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Sample records for galactosylceramide transmembrane asymmetry

  1. Trans-membrane area asymmetry controls the shape of cellular organelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beznoussenko, Galina V; Pilyugin, Sergei S; Geerts, Willie J C; Kozlov, Michael M; Burger, Koert N J; Luini, Alberto; Derganc, Jure; Mironov, Alexander A

    2015-01-01

    Membrane organelles often have complicated shapes and differ in their volume, surface area and membrane curvature. The ratio between the surface area of the cytosolic and luminal leaflets (trans-membrane area asymmetry (TAA)) determines the membrane curvature within different sites of the organelle.

  2. Intrinsic potential of cell membranes: opposite effects of lipid transmembrane asymmetry and asymmetric salt ion distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurtovenko, Andrey A; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2009-01-01

    Using atomic-scale molecular dynamics simulations, we consider the intrinsic cell membrane potential that is found to originate from a subtle interplay between lipid transmembrane asymmetry and the asymmetric distribution of monovalent salt ions on the two sides of the cell membrane. It turns out......Cl saline solution and the PE leaflet is exposed to KCl, the outcome is that the effects of asymmetric lipid and salt ion distributions essentially cancel one another almost completely. Overall, our study highlights the complex nature of the intrinsic potential of cell membranes under physiological...... that both the asymmetric distribution of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) lipids across a membrane and the asymmetric distribution of NaCl and KCl induce nonzero drops in the transmembrane potential. However, these potential drops are opposite in sign. As the PC leaflet faces a Na...

  3. Structural analysis of cerebrosides from Aspergillus fungi: the existence of galactosylceramide in A. oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Yasushi; Amaishi, Yasunori; Funatsu, Tori; Ito, Masahiro; Itonori, Saki; Hata, Yoji; Ashida, Hisashi; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    Glucosylceramide and galactosylceramide were detected in three Aspergillus species: Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus sojae and Aspergillus. awamori, using borate-coated TLC. The cerebrosides from A. oryzae were further purified by ion exchange and iatrobeads column chromatographies with or without borate, and determined the composition of sugar, fatty acid and sphingoid base by GC/MS, MALDI-TOF/MS and (1)H-NMR. We identified them as β-glucosylceramide and β-galactosylceramide. The ceramide moiety of both cerebrosides consisted mainly of 2-hydroxystearic acid and either 9-methyl-octadeca-4, 8-sphingadienine or octadeca-4, 8-sphingadienine. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide evidence for the presence of β-galactosylceramide in A. oryzae.

  4. Transmembrane Signaling Proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, John R

    2010-01-01

    Virtually all metazoan cells contain at least one and usually several types of transmembrane proteoglycans. These are varied in protein structure and type of polysaccharide, but the total number of vertebrate genes encoding transmembrane proteoglycan core proteins is less than 10. Some core prote...... proteins, including those of the syndecans, always possess covalently coupled glycosaminoglycans; others do not. Syndecan has a long evolutionary history, as it is present in invertebrates, but many other transmembrane proteoglycans are vertebrate inventions. The variety of proteins...... proteins has been obtained in mouse knockout experiments. Here some of the latest developments in the field are examined in hopes of stimulating further interest in this fascinating group of molecules. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology Volume 26...

  5. Effect of Galactosylceramide on the Dynamics of Cholesterol-Rich Lipid Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, A.; Rog, T.; Vattulainen, I.

    2011-01-01

    We use atom-scale molecular dynamics simulations to clarify the role of glycosphingolipids in the dynamics of cholesterol-rich lipid rafts. To this end, we consider lipid membranes that contain varying. amounts of galactosylceramide (GalCer), sphingomyelin, cholesterol, and phosphatidylcholine....... The results indicate that increasing the portion of GalCer molecules greatly slows down the lateral diffusion, Only 5-10 mol % of GalCer causes a decrease of almost an order of magnitude compared to corresponding membranes without GalCer. The slowing down is not related to interdigitation, which becomes...... weaker with increasing GalCer concentration. Instead, the decrease in diffusion is found to correlate with the increasing number of hydrogen bonds formed between GalCer and the phospholipid molecules, which is also observed to have other effects, such as to increase the friction between the membrane...

  6. A microwave-mediated saponification of galactosylceramide and galactosylceramide I3-sulfate and identification of their lyso-compounds by delayed extraction matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketomi, T; Hara, A; Uemura, K; Kurahashi, H; Sugiyama, E

    1996-07-16

    Small amounts of galactosylceramide (cerebroside) and galactosylceramide I3-sulfate (sulfatide) obtained from porcine spinal cord and equine kidney were deacylated by a rapid method of microwave-mediated saponification to prepare their lyso-compounds. Mass spectra of their protonated or deprotonated molecular ion peaks were detected by recently developed new technology of a delayed extraction matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer with reflector detector in positive or negative ion mode. Long chain bases of lysocerebroside and lysosulfatide were different between porcine spinal cord and equine kidney, but similar to each other in the same organ, suggesting their common synthetic pathway. It is noted that the new rapid method can be similarly applied to the deacylation of both cerebroside and sulfatide in contrast to our classical method which was able to be applied to cerebroside, but not to sulfatide.

  7. Nasopupillary asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Eduardo; Muñoz, Diana; Matheus, Evelyn; Morales, Diana

    2014-01-01

    To establish the prevalence of nasopupillary asymmetry (difference in nasopupillary distances) in the population and its relation with the interpupillary distance. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted by reviewing of 1262 medical records. The values of nasopupillary asymmetry and the interpupillary distance were obtained. A statistical analysis was made and the correlation between these variables was established. Seventy-nine percent of the population presented some degree of nasopupillary asymmetry. The interpupillary distance had a very low correlation with the nasopupillary asymmetry (r = 0.074, P = 0.0). It is advisable to use the nasopupillary distance of each eye as a standard measurement.

  8. Production of α-galactosylceramide by a prominent member of the human gut microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C Wieland Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available While the human gut microbiota are suspected to produce diffusible small molecules that modulate host signaling pathways, few of these molecules have been identified. Species of Bacteroides and their relatives, which often comprise >50% of the gut community, are unusual among bacteria in that their membrane is rich in sphingolipids, a class of signaling molecules that play a key role in inducing apoptosis and modulating the host immune response. Although known for more than three decades, the full repertoire of Bacteroides sphingolipids has not been defined. Here, we use a combination of genetics and chemistry to identify the sphingolipids produced by Bacteroides fragilis NCTC 9343. We constructed a deletion mutant of BF2461, a putative serine palmitoyltransferase whose yeast homolog catalyzes the committed step in sphingolipid biosynthesis. We show that the Δ2461 mutant is sphingolipid deficient, enabling us to purify and solve the structures of three alkaline-stable lipids present in the wild-type strain but absent from the mutant. The first compound was the known sphingolipid ceramide phosphorylethanolamine, and the second was its corresponding dihydroceramide base. Unexpectedly, the third compound was the glycosphingolipid α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer(Bf, which is structurally related to a sponge-derived sphingolipid (α-GalCer, KRN7000 that is the prototypical agonist of CD1d-restricted natural killer T (iNKT cells. We demonstrate that α-GalCer(Bf has similar immunological properties to KRN7000: it binds to CD1d and activates both mouse and human iNKT cells both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, our study reveals BF2461 as the first known member of the Bacteroides sphingolipid pathway, and it indicates that the committed steps of the Bacteroides and eukaryotic sphingolipid pathways are identical. Moreover, our data suggest that some Bacteroides sphingolipids might influence host immune homeostasis.

  9. Ex-vivo α-galactosylceramide activation of NKT cells in humans and macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Caroline S; Cameron, Garth; Godfrey, Dale I; Kent, Stephen J

    2012-08-31

    NKT cells are key mediators of antiviral and anticancer immunity. Experiments in mice have demonstrated that activation of NKT cells in vivo induces the expression of multiple effector molecules critical to successful immunity. Human clinical trials have shown similar responses, although in vivo activation of NKT cells in humans or primate models are far more limited in number and scope. Measuring ex vivo activation of NKT cells by the CD1d-restricted glycolipid ligand α-Galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) through cytokine expression profiles is a useful marker of NKT cell function, but for reasons that are unclear, this approach does not appear to work as well in humans and non-human primate macaque models in comparison to mice. We performed a series of experiments on human and macaque (Macaca nemestrina) fresh whole blood samples to define optimal conditions to detect NKT cell cytokine (TNF, IFNγ, IL-2) and degranulation marker (CD107a) expression by flow cytometry. We found that conditions previously described for mouse splenocyte NKT cell activation were suboptimal on human or macaque blood NKT cells. In contrast, a 6h incubation with brefeldin A added for the last 4h, in a 96-well plate based assay, and using an α-GalCer concentration of 1 μg/ml were optimal methods to stimulate NKT cells in fresh blood from both humans and macaques. Unexpectedly, we noted that blood NKT cells from macaques infected with SIV were more readily activated by α-GalCer than NKT cells from uninfected macaques, suggesting that SIV infection may have primed the NKT cells. In conclusion, we describe optimized methods for the ex vivo antigen-specific activation of human and macaque blood NKT cells. These assays should be useful in monitoring NKT cells in disease and in immunotherapy studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Inclusive asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    The polarized proton beam was used to measure left-right asymmetries for the reactions p + p → p, K +- , π +- + anything and also some information on the reaction p + n → p, K +- , π + + anything are presented. The incident momentum is 11.8 GeV/c. The data are preliminary. Six references

  11. The stability of the three transmembrane and the four transmembrane human vitamin K epoxide reductase models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sangwook

    2016-04-01

    The three transmembrane and the four transmembrane helix models are suggested for human vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR). In this study, we investigate the stability of the human three transmembrane/four transmembrane VKOR models by employing a coarse-grained normal mode analysis and molecular dynamics simulation. Based on the analysis of the mobility of each transmembrane domain, we suggest that the three transmembrane human VKOR model is more stable than the four transmembrane human VKOR model.

  12. Puzzling asymmetries

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In a recently published paper, the LHCb Collaboration has reported on a possible deviation from the Standard Model. Theorists are now working to calculate precisely this effect and to evaluate the implications that such unexpected result could have on the established theory.   The Standard Model is able to predict the decay rates of particles with high precision. In most cases, experimentalists confirm the value predicted by theory and the figure is added to the official publications. However, this time, things seem to have taken a different route. Studying data collected in 2011, the LHCb Collaboration found that in a specific decay – a B particle transforming into a K particle plus two charged muons (B -> Kμ-μ+) – the branching ratio of the neutral B in the corresponding decay (i.e. B0 -> K0μ-μ+) is different from that of the positively charged B (i.e. B+ -> K+μ-μ+). Such an “isospin asymmetry&rdquo...

  13. Specific tritium labelling of glucosyl- and galactosylceramides at the 6-position of the carbohydrate moiety using CrO3-graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usuki, S.; Nagai, Y.

    1986-01-01

    A new procedure for introducing tritium into the carbohydrate portions of glucosyl- and galactosylceramides was developed using a new catalyst, CrO3-graphite, which specifically oxidizes the primary alcohol group to the aldehyde. About 10% of the glycolipid was converted to the aldehyde and the aldehyde produced was then reduced back to the original form with KB3H4. After methanolysis, more than 96.7% of the radioactivities of [3H]glucosyl- and [3H]galactosylceramides were found to be located in the carbohydrate portions, and the specific activities of the [3H]galactosyl- and [3H]glucosylceramides were 2.08 to 4.30 X 10(4) cpm/nmol, which could be increased greatly by purifying the aldehydes and reducing them with KB3H4. In addition, beta-galactosidase activity was successfully determined with [3H]galactosylceramide as the enzyme substrate; the Km was 18.73 mM and the Vmax was 11.63 nmol/mg/h, indicating that no significant structural modification occurs during the oxidation

  14. HIV-1-Specific IgA Monoclonal Antibodies from an HIV-1 Vaccinee Mediate Galactosylceramide Blocking and Phagocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaccine-elicited humoral immune responses comprise an array of antibody forms and specificities, with only a fraction contributing to protective host immunity. Elucidation of antibody effector functions responsible for protective immunity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition is a major goal for the HIV-1 vaccine field. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is an important part of the host defense against pathogens; however, little is known about the role of vaccine-elicited IgA and its capacity to mediate antiviral functions. To identify the antiviral functions of HIV-1-specific IgA elicited by vaccination, we cloned HIV-1 envelope-specific IgA monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) by memory B cell cultures from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from an RV144 vaccinee and produced two IgA clonal cell lines (HG129 and HG130) producing native, nonrecombinant IgA MAbs. The HG129 and HG130 MAbs mediated phagocytosis by monocytes, and HG129 blocked HIV-1 Env glycoprotein binding to galactosylceramide, an alternative HIV-1 receptor. These findings elucidate potential antiviral functions of vaccine-elicited HIV-1 envelope-specific IgA that may act to block HIV-1 acquisition at the portal of entry by preventing HIV-1 binding to galactosylceramide and mediating antibody Fc receptor-mediated virion phagocytosis. Furthermore, these findings highlight the complex and diverse interactions of vaccine-elicited IgA with pathogens that depend on IgA fine specificity and form (e.g., multimeric or monomeric) in the systemic circulation and mucosal compartments. IMPORTANCE Host-pathogen interactions in vivo involve numerous immune mechanisms that can lead to pathogen clearance. Understanding the nature of antiviral immune mechanisms can inform the design of efficacious HIV-1 vaccine strategies. Evidence suggests that both neutralizing and nonneutralizing antibodies can mediate some protection against HIV in animal models. Although numerous studies have characterized the

  15. Enhancement of Mucosal Immunogenicity of Viral Vectored Vaccines by the NKT Cell Agonist Alpha-Galactosylceramide as Adjuvant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailbala Singh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gene-based vaccination strategies, specifically viral vectors encoding vaccine immunogens are effective at priming strong immune responses. Mucosal routes offer practical advantages for vaccination by ease of needle-free administration, and immunogen delivery at readily accessible oral/nasal sites to efficiently induce immunity at distant gut and genital tissues. However, since mucosal tissues are inherently tolerant for induction of immune responses, incorporation of adjuvants for optimal mucosal vaccination strategies is important. We report here the effectiveness of alpha-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer, a synthetic glycolipid agonist of natural killer T (NKT cells, as an adjuvant for enhancing immunogenicity of vaccine antigens delivered using viral vectors by mucosal routes in murine and nonhuman primate models. Significant improvement in adaptive immune responses in systemic and mucosal tissues was observed by including α-GalCer adjuvant for intranasal immunization of mice with vesicular stomatitis virus vector encoding the model antigen ovalbumin and adenoviral vectors expressing HIV env and Gag antigens. Activation of NKT cells in systemic and mucosal tissues along with significant increases in adaptive immune responses were observed in rhesus macaques immunized by intranasal and sublingual routes with protein or adenovirus vectored antigens when combined with α-GalCer adjuvant. These results support the utility of α-GalCer adjuvant for enhancing immunogenicity of mucosal vaccines delivered using viral vectors.

  16. Natural Killer Dendritic Cells Enhance Immune Responses Elicited by α-Galactosylceramide-Stimulated Natural Killer T Cells

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    Sung Won Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer dendritic cells (NKDCs possess potent anti-tumor activity, but the cellular effect of NKDC interactions with other innate immune cells is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that the interaction of NKDCs and natural killer T (NKT cells is required for the anti-tumor immune responses that are elicited by α-galactosylceramide (α-GC in mice. The rapid and strong expression of interferon-γ by NKDCs after α-GC stimulation was dependent on NKT cells. Various NK and DC molecular markers and cytotoxic molecules were up-regulated following α-GC administration. This up-regulation could improve NKDC presentation of tumor antigens and increase cytotoxicity against tumor cells. NKDCs were required for the stimulation of DCs, NK cells, and NKT cells. The strong anti-tumor immune responses elicited by α-GC may be due to the down-regulation of regulatory T cells. Furthermore, the depletion of NKDCs dampened the tumor clearance mediated by α-GC-stimulated NKT cells in vivo. Taken together, these results indicate that complex interactions of innate immune cells might be required to achieve optimal anti-tumor immune responses during the early stages of tumorigenesis.

  17. What Can We Learn about Cholesterol's Transmembrane Distribution Based on Cholesterol-Induced Changes in Membrane Dipole Potential?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Falkovich, S. G.; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Nesterenko, A. M.; Vattulainen, I.; Gurtovenko, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 22 (2016), s. 4585-4590 ISSN 1948-7185 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : membrane * cholesterol * membrane asymmetry * membrane dipole potential * transmembrane distribution Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 9.353, year: 2016

  18. Liposomal α-galactosylceramide is taken up by gut-associated lymphoid tissue and stimulates local and systemic immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Kan; McDowell, Arlene; Ishii, Yasuyuki; Hook, Sarah

    2017-12-01

    α-Galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), a synthetic glycosphingolipid that exhibits potent immunostimulatory effects through activation of natural killer T (NKT) cells, can be used to treat conditions such as atopy, cancer, infection and autoimmunity. Administration of therapeutics through the oral route has advantages such as patient convenience, safety and reduced cost; however, there has been little research to investigate whether oral delivery of α-GalCer is possible. The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether α-GalCer formulated in either DMSO/Tween 80 or in liposomes, could access lymphoid tissue and stimulate immune activation following oral administration. Fluorescently labelled cationic liposomes incorporating α-GalCer were prepared, characterized and administered by oral gavage to fasted mice. Liposomes were detected inside the Peyer's patches (PPs), in the subepithelial dome just under the follicle-associated epithelium. CD11b + cells and CD11c + were shown to have taken up the formulation in a higher proportion compared to the total cell proportion in the PPs, suggesting that cells with these markers may be the prominent antigen-presenting cells involved in selective uptake. Finally, the liposomal formulation demonstrated a higher degree of immune stimulation compared to the DMSO/Tween 80 solubilized α-GalCer in the PPs, mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen as shown by the increased expression of IL-4 mRNA expression and increased proportion of NKT cells at 6 h and 3 days after administration. These results show that oral delivery of a liposomal α-GalCer can stimulate local and systemic immune responses to a different degree compared to the non-liposomal form. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of α-galactosylceramide analogs in activated microglia: involvement of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Hui Jeong

    Full Text Available Microglial activation plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, anti-inflammatory agents that control microglial activation can serve as potential therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we designed and synthesized α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer analogs to exert anti-inflammatory effects in activated microglia. We performed biological evaluations of 25 α-GalCer analogs and observed an interesting preliminary structure-activity relationship in their inhibitory influence on NO release and TNF-α production in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. After identification of 4d and 4e as hit compounds, we further investigated the underlying mechanism of their anti-inflammatory effects using RT-PCR analysis. We confirmed that 4d and 4e regulate the expression of iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, and IL-6 at the mRNA level and the expression of TNF-α at the post-transcriptional level. In addition, both 4d and 4e inhibited LPS-induced DNA binding activities of NF-κB and AP-1 and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK without affecting other MAP kinases. When we examined the anti-inflammatory effect of a p38 MAPK-specific inhibitor, SB203580, on microglial activation, we observed an identical inhibitory pattern as that of 4d and 4e, not only on NO and TNF-α production but also on the DNA binding activities of NF-κB and AP-1. Taken together, these results suggest that p38 MAPK plays an important role in the anti-inflammatory effects of 4d and 4e via the modulation of NF-κB and AP-1 activities.

  20. Therapy for minimal residual tumour disease: beta-galactosylceramide inhibits growth of recurrent HPV16-associated neoplasms after surgery and chemotherapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šímová, Jana; Indrová, Marie; Bieblová, Jana; Mikyšková, Romana; Bubeník, Jan; Reiniš, Milan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 126, č. 12 (2010), s. 2997-3004 ISSN 0020-7136 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/06/0774; GA AV ČR IAA500520807; GA ČR GA301/07/1410; GA ČR GA301/09/1024 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 18933 - CLINIGENE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : beta-galactosylceramide * tumour immunotherapy * NKT cells Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.926, year: 2010

  1. Biophysical Aspects of Transmembrane Signaling

    CERN Document Server

    Damjanovich, Sandor

    2005-01-01

    Transmembrane signaling is one of the most significant cell biological events in the life and death of cells in general and lymphocytes in particular. Until recently biochemists and biophysicists were not accustomed to thinking of these processes from the side of a high number of complex biochemical events and an equally high number of physical changes at molecular and cellular levels at the same time. Both types of researchers were convinced that their findings are the most decisive, having higher importance than the findings of the other scientist population. Both casts were wrong. Life, even at cellular level, has a number of interacting physical and biochemical mechanisms, which finally build up the creation of an "excited" cell that will respond to particular signals from the outer or inner world. This book handles both aspects of the signalling events, and in some cases tries to unify our concepts and help understand the signals that govern the life and death of our cells. Not only the understanding, bu...

  2. Fluctuating Asymmetry and Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Timothy C.

    2007-01-01

    The general factor of mental ability ("g") may reflect general biological fitness. If so, "g"-loaded measures such as Raven's progressive matrices should be related to morphological measures of fitness such as fluctuating asymmetry (FA: left-right asymmetry of a set of typically left-right symmetrical body traits such as finger…

  3. Lowering of Asymmetry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    et al. 2002, 2003). The N–S asymmetries of different activity manifestations have been .... 2006), the N–S asymmetry of FISXR. (Joshi et al. 2015). In the present study, we use this ..... Howe, R., Christensen-Dalsgaard, J., Hill, F., Komm, R. W.,.

  4. Neurally Derived Tissues in Xenopus laevis Embryos Exhibit a Consistent Bioelectrical Left-Right Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav P. Pai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Consistent left-right asymmetry in organ morphogenesis is a fascinating aspect of bilaterian development. Although embryonic patterning of asymmetric viscera, heart, and brain is beginning to be understood, less is known about possible subtle asymmetries present in anatomically identical paired structures. We investigated two important developmental events: physiological controls of eye development and specification of neural crest derivatives, in Xenopus laevis embryos. We found that the striking hyperpolarization of transmembrane potential (Vmem demarcating eye induction usually occurs in the right eye field first. This asymmetry is randomized by perturbing visceral left-right patterning, suggesting that eye asymmetry is linked to mechanisms establishing primary laterality. Bilateral misexpression of a depolarizing channel mRNA affects primarily the right eye, revealing an additional functional asymmetry in the control of eye patterning by Vmem. The ATP-sensitive K+ channel subunit transcript, SUR1, is asymmetrically expressed in the eye primordia, thus being a good candidate for the observed physiological asymmetries. Such subtle asymmetries are not only seen in the eye: consistent asymmetry was also observed in the migration of differentiated melanocytes on the left and right sides. These data suggest that even anatomically symmetrical structures may possess subtle but consistent laterality and interact with other developmental left-right patterning pathways.

  5. The transmembrane collagen COL-99 guides longitudinally extending axons in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jesse; Unsoeld, Thomas; Hutter, Harald

    2018-06-01

    We have identified the transmembrane collagen, COL-99, in a genetic screen for novel genes involved in axon guidance in the nematode C. elegans. COL-99 is similar to transmembrane collagens type XIII, XXIII and XXV in vertebrates. col-99 mutants exhibit guidance defects in axons extending along the major longitudinal axon tracts, most prominently the left ventral nerve cord (VNC). COL-99 is expressed in the hypodermis during the time of axon outgrowth. We provide evidence that a furin cleavage site in COL-99 is essential for function, suggesting that COL-99 is released from the cells producing it. Vertebrate homologs of COL-99 have been shown to be expressed in mammalian nervous systems and linked to various neurological disease but have not been associated with guidance of extending neurons. col-99 acts genetically with the discoidin domain receptors ddr-1 and ddr-2, which are expressed by neurons affected in col-99 mutants. Discoidin domain receptors are activated by collagens in vertebrates. DDR-1 and DDR-2 may function as receptors for COL-99. Our results establish a novel role for a transmembrane collagen in axonal guidance and asymmetry establishment of the VNC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Symmetry, asymmetry and dissymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wackenheim, A.; Zollner, G.

    1987-01-01

    The authors discuss the concept of symmetry and defect of symmetry in radiological imaging and recall the definition of asymmetry (congenital or constitutional) and dissymmetry (acquired). They then describe a rule designed for the cognitive method of automatic evaluation of shape recognition data and propose the use of reversal symmetry [fr

  7. Detection symmetry and asymmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    du Buf, J.M.H.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments were performed on the detection symmetry and asymmetry of incremental and decremental disks, as a function of both disk diameter and duration. It was found that, for a background luminance of 300cd.m-2, thresholds of dynamic (briefly presented) foveal disks are symmetrical for all

  8. Asymmetry, Symmetry and Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbe R. Kopra

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetry and symmetry coexist in natural and human processes.  The vital role of symmetry in art has been well demonstrated. This article highlights the complementary role of asymmetry. Further we show that the interaction of asymmetric action (recursion and symmetric opposition (sinusoidal waves are instrumental in generating creative features (relatively low entropy, temporal complexity, novelty (less recurrence in the data than in randomized copies and complex frequency composition. These features define Bios, a pattern found in musical compositions and in poetry, except for recurrence instead of novelty. Bios is a common pattern in many natural and human processes (quantum processes, the expansion of the universe, gravitational waves, cosmic microwave background radiation, DNA, physiological processes, animal and human populations, and economic time series. The reduction in entropy is significant, as it reveals creativity and contradicts the standard claim of unavoidable decay towards disorder. Artistic creations capture fundamental features of the world.

  9. Information Asymmetry in Federations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mikhailovich Libman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the problems of information transmission between levels of government in a federal state. The central government in a federation typically faces serious difficulties while collecting information on economic and political situation in the regions. There are two types of problems: lack of incentives for the regions to accurately collect information and strategic manipulation of information, which are discussed in the paper along with possible solutions. In particular, overcoming information asymmetry would require the development of national parties or informal coalitions of bureaucrats and politicians of the center and of the regions, creating incentives for regional politicians to back the successful functioning of the federal level. Furthermore, the paper discusses the issue of «informal decentralization», which emerges as a result of information asymmetry, and its consequences for the functioning of a federal state, including both advantages and disadvantages. We conclude that under information asymmetry the organization of the federation will inevitably turn into an issue of permanent negotiations and bargaining between the center and the regions, which functions as the information acquisition tool for optimal allocation of authorities in a federation

  10. Bessel Weighted Asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, Harut [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Gamberg, Leonard [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Rossi, Patrizia [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Prokudin, Alexei [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    We review the concept of Bessel weighted asymmetries for semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and focus on the cross section in Fourier space, conjugate to the outgoing hadron’s transverse momentum, where convolutions of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions and fragmentation functions become simple products. Individual asymmetric terms in the cross section can be projected out by means of a generalized set of weights involving Bessel functions. The procedure is applied to studies of the double longitudinal spin asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a new dedicated Monte Carlo generator which includes quark intrinsic transverse momentum within the generalized parton model. We observe a few percent systematic offset of the Bessel-weighted asymmetry obtained from Monte Carlo extraction compared to input model calculations, which is due to the limitations imposed by the energy and momentum conservation at the given energy and hard scale Q2. We find that the Bessel weighting technique provides a powerful and reliable tool to study the Fourier transform of TMDs with controlled systematics due to experimental acceptances and resolutions with different TMD model inputs.

  11. CLEC4F is an inducible C-type lectin in F4/80-positive cells and is involved in alpha-galactosylceramide presentation in liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ya Yang

    Full Text Available CLEC4F, a member of C-type lectin, was first purified from rat liver extract with high binding affinity to fucose, galactose (Gal, N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc, and un-sialylated glucosphingolipids with GalNAc or Gal terminus. However, the biological functions of CLEC4F have not been elucidated. To address this question, we examined the expression and distribution of murine CLEC4F, determined its binding specificity by glycan array, and investigated its function using CLEC4F knockout (Clec4f-/- mice. We found that CLEC4F is a heavily glycosylated membrane protein co-expressed with F4/80 on Kupffer cells. In contrast to F4/80, CLEC4F is detectable in fetal livers at embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5 but not in yolk sac, suggesting the expression of CLEC4F is induced as cells migrate from yolk cells to the liver. Even though CLEC4F is not detectable in tissues outside liver, both residential Kupffer cells and infiltrating mononuclear cells surrounding liver abscesses are CLEC4F-positive upon Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes infection. While CLEC4F has strong binding to Gal and GalNAc, terminal fucosylation inhibits CLEC4F recognition to several glycans such as Fucosyl GM1, Globo H, Bb3∼4 and other fucosyl-glycans. Moreover, CLEC4F interacts with alpha-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer in a calcium-dependent manner and participates in the presentation of α-GalCer to natural killer T (NKT cells. This suggests that CLEC4F is a C-type lectin with diverse binding specificity expressed on residential Kupffer cells and infiltrating monocytes in the liver, and may play an important role to modulate glycolipids presentation on Kupffer cells.

  12. Α-galactosylceramide analogs with weak agonist activity for human iNKT cells define new candidate anti-inflammatory agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bricard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available CD1d-restricted natural killer T cells with invariant T cell receptor α chains (iNKT cells are a unique lymphocyte subset that responds to recognition of specific lipid and glycolipid antigens. They are conserved between mice and humans and exert various immunoregulatory functions through their rapid secretion of a variety of cytokines and secondary activation of dendritic cells, B cells and NK cells. In the current study, we analyzed the range of functional activation states of human iNKT cells using a library of novel analogs of α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer, the prototypical iNKT cell antigen. Measurement of cytokines secreted by human iNKT cell clones over a wide range of glycolipid concentrations revealed that iNKT cell ligands could be classified into functional groups, correlating with weak versus strong agonistic activity. The findings established a hierarchy for induction of different cytokines, with thresholds for secretion being consistently lowest for IL-13, higher for interferon-γ (IFNγ, and even higher for IL-4. These findings suggested that human iNKT cells can be intrinsically polarized to selective production of IL-13 by maintaining a low level of activation using weak agonists, whereas selective polarization to IL-4 production cannot be achieved through modulating the strength of the activating ligand. In addition, using a newly designed in vitro system to assess the ability of human iNKT cells to transactivate NK cells, we found that robust secondary induction of interferon-γ secretion by NK cells was associated with strong but not weak agonist ligands of iNKT cells. These results indicate that polarization of human iNKT cell responses to Th2-like or anti-inflammatory effects may best be achieved through selective induction of IL-13 and suggest potential discrepancies with findings from mouse models that may be important in designing iNKT cell-based therapies in humans.

  13. Membrane shape modulates transmembrane protein distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimon, Sophie; Callan-Jones, Andrew; Berthaud, Alice; Pinot, Mathieu; Toombes, Gilman E S; Bassereau, Patricia

    2014-01-27

    Although membrane shape varies greatly throughout the cell, the contribution of membrane curvature to transmembrane protein targeting is unknown because of the numerous sorting mechanisms that take place concurrently in cells. To isolate the effect of membrane shape, we used cell-sized giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) containing either the potassium channel KvAP or the water channel AQP0 to form membrane nanotubes with controlled radii. Whereas the AQP0 concentrations in flat and curved membranes were indistinguishable, KvAP was enriched in the tubes, with greater enrichment in more highly curved membranes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching measurements showed that both proteins could freely diffuse through the neck between the tube and GUV, and the effect of each protein on membrane shape and stiffness was characterized using a thermodynamic sorting model. This study establishes the importance of membrane shape for targeting transmembrane proteins and provides a method for determining the effective shape and flexibility of membrane proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evolution of vertebrate interferon inducible transmembrane proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickford Danielle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferon inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs have diverse roles, including the control of cell proliferation, promotion of homotypic cell adhesion, protection against viral infection, promotion of bone matrix maturation and mineralisation, and mediating germ cell development. Most IFITMs have been well characterised in human and mouse but little published data exists for other animals. This study characterised IFITMs in two distantly related marsupial species, the Australian tammar wallaby and the South American grey short-tailed opossum, and analysed the phylogeny of the IFITM family in vertebrates. Results Five IFITM paralogues were identified in both the tammar and opossum. As in eutherians, most marsupial IFITM genes exist within a cluster, contain two exons and encode proteins with two transmembrane domains. Only two IFITM genes, IFITM5 and IFITM10, have orthologues in both marsupials and eutherians. IFITM5 arose in bony fish and IFITM10 in tetrapods. The bone-specific expression of IFITM5 appears to be restricted to therian mammals, suggesting that its specialised role in bone production is a recent adaptation specific to mammals. IFITM10 is the most highly conserved IFITM, sharing at least 85% amino acid identity between birds, reptiles and mammals and suggesting an important role for this presently uncharacterised protein. Conclusions Like eutherians, marsupials also have multiple IFITM genes that exist in a gene cluster. The differing expression patterns for many of the paralogues, together with poor sequence conservation between species, suggests that IFITM genes have acquired many different roles during vertebrate evolution.

  15. Matter-antimatter asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The Conference is devoted to a multidisciplinary study of matter-antimatter asymmetry and, in particular, from the point of view of particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. A number of topics, such as the practical applications of antimatter in medical imaging, of particular interest to non-specialists, will also be briefly covered. More than thirty years after the discovery of CP violation in the kaon system, precision experiments with kaons at CERN and Fermilab have demonstrated the existence of direct CP violation, opening a window on a hitherto poorly explored part of particle physics. On the one hand, two experiments devoted mainly to CP violation in B mesons, BABAR and Belle, are beginning to test CP violation in the Standard Model in a decisive way. On the other hand, balloon experiments and the space-based AMS project are circumscribing precise limits on the cosmological abundance of antimatter. Finally, the fundamental problem of cosmological matter-antimatter asymmetry at a Grand Unification scale or at the Electroweak phase transition has been the object of intense theoretical activity in recent years. This document gathers most of the slides that have been presented in the plenary and parallel sessions.

  16. Exchange asymmetry in experimental settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Mark D. Morrison; Jacob A. Benfield; Gretchen Nurse Rainbolt; Paul A. Bell

    2015-01-01

    We review past trading experiments and present 11 new experiments designed to show how the trading rate responds to alterations of the experimental procedure. In agreement with earlier studies, results show that if the trade decision is converted to one resembling a choice between goods the exchange asymmetry disappears, but otherwise the asymmetry is...

  17. Lepton forward-backward asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain, R.

    1992-01-01

    Results of Forward-Backward Asymmetries with Leptons measured at Z 0 energies are presented. Details of the analysis by the DELPHI Collaboration are given together with the most recent values of the peak Asymmetries for electrons, muons and taus obtained by ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL Collaborations at LEP

  18. Specificity of transmembrane protein palmitoylation in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayelén González Montoro

    Full Text Available Many proteins are modified after their synthesis, by the addition of a lipid molecule to one or more cysteine residues, through a thioester bond. This modification is called S-acylation, and more commonly palmitoylation. This reaction is carried out by a family of enzymes, called palmitoyltransferases (PATs, characterized by the presence of a conserved 50- aminoacids domain called "Asp-His-His-Cys- Cysteine Rich Domain" (DHHC-CRD. There are 7 members of this family in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and each of these proteins is thought to be responsible for the palmitoylation of a subset of substrates. Substrate specificity of PATs, however, is not yet fully understood. Several yeast PATs seem to have overlapping specificity, and it has been proposed that the machinery responsible for palmitoylating peripheral membrane proteins in mammalian cells, lacks specificity altogether.Here we investigate the specificity of transmembrane protein palmitoylation in S. cerevisiae, which is carried out predominantly by two PATs, Swf1 and Pfa4. We show that palmitoylation of transmembrane substrates requires dedicated PATs, since other yeast PATs are mostly unable to perform Swf1 or Pfa4 functions, even when overexpressed. Furthermore, we find that Swf1 is highly specific for its substrates, as it is unable to substitute for other PATs. To identify where Swf1 specificity lies, we carried out a bioinformatics survey to identify amino acids responsible for the determination of specificity or Specificity Determination Positions (SDPs and showed experimentally, that mutation of the two best SDP candidates, A145 and K148, results in complete and partial loss of function, respectively. These residues are located within the conserved catalytic DHHC domain suggesting that it could also be involved in the determination of specificity. Finally, we show that modifying the position of the cysteines in Tlg1, a Swf1 substrate, results in lack of palmitoylation, as

  19. Measurements of W Charge Asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzbauer, J. L. [Mississippi U.

    2015-10-06

    We discuss W boson and lepton charge asymmetry measurements from W decays in the electron channel, which were made using 9.7 fb$^{-1}$ of RunII data collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The electron charge asymmetry is presented as a function of pseudo-rapidity out to |$\\eta$| $\\le$ 3.2, in five symmetric and asymmetric kinematic bins of electron transverse momentum and the missing transverse energy of the event. We also give the W charge asymmetry as a function of W boson rapidity. The asymmetries are compared with next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations. These charge asymmetry measurements will allow more accurate determinations of the proton parton distribution functions and are the most precise to date.

  20. Asymmetry within social groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Jessie; Loope, Kevin J.; Reeve, H. Kern

    2016-01-01

    Social animals vary in their ability to compete with group members over shared resources and also vary in their cooperative efforts to produce these resources. Competition among groups can promote within-group cooperation, but many existing models of intergroup cooperation do not explicitly account...... of two roles, with relative competitive efficiency and the number of individuals varying between roles. Players in each role make simultaneous, coevolving decisions. The model predicts that although intergroup competition increases cooperative contributions to group resources by both roles, contributions...... are predominantly from individuals in the less competitively efficient role, whereas individuals in the more competitively efficient role generally gain the larger share of these resources. When asymmetry in relative competitive efficiency is greater, a group's per capita cooperation (averaged across both roles...

  1. Control of phospholipid flip-flop by transmembrane peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaihara, Masanori; Nakao, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Hirokazu; Endo, Hitoshi; Ishihama, Yasushi; Handa, Tetsurou; Nakano, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phospholipid flip-flop in transmembrane peptide-containing vesicles was investigated. ► Peptides that contained polar residues in the center of the transmembrane region promoted phospholipid flip-flop. ► A bioinformatics approach revealed the presence of polar residues in the transmembrane region of ER membrane proteins. ► Polar residues in ER membrane proteins possibly provide flippase-like activity. - Abstract: We designed three types of transmembrane model peptides whose sequence originates from a frequently used model peptide KALP23, and we investigated their effects on phospholipid flip-flop. Time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering and a dithionite fluorescent quenching assay demonstrated that TMP-L, which has a fully hydrophobic transmembrane region, did not enhance phospholipid flip-flop, whereas TMP-K and TMP-E, which have Lys and Glu, respectively, in the center of their transmembrane regions, enhanced phospholipid flip-flop. Introduction of polar residues in the membrane-spanning helices is considered to produce a locally polar region and enable the lipid head group to interact with the polar side-chain inside the bilayers, thereby reducing the activation energy for the flip-flop. A bioinformatics approach revealed that acidic and basic residues account for 4.5% of the central region of the transmembrane domain in human ER membrane proteins. Therefore, polar residues in ER membrane proteins are considered to provide flippase-like activity

  2. Looking for charming asymmetries

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2016-01-01

    New results presented by the LHCb collaboration on the decay of particles containing a “charm” quark delve deeper into the mystery of matter-antimatter asymmetry.   A view of the LHCb experimental cavern. (Photo: Maximilien Brice/CERN) One of the biggest challenges in physics is to understand why everything we see in our universe seems to be formed only of matter, whereas the Big Bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter. CERN’s LHCb experiment is one of the best hopes for physicists looking to solve this longstanding mystery. At the VIII International Workshop on Charm Physics, which took place in Bologna earlier this month, the LHCb Collaboration presented the most precise measurement to date of a phenomenon called Charge-Parity (CP) violation among particles that contain a charm quark. CP symmetry states that laws of physics are the same if a particle is interchanged with its anti-particle (the “C” part) and if its spatia...

  3. Symmetry and Asymmetry Level Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garrido

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Usually, Symmetry and Asymmetry are considered as two opposite sides of a coin: an object is either totally symmetric, or totally asymmetric, relative to pattern objects. Intermediate situations of partial symmetry or partial asymmetry are not considered. But this dichotomy on the classification lacks of a necessary and realistic gradation. For this reason, it is convenient to introduce "shade regions", modulating the degree of Symmetry (a fuzzy concept. Here, we will analyze the Asymmetry problem by successive attempts of description and by the introduction of the Asymmetry Level Function, as a new Normal Fuzzy Measure. Our results (both Theorems and Corollaries suppose to be some new and original contributions to such very active and interesting field of research. Previously, we proceed to the analysis of the state of art.

  4. Information Asymmetry and Credit Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena TUPANGIU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Information asymmetry defines relationships where an agent holds information while another does not hold it. Thus, to the extent that one of the parties to the financing agreement has information more or less accurate than another, the asymmetry of information appears to be a major constraint in the financing of a project. Banks, in their capacity of financial intermediary, operate the transfer of funds to agents in need of financing, to the borrowers, being necessary in this process to have more information in order to benefit of expertise in assessing borrowers. The research of information asymmetry and credit risk consists of interrogating the following aspects: information issues between the bank and borrowers; settlement of information issues; bank’s activism towards information asymmetry. In our approach we will look at the first aspect, namely the information issues between the bank and the borrowers.

  5. Evolution of sexual asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoekstra Rolf F

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clear dominance of two-gender sex in recent species is a notorious puzzle of evolutionary theory. It has at least two layers: besides the most fundamental and challenging question why sex exists at all, the other part of the problem is equally perplexing but much less studied. Why do most sexual organisms use a binary mating system? Even if sex confers an evolutionary advantage (through whatever genetic mechanism, why does it manifest that advantage in two, and exactly two, genders (or mating types? Why not just one, and why not more than two? Results Assuming that sex carries an inherent fitness advantage over pure clonal multiplication, we attempt to give a feasible solution to the problem of the evolution of dimorphic sexual asymmetry as opposed to monomorphic symmetry by using a spatial (cellular automaton model and its non-spatial (mean-field approximation. Based on a comparison of the spatial model to the mean-field approximation we suggest that spatial population structure must have played a significant role in the evolution of mating types, due to the largely clonal (self-aggregated spatial distribution of gamete types, which is plausible in aquatic habitats for physical reasons, and appears to facilitate the evolution of a binary mating system. Conclusions Under broad ecological and genetic conditions the cellular automaton predicts selective removal from the population of supposedly primitive gametes that are able to mate with their own type, whereas the non-spatial model admits coexistence of the primitive type and the mating types. Thus we offer a basically ecological solution to a theoretical problem that earlier models based on random gamete encounters had failed to resolve.

  6. [Presurgical orthodontics for facial asymmetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarrère, H

    2003-03-01

    As with the treatment of all facial deformities, orthodontic pre-surgical preparation for facial asymmetry should aim at correcting severe occlusal discrepancies not solely on the basis of a narrow occlusal analysis but also in a way that will not disturb the proposed surgical protocol. In addition, facial asymmetries require specific adjustments, difficult to derive and to apply because of their inherent atypical morphological orientation of both alveolar and basal bony support. Three treated cases illustrate different solutions to problems posed by pathological torque: this torque must be considered with respect to proposed surgical changes, within the framework of their limitations and their possible contra-indications.

  7. PDBTM: Protein Data Bank of transmembrane proteins after 8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Dániel; Simon, István; Tusnády, Gábor E

    2013-01-01

    The PDBTM database (available at http://pdbtm.enzim.hu), the first comprehensive and up-to-date transmembrane protein selection of the Protein Data Bank, was launched in 2004. The database was created and has been continuously updated by the TMDET algorithm that is able to distinguish between transmembrane and non-transmembrane proteins using their 3D atomic coordinates only. The TMDET algorithm can locate the spatial positions of transmembrane proteins in lipid bilayer as well. During the last 8 years not only the size of the PDBTM database has been steadily growing from ∼400 to 1700 entries but also new structural elements have been identified, in addition to the well-known α-helical bundle and β-barrel structures. Numerous 'exotic' transmembrane protein structures have been solved since the first release, which has made it necessary to define these new structural elements, such as membrane loops or interfacial helices in the database. This article reports the new features of the PDBTM database that have been added since its first release, and our current efforts to keep the database up-to-date and easy to use so that it may continue to serve as a fundamental resource for the scientific community.

