are provided in the standard Flexible Image Transport System file format. The data are being stored on the yt Hub (http://hub.yt), which allows for remote access and analysis using a Jupyter notebook server. Future versions of the catalog will include simulations from a number of research groups and a variety of research topics related to the study of interactions of galaxy clusters with each other and with their member galaxies. The catalog is located at http://gcmc.hub.yt.

  3. Giant Galaxy Messier 87 finally sized up

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    for the job". At a distance of approximately 50 million light-years, the Virgo Cluster is the nearest galaxy cluster. It is located in the constellation of Virgo (the Virgin) and is a relatively young and sparse cluster. The cluster contains many hundreds of galaxies, including giant and massive elliptical galaxies, as well as more homely spirals like our own Milky Way. The astronomers have proposed several explanations for the discovered "cut-off" of Messier 87's, such as collapse of dark matter nearby in the galaxy cluster. It might also be that another galaxy in the cluster, Messier 84, came much closer to Messier 87 in the past and dramatically perturbed it about a billion years ago. "At this stage, we can't confirm any of these scenarios," says Arnaboldi. "We will need observations of many more planetary nebulae around Messier 87". One thing the astronomers are sure about, however, is that Messier 87 and its neighbour Messier 86 are falling towards each other. "We may be observing them in the phase just before the first close pass", says Gerhard. "The Virgo Cluster is still a very dynamic place and many things will continue to shape its galaxies over the next billion years." More Information Planetary nebulae (PNe) are the spectacular final phase in the life of Sun-like stars, when the star ejects its outer layers into the surrounding space. Their name is a relic of an earlier era: early observers, using only small telescopes, thought that some of these nearby objects, such as the "Helix Nebula" resembled the discs of the giant planets in the Solar System. Planetary nebulae have strong emission lines, which make them relatively easy to detect at great distances, and also allow their radial velocities to be measured precisely. So planetary nebulae can be used to investigate the motions of stars in the faint outer regions of distant galaxies where velocity measurements are otherwise not possible. Moreover, planetary nebulae are representative of the stellar

  4. The massive galaxy cluster XMMU J1230.3+1339 at z ˜ 1: colour-magnitude relation, Butcher-Oemler effect, X-ray and weak lensing mass estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerchster, M.; Seitz, S.; Brimioulle, F.; Fassbender, R.; Rovilos, M.; Böhringer, H.; Pierini, D.; Kilbinger, M.; Finoguenov, A.; Quintana, H.; Bender, R.

    2011-03-01

    We present results from the multiwavelength study of XMMU J1230.3+1339 at z˜ 1. We analyse deep multiband wide-field images from the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), multi-object spectroscopy observations from VLT, as well as space-based serendipitous observations, from the GALEX and Chandra X-ray observatories. We apply a Bayesian photometric redshift code to derive the redshifts using the far-UV (FUV), near-UV (NUV) and the deep U, B, V, r, i, z data. We make further use of spectroscopic data from FORS2 to calibrate our photometric redshifts, and investigate the photometric and spectral properties of the early-type galaxies. We achieve an accuracy of ▵z/(1 +z)= 0.07 (0.04) and the fraction of catastrophic outliers is η= 13 (0) per cent, when using all (secure) spectroscopic data, respectively. The i-z against z colour-magnitude relation of the photo-z members shows a tight red sequence with a zero-point of 0.935 mag, and slope equal to -0.027. We observe evidence for a truncation at the faint end of the red-cluster-sequence and the Butcher-Oemler effect, finding a fraction of blue galaxies fb≈ 0.5. Further, we conduct a weak lensing analysis of the deep 26 × 26 arcmin r-band LBC image. The observed shear is fitted with a Single-Isothermal-Sphere and a Navarro-Frenk-White model to obtain the velocity dispersion and the model parameters, respectively. Our best-fitting values are, for the velocity dispersion σSIS= 1308 ± 284 km s-1, concentration parameter c= 4.0+14-2 and scale radius rs= 345+50-57 kpc. From a 38 ks Chandra X-ray observation we obtain an independent estimate of the cluster mass. In addition, we create a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) map for the detection of the matter mass distribution of the cluster using the mass-aperture technique. We find excellent agreement of the mass concentration identified with weak lensing and the X-ray surface brightness. Combining our mass estimates from the kinematic, X-ray and weak lensing analyses we obtain a