  8. Topology of transmembrane channel-like gene 1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labay, Valentina; Weichert, Rachel M; Makishima, Tomoko; Griffith, Andrew J

    2010-10-05

    Mutations of transmembrane channel-like gene 1 (TMC1) cause hearing loss in humans and mice. TMC1 is the founding member of a family of genes encoding proteins of unknown function that are predicted to contain multiple transmembrane domains. The goal of our study was to define the topology of mouse TMC1 expressed heterologously in tissue culture cells. TMC1 was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane of five tissue culture cell lines that we tested. We used anti-TMC1 and anti-HA antibodies to probe the topologic orientation of three native epitopes and seven HA epitope tags along full-length TMC1 after selective or complete permeabilization of transfected cells with digitonin or Triton X-100, respectively. TMC1 was present within the ER as an integral membrane protein containing six transmembrane domains and cytosolic N- and C-termini. There is a large cytoplasmic loop, between the fourth and fifth transmembrane domains, with two highly conserved hydrophobic regions that might associate with or penetrate, but do not span, the plasma membrane. Our study is the first to demonstrate that TMC1 is a transmembrane protein. The topologic organization revealed by this study shares some features with that of the shaker-TRP superfamily of ion channels.

  9. Complex Odontome Causing Facial Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeya Patil

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are the most common non-cystic odontogenic lesions representing 70% of all odontogenic tumors. Often small and asymptomatic, they are detected on routine radiographs. Occasionally they become large and produce expansion of bone with consequent facial asymmetry. We report a case of such a lesion causing expansion of the mandible in an otherwise asymptomatic patient.

  10. Flavor asymmetry of the nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijker, R.; Santopinto, E.

    2008-01-01

    The flavor asymmetry of the nucleon sea is discussed in an unquenched quark model for baryons in which the effects of quark-antiquark pairs (uu, dd and ss) are taken into account in an explicit form. The inclusion of qq pairs leads automatically to an excess of d over u quarks in the proton, in agreement with experimental data. (Author)

  11. Flavor asymmetry of the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijker, R. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Santopinto, E. [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy)]. e-mail: bijker@nucleares.unam.mx

    2008-12-15

    The flavor asymmetry of the nucleon sea is discussed in an unquenched quark model for baryons in which the effects of quark-antiquark pairs (uu, dd and ss) are taken into account in an explicit form. The inclusion of qq pairs leads automatically to an excess of d over u quarks in the proton, in agreement with experimental data. (Author)

  12. Lambda production and its asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsumi, Daisuke

    1995-01-01

    Differential cross section and asymmetry for Λ 0 , Λ-bar 0 production have been measured in e + e - annihilation at 58 GeV in the scaled momentum Xp range from 0.0 to 0.25. Using 241 pb -1 of data collected after VENUS detector upgrade in 1991. (author)

  13. Asymmetry quantization and application to human mandibles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, Nanna; Nielsen, Mads; Sporring, Jon

    2004-01-01

    of asymmetry, the statistics on asymmetry for normal and pathological anatomical structures can be compared. Symmetry is a well-known mathematical group theoretical concept. In this paper, we will mathematically define the concept of weak symmetry, including topological symmetry, which serves as a basis...... of pathological assumed non-symmetric mandibles exhibiting a statistically significant increase of asymmetry....

  14. Asymmetry and coherence weight of quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Kaifeng; Anand, Namit; Singh, Uttam

    2018-03-01

    The asymmetry of quantum states is an important resource in quantum information processing tasks such as quantum metrology and quantum communication. In this paper, we introduce the notion of asymmetry weight—an operationally motivated asymmetry quantifier in the resource theory of asymmetry. We study the convexity and monotonicity properties of asymmetry weight and focus on its interplay with the corresponding semidefinite programming (SDP) forms along with its connection to other asymmetry measures. Since the SDP form of asymmetry weight is closely related to asymmetry witnesses, we find that the asymmetry weight can be regarded as a (state-dependent) asymmetry witness. Moreover, some specific entanglement witnesses can be viewed as a special case of an asymmetry witness—which indicates a potential connection between asymmetry and entanglement. We also provide an operationally meaningful coherence measure, which we term coherence weight, and investigate its relationship to other coherence measures like the robustness of coherence and the l1 norm of coherence. In particular, we show that for Werner states in any dimension d all three coherence quantifiers, namely, the coherence weight, the robustness of coherence, and the l1 norm of coherence, are equal and are given by a single letter formula.

  15. Geometric asymmetry driven Janus micromotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guanjia; Pumera, Martin

    2014-09-01

    The production and application of nano-/micromotors is of great importance. In order for the motors to work, asymmetry in their chemical composition or physical geometry must be present if no external asymmetric field is applied. In this paper, we present a ``coconut'' micromotor made of platinum through the partial or complete etching of the silica templates. It was shown that although both the inner and outer surfaces are made of the same material (Pt), motion of the structure can be observed as the convex surface is capable of generating oxygen bubbles. This finding shows that not only the chemical asymmetry of the micromotor, but also its geometric asymmetry can lead to fast propulsion of the motor. Moreover, a considerably higher velocity can be seen for partially etched coconut structures than the velocities of Janus or fully etched, shell-like motors. These findings will have great importance on the design of future micromotors.The production and application of nano-/micromotors is of great importance. In order for the motors to work, asymmetry in their chemical composition or physical geometry must be present if no external asymmetric field is applied. In this paper, we present a ``coconut'' micromotor made of platinum through the partial or complete etching of the silica templates. It was shown that although both the inner and outer surfaces are made of the same material (Pt), motion of the structure can be observed as the convex surface is capable of generating oxygen bubbles. This finding shows that not only the chemical asymmetry of the micromotor, but also its geometric asymmetry can lead to fast propulsion of the motor. Moreover, a considerably higher velocity can be seen for partially etched coconut structures than the velocities of Janus or fully etched, shell-like motors. These findings will have great importance on the design of future micromotors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional SEM images, data analysis, Videos S

  16. Solid state deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance detection of transmembrane-potential-driven tetraphenylphosphonium redistribution across Giant Unilamellar Vesicle bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzin, Carla Maria Mirella

    1995-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance ( 2 H NMR) of Giant Unilamellar Vesicles (GUVs) consisting of specifically choline-deuterated 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), plus 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG) and cholesterol can be used to monitor the transbilayer redistribution of tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP + ) in response to a transmembrane potential (δψ tm ). The 2 H quadrupolar splittings (δν Q 's) measured reflect the level of TPP + bound at the membrane surface due to the latter's effect on the membrane surface electrostatic potential, ψ s . Results reveal the appearance of two distinct δν Q 's, due to differences in bound TPP + at the inner versus the outer monolayer in response to a δψ tm . The observed values of the δν Q 's agree with theoretical predictions based on a derived mathematical model that takes into account δψ tm , plus ψ s , plus the equilibrium binding of TPP + from solution onto the membrane surface, plus the sensitivity of δν Q to the amount of bound TPP + . This model identifies experimental factors that lead to improvements in spectral resolution. Henceforth, 2 H NMR is a valuable tool for quantifying transmembrane asymmetries of ψ s . (author)

  17. Knowledge asymmetries about product "goodness"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    and actions towards workers, and findings of independent researchers.  Currently, differing perspectives on product "goodness" are being addressed and mediated by NGOs and B-corporations, as they work with private companies and corporations to communicate product information to consumers.  One organization...... focused on scenarios where shoppers were asked about CSR in their product decisions found that: "...when consumers are given information that they trust about a company's level of social responsibility, it affects how they evaluate the company and their purchase intentions. Furthermore, a low price did.......  Asymmetries in knowledge about product "goodness" make it difficult for ethically inspired consumers to make informed decisions about the products they purchase.  These knowledge asymmetries emerge from differing perspectives on guidelines for consumer safety set by government bodies, CSR initiatives...

  18. Perceptual asymmetry in texture perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D; Julesz, B

    1992-07-15

    A fundamental property of human visual perception is our ability to distinguish between textures. A concerted effort has been made to account for texture segregation in terms of linear spatial filter models and their nonlinear extensions. However, for certain texture pairs the ease of discrimination changes when the role of figure and ground are reversed. This asymmetry poses a problem for both linear and nonlinear models. We have isolated a property of texture perception that can account for this asymmetry in discrimination: subjective closure. This property, which is also responsible for visual illusions, appears to be explainable by early visual processes alone. Our results force a reexamination of the process of human texture segregation and of some recent models that were introduced to explain it.

  19. Modelling of a transmembrane evaporation module for desalination of seawater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guijt, C.M.; Racz, I.G.; van Heuven, Jan Willem; Reith, T.; de Haan, A.B.

    1999-01-01

    Transmembrane evaporation (often called membrane distillation) carried out in a countercurrent flow module, in which incoming cold seawater is heated by the condensing product water flow, is a promising technology for low-cost seawater desalination. This paper presents a model for preliminary design

  20. Audiometric asymmetry and tinnitus laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Betty S; Sweetow, Robert W; Cheung, Steven W

    2012-05-01

    To identify an optimal audiometric asymmetry index for predicting tinnitus laterality. Retrospective medical record review. Data from adult tinnitus patients (80 men and 44 women) were extracted for demographic, audiometric, tinnitus laterality, and related information. The main measures were sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Three audiometric asymmetry indices were constructed using one, two, or three frequency elements to compute the average interaural threshold difference (aITD). Tinnitus laterality predictive performance of a particular index was assessed by increasing the cutoff or minimum magnitude of the aITD from 10 to 35 dB in 5-dB steps to determine its ROC curve. Single frequency index performance was inferior to the other two (P .05). Two adjoining frequency elements with aITD ≥ 15 dB performed optimally for predicting tinnitus laterality (sensitivity = 0.59, specificity = 0.71, and PPV = 0.76). Absolute and relative magnitudes of hearing loss in the poorer ear were uncorrelated with tinnitus distress. An optimal audiometric asymmetry index to predict tinnitus laterality is one whereby 15 dB is the minimum aITD of two adjoining frequencies, inclusive of the maximal ITD. Tinnitus laterality dependency on magnitude of interaural asymmetry may inform design and interpretation of neuroimaging studies. Monaural acoustic tinnitus therapy may be an initial consideration for asymmetric hearing loss meeting the criterion of aITD ≥ 15 dB. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Asymmetry Reduction Theory of FDI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    In this paper, I first briefly introduce Moon & Roehl’s (1993, 2001) imbalance theory of FDI, then I identify its three deficiencies that may be responsible for the relative lack of impact of the potentially powerful imbalance logic, and then I propose an asymmetry reduction theory (ARC) of FDI...... and explain its aspiration-resource-control (ARC) framework. I conclude the paper with a brief discussion of the OLI framework being a special case of the ARC framework....

  2. Perceptual asymmetry in texture perception.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, D; Julesz, B

    1992-01-01

    A fundamental property of human visual perception is our ability to distinguish between textures. A concerted effort has been made to account for texture segregation in terms of linear spatial filter models and their nonlinear extensions. However, for certain texture pairs the ease of discrimination changes when the role of figure and ground are reversed. This asymmetry poses a problem for both linear and nonlinear models. We have isolated a property of texture perception that can account for...

  3. Investor relations and information asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrielem da Silva Rodrigues

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Companies invest significant volumes of resources in investor relations (IR departments. The professionals working in the IR department are responsible for communication between the company and the market, so that the information generated is widely disseminated and understood by investors. In this context, this research aims to investigate whether there is evidence that the IR activity decreases information asymmetry between the company and the market. Specifically, we evaluate the hypothesis that Brazilian companies with IR websites classified as more informative have a reduced bid-ask spread (proxy for asymmetry. Therefore, this paper classifies the informative content from IR websites of Brazilian companies for the years 2013 and 2014 and relates the outcomes obtained with information asymmetry metrics. Initially, the estimation considers the pooled ordinary least squares (POLS model and, at a second moment, in order to mitigate potential endogeneity problems, the pooled two-stage least squares (2SLS model is used. The results indicate that more informative IR websites are able to decrease the bid-ask spread of Brazilian listed companies. This finding strongly encourages companies to provide information to stakeholders on well-structured IR websites of their own.

  4. INFORMATION ASYMMETRY AND HERDING BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puput Tri Komalasari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Conceptually, the stock market is strong form efficient in the long term. However, in practice, there are various forms of market anomalies that undermine the accuracy of the efficient market hypothesis. One factor suspected as the cause of market inefficiency is herding behavior. Investors herd when they imitate the actions of other investors. This behavior occurs when there is a continuous interaction among rational investors that prevents them from seeking information about market fundamentals. This study provides new insights by including information asymmetry as a moderating variable. This research examines the phenomenon of herding behavior in the Indonesia Stock Exchange as well as examines directly the effect of information asymmetry on herding behavior. The period of study is 2008 using time series of daily stocks data that actively traded in the capital market. Results of this study find that investor tends to follow market consensus when price changes at the low level, but when there is large price swing market participant acts independently from other investors. Interestingly, this study finds that information asymmetry is a necessary condition for the existence of herding behavior.

  5. Glycine Perturbs Local and Global Conformational Flexibility of a Transmembrane Helix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Högel, Philipp; Götz, Alexander; Kuhne, Felix

    2018-01-01

    Flexible transmembrane helices frequently support the conformational transitions between different functional states of membrane proteins. While proline is well known to distort and destabilize transmembrane helices, the role of glycine is still debated. Here, we systematically investigated the e...

  6. Prophylactic Sublingual Immunization with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Subunit Vaccine Incorporating the Natural Killer T Cell Agonist Alpha-Galactosylceramide Enhances Protective Immunity to Limit Pulmonary and Extra-Pulmonary Bacterial Burden in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Khan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb remains a major global concern and the available Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG vaccine is poorly efficacious in adults. Therefore, alternative vaccines and delivery strategies focusing on Mtb antigens and appropriate immune stimulating adjuvants are needed to induce protective immunity targeted to the lungs, the primary sites of infections and pathology. We present here evidence in support of mucosal vaccination by the sublingual route in mice using the subunit Mtb antigens Ag85B and ESAT-6 adjuvanted with the glycolipid alpha-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer, a potent natural killer T (NKT cell agonist. Vaccinated animals exhibited strong antigen-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells responses in the spleen, cervical lymph nodes and lungs. In general, inclusion of the α-GalCer adjuvant significantly enhanced these responses that persisted over 50 days. Furthermore, aerosolized Mtb infection of vaccinated mice resulted in a significant reduction of bacterial load of the lungs and spleens as compared to levels seen in naïve controls or those vaccinated with subunit proteins, adjuvant , or BCG alone. The protection induced by the Mtb antigens and-GalCer vaccine through sublingual route correlated with a TH1-type immunity mediated by antigen-specific IFN-γ and IL-2 producing T cells.

  7. [Diagnosis of facial and craniofacial asymmetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, E; Marchac, D; Renier, D

    2001-10-01

    Craniofacial asymmetry is caused by various aetiologies but clinical examination remains the most important criteria since minor asymmetry is always present. The diagnosis can be confirmed by anthropometric measurements and radiological examinations but only severe asymmetries or asymmetries with an associated functional impairment should be treated. The treatment depends on the cause, and on the time of appearance. Congenital asymmetries might be treated early, during the first year of life if a craniosynostosis is present. Hemifacial microsomia are treated later if there is no breathing impairment. Since the pediatricians have recommended the dorsal position for infant sleeping, an increasing number of posterior flattening of the skull has been appearing, and could be prevented by adequate nursing. Other causes of craniofacial asymmetries are rare and should be adapted to the cause (tumors, atrophies, neurological paralysis, hypertrophies) by a specialized multidisciplinar team.

  8. Aggression and Brain Asymmetries: A Theoretical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rohlfs , Paloma; Ramirez, J. Martin

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between aggression and brain asymmetries has not been studied enough. The association between both concepts can be approached from two different perspectives. One perspective points to brain asymmetries underlying the emotion of anger and consequently aggression in normal people. Another one is concerned with the existence of brain asymmetries in aggressive people (e.g., in the case of suicides or psychopathies). Research on emotional processing points out the confusion betw...

  9. Structural Connectivity Asymmetry in the Neonatal Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnarajah, Nagulan; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Fortier, Marielle V.; Chong, Yap Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Godfrey, Keith M; Gluckman, Peter D.; Meaney, Michael J.; Qiu, Anqi

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetry of the neonatal brain is not yet understood at the level of structural connectivity. We utilized DTI deterministic tractography and structural network analysis based on graph theory to determine the pattern of structural connectivity asymmetry in 124 normal neonates. We tracted white matter axonal pathways characterizing interregional connections among brain regions and inferred asymmetry in left and right anatomical network properties. Our findings revealed that in neonates, small-...

  10. Breast asymmetry and predisposition to breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Scutt, Diane; Lancaster, Gillian A; Manning, John T

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: It has been shown in our previous work that breast asymmetry is related to several of the known risk factors for breast cancer, and that patients with diagnosed breast cancer have more breast volume asymmetry, as measured from mammograms, than age-matched healthy women. METHODS: In the present study, we compared the breast asymmetry of women who were free of breast disease at time of mammography, but who had subsequently developed breast cancer, with that of age-matched healthy ...

  11. Asymmetry a challenge for orthodontists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melsen, Birte

    2007-01-01

    planes of space. A systematic approach to the identification of the cause of the asymmetry head precede the decision whether to correct or to camouflage. The definition of a specific treatment goal should be done only following an analysis of the likelihood that the force system necessary to perform...... the required tooth displacements can be generated. In order to control the interaction between the force systems developed in the three planes of space, the appliances should commonly be segmented. Anchorage problems can occasionally only be solved by means of skeletal anchorage....

  12. Fluctuating Asymmetry of Human Populations: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Graham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry, the random deviation from perfect symmetry, is a widely used population-level index of developmental instability, developmental noise, and robustness. It reflects a population’s state of adaptation and genomic coadaptation. Here, we review the literature on fluctuating asymmetry of human populations. The most widely used bilateral traits include skeletal, dental, and facial dimensions; dermatoglyphic patterns and ridge counts; and facial shape. Each trait has its advantages and disadvantages, but results are most robust when multiple traits are combined into a composite index of fluctuating asymmetry (CFA. Both environmental (diet, climate, toxins and genetic (aneuploidy, heterozygosity, inbreeding stressors have been linked to population-level variation in fluctuating asymmetry. In general, these stressors increase average fluctuating asymmetry. Nevertheless, there have been many conflicting results, in part because (1 fluctuating asymmetry is a weak signal in a sea of noise; and (2 studies of human fluctuating asymmetry have not always followed best practices. The most serious concerns are insensitive asymmetry indices (correlation coefficient and coefficient of indetermination, inappropriate size scaling, unrecognized mixture distributions, inappropriate corrections for directional asymmetry, failure to use composite indices, and inattention to measurement error. Consequently, it is often difficult (or impossible to compare results across traits, and across studies.

  13. Parity violating asymmetries in polarized electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derman, E.; Marciano, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    We discuss parity violating asymmetries between the scattering of right and left-handed electrons on a variety of targets. Implications for gauge theories from recent SLAC results on deep-inelastic electron-deuterium and electron-proton scattering are examined. A derivation of the asymmetry for electron-electron scattering is given, its advantages are pointed out, and the feasibility of such a measurement is discussed. Other proposed or contemplated asymmetry experiments are reviewed and the necessity of including the Collins-Wilczek-Zee hadronic axial isoscalar current contribution in asymmetry predictions is noted

  14. Single spin asymmetry for charm mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez Zacarias, G. [PIMAyC, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, Apdo. Postal 14-805, D.F. (Mexico); Herrera, G.; Mercado, J. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Apdo. Postal 14-740, D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-08-15

    We study single spin asymmetries of D{sup 0} and D{sup -} mesons in polarized proton-proton collisions. A two component model is used to describe charm meson production. The production of D mesons occurs by recombination of the constituents present in the initial state as well as by fragmentation of quarks in the final state. This model has proved to describe the production of charm. The recombination component involves a mechanism of spin alignment that ends up in a single spin asymmetry. Experimental measurements of single spin asymmetry for pions at RHIC are compared with the model. Predictions for the asymmetry in D mesons are presented. (orig.)

  15. Single spin asymmetry for charm mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Zacarias, G.; Herrera, G.; Mercado, J.

    2007-01-01

    We study single spin asymmetries of D 0 and D - mesons in polarized proton-proton collisions. A two component model is used to describe charm meson production. The production of D mesons occurs by recombination of the constituents present in the initial state as well as by fragmentation of quarks in the final state. This model has proved to describe the production of charm. The recombination component involves a mechanism of spin alignment that ends up in a single spin asymmetry. Experimental measurements of single spin asymmetry for pions at RHIC are compared with the model. Predictions for the asymmetry in D mesons are presented. (orig.)

  16. Role of protein dynamics in transmembrane receptor signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yong; Bugge, Katrine Østergaard; Kragelund, Birthe Brandt

    2018-01-01

    Cells are dependent on transmembrane receptors to communicate and transform chemical and physical signals into intracellular responses. Because receptors transport 'information', conformational changes and protein dynamics play a key mechanistic role. We here review examples where experiment...... to function. Because the receptors function in a heterogeneous environment and need to be able to switch between distinct functional states, they may be particularly sensitive to small perturbations that complicate studies linking dynamics to function....

  17. On the Compton Twist-3 Asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkiyan, V.M.; Teryaev, O.V.

    1994-01-01

    The 'fermionic poles' contribution to the twist-3 single asymmetry in the gluon Compton process is calculated. The 'gluonic poles' existence seems to contradict the density matrix positivity. Qualitative predictions for the direct photon and jets asymmetries are presented. 13 refs., 2 figs

  18. Multiple photon emission and b quark asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadach, S.; Ward, B.F.L.

    1989-08-01

    We discuss the effects of multiple photon final states in high precision tests of the SU 2L x U 1 model wherein one measures the b quark asymmetries at a very high luminosity Z 0 factory, such as the possible high luminosity upgrade of the CERN LEP collider. The specific asymmetries analyzed are the forward-backward asymmetry A FB , the left-right polarized asymmetry A LR and the polarized forward-backward asymmetry A FB,pol. . The radiative effects are found to be significant for A FB as expected, but they are not as large, on a percentage basis, as the corresponding result for muons. (author). 5 refs, 1 tab

  19. Toroidal current asymmetry in tokamak disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, H. R.

    2014-10-01

    It was discovered on JET that disruptions were accompanied by toroidal asymmetry of the toroidal plasma current I ϕ. It was found that the toroidal current asymmetry was proportional to the vertical current moment asymmetry with positive sign for an upward vertical displacement event (VDE) and negative sign for a downward VDE. It was observed that greater displacement leads to greater measured I ϕ asymmetry. Here, it is shown that this is essentially a kinematic effect produced by a VDE interacting with three dimensional MHD perturbations. The relation of toroidal current asymmetry and vertical current moment is calculated analytically and is verified by numerical simulations. It is shown analytically that the toroidal variation of the toroidal plasma current is accompanied by an equal and opposite variation of the toroidal current flowing in a thin wall surrounding the plasma. These currents are connected by 3D halo current, which is π/2 radians out of phase with the n = 1 toroidal current variations.

  20. Asymmetry effects in fragment production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Manpreet [Sri Guru Granth Sahib World University, Fatehgarh Sahib-140406, Punjab (India); Kaur, Varinderjit, E-mail: drvarinderjit@gmail.com [Mata Gujri College, Fatehgarh Sahib-140406, Punjab (India)

    2016-05-06

    The production of different fragments has been studied by taking into account the mass asymmetry of the reaction and employing the momentum dependent interactions. Two different set of asymmetric reactions have been analyzed while keeping At{sub otal} fixed using soft momentum dependent equation of state. Our results indicate that the impact of momentum dependent interactions is different in lighter projectile systems as compared to heavier ones. The comparative analysis of IQMD simulations with the experimental data in case of heavier projectile and lighter target system for the reaction of {sup 197}Au+{sup 27}Al (η = 0.7) at E = 600 MeV/nucleon shows that with the inclusion of MDI we are able, upto some extent, to reproduce the experimental universality of rise and fall of intermediate mass fragments (IMFs).

  1. Bs semileptonic asymmetry at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Dufour, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    When neutral $B^{0}_{s,d}$ mesons evolve in time they can change into their own antiparticles. In this mixing process CP symmetry is not necessarily conserved, as the probability for a $B^{0}$ meson to change into a $\\bar{B}^{0}$ meson can be different from the probability for the reverse process. The CP violation in the $B^{0}_{s}$ system as measured using semileptonic decays, defined as $a^{s}_{sl}$, is very small according to the Standard Model. However, earlier measurements of the semileptonic mixing asymmetry in both the $B_s^{0}$ and $B_d^{0}$ systems have shown a $3 \\sigma$ deviation with respect to the Standard Model value. A measurement of $a^{s}_{sl}$ performed using $1 \\text{fb}^{-1}$ of data collected at the LHCb detector is presented, together with an outlook to the updated $3 \\text{fb}^{-1}$ result.

  2. Molecular Insights into the Transmembrane Domain of the Thyrotropin Receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Chantreau

    Full Text Available The thyrotropin receptor (TSHR is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR that is member of the leucine-rich repeat subfamily (LGR. In the absence of crystal structure, the success of rational design of ligands targeting the receptor internal cavity depends on the quality of the TSHR models built. In this subfamily, transmembrane helices (TM 2 and 5 are characterized by the absence of proline compared to most receptors, raising the question of the structural conformation of these helices. To gain insight into the structural properties of these helices, we carried out bioinformatics and experimental studies. Evolutionary analysis of the LGR family revealed a deletion in TM5 but provided no information on TM2. Wild type residues at positions 2.58, 2.59 or 2.60 in TM2 and/or at position 5.50 in TM5 were substituted to proline. Depending on the position of the proline substitution, different effects were observed on membrane expression, glycosylation, constitutive cAMP activity and responses to thyrotropin. Only proline substitution at position 2.59 maintained complex glycosylation and high membrane expression, supporting occurrence of a bulged TM2. The TSHR transmembrane domain was modeled by homology with the orexin 2 receptor, using a protocol that forced the deletion of one residue in the TM5 bulge of the template. The stability of the model was assessed by molecular dynamics simulations. TM5 straightened during the equilibration phase and was stable for the remainder of the simulations. Our data support a structural model of the TSHR transmembrane domain with a bulged TM2 and a straight TM5 that is specific of glycoprotein hormone receptors.

  3. Promiscuous Seven Transmembrane Receptors Sensing L-α-amino Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smajilovic, Sanela; Wellendorph, Petrine; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2014-01-01

    A number of nutrient sensing seven trans-membrane (7TM) receptors have been identified and characterized over the past few years. While the sensing mechanisms to carbohydrates and free fatty acids are well understood, the molecular basis of amino acid sensing has recently come to the limelight....... The present review describes the current status of promiscuous L-α-amino acid sensors, the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR), the GPRC6A receptor, the T1R1/T1R3 receptor and also their molecular pharmacology, expression pattern and physiological significance....

  4. Spectral asymmetry for bag boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beneventano, C G; Santangelo, E M; Wipf, A

    2002-01-01

    We give an expression, in terms of boundary spectral functions, for the spectral asymmetry of the Euclidean Dirac operator in two dimensions, when its domain is determined by local boundary conditions and the manifold is of product type. As an application, we explicitly evaluate the asymmetry in the case of a finite-length cylinder and check that the outcome is consistent with our general result. Finally, we study the asymmetry in a disc, which is a non-product case, and propose an interpretation

  5. Witnessing Multipartite Entanglement by Detecting Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Girolami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of quantum coherence in the context of quantum information theory and its interplay with quantum correlations is currently subject of intense study. Coherence in a Hamiltonian eigenbasis yields asymmetry, the ability of a quantum system to break a dynamical symmetry generated by the Hamiltonian. We here propose an experimental strategy to witness multipartite entanglement in many-body systems by evaluating the asymmetry with respect to an additive Hamiltonian. We test our scheme by simulating asymmetry and entanglement detection in a three-qubit Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ diagonal state.

  6. A Coarse Grained Model for a Lipid Membrane with Physiological Composition and Leaflet Asymmetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyan Sharma

    Full Text Available The resemblance of lipid membrane models to physiological membranes determines how well molecular dynamics (MD simulations imitate the dynamic behavior of cell membranes and membrane proteins. Physiological lipid membranes are composed of multiple types of phospholipids, and the leaflet compositions are generally asymmetric. Here we describe an approach for self-assembly of a Coarse-Grained (CG membrane model with physiological composition and leaflet asymmetry using the MARTINI force field. An initial set-up of two boxes with different types of lipids according to the leaflet asymmetry of mammalian cell membranes stacked with 0.5 nm overlap, reliably resulted in the self-assembly of bilayer membranes with leaflet asymmetry resembling that of physiological mammalian cell membranes. Self-assembly in the presence of a fragment of the plasma membrane protein syntaxin 1A led to spontaneous specific positioning of phosphatidylionositol(4,5bisphosphate at a positively charged stretch of syntaxin consistent with experimental data. An analogous approach choosing an initial set-up with two concentric shells filled with different lipid types results in successful assembly of a spherical vesicle with asymmetric leaflet composition. Self-assembly of the vesicle in the presence of the synaptic vesicle protein synaptobrevin 2 revealed the correct position of the synaptobrevin transmembrane domain. This is the first CG MD method to form a membrane with physiological lipid composition as well as leaflet asymmetry by self-assembly and will enable unbiased studies of the incorporation and dynamics of membrane proteins in more realistic CG membrane models.

  7. Role of α and β Transmembrane Domains in Integrin Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Shamloo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Integrins are transmembrane proteins playing a crucial role in the mechanical signal transduction from the outside to the inside of a cell, and vice versa. Nevertheless, this signal transduction could not be implemented by a single protein. Rather, in order for integrins to be able to participate in signal transduction, they need to be activated and produce clusters first. As integrins consist of α- and β-subunits that are separate in the active state, studying both subunits separately is of a great importance, for, in the active state, the distance between α- and β-subunits is long enough that they do not influence one another significantly. Thus, this study aims to investigate the tendency of transmembrane domains of integrins to form homodimers. We used both Steered and MARTINI Coarse-grained molecular dynamics method to perform our simulations, mainly because of a better resolution and computational feasibility that each of these methods could provide to us. Using the Steered molecular dynamics method for α- and β-subunits, we found that the localized lipid packing prevented them from clustering. Nonetheless, the lipid packing phenomenon was found to be an artifact after investigating this process using a coarse grained (CG model. Exploiting the coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, we found that α- and β-subunits tend to form a stable homo-dimer.

  8. Structure and function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Morales

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is a lethal autosomal recessive genetic disease caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR. Mutations in the CFTR gene may result in a defective processing of its protein and alter the function and regulation of this channel. Mutations are associated with different symptoms, including pancreatic insufficiency, bile duct obstruction, infertility in males, high sweat Cl-, intestinal obstruction, nasal polyp formation, chronic sinusitis, mucus dehydration, and chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus lung infection, responsible for 90% of the mortality of CF patients. The gene responsible for the cellular defect in CF was cloned in 1989 and its protein product CFTR is activated by an increase of intracellular cAMP. The CFTR contains two membrane domains, each with six transmembrane domain segments, two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs, and a cytoplasmic domain. In this review we discuss the studies that have correlated the role of each CFTR domain in the protein function as a chloride channel and as a regulator of the outwardly rectifying Cl- channels (ORCCs.

  9. Experimental investigation of transverse spin asymmetries in muon-p SIDIS processes: Sivers asymmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C.; Alexakhin, V.Yu.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Antonov, A.A.; Austregesilo, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Bicker, K.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dunnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; von Hohenesche, N.du Fresne; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Guthorl, T.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Hoppner, Ch.; d'Hose, N.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kramer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Lauser, L.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Moinester, M.A.; Morreale, A.; Mutter, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Negrini, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Nowak, W.D.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Perevalova, E.; Pesaro, G.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.F.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Richter, A.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schluter, T.; Schmidt, K.; Schmitt, L.; Schonning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Schroder, W.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.N.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.I.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Wolbeek, J.Ter; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Tkatchev, L.G.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.V.; Wang, L.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wislicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zhuravlev, N.; Zvyagin, A.

    2012-10-31

    The COMPASS Collaboration at CERN has measured the transverse spin azimuthal asymmetry of charged hadrons produced in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a 160 GeV positive muon beam and a transversely polarised NH_3 target. The Sivers asymmetry of the proton has been extracted in the Bjorken x range 0.003 0.03. The asymmetry is different from zero and positive also in the low x region, where sea-quarks dominate. The kinematic dependence of the asymmetry has also been investigated and results are given for various intervals of hadron and virtual photon fractional energy. In contrast to the case of the Collins asymmetry, the results on the Sivers asymmetry suggest a strong dependence on the four-momentum transfer to the nucleon, in agreement with the most recent calculations.

  10. Leptogenesis and gravity: Baryon asymmetry without decays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.I. McDonald

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A popular class of theories attributes the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe to CP-violating decays of super-heavy BSM particles in the Early Universe. Recently, we discovered a new source of leptogenesis in these models, namely that the same Yukawa phases which provide the CP violation for decays, combined with curved-spacetime loop effects, lead to an entirely new gravitational mechanism for generating an asymmetry, driven by the expansion of the Universe and independent of the departure of the heavy particles from equilibrium. In this Letter, we build on previous work by analysing the full Boltzmann equation, exploring the full parameter space of the theory and studying the time-evolution of the asymmetry. Remarkably, we find regions of parameter space where decays play no part at all, and where the baryon asymmetry of the Universe is determined solely by gravitational effects.

  11. Leptogenesis and gravity: Baryon asymmetry without decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, J.I., E-mail: pymcdonald@swansea.ac.uk; Shore, G.M., E-mail: g.m.shore@swansea.ac.uk

    2017-03-10

    A popular class of theories attributes the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe to CP-violating decays of super-heavy BSM particles in the Early Universe. Recently, we discovered a new source of leptogenesis in these models, namely that the same Yukawa phases which provide the CP violation for decays, combined with curved-spacetime loop effects, lead to an entirely new gravitational mechanism for generating an asymmetry, driven by the expansion of the Universe and independent of the departure of the heavy particles from equilibrium. In this Letter, we build on previous work by analysing the full Boltzmann equation, exploring the full parameter space of the theory and studying the time-evolution of the asymmetry. Remarkably, we find regions of parameter space where decays play no part at all, and where the baryon asymmetry of the Universe is determined solely by gravitational effects.

  12. Do Board Characteristics Affect Information Asymmetry?

    OpenAIRE

    Sougné, Danielle; Laouti, Mhamed; Ajina, Aymen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the empirical relationship between corporate governance and information asymmetry across a range of French firms. Based on a cross-sectional analysis, our study of the empirical relationship between corporate governance and information asymmetry involved 160 companies over the years 2008-2010. Mechanisms of corporate governance include the characteristics of the board of directors. Our results seem to indicate a significant relationship between certain mechani...

  13. Baryon asymmetry, inflation and squeezed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambah, Bindu A.; Chaitanya, K.V.S. Shiv; Mukku, C.

    2007-01-01

    We use the general formalism of squeezed rotated states to calculate baryon asymmetry in the wake of inflation through parametric amplification. We base our analysis on a B and CP violating Lagrangian in an isotropically expanding universe. The B and CP violating terms originate from the coupling of complex fields with non-zero baryon number to a complex background inflaton field. We show that a differential amplification of particle and antiparticle modes gives rise to baryon asymmetry

  14. Bottom production asymmetries at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norrbin, E.; Vogt, R.

    1999-01-01

    We present results on bottom hadron production asymmetries at the LHC within both the Lund string fragmentation model and the intrinsic bottom model. The main aspects of the models are summarized and specific predictions for pp collisions at 14 TeV are given. Asymmetries are found to be very small at central rapidities increasing to a few percent at forward rapidities. At very large rapidities intrinsic production could dominate but this region is probably out of reach of any experiment.

  15. Bottom production asymmetries at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norrbin, E.; Vogt, R.

    1999-01-01

    We present results on bottom hadron production asymmetries at the LHC within both the Lund string fragmentation model and the intrinsic bottom model. The main aspects of the models are summarized and specific predictions for pp collisions at 14 TeV are given. Asymmetries are found to be very small at central rapidities increasing to a few percent at forward rapidities. At very large rapidities intrinsic production could dominate but this region is probably out of reach of any experiment

  16. Asymmetry of inverted-topology repeats in the AE1 anion exchanger suggests an elevator-like mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraldo-Gómez, José D.

    2017-01-01

    The membrane transporter anion exchanger 1 (AE1), or band 3, is a key component in the processes of carbon-dioxide transport in the blood and urinary acidification in the renal collecting duct. In both erythrocytes and the basolateral membrane of the collecting-duct α-intercalated cells, the role of AE1 is to catalyze a one-for-one exchange of chloride for bicarbonate. After decades of biochemical and functional studies, the structure of the transmembrane region of AE1, which catalyzes the anion-exchange reaction, has finally been determined. Each protomer of the AE1 dimer comprises two repeats with inverted transmembrane topologies, but the structures of these repeats differ. This asymmetry causes the putative substrate-binding site to be exposed only to the extracellular space, consistent with the expectation that anion exchange occurs via an alternating-access mechanism. Here, we hypothesize that the unknown, inward-facing conformation results from inversion of this asymmetry, and we propose a model of this state constructed using repeat-swap homology modeling. By comparing this inward-facing model with the outward-facing experimental structure, we predict that the mechanism of AE1 involves an elevator-like motion of the substrate-binding domain relative to the nearly stationary dimerization domain and to the membrane plane. This hypothesis is in qualitative agreement with a wide range of biochemical and functional data, which we review in detail, and suggests new avenues of experimentation. PMID:29167180

  17. Asymmetry of inverted-topology repeats in the AE1 anion exchanger suggests an elevator-like mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficici, Emel; Faraldo-Gómez, José D; Jennings, Michael L; Forrest, Lucy R

    2017-12-04

    The membrane transporter anion exchanger 1 (AE1), or band 3, is a key component in the processes of carbon-dioxide transport in the blood and urinary acidification in the renal collecting duct. In both erythrocytes and the basolateral membrane of the collecting-duct α-intercalated cells, the role of AE1 is to catalyze a one-for-one exchange of chloride for bicarbonate. After decades of biochemical and functional studies, the structure of the transmembrane region of AE1, which catalyzes the anion-exchange reaction, has finally been determined. Each protomer of the AE1 dimer comprises two repeats with inverted transmembrane topologies, but the structures of these repeats differ. This asymmetry causes the putative substrate-binding site to be exposed only to the extracellular space, consistent with the expectation that anion exchange occurs via an alternating-access mechanism. Here, we hypothesize that the unknown, inward-facing conformation results from inversion of this asymmetry, and we propose a model of this state constructed using repeat-swap homology modeling. By comparing this inward-facing model with the outward-facing experimental structure, we predict that the mechanism of AE1 involves an elevator-like motion of the substrate-binding domain relative to the nearly stationary dimerization domain and to the membrane plane. This hypothesis is in qualitative agreement with a wide range of biochemical and functional data, which we review in detail, and suggests new avenues of experimentation. © 2017 Ficici et al.

  18. Approach-avoidance activation without anterior asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andero eUusberg

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Occasionally, the expected effects of approach-avoidance motivation on anterior EEG alpha asymmetry fail to emerge, particularly in studies using affective picture stimuli. These null findings have been explained by insufficient motivational intensity of, and/or overshadowing interindividual variability within the responses to emotional pictures. These explanations were systematically tested using data from 70 students watching 5 types of affective pictures ranging from very pleasant to unpleasant. The stimulus categories reliably modulated self-reports as well as the amplitude of late positive potential, an ERP component reflecting orienting towards motivationally significant stimuli. The stimuli did not, however, induce expected asymmetry effects either for the sample or individual participants. Even while systematic stimulus-dependent individual differences emerged in self-reports as well as LPP amplitudes, the asymmetry variability was dominated by stimulus-independent interindividual variability. Taken together with previous findings, these results suggest that under some circumstances anterior asymmetry may not be an inevitable consequence of core affect. Instead, state asymmetry shifts may be overpowered by stable trait asymmetry differences and/or stimulus-independent yet situation-dependent interindividual variability, possibly caused by processes such as emotion regulation or anxious apprehension.

  19. ``Green's function'' approach & low-mode asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Laurent; Clark, Dan; Salmonson, Jay; MacLaren, Steve; Ma, Tammy; Khan, Shahab; Pino, Jesse; Ralph, Jo; Czajka, C.; Tipton, Robert; Landen, Otto; Kyrala, Georges; 2 Team; 1 Team

    2017-10-01

    Long wavelength, low mode asymmetries are believed to play a leading role in limiting the performance of current ICF implosions on NIF. These long wavelength modes are initiated and driven by asymmetries in the x-ray flux from the hohlraum; however, the underlying hydrodynamics of the implosion also act to amplify these asymmetries. The work presented here aim to deepen our understanding of the interplay of the drive asymmetries and the underlying implosion hydrodynamics in determining the final imploded configuration. This is accomplished through a synthesis of numerical modeling, analytic theory, and experimental data. In detail, we use a Green's function approach to connect the drive asymmetry seen by the capsule to the measured inflight and hot spot symmetries. The approach has been validated against a suite of numerical simulations. Ultimately, we hope this work will identify additional measurements to further constrain the asymmetries and increase hohlraum illumination design flexibility on the NIF. The technique and derivation of associated error bars will be presented. LLC, (LLNS) Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. The first transmembrane domain (TM1) of β2-subunit binds to the transmembrane domain S1 of α-subunit in BK potassium channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morera, Francisco J.; Alioua, Abderrahmane; Kundu, Pallob; Salazar, Marcelo; Gonzalez, Carlos; Martinez, Agustin D.; Stefani, Enrico; Toro, Ligia; Latorre, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    The BK channel is one of the most broadly expressed ion channels in mammals. In many tissues, the BK channel pore-forming α-subunit is associated to an auxiliary β-subunit that modulates the voltage- and Ca2+-dependent activation of the channel. Structural components present in β-subunits that are important for the physical association with the α-subunit are yet unknown. Here, we show through co-immunoprecipitation that the intracellular C-terminus, the second transmembrane domain (TM2) and the extracellular loop of the β2-subunit are dispensable for association with the α-subunit pointing transmembrane domain 1 (TM1) as responsible for the interaction. Indeed, the TOXCAT assay for transmembrane protein–protein interactions demonstrated for the first time that TM1 of the β2-subunit physically binds to the transmembrane S1 domain of the α-subunit. PMID:22710124

  1. MutHTP: Mutations in Human Transmembrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Kulandaisamy; S, Binny Priya; R, Sakthivel; Tarnovskaya, Svetlana; Bizin, Ilya; Hönigschmid, Peter; Frishman, Dmitrij; Gromiha, M Michael

    2018-02-01

    We have developed a novel database, MutHTP, which contains information on 183395 disease-associated and 17827 neutral mutations in human transmembrane proteins. For each mutation site MutHTP provides a description of its location with respect to the membrane protein topology, structural environment (if available) and functional features. Comprehensive visualization, search, display and download options are available. The database is publicly available at http://www.iitm.ac.in/bioinfo/MutHTP/. The website is implemented using HTML, PHP and javascript and supports recent versions of all major browsers, such as Firefox, Chrome and Opera. gromiha@iitm.ac.in. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2018). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. Effect of ionizing radiation on transmembrane potential of Streptococcus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomenko, B.S.; Akoev, I.G.

    1979-01-01

    Treatment of Streptococcus faecalis with ionizing radiation at doses of 5 to 100 krad is shown to reduce the energy-dependent accumulation of dibenzyldimethylammonium (DDA + ) by the cell. Since transmembrane potential is the moving force of DDA + transport across the membrane, the decrease in DDA + accumulation is suggested to be due to potential reduction. This radiation effect was not due to inactivation of the potential-generating mechanism; thus, the ATPase activity and glycolytic activity of the irradiated cells were higher than in the control. At the same time, the membranes exhibited an increased permeability for K + and protons, which is probably due to structural rearrangements in the membranes after irradiation. It is suggested that the potential reduction results from the increase in proton permeability of membranes

  3. Transmembrane helical interactions in the CFTR channel pore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhuma Das

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR gene affect CFTR protein biogenesis or its function as a chloride channel, resulting in dysregulation of epithelial fluid transport in the lung, pancreas and other organs in cystic fibrosis (CF. Development of pharmaceutical strategies to treat CF requires understanding of the mechanisms underlying channel function. However, incomplete 3D structural information on the unique ABC ion channel, CFTR, hinders elucidation of its functional mechanism and correction of cystic fibrosis causing mutants. Several CFTR homology models have been developed using bacterial ABC transporters as templates but these have low sequence similarity to CFTR and are not ion channels. Here, we refine an earlier model in an outward (OWF and develop an inward (IWF facing model employing an integrated experimental-molecular dynamics simulation (200 ns approach. Our IWF structure agrees well with a recently solved cryo-EM structure of a CFTR IWF state. We utilize cysteine cross-linking to verify positions and orientations of residues within trans-membrane helices (TMHs of the OWF conformation and to reconstruct a physiologically relevant pore structure. Comparison of pore profiles of the two conformations reveal a radius sufficient to permit passage of hydrated Cl- ions in the OWF but not the IWF model. To identify structural determinants that distinguish the two conformations and possible rearrangements of TMHs within them responsible for channel gating, we perform cross-linking by bifunctional reagents of multiple predicted pairs of cysteines in TMH 6 and 12 and 6 and 9. To determine whether the effects of cross-linking on gating observed are the result of switching of the channel from open to close state, we also treat the same residue pairs with monofunctional reagents in separate experiments. Both types of reagents prevent ion currents indicating that pore blockage is primarily responsible.

  4. Hidden markov model for the prediction of transmembrane proteins using MATLAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Navaneet; Shanker, Sudhanshu; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Sinha, Dhiraj; Pandey, Paras Nath

    2011-01-01

    Since membranous proteins play a key role in drug targeting therefore transmembrane proteins prediction is active and challenging area of biological sciences. Location based prediction of transmembrane proteins are significant for functional annotation of protein sequences. Hidden markov model based method was widely applied for transmembrane topology prediction. Here we have presented a revised and a better understanding model than an existing one for transmembrane protein prediction. Scripting on MATLAB was built and compiled for parameter estimation of model and applied this model on amino acid sequence to know the transmembrane and its adjacent locations. Estimated model of transmembrane topology was based on TMHMM model architecture. Only 7 super states are defined in the given dataset, which were converted to 96 states on the basis of their length in sequence. Accuracy of the prediction of model was observed about 74 %, is a good enough in the area of transmembrane topology prediction. Therefore we have concluded the hidden markov model plays crucial role in transmembrane helices prediction on MATLAB platform and it could also be useful for drug discovery strategy. The database is available for free at bioinfonavneet@gmail.comvinaysingh@bhu.ac.in.

  5. [Orthodontic treatment of Class III patients with mandibular asymmetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yin-Zhong; Huo, Na; Chen, Lei; Chen, Xue-Peng; Lin, Yang

    2008-12-01

    To investigate the treatment outcome of Class III patients with dental, functional and mild skeletal mandibular asymmetry. Thirty-five patients (14 males and 21 females) with dental, functional and mild skeletal mandibular asymmetry were selected. The age range of the patients was 7 - 22 years with a mean age of 16.5 years. Dental mandibular asymmetry was treated with expansion of maxillary arch to help the mandible returning to normal position. Functional mandibular asymmetry was treated with activator or asymmetrical protraction and Class III elastics. Mild skeletal mandibular asymmetry was treated with camouflage treatment. Good occlusal relationships were achieved and facial esthetics was greatly improved after orthodontic treatment in patients with dental and functional mandibular asymmetry. However, patients with skeletal mandibular asymmetry should be treated with both extraction and genioplasty. Orthodontic treatment was suitable for patients with dental and functional mandibular asymmetry, while combined orthodontics and surgery could get good results in patients with skeletal mandibular asymmetry.

  6. Oil demand asymmetry in the OECD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shealy, M.T.

    1990-01-01

    Oil demand asymmetry exists, is significant, and can be captured with a simple demand equation using a Pmax term. The unstable parameters of the original symmetric equations suggest misspecification. Addition of a Pmax term to represent asymmetry yields stable parameters from 1982 through 1989 and so suggests proper specification. Asymmetry is significant because the short-run (and long-run) price elasticity is less than half as large when oil price falls as when price rises beyond the past peak. The lower elasticity applies both to price decreases and also to price increases for which price remains below the past peak. As long as the real oil price remains well below the 1981 peak, asymmetry implies that OECD oil demand should be less sensitive to oil price variations than in 1981. More specifically, the results shown suggest that today's oil demand elasticity should be less than half as large as the elasticity for a price increase in 1981. Forecasts from the asymmetric equations are significantly higher than the DOE base-case forecast. DOE's lower forecast is due to greater price asymmetry through 1995 and to higher long-run price elasticity beyond 1995. One reason for the higher long-run price elasticity might be greater assumed improvements in energy-efficiency than implied by the historical data

  7. The Inherent Asymmetry of DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedeker, Jonathan; Wooten, Matthew; Chen, Xin

    2017-10-06

    Semiconservative DNA replication has provided an elegant solution to the fundamental problem of how life is able to proliferate in a way that allows cells, organisms, and populations to survive and replicate many times over. Somewhat lost, however, in our admiration for this mechanism is an appreciation for the asymmetries that occur in the process of DNA replication. As we discuss in this review, these asymmetries arise as a consequence of the structure of the DNA molecule and the enzymatic mechanism of DNA synthesis. Increasing evidence suggests that asymmetries in DNA replication are able to play a central role in the processes of adaptation and evolution by shaping the mutagenic landscape of cells. Additionally, in eukaryotes, recent work has demonstrated that the inherent asymmetries in DNA replication may play an important role in the process of chromatin replication. As chromatin plays an essential role in defining cell identity, asymmetries generated during the process of DNA replication may play critical roles in cell fate decisions related to patterning and development.

  8. Asymmetry of the Brain: Development and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duboc, Véronique; Dufourcq, Pascale; Blader, Patrick; Roussigné, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    Although the left and right hemispheres of our brains develop with a high degree of symmetry at both the anatomical and functional levels, it has become clear that subtle structural differences exist between the two sides and that each is dominant in processing specific cognitive tasks. As the result of evolutionary conservation or convergence, lateralization of the brain is found in both vertebrates and invertebrates, suggesting that it provides significant fitness for animal life. This widespread feature of hemispheric specialization has allowed the emergence of model systems to study its development and, in some cases, to link anatomical asymmetries to brain function and behavior. Here, we present some of what is known about brain asymmetry in humans and model organisms as well as what is known about the impact of environmental and genetic factors on brain asymmetry development. We specifically highlight the progress made in understanding the development of epithalamic asymmetries in zebrafish and how this model provides an exciting opportunity to address brain asymmetry at different levels of complexity.

  9. Measurement of Z0 lepton coupling asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smy, M.B.

    1997-07-01

    Polarized Z 0 's from e + e - collisions at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) have been used to determine the asymmetry parameters A e , A μ and A τ from the leptonic decay channels. This is the first direct measurement of A μ . The data have been gathered by the SLC Large Detector (SLD) with the electron polarization averaging 63% during the 1993 data taking period and 77% in 1994-95. A maximum likelihood procedure as well as cross section asymmetries was used to measure the asymmetry parameters from the differential cross sections for equal luminosities of left- and right-handed electron beams. The polarization-dependent muon-pair distributions give A μ = 0.102 ±0.034 and the tau-pairs give A τ = 0.195 ±0.034. The initial state electronic couplings in all three leptonic channels as well as the final state angular distribution in the e + e - final state measure A e to be A e = 0.152±0.012. Assuming lepton universality and defining a global leptonic asymmetry parameter A e-μ-τ = 0.151±0.011. This global leptonic asymmetry value translates directly into sin 2 θ W eff =0.2310±0.0014 at the Z 0 pole

  10. Asymmetry dependence of the nuclear caloric curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntosh, A.B.; Bonasera, A.; Cammarata, P.; Hagel, K.; Heilborn, L.; Kohley, Z.; Mabiala, J.; May, L.W.; Marini, P.; Raphelt, A.; Souliotis, G.A.; Wuenschel, S.; Zarrella, A.; Yennello, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    A basic feature of the nuclear equation of state is not yet understood: the dependence of the nuclear caloric curve on the neutron–proton asymmetry. Predictions of theoretical models differ on the magnitude and even the sign of this dependence. In this work, the nuclear caloric curve is examined for fully reconstructed quasi-projectiles around mass A=50. The caloric curve extracted with the momentum quadrupole fluctuation thermometer shows that the temperature varies linearly with quasi-projectile asymmetry (N−Z)/A . An increase in asymmetry of 0.15 units corresponds to a decrease in temperature on the order of 1 MeV. These results also highlight the importance of a full quasi-projectile reconstruction in the study of thermodynamic properties of hot nuclei

  11. The electroweak polarization asymmetry: A guided tour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, D.C.

    1988-10-01

    A comprehensive review is provided of the electroweak polarization asymmetry at the Z 0 , a highly accurate measure of the Z 0 coupling to fermions. Its significance as a precision test of the Standard Model is explored in detail. Emphasized are the role of electroweak symmetry-breaking and radiative corrections; the non-decoupling of new physics beyond the Z 0 ; and the testing of extensions of the Standard Model, such as supersymmetry, technicolor, new generations of fermions, grand unification, and new gauge forces. Also discussed are the relationship of the polarization asymmetry to other electroweak observables and its superiority to other Z 0 asymmetries. Experimental issues are briefly presented, stressing the importance of polarization at the SLC and LEP e + e - colliders. 42 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Superheavy thermal dark matter and primordial asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramante, Joseph [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline St N, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Unwin, James [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago,845 W Taylor St, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States)

    2017-02-23

    The early universe could feature multiple reheating events, leading to jumps in the visible sector entropy density that dilute both particle asymmetries and the number density of frozen-out states. In fact, late time entropy jumps are usually required in models of Affleck-Dine baryogenesis, which typically produces an initial particle-antiparticle asymmetry that is much too large. An important consequence of late time dilution, is that a smaller dark matter annihilation cross section is needed to obtain the observed dark matter relic density. For cosmologies with high scale baryogenesis, followed by radiation-dominated dark matter freeze-out, we show that the perturbative unitarity mass bound on thermal relic dark matter is relaxed to 10{sup 10} GeV. We proceed to study superheavy asymmetric dark matter models, made possible by a sizable entropy injection after dark matter freeze-out, and identify how the Affleck-Dine mechanism would generate the baryon and dark asymmetries.

  13. Superheavy thermal dark matter and primordial asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramante, Joseph; Unwin, James

    2017-01-01

    The early universe could feature multiple reheating events, leading to jumps in the visible sector entropy density that dilute both particle asymmetries and the number density of frozen-out states. In fact, late time entropy jumps are usually required in models of Affleck-Dine baryogenesis, which typically produces an initial particle-antiparticle asymmetry that is much too large. An important consequence of late time dilution, is that a smaller dark matter annihilation cross section is needed to obtain the observed dark matter relic density. For cosmologies with high scale baryogenesis, followed by radiation-dominated dark matter freeze-out, we show that the perturbative unitarity mass bound on thermal relic dark matter is relaxed to 10 10 GeV. We proceed to study superheavy asymmetric dark matter models, made possible by a sizable entropy injection after dark matter freeze-out, and identify how the Affleck-Dine mechanism would generate the baryon and dark asymmetries.

  14. CP asymmetries in semiinclusive B0 decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunietz, Isard

    1999-02-01

    It was recently pointed out that inclusive B^0(t) decays could show CP violation. The totally inclusive asymmetry is expected to be tiny [O(10^{-3})] because of large cancellations among the asymmetries in the charmless, single charm and double charm final states. Enriching particular final state configurations could significantly increase the CP-asymmetry and observability. Such studies can extract fundamental CKM (Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa) parameters, and (perhaps) even Delta m(B_s). A superb vertex detector could see CP violation with 10^5 (10^6) flavor-tagged B_s (B_d) mesons within the CKM model. Because the effects could be significantly larger due to new physics, they should be searched for in existing or soon available data samples.

  15. Asymmetry in power-law magnitude correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podobnik, Boris; Horvatić, Davor; Tenenbaum, Joel N; Stanley, H Eugene

    2009-07-01

    Time series of increments can be created in a number of different ways from a variety of physical phenomena. For example, in the phenomenon of volatility clustering-well-known in finance-magnitudes of adjacent increments are correlated. Moreover, in some time series, magnitude correlations display asymmetry with respect to an increment's sign: the magnitude of |x_{i}| depends on the sign of the previous increment x_{i-1} . Here we define a model-independent test to measure the statistical significance of any observed asymmetry. We propose a simple stochastic process characterized by a an asymmetry parameter lambda and a method for estimating lambda . We illustrate both the test and process by analyzing physiological data.

  16. Do gasoline prices exhibit asymmetry? Not usually

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Christopher C.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have found evidence of asymmetric price adjustment in U.S. retail gasoline prices in that gasoline prices rise more rapidly in response to a cost increase than fall in response to a cost decrease. By estimating a threshold cointegration model that allows for multiple regimes, I am able to test how sensitive this result is to outlying observations. In contrast to previous studies, I find little evidence of asymmetry for the vast majority of observations and that the asymmetry is being driven by a small number of outlying observations. (author)

  17. The gluon Sivers asymmetry measurements at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Szabelski, Adam

    2018-01-01

    The Sivers function describes the correlation between the transverse spin of a nucleon and the transverse motion of its partons. As such, a nonzero Sivers effect for gluons could be a signature of their nonzero orbital angular momentum inside the nucleon. COMPASS has collected data of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering by impinging 160 GeV/$c$ muons on transversely polarised proton and deuteron targets. The gluon Sivers asymmetry is extracted from a high-$p_T$ hadron pair sample with the use of monte carlo simulations and the a neural network approach. The results of a similar analysis for a Collins-like asymmetry for gluons will also be given.

  18. The gluon Sivers asymmetry measurements at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Szabelski, Adam

    2017-01-01

    The Sivers function describes the correlation between the transverse spin of a nucleon and the transverse motion of its partons. As such, a nonzero Sivers effect for gluons could be a signature of their nonzero orbital angular momentum inside the nucleon. COMPASS has collected data of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering by impinging 160 GeV/$c$ muons on transversely polarised proton and deuteron targets. The gluon Sivers asymmetry is extracted from a high-$p_T$ hadron pair sample with the use of monte carlo simulations and the a neural network approach. The results of a similar analysis for a Collins-like asymmetry for gluons will also be given.

  19. Transmembrane Peptides as Sensors of the Membrane Physical State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Piotto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cell membranes are commonly considered fundamental structures having multiple roles such as confinement, storage of lipids, sustain and control of membrane proteins. In spite of their importance, many aspects remain unclear. The number of lipid types is orders of magnitude larger than the number of amino acids, and this compositional complexity is not clearly embedded in any membrane model. A diffused hypothesis is that the large lipid palette permits to recruit and organize specific proteins controlling the formation of specialized lipid domains and the lateral pressure profile of the bilayer. Unfortunately, a satisfactory knowledge of lipid abundance remains utopian because of the technical difficulties in isolating definite membrane regions. More importantly, a theoretical framework where to fit the lipidomic data is still missing. In this work, we wish to utilize the amino acid sequence and frequency of the membrane proteins as bioinformatics sensors of cell bilayers. The use of an alignment-free method to find a correlation between the sequences of transmembrane portion of membrane proteins with the membrane physical state (MPS suggested a new approach for the discovery of antimicrobial peptides.

  20. Incorporation of transmembrane hydroxide transport into the chemiosmotic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grey, A D

    1999-10-01

    A cornerstone of textbook bioenergetics is that oxidative ATP synthesis in mitochondria requires, in normal conditions of internal and external pH, a potential difference (delta psi) of well over 100 mV between the aqueous compartments that the energy-transducing membrane separates. Measurements of delta psi inferred from diffusion of membrane-permeant ions confirm this, but those using microelectrodes consistently find no such delta psi--a result ostensibly irreconcilable with the chemiosmotic theory. Transmembrane hydroxide transport necessarily accompanies mitochondrial ATP synthesis, due to the action of several carrier proteins; this nullifies some of the proton transport by the respiratory chain. Here, it is proposed that these carriers' structure causes the path of this "lost" proton flow to include a component perpendicular to the membrane but within the aqueous phases, so maintaining a steady-state proton-motive force between the water at each membrane surface and in the adjacent bulk medium. The conflicting measurements of delta psi are shown to be consistent with the response of this system to its chemical environment.

  1. Transmembrane topology of the acetylcholine receptor examined in reconstituted vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrea, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    Each of the five acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subunits, α 2 β-γδ, is believed to have the same number of transmembrane crossing and to share the same general folding pattern. AChR isolated from the electric organ of electric fish is predominantly dimeric. We have used this bridge as a marker for the C-terminus of the δ subunit, and presumably that of the other subunits in addition. The disulfide's accessibility to hydrophilic reductants, principally glutathione (GSH), was tested in a reconstituted vesicle system. The reduction of the δ-δ desulfide, as evidenced by the transition of AChrR dimers to monomers, was quantitatively monitored on velocity sedimentation sucrose gradients. Alternatively, the reduction of δ 2 to δ was followed by employing non-reducing SDS-PAGE. Reductants such as GSH were able to access the bridge in intact right-side-out vesicles. No acceleration of this process was evident when the vesicles were disrupted by freeze-thaw or by detergents. Control experiments which determined the rate of reduction of entrapped diphtheria toxin, or that of 3 H-GSH efflux, demonstrated that intact reconstituted vesicles provide an adequate permeability barrier to GSH access of their intravesicular space

  2. NMR studies of transmembrane electron transport in human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennett, E.C.; Bubb, W.A.; Kuchel, P.W.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Electron transport systems exist in the plasma membranes of all cells. These systems appear to play a role in cell growth and proliferation, intracellular signalling, hormone responses, apoptotic events, cell defence and perhaps most importantly they enable the cell to respond to changes in the redox state of both the intra- and extracellular environments. Previously, 13 C NMR has been used to study transmembrane electron transport in human erythrocytes, specifically the reduction of extracellular 13 C-ferricyanide. NMR is a particularly useful tool for studying such systems as changes in the metabolic state of the cell can be observed concomitantly with extracellular reductase activity. We investigated the oxidation of extracellular NADH by human erythrocytes using 1 H and 31 P NMR spectroscopy. Recent results for glucose-starved human erythrocytes indicate that, under these conditions, extracellular NADH can be oxidised at the plasma membrane with the electron transfer across the membrane resulting in reduction of intracellular NAD + . The activity is inhibited by known trans-plasma membrane electron transport inhibitors (capsaicin and atebrin) and is unaffected by inhibition of the erythrocyte Band 3 anion transporter. These results suggest that electron import from extracellular NADH allows the cell to re-establish a reducing environment after the normal redox balance is disturbed

  3. Transmembrane peptides as sensors of the membrane physical state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotto, Stefano; Di Biasi, Luigi; Sessa, Lucia; Concilio, Simona

    2018-05-01

    Cell membranes are commonly considered fundamental structures having multiple roles such as confinement, storage of lipids, sustain and control of membrane proteins. In spite of their importance, many aspects remain unclear. The number of lipid types is orders of magnitude larger than the number of amino acids, and this compositional complexity is not clearly embedded in any membrane model. A diffused hypothesis is that the large lipid palette permits to recruit and organize specific proteins controlling the formation of specialized lipid domains and the lateral pressure profile of the bilayer. Unfortunately, a satisfactory knowledge of lipid abundance remains utopian because of the technical difficulties in isolating definite membrane regions. More importantly, a theoretical framework where to fit the lipidomic data is still missing. In this work, we wish to utilize the amino acid sequence and frequency of the membrane proteins as bioinformatics sensors of cell bilayers. The use of an alignment-free method to find a correlation between the sequences of transmembrane portion of membrane proteins with the membrane physical state suggested a new approach for the discovery of antimicrobial peptides.

  4. Mandibular asymmetry and the fourth dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaban, Leonard B

    2009-03-01

    This paper represents more than 30 years of discussion and collaboration with Drs Joseph Murray and John Mulliken in an attempt to understand growth patterns over time (ie, fourth dimension) in patients with hemifacial microsomia (HFM). This is essential for the development of rational treatment protocols for children and adults with jaw asymmetry. Traditionally, HFM was thought of as a unilateral deformity, but it was recognized that 20% to 30% of patients had bilateral abnormalities. However, early descriptions of skeletal correction addressed almost exclusively lengthening of the short (affected) side of the face. Based on longitudinal clinical observations of unoperated HFM patients, we hypothesized that abnormal mandibular growth is the earliest skeletal manifestation and that restricted growth of the mandible plays a pivotal role in progressive distortion of both the ipsilateral and contralateral facial skeleton. This hypothesis explains the progressive nature of the asymmetry in patients with HFM and provides the rationale for surgical lengthening of the mandible in children to prevent end-stage deformity. During the past 30 years, we have learned that this phenomenon of progressive distortion of the adjacent and contralateral facial skeleton occurs with other asymmetric mandibular undergrowth (tumor resection, radiation therapy, or posttraumatic defects) and overgrowth (mandibular condylar hyperplasia) conditions. In this paper, I describe the progression of deformity with time in patients with mandibular asymmetry as a result of undergrowth and overgrowth. Understanding these concepts is critical for the development of rational treatment protocols for adults with end-stage asymmetry and for children to minimize secondary deformity.

  5. Measuring Asymmetry in Insect-Plant Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Claudia P T [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN - Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078 972, Natal, RN (Brazil); De Almeida, Adriana M [Departamento de Botanica, Ecologia e Zoologia, Centro de Biociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN - Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078 972, Natal, RN (Brazil); Corso, Gilberto, E-mail: claudia@dfte.ufrn.br, E-mail: adrianam@ufrn.br, E-mail: corso@cb.ufrn.br [Departamento de Biofisica e Farmacologia, Centro de Biociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN - Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078 972, Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2011-03-01

    In this work we focus on interaction networks between insects and plants and in the characterization of insect plant asymmetry, an important issue in coevolution and evolutionary biology. We analyze in particular the asymmetry in the interaction matrix of animals (herbivorous insects) and plants (food resource for the insects). Instead of driving our attention to the interaction matrix itself we derive two networks associated to the bipartite network: the animal network, D{sub 1}, and the plant network, D{sub 2}. These networks are constructed according to the following recipe: two animal species are linked once if they interact with the same plant. In a similar way, in the plant network, two plants are linked if they interact with the same animal. To explore the asymmetry between D{sub 2} and D{sub 1} we test for a set of 23 networks from the ecologic literature networks: the difference in size, {Delta}L, clustering coefficient difference, {Delta}C, and mean connectivity difference, {Delta}. We used a nonparametric statistical test to check the differences in {Delta}L, {Delta}C and {Delta}. Our results indicate that {Delta}L and {Delta} show a significative asymmetry.

  6. Frontal Brain Asymmetry and Willingness to Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsøy, Thomas Z; Skov, Martin; Christensen, Maiken K; Stahlhut, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    Consumers frequently make decisions about how much they are willing to pay (WTP) for specific products and services, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying such calculations. In this study, we were interested in testing whether specific brain activation-the asymmetry in engagement of the prefrontal cortex-would be related to consumer choice. Subjects saw products and subsequently decided how much they were willing to pay for each product, while undergoing neuroimaging using electroencephalography. Our results demonstrate that prefrontal asymmetry in the gamma frequency band, and a trend in the beta frequency band that was recorded during product viewing was significantly related to subsequent WTP responses. Frontal asymmetry in the alpha band was not related to WTP decisions. Besides suggesting separate neuropsychological mechanisms of consumer choice, we find that one specific measure-the prefrontal gamma asymmetry-was most strongly related to WTP responses, and was most coupled to the actual decision phase. These findings are discussed in light of the psychology of WTP calculations, and in relation to the recent emergence of consumer neuroscience and neuromarketing.

  7. Frontal Brain Asymmetry and Willingness to Pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsøy, Thomas Z.; Skov, Martin; Christensen, Maiken K.

    2018-01-01

    measure-the prefrontal gamma asymmetry-was most strongly related to WTP responses, and was most coupled to the actual decision phase. These findings are discussed in light of the psychology of WTP calculations, and in relation to the recent emergence of consumer neuroscience and neuromarketing....

  8. Human cerebral asymmetries evaluated by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Chui, H; Damasio, A R [Iowa Univ., Iowa City (USA)

    1980-10-01

    The handedness of seventy-five persons without evidence of neurological disease, was assessed with a standardised test. An analysis of the CT scans of the same persons was performed to determine (1) presence and lateralisation of frontal and occipital 'petalia', (2) width of frontal and occipital lobes of each hemisphere, (3) direction of straight sinus deviation. Results suggest that handedness and cerebral asymmetries are independent variables. There were no significant differences between right-handers and non-right handers. Also there was no significant differences between strongly left-handed and ambidextrous individuals, nor were there differences between right-handers with or without family history of left-handedness. Irrespective of handedness, left occipital 'petalia' was more common than right (p<0.01), right frontal petalia was more common than left (p<0.01), and straight sinus deviation was more commonly toward the right. The study does not support the concept that cerebral 'symmetry' or 'reverse asymmetry' are associated with left-handedness or ambidexterity. The noted asymmetries are more likely to be direct correlates of cerebral language dominance, than of handedness. Outside forces acting on the bone may also contribute to the asymmetries. CT scan may be of value as a direct predictor of cerebral dominance.

  9. Introduction "Workplace (a)symmetries: multimodal perspectives"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmuss, Birte

    studied in everyday and professional settings (Ariss, 2009; Glenn, 2010; Maynard, 1991; Roberts, 2000; Robinson, 2001). Numerous studies have pointed out that (a)symmetries in talk can be results of underlying interactional micro-practices like uneven turn distribution and question-answer formats...

  10. Binomial distribution for the charge asymmetry parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.T.; Yang, C.N.

    1984-01-01

    It is suggested that for high energy collisions the distribution with respect to the charge asymmetry z = nsub(F) - nsub(B) is binomial, where nsub(F) and nsub(B) are the forward and backward charge multiplicities. (orig.)

  11. Effect of stress on structural brain asymmetry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zach, P.; Valeš, Karel; Stuchlík, Aleš; Čermáková, P.; Mrzílková, J.; Koutella, A.; Kutová, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 4 (2016), s. 253-264 ISSN 0172-780X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : laterality * asymmetry * brain * evolution * stress * neuropsychiatric disorders Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2016

  12. Hemispheric and facial asymmetry: faces of academe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W M

    1998-11-01

    Facial asymmetry (facedness) of selected academic faculty members was studied in relation to brain asymmetry and cognitive specialization. Comparisons of facedness were made among humanities faculty (H), faculty members of mathematics and physics (M-P), psychologists (P), and a group of randomly selected individuals (R). Facedness was defined in terms of the relative sizes (in square centimeters) of the two hemifaces. It was predicted that the four groups would show differences in facedness, namely, H, right face bias; M-P, left face bias; P, no bias; and R, no bias. The predictions were confirmed, and the results interpreted in terms of known differences in hemispheric specialization of cognitive functions as they relate to the dominant cognitive activity of each of the different groups. In view of the contralateral control of the two hemifaces (below the eyes) by the two hemispheres of the brain, the two sides of the face undergo differential muscular development, thus creating facial asymmetry. Other factors, such as gender, also may affect facial asymmetry. Suggestions for further research on facedness are discussed.

  13. Baryon asymmetry from Planck-scale physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelmini, G.; Holman, R.; Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA

    1992-06-01

    It has been noted recently that Planck scale physics may induce the explicit breaking of global symmetries. We point out that in Majoron models, these explicit breakings, combined with sphaleron induced violation of B + L can give rise to the baryon asymmetry of the Universe

  14. Human cerebral asymmetries evaluated by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Chui, H.; Damasio, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    The handedness of seventy-five persons without evidence of neurological disease, was assessed with a standardised test. An analysis of the CT scans of the same persons was performed to determine (1) presence and lateralisation of frontal and occipital 'petalia', (2) width of frontal and occipital lobes of each hemisphere, (3) direction of straight sinus deviation. Results suggest that handedness and cerebral asymmetries are independent variables. There were no significant differences between right-handers and non-right handers. Also there was no significant differences between strongly left-handed and ambidextrous individuals, nor were there differences between right-handers with or without family history of left-handedness. Irrespective of handedness, left occipital 'petalia' was more common than right (p<0.01), right frontal petalia was more common than left (p<0.01), and straight sinus deviation was more commonly toward the right. The study does not support the concept that cerebral 'symmetry' or 'reverse asymmetry' are associated with left-handedness or ambidexterity. The noted asymmetries are more likely to be direct correlates of cerebral language dominance, than of handedness. Outside forces acting on the bone may also contribute to the asymmetries. CT scan may be of value as a direct predictor of cerebral dominance. (author)

  15. Photon asymmetry from radiative muon capture on 40Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larabee, A.J.; Burnham, R.A.; Gorringe, T.P.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Horvath, D.; Noble, A.J.; Pouladdej, A.; Virtue, C.J.; Azuelos, G.; Robertson, B.C.; Wright, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    The photon asymmetry (α γ) for 40 Ca has been measured at TRIUMF using the muon spin-rotation technique. From the asymmetry measurement, the value of the pseudoscalar coupling constant, g p , can be obtained. A total of 5500 clean photon events were collected. The preliminary value found for the photon asymmetry of 40 Ca is 1.00 ± 0.23

  16. Cerebral asymmetry in a selected Chinese population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.X.; He, G.X.; Tong, G.H.; Wang, D.B.; Xu, K.Y.

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated anatomical differences between the two cerebral hemispheres and ethnic differences in cerebral asymmetry. This study examined asymmetry of Chinese living in Shanghai. Measurements were taken across the frontal, mid-cerebral and occipital regions from normal head computed tomography (CT) scans of 200 Chinese Shanghai residents (100 male and 100 female, aged 6-73 years, average 48.7 years). The results were compared with reported data in the literature. The following results were found: (i) In the frontal region the right side was larger than the left in 57.5% of cases, equal in 10.5% and smaller in 32% of cases; in the mid-cerebral region the right side was larger than the left in 65.5% of cases, equal in 12.5% and smaller in 22% of cases; in the occipital regions the right side was larger than the left in 34.5% of cases, equal in 8.5% and smaller in 57% of cases. The average right-left differences between the frontal, mid-cerebral and occipital regions were 0.43 mm, 0.9 mm and 0.4 mm respectively. No difference in cerebral asymmetry existed between males and females. The occipital lobes showed the greatest individual asymmetry. The distribution of cerebral asymmetry of Chinese in Shanghai showed similarity to North American Whites rather than North American Blacks, but the average right-left differences were smaller than those of Whites. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  17. Molecular pharmacology of promiscuous seven transmembrane receptors sensing organic nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Johansen, Lars Dan; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2009-09-01

    A number of highly promiscuous seven transmembrane (7TM) receptors have been cloned and characterized within the last few years. It is noteworthy that many of these receptors are activated broadly by amino acids, proteolytic degradation products, carbohydrates, or free fatty acids and are expressed in taste tissue, the gastrointestinal tract, endocrine glands, adipose tissue, and/or kidney. These receptors thus hold the potential to act as sensors of food intake, regulating, for example, release of incretin hormones from the gut, insulin/glucagon from the pancreas, and leptin from adipose tissue. The promiscuous tendency in ligand recognition of these receptors is in contrast to the typical specific interaction with one physiological agonist seen for most receptors, which challenges the classic "lock-and-key" concept. We here review the molecular mechanisms of nutrient sensing of the calcium-sensing receptor, the G protein-coupled receptor family C, group 6, subtype A (GPRC6A), and the taste1 receptor T1R1/T1R3, which are sensing L-alpha-amino acids, the carbohydrate-sensing T1R2/T1R3 receptor, the proteolytic degradation product sensor GPR93 (also termed GPR92), and the free fatty acid (FFA) sensing receptors FFA1, FFA2, FFA3, GPR84, and GPR120. The involvement of the individual receptors in sensing of food intake has been validated to different degrees because of limited availability of specific pharmacological tools and/or receptor knockout mice. However, as a group, the receptors represent potential drug targets, to treat, for example, type II diabetes by mimicking food intake by potent agonists or positive allosteric modulators. The ligand-receptor interactions of the promiscuous receptors of organic nutrients thus remain an interesting subject of emerging functional importance.

  18. Functional characterization of transmembrane adenylyl cyclases from the honeybee brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfanz, Sabine; Ehling, Petra; Wachten, Sebastian; Jordan, Nadine; Erber, Joachim; Mujagic, Samir; Baumann, Arnd

    2012-06-01

    The second messenger cAMP has a pivotal role in animals' physiology and behavior. Intracellular concentrations of cAMP are balanced by cAMP-synthesizing adenylyl cyclases (ACs) and cAMP-cleaving phosphodiesterases. Knowledge about ACs in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) is rather limited and only an ortholog of the vertebrate AC3 isoform has been functionally characterized, so far. Employing bioinformatics and functional expression we characterized two additional honeybee genes encoding membrane-bound (tm)ACs. The proteins were designated AmAC2t and AmAC8. Unlike the common structure of tmACs, AmAC2t lacks the first transmembrane domain. Despite this unusual topography, AmAC2t-activity could be stimulated by norepinephrine and NKH477 with EC(50s) of 0.07 μM and 3 μM. Both ligands stimulated AmAC8 with EC(50s) of 0.24 μM and 3.1 μM. In brain cryosections, intensive staining of mushroom bodies was observed with specific antibodies against AmAC8, an expression pattern highly reminiscent of the Drosophila rutabaga AC. In a current release of the honeybee genome database we identified three additional tmAC- and one soluble AC-encoding gene. These results suggest that (1) the AC-gene family in honeybees is comparably large as in other species, and (2) based on the restricted expression of AmAC8 in mushroom bodies, this enzyme might serve important functions in honeybee behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biological amine transport in chromaffin ghosts. Coupling to the transmembrane proton and potential gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R G; Pfister, D; Carty, S E; Scarpa, A

    1979-11-10

    The effect of the transmembrane proton gradient (delta pH) and potential gradient (delta psi) upon the rate and extent of amine accumulation was investigated in chromaffin ghosts. The chromaffin ghosts were formed by hypo-osmotic lysis of isolated bovine chromaffin granules and extensive dialysis in order to remove intragranular binding components and dissipate the endogenous electrochemical gradients. Upon ATP addition to suspensions of chromaffin ghosts, a transmembrane proton gradient alone, a transmembrane gradient alone, or both, could be established, depending upon the compositions of the media in which the ghosts were formed and resuspended. When chloride was present in the medium, addition of ATP resulted in the generation of a transmembrane proton gradient, acidic inside of 1 pH unit (measured by [14C]methylamine distribution), and no transmembrane potential (measured by [14C]-thiocyanate distribution). When ATP was added to chromaffin ghosts suspended in a medium in which chloride was substituted by isethionate, a transmembrane potential, inside positive, of 45 mV and no transmembrane proton gradient, was measured. In each medium, the addition of agents known to affect proton or potential gradients, respectively, exerted a predictable mechanism of action. Accumulation of [14C]epinephrine or [14C]5-hydroxytryptamine was over 1 order of magnitude greater in the presence of the transmembrane proton gradient or the transmembrane potential than in the absence of any gradient and, moreover, was related to the magnitude of the proton or potential gradient in a dose-dependent manner. When ghosts were added to a medium containing chloride and isethionate, both a delta pH and delta psi could be generated upon addition of ATP. In this preparation, the maximal rate of amine accumulation was observed. The results indicate that amine accumulation into chromaffin ghosts can occur in the presence of either a transmembrane proton gradient, or a transmembrane potential

  20. Neocortical synaptophysin asymmetry and behavioral lateralization in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherwood, Chet C; Duka, Tetyana; Stimpson, Cheryl D

    2010-01-01

    Although behavioral lateralization is known to correlate with certain aspects of brain asymmetry in primates, there are limited data concerning hemispheric biases in the microstructure of the neocortex. In the present study, we investigated whether there is asymmetry in synaptophysin-immunoreacti......Although behavioral lateralization is known to correlate with certain aspects of brain asymmetry in primates, there are limited data concerning hemispheric biases in the microstructure of the neocortex. In the present study, we investigated whether there is asymmetry in synaptophysin...... density. In contrast, puncta densities were symmetrical in right-handed chimpanzees. These findings support the conclusion that synapse asymmetry is modulated by lateralization of skilled motor behavior in chimpanzees....

  1. Three-dimensional assessment of facial asymmetry: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhil, Gopi; Senthil Kumar, Kullampalayam Palanisamy; Raja, Subramani; Janardhanan, Kumaresan

    2015-08-01

    For patients with facial asymmetry, complete and precise diagnosis, and surgical treatments to correct the underlying cause of the asymmetry are significant. Conventional diagnostic radiographs (submento-vertex projections, posteroanterior radiography) have limitations in asymmetry diagnosis due to two-dimensional assessments of three-dimensional (3D) images. The advent of 3D images has greatly reduced the magnification and projection errors that are common in conventional radiographs making it as a precise diagnostic aid for assessment of facial asymmetry. Thus, this article attempts to review the newly introduced 3D tools in the diagnosis of more complex facial asymmetries.

  2. Sagittal otolith morphogenesis asymmetry in marine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mille, T; Mahe, K; Villanueva, M C; De Pontual, H; Ernande, B

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated and compared asymmetry in sagittal otolith shape and length between left and right inner ears in four roundfish and four flatfish species of commercial interest. For each species, the effects of ontogenetic changes (individual age and total body length), sexual dimorphism (individual sex) and the otolith's location on the right or left side of the head, on the shape and length of paired otoliths (between 143 and 702 pairs according to species) were evaluated. Ontogenetic changes in otolith shape and length were observed for all species. Sexual dimorphism, either in otolith shape and length or in their ontogenetic changes, was detected for half of the species, be they round or flat. Significant directional asymmetry in otolith shape and length was detected in one roundfish species each, but its inconsistency across species and its small average amplitude (6·17% for shape and 1·99% for length) suggested that it has barely any biological relevance. Significant directional asymmetry in otolith shape and length was found for all flatfish species except otolith length for one species. Its average amplitude varied between 2·06 and 17·50% for shape and between 0·00 and 11·83% for length and increased significantly throughout ontogeny for two species, one dextral and one sinistral. The longer (length) and rounder otolith (shape) appeared to be always on the blind side whatever the species. These results suggest differential biomineralization between the blind and ocular inner ears in flatfish species that could result from perturbations of the proximal-distal gradient of otolith precursors in the endolymph and the otolith position relative to the geometry of the saccular epithelium due to body morphology asymmetry and lateralized behaviour. The fact that asymmetry never exceeded 18% even at the individual level suggests an evolutionary canalization of otolith shape symmetry to avoid negative effects on fish hearing and balance. Technically

  3. Predictions of the poloidal asymmetries and transport frequencies in KSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, C., E-mail: cbae@nfri.re.kr; Lee, S. G.; Terzolo, L. [National Fusion Research Institute, Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Stacey, W. M. [Fusion Research Center, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    The extended neoclassical rotation theory formulated in Miller flux surface geometry enables unprecedented neoclassical calculations of the poloidal asymmetries in density, rotation velocities, electrostatic potential along the flux surfaces, and of the inertial (Reynolds stress) and gyroviscous transport frequencies, which are strong functions of these asymmetries. This paper presents such calculations of the poloidal asymmetries and non-negligible inertial and gyroviscous transport frequencies in two KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) [Kwon et al., Nucl. Fusion 51, 094006 (2011)] Neutral Beam Injection H-mode discharges. The in-out asymmetries in the velocities are an order of magnitude larger than their up-down asymmetries. The magnitudes of the predicted inertial and gyroviscous transport frequencies depend on the magnitudes of the density and velocity asymmetries. The neoclassically predicted density asymmetries are shown to correspond with the reported measurements in tokamaks and the predicted carbon toroidal velocities agree very well with the measurements in KSTAR.

  4. Interplay among transversity induced asymmetries in hadron leptoproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C.; Alexeev, M.G.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Augustyniak, W.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C.D.R.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Buchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Chang, W.C.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, I.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Curiel, Q.; d'Hose, N.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; M. Finger jr; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; von Hohenesche, N. du Fresne; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchey, E.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giordano, F.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grosse-Perdekamp, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hahne, D.; von Harrach, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Hsieh, C.Yu; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jorg, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kramer, M.; Kremser, P.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R.P.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Marchand, C.; Marianski, B.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Miyachi, Y.; Montuenga, P.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W.D.; Nukazuka, G.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.C.; Pereira, F.; Pesaro, G.; Pesek, M.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Rychter, A.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, C.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schonning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Selyunin, A.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Wolbeek, J. ter; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Veloso, J.; Virius, M.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.

    2016-01-01

    In the fragmentation of a transversely polarized quark several left-right asymmetries are possible for the hadrons in the jet. When only one unpolarized hadron is selected, it exhibits an azimuthal modulation known as Collins effect. When a pair of oppositely charged hadrons is observed, three asymmetries can be considered, a di-hadron asymmetry and two single hadron asymmetries. In lepton deep inelastic scattering on transversely polarized nucleons all these asymmetries are coupled with the transversity distribution. From the high statistics COMPASS data on oppositely charged hadron-pair production we have investigated for the first time the dependence of these three asymmetries on the difference of the azimuthal angles of the two hadrons. The similarity of transversity induced single and di-hadron asymmetries is discussed. A phenomenological analysis of the data allows to establish quantitative relationships among them, providing strong indication that the underlying fragmentation mechanisms are all driven ...

  5. Conformational constraining of inactive and active States of a seven transmembrane receptor by metal ion site engineering in the extracellular end of transmembrane segment V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Mette M; David, Ralf; Oerlecke, Ilka

    2006-01-01

    The extracellular part of transmembrane segment V (TM-V) is expected to be involved in the activation process of 7TM receptors, but its role is far from clear. Here, we study the highly constitutively active CXC-chemokine receptor encoded by human herpesvirus 8 (ORF74-HHV8), in which a metal ion ...

  6. A hemispherical power asymmetry from inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickcek, Adrienne L.; Kamionkowski, Marc; Carroll, Sean M.

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of cosmic microwave background temperature fluctuations by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe indicate that the fluctuation amplitude in one half of the sky differs from the amplitude in the other half. We show that such an asymmetry cannot be generated during single-field slow-roll inflation without violating constraints to the homogeneity of the Universe. In contrast, a multifield inflationary theory, the curvaton model, can produce this power asymmetry without violating the homogeneity constraint. The mechanism requires the introduction of a large-amplitude superhorizon perturbation to the curvaton field, possibly a preinflationary remnant or a superhorizon curvaton-web structure. The model makes several predictions, including non-Gaussianity and modifications to the inflationary consistency relation, that will be tested with forthcoming cosmic microwave background experiments.

  7. Labour market asymmetries in a monetary union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seneca, Martin; Andersen, Torben M.

    This paper takes a first step in analysing how a monetary union performs in the presence of labour market asymmetries. Differences in wage flexibility, market power and country sizes are allowed for in a setting with both countryspecific and aggregate shocks. The implications of asymmetries...... is not strictly increasing in nominal rigidities but hump-shaped. Moreover, a disproportionate share of the consequences of wage inflexibility may fall on small countries. In the case of country-specific shocks, a country unambiguously benefits in terms of macroeconomic stability by becoming more flexible, while...... this is not necessarily the case for aggregate shocks. There may thus be a tension between the degree of flexibility considered optimal at the country level and at the aggregate level within the monetary union....

  8. Quantum Correlations Evolution Asymmetry in Quantum Channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Meng; Huang Yun-Feng; Guo Guang-Can

    2017-01-01

    It was demonstrated that the entanglement evolution of a specially designed quantum state in the bistochastic channel is asymmetric. In this work, we generalize the study of the quantum correlations, including entanglement and quantum discord, evolution asymmetry to various quantum channels. We found that the asymmetry of entanglement and quantum discord only occurs in some special quantum channels, and the behavior of the entanglement evolution may be quite different from the behavior of the quantum discord evolution. To quantum entanglement, in some channels it decreases monotonously with the increase of the quantum channel intensity. In some other channels, when we increase the intensity of the quantum channel, it decreases at first, then keeps zero for some time, and then rises up. To quantum discord, the evolution becomes more complex and you may find that it evolutes unsmoothly at some points. These results illustrate the strong dependence of the quantum correlations evolution on the property of the quantum channels. (paper)

  9. Dark matter assimilation into the baryon asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Eramo, Francesco; Fei, Lin; Thaler, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    Pure singlets are typically disfavored as dark matter candidates, since they generically have a thermal relic abundance larger than the observed value. In this paper, we propose a new dark matter mechanism called a ssimilation , which takes advantage of the baryon asymmetry of the universe to generate the correct relic abundance of singlet dark matter. Through assimilation, dark matter itself is efficiently destroyed, but dark matter number is stored in new quasi-stable heavy states which carry the baryon asymmetry. The subsequent annihilation and late-time decay of these heavy states yields (symmetric) dark matter as well as (asymmetric) standard model baryons. We study in detail the case of pure bino dark matter by augmenting the minimal supersymmetric standard model with vector-like chiral multiplets. In the parameter range where this mechanism is effective, the LHC can discover long-lived charged particles which were responsible for assimilating dark matter

  10. Lower limb asymmetry in mechanical muscle function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, M J; Aagaard, Per; Herzog, W

    2015-01-01

    .05), and the final phase of the SJ (P AI in the CMJ concentric phase (r = 0.57, P Future research is required to assess the role of the CMJ and SJ phase-specific kinetic impulse AI......-R). Elite alpine skiers with ACL-R (n = 9; 26.2 ± 11.8 months post-op) and uninjured skiers (n = 9) participated in neuromuscular screening. Vertical ground reaction force during the CMJ and SJ was assessed using dual force plate methodology to obtain phase-specific bilateral asymmetry indices (AIs......) for kinetic impulse (CMJ and SJ phase-specific kinetic impulse AI). Dual x-ray absorptiometry scanning was used to assess asymmetry in lower body muscle mass. Compared with controls, ACL-R skiers had increased AI in muscle mass (P AI in the CMJ concentric phase (P 

  11. GDH Integral on the Proton from Asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prok, Yelena [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2004-05-01

    Inclusive double spin electron asymmetries have been measured by scattering polarized electrons off the solid polarized 15NH3 target in Hall B of Jefferson Lab in 2000-2001. The virtual photon asymmetry A1 (x), the longitudinal spin structure function, g1 (x, Q2), and the first moment, γ1p, have been evaluated for a kinematic range of 0.05 ≥ Q2 ≥ 4.5 GeV2. The extracted results complement the existing data in the resonance region, extending it to lower and higher Q2 regions. The results are important in the study of Q2 evolution of nucleon structure from the hadronic to partonic degrees of freedom.