  5. Stellar Population Synthesis of Star-forming Clumps in Galaxy Pairs and Non-interacting Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza-Cardiel, Javier; Smith, Beverly J.; Rosado, Margarita; Beckman, John E.; Bitsakis, Theodoros; Camps-Fariña, Artemi; Font, Joan; Cox, Isaiah S.

    2018-02-01

    We have identified 1027 star-forming complexes in a sample of 46 galaxies from the Spirals, Bridges, and Tails (SB&T) sample of interacting galaxies, and 693 star-forming complexes in a sample of 38 non-interacting spiral (NIS) galaxies in 8 μm observations from the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera. We have used archival multi-wavelength UV-to IR observations to fit the observed spectral energy distribution of our clumps with the Code Investigating GALaxy Emission using a double exponentially declined star formation history. We derive the star formation rates (SFRs), stellar masses, ages and fractions of the most recent burst, dust attenuation, and fractional emission due to an active galactic nucleus for these clumps. The resolved star formation main sequence holds on 2.5 kpc scales, although it does not hold on 1 kpc scales. We analyzed the relation between SFR, stellar mass, and age of the recent burst in the SB&T and NIS samples, and we found that the SFR per stellar mass is higher in the SB&T galaxies, and the clumps are younger in the galaxy pairs. We analyzed the SFR radial profile and found that the SFR is enhanced through the disk and in the tidal features relative to normal spirals.

  6. The catalog of edge-on disk galaxies from SDSS. I. The catalog and the structural parameters of stellar disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizyaev, D. V.; Kautsch, S. J.; Mosenkov, A. V.; Reshetnikov, V. P.; Sotnikova, N. Ya.; Yablokova, N. V.; Hillyer, R. W.

    2014-01-01

    We present a catalog of true edge-on disk galaxies automatically selected from the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). A visual inspection of the g, r, and i images of about 15,000 galaxies allowed us to split the initial sample of edge-on galaxy candidates into 4768 (31.8% of the initial sample) genuine edge-on galaxies, 8350 (55.7%) non-edge-on galaxies, and 1865 (12.5%) edge-on galaxies not suitable for simple automatic analysis because these objects either show signs of interaction and warps, or nearby bright stars project on it. We added more candidate galaxies from RFGC, EFIGI, RC3, and Galaxy Zoo catalogs found in the SDSS footprints. Our final sample consists of 5747 genuine edge-on galaxies. We estimate the structural parameters of the stellar disks (the stellar disk thickness, radial scale length, and central surface brightness) in the galaxies by analyzing photometric profiles in each of the g, r, and i images. We also perform simplified three-dimensional modeling of the light distribution in the stellar disks of edge-on galaxies from our sample. Our large sample is intended to be used for studying scaling relations in the stellar disks and bulges and for estimating parameters of the thick disks in different types of galaxies via the image stacking. In this paper, we present the sample selection procedure and general description of the sample.

  7. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ASYMMETRY ORIGIN OF GALAXIES IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS. I. OPTICAL OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plauchu-Frayn, I.; Coziol, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the first of two analyses about the influence of environment on the formation and evolution of galaxies observed in the nearby universe. For our study, we used three different samples representing different density environments: galaxies in Compact Groups (HCGs), Isolated Pairs of Galaxies (KPGs), and Isolated Galaxies (KIGs), which were taken as references. Usingboth characteristic isophotal parameters and evidence of asymmetries in the optical and the near-infrared, we are able to establish differences in the characteristics of galaxies with different morphologies in different environments, allowing us to better understand their different formation histories. In this first paper, we present the isophotal and asymmetry analyses of a sample of 214 galaxies in different environments observed in the optical (V and I images). For each galaxy, we have determined different characteristic isophotal parameters and V - I color profiles, as a function of semi-major axis, and performed a full asymmetry analysis in residual images using the V filter. Evidence of asymmetry in the optical is almost missing in the KIG sample and significantly more common in the KPG than in the HCG samples. Our isophotal analysis suggests that the stellar populations in the HCG galaxies are older and more dynamically relaxed than in the KPG. The HCG galaxies seem to be at a more advanced stage of interaction than the KPGs. One possible explanation is that these structures formed at different epochs: compact groups of galaxies would have formed before close pairs of galaxies, which only began interacting recently. However, similarities in the formation process of galaxies with same morphology suggest CGs and close pairs of galaxies share similar conditions; they are new structures forming relatively late in low-density environments.

  8. The size evolution of star-forming and quenched galaxies in the IllustrisTNG simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genel, Shy; Nelson, Dylan; Pillepich, Annalisa; Springel, Volker; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Weinberger, Rainer; Hernquist, Lars; Naiman, Jill; Vogelsberger, Mark; Marinacci, Federico; Torrey, Paul

    2018-03-01

    We analyse scaling relations and evolution histories of galaxy sizes in TNG100, part of the IllustrisTNG simulation suite. Observational qualitative trends of size with stellar mass, star formation rate and redshift are reproduced, and a quantitative comparison of projected r band sizes at 0 ≲ z ≲ 2 shows agreement to much better than 0.25 dex. We follow populations of z = 0 galaxies with a range of masses backwards in time along their main progenitor branches, distinguishing between main-sequence and quenched galaxies. Our main findings are as follows. (i) At M*, z = 0 ≳ 109.5 M⊙, the evolution of the median main progenitor differs, with quenched galaxies hardly growing in median size before quenching, whereas main-sequence galaxies grow their median size continuously, thus opening a gap from the progenitors of quenched galaxies. This is partly because the main-sequence high-redshift progenitors of quenched z = 0 galaxies are drawn from the lower end of the size distribution of the overall population of main-sequence high-redshift galaxies. (ii) Quenched galaxies with M*, z = 0 ≳ 109.5 M⊙ experience a steep size growth on the size-mass plane after their quenching time, but with the exception of galaxies with M*, z = 0 ≳ 1011 M⊙, the size growth after quenching is small in absolute terms, such that most of the size (and mass) growth of quenched galaxies (and its variation among them) occurs while they are still on the main sequence. After they become quenched, the size growth rate of quenched galaxies as a function of time, as opposed to versus mass, is similar to that of main-sequence galaxies. Hence, the size gap is retained down to z = 0.

  9. A ROSAT survey of Wolf-Rayet galaxies - II. The extended sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Ian R.; Strickland, David K.

    1998-11-01

    We present results from an ongoing X-ray survey of Wolf-Rayet (WR) galaxies, a class of objects believed to be very young starbursts. This paper extends the first X-ray survey of WR galaxies by Stevens & Strickland by studying WR galaxies identified subsequent to the original WR galaxy catalogue of Conti. Out of a sample of 40 new WR galaxies a total of 10 have been observed with the ROSAT PSPC, and of these seven have been detected (NGC 1365, NGC 1569, I Zw 18, NGC 3353, NGC 4449, NGC 5408 and a marginal detection of NGC 2366). Of these, all are dwarf starbursts except for NGC 1365, which is a barred spiral galaxy possibly with an active nucleus. We also report on observations of the related emission-line galaxy IRAS 0833+6517. The X-ray properties of these galaxies are broadly in line with those found for the original sample; they are X-ray overluminous compared with their blue luminosity and have thermal spectra with typically kT~0.4-1.0keV. There are some oddities: NGC 5408 is very overluminous in X-rays, even compared with other WR galaxies; I Zw 18 has a harder X-ray spectrum; NGC 1365, although thought to contain an active nucleus, has X-ray properties that are broadly similar to other WR galaxies, and we suggest that the X-ray emission from NGC 1365 is due to starburst activity. A good correlation between X-ray and blue luminosity is found for the WR galaxy sample as a whole. However, when just dwarf galaxies are considered there is little evidence of correlation. We discuss the implications of these results on our understanding of the X-ray emission from WR galaxies and suggest that the best explanation for the X-ray activity is starburst activity from a young starburst region.