  12. Regulation of Exocytotic Fusion Pores by SNARE Protein Transmembrane Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyong Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-triggered exocytotic release of neurotransmitters and hormones from neurons and neuroendocrine cells underlies neuronal communication, motor activity and endocrine functions. The core of the neuronal exocytotic machinery is composed of soluble N-ethyl maleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs. Formation of complexes between vesicle-attached v- and plasma-membrane anchored t-SNAREs in a highly regulated fashion brings the membranes into close apposition. Small, soluble proteins called Complexins (Cpx and calcium-sensing Synaptotagmins cooperate to block fusion at low resting calcium concentrations, but trigger release upon calcium increase. A growing body of evidence suggests that the transmembrane domains (TMDs of SNARE proteins play important roles in regulating the processes of fusion and release, but the mechanisms involved are only starting to be uncovered. Here we review recent evidence that SNARE TMDs exert influence by regulating the dynamics of the fusion pore, the initial aqueous connection between the vesicular lumen and the extracellular space. Even after the fusion pore is established, hormone release by neuroendocrine cells is tightly controlled, and the same may be true of neurotransmitter release by neurons. The dynamics of the fusion pore can regulate the kinetics of cargo release and the net amount released, and can determine the mode of vesicle recycling. Manipulations of SNARE TMDs were found to affect fusion pore properties profoundly, both during exocytosis and in biochemical reconstitutions. To explain these effects, TMD flexibility, and interactions among TMDs or between TMDs and lipids have been invoked. Exocytosis has provided the best setting in which to unravel the underlying mechanisms, being unique among membrane fusion reactions in that single fusion pores can be probed using high-resolution methods. An important role will likely be played by methods that can probe single fusion pores

  13. W mass and W asymmetry at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leone, S.

    1991-05-01

    The lepton charge asymmetry from W decaying into a lepton and a neutrino is discussed (preliminary result). This measurement gives information on parton distribution functions at low x values. The derivation of the recently published W mass value of 79.91 ± 0.39 GeV/c 2 is also presented. M W is used to set an upper limit on the top quark mass. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  14. Relic neutrino asymmetry evolution from first principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, N.F.; Volkas, R.R.; Wong, Y.Y.Y.

    1998-09-01

    The exact Quantum Kinetic Equations for a two-flavour active-sterile neutrino system are used to provide a systematic derivation of approximate evolution equations for the relic neutrino asymmetry. An extension of the adiabatic approximation for matter-affected neutrino oscillations is developed which incorporates decoherence due to collisions. Exact and approximate expressions for the decoherence and repopulation functions are discussed. A first pass is made over the exact treatment of multi-flavour partially incoherent oscillations. (authors)

  15. Charm production asymmetries at the Fermilab experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, T.

    1997-01-01

    I present asymmetries between the production of charm particles and anti-particles from Fermilab experiments, E687, E769 and E791. The results are shown as a function of x F and p t 2 for D ± and D s ± mesons and for pion, kaon and photon beams and compared against current models. Results are also shown for a recent analysis of correlations between production of charm mesons and an associated pion. 14 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Measurement of semileptonic asymmetries at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    CP violation in neutral B meson mixing is an excellent place to search for the effects of new physics beyond the Standard Model. I report on the first measurements of the CP violating semileptonic asymmetries in the B_s0 and B_d0 systems from LHCb. Both are consistent with the Standard Model expectations and are the most precise single measurements of these parameters to date.

  17. [Lateralization of behavioral reactions and otolith asymmetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychakov, D V

    2013-01-01

    Lateralized behavior is widely spread among vertebrate animals and is determined first of ally by structural-functional brain asymmetry as well as by the presence of somatic and visceral asymmetry. Some kinds of asymmetric reactions are suggested to be due to the presence of asymmetry at the level of sense organs, in particular, of otolith organs. This review presents data on value and character of otolith asymmetry (OA) in animals of various species and classes, on action upon it of weightlessness and hypergravity; the problem of effect of OA on vestibular and auditory functions is considered. In symmetric vertebrates, OA has been shown to be of fluctuation character and its chi coefficient varies in diapason from -0.2 to 0.2; in the overwhelmed majority of individuals, /chi/ otolith organs to work coordinately; this it why OA is at the equally low level regardless of the individual's taxonomic and ecologic position, its size, age, and otolith growth rate. Individuals with abnormally high OA level can experience difficulties in analysis of auditory and vestibular stimuli, therefore in nature the majority of such individuals are eliminated in the process of natural selection. Unlike symmetrical vertebrates, labyrinths of many Pleuronectiformes have pronounced OA--otoliths of the lower labyrinth, on a average, are significantly heavier than those of the upper labyrinth. Their organs are the only example when OA with directed character seem to play an essential role in lateralized behavior and are suggested to be used in the spatial localization of the sound source. The short-time action of weightlessness and relatively weak hypergravity ( or = 3g, as well as some diseases and shifts connected with processes of aging can enhance OA and cause several functional disturbances.

  18. Esthetic evaluation of dental and gingival asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Liliana; Pinho, Teresa

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine which smile asymmetries were less esthetic, dental or gingival. Laypeople (297), generalists (223), prosthodontists (50) and orthodontists (49), evaluated the esthetics of digitally-modified images taken from the same frontal intra-oral photograph, using the same lips, simulating upper maxillary midline shift, occlusal plane inclination, asymmetric incisal edge and asymmetric gingival migration. The images were later paired into 3 groups. The only ones considered esthetic were the asymmetric incisal edge of the 0.5 mm shorter upper central incisor and the asymmetric gingival migration (2 mm) of the upper central incisor. In the paired images, upper maxillary midline shift vs. occlusal plane inclination, the former was rated less esthetic, while in the asymmetric incisal edge vs. asymmetric gingival migration pair, the latter was considered to be less esthetic. Laypeople and generalists consider smiles more attractive. The only images considered esthetic were the asymmetric incisal edge of the central incisor shorter by 0.5 mm and the 2 mm asymmetric gingival migration of the upper central incisor. In the horizontal plane (maxillary midline shift vs. occlusal plane cant), the dental asymmetries were considered less esthetic than the gingival asymmetries. However, in the vertical plane (asymmetric incisal edge vs. asymmetric gingival migration) the opposite was recorded. Copyright © 2015 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Frontal Brain Asymmetry and Willingness to Pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Z. Ramsøy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Consumers frequently make decisions about how much they are willing to pay (WTP for specific products and services, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying such calculations. In this study, we were interested in testing whether specific brain activation—the asymmetry in engagement of the prefrontal cortex—would be related to consumer choice. Subjects saw products and subsequently decided how much they were willing to pay for each product, while undergoing neuroimaging using electroencephalography. Our results demonstrate that prefrontal asymmetry in the gamma frequency band, and a trend in the beta frequency band that was recorded during product viewing was significantly related to subsequent WTP responses. Frontal asymmetry in the alpha band was not related to WTP decisions. Besides suggesting separate neuropsychological mechanisms of consumer choice, we find that one specific measure—the prefrontal gamma asymmetry—was most strongly related to WTP responses, and was most coupled to the actual decision phase. These findings are discussed in light of the psychology of WTP calculations, and in relation to the recent emergence of consumer neuroscience and neuromarketing.

  20. L-R asymmetry in gut's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadayi, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    An idea of L-R asymmetry is proposed for the grand unification schemes. The idea provides an intrinsic mechanism to obtain standard model charges of fermions in the case of more than one weak gauge boson. It is elaborated within a scheme based on the partial symmetry SU(4)sub(C)xSU(2)sub(L)xSU(2)sub(R) where the coupling constants gsub(L) and gsub(R) corresponding to the chiral SU(2) factors are assumed to be different from each other. Then, the embedding of this structure within the simple symmetry SO(10) is shown. In both cases, a consistent description of vector particle masses is given. These two schemes are considered as primary models to realize the L-R asymmetry idea due to the lack of family unification. However, in a subsequent work, we will show that the SO(14) unification of the three families can be obtained within the framework of L-R asymmetry. All formulations are carried out with the aid of a mathematical method that we recently proposed for the Lie algebra representations of classical groups. (author)

  1. Frontal Brain Asymmetry and Willingness to Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsøy, Thomas Z.; Skov, Martin; Christensen, Maiken K.; Stahlhut, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    Consumers frequently make decisions about how much they are willing to pay (WTP) for specific products and services, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying such calculations. In this study, we were interested in testing whether specific brain activation—the asymmetry in engagement of the prefrontal cortex—would be related to consumer choice. Subjects saw products and subsequently decided how much they were willing to pay for each product, while undergoing neuroimaging using electroencephalography. Our results demonstrate that prefrontal asymmetry in the gamma frequency band, and a trend in the beta frequency band that was recorded during product viewing was significantly related to subsequent WTP responses. Frontal asymmetry in the alpha band was not related to WTP decisions. Besides suggesting separate neuropsychological mechanisms of consumer choice, we find that one specific measure—the prefrontal gamma asymmetry—was most strongly related to WTP responses, and was most coupled to the actual decision phase. These findings are discussed in light of the psychology of WTP calculations, and in relation to the recent emergence of consumer neuroscience and neuromarketing. PMID:29662432

  2. Structural connectivity asymmetry in the neonatal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnarajah, Nagulan; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Fortier, Marielle V; Chong, Yap Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Godfrey, Keith M; Gluckman, Peter D; Meaney, Michael J; Qiu, Anqi

    2013-07-15

    Asymmetry of the neonatal brain is not yet understood at the level of structural connectivity. We utilized DTI deterministic tractography and structural network analysis based on graph theory to determine the pattern of structural connectivity asymmetry in 124 normal neonates. We tracted white matter axonal pathways characterizing interregional connections among brain regions and inferred asymmetry in left and right anatomical network properties. Our findings revealed that in neonates, small-world characteristics were exhibited, but did not differ between the two hemispheres, suggesting that neighboring brain regions connect tightly with each other, and that one region is only a few paths away from any other region within each hemisphere. Moreover, the neonatal brain showed greater structural efficiency in the left hemisphere than that in the right. In neonates, brain regions involved in motor, language, and memory functions play crucial roles in efficient communication in the left hemisphere, while brain regions involved in emotional processes play crucial roles in efficient communication in the right hemisphere. These findings suggest that even at birth, the topology of each cerebral hemisphere is organized in an efficient and compact manner that maps onto asymmetric functional specializations seen in adults, implying lateralized brain functions in infancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dichotic listening in patients with situs inversus: brain asymmetry and situs asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, S; Kanzaki, R; Yoshibayashi, M; Kamiya, T; Sugishita, M

    1999-06-01

    In order to investigate the relation between situs asymmetry and functional asymmetry of the human brain, a consonant-vowel syllable dichotic listening test known as the Standard Dichotic Listening Test (SDLT) was administered to nine subjects with situs inversus (SI) that ranged in age from 6 to 46 years old (mean of 21.8 years old, S.D. = 15.6); the four males and five females all exhibited strong right-handedness. The SDLT was also used to study twenty four age-matched normal subjects that were from 6 to 48 years old (mean 21.7 years old, S.D. = 15.3); the twelve males and twelve females were all strongly right-handed and served as a control group. Eight out of the nine subjects (88.9%) with SI more often reproduced the sounds from the right ear than sounds from the left ear; this is called right ear advantage (REA). The ratio of REA in the control group was almost the same, i.e., nineteen out of the twenty-four subjects (79.1%) showed REA. Results of the present study suggest that the left-right reversal in situs inversus does not involve functional asymmetry of the brain. As such, the system that produces functional asymmetry in the human brain must independently recognize laterality from situs asymmetry.

  4. Transmembrane-sequence-dependent overexpression and secretion of glycoproteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, M; Wasserbauer, E; Aversa, G; Jungbauer, A

    2001-02-01

    Protein expression using the secretory pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae can lead to high amounts of overexpressed and secreted proteins in culture supernatants in a short period of time. These post-translational modified expression products can be purified up to >90% in a single step. The overexpression and secretion of the transmembrane glycoprotein signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) was studied. SLAM belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and its engagement results in T-cell expansion and INF-gamma production. The molecule is composed of an extracellular, a single-span transmembrane and a cytoplasmatic domain. The extracellular part may be relevant for stimulation studies in vitro since SLAM is a high-affinity self-ligand. Therefore several fragments of this region have been expressed as Flag-fusions in S. cerevisiae: a full-length fragment containing the transmembrane region and the autologous signal sequence, another without the transmembrane region, and two fragments without the autologous signal sequence with and without the transmembrane region. By molecular cloning, the different deletion mutants of the cDNA encoding the full-length construct have been inserted in a yeast episomal plasmid. Upstream of the cDNA, the alpha-leader sequence of a yeast mating pheromone has been cloned to direct the fusion proteins into the secretory protein maturation pathway. All four fragments were expressed but yield, location, and maturation were highly influenced by the transmembrane domain and the autologous signal sequence. Only the fragment without autologous signal sequence and transmembrane domain could be efficiently secreted. High-mannose glycosylation was analyzed by lectin mapping and digestion with specific glycosidases. After enzyme treatment, a single band product with the theoretical size could be detected and identified as SLAM by a specific monoclonal antibody. The fusion protein concentration in the supernatant was 30 microg/ml. The

  5. Asymmetry Assessment Using Surface Topography in Healthy Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Ho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to assess geometric asymmetry in the torsos of individuals is important for detecting Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS. A markerless technique using Surface Topography (ST has been introduced as a non-invasive alternative to standard diagnostic radiographs. The technique has been used to identify asymmetry patterns associated with AIS. However, the presence and nature of asymmetries in the healthy population has not been properly studied. The purpose of this study is therefore to identify asymmetries and potential relationships to development factors such as age, gender, hand dominance and unilateral physical activity in healthy adolescents. Full torso scans of 83 participants were analyzed. Using Geomagic, deviation contour maps (DCMs were created by reflecting the torso along the best plane of sagittal symmetry with each spectrum normalized. Two classes of asymmetry were observed: twist and thickness each with subgroupings. Averaged interobserver and intraobserver Kappas for twist subgroupings were 0.84 and 0.84, respectively, and for thickness subgroupings were 0.53 and 0.63 respectively. Further significant relationships were observed between specific types of asymmetry and gender such as females displaying predominately twist asymmetry, and males with thickness asymmetry. However, no relationships were found between type of asymmetry and age, hand dominance or unilateral physical activity. Understanding asymmetries in healthy subjects will continue to enhance assessment ability of the markerless ST technique.

  6. Signs of Asymmetry in Exploding Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Kerry

    2018-03-01

    Supernova explosions enrich the interstellar medium and can even briefly outshine their host galaxies. However, the mechanism behind these massive explosions still isnt fully understood. Could probing the asymmetry of supernova remnants help us better understand what drives these explosions?Hubble image of the remnant of supernova 1987A, one of the first remnants discovered to be asymmetrical. [ESA/Hubble, NASA]Stellar Send-OffsHigh-mass stars end their lives spectacularly. Each supernova explosion churns the interstellar medium and unleashes high-energy radiation and swarms of neutrinos. Supernovae also suffuse the surrounding interstellar medium with heavy elements that are incorporated into later generations of stars and the planets that form around them.The bubbles of expanding gas these explosions leave behind often appear roughly spherical, but mounting evidence suggests that many supernova remnants are asymmetrical. While asymmetry in supernova remnants can arise when the expanding material plows into the non-uniform interstellar medium, it can also be an intrinsic feature of the explosion itself.Simulation results clockwise from top left: Mass density, calcium mass fraction, oxygen mass fraction, nickel-56 mass fraction. Click to enlarge. [Adapted from Wollaeger et al. 2017]Coding ExplosionsThe presence or absence of asymmetry in a supernova remnant can hold clues as to what drove the explosion. But how can we best observe asymmetry in a supernova remnant? Modeling lets us explore different observational approaches.A team of scientists led by Ryan T. Wollaeger (Los Alamos National Laboratory) used radiative transfer and radiative hydrodynamics simulations to model the explosion of a core-collapse supernova. Wollaeger and collaborators introduced asymmetry into the explosion by creating a single-lobed, fast-moving outflow along one axis.Their simulations showed that while some chemical elements lingered near the origin of the explosion or were distributed

  7. Yeast Fex1p Is a Constitutively Expressed Fluoride Channel with Functional Asymmetry of Its Two Homologous Domains*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathryn D.; Gordon, Patricia B.; Rivetta, Alberto; Allen, Kenneth E.; Berbasova, Tetyana; Slayman, Clifford; Strobel, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride is a ubiquitous environmental toxin with which all biological species must cope. A recently discovered family of fluoride export (FEX) proteins protects organisms from fluoride toxicity by removing it from the cell. We show here that FEX proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae function as ion channels that are selective for fluoride over chloride and that these proteins are constitutively expressed at the yeast plasma membrane. Continuous expression is in contrast to many other toxin exporters in yeast, and this, along with the fact that two nearly duplicate proteins are encoded in the yeast genome, suggests that the threat posed by fluoride ions is frequent and detrimental. Structurally, eukaryotic FEX proteins consist of two homologous four-transmembrane helix domains folded into an antiparallel dimer, where the orientation of the two domains is fixed by a single transmembrane linker helix. Using phylogenetic sequence conservation as a guide, we have identified several functionally important residues. There is substantial functional asymmetry in the effect of mutation at corresponding sites in the two domains. Specifically, mutations to residues in the C-terminal domain proved significantly more detrimental to function than did similar mutations in the N-terminal domain. Our data suggest particular residues that may be important to anion specificity, most notably the necessity of a positive charge near the end of TMH1 in the C-terminal domain. It is possible that a cationic charge at this location may create an electrostatic well for fluoride ions entering the channel from the cytoplasm. PMID:26055717

  8. [Bacterial synthesis, purification, and solubilization of transmembrane segments of ErbB family members].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharuk, M V; Shul'ga, A A; Ermoliuk, Ia S; Tkach, E N; Goncharuk, S A; Pustovalova, Iu E; Mineev, K S; Bocharov, É V; Maslennikov, I V; Arsen'ev, A S; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2011-01-01

    A family of epidermal growth factor receptors, ErbB, represents an important class of receptor tyrosine kinases, playing a leading role in cellular growth, development and differentiation. Transmembrane domains of these receptors transduce biochemical signals across plasma membrane via lateral homo- and heterodimerization. Relatively small size of complexes of ErbB transmembrane domains with detergents or lipids allows one to study their detailed spatial structure using three-dimensional heteronuclear high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. Here, we describe the effective expression system and purification procedure for preparative-scale production of transmembrane peptides from four representatives of ErbB family, ErbB1, ErbB2, ErbB3, ErbB4, for structural studies. The recombinant peptides were produced in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)pLysS as C-terminal extensions of thioredoxin A. The fusion protein cleavage was accomplished with the light subunit of human enterokinase. Several (10-30) milligrams of purified isotope-labeled transmembrane peptides were isolated with the use of a simple and convenient procedure, which consists of consecutive steps of immobilized metal affinity chromatography and cation-exchange chromatography. The purified peptides were reconstituted in lipid/detergent environment (micelles or bicelles) and characterized using dynamic light scattering, CD and NMR spectroscopy. The data obtained indicate that the purified ErbB transmembrane peptides are suitable for structural and dynamic studies of their homo- and heterodimer complexes using high resolution NMR spectroscopy.

  9. Subcycle dynamics of Coulomb asymmetry in strong elliptical laser fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Liu, Yunquan; Liu, Hong; Ning, Qicheng; Fu, Libin; Liu, Jie; Deng, Yongkai; Wu, Chengyin; Peng, Liang-You; Peng, Liangyou; Gong, Qihuang

    2013-07-12

    We measure photoelectron angular distributions of noble gases in intense elliptically polarized laser fields, which indicate strong structure-dependent Coulomb asymmetry. Using a dedicated semiclassical model, we have disentangled the contribution of direct ionization and multiple forward scattering on Coulomb asymmetry in elliptical laser fields. Our theory quantifies the roles of the ionic potential and initial transverse momentum on Coulomb asymmetry, proving that the small lobes of asymmetry are induced by direct ionization and the strong asymmetry is induced by multiple forward scattering in the ionic potential. Both processes are distorted by the Coulomb force acting on the electrons after tunneling. Lowering the ionization potential, the relative contribution of direct ionization on Coulomb asymmetry substantially decreases and Coulomb focusing on multiple rescattering is more important. We do not observe evident initial longitudinal momentum spread at the tunnel exit according to our simulation.

  10. Relationship between information asymmetry and cost of capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Rahmani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Shareholders expected return is normally impacted by informational risk and informational asymmetry, on the other hand, creates informational risk. Thus, investors demand greater risk premium in the case of informational asymmetry and in turn corporate expenditures increase. In this study, we determine the relationship between informational asymmetry and capital cost. The study uses information of 109 companies listed in Tehran Securities Exchange over the period of 2005-2010 and the results suggest a positive and significant relationship between informational asymmetry and capital cost. In addition, the results from present research indicate that when capital markets are competitive, there is not a significant relationship between informational asymmetry and capital cost. But when markets are partially competitive there is a significant relationship between informational asymmetry and capital cost.

  11. Rare decays and CP asymmetries in charged B decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, N.G.

    1991-01-01

    The theory of loop induced rare decays and the rate asymmetry due to CP violation in charged B Decays in reviewed. After considering b → sγ and b → se + e - decays, the asymmetries for pure penguin process are estimated first. A larger asymmetry can result in those modes where a tree diagram and a penguin diagram interfere, however these estimates are necessarily model dependent. Estimates of Cabbibo suppressed penguins are also considered

  12. Asymmetries in heavy meson production from light quark fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias de Deus, J.; Duraes, F.

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of the asymmetry in D - /D + production from π - beams, being a direct consequence of the properties of the light quark fragmentation function into heavy mesons. The main features of the asymmetry, as a function of x F , are easily described. An integrated sum rule for the D - , D + multiplicity difference is presented. Predictions for the asymmetry in B meson production are given. (orig.)

  13. Contract Design: The problem of information asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Amelung, Volker E; Juhnke, Christin

    2018-01-12

    Integrated care systems are advocated as an effective method of improving the performance of healthcare systems. These systems outline a payment and care delivery model that intends to tie provider reimbursements to predefined quality metrics. Little is known about the contractual design and the main challenges of delegating "accountability" to these new kinds of organisations and/or contracts. The research question in this article focuses on how healthcare contracts can look like and which possible problems arise in designing such contracts. In this a special interest is placed on information asymmetries. A comprehensive literature review on methods of designing contracts in Integrated Care was conducted. This article is the first in a row of three that all contribute to a specific issue in designing healthcare contracts. Starting with the organisation of contracts and information asymmetries, part 2 focusses on financial options and risks and part 3 finally concludes with the question of risk management and evaluation. Healthcare contracting between providers and payers will have a major impact on the overall design of future healthcare systems. If Integrated care systems or any other similar concept of care delivery are to be contracted directly by payers to manage the continuum of care the costs of market utilisation play an essential role. Transaction costs also arise in the course of the negotiation and implementation of contracts. These costs are the reason why it is generally not possible to conclude perfect (complete) contracts. Problems with asymmetric distribution of information can relate to the situation before a contract is concluded (adverse selection) and after conclusion of a contract (moral hazard). Information asymmetries are seen as a major obstacle to the efficient operation of integrated care programmes. Coordination and motivation problems cannot be solved at no-costs. The presented problems in the design of selective individual contracts

  14. Symmetry and Asymmetry in Bouncing Gaits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni A. Cavagna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In running, hopping and trotting gaits, the center of mass of the body oscillates each step below and above an equilibrium position where the vertical force on the ground equals body weight. In trotting and low speed human running, the average vertical acceleration of the center of mass during the lower part of the oscillation equals that of the upper part, the duration of the lower part equals that of the upper part and the step frequency equals the resonant frequency of the bouncing system: we define this as on-offground symmetric rebound. In hopping and high speed human running, the average vertical acceleration of the center of mass during the lower part of the oscillation exceeds that of the upper part, the duration of the upper part exceeds that of the lower part and the step frequency is lower than the resonant frequency of the bouncing system: we define this as on-off-ground asymmetric rebound. Here we examine the physical and physiological constraints resulting in this on-off-ground symmetry and asymmetry of the rebound. Furthermore, the average force exerted during the brake when the body decelerates downwards and forwards is greater than that exerted during the push when the body is reaccelerated upwards and forwards. This landing-takeoff asymmetry, which would be nil in the elastic rebound of the symmetric spring-mass model for running and hopping, suggests a less efficient elastic energy storage and recovery during the bouncing step. During hopping, running and trotting the landing-takeoff asymmetry and the mass-specific vertical stiffness are smaller in larger animals than in the smaller animals suggesting a more efficient rebound in larger animals.

  15. Intraday market asymmetries — A Nordic example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soysal, Emilie Rosenlund; Olsen, Ole Jess; Skytte, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    , particularly important for VRE producers, but it also means that the price formation at intraday market can change optimal bidding strategy in the day-ahead market. Through econometric modelling of intraday price premiums, this paper investigates intraday price asymmetries, which potentially can lead...... to strategic bidding. The intraday market is per definition symmetric, as prices for power sales always correspond to prices for power purchases, however, we find that this symmetry is not reflected in the price structure in regards to the total load adjustment needs....

  16. Top quark asymmetry and dijet resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Sunghoon; Wells, James D.

    2011-01-01

    CDF recently reported an anomaly in the $m_{jj}$ distribution of dijet events produced in association with a $W$ boson. If this anomaly is associated with a new flavor conserving vector resonance, $V$, one might have expected to observe effects in the analogous $m_{jj}$ distribution produced in association with a $\\gamma$. No such excess is observed. A single $u-t-V$ flavor changing coupling, however, can contribute to the $m_{jj}$ anomaly while being consistent with other resonance searches. Furthermore, it gives a potential explanation of the observed forward-backward asymmetry in top quark production.

  17. Origin of the matter-antimatter asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dine, Michael; Kusenko, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Although the origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry remains unknown, continuing advances in theory and improved experimental limits have ruled out some scenarios for baryogenesis, for example, sphaleron baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition in the Standard Model. At the same time, the success of cosmological inflation and the prospects for discovering supersymmetry at the Large Hadron Collider have put some other models in sharper focus. We review the current state of our understanding of baryogenesis with emphasis on those scenarios that we consider most plausible

  18. [Asymmetry of antennal grooming in the cockroach (Periplaneta americana)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the key features of antennal grooming of male American cockroaches in neutral circumstances. It was shown for the first time that the right antenna was cleaned significantly more often than the left one, which indicates the presence of functional asymmetry of antennal grooming in this insect species. At the same time, no statistically significant asymmetry was found for grooming of antennal bases and legs. Morphological asymmetries of antennae and legs and/or brain lateralization are the plausible sources of observed behavioral asymmetry in antennal grooming.

  19. Experimental investigation of transverse spin asymmetries in muon-p SIDIS processes: Collins asymmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C.; Alexakhin, V.Yu.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Antonov, A.A.; Austregesilo, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Bicker, K.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dunnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; von Hohenesche, N.du Fresne; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Guthorl, T.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Hoppner, Ch.; d'Hose, N.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kramer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Lauser, L.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Moinester, M.A.; Morreale, A.; Mutter, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Negrini, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Nowak, W.D.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Perevalova, E.; Pesaro, G.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.F.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Richter, A.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schluter, T.; Schmidt, K.; Schmitt, L.; Schonning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Schroder, W.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.N.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.I.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Wolbeek, J.Ter; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Tkatchev, L.G.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.V.; Wang, L.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wislicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zhuravlev, N.; Zvyagin, A.

    2012-10-31

    The COMPASS Collaboration at CERN has measured the transverse spin azimuthal asymmetry of charged hadrons produced in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a 160 GeV positive muon beam and a transversely polarised NH_3 target. The Collins asymmetry of the proton was extracted in the Bjorken x range 0.003asymmetries for negative and positive hadrons are similar in magnitude and opposite in sign. They are compatible with model calculations in which the u-quark transversity is opposite in sign and somewhat larger than the d-quark transversity distribution function. The asymmetry is extracted as a function of Bjorken $x$, the relative hadron energy $z$ and the hadron transverse momentum p_T^h. The high statistics and quality of the data also allow for more detailed investigations of the dependence on the ki...

  20. Bcl-2 overexpression: effects on transmembrane calcium movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangaswami, Arun A.; Premack, Brett; Walleczek, Jan; Killoran, Pamela; Gardner, Phyllis; Knox, Susan J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: High levels of expression of the proto-oncogene bcl-2 and its 26 kD protein product Bcl-2 have been correlated with the inhibition of apoptosis and the increased resistance of tumor cells to cytotoxic drugs and ionizing radiation. Unfortunately, the specific mechanism of action of Bcl-2 remains poorly understood. In the studies described here, the role of intracellular calcium fluxes and plasma membrane calcium cycling in the induction of apoptosis, and the effect of Bcl-2 expression on the modulation of transmembrane calcium fluxes following treatment of cells with cytotoxic agents were studied. The relationship between intracellular calcium release, capacitive calcium entry, and the plasma membrane potential were also investigated. Materials and Methods: Human B-cell lymphoma (PW) and human promyelocytic leukemia (HL60) cell lines were transfected with Bcl-2 and a control vector. The Bcl-2 transfectants over expressed the Bcl-2 onco-protein and were more resistant to irradiation than the control cells. Cells were loaded with fluorescent indicators indo-1 and fura-2 AM to quantify the cytosolic calcium concentration and subsequent calcium responses to a variety of cytotoxic stimuli, including the microsomal ATPase inhibitor, thapsigargin, using fluorometric measurements. Comparisons of resting and stimulated cytosolic calcium concentrations were made between the parental, neomycin control, and bcl-2 transfected cells. In order to determine the actual calcium influx rate, cells were loaded with either indo-1 or fura-2 and then exposed to 0.1 mM extracellular manganese, which enters the cells through calcium influx channels and quenches the fluorescent signal in proportion to the calcium influx rate. In order to determine the role of the membrane potential in driving calcium influx, cells were treated with either 0.1 μM Valinomycin or isotonic potassium chloride to either hyper polarize or depolarize the resting membrane potential, and the

  1. Peptide microarray analysis of substrate specificity of the transmembrane Ser/Thr kinase KPI-2 reveals reactivity with cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and phosphorylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Brautigan, David L

    2006-11-01

    Human lemur (Lmr) kinases are predicted to be Tyr kinases based on sequences and are related to neurotrophin receptor Trk kinases. This study used homogeneous recombinant KPI-2 (Lmr2, LMTK2, Cprk, brain-enriched protein kinase) kinase domain and a library of 1,154 peptides on a microarray to analyze substrate specificity. We found that KPI-2 is strictly a Ser/Thr kinase that reacts with Ser either preceded by or followed by Pro residues but unlike other Pro-directed kinases does not strictly require an adjacent Pro residue. The most reactive peptide in the library corresponds to Ser-737 of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, and the recombinant R domain of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator was a preferred substrate. Furthermore the KPI-2 kinase phosphorylated peptides corresponding to the single site in phosphorylase and purified phosphorylase b, making this only the second known phosphorylase b kinase. Phosphorylase was used as a specific substrate to show that KPI-2 is inhibited in living cells by addition of nerve growth factor or serum. The results demonstrate the utility of the peptide library to probe specificity and discover kinase substrates and offer a specific assay that reveals hormonal regulation of the activity of this unusual transmembrane kinase.

  2. Advantages of combined transmembrane topology and signal peptide prediction--the Phobius web server

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Käll, Lukas; Krogh, Anders; Sonnhammer, Erik L L

    2007-01-01

    . The method makes an optimal choice between transmembrane segments and signal peptides, and also allows constrained and homology-enriched predictions. We here present a web interface (http://phobius.cgb.ki.se and http://phobius.binf.ku.dk) to access Phobius. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jul......When using conventional transmembrane topology and signal peptide predictors, such as TMHMM and SignalP, there is a substantial overlap between these two types of predictions. Applying these methods to five complete proteomes, we found that 30-65% of all predicted signal peptides and 25-35% of all...

  3. Affect asymmetry and comfort food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Laurette; LeBel, Jordan L; Lu, Ji

    2005-11-15

    It is proposed that the emotional triggers of comfort food consumption can reliably be predicted by factors tied to affect asymmetry whereby negative affects dominate one's experience, decision making and behaviors in some instances while positive emotions prevail in others. Specifically, we relate three of these factors (age, gender, and culture) to differences in the emotional triggers of comfort food consumption and we further explore the possibility that the type of food eaten during comfort-seeking episodes can also be tied to affect asymmetry. Two hundred and seventy-seven participants completed a web-based survey conducted to assess the emotional antecedents and consequences of comfort food consumption. Consistent with expectations, results indicate that men's comfort food consumption was motivated by positive emotions whereas women's consumption was triggered by negative affects. Consumption of comfort foods alleviated women's negative emotions but also produced guilt. Positive affect was a particularly powerful trigger of comfort food consumption for older participants and for participants with French cultural background. Younger participants and participants with English background reported more intense negative emotions prior to consuming comfort foods. Foods high in sugar and fat content were more efficient in alleviating negative affects whereas low-calorie foods were more efficient in increasing positive emotions.

  4. Does urban poverty increase body fluctuating asymmetry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozener, Bariş

    2011-12-01

    Perturbations during development leave enduring signs on the adult body. Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is a good bio-indicator of stress during ontogeny. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of urban poverty on the fluctuating asymmetry of young Turkish males. Young males from a lower socioeconomic group (N = 140, Mean age = 18.17 +/- 0.61) were selected from slum areas of Ankara, the capital of Turkey, where urban poverty is intense. An upper socioeconomic group, on the other hand, consisted of students from two private colleges and included children from some of the richest families in Turkey (N = 120, Mean age = 18.08 +/- 0.54). Eight anthropometric traits of all subjects were measured. Considering the seven measurements demonstrate ideal FA, the individuals living in poor areas of the city displayed higher FA. The discrepancy between the two groups was even greater for a measure of composite FA. In conclusion, poor living conditions in Ankara, where urban poverty is intense, adversely impact the developmental stability of young Turkish males.

  5. On Introducing Asymmetry into Circular Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Umbach

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} We give a brief history of the results which led to the introduction of asymmetry into symmetric circular distributions. This is followed by the presentation of another method of introducing asymmetry. Some properties of the induced distributions are studied. Finally, this new distribution is shown to be a reasonable fit to the Jander ant data as presented in Fisher (1993.

  6. Asymmetries in four powerful radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonsdale, C.J.; Morison, I.

    1983-01-01

    The extragalactic radio sources 3C 153, 196, 249.1 and 268.4 have been observed at frequencies of 408 and 1666 MHz with the new MERLIN array operated by Jodrell Bank, giving resolutions of approx. 0.9 and 0.25 arcsec respectively. The sources show marked asymmetries about the central object in spectral index, flux and morphology, which we believe are most naturally accounted for by the effects of a time-dependent asymmetry in the central powerhouse. In the case of 3C 249.1 the observations suggest that energy is being supplied alternately to the two sides of the source. The 1666-MHz observations also show that each of the other three sources contains one extremely compact hotspot. The minimum internal energy densities in these hotspots are such that confinement by ram pressure of motion through the intergalactic medium may not be possible, indicating that such features are transient phenomena in free expansion, or that some other confinement mechanism is operating. (author)

  7. Galactic cosmic rays and tropical ozone asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilifarska, Natalya; Bakhmutov, Volodymyr; Melnyk, Galyna

    2017-01-01

    Lower stratospheric ozone O_3 is of special interest to climatic studies due to its direct influence on the tropopause temperature, and correspondingly on Earth’s radiation balance. By reason of the suppressed dissociation of molecular oxygen by solar UV radiation and the long life span of the lower stratospheric O_3 , its temporal variability is usually attributed to atmospheric circulation. Here we report about latitudinal-longitudinal differences in a centennial evolution of the tropical O_3 at 70 hPa. These asymmetries are hardly explicable within the concept of the ozone’s dynamical control alone. Analysis of ozone, energetic particles and the geomagnetic records from the last 111 years has revealed that they all evolve synchronously with time. This coherence motivates us to propose a mechanism explaining the geomagnetic and galactic cosmic ray influence on the near tropopause O_3 , allowing for an understanding of its spatial-temporal variability during the past century. Key words: galactic cosmic rays, asymmetries of tropical ozone distribution, geomagnetic filed

  8. Cholesterol asymmetry in synaptic plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, W Gibson; Igbavboa, Urule; Müller, Walter E; Eckert, Gunter P

    2011-03-01

    Lipids are essential for the structural and functional integrity of membranes. Membrane lipids are not randomly distributed but are localized in different domains. A common characteristic of these membrane domains is their association with cholesterol. Lipid rafts and caveolae are examples of cholesterol enriched domains, which have attracted keen interest. However, two other important cholesterol domains are the exofacial and cytofacial leaflets of the plasma membrane. The two leaflets that make up the bilayer differ in their fluidity, electrical charge, lipid distribution, and active sites of certain proteins. The synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) cytofacial leaflet contains over 85% of the total SPM cholesterol as compared with the exofacial leaflet. This asymmetric distribution of cholesterol is not fixed or immobile but can be modified by different conditions in vivo: (i) chronic ethanol consumption; (ii) statins; (iii) aging; and (iv) apoE isoform. Several potential candidates have been proposed as mechanisms involved in regulation of SPM cholesterol asymmetry: apoE, low-density lipoprotein receptor, sterol carrier protein-2, fatty acid binding proteins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, P-glycoprotein and caveolin-1. This review examines cholesterol asymmetry in SPM, potential mechanisms of regulation and impact on membrane structure and function. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  9. Anterior EEG asymmetries and opponent process theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, John P; Blackhart, Ginette C; Williams, William C

    2007-03-01

    The opponent process theory of emotion [Solomon, R.L., and Corbit, J.D. (1974). An opponent-process theory of motivation: I. Temporal dynamics of affect. Psychological Review, 81, 119-143.] predicts a temporary reversal of emotional valence during the recovery from emotional stimulation. We hypothesized that this affective contrast would be apparent in asymmetrical activity patterns in the frontal lobes, and would be more apparent for left frontally active individuals. The present study tested this prediction by examining EEG asymmetries during and after blocked presentations of aversive pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). 12 neutral images, 12 aversive images, and 24 neutral images were presented in blocks. Participants who were right frontally active at baseline did not show changes in EEG asymmetry while viewing aversive slides or after cessation. Participants left frontally active at baseline, however, exhibited greater relative left frontal activity after aversive stimulation than before stimulation. Asymmetrical activity patterns in the frontal lobes may relate to affect regulatory processes, including contrasting opponent after-reactions to aversive stimuli.

  10. Disentangling the Relationship between Hemispheric Asymmetry and Cognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirnstein, Marco; Leask, Stuart; Rose, Jonas; Hausmann, Markus

    2010-01-01

    It is widely believed that advantages of hemispheric asymmetries originated in better cognitive processing, hence it is often implied that the relationship between hemispheric asymmetry and cognitive performance is linearly positive: the higher the degree of lateralization in a specific cognitive domain, the better the performance in a…

  11. Asymmetries of Knowledge and Epistemic Change in Social Gaming Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piirainen-Marsh, Arja; Tainio, Liisa

    2014-01-01

    While a growing number of studies investigate the role of knowledge and interactional management of knowledge asymmetries in conversation analysis, the epistemic organization of multilingual and second language interactions is still largely unexplored. This article addresses this issue by investigating how knowledge asymmetries and changing…

  12. Information Asymmetries as Trade Barriers: ISO 9000 Increases International Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potoski, Matthew; Prakash, Aseem

    2009-01-01

    Spatial, cultural, and linguistic barriers create information asymmetries between buyers and sellers that impede international trade. The International Organization for Standardization's ISO 9000 program is designed to reduce these information asymmetries by providing assurance about the product quality of firms that receive its certification.…

  13. Identification of Foot Pathologies Based on Plantar Pressure Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linah Wafai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Foot pathologies can negatively influence foot function, consequently impairing gait during daily activity, and severely impacting an individual’s quality of life. These pathologies are often painful and correspond with high or abnormal plantar pressure, which can result in asymmetry in the pressure distribution between the two feet. There is currently no general consensus on the presence of asymmetry in able-bodied gait, and plantar pressure analysis during gait is in dire need of a standardized method to quantify asymmetry. This paper investigates the use of plantar pressure asymmetry for pathological gait diagnosis. The results of this study involving plantar pressure analysis in fifty one participants (31 healthy and 20 with foot pathologies support the presence of plantar pressure asymmetry in normal gait. A higher level of asymmetry was detected at the majority of the regions in the feet of the pathological population, including statistically significant differences in the plantar pressure asymmetry in two regions of the foot, metatarsophalangeal joint 3 (MPJ3 and the lateral heel. Quantification of plantar pressure asymmetry may prove to be useful for the identification and diagnosis of various foot pathologies.

  14. Information Asymmetry and Financing Decisions: Evidence from Iran Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Elhaei Sahar; Seyed Ali Vaez

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relations of information asymmetry and financing decisions in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) during 2009 to 2011. Our statistical simple consist 170 firms and stepwise regression method has been used. We found that the relationship between information asymmetry and stock issuing is negative. Other results refer to positive relation between financing deficit and stock issuing.

  15. A Point-Wise Quantification of Asymmetry Using Deformation Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Lanche, Stephanie; Darvann, Tron Andre

    2007-01-01

    of the resulting displacement vectors on the left and right side of the symmetry plane, gives a point-wise measure of asymmetry. The asymmetry measure was applied to the study of Crouzon syndrome using Micro CT scans of genetically modified mice. Crouzon syndrome is characterised by the premature fusion of cranial...

  16. European economic integration and (A)symmetry of macroeconomic fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, C.J.M.; Economidou, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates output and consumption asymmetries in the Eurozone and enlarged EU over the period 1992-2007, and their consequences for monetary policy. Our results reveal that the introduction of the euro has little impact on output asymmetry so far; however, it has led to

  17. CP violating rate asymmetries in B decays ∑

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CP violating rate asymmetries in B decays. N G DESHPANDE. Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403-5203, USA. Email: desh@oregon.uoregon.edu. Abstract. We briefly discuss measurements of angles β and α of the unitarity triangle. We then review rate asymmetries using SU´3µ ...

  18. Spatial asymmetry of post-stroke hemiparetic gait: assessment and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite potential benefits, quantitative analysis of gait asymmetry is still not routinely used in many hospitals and rehabilitation institutions in developing countries due to ... Conclusion: Overall, the study demonstrated asymmetry of step length and foot rotation angle during walking of post-stroke hemiparetic individuals and ...