  10. Near field cosmology from Dwarf Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Near field cosmology from Dwarf Galaxies. Extremely faint dwarfs are particularly interesting in the context of hierarchical galaxy formation models. The smallest objects collapse first, larger galaxies from by merger of smaller ones. The process of galaxy formation via merger s is ...

  11. The Intrinsic Shape of Galaxies in SDSS/Galaxy Zoo

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Silvio; Padilla, Nelson D.

    2013-01-01

    By modelling the axis ratio distribution of SDSS DR8 galaxies we find the intrinsic 3D shapes of spirals and ellipticals. We use morphological information from the Galaxy Zoo project and assume a non-parametric distribution intrinsic of shapes, while taking into account dust extinction. We measure the dust extinction of the full sample of spiral galaxies and find a smaller value than previous estimations, with an edge-on extinction of $E_0 = 0.284^{+0.015}_{-0.026}$ in the SDSS r band. We als...

  12. A galactic microquasar mimicking winged radio galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Josep; Luque-Escamilla, Pedro L; Bosch-Ramon, Valentí; Paredes, Josep M

    2017-11-24

    A subclass of extragalactic radio sources known as winged radio galaxies has puzzled astronomers for many years. The wing features are detected at radio wavelengths as low-surface-brightness radio lobes that are clearly misaligned with respect to the main lobe axis. Different models compete to account for these peculiar structures. Here, we report observational evidence that the parsec-scale radio jets in the Galactic microquasar GRS 1758-258 give rise to a Z-shaped radio emission strongly reminiscent of the X and Z-shaped morphologies found in winged radio galaxies. This is the first time that such extended emission features are observed in a microquasar, providing a new analogy for its extragalactic relatives. From our observations, we can clearly favour the hydrodynamic backflow interpretation against other possible wing formation scenarios. Assuming that physical processes are similar, we can extrapolate this conclusion and suggest that this mechanism could also be at work in many extragalactic cases.

  13. Structure and dynamics of ringed galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buta, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    In many spiral and SO galaxies, single or multiple ring structures are visible in the disk. These inner rings (r), outer rings (R), and nuclear rings (nr) were investigated by means of morphology, photometry, and spectroscopy in order to provide basic data on a long neglected phenomenon. The metric properties of each ring are investigated and found to correlate with the structure of the parent galaxy. When properly calibrated, inner rings in barred (SB) systems can be used as geometric extragalactic distance indicators to distances in excess of 100 Mpc. Other statistics are presented that confirm previous indications that the rings have preferred shapes, relative sizes, and orientations with respect to bars. A survey is made of the less homogeneous non-barred (SA) ringed systems, and the causes of the inhomogeneity are isolated. It is shown that rings can be identified in multiple-ring SA systems that are exactly analogous to those in barred spirals

  14. Why do Galaxies Stop Forming Stars? New Evidence for the Role of AGN-feedback in Driving Galaxy Bimodality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluck, Asa; Teimoorinia, Hossen; Ellison, Sara L.; Mendel, Trevor