  19. Mapping hemispheric symmetries, relative asymmetries, and absolute asymmetries underlying the auditory laterality effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhausen, René; Kompus, Kristiina; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Functional hemispheric differences for speech and language processing have been traditionally studied by using verbal dichotic-listening paradigms. The commonly observed right-ear preference for the report of dichotically presented syllables is taken to reflect the left hemispheric dominance for speech processing. However, the results of recent functional imaging studies also show that both hemispheres - not only the left - are engaged by dichotic listening, suggesting a more complex relationship between behavioral laterality and functional hemispheric activation asymmetries. In order to more closely examine the hemispheric differences underlying dichotic-listening performance, we report an analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of 104 right-handed subjects, for the first time combining an interhemispheric difference and conjunction analysis. This approach allowed for a distinction of homotopic brain regions which showed symmetrical (i.e., brain region significantly activated in both hemispheres and no activation difference between the hemispheres), relative asymmetrical (i.e., activated in both hemispheres but significantly stronger in one than the other hemisphere), and absolute asymmetrical activation patterns (i.e., activated only in one hemisphere and this activation is significantly stronger than in the other hemisphere). Symmetrical activation was found in large clusters encompassing temporal, parietal, inferior frontal, and medial superior frontal regions. Relative and absolute left-ward asymmetries were found in the posterior superior temporal gyrus, located adjacent to symmetrically activated areas, and creating a lateral-medial gradient from symmetrical towards absolute asymmetrical activation within the peri-Sylvian region. Absolute leftward asymmetry was also found in the post-central and medial superior frontal gyri, while rightward asymmetries were found in middle temporal and middle frontal gyri. We conclude that dichotic

  20. Cloning and characterization of SCART1, a novel scavenger receptor cysteine-rich type I transmembrane molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Dorte; Fink, Dorte Rosenbek; Grønlund, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    We have cloned and characterized a novel murine transmembrane molecule, mSCART1 belonging to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily. The cDNA encodes a polypeptide chain of 989 amino acids, organized as a type I transmembrane protein that contains eight extracellular SRCR domains followed...

  1. Contract Design: The problem of information asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel C. Mühlbacher

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Integrated care systems are advocated as an effective method of improving the performance of healthcare systems. These systems outline a payment and care delivery model that intends to tie provider reimbursements to predefined quality metrics. Little is known about the contractual design and the main challenges of delegating “accountability” to these new kinds of organisations and/or contracts. The research question in this article focuses on how healthcare contracts can look like and which possible problems arise in designing such contracts. In this a special interest is placed on information asymmetries.  Methods: A comprehensive literature review on methods of designing contracts in Integrated Care was conducted. This article is the first in a row of three that all contribute to a specific issue in designing healthcare contracts. Starting with the organisation of contracts and information asymmetries, part 2 focusses on financial options and risks and part 3 finally concludes with the question of risk management and evaluation.  Results: Healthcare contracting between providers and payers will have a major impact on the overall design of future healthcare systems. If Integrated care systems or any other similar concept of care delivery are to be contracted directly by payers to manage the continuum of care the costs of market utilisation play an essential role. Transaction costs also arise in the course of the negotiation and implementation of contracts. These costs are the reason why it is generally not possible to conclude perfect (complete contracts. Problems with asymmetric distribution of information can relate to the situation before a contract is concluded (adverse selection and after conclusion of a contract (moral hazard.  Discussion and Conclusions: Information asymmetries are seen as a major obstacle to the efficient operation of integrated care programmes. Coordination and motivation problems cannot be solved

  2. Structural Insights into Triglyceride Storage Mediated by Fat Storage-Inducing Transmembrane (FIT) Protein 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, David A.; Snapp, Erik L.; Silver, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Fat storage-Inducing Transmembrane proteins 1 & 2 (FIT1/FITM1 and FIT2/FITM2) belong to a unique family of evolutionarily conserved proteins localized to the endoplasmic reticulum that are involved in triglyceride lipid droplet formation. FIT proteins have been shown to mediate the partitioning of cellular triglyceride into lipid droplets, but not triglyceride biosynthesis. FIT proteins do not share primary sequence homology with known proteins and no structural information is available to inform on the mechanism by which FIT proteins function. Here, we present the experimentally-solved topological models for FIT1 and FIT2 using N-glycosylation site mapping and indirect immunofluorescence techniques. These methods indicate that both proteins have six-transmembrane-domains with both N- and C-termini localized to the cytosol. Utilizing this model for structure-function analysis, we identified and characterized a gain-of-function mutant of FIT2 (FLL(157-9)AAA) in transmembrane domain 4 that markedly augmented the total number and mean size of lipid droplets. Using limited-trypsin proteolysis we determined that the FLL(157-9)AAA mutant has enhanced trypsin cleavage at K86 relative to wild-type FIT2, indicating a conformational change. Taken together, these studies indicate that FIT2 is a 6 transmembrane domain-containing protein whose conformation likely regulates its activity in mediating lipid droplet formation. PMID:20520733

  3. Activation gating kinetics of GIRK channels are mediated by cytoplasmic residues adjacent to transmembrane domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadja, Rona; Reuveny, Eitan

    2009-01-01

    G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels (GIRK/Kir3.x) are involved in neurotransmission-mediated reduction of excitability. The gating mechanism following G protein activation of these channels likely proceeds from movement of inner transmembrane helices to allow K(+) ions movement through the pore of the channel. There is limited understanding of how the binding of G-protein betagamma subunits to cytoplasmic regions of the channel transduces the signal to the transmembrane regions. In this study, we examined the molecular basis that governs the activation kinetics of these channels, using a chimeric approach. We identified two regions as being important in determining the kinetics of activation. One region is the bottom of the outer transmembrane helix (TM1) and the cytoplasmic domain immediately adjacent (the slide helix); and the second region is the bottom of the inner transmembrane helix (TM2) and the cytoplasmic domain immediately adjacent. Interestingly, both of these regions are sufficient in mediating the kinetics of fast activation gating. This result suggests that there is a cooperative movement of either one of these domains to allow fast and efficient activation gating of GIRK channels.

  4. Structural insights into triglyceride storage mediated by fat storage-inducing transmembrane (FIT protein 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Gross

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Fat storage-Inducing Transmembrane proteins 1 & 2 (FIT1/FITM1 and FIT2/FITM2 belong to a unique family of evolutionarily conserved proteins localized to the endoplasmic reticulum that are involved in triglyceride lipid droplet formation. FIT proteins have been shown to mediate the partitioning of cellular triglyceride into lipid droplets, but not triglyceride biosynthesis. FIT proteins do not share primary sequence homology with known proteins and no structural information is available to inform on the mechanism by which FIT proteins function. Here, we present the experimentally-solved topological models for FIT1 and FIT2 using N-glycosylation site mapping and indirect immunofluorescence techniques. These methods indicate that both proteins have six-transmembrane-domains with both N- and C-termini localized to the cytosol. Utilizing this model for structure-function analysis, we identified and characterized a gain-of-function mutant of FIT2 (FLL(157-9AAA in transmembrane domain 4 that markedly augmented the total number and mean size of lipid droplets. Using limited-trypsin proteolysis we determined that the FLL(157-9AAA mutant has enhanced trypsin cleavage at K86 relative to wild-type FIT2, indicating a conformational change. Taken together, these studies indicate that FIT2 is a 6 transmembrane domain-containing protein whose conformation likely regulates its activity in mediating lipid droplet formation.

  5. Molecular dynamics study of the solvation of an alpha-helical transmembrane peptide by DMSO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, A.M.; Mierlo, van C.P.M.; Hemminga, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    10-ns molecular dynamics study of the solvation of a hydrophobic transmembrane helical peptide in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is presented. The objective is to analyze how this aprotic polar solvent is able to solvate three groups of amino acid residues (i.e., polar, apolar, and charged) that are

  6. The transmembrane region is responsible for targeting of adaptor protein LAX into "heavy rafts''

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrdinka, Matouš; Otáhal, Pavel; Hořejší, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 5 (2012), e36330 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GEMEM/09/E011; GA MŠk 1M0506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : LAX * transmembrane domain * DRM Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  7. Intact transmembrane isoforms of the neural cell adhesion molecule are released from the plasma membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M; Krog, L; Edvardsen, K

    1993-01-01

    . By density-gradient centrifugation it was shown that shed transmembrane NCAM-B was present in fractions of high, as well as low, density, indicating that a fraction of the shed NCAM is associated with minor plasma membrane fragments. Finally, it was shown that isolated soluble NCAM inhibited cell binding...

  8. Transmembrane adaptor molecules: a new category of lymphoid-cell markers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tedoldi, S.; Paterson, J.C.; Hansmann, M.-L.; Natkunam, Y.; Rüdiger, T.; Angelisová, Pavla; Du, M.Q.; Roberton, H.; Roncador, G.; Sanchez, L.; Pozzobon, M.; Masir, N.; Barry, R.; Pileri, S.; Mason, D.Y.; Marafioti, T.; Hořejší, Václav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 1 (2006), s. 213-221 ISSN 0006-4971 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : transmembrane adaptors * PAG * LIME Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 10.370, year: 2006

  9. Transmembrane Domain Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Impair Expression and Transport Activity of ABC Transporter ABCG2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjostedt, N.; Heuvel, J.J.M.W. van den; Koenderink, J.B.; Kidron, H.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the function and expression of nine naturally occurring single-nucleotide polymorphisms (G406R, F431L, S441N, P480L, F489L, M515R, L525R, A528T and T542A) that are predicted to reside in the transmembrane regions of the ABC transporter ABCG2. METHODS: The transport activity of the

  10. NTAL (non-T cell activation linker):a transmembrane adaptor protein involved in immunoreceptor signaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brdička, Tomáš; Imrich, Martin; Angelisová, Pavla; Brdičková, Naděžda; Horváth, Ondřej; Špička, Jiří; Hilgert, Ivan; Lusková, Petra; Dráber, Petr; Novák, P.; Engels, N.; Wienands, J.; Simeoni, L.; Osterreicher, J.; Aguado, E.; Malissen, M.; Schraven, B.; Hořejší, Václav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 196, č. 12 (2002), s. 16180-16185 ISSN 0022-1007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A026 Keywords : NTAL * transmembrane adaptor * immunoreceptor signaling Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 15.838, year: 2002

  11. Ligand-mediated negative regulation of a chimeric transmembrane receptor tyrosine phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desai, D M; Sap, J; Schlessinger, J

    1993-01-01

    CD45, a transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase), is required for TCR signaling. Multiple CD45 isoforms, differing in the extracellular domain, are expressed in a tissue- and activation-specific manner, suggesting an important function for this domain. We report that a chimeric protein...... that ligand-mediated regulation of receptor-PTPases may have mechanistic similarities with receptor tyrosine kinases....

  12. SCIMP, a transmembrane adaptor protein involved in major histocompatibility complex class II signaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dráber, Peter; Vonková, Ivana; Štěpánek, Ondřej; Hrdinka, Matouš; Kucová, Markéta; Skopcová, Tereza; Otáhal, Pavel; Angelisová, Pavla; Hořejší, Václav; Yeung, M.; Weiss, A.; Brdička, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 22 (2011), s. 4550-4562 ISSN 0270-7306 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0506; GA ČR GEMEM/09/E011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : SCIMP * transmembrane adaptor protein * MHC II Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.527, year: 2011

  13. Molecular pharmacological phenotyping of EBI2. An orphan seven-transmembrane receptor with constitutive activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Mette M; Benned-Jensen, Tau; Holst, Peter J

    2006-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced receptor 2 (EBI2) is an orphan seven-transmembrane (7TM) receptor originally identified as the most up-regulated gene (>200-fold) in EBV-infected cells. Here we show that EBI2 signals with constitutive activity through Galpha(i) as determined by a receptor...

  14. Modeling the Structure of SARS 3a Transmembrane Protein Using a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Modeling the structure of SARS 3a Transmembrane protein using a ... for the implicit membrane molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. ... The coordinates during the simulation were saved every 500 steps, and were used for analysis. ... the pair list for calculation of nonbonded interactions being updated after every 10 steps.

  15. Simulations of Skin Barrier Function: Free Energies of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Transmembrane Pores in Ceramide Bilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notman, Rebecca; Anwar, Jamshed; Briels, Willem J.; Noro, Massimo G.; den Otter, Wouter K.

    2008-01-01

    Transmembrane pore formation is central to many biological processes such as ion transport, cell fusion, and viral infection. Furthermore, pore formation in the ceramide bilayers of the stratum corneum may be an important mechanism by which penetration enhancers such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)

  16. Large-scale identification of membrane proteins based on analysis of trypsin-protected transmembrane segments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vít, O.; Man, Petr; Kádek, Alan; Hausner, Jiří; Sklenář, A.; Harant, K.; Novák, Petr; Scigelová, M.; Wofferndin, G.; Petrák, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 146, SI (2016), s. 15-22 ISSN 1874-3919 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Integral membrane proteins * CNBr * Transmembrane Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.914, year: 2016

  17. Frontal EEG asymmetry as a moderator and mediator of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, James A; Allen, John J B

    2004-10-01

    Frontal EEG asymmetry appears to serve as (1) an individual difference variable related to emotional responding and emotional disorders, and (2) a state-dependent concomitant of emotional responding. Such findings, highlighted in this review, suggest that frontal EEG asymmetry may serve as both a moderator and a mediator of emotion- and motivation-related constructs. Unequivocal evidence supporting frontal EEG asymmetry as a moderator and/or mediator of emotion is lacking, as insufficient attention has been given to analyzing the frontal EEG asymmetries in terms of moderators and mediators. The present report reviews the frontal EEG asymmetry literature from the framework of moderators and mediators, and overviews data analytic strategies that would support claims of moderation and mediation.

  18. Insight of Transmembrane Processes of Self-Assembling Nanotubes Based on a Cyclic Peptide Using Coarse Grained Molecular Dynamics Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yankai; Yan, Tingxuan; Xu, Xia

    2017-09-28

    Transmembrane self-assembling cyclic peptide (SCP) nanotubes are promising candidates for delivering specific molecules through cell membranes. The detailed mechanisms behind the transmembrane processes, as well as stabilization factors of transmembrane structures, are difficult to elucidate through experiments. In this study, the effects of peptide sequence and oligomeric state on the transmembrane capabilities of SCP nanotubes and the perturbation of embedded SCP nanotubes acting on the membrane were investigated based on coarse grained molecular dynamics simulation. The simulation results reveal that hydrophilic SCP oligomers result in the elevation of the energy barrier while the oligomerization of hydrophobic SCPs causes the reduction of the energy barrier, further leading to membrane insertion. Once SCP nanotubes are embedded, membrane properties such as density, thickness, ordering state and lateral mobility are adjusted along the radial direction. This study provides insight into the transmembrane strategy of SCP nanotubes and sheds light on designing novel transport systems.

  19. Fluctuating asymmetry, sociosexuality, and intrasexual competitive tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J A; Gangestad, S W; Christensen, P N; Leck, K

    1999-01-01

    Heterosexual men and women were told they were competing with another same-sex individual for a date with an attractive opposite-sex interviewer. After answering 6 questions, participants were asked to tell the competitor why the interviewer should choose them over the competitor. Participants' videotaped behavior was coded for different behavioral tactics. Men who were more symmetrical and who had a more unrestricted sociosexual orientation were more likely to use direct competition tactics than were less symmetrical and restricted men. Restricted men accentuated their positive personal qualities, presenting themselves as "nice guys." Structural equation modeling revealed that fluctuating asymmetry (FA) was directly associated with the use of direct competition tactics. However, the link between FA and presenting oneself as a nice guy was mediated through sociosexuality. No effects were found for women.

  20. The baryon asymmetry of the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    An interaction between cosmology and particle physics has been mediated by the development of a unified approach to the fundamental symmetries of nature. The development of a unified theory of the strong and electro-weak interactions has encountered a potential hurdle to its progress. The underlying symmetry between the strong and electro-weak interactions may only be restored at energies exceeding approximately 10 14 GeV and such conditions can only be probed by an indirect retrospection into the first instants of the hot big bang origin of the Universe. The author aims to describe some of the recent developments surrounding grand unified theories (GUT's) of the strong and electro-weak interactions together with their relation to the question of the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe and the relative cosmic abundances of photons and nucleons. Further progress is hindered by the fact that super-unified theory must also encompass the gravitational interaction. (Auth.)

  1. The cosmological origin of time asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castagnino, Mario [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correos 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Lara, Luis [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Av. Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Lombardi, Olimpia [CONICET - Universidad de Buenos Aires, Puan 470, 1406 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2003-01-21

    In this paper, we address the problem of the arrow of time from a cosmological point of view, rejecting the traditional entropic approach that defines the future direction of time as the direction of the entropy increase: from our perspective, the arrow of time has a global origin and it is an intrinsic, geometrical feature of spacetime. Time orientability and the existence of a cosmic time are necessary conditions for defining an arrow of time, which is manifested globally as the time asymmetry of the universe as a whole, and locally as a time-asymmetric energy flux. We also consider arrows of time of different origins (quantum, electromagnetic, thermodynamic, etc) showing that they can be non-conventionally defined only if the geometrical arrow is previously defined.

  2. A Combinatorial Approach to Time Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Tamm

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, simple models for the multiverse are analyzed. Each universe is viewed as a path in a graph, and by considering very general statistical assumptions, essentially originating from Boltzmann, we can make the set of all such paths into a finite probability space. We can then also attempt to compute the probabilities for different kinds of behavior and in particular under certain conditions argue that an asymmetric behavior of the entropy should be much more probable than a symmetric one. This offers an explanation for the asymmetry of time as a broken symmetry in the multiverse. The focus here is on simple models which can be analyzed using methods from combinatorics. Although the computational difficulties rapidly become enormous when the size of the model grows, this still gives hints about how a full-scale model should behave.

  3. Cultural Distance Asymmetry in Expatriate Adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Chiu, Randy K.; Shenkar, Oded

    2007-01-01

    of the assignment. Design/methodology/approach - Using a two-flow sample of US expatriates in Germany and German expatriates in the USA, we examine and compare the psychological and socio-cultural adjustment of each group of executives. Findings - Controlling for the length of assignment, we find that German...... expatriates in the USA were better adjusted, both socio-culturally and psychologically, than American expatriates in Germany. These results support the asymmetry hypothesis and call into question previous findings attesting to the relationship between CD and expatriate adjustment. Originality......Purpose - The current literature implicitly assumes a symmetric impact of cultural distance (CD) on expatriate adjustment. By using distance as a predictor of adjustment, the literature has rendered the direction of the flow irrelevant: a US expatriate in Germany is presumed to face the same hurdle...

  4. Black hole thermodynamics and time asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, P C.W. [King' s Coll., London (UK). Dept. of Mathematics

    1976-10-01

    The role of the gravitational field as a source of entropy is discussed, first in connection with cosmology, then for black holes. A review is given of the need for an assumption of 'molecular' chaos or randomness at the initial cosmological singularity, in order to achieve consistency of statistical mechanics with the observed time asymmetry in the universe. It is argued that a simple randomness assumption cannot always be made, because several singularities may be casually connected. The situation is compared with that of quantum black and white holes confined in a closed box. The possibility of black-hole fluctuations is discussed, together with Hawking's conjecture that black and white holes are indistinguishable.

  5. Symmetry and asymmetry in mandelate racemase catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitman, C.P.; Hegeman, G.D.; Cleland, W.W.; Kenyon, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    Kinetic properties of mandelate racemase catalysis (Vmax, Km, deuterium isotope effects, and pH profiles) were all measured in both directions by the circular dichroic assay of Sharp. These results, along with those of studying interactions of mandelate racemase with resolved, enantiomeric competitive inhibitors [(R)- and (S)-alpha-phenylglycerates], indicate a high degree of symmetry in both binding and catalysis. Racemization of either enantiomer of mandelate in D 2 O did not show an overshoot region of molecular ellipticity in circular dichroic measurements upon approach to equilibrium. Both the absence of such an overshoot region and the high degree of kinetic symmetry are consistent with a one-base acceptor mechanism for mandelate racemase. On the other hand, results of irreversible inhibition with partially resolved, enantiomeric affinity labels [(R)- and (S)-alpha-phenylglycidates] reveal a ''functional asymmetry'' at the active site. Mechanistic proposals, consistent with these results, are presented

  6. Lepton asymmetry and neutrino oscillations interplay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirilova, Daniela, E-mail: dani@astro.bas.bg [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Astronomy and NAO (Bulgaria)

    2013-03-15

    We discuss the interplay between lepton asymmetry L and {nu} oscillations in the early Universe. Neutrino oscillations may suppress or enhance previously existing L. On the other hand L is capable to suppress or enhance neutrino oscillations. The mechanism of L enhancement in MSW resonant {nu} oscillations in the early Universe is numerically analyzed. L cosmological effects through {nu} oscillations are discussed. We discuss how L may change the cosmological BBN constraints on neutrino and show that BBN model with {nu}{sub e}{r_reversible}{nu}{sub s} oscillations is extremely sensitive to L - it allows to obtain the most stringent constraints on L value. We discuss also the cosmological role of active-sterile {nu} mixing and L in connection with the indications about additional relativistic density in the early Universe, pointed out by BBN, CMB and LSS data and the analysis of global {nu} data.

  7. Assessing and conceptualizing frontal EEG asymmetry: An updated primer on recording, processing, analyzing, and interpreting frontal alpha asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ezra E; Reznik, Samantha J; Stewart, Jennifer L; Allen, John J B

    2017-01-01

    Frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha asymmetry is widely researched in studies of emotion, motivation, and psychopathology, yet it is a metric that has been quantified and analyzed using diverse procedures, and diversity in procedures muddles cross-study interpretation. The aim of this article is to provide an updated tutorial for EEG alpha asymmetry recording, processing, analysis, and interpretation, with an eye towards improving consistency of results across studies. First, a brief background in alpha asymmetry findings is provided. Then, some guidelines for recording, processing, and analyzing alpha asymmetry are presented with an emphasis on the creation of asymmetry scores, referencing choices, and artifact removal. Processing steps are explained in detail, and references to MATLAB-based toolboxes that are helpful for creating and investigating alpha asymmetry are noted. Then, conceptual challenges and interpretative issues are reviewed, including a discussion of alpha asymmetry as a mediator/moderator of emotion and psychopathology. Finally, the effects of two automated component-based artifact correction algorithms-MARA and ADJUST-on frontal alpha asymmetry are evaluated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of flow rate and temperature on transmembrane blood pressure drop in an extracorporeal artificial lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M; Costa, E L V; Maciel, A T; Barbosa, E V S; Hirota, A S; Schettino, G de P; Azevedo, L C P

    2014-11-01

    Transmembrane pressure drop reflects the resistance of an artificial lung system to blood transit. Decreased resistance (low transmembrane pressure drop) enhances blood flow through the oxygenator, thereby, enhancing gas exchange efficiency. This study is part of a previous one where we observed the behaviour and the modulation of blood pressure drop during the passage of blood through artificial lung membranes. Before and after the induction of multi-organ dysfunction, the animals were instrumented and analysed for venous-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, using a pre-defined sequence of blood flows. Blood flow and revolutions per minute (RPM) of the centrifugal pump varied in a linear fashion. At a blood flow of 5.5 L/min, pre- and post-pump blood pressures reached -120 and 450 mmHg, respectively. Transmembrane pressures showed a significant spread, particularly at blood flows above 2 L/min; over the entire range of blood flow rates, there was a positive association of pressure drop with blood flow (0.005 mmHg/mL/minute of blood flow) and a negative association of pressure drop with temperature (-4.828 mmHg/(°Celsius). These associations were similar when blood flows of below and above 2000 mL/minute were examined. During its passage through the extracorporeal system, blood is exposed to pressure variations from -120 to 450 mmHg. At high blood flows (above 2 L/min), the drop in transmembrane pressure becomes unpredictable and highly variable. Over the entire range of blood flows investigated (0-5500 mL/min), the drop in transmembrane pressure was positively associated with blood flow and negatively associated with body temperature. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Karyotype asymmetry in Cynodon Rich. (Poaceae) accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavegatto, R B; Paula, C M P; Souza Sobrinho, F; Benites, F R G; Techio, V H

    2016-12-02

    Cynodon is a genus of plants with forage potential that has attracted the interest of breeders. These species have high morphological variability in a large number of varieties and cytotypes, hampering identification. This study aimed to determine the karyotype asymmetry index among accessions of Cynodon to discriminate between them. Karyotype symmetry was based on three estimates, which were compared. The basic number for the genus is x = 9. The results of the chromosome count and DNA quantification, respectively, were as follows: two diploid accessions (2n = 2x = 18 and 1.08 ± 0.094 to 1.17 ± 0.036 pg DNA and ± standard deviation), one triploid accession (2n = 3x = 27 and 1.63 ± 0.017 pg DNA), four tetraploid accessions (2n = 4x = 36 and 1.88 ± 0.069 to 2.10 ± 0.07 pg DNA), and one pentaploid accession (2n = 5x = 45 and 2.55 ± 0.098 pg DNA). C. incompletus var. hirsutus had the longest total length of the haploid lot (29.05 µm), with chromosomes that ranged from 1.7 to 6.2 µm in length. On the basis of the karyotype asymmetry indices, the accessions were divided into two groups: 1) C. dactylon var. dactylon, C. transvaalensis, C. dactylon var. polevansii, three accessions of Cynodon sp, and C. nlemfuensis; and 2) C. incompletus var. hirsutus. This is the first description of tetraploidy in C. transvaalensis. The karyotypic data facilitated a determination of the degree of proximity between the accessions.

  10. Conserved allosteric hot spots in the transmembrane domains of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channels and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shipeng; Roessler, Bryan C; Chauvet, Sylvain; Guo, Jingyu; Hartman, John L; Kirk, Kevin L

    2014-07-18

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are an ancient family of transmembrane proteins that utilize ATPase activity to move substrates across cell membranes. The ABCC subfamily of the ABC transporters includes active drug exporters (the multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs)) and a unique ATP-gated ion channel (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)). The CFTR channel shares gating principles with conventional ligand-gated ion channels, but the allosteric network that couples ATP binding at its nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) with conformational changes in its transmembrane helices (TMs) is poorly defined. It is also unclear whether the mechanisms that govern CFTR gating are conserved with the thermodynamically distinct MRPs. Here we report a new class of gain of function (GOF) mutation of a conserved proline at the base of the pore-lining TM6. Multiple substitutions of this proline promoted ATP-free CFTR activity and activation by the weak agonist, 5'-adenylyl-β,γ-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP). TM6 proline mutations exhibited additive GOF effects when combined with a previously reported GOF mutation located in an outer collar of TMs that surrounds the pore-lining TMs. Each TM substitution allosterically rescued the ATP sensitivity of CFTR gating when introduced into an NBD mutant with defective ATP binding. Both classes of GOF mutations also rescued defective drug export by a yeast MRP (Yor1p) with ATP binding defects in its NBDs. We conclude that the conserved TM6 proline helps set the energy barrier to both CFTR channel opening and MRP-mediated drug efflux and that CFTR channels and MRP pumps utilize similar allosteric mechanisms for coupling conformational changes in their translocation pathways to ATP binding at their NBDs. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Kinetic asymmetries between forward and drop jump landing tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana Alves de Britto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n6p661   Landing asymmetry is a risk factor for knee anterior cruciate ligament injury. The aim of this study was to identify kinetic asymmetries in healthy recreational athletes performing different jump-landing techniques. Twelve recreational athletes engaged in regular training underwent kinetic evaluation using two 3D force plates and were analyzed for: (a three-dimensional peak forces, (b time to peak vertical force, and (c initial phase asymmetries. All data were collected during performance of unilateral and bilateral trials of forward and drop jump tasks. Forward jump-landing tasks elicited greater kinetic asymmetry than drop-landing tasks. Regardless of jump-landing technique, the preferred leg experienced higher forces than the non-preferred leg. The initial landing phase showed more kinetic asymmetries than the later phase when peak vertical forces occur. It was concluded that when screening athletes for kinetic asymmetries that may predispose them to injury, forward jump-landing tasks and the early landing phase might show more kinetic asymmetries than drop jump-landing tasks and the late landing phase, respectively.

  12. Magnetic fields and chiral asymmetry in the early hot universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sydorenko, Maksym; Shtanov, Yuri; Tomalak, Oleksandr

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study analytically the process of external generation and subsequent free evolution of the lepton chiral asymmetry and helical magnetic fields in the early hot universe. This process is known to be affected by the Abelian anomaly of the electroweak gauge interactions. As a consequence, chiral asymmetry in the fermion distribution generates magnetic fields of non-zero helicity, and vice versa. We take into account the presence of thermal bath, which serves as a seed for the development of instability in magnetic field in the presence of externally generated lepton chiral asymmetry. The developed helical magnetic field and lepton chiral asymmetry support each other, considerably prolonging their mutual existence, in the process of 'inverse cascade' transferring magnetic-field power from small to large spatial scales. For cosmologically interesting initial conditions, the chiral asymmetry and the energy density of helical magnetic field are shown to evolve by scaling laws, effectively depending on a single combined variable. In this case, the late-time asymptotics of the conformal chiral chemical potential reproduces the universal scaling law previously found in the literature for the system under consideration. This regime is terminated at lower temperatures because of scattering of electrons with chirality change, which exponentially washes out chiral asymmetry. We derive an expression for the termination temperature as a function of the chiral asymmetry and energy density of helical magnetic field.

  13. Shifting brain asymmetry: the link between meditation and structural lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Florian; MacKenzie-Graham, Allan; Toga, Arthur W; Luders, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed an increased fractional anisotropy and greater thickness in the anterior parts of the corpus callosum in meditation practitioners compared with control subjects. Altered callosal features may be associated with an altered inter-hemispheric integration and the degree of brain asymmetry may also be shifted in meditation practitioners. Therefore, we investigated differences in gray matter asymmetry as well as correlations between gray matter asymmetry and years of meditation practice in 50 long-term meditators and 50 controls. We detected a decreased rightward asymmetry in the precuneus in meditators compared with controls. In addition, we observed that a stronger leftward asymmetry near the posterior intraparietal sulcus was positively associated with the number of meditation practice years. In a further exploratory analysis, we observed that a stronger rightward asymmetry in the pregenual cingulate cortex was negatively associated with the number of practice years. The group difference within the precuneus, as well as the positive correlations with meditation years in the pregenual cingulate cortex, suggests an adaptation of the default mode network in meditators. The positive correlation between meditation practice years and asymmetry near the posterior intraparietal sulcus may suggest that meditation is accompanied by changes in attention processing. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. PirB regulates asymmetries in hippocampal circuitry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikari Ukai

    Full Text Available Left-right asymmetry is a fundamental feature of higher-order brain structure; however, the molecular basis of brain asymmetry remains unclear. We recently identified structural and functional asymmetries in mouse hippocampal circuitry that result from the asymmetrical distribution of two distinct populations of pyramidal cell synapses that differ in the density of the NMDA receptor subunit GluRε2 (also known as NR2B, GRIN2B or GluN2B. By examining the synaptic distribution of ε2 subunits, we previously found that β2-microglobulin-deficient mice, which lack cell surface expression of the vast majority of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI proteins, do not exhibit circuit asymmetry. In the present study, we conducted electrophysiological and anatomical analyses on the hippocampal circuitry of mice with a knockout of the paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB, an MHCI receptor. As in β2-microglobulin-deficient mice, the PirB-deficient hippocampus lacked circuit asymmetries. This finding that MHCI loss-of-function mice and PirB knockout mice have identical phenotypes suggests that MHCI signals that produce hippocampal asymmetries are transduced through PirB. Our results provide evidence for a critical role of the MHCI/PirB signaling system in the generation of asymmetries in hippocampal circuitry.

  15. Bilateral asymmetry of the humerus during growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Amanda

    2011-08-01

    The development of handedness throughout growth can be investigated by using bilateral asymmetry of the humerus as a proxy for this trait. A large skeletal sample of nonadults from English archaeological sites was examined using standard metric techniques to assess when right-sided asymmetry first appears in the human skeleton. Results of this work indicate a change in directional asymmetry during growth and development, with infants and young children exhibiting no significant asymmetry and older children and adolescents demonstrating right-sidedness. This trend is consistent with what has been observed in previous studies of upper limb asymmetry in skeletal material and behaviorally in living children, adding further strength to the premise that biomechanical forces strongly influence bilateral asymmetry in the upper limb bones. Variability in the magnitude of asymmetry between different features of the humerus was also noted. This characteristic can be explained by differing degrees of genetic canalization, with length and articular dimensions being more strongly canalized than diaphyseal properties. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Magnetic fields and chiral asymmetry in the early hot universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sydorenko, Maksym; Shtanov, Yuri [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Tomalak, Oleksandr, E-mail: maxsydorenko@gmail.com, E-mail: tomalak@uni-mainz.de, E-mail: shtanov@bitp.kiev.ua [Institut für Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, 55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we study analytically the process of external generation and subsequent free evolution of the lepton chiral asymmetry and helical magnetic fields in the early hot universe. This process is known to be affected by the Abelian anomaly of the electroweak gauge interactions. As a consequence, chiral asymmetry in the fermion distribution generates magnetic fields of non-zero helicity, and vice versa. We take into account the presence of thermal bath, which serves as a seed for the development of instability in magnetic field in the presence of externally generated lepton chiral asymmetry. The developed helical magnetic field and lepton chiral asymmetry support each other, considerably prolonging their mutual existence, in the process of 'inverse cascade' transferring magnetic-field power from small to large spatial scales. For cosmologically interesting initial conditions, the chiral asymmetry and the energy density of helical magnetic field are shown to evolve by scaling laws, effectively depending on a single combined variable. In this case, the late-time asymptotics of the conformal chiral chemical potential reproduces the universal scaling law previously found in the literature for the system under consideration. This regime is terminated at lower temperatures because of scattering of electrons with chirality change, which exponentially washes out chiral asymmetry. We derive an expression for the termination temperature as a function of the chiral asymmetry and energy density of helical magnetic field.

  17. Interplay among transversity induced asymmetries in hadron leptoproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Adolph

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the fragmentation of a transversely polarized quark several left–right asymmetries are possible for the hadrons in the jet. When only one unpolarized hadron is selected, it exhibits an azimuthal modulation known as the Collins effect. When a pair of oppositely charged hadrons is observed, three asymmetries can be considered, a di-hadron asymmetry and two single hadron asymmetries. In lepton deep inelastic scattering on transversely polarized nucleons all these asymmetries are coupled with the transversity distribution. From the high statistics COMPASS data on oppositely charged hadron-pair production we have investigated for the first time the dependence of these three asymmetries on the difference of the azimuthal angles of the two hadrons. The similarity of transversity induced single and di-hadron asymmetries is discussed. A new analysis of the data allows quantitative relationships to be established among them, providing for the first time strong experimental indication that the underlying fragmentation mechanisms are all driven by a common physical process.

  18. Unilateral condylar hyperplasia: a 3-dimensional quantification of asymmetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim J Verhoeven

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Objective quantifications of facial asymmetry in patients with Unilateral Condylar Hyperplasia (UCH have not yet been described in literature. The aim of this study was to objectively quantify soft-tissue asymmetry in patients with UCH and to compare the findings with a control group using a new method. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty 3D photographs of patients diagnosed with UCH were compared with 30 3D photographs of healthy controls. As UCH presents particularly in the mandible, a new method was used to isolate the lower part of the face to evaluate asymmetry of this part separately. The new method was validated by two observers using 3D photographs of five patients and five controls. RESULTS: A significant difference (0.79 mm between patients and controls whole face asymmetry was found. Intra- and inter-observer differences of 0.011 mm (-0.034-0.011 and 0.017 mm (-0.007-0.042 respectively were found. These differences are irrelevant in clinical practice. CONCLUSION: After objective quantification, a significant difference was identified in soft-tissue asymmetry between patients with UCH and controls. The method used to isolate mandibular asymmetry was found to be valid and a suitable tool to evaluate facial asymmetry.

  19. Measurement of ttbar forward-backward asymmetry at CDF

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Early measurements of the forward-backward ttbar production asymmetry at CDF and D0 suggested significant asymmetries that have been interpreted as evidence for exotic gluon partners or new t-channel interactions. We present new measurements performed with 5 fb-1 of Tevatron ppbar collisions at Ecm = 1.96 TeV, recorded and analyzed at CDF. Significant inclusive asymmetries are observed in both the lepton+jets and the dilepton decay modes of the ttbar pair. In the dilepton mode, the asymmetry is observed in the reconstructed top rapidity, and in the lepton rapidity difference, which is independent of any top reconstruction. In the lepton plus jets sample, the full reconstruction of the top kinematics is used to measure the dependence of the asymmetry on the tt bar rapidity difference Delta(y) and the invariant mass M_(ttbar ) of the ttbar system. The asymmetry is found to be most significant at large Delta(y) and M_(ttbar) . For M_(ttbar) > 450 GeV/c2, the parton-level asymmetry in the t-tbar rest frame is...

  20. North-South asymmetry of interplanetary plasma and solar parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Borie, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    Data of interplanetary plasma (field magnitude, solar wind speed, ion plasma density and temperature) and solar parameters (sunspot number, solar radio flux, and geomagnetic index) over the period 1965-1991, have been used to examine the asymmetry between the solar field north and south of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS). The dependence of N-S asymmetry of field magnitude (B) upon the interplanetary solar polarities is statistically insignificant. There is no clear indication for the presence of N-S asymmetry in the grand-average field magnitude over the solar cycles. During the period 1981-89 (qA<0; negative solar polarity state), the solar plasma was more dense and cooler south of the HCS than north of it. The solar flux component of toward field vector is larger in magnitude than those of away field vector during the qA<0 epoch, and no asymmetry observed in the qA<0 epoch. Furthermore, the sign of the N-S asymmetry in the solar activity depends positively upon the solar polarity state. In addition, it was studied the N-S asymmetry of solar parameters near the HCS, throughout the periods of northern and southern hemispheres were more active than the other. Some asymmetries (with respect to the HCS) in plasma parameters existed during the periods of southern hemisphere predominance

  1. Age and Practice Effects on Inter-manual Performance Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Francis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Manual dexterity declines with increasing age however, the way in which inter-manual asymmetry responds to aging is unclear. Our purpose was to determine the effect of age and practice on inter-manual performance asymmetry in an isometric force pinch line tracing task that varied in difficulty within segments. Thirty right handed participants, 5 males and 5 females in each of three age groups, young (Y20, young-old (O70, and old-old (O80, practiced an isometric force pinch task for 10 trials with each hand on each of five consecutive days. Inter-manual performance asymmetry of the right and left hands was analyzed with a repeated measures ANOVA of asymmetry with age groups, practice, task difficulty, and hand as factors. The within-individual magnitude of asymmetry was also analyzed with a repeated measures ANOVA of manual asymmetry calculated as an asymmetry index (AI. Post hoc pair-wise comparisons were performed when significance was found. We observed no inter-manual performance asymmetry on this isometric tracing task among any of the age groups, either in the hand performance differences or in the magnitude of the asymmetry index (AI. Age and practice interacted in terms of manual performance: the Y20 and O70 group improved accuracy and task time across the five days of practice but the O80 group did not. However, practice did not differentially affect the AI for accuracy or task time for any group. Accuracy of performance of the two hands was differentially affected by practice. All age groups exhibited poorer performance and larger AIs on the most difficult segments of the task (3 and 6 and this did not change with practice.

  2. Expression of genes encoding multi-transmembrane proteins in specific primate taste cell populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan D Moyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Using fungiform (FG and circumvallate (CV taste buds isolated by laser capture microdissection and analyzed using gene arrays, we previously constructed a comprehensive database of gene expression in primates, which revealed over 2,300 taste bud-associated genes. Bioinformatics analyses identified hundreds of genes predicted to encode multi-transmembrane domain proteins with no previous association with taste function. A first step in elucidating the roles these gene products play in gustation is to identify the specific taste cell types in which they are expressed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using double label in situ hybridization analyses, we identified seven new genes expressed in specific taste cell types, including sweet, bitter, and umami cells (TRPM5-positive, sour cells (PKD2L1-positive, as well as other taste cell populations. Transmembrane protein 44 (TMEM44, a protein with seven predicted transmembrane domains with no homology to GPCRs, is expressed in a TRPM5-negative and PKD2L1-negative population that is enriched in the bottom portion of taste buds and may represent developmentally immature taste cells. Calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1, a component of a novel calcium channel, along with family members CALHM2 and CALHM3; multiple C2 domains; transmembrane 1 (MCTP1, a calcium-binding transmembrane protein; and anoctamin 7 (ANO7, a member of the recently identified calcium-gated chloride channel family, are all expressed in TRPM5 cells. These proteins may modulate and effect calcium signalling stemming from sweet, bitter, and umami receptor activation. Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2B (SV2B, a regulator of synaptic vesicle exocytosis, is expressed in PKD2L1 cells, suggesting that this taste cell population transmits tastant information to gustatory afferent nerve fibers via exocytic neurotransmitter release. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Identification of genes encoding multi-transmembrane domain proteins

  3. Next to leading order semi-inclusive spin asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florian, D. de; Epele, L.N.; Fanchiotti, H.; Garcia C, C.A.; Sassot, R.

    1996-04-01

    We have computed semi-inclusive spin asymmetries for proton and deuteron targets including next to leading order (NLO) QCD corrections and contributions coming from the target fragmentation region. These corrections have been estimated using NLO fragmentation functions, parton distributions and also a model for spin dependent fracture functions which is proposed here. We have found that NLO corrections are small but non-negligible in a scheme where gluons are polarised and that our estimate for target fragmentation effects, which is in agreement with the available semi-inclusive data, does not modify significantly charged asymmetries but is non-negligible for the so called difference asymmetries. (author). 18 refs., 7 figs

  4. Forward-backward asymmetries in W and Z decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, J.L.; Langacker, P.; Robinett, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    The leptons emitted in decays of W and Z bosons produced in pp or anti pp collisions exhibit characteristic asymmetries with respect to the beam direction, as measured in the W or Z center-of-mass. The asymmetries appear in both pp and anti pp collisions. For anti pp collisions they appear to be approximately constant over the whole y range for values of M/√s greater than or equal to 0.1. For smaller values of M/√s, the asymmetries become more and more washed out in the central region as sea-sea collisions begin to play a larger role in gauge boson formation

  5. The small mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ and the lepton asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, S H; Lee, Song-Haeng; Siyeon, Kim

    2005-01-01

    We present the correlation of low energy CP phases, both Dirac and Majorana, and the lepton asymmetry for the baryon asymmetry in the universe, with a certain class of Yukawa matrices that consist of two right-handed neutrinos and include one texture zero in themselves. For cases in which the amount of the lepton asymmetry $Y_L$ turns out to be proportional to $\\theta_{13}^2$, we consider the relation between two types of CP phases and the relation of $Y_L$ versus the Jarlskog invariant or the amplitude of neutrinoless double beta decay as $\\theta_{13}$ varies.

  6. Measuring the cosmological lepton asymmetry through the CMB anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Kinney, W H; Kinney, William H.; Riotto, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    A large lepton asymmetry in the Universe is still a viable possibility and leads to many interesting phenomena such as gauge symmetry nonrestoration at high temperature. We show that a large lepton asymmetry changes the predicted cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy and that any degeneracy in the relic neutrino sea will be measured to a precision of 1% or better when the CMB anisotropy is measured at the accuracy expected to result from the planned satellite missions MAP and Planck. In fact, the current measurements already put an upper limit on the lepton asymmetry of the Universe which is stronger than the one coming from considerations of primordial nucleosynthesis and structure formation.

  7. Baryogenesis and Dark Matter through a Higgs Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Servant, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    In addition to explaining the masses of elementary particles, the Higgs boson may have far-reaching implications for the generation of the matter content in the Universe. For instance, the Higgs plays a key role in two main theories of baryogenesis, namely electroweak baryogenesis and leptogenesis. In this letter, we propose a new cosmological scenario where the Higgs chemical potential mediates asymmetries between visible and dark matter sectors, either generating a baryon asymmetry from a dark matter asymmetry or vice-versa. We illustrate this mechanism with a simple model with two new fermions coupled to the Higgs and discuss associated signatures.

  8. Baryogenesis and dark matter through a Higgs asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servant, Géraldine; Tulin, Sean

    2013-10-11

    In addition to explaining the masses of elementary particles, the Higgs boson may have far-reaching implications for the generation of the matter content in the Universe. For instance, the Higgs boson plays a key role in two main theories of baryogenesis, namely, electroweak baryogenesis and leptogenesis. In this Letter, we propose a new cosmological scenario where the Higgs chemical potential mediates asymmetries between visible and dark matter sectors, either generating a baryon asymmetry from a dark matter asymmetry or vice versa. We illustrate this mechanism with a simple model with two new fermions coupled to the Higgs boson and discuss the associated signatures.