    2018-01-01

    One of the most striking features of the population of local galaxies is that the distributions of several key galaxy properties are highly bimodal (e.g. color and star formation rate). In general, high mass galaxies in dense environments, with bulge-dominated morphologies and pressure supported kinematics are more frequently passive (non-star forming) than lower mass galaxies in low density environments, with disc-dominated morphologies and rotationally supported kinematics. Understanding which, if any, of these correlations is causally related to the ‘quenching’ of star formation in galaxies remains an active and hotly debated area of investigation in modern astrophysics.Theoretically, a wealth of physical processes have been evoked to account for central galaxy quenching, including halo mass quenching from virial shocks, feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN; in either the quasar or radio mode), stabilizing torques from central mass concentrations, feedback from supernovae, or even magnetic fields interacting with the hot gas halo.I will present strong new statistical evidence which suggests that the quenched fraction of local central galaxies is primarily related to their central kinematics (Bluck et al. 2016; 2017 in prep.). I will show that this is broadly consistent with quenching from AGN feedback, through a detailed comparison with a semi-analytic model and a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation.Using a sample of over half a million local galaxies from the SDSS DR7, we go on to develop a number of sophisticated techniques, including machine learning with artificial neural networks, to rank the importance of galaxy properties to quenching (Teimoorinia, Bluck & Ellison 2016). We find that properties closely correlated with the central supermassive black hole are highly favoured statistically to predict whether a galaxy will be star forming or not. Perhaps surprisingly, stellar mass and halo mass have no impact on star formation activity in central

  15. Galaxy bias from galaxy-galaxy lensing in the DES science verification data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, J.; Sánchez, C.; Miquel, R.; Kwan, J.; Blazek, J.; Bonnett, C.; Amara, A.; Bridle, S. L.; Clampitt, J.; Crocce, M.; Fosalba, P.; Gaztanaga, E.; Giannantonio, T.; Hartley, W. G.; Jarvis, M.; MacCrann, N.; Percival, W. J.; Ross, A. J.; Sheldon, E.; Zuntz, J.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Lima, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Menanteau, F.; Nord, B.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.

    2018-01-01

    We present a measurement of galaxy-galaxy lensing around a magnitude-limited (iAB science verification (DES-SV) data. We split these lenses into three photometric-redshift bins from 0.2 to 0.8, and determine the product of the galaxy bias b and cross-correlation coefficient between the galaxy and dark matter overdensity fields r in each bin, using scales above 4 h-1 Mpc comoving, where we find the linear bias model to be valid given our current uncertainties. We compare our galaxy bias results from galaxy-galaxy lensing with those obtained from galaxy clustering and CMB lensing for the same sample of galaxies, and find our measurements to be in good agreement with those in Crocce et al., while, in the lowest redshift bin (z ∼ 0.3), they show some tension with the findings in Giannantonio et al. We measure b · r to be 0.87 ± 0.11, 1.12 ± 0.16 and 1.24 ± 0.23, respectively, for the three redshift bins of width Δz = 0.2 in the range 0.2 code to split the lens sample, TPZ, leads to changes in the measured biases at the 10-20 per cent level, but it does not alter the main conclusion of this work: when comparing with Crocce et al. we do not find strong evidence for a cross-correlation parameter significantly below one in this galaxy sample, except possibly at the lowest redshift bin (z ∼ 0.3), where we find r = 0.71 ± 0.11 when using TPZ, and 0.83 ± 0.12 with BPZ.

  16. Stellar Populations of Quasar Host Galaxies Using WIYN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, Gregory; Moravec, E.; Kotulla, R. C.

    2013-06-01

    We now know that most galaxies have supermassive black holes (SMBH) in their centers, and somewhat unexpectedly, there are relationships—such as the M-sigma relation—between the mass of the central black hole and the velocity dispersion of the host galaxy's stellar spheroid (bulge), even though they lie outside the black hole's influence. Galaxy merger models show reasonable evidence for coevolution of the bulge and black hole since the merging process initiates simultaneous growth of the black hole and galaxy by supplying gas