  9. The soluble loop BC region guides, but not dictates, the assembly of the transmembrane cytochrome b6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Tome-Stangl

    Full Text Available Studying folding and assembly of naturally occurring α-helical transmembrane proteins can inspire the design of membrane proteins with defined functions. Thus far, most studies have focused on the role of membrane-integrated protein regions. However, to fully understand folding pathways and stabilization of α-helical membrane proteins, it is vital to also include the role of soluble loops. We have analyzed the impact of interhelical loops on folding, assembly and stability of the heme-containing four-helix bundle transmembrane protein cytochrome b6 that is involved in charge transfer across biomembranes. Cytochrome b6 consists of two transmembrane helical hairpins that sandwich two heme molecules. Our analyses strongly suggest that the loop connecting the helical hairpins is not crucial for positioning the two protein "halves" for proper folding and assembly of the holo-protein. Furthermore, proteolytic removal of any of the remaining two loops, which connect the two transmembrane helices of a hairpin structure, appears to also not crucially effect folding and assembly. Overall, the transmembrane four-helix bundle appears to be mainly stabilized via interhelical interactions in the transmembrane regions, while the soluble loop regions guide assembly and stabilize the holo-protein. The results of this study might steer future strategies aiming at designing heme-binding four-helix bundle structures, involved in transmembrane charge transfer reactions.

  10. Role of ATP binding and hydrolysis in the gating of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taras Gout

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The CFTR gene is unique within the ATP-binding cassette (ABC protein family, predominantly of transporters, by coding a chloride channel. The gating mechanism of ABC proteins has been characterized by the ATP Switch model in terms cycles of dimer formation and dissociation linked to ATP binding and hydrolysis, respectively. It would be of interest to assess the extent that Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR, a functional channel, fits the ATP Switch model for ABC transporters. Additional transporter mechanisms, namely those of Pgp and HlyB, are discussed for perspective. Literature search of databases selected key references in comparing and contrasting the gating mechanism. CFTR is a functional chloride channel facilitating transmembrane anion flow down electrochemical gradients. A dysfunctional CFTR protein results in cystic fibrosis, a fatal pleiotropic disease currently managed symptomatically. Understanding the gating mechanism will help target drug development aimed at alleviating and curing the disease.

  11. Recombinant expression in E. coli of human FGFR2 with its transmembrane and extracellular domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Bajinting

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs are a family of receptor tyrosine kinases containing three domains: an extracellular receptor domain, a single transmembrane helix, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. FGFRs are activated by fibroblast growth factors (FGFs as part of complex signal transduction cascades regulating angiogenesis, skeletal formation, cell differentiation, proliferation, cell survival, and cancer. We have developed the first recombinant expression system in E. coli to produce a construct of human FGFR2 containing its transmembrane and extracellular receptor domains. We demonstrate that the expressed construct is functional in binding heparin and dimerizing. Size exclusion chromatography demonstrates that the purified FGFR2 does not form a complex with FGF1 or adopts an inactive dimer conformation. Progress towards the successful recombinant production of intact FGFRs will facilitate further biochemical experiments and structure determination that will provide insight into how extracellular FGF binding activates intracellular kinase activity.

  12. TMDIM: an improved algorithm for the structure prediction of transmembrane domains of bitopic dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Han; Ng, Marcus C. K.; Jusoh, Siti Azma; Tai, Hio Kuan; Siu, Shirley W. I.

    2017-09-01

    α-Helical transmembrane proteins are the most important drug targets in rational drug development. However, solving the experimental structures of these proteins remains difficult, therefore computational methods to accurately and efficiently predict the structures are in great demand. We present an improved structure prediction method TMDIM based on Park et al. (Proteins 57:577-585, 2004) for predicting bitopic transmembrane protein dimers. Three major algorithmic improvements are introduction of the packing type classification, the multiple-condition decoy filtering, and the cluster-based candidate selection. In a test of predicting nine known bitopic dimers, approximately 78% of our predictions achieved a successful fit (RMSD PHP, MySQL and Apache, with all major browsers supported.

  13. Cancer Research Advance in CKLF-like MARVEL Transmembrane Domain Containing Member Family (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jia; Wu, Qian-Qian; Zhou, Ya-Bo; Zhang, Kai-Hua; Pang, Bing-Xin; Li, Liang; Sun, Nan; Wang, Heng-Shu; Zhang, Song; Li, Wen-Jian; Zheng, Wei; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing family (CMTM) is a novel family of genes first reported at international level by Peking University Human Disease Gene Research Center. The gene products are between chemokines and the transmembrane-4 superfamily. Loaceted in several human chromosomes, CMTMs, which are unregulated in kinds of tumors, are potential tumor suppressor genes consisting of CKLF and CMTM1 to CMTM8. CMTMs play important roles in immune, male reproductive and hematopoietic systems. Also, it has been approved that CMTM family has strong connection with diseases of autoimmunity, haematopoietic system and haematopoietic system. The in-depth study in recent years found the close relation between CMTMs and umorigenesis, tumor development and metastasis. CMTM family has a significant clinical value in diagnosis and treatment to the diseases linking to tumor and immune system.

  14. [Research advances in CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain containing member 5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ye-qing; Xiao, Yun-bei; Liu, Zhen-hua; Zhang, Xiao-wei; Xu, Tao; Wang, Xiao-feng

    2012-12-01

    CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain containing member(CMTM)is a novel generic family firstly reported by Peking University Center for Human Disease Genomics. CMTM5 belongs to this family and has exhibited tumor-inhibiting activities. It can encode proteins approaching to the transmembrane 4 superfamily(TM4SF). CMTM5 is broadly expressed in normal adult and fetal human tissues, but is undetectable or down-regulated in most carcinoma cell lines and tissues. Restoration of CMTM5 may inhibit the proliferation, migration, and invasion of carcinoma cells. Although the exact mechanism of its anti-tumor activity remains unclear, CMTM5 may be involved in various signaling pathways governing the occurrence and development of tumors. CMTM5 may be a new target in the gene therapies for tumors, while further studies on CMTM5 and its anti-tumor mechanisms are warranted.

  15. First principles design of a core bioenergetic transmembrane electron-transfer protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goparaju, Geetha; Fry, Bryan A.; Chobot, Sarah E.; Wiedman, Gregory; Moser, Christopher C.; Leslie Dutton, P.; Discher, Bohdana M.

    2016-05-01

    Here we describe the design, Escherichia coli expression and characterization of a simplified, adaptable and functionally transparent single chain 4-α-helix transmembrane protein frame that binds multiple heme and light activatable porphyrins. Such man-made cofactor-binding oxidoreductases, designed from first principles with minimal reference to natural protein sequences, are known as maquettes. This design is an adaptable frame aiming to uncover core engineering principles governing bioenergetic transmembrane electron-transfer function and recapitulate protein archetypes proposed to represent the origins of photosynthesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biodesign for Bioenergetics — the design and engineering of electronic transfer cofactors, proteins and protein networks, edited by Ronald L. Koder and J.L. Ross Anderson.

  16. Combined effect of cortical cytoskeleton and transmembrane proteins on domain formation in biomembranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikder, K. U.; Stone, K. A.; Kumar, P. B. S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the combined effects of transmembrane proteins and the subjacent cytoskeleton on the dynamics of phase separation in multicomponent lipid bilayers using computer simulations of a particle-based implicit solvent model for lipid membranes with soft-core interactions. We find that mic......We investigate the combined effects of transmembrane proteins and the subjacent cytoskeleton on the dynamics of phase separation in multicomponent lipid bilayers using computer simulations of a particle-based implicit solvent model for lipid membranes with soft-core interactions. We find...... that microphase separation can be achieved by the protein confinement by the cytoskeleton. Our results have relevance to the finite size of lipid rafts in the plasma membrane of mammalian cells. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC....

  17. Value, obligation and the asymmetry question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, Michael

    1998-04-01

    Is there a prima facie obligation to produce additional individuals whose lives would be worth living? In his paper 'Is it good to make happy people?', Stuart Rachels argues not only that there is, but, also, that precisely as much weight should be assigned to the quality of life that would be enjoyed by such potential persons, if they were to be actualized, as to the quality of life enjoyed by actually existing persons. In response, I shall argue, first, that Rachels' view is exposed to very serious objections, and secondly, that his arguments in support of his position involve a crucial assumption, which cannot be sustained, concerning the relation between, on the one hand, propositions about good-making and bad-making properties, and, on the other, propositions about right-making and wrong-making ones. I shall then argue that there is a very plausible position concerning the conditions under which an action can be morally wrong which entails the following asymmetry: there is a prima facie obligation not to bring into existence individuals whose lives are not worth living, but there is no corresponding obligation to create additional individuals whose lives would be worth living.

  18. Cerebral asymmetries: complementary and independent processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjurgjica Badzakova-Trajkov

    Full Text Available Most people are right-handed and left-cerebrally dominant for speech, leading historically to the general notion of left-hemispheric dominance, and more recently to genetic models proposing a single lateralizing gene. This hypothetical gene can account for higher incidence of right-handers in those with left cerebral dominance for speech. It remains unclear how this dominance relates to the right-cerebral dominance for some nonverbal functions such as spatial or emotional processing. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging with a sample of 155 subjects to measure asymmetrical activation induced by speech production in the frontal lobes, by face processing in the temporal lobes, and by spatial processing in the parietal lobes. Left-frontal, right-temporal, and right-parietal dominance were all intercorrelated, suggesting that right-cerebral biases may be at least in part complementary to the left-hemispheric dominance for language. However, handedness and parietal asymmetry for spatial processing were uncorrelated, implying independent lateralizing processes, one producing a leftward bias most closely associated with handedness, and the other a rightward bias most closely associated with spatial attention.

  19. On facial asymmetry and self-perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Stephen M; Bartlett, Scott P

    2014-06-01

    Self-perception has been an enduring human concern since ancient times and remains a significant component of the preoperative and postoperative consultation. Despite modern technological attempts to reproduce the first-hand experience, there is no perfect substitute for human, stereoscopic, three-dimensional vision in evaluating appearance. Nowadays, however, the primary tools available to a patient for examining his or her own appearance, particularly the face, are photographs and mirrors. Patients are often unaware of how cameras and photographs can distort and degrade image quality, leading to an inaccurate representation of true appearance. Everyone knows that mirrors reverse an image, left and right, and most people recognize their own natural facial asymmetry at some level. However, few realize that emotions are not only expressed unequally by the left and right sides of the face but also perceived unequally by others. The impact and effect of this "facedness" is completely reversed by mirrors, potentially creating a significant discrepancy between what a patient perceives of himself or herself and what the surgeon or other third party sees. This article ties together the diverse threads leading to this problem and suggests several ways of mitigating the issue through technology and patient counseling.

  20. CP asymmetries in Strange Baryon Decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigi, I. I.; Kang, Xian-Wei; Li, Hai-Bo

    2018-01-01

    While indirect and direct CP violation (CPV) has been established in the decays of strange and beauty mesons, no CPV has yet been found for baryons. There are different paths to finding CP asymmetry in the decays of strange baryons; they are all highly non-trivial. The HyperCP Collaboration has probed CPV in the decays of single Ξ and Λ [1]. We discuss future lessons from {{{e}}}+{{{e}}}- collisions at BESIII/BEPCII: probing decays of pairs of strange baryons, namely Λ, Σ and Ξ. Realistic goals are to learn about non-perturbative QCD. One can hope to find CPV in the decays of strange baryons; one can also dream of finding the impact of New Dynamics. We point out that an important new era will start with the BESIII/BEPCII data accumulated by the end of 2018. This also supports new ideas to trigger {{J}}/{{\\psi }}\\to \\bar{{{Λ }}}{{Λ }} at the LHCb collaboration. Supported by National Science Foundation (PHY-1520966), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11335009, 11125525), Joint Large-Scale Scientific Facility Funds of the NSFC and CAS (U1532257), the National Key Basic Research Program of China (2015CB856700), Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, CAS, (QYZDJ-SSW-SLH003), XWK’s work is also supported by MOST (Taiwan) (104-2112-M-001-022)

  1. The Lateralizing Asymmetry of Adrenal Adenomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Meng; Lopez, Diana; Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Cote, Kathryn; Newfield, Jessica; Connors, Molly; Vaidya, Anand

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Context It is presumed that the incidence of adrenal adenomas is symmetric between the left and right adrenal gland; however, anecdotal observations suggest a potential lateralizing asymmetry. Objective To investigate the symmetry in detection of adrenal adenomas and relevance to patient care. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Population and Setting One thousand three hundred seventy-six patients with abdominal computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging demonstrating benign-appearing adrenal adenomas. Main Outcome Location and size of adrenal adenomas. Results Left-sided adenomas were discovered in 65% of patients, right-sided in 21%, and bilateral adenomas in 14%. Among unilateral adenomas, 75% were left-sided. Left-sided adenomas were more prevalent than right-sided adenomas in each size category except the largest: Adrenal adenomas are substantially more likely to be identified on the left adrenal than the right. This observation may be due to detection bias attributed to the location of the right adrenal, which may preclude identification of right-sided adenomas until they are substantially larger. These findings suggest the potential for an underrecognition of right-sided adenomas that may also impair the accurate detection of bilateral adrenal diseases. PMID:29644340

  2. Impact of rheological layering on rift asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquet, Yoann; Schmalholz, Stefan M.; Duretz, Thibault

    2015-04-01

    Although numerous models of rift formation have been proposed, what triggers asymmetry of rifted margins remains unclear. Parametrized material softening is often employed to induce asymmetric fault patterns in numerical models. Here, we use thermo-mechanical finite element models that allow softening via thermal weakening. We investigate the importance of lithosphere rheology and mechanical layering on rift morphology. The numerical code is based on the MILAMIN solver and uses the Triangle mesh generator. Our model configuration consists of a visco-elasto-platic layered lithosphere comprising either (1) only one brittle-ductile transition (in the mantle) or (2) three brittle-ductile transitions (one in the upper crust, one in the lower crust and one in the mantle). We perform then two sets of simulations characterized by low and high extensional strain rates (5*10-15 s-1, 2*10-14 s-1). The results show that the extension of a lithosphere comprising only one brittle-ductile transition produces a symmetric 'neck' type rift. The upper and lower crusts are thinned until the lithospheric mantle is exhumed to the seafloor. A lithosphere containing three brittle-ductile transitions favors strain localization. Shear zones at different horizontal locations and generated in the brittle levels of the lithosphere get connected by the weak ductile layers. The results suggest that rheological layering of the lithosphere can be a reason for the generation of asymmetric rifting and subsequent rift morphology.

  3. Asymmetries of the solar Ca II lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heasley, J.N.

    1975-01-01

    A theoretical study of the influence of propagating acoustic pulses in the solar chromosphere upon the line profiles of the Ca II resonance and infrared triplet lines has been made. The major objective has been to explain the observed asymmetries seen in the cores of the H and K lines and to predict the temporal behavior of the infrared lines caused by passing acoustic or shock pulses. The velocities in the pulses, calculated from weak shock theory, have been included consistently in the non-LTE calculations. The results of the calculations show that these lines are very sensitive to perturbations in the background atmosphere caused by the pulses. Only minor changes in the line shapes result from including the velocities consistently in the line source function calculations. The qualitative changes in the line profiles vary markedly with the strength of the shock pulses. The observed differences in the K line profiles seen on the quiet Sun can be explained in terms of a spectrum of pulses with different wavelengths and initial amplitudes in the photosphere. (Auth.)

  4. The baryon asymmetry and CPT invariance in the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barshay, S.

    1981-01-01

    We discuss, and give a definite, simple phenomenological example, of the possibility that the baryon asymmetry is related to a failure of CPT invariance for a brief time interval at the origin of the universe. (orig.)

  5. Axial asymmetry, finite particle number and the IBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casten, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Although the IBA-1 contains no solutions corresponding to a rigid triaxial shape, it does contain an effective asymmetry. This arises from zero point motion in a γ-soft potential leading to a non-zero mean or rms γ. Three aspects of this feature will be discussed: (1) The relation between IBA-1 calculations and the corresponding γ. This point is developed in the context of the Consistent Q Formalism (CQF) of the IBA. (2) The dependence of this asymmetry on boson number, N, and the exploitation of this dependence to set limits on both the relative and absolute values of N for deformed nuclei. (3) The relation between this asymmetry and the triaxiality arising from the introduction of cubic terms into the IBA Hamiltonian. Various observables will be inspected in order both to determine their sensitivity to these two structural features and to explore empirical ways of distinguishing which origin of asymmetry applies in any given nucleus. 16 references

  6. Birth order and fluctuating asymmetry: a first look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalumière, M L; Harris, G T; Rice, M E

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that maternal immunoreactivity to male-specific features of the foetus can increase developmental instability. We predicted that the participants' number of older brothers would be positively related to the fluctuating asymmetry of ten bilateral morphological traits. The participants were 40 adult male psychiatric patients and 31 adult male hospital employees. Consistent with the hypothesis, the participants' number of older brothers--but not number of older sisters, younger brothers or younger sisters--was positively associated with fluctuating asymmetry. The patients had significantly larger fluctuating asymmetry scores and tended to have more older brothers than the employees, but the positive relationship between the number of older brothers and fluctuating asymmetry was observed in both groups. PMID:10643079

  7. Quantitative-genetic analysis of wing form and bilateral asymmetry ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    lines; Procrustes analysis; wing shape; wing size. ... Models of stochastic gene expression pre- dict that intrinsic noise ... Quantitative parameters of wing size and shape asymmetries ..... the residuals of a regression on centroid size produced.

  8. Amplitude and polarization asymmetries in a ring laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, L. L.; Buholz, N. E.

    1971-01-01

    Asymmetric amplitude effects between the oppositely directed traveling waves in a He-Ne ring laser are analyzed both theoretically and experimentally. These effects make it possible to detect angular orientations of an inner-cavity bar with respect to the plane of the ring cavity. The amplitude asymmetries occur when a birefringent bar is placed in the three-mirror ring cavity, and an axial magnetic field is applied to the active medium. A simplified theoretical analysis is performed by using a first order perturbation theory to derive an expression for the polarization of the active medium, and a set of self-consistent equations are derived to predict threshold conditions. Polarization asymmetries between the oppositely directed waves are also predicted. Amplitude asymmetries similar in nature to those predicted at threshold occur when the laser is operating in 12-15 free-running modes, and polarization asymmetry occurs simultaneously.

  9. The asymmetry of tourist images for the international cross border ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The asymmetry of tourist images for the international cross border three- ... of images promotion strategy, which is called “positioning” in Marketing. ... Keywords: tourism, tourist brand, Chita region, Mongolia, tourist and recreational activities ...

  10. Effect of Information Asymmetry and Relationship Lending on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Information Asymmetry and Relationship Lending on Financial ... from small- business- friendly financial institutions, hypotheses postulated by the ... a model of transaction costs of financial contracting that put into consideration the ...

  11. Flavor versus mass eigenstates in neutrino asymmetries: implications for cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barenboim, Gabriela [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Departament de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Burjassot (Spain); Kinney, William H. [University at Buffalo, Department of Physics, Buffalo, NY (United States); Park, Wan-Il [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Departament de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Burjassot (Spain); Chonbuk National University, Division of Science Education and Institute of Fusion Science, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    We show that, if they exist, lepton number asymmetries (L{sub α}) of neutrino flavors should be distinguished from the ones (L{sub i}) of mass eigenstates, since Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) bounds on the flavor eigenstates cannot be directly applied to the mass eigenstates. Similarly, Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) constraints on the mass eigenstates do not directly constrain flavor asymmetries. Due to the difference of mass and flavor eigenstates, the cosmological constraint on the asymmetries of neutrino flavors can be much stronger than the conventional expectation, but they are not uniquely determined unless at least the asymmetry of the heaviest neutrino is well constrained. The cosmological constraint on L{sub i} for a specific case is presented as an illustration. (orig.)

  12. Hemispheric asymmetry in the influence of language on visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanliang; Cai, Yongchun; Lu, Shena

    2015-07-01

    Many studies have shown that language can affect visual perception; however, our understanding of the neural basis of linguistic influence is inadequate. This can be investigated by examining the hemispheric asymmetry of linguistic influence. The left and right hemispheres are dominant in close and distant semantic processing, respectively. In this study, we investigated whether the hemispheric asymmetry of semantic processing led to hemispheric asymmetry for concept priming on the detection of objects degraded by continuous flash suppression. We combined a priming paradigm with the divided visual field paradigm and used continuous flash suppression, which renders objects invisible. The results indicated that the hemispheric asymmetry of semantic processing led to a right lateralization in the influence of more abstract concepts on visual perception. The lateralization of brain connectomes may be the underlying neural basis of this effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Expression and regulation of transmembrane transporters in healthy intestine and gastrointestinal diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Hruz, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Transmembrane transporters mediate energy dependent or independent translocation of drugs, potentially toxic compounds, and of various endogenous substrates such as bile acids and bilirubin across membranes. In this thesis the focus is on two classes of transporters, the ATPbinding cassette (ABC) transporters, which mediate ATP dependent transport and the solute carriers (SLC) which use electrochemical gradients for their transport. The transporters are expressed on membranes o...

  14. Relative transmembrane segment rearrangements during BK channel activation resolved by structurally assigned fluorophore–quencher pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazis, Antonios

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-activated proteins can sense, and respond to, changes in the electric field pervading the cell membrane by virtue of a transmembrane helix bundle, the voltage-sensing domain (VSD). Canonical VSDs consist of four transmembrane helices (S1–S4) of which S4 is considered a principal component because it possesses charged residues immersed in the electric field. Membrane depolarization compels the charges, and by extension S4, to rearrange with respect to the field. The VSD of large-conductance voltage- and Ca-activated K+ (BK) channels exhibits two salient inconsistencies from the canonical VSD model: (1) the BK channel VSD possesses an additional nonconserved transmembrane helix (S0); and (2) it exhibits a “decentralized” distribution of voltage-sensing charges, in helices S2 and S3, in addition to S4. Considering these unique features, the voltage-dependent rearrangements of the BK VSD could differ significantly from the standard model of VSD operation. To understand the mode of operation of this unique VSD, we have optically tracked the relative motions of the BK VSD transmembrane helices during activation, by manipulating the quenching environment of site-directed fluorescent labels with native and introduced Trp residues. Having previously reported that S0 and S4 diverge during activation, in this work we demonstrate that S4 also diverges from S1 and S2, whereas S2, compelled by its voltage-sensing charged residues, moves closer to S1. This information contributes spatial constraints for understanding the BK channel voltage-sensing process, revealing the structural rearrangements in a non-canonical VSD. PMID:22802360

  15. Functional relevance of aromatic residues in the first transmembrane domain of P2X receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jindřichová, Marie; Vávra, Vojtěch; Obšil, Tomáš; Stojilkovic, S. S.; Zemková, Hana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 3 (2009), s. 923-934 ISSN 0022-3042 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA5011408; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110702; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110910 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : purinergic receptors * gating * transmembrane domain Subject RIV: FH - Neuro logy Impact factor: 3.999, year: 2009

  16. Combined effect of cortical cytoskeleton and transmembrane proteins on domain formation in biomembranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikder, Md. Kabir Uddin; Stone, Kyle A.; Kumar, P. B. Sunil; Laradji, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the combined effects of transmembrane proteins and the subjacent cytoskeleton on the dynamics of phase separation in multicomponent lipid bilayers using computer simulations of a particle-based implicit solvent model for lipid membranes with soft-core interactions. We find that microphase separation can be achieved by the protein confinement by the cytoskeleton. Our results have relevance to the finite size of lipid rafts in the plasma membrane of mammalian cells. PMID:25106608

  17. Simulations of Skin Barrier Function: Free Energies of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Transmembrane Pores in Ceramide Bilayers

    OpenAIRE

    Notman, Rebecca; Anwar, Jamshed; Briels, W. J.; Noro, Massimo G.; den Otter, Wouter K.

    2008-01-01

    Transmembrane pore formation is central to many biological processes such as ion transport, cell fusion, and viral infection. Furthermore, pore formation in the ceramide bilayers of the stratum corneum may be an important mechanism by which penetration enhancers such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) weaken the barrier function of the skin. We have used the potential of mean constraint force (PMCF) method to calculate the free energy of pore formation in ceramide bilayers in both the innate gel pha...

  18. Electrochemical platform for the detection of transmembrane proteins reconstituted into liposomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vacek, J.; Zatloukalová, M.; Geletičová, J.; Kubala, M.; Modriansky, M.; Fekete, Ladislav; Mašek, J.; Hubatka, F.; Turánek, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 8 (2016), s. 4548-4556 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk LM2015088 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : detection * transmembrane proteins * liposomes * electrochemistry Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 6.320, year: 2016

  19. A voxel-based approach to gray matter asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, E; Gaser, C; Jancke, L; Schlaug, G

    2004-06-01

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to analyze gray matter (GM) asymmetries in a large sample (n = 60) of male and female professional musicians with and without absolute pitch (AP). We chose to examine these particular groups because previous studies using traditional region-of-interest (ROI) analyses have shown differences in hemispheric asymmetry related to AP and gender. Voxel-based methods may have advantages over traditional ROI-based methods since the analysis can be performed across the whole brain with minimal user bias. After determining that the VBM method was sufficiently sensitive for the detection of differences in GM asymmetries between groups, we found that male AP musicians were more leftward lateralized in the anterior region of the planum temporale (PT) than male non-AP musicians. This confirmed the results of previous studies using ROI-based methods that showed an association between PT asymmetry and the AP phenotype. We further observed that male non-AP musicians revealed an increased leftward GM asymmetry in the postcentral gyrus compared to female non-AP musicians, again corroborating results of a previously published study using ROI-based methods. By analyzing hemispheric GM differences across our entire sample, we were able to partially confirm findings of previous studies using traditional morphometric techniques, as well as more recent, voxel-based analyses. In addition, we found some unusually pronounced GM asymmetries in our musician sample not previously detected in subjects unselected for musical training. Since we were able to validate gender- and AP-related brain asymmetries previously described using traditional ROI-based morphometric techniques, the results of our analyses support the use of VBM for examinations of GM asymmetries.

  20. New physics in CP asymmetries and rare B decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronau, M.; London, D.

    1997-01-01

    We review and update the effects of physics beyond the standard model on CP asymmetries in B decays. These asymmetries can be significantly altered if there are important new-physics contributions to B q 0 -B q 0 mixing. This same new physics will, therefore, also contribute to rare, flavor-changing B decays. Through a study of such decays, we show that it is possible to partially distinguish the different models of new physics. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  1. Tuning piezoresistive transduction in nanomechanical resonators by geometrical asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llobet, J.; Sansa, M.; Lorenzoni, M.; Pérez-Murano, F., E-mail: francesc.perez@csic.es [Institut de Microelectrònica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Borrisé, X. [Institut Català de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia (ICN2), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra Spain (Spain); San Paulo, A. [Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid (IMM-CSIC), 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-08-17

    The effect of geometrical asymmetries on the piezoresistive transduction in suspended double clamped beam nanomechanical resonators is investigated. Tapered silicon nano-beams, fabricated using a fast and flexible prototyping method, are employed to determine how the asymmetry affects the transduced piezoresistive signal for different mechanical resonant modes. This effect is attributed to the modulation of the strain in pre-strained double clamped beams, and it is confirmed by means of finite element simulations.

  2. Asymmetry of the structural brain connectome in healthy older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo eBonilha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is now possible to map neural connections in vivo across the whole brain (i.e., the brain connectome. This is a promising development in neuroscience since many health and disease processes are believed to arise from the architecture of neural networks.Objective: To describe the normal range of hemispheric asymmetry in structural connectivity in healthy older adults.Methods: We obtained high-resolution structural magnetic resonance images (MRI from 17 healthy older adults. For each subject, the brain connectome was reconstructed by parcelating the probabilistic map of gray matter into anatomically defined regions of interested (ROIs. White matter fiber tractography was reconstructed from diffusion tensor imaging and streamlines connecting gray matter ROIs were computed. Asymmetry indices were calculated regarding ROI connectivity (representing the sum of connectivity weight of each cortical ROI and for regional white matter links. All asymmetry measures were compared to a normal distribution with mean=0 through one sample t-tests.Results: Leftward cortical ROI asymmetry was observed in medial temporal, dorsolateral frontal and occipital regions. Rightward cortical ROI asymmetry was observed in middle temporal and orbito-frontal regions. Link-wise asymmetry revealed stronger connections in the left hemisphere between the medial temporal, anterior and posterior peri-Sylvian and occipito-temporal regions. Rightward link asymmetry was observed in lateral temporal, parietal and dorsolateral frontal connections.Conclusions: We postulate that asymmetry of specific connections may be related to functional hemispheric organization. This study may provide reference for future studies evaluating the architecture of the connectome in health and disease processes in senior individuals.

  3. Single spin asymmetries and the spin of the proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Z, G.; Herrera C, G.

    2000-01-01

    We study the spin asymmetries of inclusive π + , π 0 , π - , η and γ production in the interaction of a polarized with a non polarized proton, in the frame of a two component model. Particle production in the model is assumed to consist of a conventional QCD fragmentation process plus a recombination mechanism. The presence of Thomas precession in the recombination process seems to be responsible for the production spin asymmetry. (Author) 12 refs., 8 figs

  4. Collins Fragmentation and the Single Transverse Spin Asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Feng; Zhou, Jian

    2009-01-01

    We study the Collins mechanism for the single transverse spin asymmetry in the collinear factorization approach. The correspondent twist-three fragmentation function is identified. We show that the Collins function calculated in this approach is universal. We further examine its contribution to the single transverse spin asymmetry of semi-inclusive hadron production in deep inelastic scattering and demonstrate that the transverse momentum dependent and twist-three collinear approaches are con...

  5. Polarization asymmetries and gauge theory interactions at short distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craigie, N.S.

    1983-01-01

    In this talk, we give the arguments as to why spin asymmetries test fundamental properties of the underlying gauge theories of elementary particles, concentrating mainly on electro-weak and QCD interactions, but also looking at the future and possible signatures for supersymmetric strong interactions. We also mention briefly the role helicity asymmetry measurements can play as regards higher order corrections, including higher twist, in QCD. (orig./HSI)

  6. Generation and Nuclear Translocation of Sumoylated Transmembrane Fragment of Cell Adhesion Molecule L1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, David; Wolters-Eisfeld, Gerrit; Joshi, Gunjan; Djogo, Nevena; Jakovcevski, Igor; Schachner, Melitta; Kleene, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The functions of the cell adhesion molecule L1 in the developing and adult nervous system are triggered by homophilic and heterophilic interactions that stimulate signal transductions that activate cellular responses. Here, we show that stimulation of signaling by function-triggering L1 antibodies or L1-Fc leads to serine protease-dependent cleavage of full-length L1 at the plasma membrane and generation of a sumoylated transmembrane 70-kDa fragment comprising the intracellular and transmembrane domains and part of the extracellular domain. The 70-kDa transmembrane fragment is transported from the plasma membrane to a late endosomal compartment, released from endosomal membranes into the cytoplasm, and transferred from there into the nucleus by a pathway that depends on importin and chromatin-modifying protein 1. Mutation of the sumoylation site at Lys1172 or of the nuclear localization signal at Lys1147 abolished L1-stimulated generation or nuclear import of the 70-kDa fragment, respectively. Nuclear import of the 70-kDa fragment may activate cellular responses in parallel or in association with phosphorylation-dependent signaling pathways. Alterations in the levels of the 70-kDa fragment during development and in the adult after spinal cord injury or in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease suggest that this fragment is functionally implicated in development, regeneration, neurodegeneration, tumorigenesis, and possibly synaptic plasticity in the mature nervous system. PMID:22431726

  7. The role of membrane microdomains in transmembrane signaling through the epithelial glycoprotein Gp140/CDCP1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvares, Stacy M.; Dunn, Clarence A.; Brown, Tod A.; Wayner, Elizabeth E.; Carter, William G.

    2008-01-01

    Cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) via integrin adhesion receptors initiates signaling cascades leading to changes in cell behavior. While integrin clustering is necessary to initiate cell attachment to the matrix, additional membrane components are necessary to mediate the transmembrane signals and the cell adhesion response that alter downstream cell behavior. Many of these signaling components reside in glycosphingolipid-rich and cholesterol-rich membrane domains such as Tetraspanin Enriched Microdomains (TEMs)/Glycosynapse 3 and Detergent-Resistant Microdomains (DRMs), also known as lipid rafts. In the following article, we will review examples of how components in these membrane microdomains modulate integrin adhesion after initial attachment to the ECM. Additionally, we will present data on a novel adhesion-responsive transmembrane glycoprotein Gp140/CUB Domain Containing Protein 1, which clusters in epithelial cell-cell contacts. Gp140 can then be phosphorylated by Src Family Kinases at tyrosine 734 in response to outside-in signals- possibly through interactions involving the extracellular CUB domains. Data presented here suggests that outside-in signals through Gp140 in cell-cell contacts assemble membrane clusters that associate with membrane microdomains to recruit and activate SFKs. Active SFKs then mediate phosphorylation of Gp140, SFK and PKCδ with Gp140 acting as a transmembrane scaffold for these kinases. We propose that the clustering of Gp140 and signaling components in membrane microdomains in cell-cell contacts contributes to changes in cell behavior. PMID:18269919

  8. Structure of FGFR3 transmembrane domain dimer: implications for signaling and human pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocharov, Eduard V; Lesovoy, Dmitry M; Goncharuk, Sergey A; Goncharuk, Marina V; Hristova, Kalina; Arseniev, Alexander S

    2013-11-05

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) transduces biochemical signals via lateral dimerization in the plasma membrane, and plays an important role in human development and disease. Eight different pathogenic mutations, implicated in cancers and growth disorders, have been identified in the FGFR3 transmembrane segment. Here, we describe the dimerization of the FGFR3 transmembrane domain in membrane-mimicking DPC/SDS (9/1) micelles. In the solved NMR structure, the two transmembrane helices pack into a symmetric left-handed dimer, with intermolecular stacking interactions occurring in the dimer central region. Some pathogenic mutations fall within the helix-helix interface, whereas others are located within a putative alternative interface. This implies that although the observed dimer structure is important for FGFR3 signaling, the mechanism of FGFR3-mediated transduction across the membrane is complex. We propose an FGFR3 signaling mechanism that is based on the solved structure, available structures of isolated soluble FGFR domains, and published biochemical and biophysical data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mercury exposure may influence fluctuating asymmetry in waterbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Ackerman, Joshua T

    2017-06-01

    Variation in avian bilateral symmetry can be an indicator of developmental instability in response to a variety of stressors, including environmental contaminants. The authors used composite measures of fluctuating asymmetry to examine the influence of mercury concentrations in 2 tissues on fluctuating asymmetry within 4 waterbird species. Fluctuating asymmetry increased with mercury concentrations in whole blood and breast feathers of Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri), a species with elevated mercury concentrations. Specifically, fluctuating asymmetry in rectrix feather 1 was the most strongly correlated structural variable of those tested (wing chord, tarsus, primary feather 10, rectrix feather 6) with mercury concentrations in Forster's terns. However, for American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia), the authors found no relationship between fluctuating asymmetry and either whole-blood or breast feather mercury concentrations, even though these species had moderate to elevated mercury exposure. The results indicate that mercury contamination may act as an environmental stressor during development and feather growth and contribute to fluctuating asymmetry of some species of highly contaminated waterbirds. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1599-1605. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  10. Mercury exposure may influence fluctuating asymmetry in waterbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2017-01-01

    Variation in avian bilateral symmetry can be an indicator of developmental instability in response to a variety of stressors, including environmental contaminants. The authors used composite measures of fluctuating asymmetry to examine the influence of mercury concentrations in 2 tissues on fluctuating asymmetry within 4 waterbird species. Fluctuating asymmetry increased with mercury concentrations in whole blood and breast feathers of Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri), a species with elevated mercury concentrations. Specifically, fluctuating asymmetry in rectrix feather 1 was the most strongly correlated structural variable of those tested (wing chord, tarsus, primary feather 10, rectrix feather 6) with mercury concentrations in Forster's terns. However, for American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia), the authors found no relationship between fluctuating asymmetry and either whole-blood or breast feather mercury concentrations, even though these species had moderate to elevated mercury exposure. The results indicate that mercury contamination may act as an environmental stressor during development and feather growth and contribute to fluctuating asymmetry of some species of highly contaminated waterbirds.

  11. The validity of individual frontal alpha asymmetry EEG neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaedflieg, C W E M; Smulders, F T Y; Meyer, T; Peeters, F; Merckelbach, H; Smeets, T

    2016-01-01

    Frontal asymmetry in alpha oscillations is assumed to be associated with psychopathology and individual differences in emotional responding. Brain-activity-based feedback is a promising tool for the modulation of cortical activity. Here, we validated a neurofeedback protocol designed to change relative frontal asymmetry based on individual alpha peak frequencies, including real-time average referencing and eye-correction. Participants (N = 60) were randomly assigned to a right, left or placebo neurofeedback group. Results show a difference in trainability between groups, with a linear change in frontal alpha asymmetry over time for the right neurofeedback group during rest. Moreover, the asymmetry changes in the right group were frequency and location specific, even though trainability did not persist at 1 week and 1 month follow-ups. On the behavioral level, subjective stress on the second test day was reduced in the left and placebo neurofeedback groups, but not in the right neurofeedback group. We found individual differences in trainability that were dependent on training group, with participants in the right neurofeedback group being more likely to change their frontal asymmetry in the desired direction. Individual differences in trainability were also reflected in the ability to change frontal asymmetry during the feedback. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Using ground reaction force to predict knee kinetic asymmetry following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, B; Butler, R J; Garrett, W E; Queen, R M

    2014-12-01

    Asymmetries in sagittal plane knee kinetics have been identified as a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) re-injury. Clinical tools are needed to identify the asymmetries. This study examined the relationships between knee kinetic asymmetries and ground reaction force (GRF) asymmetries during athletic tasks in adolescent patients following ACL reconstruction (ACL-R). Kinematic and GRF data were collected during a stop-jump task and a side-cutting task for 23 patients. Asymmetry indices between the surgical and non-surgical limbs were calculated for GRF and knee kinetic variables. For the stop-jump task, knee kinetics asymmetry indices were correlated with all GRF asymmetry indices (P kinetic asymmetry indices were correlated with the peak propulsion vertical GRF and vertical GRF impulse asymmetry indices (P kinetic asymmetries and therefore may assist in optimizing rehabilitation outcomes and minimizing re-injury rates. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Nonpolar interactions between trans-membrane helical EGF peptide and phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins and cholesterol. Molecular dynamics simulation studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Róg, T.; Murzyn, K.; Karttunen, M.E.J.; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, M.

    2008-01-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation study of four lipid bilayers with inserted trans-membrane helical fragment of epithelial growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGF peptide) was performed. The lipid bilayers differ in their lipid composition and consist of (i) unsaturated phosphatidylcholine

  14. Correlation of Aquaporins and Transmembrane Solute Transporters Revealed by Genome-Wide Analysis in Developing Maize Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Yue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins are multifunctional membrane channels that facilitate the transmembrane transport of water and solutes. When transmembrane mineral nutrient transporters exhibit the same expression patterns as aquaporins under diverse temporal and physiological conditions, there is a greater probability that they interact. In this study, genome-wide temporal profiling of transcripts analysis and coexpression network-based approaches are used to examine the significant specificity correlation of aquaporins and transmembrane solute transporters in developing maize leaf. The results indicate that specific maize aquaporins are related to specific transmembrane solute transporters. The analysis demonstrates a systems-level correlation between aquaporins, nutrient transporters, and the homeostasis of mineral nutrients in developing maize leaf. Our results provide a resource for further studies into the physiological function of these aquaporins.

  15. A voxel-based asymmetry study of the relationship between hemispheric asymmetry and language dominance in Wada tested patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Simon S; Roberts, Neil; Baker, Gus; Sluming, Vanessa; Cezayirli, Enis; Mayes, Andrew; Eldridge, Paul; Marson, Anthony G; Wieshmann, Udo C

    2018-03-23

    Determining the anatomical basis of hemispheric language dominance (HLD) remains an important scientific endeavor. The Wada test remains the gold standard test for HLD and provides a unique opportunity to determine the relationship between HLD and hemispheric structural asymmetries on MRI. In this study, we applied a whole-brain voxel-based asymmetry (VBA) approach to determine the relationship between interhemispheric structural asymmetries and HLD in a large consecutive sample of Wada tested patients. Of 135 patients, 114 (84.4%) had left HLD, 10 (7.4%) right HLD, and 11 (8.2%) bilateral language representation. Fifty-four controls were also studied. Right-handed controls and right-handed patients with left HLD had comparable structural brain asymmetries in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions that have previously been documented in healthy people. However, these patients and controls differed in structural asymmetry of the mesial temporal lobe and a circumscribed region in the superior temporal gyrus, suggesting that only asymmetries of these regions were due to brain alterations caused by epilepsy. Additional comparisons between patients with left and right HLD, matched for type and location of epilepsy, revealed that structural asymmetries of insula, pars triangularis, inferior temporal gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex, ventral temporo-occipital cortex, mesial somatosensory cortex, and mesial cerebellum were significantly associated with the side of HLD. Patients with right HLD and bilateral language representation were significantly less right-handed. These results suggest that structural asymmetries of an insular-fronto-temporal network may be related to HLD. © 2018 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Nanocrystal Bioassembly: Asymmetry, Proximity, and Enzymatic Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claridge, Shelley A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Research at the interface between biomolecules and inorganic nanocrystals has resulted in a great number of new discoveries. In part this arises from the synergistic duality of the system: biomolecules may act as self-assembly agents for organizing inorganic nanocrystals into functional materials; alternatively, nanocrystals may act as microscopic or spectroscopic labels for elucidating the behavior of complex biomolecular systems. However, success in either of these functions relies heavily uponthe ability to control the conjugation and assembly processes.In the work presented here, we first design a branched DNA scaffold which allows hybridization of DNA-nanocrystal monoconjugates to form discrete assemblies. Importantly, the asymmetry of the branched scaffold allows the formation of asymmetric2assemblies of nanocrystals. In the context of a self-assembled device, this can be considered a step toward the ability to engineer functionally distinct inputs and outputs.Next we develop an anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography purification method which allows large gold nanocrystals attached to single strands of very short DNA to be purified. When two such complementary conjugates are hybridized, the large nanocrystals are brought into close proximity, allowing their plasmon resonances to couple. Such plasmon-coupled constructs are of interest both as optical interconnects for nanoscale devices and as `plasmon ruler? biomolecular probes.We then present an enzymatic ligation strategy for creating multi-nanoparticle building blocks for self-assembly. In constructing a nanoscale device, such a strategy would allow pre-assembly and purification of components; these constructs can also act as multi-label probes of single-stranded DNA conformational dynamics. Finally we demonstrate a simple proof-of-concept of a nanoparticle analog of the polymerase chain reaction.

  17. Karyotipic asymmetry of both wild and cultivated species of Pennisetum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Helena Techio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed the establishment of the relation between karyotipic asymmetry values obtained for different accessions of both wild and cultivated species of Pennisetum from Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Gado de Leite/Juiz de Fora-Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Conventional cell cycle synchronization protocols and Feulgen staining method were used to obtain metaphases plates. The wild-type accessions corresponded to the species P. setosum (2n=6x=54, P. nervosum (2n=4x=36, and P. orientale (2n=4x=36, and the cultivated to P. purpureum (2n=4x=28 and P. glaucum (2n=2x=14. No significant difference was found for the total length of chromosomes (p>0.05 among the species. The analysis of intra-chromosomal asymmetry (A1 and inter-chromosomal asymmetry (A2 has shown that P. setosum has a tendency to chromosome asymmetry. P. nervosum, P. orientale, and P. purpureum have presented an intermediary level of asymmetry and P. glaucum, low asymmetry. Considering Stebbins criteria, the karyotype of P. glaucum and those from the three wild species fitted into the category 1A-symmetrical. With regard to P. purpureum, karyotypes of the accessions BAGs 54, 65 and 91 fitted into the category 2B and the other two genotypes (BAGs 63 and 75 fitted into the 1A. Comparison between the karyotype classification according to the inter- and intra-chromosomal asymmetry and Stebbins methodologies revealed that this last one alone was not able to detect small variations between karyotypes of the taxa closely related.

  18. Cosmological evidence for leptonic asymmetry after Planck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caramete, A.; Popa, L.A., E-mail: acaramete@spacescience.ro, E-mail: lpopa@spacescience.ro [Institute of Space Science, 409 Atomistilor Street, Magurele, Ilfov 077125 (Romania)

    2014-02-01

    Recently, the PLANCK satellite found a larger and most precise value of the matter energy density, that impacts on the present values of other cosmological parameters such as the Hubble constant H{sub 0}, the present cluster abundances S{sub 8}, and the age of the Universe t{sub U}. The existing tension between PLANCK determination of these parameters in the frame of the base ΛCDM model and their determination from other measurements generated lively discussions, one possible interpretation being that some sources of systematic errors in cosmological measurements are not completely understood. An alternative interpretation is related to the fact that the CMB observations, that probe the high redshift Universe are interpreted in terms of cosmological parameters at present time by extrapolation within the base ΛCDM model that can be inadequate or incomplete. In this paper we quantify this tension by exploring several extensions of the base ΛCDM model that include the leptonic asymmetry. We set bounds on the radiation content of the Universe and neutrino properties by using the latest cosmological measurements, imposing also self-consistent BBN constraints on the primordial helium abundance. For all asymmetric cosmological models we find the preference of cosmological data for smaller values of active and sterile neutrino masses. This increases the tension between cosmological and short baseline neutrino oscillation data that favors a sterile neutrino with the mass of around 1 eV. For the case of degenerate massive neutrinos, we find that the discrepancies with the local determinations of H{sub 0}, and t{sub U} are alleviated at ∼ 1.3σ level while S{sub 8} is in agreement with its determination from CFHTLenS survey data at ∼ 1σ and with the prediction of cluster mass-observation relation at ∼ 0.5σ. We also find 2σ statistical preference of the cosmological data for the leptonic asymmetric models involving three massive neutrino species and neutrino direct

  19. Prediction of Gap Asymmetry in Differential Micro Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping He

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Gap asymmetry in differential capacitors is the primary source of the zero bias output of force-balanced micro accelerometers. It is also used to evaluate the applicability of differential structures in MEMS manufacturing. Therefore, determining the asymmetry level has considerable significance for the design of MEMS devices. This paper proposes an experimental-theoretical method for predicting gap asymmetry in differential sensing capacitors of micro accelerometers. The method involves three processes: first, bi-directional measurement, which can sharply reduce the influence of the feedback circuit on bias output, is proposed. Experiments are then carried out on a centrifuge to obtain the input and output data of an accelerometer. Second, the analytical input-output relationship of the accelerometer with gap asymmetry and circuit error is theoretically derived. Finally, the prediction methodology combines the measurement results and analytical derivation to identify the asymmetric error of 30 accelerometers fabricated by DRIE. Results indicate that the level of asymmetry induced by fabrication uncertainty is about ±5 × 10−2, and that the absolute error is about ±0.2 µm under a 4 µm gap.

  20. Left-right asymmetry in neutrino-produced hadron jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballagh, H.C.; Bingham, H.H.; Lawry, T.J.; Lys, J.; Lynch, G.R.; Sokoloff, M.D.; Stevenson, M.L.; Huson, F.R.; Schmidt, E.; Smart, W.; Treadwell, E.; Cence, R.J.; Harris, F.A.; Jones, M.D.; Koide, A.; Peters, M.W.; Peterson, V.Z.; Lubatti, H.J.; Moriyasu, K.; Wolin, E.

    1989-01-01

    In an experiment (E546) to study interactions of left-angle E right-angle=100 GeV and left-angle Q 2 right-angle=17 GeV 2 neutrinos in the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber, we have looked for a left-right asymmetry in the azimuthal angle φ of individual hadrons about the direction of the lepton momentum transfer (q vector). Significant asymmetry is found for forward positive hadrons; for x F >0.10, we find left-angle cosφ right-angle=-0.029±0.008, where x F is the Feynman x variable. Negative hadrons with x F >0.10 show no asymmetry, left-angle cosφ right-angle=0.004±0.011. A model which includes parton intrinsic transverse momentum k t reproduces the asymmetry of combined positive and negative hadrons with x F >0.10, left-angle cosφ right-angle=-0.018±0.0065, if left-angle k t 2 right-angle=0.065±0.024 GeV 2 /c 2 . But the model predicts almost equal asymmetries for positive and negative hadrons. The model also agrees poorly with the observed dependence on the kinematic variables x and Q 2 if the k t distribution is assumed to be independent of kinematic variables

  1. Hemispheric asymmetry and theory of mind: is there an association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Daniela A; Sullivan, Sarah; Evans, Jonathan; Corcoran, Rhiannon; Mohr, Christine

    2012-01-01

    In autism and schizophrenia attenuated/atypical functional hemispheric asymmetry and theory of mind impairments have been reported, suggesting common underlying neuroscientific correlates. We here investigated whether impaired theory of mind performance is associated with attenuated/atypical hemispheric asymmetry. An association may explain the co-occurrence of both dysfunctions in psychiatric populations. Healthy participants (n=129) performed a left hemisphere (lateralised lexical decision task) and right hemisphere (lateralised face decision task) dominant task as well as a visual cartoon task to assess theory of mind performance. Linear regression analyses revealed inconsistent associations between theory of mind performance and functional hemisphere asymmetry: enhanced theory of mind performance was only associated with (1) faster right hemisphere language processing, and (2) reduced right hemisphere dominance for face processing (men only). The majority of non-significant findings suggest that theory of mind and functional hemispheric asymmetry are unrelated. Instead of "overinterpreting" the two significant results, discrepancies in the previous literature relating to the problem of the theory of mind concept, the variety of tasks, and the lack of normative data are discussed. We also suggest how future studies could explore a possible link between hemispheric asymmetry and theory of mind.

  2. [Perception of asymmetry smile: Attempt to evaluation through Photoshop].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakite, C; Diep, D; Labbe, D

    2016-04-01

    In the labial palliative surgery of facial paralysis, it can persist asymmetry smile. Evaluate the impact of an augmentation or reduction of the commissural course on the perception of a smile anomaly, and determine from which asymmetry threshold, the smile is estimated unsightly. We took a picture of two people with a smile not forced; including one with a "cuspid smile", and the another one with a "Mona Lisa" smile. The pictures obtained were modified by the Photoshop software, to simulate an asymmetry labial smile. The changes were related to the move of the left labial commissure, the left nasolabial furrow, and the left cheek using under-correction and overcorrection, every 4 mm. Three pictures with under-correction and four pictures with over-correction were obtained. These smiles were shown to three groups of five people, which included doctors in smile specialties, doctors in other specialties, and non-doctors. Participants were then asked to indicate on which of the pictures, the smile seemed abnormal. Between -8 mm under-correction, and +8 mm over-correction, the asymmetry of the commissural course does not hinder the perception of smile. In the labial palliative surgery of facial paralysis, in the case of persistent asymmetry, there is a tolerance in the perception of "normality" of smile concerning the amplitude of the commissural course going up to 8 mm of asymmetric with under-correction or over-correction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. STUDY OF FACIAL ASYMMETRY IN PATIENTS WITH DENTOMAXILLARY ANOMALIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Anistoroaei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at establishing the prevalence index of facial asymmetry by extraoral clinical examination of orthodontic patients. The group of study included 384 subjects, selected from the patients who required a specialized orthodontic treatment. Facial asymmetry was evaluated by the parallelism of the horizontal planes and deviation of the menton and nasal pyramid. The age, sex and ecological environment from which one came, the type of dentition and of dento-maxillary anomaly were registered for each patient in part. In the experimental group, facial asymmetry was present in 4.7% of patients, menton deviation in 5.7%, and nasal pyramid deviation - in 3.4%. Significant associations were established between facial asymmetry and the type of dento-maxillary anomaly, classes of age and type of dentition. The results obtained indicate that the prevalence of facial asymmetries in orthodontic patients is especially important for the clinician, as the deviations should be established prior to the initiation of any orthodontic – possibly surgical - treatment.

  4. Frontal EEG Asymmetry of Mood: A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Palmiero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present mini-review was aimed at exploring the frontal EEG asymmetry of mood. With respect to emotion, interpreted as a discrete affective process, mood is more controllable, more nebulous, and more related to mind/cognition; in addition, causes are less well-defined than those eliciting emotion. Therefore, firstly, the rational for the distinction between emotion and mood was provided. Then, the main frontal EEG asymmetry models were presented, such as the motivational approach/withdrawal, valence/arousal, capability, and inhibition asymmetric models. Afterward, the frontal EEG asymmetry of mood was investigated following three research lines, that is considering studies involving different mood induction procedures, dispositional mood (positive and negative affect, and mood alterations in both healthy and clinical populations. In general, results were found to be contradictory, no model is unequivocally supported regardless the research line considered. Different methodological issues were raised, such as: the composition of samples used across studies, in particular, gender and age were found to be critical variables that should be better addressed in future studies; the importance of third variables that might mediate the relationship between frontal EEG asymmetries and mood, for example bodily states and hormonal responses; the role of cognition, namely the interplay between mood and executive functions. In light of these issues, future research directions were proposed. Amongst others, the need to explore the neural connectivity that underpins EEG asymmetries, and the need to include both positive and negative mood conditions in the experimental designs have been highlighted.

  5. Infant Positioning, Baby Gear Use, and Cranial Asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachry, Anne H; Nolan, Vikki G; Hand, Sarah B; Klemm, Susan A

    2017-12-01

    Objectives This study aimed to identify predictors of cranial asymmetry. We hypothesize that among infants diagnosed with cranial asymmetry in the sampled region, there is an association between exposure to more time in baby gear and less awake time in prone and side-lying than in infants who do not present with this condition. Methods The study employed a cross sectional survey of caregivers of typically developing infants and infants diagnosed with cranial asymmetry. Results A mutivariable model reveals that caregivers of children who are diagnosed with cranial asymmetry report their children spending significantly less time in prone play than those children without a diagnosis of cranial asymmetry. Side-lying and time spent in baby gear did not attain statistical significance. Conclusions for Practice Occupational therapists, physical therapists, pediatricians, nurses and other health care professionals must provide parents with early education about the importance of varying positions and prone play in infancy and address fears and concerns that may serve as barriers to providing prone playtime.

  6. PrP Knockout Cells Expressing Transmembrane PrP Resist Prion Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Karen E; Hughson, Andrew; Vascellari, Sarah; Priola, Suzette A; Sakudo, Akikazu; Onodera, Takashi; Baron, Gerald S

    2017-01-15

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring of the prion protein (PrP C ) influences PrP C misfolding into the disease-associated isoform, PrP res , as well as prion propagation and infectivity. GPI proteins are found in cholesterol- and sphingolipid-rich membrane regions called rafts. Exchanging the GPI anchor for a nonraft transmembrane sequence redirects PrP C away from rafts. Previous studies showed that nonraft transmembrane PrP C variants resist conversion to PrP res when transfected into scrapie-infected N2a neuroblastoma cells, likely due to segregation of transmembrane PrP C and GPI-anchored PrP res in distinct membrane environments. Thus, it remained unclear whether transmembrane PrP C might convert to PrP res if seeded by an exogenous source of PrP res not associated with host cell rafts and without the potential influence of endogenous expression of GPI-anchored PrP C To further explore these questions, constructs containing either a C-terminal wild-type GPI anchor signal sequence or a nonraft transmembrane sequence containing a flexible linker were expressed in a cell line derived from PrP knockout hippocampal neurons, NpL2. NpL2 cells have physiological similarities to primary neurons, representing a novel and advantageous model for studying transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) infection. Cells were infected with inocula from multiple prion strains and in different biochemical states (i.e., membrane bound as in brain microsomes from wild-type mice or purified GPI-anchorless amyloid fibrils). Only GPI-anchored PrP C supported persistent PrP res propagation. Our data provide strong evidence that in cell culture GPI anchor-directed membrane association of PrP C is required for persistent PrP res propagation, implicating raft microdomains as a location for conversion. Mechanisms of prion propagation, and what makes them transmissible, are poorly understood. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) membrane anchoring of the prion protein (PrP C

  7. Proteomic and Functional Analyses of the Virion Transmembrane Proteome of Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancsok, Catherine; Peñaranda, M Michelle D; Raj, V Stalin; Leroy, Baptiste; Jazowiecka-Rakus, Joanna; Boutier, Maxime; Gao, Yuan; Wilkie, Gavin S; Suárez, Nicolás M; Wattiez, Ruddy; Gillet, Laurent; Davison, Andrew J; Vanderplasschen, Alain F C

    2017-11-01

    Virion transmembrane proteins (VTPs) mediate key functions in the herpesvirus infectious cycle. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the archetype of fish alloherpesviruses. The present study was devoted to CyHV-3 VTPs. Using mass spectrometry approaches, we identified 16 VTPs of the CyHV-3 FL strain. Mutagenesis experiments demonstrated that eight of these proteins are essential for viral growth in vitro (open reading frame 32 [ORF32], ORF59, ORF81, ORF83, ORF99, ORF106, ORF115, and ORF131), and eight are nonessential (ORF25, ORF64, ORF65, ORF108, ORF132, ORF136, ORF148, and ORF149). Among the nonessential proteins, deletion of ORF25, ORF132, ORF136, ORF148, or ORF149 affects viral replication in vitro , and deletion of ORF25, ORF64, ORF108, ORF132, or ORF149 impacts plaque size. Lack of ORF148 or ORF25 causes attenuation in vivo to a minor or major extent, respectively. The safety and efficacy of a virus lacking ORF25 were compared to those of a previously described vaccine candidate deleted for ORF56 and ORF57 (Δ56-57). Using quantitative PCR, we demonstrated that the ORF25 deleted virus infects fish through skin infection and then spreads to internal organs as reported previously for the wild-type parental virus and the Δ56-57 virus. However, compared to the parental wild-type virus, the replication of the ORF25-deleted virus was reduced in intensity and duration to levels similar to those observed for the Δ56-57 virus. Vaccination of fish with a virus lacking ORF25 was safe but had low efficacy at the doses tested. This characterization of the virion transmembrane proteome of CyHV-3 provides a firm basis for further research on alloherpesvirus VTPs. IMPORTANCE Virion transmembrane proteins play key roles in the biology of herpesviruses. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the archetype of fish alloherpesviruses and the causative agent of major economic losses in common and koi carp worldwide. In this study of the virion transmembrane proteome of CyHV-3, the

  8. Resolving the biophysics of axon transmembrane polarization in a single closed-form description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melendy, Robert F., E-mail: rfmelendy@liberty.edu [School of Engineering and Computational Sciences, Liberty University, Lynchburg, Virginia 24515 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    When a depolarizing event occurs across a cell membrane there is a remarkable change in its electrical properties. A complete depolarization event produces a considerably rapid increase in voltage that propagates longitudinally along the axon and is accompanied by changes in axial conductance. A dynamically changing magnetic field is associated with the passage of the action potential down the axon. Over 75 years of research has gone into the quantification of this phenomenon. To date, no unified model exist that resolves transmembrane polarization in a closed-form description. Here, a simple but formative description of propagated signaling phenomena in the membrane of an axon is presented in closed-form. The focus is on using both biophysics and mathematical methods for elucidating the fundamental mechanisms governing transmembrane polarization. The results presented demonstrate how to resolve electromagnetic and thermodynamic factors that govern transmembrane potential. Computational results are supported by well-established quantitative descriptions of propagated signaling phenomena in the membrane of an axon. The findings demonstrate how intracellular conductance, the thermodynamics of magnetization, and current modulation function together in generating an action potential in a unified closed-form description. The work presented in this paper provides compelling evidence that three basic factors contribute to the propagated signaling in the membrane of an axon. It is anticipated this work will compel those in biophysics, physical biology, and in the computational neurosciences to probe deeper into the classical and quantum features of membrane magnetization and signaling. It is hoped that subsequent investigations of this sort will be advanced by the computational features of this model without having to resort to numerical methods of analysis.

  9. TMFoldWeb: a web server for predicting transmembrane protein fold class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Dániel; Tusnády, Gábor E

    2015-09-17

    Here we present TMFoldWeb, the web server implementation of TMFoldRec, a transmembrane protein fold recognition algorithm. TMFoldRec uses statistical potentials and utilizes topology filtering and a gapless threading algorithm. It ranks template structures and selects the most likely candidates and estimates the reliability of the obtained lowest energy model. The statistical potential was developed in a maximum likelihood framework on a representative set of the PDBTM database. According to the benchmark test the performance of TMFoldRec is about 77 % in correctly predicting fold class for a given transmembrane protein sequence. An intuitive web interface has been developed for the recently published TMFoldRec algorithm. The query sequence goes through a pipeline of topology prediction and a systematic sequence to structure alignment (threading). Resulting templates are ordered by energy and reliability values and are colored according to their significance level. Besides the graphical interface, a programmatic access is available as well, via a direct interface for developers or for submitting genome-wide data sets. The TMFoldWeb web server is unique and currently the only web server that is able to predict the fold class of transmembrane proteins while assigning reliability scores for the prediction. This method is prepared for genome-wide analysis with its easy-to-use interface, informative result page and programmatic access. Considering the info-communication evolution in the last few years, the developed web server, as well as the molecule viewer, is responsive and fully compatible with the prevalent tablets and mobile devices.

  10. Obif, a Transmembrane Protein, Is Required for Bone Mineralization and Spermatogenesis in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Mizuhashi

    Full Text Available Various kinds of transmembrane and secreted proteins play pivotal roles in development through cell-cell communication. We previously reported that Obif (Osteoblast induction factor, Tmem119, encoding a single transmembrane protein, is expressed in differentiating osteoblasts, and that Obif-/- mice exhibit significantly reduced bone volume in the femur. In the current study, we characterized the Obif protein and further investigated the biological phenotypes of a variety of tissues in Obif-/- mice.First, we found that O-glycosylation of the Obif protein occurs at serine residue 36 in the Obif extracellular domain. Next, we observed that Obif-/- mice exhibit bone dysplasia in association with significantly increased osteoid volume per osteoid surface (OV/OS and osteoid maturation time (Omt, and significantly decreased mineral apposition rate (MAR and bone formation rate per bone surface (BFR/BS. In addition, we observed that Obif-/- mice show a significant decrease in testis weight as well as in sperm number. By histological analysis, we found that Obif is expressed in spermatocytes and spermatids in the developing testis and that spermatogenesis is halted at the round spermatid stage in the Obif-/- testis that lacks sperm. However, the number of litters fathered by male mice was slightly reduced in Obif-/- mice compared with wild-type mice, although this was not statistically significant.Our results, taken together with previous observations, indicate that Obif is a type Ia transmembrane protein whose N-terminal region is O-glycosylated. In addition, we found that Obif is required for normal bone mineralization and late testicular differentiation in vivo. These findings suggest that Obif plays essential roles in the development of multiple tissues.

  11. Functional Architecture of the Cytoplasmic Entrance to the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Chloride Channel Pore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hiani, Yassine; Linsdell, Paul

    2015-06-19

    As an ion channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator must form a continuous pathway for the movement of Cl(-) and other anions between the cytoplasm and the extracellular solution. Both the structure and the function of the membrane-spanning part of this pathway are well defined. In contrast, the structure of the pathway that connects the cytoplasm to the membrane-spanning regions is unknown, and functional roles for different parts of the protein forming this pathway have not been described. We used patch clamp recording and substituted cysteine accessibility mutagenesis to identify positively charged amino acid side chains that attract cytoplasmic Cl(-) ions to the inner mouth of the pore. Our results indicate that the side chains of Lys-190, Arg-248, Arg-303, Lys-370, Lys-1041, and Arg-1048, located in different intracellular loops of the protein, play important roles in the electrostatic attraction of Cl(-) ions. Mutation and covalent modification of these residues have charge-dependent effects on the rate of Cl(-) permeation, demonstrating their functional role in maximization of Cl(-) flux. Other nearby positively charged side chains were not involved in electrostatic interactions with Cl(-). The location of these Cl(-)-attractive residues suggests that cytoplasmic Cl(-) ions enter the pore via a lateral portal located between the cytoplasmic extensions to the fourth and sixth transmembrane helices; a secondary, functionally less relevant portal might exist between the extensions to the 10th and 12th transmembrane helices. These results define the cytoplasmic mouth of the pore and show how it attracts Cl(-) ions from the cytoplasm. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Obif, a Transmembrane Protein, Is Required for Bone Mineralization and Spermatogenesis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuhashi, Koji; Chaya, Taro; Kanamoto, Takashi; Omori, Yoshihiro; Furukawa, Takahisa

    2015-01-01

    Various kinds of transmembrane and secreted proteins play pivotal roles in development through cell-cell communication. We previously reported that Obif (Osteoblast induction factor, Tmem119), encoding a single transmembrane protein, is expressed in differentiating osteoblasts, and that Obif-/- mice exhibit significantly reduced bone volume in the femur. In the current study, we characterized the Obif protein and further investigated the biological phenotypes of a variety of tissues in Obif-/- mice. First, we found that O-glycosylation of the Obif protein occurs at serine residue 36 in the Obif extracellular domain. Next, we observed that Obif-/- mice exhibit bone dysplasia in association with significantly increased osteoid volume per osteoid surface (OV/OS) and osteoid maturation time (Omt), and significantly decreased mineral apposition rate (MAR) and bone formation rate per bone surface (BFR/BS). In addition, we observed that Obif-/- mice show a significant decrease in testis weight as well as in sperm number. By histological analysis, we found that Obif is expressed in spermatocytes and spermatids in the developing testis and that spermatogenesis is halted at the round spermatid stage in the Obif-/- testis that lacks sperm. However, the number of litters fathered by male mice was slightly reduced in Obif-/- mice compared with wild-type mice, although this was not statistically significant. Our results, taken together with previous observations, indicate that Obif is a type Ia transmembrane protein whose N-terminal region is O-glycosylated. In addition, we found that Obif is required for normal bone mineralization and late testicular differentiation in vivo. These findings suggest that Obif plays essential roles in the development of multiple tissues.

  13. Frequency of dentofacial asymmetries: a cross-sectional study on orthodontic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhateja, Nita Kumari; Fida, Mubassar; Shaikh, Attiya

    2014-01-01

    Correction of orthodontic asymmetries is crucial to achieve functional occlusion, aesthetics and stability of post orthodontic treatment results. To date valid frequency data of dentofacial asymmetries in Pakistani orthodontic patients do not exist to document orthodontic treatment need. The objectives of this study were to determine frequency of dento-facial asymmetries, severity of dental asymmetries and to determine difference in frequency of dentofacial asymmetries in mixed and permanent dentition. The sample of this cross-sectional study comprised of 280 patients (177 females and 103 males) with no history of previous orthodontic treatment having no craniofacial anomalies. Dento-facial asymmetries were assessed from pre-treatment records of patients. Descriptive statistics were used to determine frequency of dentofacial asymmetries and severity of dental asymmetries. Chi-square test was used to determine difference in frequency of dentofacial asymmetries in mixed and permanent dentition. Seventy eight percent (219) of patients had noncoincident midlines, 67.5% (189) had mandibular midline asymmetry, 43.2% (122) had molar asymmetry, 15.7% (44) had mandibular arch asymmetry, 14.3% (40) had maxillary midline asymmetry, 13.6% (38) had maxillary arch asymmetry, 6.1% (17) had nose deviation, and 12.1% (34) had facial asymmetry and chin deviation. In most patients dental midlines were deviated from one another and from facial midline by ¼ lower incisor widths, while molar asymmetry was found in most patients by ¼ cusp width. Mandibular arch asymmetry was more frequent in permanent than mixed dentition (p = 0.054). Non-coincident dental midline is most commonly seen. Nose deviation is least commonly observed. Mandibular arch asymmetry is more frequent in permanent than mixed dentition.

  14. Artificial Diels–Alderase based on the transmembrane protein FhuA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Osseili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Copper(I and copper(II complexes were covalently linked to an engineered variant of the transmembrane protein Ferric hydroxamate uptake protein component A (FhuA ΔCVFtev. Copper(I was incorporated using an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC ligand equipped with a maleimide group on the side arm at the imidazole nitrogen. Copper(II was attached by coordination to a terpyridyl ligand. The spacer length was varied in the back of the ligand framework. These biohybrid catalysts were shown to be active in the Diels–Alder reaction of a chalcone derivative with cyclopentadiene to preferentially give the endo product.

  15. Ligand Modulation of the Epstein-Barr Virus-induced Seven-transmembrane Receptor EBI2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benned-Jensen, Tau; Smethurst, Christopher; Holst, Peter Johannes

    2011-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus-induced receptor 2 (EBI2) is a constitutively active seven-transmembrane receptor, which was recently shown to orchestrate the positioning of B cells in the follicle. To date, no ligands, endogenously or synthetic, have been identified that modulate EBI2 activity. Here we...... with similar potency. Overexpression of EBI2 profoundly potentiated antibody-stimulated ex vivo proliferation of murine B cells compared with WT cells, whereas this was equivalently reduced for EBI2-deficient B cells. Inhibition of EBI2 constitutive activity suppressed the proliferation in all cases...

  16. A portable lipid bilayer system for environmental sensing with a transmembrane protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuji Kawano

    Full Text Available This paper describes a portable measurement system for current signals of an ion channel that is composed of a planar lipid bilayer. A stable and reproducible lipid bilayer is formed in outdoor environments by using a droplet contact method with a micropipette. Using this system, we demonstrated that the single-channel recording of a transmembrane protein (alpha-hemolysin was achieved in the field at a high-altitude (∼3623 m. This system would be broadly applicable for obtaining environmental measurements using membrane proteins as a highly sensitive sensor.

  17. Trafficking and function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator: a complex network of posttranslational modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Michelle L.; Barnes, Stephen; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications add diversity to protein function. Throughout its life cycle, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) undergoes numerous covalent posttranslational modifications (PTMs), including glycosylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation, phosphorylation, and palmitoylation. These modifications regulate key steps during protein biogenesis, such as protein folding, trafficking, stability, function, and association with protein partners and therefore may serve as targets for therapeutic manipulation. More generally, an improved understanding of molecular mechanisms that underlie CFTR PTMs may suggest novel treatment strategies for CF and perhaps other protein conformational diseases. This review provides a comprehensive summary of co- and posttranslational CFTR modifications and their significance with regard to protein biogenesis. PMID:27474090

  18. Early vertebrate origin and diversification of small transmembrane regulators of cellular ion transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkmajer, Sergej; Kirchner, Henriette; Lundell, Leonidas S; Zelenin, Pavel V; Zierath, Juleen R; Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Chibalin, Alexander V

    2017-07-15

    Small transmembrane proteins such as FXYDs, which interact with Na + ,K + -ATPase, and the micropeptides that interact with sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase play fundamental roles in regulation of ion transport in vertebrates. Uncertain evolutionary origins and phylogenetic relationships among these regulators of ion transport have led to inconsistencies in their classification across vertebrate species, thus hampering comparative studies of their functions. We discovered the first FXYD homologue in sea lamprey, a basal jawless vertebrate, which suggests small transmembrane regulators of ion transport emerged early in the vertebrate lineage. We also identified 13 gene subfamilies of FXYDs and propose a revised, phylogeny-based FXYD classification that is consistent across vertebrate species. These findings provide an improved framework for investigating physiological and pathophysiological functions of small transmembrane regulators of ion transport. Small transmembrane proteins are important for regulation of cellular ion transport. The most prominent among these are members of the FXYD family (FXYD1-12), which regulate Na + ,K + -ATPase, and phospholamban, sarcolipin, myoregulin and DWORF, which regulate the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase (SERCA). FXYDs and regulators of SERCA are present in fishes, as well as terrestrial vertebrates; however, their evolutionary origins and phylogenetic relationships are obscure, thus hampering comparative physiological studies. Here we discovered that sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a representative of extant jawless vertebrates (Cyclostomata), expresses an FXYD homologue, which strongly suggests that FXYDs predate the emergence of fishes and other jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata). Using a combination of sequence-based phylogenetic analysis and conservation of local chromosome context, we determined that FXYDs markedly diversified in the lineages leading to cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes) and bony

  19. Structure, function and physiological consequences of virally encoded chemokine seven transmembrane receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M M; Smit, M J; Waldhoer, M

    2008-01-01

    A number of human and animal herpes viruses encode G-protein coupled receptors with seven transmembrane (7TM) segments-most of which are clearly related to human chemokine receptors. It appears, that these receptors are used by the virus for immune evasion, cellular transformation, tissue targeting...... pathogenesis is still poorly understood. Here we focus on the current knowledge of structure, function and trafficking patterns of virally encoded chemokine receptors and further address the putative roles of these receptors in virus survival and host -cell and/or -immune system modulation. Finally, we...

  20. Exploiting hydrophobicity for efficient production of transmembrane helices for structure determination by NMR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Katrine Østergaard; Steinocher, Helena; Brooks, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    -labeled protein. In this work, we have exploited the hydrophobic nature of membrane proteins to develop a simple and efficient production scheme for isotope-labeled single-pass transmembrane domains (TMDs) with or without intrinsically disordered regions. We have evaluated the applicability and limitations...... of the strategy using seven membrane protein variants that differ in their overall hydrophobicity and length and show a recovery for suitable variants of >70%. The developed production scheme is cost-efficient and easy to implement and has the potential to facilitate an increase in the number of structures...

  1. Transmembrane adaptor proteins in the high-affinity IgE receptor signaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dráber, Petr; Hálová, Ivana; Levi-Schaffer, F.; Dráberová, Lubica

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, 11.1. (2012), s. 95 ISSN 1664-3224 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0506; GA ČR GA301/09/1826; GA ČR GAP302/10/1759; GA AV ČR KAN200520701 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200520901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : IgE receptor * LAT/LAT1 * LAX * NTAL/Lab/LAT2 * PAG/Cbp * mast cells * plasma membrane * transmembrane adaptor proteins Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  2. Sterile neutrinos, lepton asymmetries, primordial elements: How much of each?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Yizen; Cirelli, Marco

    2006-01-01

    We investigate quantitatively the extent to which having a primordial leptonic asymmetry (n ν ≠n ν ) relaxes the bounds on light sterile neutrinos imposed by BBN and LSS. We adopt a few assumptions that allow us to solve the neutrino evolution equations over a broad range of mixing parameters and asymmetries. For the general cases of sterile mixing with the electron or muon neutrino, we identify the regions that can be reopened. For the particular case of a LSND-like sterile neutrino, soon to be rejected or confirmed by MiniBooNE, we find that an asymmetry of the order of 10 -4 is needed to lift the conflicts with cosmology

  3. Visual Representation Determines Search Difficulty: Explaining Visual Search Asymmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil eBruce

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In visual search experiments there exist a variety of experimental paradigms in which a symmetric set of experimental conditions yields asymmetric corresponding task performance. There are a variety of examples of this that currently lack a satisfactory explanation. In this paper, we demonstrate that distinct classes of asymmetries may be explained by virtue of a few simple conditions that are consistent with current thinking surrounding computational modeling of visual search and coding in the primate brain. This includes a detailed look at the role that stimulus familiarity plays in the determination of search performance. Overall, we demonstrate that all of these asymmetries have a common origin, namely, they are a consequence of the encoding that appears in the visual cortex. The analysis associated with these cases yields insight into the problem of visual search in general and predictions of novel search asymmetries.

  4. Tension-compression asymmetry modelling: strategies for anisotropy parameters identification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents details concerning the strategies and algorithms adopted in the fully implicit FE solver DD3IMP to model the orthotropic behavior of metallic sheets and the procedure for anisotropy parameters identification. The work is focused on the yield criterion developed by Cazacu, Plunkett and Barlat, 2006 [1], which accounts for both tension–compression asymmetry and orthotropic plastic behavior. The anisotropy parameters for a 2090-T3 aluminum alloy are identified accounting, or not, for the tension-compression asymmetry. The numerical simulation of a cup drawing is performed for this material, highlighting the importance of considering tension-compression asymmetry in the prediction of the earing profile, for materials with cubic structure, even if this phenomenon is relatively small.

  5. Biometric identification based on novel frequency domain facial asymmetry measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sinjini; Savvides, Marios; Vijaya Kumar, B. V. K.

    2005-03-01

    In the modern world, the ever-growing need to ensure a system's security has spurred the growth of the newly emerging technology of biometric identification. The present paper introduces a novel set of facial biometrics based on quantified facial asymmetry measures in the frequency domain. In particular, we show that these biometrics work well for face images showing expression variations and have the potential to do so in presence of illumination variations as well. A comparison of the recognition rates with those obtained from spatial domain asymmetry measures based on raw intensity values suggests that the frequency domain representation is more robust to intra-personal distortions and is a novel approach for performing biometric identification. In addition, some feature analysis based on statistical methods comparing the asymmetry measures across different individuals and across different expressions is presented.

  6. Transverse spin asymmetry at the A4 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baunack, Sebastian

    2005-01-01

    The A4 collaboration at the MAMI accelerator has measured the transverse spin asymmetry in the cross section of elastic scattering of transversely polarized electrons off unpolarized protons. An azimuthal dependence of the asymmetry has been observed, the amplitudes have been determined as A bot (Q 2 =0.106 (GeV/c) 2 )=( -8.59 ±0.89 stat ±0.75 syst ).10 -6 and A bot (Q 2 =0.230 (GeV/c) 2 )=(-8.52±2.31 stat ±0.87 syst ).10 -6 . A bot arises from the imaginary part of the 2γ-exchange amplitude. Our experimentally determined values of A bot show that in the intermediate hadronic state not only the ground state of the proton, but also excited states contribute to the asymmetry. (orig.)

  7. Bessel-Weighted Asymmetries in Semi Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, D.; Gamberg, L.; Musch, B.U.; Prokudin, A.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of weighted asymmetries is revisited for semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. We consider the cross section in Fourier space, conjugate to the outgoing hadron's transverse momentum, where convolutions of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions and fragmentation functions become simple products. Individual asymmetric terms in the cross section can be projected out by means of a generalized set of weights involving Bessel functions. Advantages of employing these Bessel weights are that they suppress (divergent) contributions from high transverse momentum and that soft factors cancel in (Bessel-) weighted asymmetries. Also, the resulting compact expressions immediately connect to previous work on evolution equations for transverse momentum dependent parton distribution and fragmentation functions and to quantities accessible in lattice QCD. Bessel weighted asymmetries are thus model independent observables that augment the description and our understanding of correlations of spin and momentum in nucleon structure.

  8. MANDIBULAR ASYMMETRY CHARACTERIZATION USING GENERALIZED TENSOR-BASED MORPHOMETRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Beatriz; Alhadidi, Abeer; Cevidanes, Lucia; Styner, Martin; Oguz, Ipek

    2011-12-31

    Quantitative assessment of facial asymmetry is crucial for successful planning of corrective surgery. We propose a tensor-based morphometry (TBM) framework to locate and quantify asymmetry using 3D CBCT images. To this end, we compute a rigid transformation between the mandible segmentation and its mirror image, which yields global rotation and translation with respect to the cranial base to guide the surgery's first stage. Next, we nonrigidly register the rigidly aligned images and use TBM methods to locally analyze the deformation field. This yields data on the location, amount and direction of "growth" (or "shrinkage") between the left and right sides. We visualize this data in a volumetric manner and via scalar and vector maps on the mandibular surface to provide the surgeon with optimal understanding of the patient's anatomy. We illustrate the feasibility and strength of our technique on 3 representative patients with a wide range of facial asymmetries.

  9. Baryon asymmetry, dark matter and local baryon number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fileviez Pérez, Pavel; Patel, Hiren H.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new mechanism to understand the relation between baryon and dark matter asymmetries in the universe in theories where the baryon number is a local symmetry. In these scenarios the B−L asymmetry generated through a mechanism such as leptogenesis is transferred to the dark matter and baryonic sectors through sphalerons processes which conserve total baryon number. We show that it is possible to have a consistent relation between the dark matter relic density and the baryon asymmetry in the universe even if the baryon number is broken at the low scale through the Higgs mechanism. We also discuss the case where one uses the Stueckelberg mechanism to understand the conservation of baryon number in nature.

  10. The beta decay asymmetry parameter of 35Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, J.D.

    1987-11-01

    The beta decay asymmetry parameter for 35 Ar = 35 Cl + e + + nu/sub e/ has been remeasured in order to resolve a long standing puzzle. Previous asymmetry measurements, when combined with the comparative half-life, yield a value for the vector coupling constant, G/sub v/, that is in serious disagreement with the accepted value. We produced polarized 35 Ar by a (p,n) reaction on 35 Cl using the polarized proton beam provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's 88-Inch Cyclotron. The polarization of the 35 Ar was determined by measuring the asymmetry of the positrons produced in 35 Ar decay to the first excited state in 35 Cl (branching ratio = 1.3%) in coincidence with a 1219.4 keV gamma ray. Our result, A 0 = 0.49 +- 0.10, combined with the comparative half-life yields a value for G/sub v/ in agreement with the accepted value

  11. PERANAN KONSERVATISME PADA INFORMATION ASYMMETRY: SUATU TINJAUAN TEORETIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I G.A.N. BUDIASIH

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Conservatism is one of mechanisms of corporate governance that could reduce managers’ capability to manipulate and overstate financial report, especially financial performance, so cash flow and company’s value could be increased. Conservatism is also important in decreasing agency cost and increasing the quality of financial information to increase company’s value and the share price. Financial statement employing principle of conservatism could reduce management chance to manipulate financial report and decrease deadweight loss as an agency cost emerged due to information asymmetry. Thus it can be said that conservative financial statement could reduce information asymmetry. Information asymmetry can be handled by forcing management to fully disclose the company’s condition on the financial statement. Another way is to monitor management conduct by employing independent auditor.

  12. Investors’ risk attitudes and stock price fluctuation asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Honggang

    2011-05-01

    Price rise/fall asymmetry, which indicates enduring but modest rises and sudden short-term falls, is a ubiquitous phenomenon in stock markets throughout the world. Instead of the widely used time series method, we adopt inverse statistics from turbulence to analyze this asymmetry. To explore its underlying mechanism, we build a multi-agent model with two kinds of investors, which are specifically referred to as fundamentalists and chartists. Inspired by Kahneman and Tversky’s claim regarding peoples’ asymmetric psychological responses to the equivalent levels of gains and losses, we assume that investors take different risk attitudes to gains and losses and adopt different trading strategies. The simulation results of the model developed herein are consistent with empirical work, which may support our conjecture that investors’ asymmetric risk attitudes might be one origin of rise/fall asymmetry.

  13. Take your seats: Leftward asymmetry in classroom seating choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Lynn Harms

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite an overall body symmetry, human behaviour is full of examples of asymmetry, from writing or gesturing to kissing and cradling. Prior research has revealed that theatre patrons show a bias towards sitting on the right side of a movie theatre. Two competing theories have attempted to explain this seating asymmetry: one posits that expectation of processing demand drives the bias; the other posits that basic motor asymmetries drive the bias. To test these theories we assessed the real-world classroom seating choices of university students using photographs. A bias for students to choose seats on the left side of the classroom was observed, in contrast to the right side bias observed in theatre seating studies. These results provide evidence in support of a processing-expectation bias.

  14. Right-frontal cortical asymmetry predicts increased proneness to nostalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullett, Alexa M; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Inzlicht, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Nostalgia is often triggered by feelings-such as sadness, loneliness, or meaninglessness-that are typically associated with withdrawal motivation. Here, we examined whether a trait tendency to experience withdrawal motivation is associated with nostalgia proneness. Past work indicates that baseline right-frontal cortical asymmetry is a neural correlate of withdrawal-related motivation. We therefore hypothesized that higher baseline levels of right-frontal asymmetry would predict increased proneness to nostalgia. We assessed participants' baseline levels of frontal cortical activity using EEG. Results supported the hypothesis and demonstrated that the association between relative right-frontal asymmetry and increased nostalgia remained significant when controlling for the Big Five personality traits. Overall, these findings indicate that individuals with a stronger dispositional tendency to experience withdrawal-related motivation are more prone to nostalgia. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  15. Reducing the asymmetry in coupled cavity of linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Xianlin; Wu Congfeng

    2013-01-01

    Background: With the development of high energy physics, high performance of electron linear accelerator is required for large collider, FEL and high brightness synchrotron radiation light source. Structure asymmetry of single coupler destroys the symmetry of field distribution in coupled cavity, which reduces the quality of beam. Purpose: Optimize the asymmetry of field distribution in coupled cavity and improve the quality of beam. Methods: The simulation designs are made for single offset coupler, double symmetry coupler and the new coupler loaded by dielectric rods at X band by using CST microwave studio code. Results: The results show that the distribution of field in coupled cavity is better and all particles almost locate at the center of beam hole after beam passing through the coupler loaded by dielectric rods. The energy spread has also been significantly improved. Conclusions: The coupler loaded by dielectric rods can optimize the asymmetry of field distribution in coupled cavity and improve the quality of beam. (authors)

  16. Proton GE/GM from beam-target asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark Jones; Aram Aghalaryan; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Razmik Asaturyan; Frederic Bloch; Werner Boeglin; Peter Bosted; Cedric Carasco; Roger Carlini; Jinseok Cha; Jian-Ping Chen; Michael Christy; Leon Cole; Luminita Coman; Donald Crabb; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; James Dunne; Mostafa Elaasar; Rolf Ent; Howard Fenker; Emil Frlez; David Gaskell; Liping Gan; Javier Gomez; Bitao Hu; Juerg Jourdan; Christopher Keith; Cynthia Keppel; Mahbubul Khandaker; Andreas Klein; Laird Kramer; Yongguang Liang; Jechiel Lichtenstadt; Richard Lindgren; David Mack; Paul McKee; Dustin McNulty; David Meekins; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Rakhsha Nasseripour; Maria-Ioana Niculescu; Kristoff Normand; Blaine Norum; Dinko Pocanic; Yelena Prok; Brian Raue; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Daniela Rohe; Oscar Rondon-Aramayo; Nikolai Savvinov; Bradley Sawatzky; Mikell Seely; Ingo Sick; Karl Slifer; C. Smith; Gregory Smith; S. Stepanyan; Liguang Tang; Shigeyuki Tajima; Giuseppe Testa; William Vulcan; Kebin Wang; Glen Warren; Frank Wesselmann; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Lulin Yuan; Junho Yun; Markus Zeier; Hong Guo Zhu

    2006-01-01

    The ratio of the proton's electric to magnetic form factor, G E /G M , can be extracted in elastic electron-proton scattering by measuring either cross sections, beam-target asymmetry or recoil polarization. Separate determinations of G E /G M by cross sections and recoil polarization observables disagree for Q 2 > 1 (GeV/c) 2 . Measurement by a third technique might uncover an unknown systematic error in either of the previous measurements. The beam-target asymmetry has been measured for elastic electron-proton scattering at Q 2 = 1.51 (GeV/c) 2 for target spin orientation aligned perpendicular to the beam momentum direction. This is the largest Q 2 at which G E /G M has been determined by a beam-target asymmetry experiment. The result, μG E /G M = 0.884 +/- 0.027 +/- 0.029, is compared to previous world data

  17. Transverse target spin asymmetries in exclusive $\\rho^0$ muoproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C; Alexakhin, V Yu; Alexandrov, Yu; Alexeev, G D; Amoroso, A; Andrieux, V; Austregesilo, A; Badelek, B; Balestra, F; Barth, J; Baum, G; Bedfer, Y; Berlin, A; Bernhard, J; Bertini, R; Bicker, K; Bieling, J; Birsa, R; Bisplinghoff, J; Boer, M; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Braun, C; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Büchele, M; Burtin, E; Capozza, L; Chiosso, M; Chung, S U; Cicuttin, A; Crespo, M L; Dalla Torre, S; Dasgupta, S S; Dasgupta, S; Denisov, O Yu; Donskov, S V; Doshita, N; Duic, V; Dünnweber, W; Dziewiecki, M; Efremov, A; Elia, C; Eversheim, P D; Eyrich, W; Faessler, M; Ferrero, A; Filin, A; Finger, M; Finger, M jr; Fischer, H; Franco, C; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N; Friedrich, J M; Frolov, V; Garfagnini, R; Gautheron, F; Gavrichtchouk, O P; Gerassimov, S; Geyer, R; Giorgi, M; Gnesi, I; Gobbo, B; Goertz, S; Grabmüller, S; Grasso, A; Grube, B; Gushterski, R; Guskov, A; Guthörl, T; Haas, F; von Harrach, D; Hahne, D; Heinsius, F H; Herrmann, F; Hess, C; Hinterberger, F; Höppner, Ch; Horikawa, N; d'Hose, N; Huber, S; Ishimoto, S; Ivanshin, Yu; Iwata, T; Jahn, R; Jary, V; Jasinski, P; Joosten, R; Kabuss, E; Kang, D; Ketzer, B; Khaustov, G V; Khokhlov, Yu A; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F; Klimaszewski, K; Koivuniemi, J H; Kolosov, V N; Kondo, K; Königsmann, K; Konorov, I; Konstantinov, V F; Kotzinian, A M; Kouznetsov, O; Krämer, M; Kroumchtein, Z V; Kuchinski, N; Kunne, F; Kurek, K; Kurjata, R P; Lednev, A A; Lehmann, A; Levorato, S; Lichtenstadt, J; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Makke, N; Mallot, G K; Marchand, C; Martin, A; Marzec, J; Matousek, J; Matsuda, H; Matsuda, T; Meshcheryakov, G; Meyer, W; Michigami, T; Mikhailov, Yu V; Miyachi, Y; Morreale, A; Nagaytsev, A; Nagel, T; Nerling, F; Neubert, S; Neyret, D; Nikolaenko, V I; Novy, J; Nowak, W D; Nunes, A.S; Olshevsky, A G; Ostrick, M; Panknin, R; Panzieri, D; Parsamyan, B; Paul, S; Pesek, M; Piragino, G; Platchkov, S; Pochodzalla, J; Polak, J; Polyakov, V A; Pretz, J; Quaresma, M; Quintans, C; Ramos, S; Reicherz, G; Rocco, E; Rodionov, V; Rondio, E; Rossiyskaya, N S; Ryabchikov, D I; Samoylenko, V D; Sandacz, A; Sapozhnikov, M G; Sarkar, S; Savin, I A; Sbrizzai, G; Schiavon, P; Schill, C; Schlüter, T; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, K; Schmitt, L; Schmïden, H; Schönning, K; Schopferer, S; Schott, M; Shevchenko, O Yu; Silva, L; Sinha, L; Sirtl, S; Slunecka, M; Sosio, S; Sozzi, F; Srnka, A; Steiger, L; Stolarski, M; Sulc, M; Sulej, R; Suzuki, H; Sznajder, P; Takekawa, S; Ter Wolbeek, J; Tessaro, S; Tessarotto, F; Thibaud, F; Uhl, S; Uman, I; Vandenbroucke, M; Virius, M; Vondra, J; Wang, L; Weisrock, T; Wilfert, M; Windmolders, R; Wislicki, W; Wollny, H; Zaremba, K; Zavertyaev, M; Zemlyanichkina, E; Zhuravlev, N; Ziembicki, M

    2014-01-01

    Exclusive production of $\\rho^0$ mesons was studied at the COMPASS experiment by scattering 160 GeV/$c$ muons off transversely polarised protons. Five single-spin and three double-spin azimuthal asymmetries were measured as a function of $Q^2$, $x_{Bj}$, or $p_{T}^{2}$. The $\\sin \\phi_S$ asymmetry is found to be $-0.019 \\pm 0.008(stat.) \\pm 0.003(syst.)$. All other asymmetries are also found to be of small magnitude and consistent with zero within experimental uncertainties. Very recent calculations using a GPD-based model agree well with the present results. The data is interpreted as evidence for the existence of chiral-odd, transverse generalized parton distributions.

  18. Load Asymmetry Observed During Orion Main Parachute Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Aaron L.; Taylor, Thomas; Olson, Leah

    2011-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) has flight tested the first two generations of the Orion parachute program. Three of the second generation tests instrumented the dispersion bridles of the Main parachute with a Tension Measuring System. The goal of this load measurement was to better understand load asymmetry during the inflation process of a cluster of Main parachutes. The CPAS Main parachutes exhibit inflations that are much less symmetric than current parachute literature and design guides would indicate. This paper will examine loads data gathered on three cluster tests, quantify the degree of asymmetry observed, and contrast the results with published design guides. Additionally, the measured loads data will be correlated with videos of the parachute inflation to make inferences about the shape of the parachute and the relative load asymmetry. The goal of this inquiry and test program is to open a dialogue regarding asymmetrical parachute inflation load factors.

  19. Information asymmetry, mutual funds and earnings management: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhao Dai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how information asymmetry and mutual fund ownership affect listed companies’ earnings management. We show that (1 reducing information asymmetry improves firms’ earnings management behavior; (2 relative to short-term mutual funds, long-term mutual funds promote earnings quality by adopting a monitoring role; and (3 by dividing firms into high/low information asymmetry groups, we find that the information environment significantly increases the effect of long-term mutual funds on firms’ earnings management. In this paper, we provide new evidence for the role that institutional investors play in a typical emerging capital market. Our results have clear policy implications: to increase earnings quality, it is essential to improve information transparency and develop long-term institutional investors.

  20. Characteristics of toroidal energy deposition asymmetries in ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.E.; Neuhauser, J.; Leuterer, F.; Mueller, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    Large toroidal and poloidal asymmetries with characteristics which are sensitively dependent on q a , the vertical position of the plasma, and the type of additional heating are observed in the energy flow to the ASDEX divertor target plates. The largest asymmetries and total energy depositions are observed during lower hybrid wave injection experiments with approximately 50% of the input energy going to the combined divertor targets and shields. A maximum localized energy density loading of 10 MJ/m 2 is typical under these conditions. Measurements of the asymmetries are consistent with a model in which magnetic islands and ergodicity due to intrinsic magnetic perturbations dominate the energy transpot across the primary magnetic separatrix. The results emphasize the essential role of resonant magnetic perturbations in determining the performance of tokamaks and demonstrate that non-axisymmetric effects caused by small perturbations become increasingly important in determining the transport properties as the injected power is increased. (orig.)

  1. CP asymmetries in the supersymmetric trilepton signal at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornhauser, S.; Drees, M.; Dreiner, H.; Eboli, O.J.P.; Kim, J.S.; Kittel, O.

    2012-01-01

    In the CP-violating Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, we study the production of a neutralino-chargino pair at the LHC. For their decays into three leptons, we analyze CP asymmetries which are sensitive to the CP phases of the neutralino and chargino sector. We present analytical formulas for the entire production and decay process, and identify the CP-violating contributions in the spin correlation terms. This allows us to define the optimal CP asymmetries. We present a detailed numerical analysis of the cross sections, branching ratios, and the CP observables. For light neutralinos, charginos, and squarks, the asymmetries can reach several 10%. We estimate the discovery potential for the LHC to observe CP violation in the trilepton channel. (orig.)

  2. Harmful situations, impure people: an attribution asymmetry across moral domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroff, Alek; Young, Liane

    2015-03-01

    People make inferences about the actions of others, assessing whether an act is best explained by person-based versus situation-based accounts. Here we examine people's explanations for norm violations in different domains: harmful acts (e.g., assault) and impure acts (e.g., incest). Across four studies, we find evidence for an attribution asymmetry: people endorse more person-based attributions for impure versus harmful acts. This attribution asymmetry is partly explained by the abnormality of impure versus harmful acts, but not by differences in the moral wrongness or the statistical frequency of these acts. Finally, this asymmetry persists even when the situational factors that lead an agent to act impurely are stipulated. These results suggest that, relative to harmful acts, impure acts are linked to person-based attributions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurement of Charge Asymmetries in Charmless Hadronic B Meson Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Fast, J. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Hinson, J. W. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Lee, J. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Menon, N. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Miller, D. H. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Shibata, E. I. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Shipsey, I. P. J. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Pavlunin, V. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Cronin-Hennessy, D. [University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)] (and others)

    2000-07-17

    We search for CP -violating charge asymmetries (A{sub CP} ) in the B meson decays to K{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {+-}} , K{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup 0} , K{sup 0}{sub S}{pi}{sup {+-}} , K{sup {+-}}{eta}{sup '} , and {omega}{pi}{sup {+-}} . Using 9.66 million {upsilon}(4S) decays collected with the CLEO detector, the statistical precision on A{sub CP} is in the range of {+-}0.12 to {+-}0.25 depending on decay mode. While CP -violating asymmetries of up to {+-}0.5 are possible within the standard model, the measured asymmetries are consistent with zero in all five decay modes studied. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  4. The relationship between skull asymmetry and CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamori, Yuriko; Yuge, Mariko; Kanda, Toyoko; Ashida, Hiromi; Fukase, Hiroshi

    1987-01-01

    In order to clarify the relationship between brain damage and skull asymmetry or supine head position preference, we classified CT findings of 330 cases with cerebral palsy or risk of motor disturbance into 6 groups according to skull shape. Those were severe (I, n = 37) and mild (II, n = 114) grades in the right occipital flatness, severe (III, n = 34) and mild (IV, n = 58) grades in the left occipital flatness, long skull with temporal flatness (V, n = 33) and symmetric round skull (control, n = 54). It was considered that the asymmetry of cortical atrophy in appearance was formed physicaly by skull asymmetry but that the asymmetric dilatation in appearance of lateral ventricle was related to the asymmetry of brain damage. The severity and the asymmetry of brain damage were tend to increase the grade of skull asymmetry. The incidence of cases with the right occipital flatness was 1.6 times more frequently than the left sided. The incidence of cases whose left (lateral) ventricle was larger than the right was 4.1 times more than the cases whose right ventricle was larger than the left. The cases with occipital flatness in the contralateral side of the larger lateral ventricle were found more than the cases with occipital flatness in the ipsilateral side of the larger ventricle, that is to say, the direction of supine head position preference during early infant was suspected to be the more severely disturbed side of body. These results suggest that the supine head position preference to the right in newborn babies and infants with scoliosis or cerebral palsy might be the result of transient or permanent asymmetric (left > right) brain dysfunction. (author)

  5. New views on strand asymmetry in insect mitochondrial genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Jun Wei

    Full Text Available Strand asymmetry in nucleotide composition is a remarkable feature of animal mitochondrial genomes. Understanding the mutation processes that shape strand asymmetry is essential for comprehensive knowledge of genome evolution, demographical population history and accurate phylogenetic inference. Previous studies found that the relative contributions of different substitution types to strand asymmetry are associated with replication alone or both replication and transcription. However, the relative contributions of replication and transcription to strand asymmetry remain unclear. Here we conducted a broad survey of strand asymmetry across 120 insect mitochondrial genomes, with special reference to the correlation between the signs of skew values and replication orientation/gene direction. The results show that the sign of GC skew on entire mitochondrial genomes is reversed in all species of three distantly related families of insects, Philopteridae (Phthiraptera, Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera and Braconidae (Hymenoptera; the replication-related elements in the A+T-rich regions of these species are inverted, confirming that reversal of strand asymmetry (GC skew was caused by inversion of replication origin; and finally, the sign of GC skew value is associated with replication orientation but not with gene direction, while that of AT skew value varies with gene direction, replication and codon positions used in analyses. These findings show that deaminations during replication and other mutations contribute more than selection on amino acid sequences to strand compositions of G and C, and that the replication process has a stronger affect on A and T content than does transcription. Our results may contribute to genome-wide studies of replication and transcription mechanisms.

  6. Ozone zonal asymmetry and planetary wave characterization during Antarctic spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ialongo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A large zonal asymmetry of ozone has been observed over Antarctica during winter-spring, when the ozone hole develops. It is caused by a planetary wave-driven displacement of the polar vortex. The total ozone data by OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument and the ozone profiles by MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder and GOMOS (Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars were analysed to characterize the ozone zonal asymmetry and the wave activity during Antarctic spring. Both total ozone and profile data have shown a persistent zonal asymmetry over the last years, which is usually observed from September to mid-December. The largest amplitudes of planetary waves at 65° S (the perturbations can achieve up to 50% of zonal mean values is observed in October. The wave activity is dominated by the quasi-stationary wave 1 component, while the wave 2 is mainly an eastward travelling wave. Wave numbers 1 and 2 generally explain more than the 90% of the ozone longitudinal variations. Both GOMOS and MLS ozone profile data show that ozone zonal asymmetry covers the whole stratosphere and extends up to the altitudes of 60–65 km. The wave amplitudes in ozone mixing ratio decay with altitude, with maxima (up to 50% below 30 km.

    The characterization of the ozone zonal asymmetry has become important in the climate research. The inclusion of the polar zonal asymmetry in the climate models is essential for an accurate estimation of the future temperature trends. This information might also be important for retrieval algorithms that rely on ozone a priori information.

  7. Asymmetry in electrical coupling between neurons alters multistable firing behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarchik, A. N.; Jaimes-Reátegui, R.; García-Vellisca, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    The role of asymmetry in electrical synaptic connection between two neuronal oscillators is studied in the Hindmarsh-Rose model. We demonstrate that the asymmetry induces multistability in spiking dynamics of the coupled neuronal oscillators. The coexistence of at least three attractors, one chaotic and two periodic orbits, for certain coupling strengths is demonstrated with time series, phase portraits, bifurcation diagrams, basins of attraction of the coexisting states, Lyapunov exponents, and standard deviations of peak amplitudes and interspike intervals. The experimental results with analog electronic circuits are in good agreement with the results of numerical simulations.

  8. Sign of the day-night asymmetry for solar neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Cheng-Wei; Wolfenstein, Lincoln

    2001-01-01

    A qualitative understanding of the day-night asymmetry for solar neutrinos is provided. The greater night flux in ν e is seen to be a consequence of the fact that the matter effect in the Sun and that in the Earth have the same sign. It is shown in the adiabatic approximation for the Sun and constant density for the Earth that, for all values of the mixing angle θ V between 0 and π/2, the night flux of neutrinos is greater than the day flux. Only for small values of θ V where the adiabatic approximation badly fails does the sign of the day-night asymmetry reverse

  9. Think over nuclear safety. ''Information asymmetry'' and ''comminicative action''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear safety should be fully understood not only technically but also socially. In order to think over nuclear safety socially, four different concepts were recommended to refer, which were ''procedural rationality'', information asymmetry'', ''certainty effect'' and ''communicative action'' proposed by three economists and a philosopher respectively. Risk-based communication approach for nuclear safety could be effective within the higher frequency area than safety goal, but not good for the lower frequency area than safety goal. The latter could be highly subjective and more qualitative. For this area, ''safety communication'' would be highly maintained with taking account of existence of ''information asymmetry'' and need of ''communicative action''. (T.Tanaka)

  10. Spin asymmetry in resonant electron-hydrogen elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, I.E.; Shang, Bo.

    1993-02-01

    Differential cross sections and asymmetries at 90 deg. and 30 deg are calculated for electron-hydrogen elastic scattering over the energies of the lowest 1 S and 3 P resonances using a nine-state coupled-channels calculation with and without continuum effects, which are represented by an equivalent-local polarization potential. The polarization potential improves agreement with experiment in general for the spin-averaged cross sections. It is suggested that continuum effects would be critically tested by asymmetry measurement at 30 deg over the 1 S resonance. 7 refs., 4 figs

  11. Posttraumatic Mandibular Asymmetry Presenting in a Young Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Sheikhi, DDS,MS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common sites of injury of the facial skeleton is mandibular condyle. However, it is the least diagnosed site of trauma in the head and neck regions. A trauma to the mandible and specifically condylar zone during childhood, may lead to asymmetry or mandibular bilateral distortion, which is usually manifested in the second decade of life when the etiology is unknown to most people. This report is about an adult male complaining about facial asymmetry with an unknown source. Obvious clicking at the right side and shorter right ramus and condyle's head deviation directed us to a childhood trauma and fracture.

  12. One-spin asymmetries in pair production and Bremsstrahlung processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, A.B.; Kuraev, E.A.; Tarasov, A.V.; Merenkov, N.P.; Peresun'ko, D.Yu.

    1995-01-01

    Asymmetries in the interaction processes at high energies of circularly polarized photons or longitudinally polarized electrons with charged targets are considered. The derivations are shown in detail. The asymmetries are shown to be proportional to the degree of polarization of the initial particle, they do not decrease with increasing of the energy and could reach several percents for pure QED processes or tens percents in the case of a quark-antiquark jets production. Transverse to the beam direction components of the outgoing particle momenta are assumed to be large compared with the electron (quark) mass. 6 refs., 3 tabs

  13. Investigation of Inclusive CP Asymmetries in B$^{0}$ Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Barate, R; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Merle, E; Minard, M N; Pietrzyk, B; Bravo, S; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Graugès-Pous, E; Martínez, M; Merino, G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Pacheco, A; Ruiz, H; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Boix, G; Buchmüller, O L; Cattaneo, M; Cerutti, F; Dissertori, G; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Greening, T C; Hansen, J B; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Lehraus, Ivan; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Moutoussi, A; Ranjard, F; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Spagnolo, P; Tejessy, W; Teubert, F; Tournefier, E; Wright, A E; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Badaud, F; Chazelle, G; Deschamps, O; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Petersen, B; Wäänänen, A; Daskalakis, G; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Vayaki, Anna; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Swynghedauw, M; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Zachariadou, K; Antonelli, A; Antonelli, M; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Halley, A W; Lynch, J G; Negus, P; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Cavanaugh, R J; Dhamotharan, S; Geweniger, C; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Girone, M; Marinelli, N; Sedgbeer, J K; Thompson, J C; Thomson, E; Ghete, V M; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Buck, P G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Jones, R W L; Robertson, N A; Giehl, I; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Wachsmuth, H W; Zeitnitz, C; Bonissent, A; Carr, J; Coyle, P; Leroy, O; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Aleppo, M; Ragusa, F; Dietl, H; Ganis, G; Heister, A; Hüttmann, K; Lütjens, G; Mannert, C; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Stenzel, H; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Azzurri, P; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Chen, S; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacholkowska, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Schune, M H; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Yuan, C; Zerwas, D; Bagliesi, G; Boccali, T; Calderini, G; Ciulli, V; Foà, L; Giassi, A; Ligabue, F; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Sguazzoni, G; Tenchini, Roberto; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Blair, G A; Cowan, G D; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Norton, P R; Tomalin, I R; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Konstantinidis, N P; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Lehto, M H; Thompson, L F; Affholderbach, K; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Grupen, Claus; Misiejuk, A; Prange, G; Sieler, U; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Cranmer, K; Elmer, P; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y; González, S; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; Kile, J; McNamara, P A; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, J; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Zobernig, G

    2001-01-01

    A search for CP violating effects in the mixing of neutral B mesons is performed using a sample of 4.1 million hadronic Z decays collected with the ALEPH detector from 1991 to 1995. By studying time-dependent asymmetries in flavour-tagged samples of semileptonic and fully inclusive b-hadron decays, two measurements of the semileptonic asymmetry a_cp are extracted. No evidence for CP violation is observed, and the combined value a_cp = -0.013 +- 0.026 is obtained.

  14. Normal Spin Asymmetries in Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Gorchtein; P.A.M. Guichon; M. Vanderhaeghen

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the two-photon exchange contribution to observables which involve lepton helicity flip in elastic lepton-nucleon scattering. This contribution is accessed through the single spin asymmetry for a lepton beam polarized normal to the scattering plane. We estimate this beam normal spin asymmetry at large momentum transfer using a parton model and we express the corresponding amplitude in terms of generalized parton distributions. We further discuss this observable in the quasi-RCS kinematics which may be dominant at certain kinematical conditions and find it to be governed by the photon helicity-flip RCS amplitudes

  15. Normal Spin Asymmetries in Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorchtein, M.; Guichon, P.A.M.; Vanderhaeghen, M.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the two-photon exchange contribution to observables which involve lepton helicity flip in elastic lepton-nucleon scattering. This contribution is accessed through the single spin asymmetry for a lepton beam polarized normal to the scattering plane. We estimate this beam normal spin asymmetry at large momentum transfer using a parton model and we express the corresponding amplitude in terms of generalized parton distributions. We further discuss this observable in the quasi-RCS kinematics which may be dominant at certain kinematical conditions and find it to be governed by the photon helicity-flip RCS amplitudes

  16. Asymmetric dark matter, baryon asymmetry and lepton number violation

    OpenAIRE

    Frandsen, Mads T.; Hagedorn, Claudia; Huang, Wei-Chih; Molinaro, Emiliano; Päs, Heinrich

    2018-01-01

    We study the effect of lepton number violation (LNV) on baryon asymmetry, generated in the early Universe, in the presence of a dark sector with a global symmetry U(1)X , featuring asymmetric dark matter (ADM). We show that in general LNV, observable at the LHC or in neutrinoless double beta decay experiments, cannot wash out a baryon asymmetry generated at higher scales, unlike in scenarios without such dark sector. An observation of LNV at the TeV scale may thus support ADM scenarios. Consi...

  17. Transmembrane amyloid-related proteins in CSF as potential biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada eLopez-Font

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the continuing search for new cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease (AD, reasonable candidates are the secretase enzymes involved in the processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP, as well as the large proteolytic cleavage fragments sAPPα and sAPPβ. The enzymatic activities of some of these secretases, such as BACE1 and TACE, have been investigated as potential AD biomarkers, and it has been assumed that these activities present in human CSF result from the soluble truncated forms of the membrane-bound enzymes. However, we and others recently identified soluble forms of BACE1 and APP in CSF containing the intracellular domains, as well as the multi-pass transmembrane presenilin-1 (PS1 and other subunits of γ-secretase. We also review recent findings that suggest that most of these soluble transmembrane proteins could display self-association properties based on hydrophobic and/or ionic interactions leading to the formation of heteromeric complexes. The oligomerization state of these potential new biomarkers needs to be taken into consideration for assessing their real potential as CSF biomarkers for AD by adequate molecular tools.

  18. Transmembrane Inhibitor of RICTOR/mTORC2 in Hematopoietic Progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjun Lee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Central to cellular proliferative, survival, and metabolic responses is the serine/threonine kinase mTOR, which is activated in many human cancers. mTOR is present in distinct complexes that are either modulated by AKT (mTORC1 or are upstream and regulatory of it (mTORC2. Governance of mTORC2 activity is poorly understood. Here, we report a transmembrane molecule in hematopoietic progenitor cells that physically interacts with and inhibits RICTOR, an essential component of mTORC2. Upstream of mTORC2 (UT2 negatively regulates mTORC2 enzymatic activity, reducing AKTS473, PKCα, and NDRG1 phosphorylation and increasing FOXO transcriptional activity in an mTORC2-dependent manner. Modulating UT2 levels altered animal survival in a T cell acute lymphoid leukemia (T-ALL model that is known to be mTORC2 sensitive. These studies identify an inhibitory component upstream of mTORC2 in hematopoietic cells that can reduce mortality from NOTCH-induced T-ALL. A transmembrane inhibitor of mTORC2 may provide an attractive target to affect this critical cell regulatory pathway.

  19. Analysis of Light-Induced Transmembrane Ion Gradients and Membrane Potential in Photosystem I Proteoliposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennisi, Cristian P.; Greenbaum, Elias; Yoshida, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Photosystem I (PSI) complexes can support a light-driven electrochemical gradient for protons, which is the driving force for energy-conserving reactions across biological membranes. In this work, a computational model that enables a quantitative description of the light-induced proton gradients across the membrane of PSI proteoliposomes is presented. Using a set of electrodiffusion equations, a compartmental model of a vesicle suspended in aqueous medium was studied. The light-mediated proton movement was modeled as a single proton pumping step with backpressure of the electric potential. The model fits determinations of pH obtained from PSI proteoliposomes illuminated in the presence of mediators of cyclic electron transport. The model also allows analysis of the proton gradients in relation to the transmembrane ion fluxes and electric potential. Sensitivity analysis enabled a determination of the parameters that have greater influence on steady-state levels and onset/decay rates of transmembrane pH and electric potential. This model could be used as a tool for optimizing PSI proteoliposomes for photo-electrochemical applications.

  20. Transmembrane protein diffusion in gel-supported dual-leaflet membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Ying; Hill, Reghan J

    2014-11-18

    Tools to measure transmembrane-protein diffusion in lipid bilayer membranes have advanced in recent decades, providing a need for predictive theoretical models that account for interleaflet leaflet friction on tracer mobility. Here we address the fully three-dimensional flows driven by a (nonprotruding) transmembrane protein embedded in a dual-leaflet membrane that is supported above and below by soft porous supports (e.g., hydrogel or extracellular matrix), each of which has a prescribed permeability and solvent viscosity. For asymmetric configurations, i.e., supports with contrasting permeability, as realized for cells in contact with hydrogel scaffolds or culture media, the diffusion coefficient can reflect interleaflet friction. Reasonable approximations, for sufficiently large tracers on low-permeability supports, are furnished by a recent phenomenological theory from the literature. Interpreting literature data, albeit for hard-supported membranes, provides a theoretical basis for the phenomenological Stokes drag law as well as strengthening assertions that nonhydrodynamic interactions are important in supported bilayer systems, possibly leading to overestimates of the membrane/leaflet viscosity. Our theory provides a theoretical foundation for future experimental studies of tracer diffusion in gel-supported membranes.

  1. Substrate-modulated unwinding of transmembrane helices in the NSS transporter LeuT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Patrick S; Gotfryd, Kamil; Cuendet, Michel A; Leth-Espensen, Katrine Z; Gether, Ulrik; Loland, Claus J; Rand, Kasper D

    2018-05-01

    LeuT, a prokaryotic member of the neurotransmitter:sodium symporter (NSS) family, is an established structural model for mammalian NSS counterparts. We investigate the substrate translocation mechanism of LeuT by measuring the solution-phase structural dynamics of the transporter in distinct functional states by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS). Our HDX-MS data pinpoint LeuT segments involved in substrate transport and reveal for the first time a comprehensive and detailed view of the dynamics associated with transition of the transporter between outward- and inward-facing configurations in a Na + - and K + -dependent manner. The results suggest that partial unwinding of transmembrane helices 1/5/6/7 drives LeuT from a substrate-bound, outward-facing occluded conformation toward an inward-facing open state. These hitherto unknown, large-scale conformational changes in functionally important transmembrane segments, observed for LeuT in detergent-solubilized form and when embedded in a native-like phospholipid bilayer, could be of physiological relevance for the translocation process.

  2. Monolayer freeze-fracture autoradiography: quantitative analysis of the transmembrane distribution of radioiodinated concanavalin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    The technique of monolayer freeze-fracture autoradiography (MONOFARG) has been developed and the principles, quantitation, and application of the method are described. Cell monolayers attached to polylysine-treated glass were freeze-fractured, shadowed, and coated with dry, Parlodion-supported Ilford L4 photographic emulsion at room temperature. Quantitative aspects of MONOFARG were examined using radioiodinated test systems. Background was routinely -4 grains/μm 2 /day, the highest overall efficiency was between 25% and 45%, and grain density and efficiency were dependent on radiation dose for iodine-125 and D-19 development. Corrected grain densities were linearly proportional to iodine-125 concentration. The method was applied to an examination of the transmembrane distribution of radioiodinated and fluoresceinated concanavalin A ( 125 I-FITC-Con-A). Human erythrocytes were labeled, column-purified, freeze-dried or freeze-fractured, autoradiographed, and examined by electron microscopy. The number of silver grains per square micrometer of unsplit single membrane was essentially identical to that of split extracellular membrane halves. These data demonstrate that 125 I-FITC-Con-A partitions exclusively with the extracellular half of the membrane upon freeze-fracturing and can be used as a quantitative marker for the fraction of extracellular split membrane halves. This method should be able to provide new information about certain transmembrane properties of biological membrane molecules and probes, as well as about the process of freeze-fracture per se

  3. Nanoporous microbead supported bilayers: stability, physical characterization, and incorporation of functional transmembrane proteins.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan W. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Brozik, James A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Brozik, Susan Marie; Cox, Jason M. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Lopez, Gabriel P. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Barrick, Todd A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Flores, Adrean (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-03-01

    The introduction of functional transmembrane proteins into supported bilayer-based biomimetic systems presents a significant challenge for biophysics. Among the various methods for producing supported bilayers, liposomal fusion offers a versatile method for the introduction of membrane proteins into supported bilayers on a variety of substrates. In this study, the properties of protein containing unilamellar phosphocholine lipid bilayers on nanoporous silica microspheres are investigated. The effects of the silica substrate, pore structure, and the substrate curvature on the stability of the membrane and the functionality of the membrane protein are determined. Supported bilayers on porous silica microspheres show a significant increase in surface area on surfaces with structures in excess of 10 nm as well as an overall decrease in stability resulting from increasing pore size and curvature. Comparison of the liposomal and detergent-mediated introduction of purified bacteriorhodopsin (bR) and the human type 3 serotonin receptor (5HT3R) are investigated focusing on the resulting protein function, diffusion, orientation, and incorporation efficiency. In both cases, functional proteins are observed; however, the reconstitution efficiency and orientation selectivity are significantly enhanced through detergent-mediated protein reconstitution. The results of these experiments provide a basis for bulk ionic and fluorescent dye-based compartmentalization assays as well as single-molecule optical and single-channel electrochemical interrogation of transmembrane proteins in a biomimetic platform.

  4. Impact of axial velocity and transmembrane pressure (TMP) on ARP filter performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-29

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Recently, the low filter flux through the ARP of approximately 5 gallons per minute has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Salt Batch 6 had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. One potential method for increasing filter flux is to adjust the axial velocity and transmembrane pressure (TMP). SRR requested SRNL to conduct bench-scale filter tests to evaluate the effects of axial velocity and transmembrane pressure on crossflow filter flux. The objective of the testing was to determine whether increasing the axial velocity at the ARP could produce a significant increase in filter flux. The authors conducted the tests by preparing slurries containing 6.6 M sodium Salt Batch 6 supernate and 2.5 g MST/L, processing the slurry through a bench-scale crossflow filter unit at varying axial velocity and TMP, and measuring filter flux as a function of time.

  5. Different transport behaviors of NH4 (+) and NH3 in transmembrane cyclic peptide nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingming; Fan, Jianfen; Xu, Jian; Weng, Peipei; Lin, Huifang

    2016-10-01

    Two water-filled transmembrane cyclic peptide nanotubes (CPNTs) of 8×cyclo-(WL)n=4,5/POPE were chosen to investigate the dependences of the transport properties of the positive NH4 (+) and neutral NH3 on the channel radius. Molecular dynamic simulations revealed that molecular charge, size, ability to form H-bonds and channel radius all significantly influence the behaviors of NH4 (+) and NH3 in a CPNT. Higher electrostatic interactions, more H-bonds, and water-bridges were found in the NH4 (+) system, resulting in NH4 (+) meeting higher energy barriers, while NH3 can enter, exit and permeate the channels effortlessly. This work sheds a first light on the differences between the mechanisms of NH4 (+) and NH3 moving in a CPNT at an atomic level. Graphical Abstract Snapshot of the simulation system of NH4 (+)_octa-CPNT with an NH4 (+) initially positioned at one mouth of the tube, PMF profiles for single NH4 (+) ion and NH3 molecule moving through water-filled transmembrane CPNTs of 8×cyclo-(WL)n=4,5/POPE and sketch graphs of the possible H-bond forms of NH3 and NH4 (+) with the neighboring water.

  6. Low rate doses effects of gamma radiation on glycoproteins of transmembrane junctions in fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringas, J.E.; Caceres, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Glycoproteins of trans-membrane junctions are molecules that help to bind cells with the extracellular matrix. Integrins are the most important trans-membrane molecules among others. The damage of gamma radiation on those proteins could be an important early event that causes membrane abnormalities which may lead to cell malfunction and cancer induced by radiation due to cell dissociation. Randomized blocks with 3 repetitions of mouse embryo fibroblast cultures, were irradiated with Cobalt-60 gamma rays, during 20 days. Biological damage to glycoproteins and integrins was evaluated by cellular growth and fibroblast proliferative capacity. Integrins damage was studied by isolation by column immunoaffinity chromatography migrated on SDS-Page under reducing and non reducing conditions, and inhibition of integrins extracellular matrix adhesion by monoclonal antibodies effect. The dose/rate (0.05 Gy/day-0.2 Gy/day) of gamma given to cells did not show damage evidence on glycoproteins and integrins. If damage happened, it was repaired by cells very soon, was delayed by continuous cellular division or by glycoproteins characteristic of being multiple extracellular ligatures. Bio effects became more evident with an irradiation time greater than 20 days or a high dose/rate. (authors). 6 refs

  7. Requirement of transmembrane domain for CD154 association to lipid rafts and subsequent biological events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir Benslimane

    Full Text Available Interaction of CD40 with CD154 leads to recruitment of both molecules into lipid rafts, resulting in bi-directional cell activation. The precise mechanism by which CD154 is translocated into lipid rafts and its impact on CD154 signaling remain largely unknown. Our aim is to identify the domain of CD154 facilitating its association to lipid rafts and the impact of such association on signaling events and cytokine production. Thus, we generated Jurkat cell lines expressing truncated CD154 lacking the cytoplasmic domain or chimeric CD154 in which the transmembrane domain was replaced by that of transferrin receptor I, known to be excluded from lipid rafts. Our results show that cell stimulation with soluble CD40 leads to the association of CD154 wild-type and CD154-truncated, but not CD154-chimera, with lipid rafts. This is correlated with failure of CD154-chimera to activate Akt and p38 MAP kinases, known effectors of CD154 signaling. We also found that CD154-chimera lost the ability to promote IL-2 production upon T cell stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 and soluble CD40. These results demonstrate the implication of the transmembrane domain of CD154 in lipid raft association, and that this association is necessary for CD154-mediated Akt and p38 activation with consequent enhancement of IL-2 production.

  8. Transmembrane signal transduction by peptide hormones via family B G protein-coupled receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J Culhane

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although family B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs contain only 15 members, they play key roles in transmembrane signal transduction of hormones. Family B GPCRs are drug targets for developing therapeutics for diseases ranging from metabolic to neurological disorders. Despite their importance, the molecular mechanism of activation of family B GPCRs remains largely unexplored due to the challenges in expression and purification of functional receptors to the quantity for biophysical characterization. Currently, there is no crystal structure available of a full-length family B GPCR. However, structures of key domains, including the extracellular ligand binding regions and seven-helical transmembrane regions, have been solved by X-ray crystallography and NMR, providing insights into the mechanisms of ligand recognition and selectivity, and helical arrangements within the cell membrane. Moreover, biophysical and biochemical methods have been used to explore functions, key residues for signaling, and the kinetics and dynamics of signaling processes. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the signal transduction mechanism of family B GPCRs at the molecular level and comments on the challenges and outlook for mechanistic studies of family B GPCRs.

  9. Role of the vaccinia virus O3 protein in cell entry can be fulfilled by its Sequence flexible transmembrane domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satheshkumar, P.S.; Chavre, James; Moss, Bernard, E-mail: bmoss@nih.gov

    2013-09-15

    The vaccinia virus O3 protein, a component of the entry–fusion complex, is encoded by all chordopoxviruses. We constructed truncation mutants and demonstrated that the transmembrane domain, which comprises two-thirds of this 35 amino acid protein, is necessary and sufficient for interaction with the entry–fusion complex and function in cell entry. Nevertheless, neither single amino acid substitutions nor alanine scanning mutagenesis revealed essential amino acids within the transmembrane domain. Moreover, replication-competent mutant viruses were generated by randomization of 10 amino acids of the transmembrane domain. Of eight unique viruses, two contained only two amino acids in common with wild type and the remainder contained one or none within the randomized sequence. Although these mutant viruses formed normal size plaques, the entry–fusion complex did not co-purify with the mutant O3 proteins suggesting a less stable interaction. Thus, despite low specific sequence requirements, the transmembrane domain is sufficient for function in entry. - Highlights: • The 35 amino acid O3 protein is required for efficient vaccinia virus entry. • The transmembrane domain of O3 is necessary and sufficient for entry. • Mutagenesis demonstrated extreme sequence flexibility compatible with function.

  10. Measurement and genetics of human subcortical and hippocampal asymmetries in large datasets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guadalupe, T.M.; Zwiers, M.P.; Teumer, A.; Wittfeld, K.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Hoogman, M.; Hagoort, P.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Hegenscheid, K.; Volzke, H.; Franke, B.; Fisher, S.E.; Grabe, H.J.; Francks, C.

    2014-01-01

    Functional and anatomical asymmetries are prevalent features of the human brain, linked to gender, handedness, and cognition. However, little is known about the neurodevelopmental processes involved. In zebrafish, asymmetries arise in the diencephalon before extending within the central nervous

  11. Prevention of Potential Falls of Elderly Healthy Women: Gait Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jung-suk; Kim, Sukwon

    2014-01-01

    The study attempted to see if exercise training would alleviate gait asymmetry between nondominant and dominant legs, thus, eliminate the likelihood of slips. The present study provided 18 older adults exercise training for eight weeks and evaluated kinematics and ground reaction forces (GRFs) in both legs. Participants were randomly assigned to…

  12. Study of the s - s bar asymmetry in the proton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goharipour, Muhammad

    2018-05-01

    The study of s - s bar asymmetry is essential to better understand of the structure of nucleon and also the perturbative and nonperturbative mechanisms for sea quark generation. Actually, the nature and dynamical origins of this asymmetry have always been an interesting subject to research both experimentally and theoretically. One of the most powerful models can lead to s - s bar asymmetry is the meson-baryon model (MBM). In this work, using a simplified configuration of this model suggested by Pumplin, we calculate the s - s bar asymmetry for different values of cutoff parameter Λ, to study the dependence of model to this parameter and also to estimate the theoretical uncertainty imposed on the results due to its uncertainty. Then, we study the evolution of distributions obtained both at next-to-leading order (NLO) and next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) using different evolution schemes. It is shown that the evolution of the intrinsic quark distributions from a low initial scale, as suggested by Chang and Pang, is not a good choice at NNLO using variable flavor number scheme (VFNS).

  13. Age-Related Differences in Bilateral Asymmetry in Cycling Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Jensen, Jody L.

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral asymmetry, a form of limb laterality in the context of moving two limbs, emerges in childhood. Children and adults show lateral preference in tasks that involve the upper and lower limbs. The importance of research in limb laterality is the insight it could provide about lateralized functions of the cerebral hemispheres. Analyzing…

  14. On the conception of fundamental time asymmetries in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlfarth, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The investigation is divided in 7 chapters and aims to argue for the realizability of a new conception of 'fundamental time asymmetries' in physics. After an introduction (chapter 1) in the field of interest, the investigation continues by developing a conception of fundamentality for time asymmetries in chapter 2. Chapter 3 shows that this conception is realized in classical cosmology and chapter 4 demonstrates, by taking in to account the result from chapter 3, that classical electrodynamics is understandable as a time asymmetric theory. Chapter 5 focuses on time asymmetries in quantum cosmology as well as quantum thermodynamics and demonstrates - as in the classical case - that a fundamental time asymmetry is imbedded in those fields. The considerations, contained in chapter 6, are focused on non relativistic quantum mechanics (NRQM). Here the main aim is to demonstrate that NRQM can be understood as a time asymmetric theory - even without using the measurement-process for that purpose. Chapter 7 summarized the main arguments and conclusions.

  15. Sex-specific asymmetry in eye development in interspecific hybrids ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 94; Issue 3. Sex-specific asymmetry in eye development in interspecific hybrids in the Drosophila bipectinata species complex. Bashisth N. Singh Parul Banerjee. Research Note Volume 94 Issue 3 September 2015 pp 493-495 ...

  16. Nonlinear growth dynamics and the origin of fluctuating asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emlen, J.M.; Freeman, D.C.; Graham, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    The nonlinear, complex nature of biosynthesis magnifies the impacts of small, random perturbations on organism growth, leading to distortions in adaptive allometries and, in particular, to fluctuating asymmetry. These distortions can be partly checked by cell-cell and inter-body part feedback during growth and development, though the latter mechanism also may lead to complex patterns in right-left asymmetry. Stress can be expected to increase the degree to which random growth perturbations are magnified and may also result in disruption of the check mechanisms, thus exaggerating fluctuating asymmetry.The processes described not only provide one explanation for the existence of fluctuating asymmetry and its augmentation under stress, but suggest additional effects of stress as well. Specifically, stress is predicted to lead to decreased fractal dimension of bone sutures and branching structures in animals, and in increased dimension of growth trace patterns such as those found in mollusc shells and fish otoliths and scales.A basic yet broad primer on fractals and chaos is provided as background for the theoretical development in this manuscript.

  17. Comparing Neutron Star Kicks to Supernova Remnant Asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland-Ashford, Tyler; Lopez, Laura A. [The Ohio State University Department of Astronomy, 140 W 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43201 (United States); Auchettl, Katie [The Ohio State University Center for Cosmology and Astro-particle Physics, 191 West Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Temim, Tea [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico, E-mail: holland-ashford.1@osu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2017-07-20

    Supernova explosions are inherently asymmetric and can accelerate new-born neutron stars (NSs) to hundreds of km s{sup −1}. Two prevailing theories to explain NS kicks are ejecta asymmetries (e.g., conservation of momentum between NS and ejecta) and anisotropic neutrino emission. Observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) can give us insights into the mechanism that generates these NS kicks. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between NS kick velocities and the X-ray morphologies of 18 SNRs observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Röntgen Satellite ( ROSAT ). We measure SNR asymmetries using the power-ratio method (a multipole expansion technique), focusing on the dipole, quadrupole, and octupole power ratios. Our results show no correlation between the magnitude of the power ratios and NS kick velocities, but we find that for Cas A and G292.0+1.8, whose emission traces the ejecta distribution, their NSs are preferentially moving opposite to the bulk of the X-ray emission. In addition, we find a similar result for PKS 1209–51, CTB 109, and Puppis A; however, their emission is dominated by circumstellar/interstellar material, so their asymmetries may not reflect their ejecta distributions. Our results are consistent with the theory that NS kicks are a consequence of ejecta asymmetries as opposed to anisotropic neutrino emission. In the future, additional observations to measure NS proper motions within ejecta-dominated SNRs are necessary to robustly constrain the NS kick mechanism.

  18. Neutrino-antineutrino asymmetry around rotating black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    important effects and hence can be constrained by Big Bang nucleosynthesis and power spectrum of cosmic microwave background, it becomes an important issue by itself to study new mechanisms which can generate neutrino asymmetry specially in the present epoch. When Dirac neutrinos propagate in gravitational ...

  19. Isospin analysis of CP asymmetries in B decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronau, M.; London, D.

    1990-09-01

    There is some theoretical uncertainty in the predictions for CP violating hadronic asymmetries in neutral B decays to CP eigenstates due to the existence of penguin diagrams. Using isospin relatins, we show that it is possible to remove this uncertainty for the decays B d 0 → ππ, up to a 4-fold ambiguity. (orig.)

  20. Baryon - antibaryon asymmetry in central rapidity region at LHC ALICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broz, M.

    2008-01-01

    Study of asymmetry in number of baryons and antibaryons in central rapidity region is important for clarification of baryon number carriers character. Effect we are interested in is small, can be hidden by systematical processes of particle track reconstruction and identification. To make corrections on these effects is the aim of this thesis. (author)

  1. On the conception of fundamental time asymmetries in physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlfarth, Daniel

    2013-02-05

    The investigation is divided in 7 chapters and aims to argue for the realizability of a new conception of 'fundamental time asymmetries' in physics. After an introduction (chapter 1) in the field of interest, the investigation continues by developing a conception of fundamentality for time asymmetries in chapter 2. Chapter 3 shows that this conception is realized in classical cosmology and chapter 4 demonstrates, by taking in to account the result from chapter 3, that classical electrodynamics is understandable as a time asymmetric theory. Chapter 5 focuses on time asymmetries in quantum cosmology as well as quantum thermodynamics and demonstrates - as in the classical case - that a fundamental time asymmetry is imbedded in those fields. The considerations, contained in chapter 6, are focused on non relativistic quantum mechanics (NRQM). Here the main aim is to demonstrate that NRQM can be understood as a time asymmetric theory - even without using the measurement-process for that purpose. Chapter 7 summarized the main arguments and conclusions.

  2. Memory Asymmetry of Forward and Backward Associations in Recognition Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiongjiong; Zhao, Peng; Zhu, Zijian; Mecklinger, Axel; Fang, Zhiyong; Li, Han

    2013-01-01

    There is an intensive debate on whether memory for serial order is symmetric. The objective of this study was to explore whether associative asymmetry is modulated by memory task (recognition vs. cued recall). Participants were asked to memorize word triples (Experiments 1-2) or pairs (Experiments 3-6) during the study phase. They then recalled…

  3. Antinatalism, Asymmetry, and an Ethic of Prima Facie Duties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benatar's central argument for antinatalism develops an asymmetry between the pain and pleasure in a potential life. I am going to present an alternative route to the antinatalist conclusion. I argue that duties require victims and that as a result there is no duty to create the pleasures contained within a prospective life but a ...

  4. Double spin asymmetry in exclusive rho(0) muoproduction at COMPASS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alekseev, M.; Alexakhin, V. Yu.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Arbuzov, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, J.; Baum, G.; Barth, J.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernet, C.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Brona, G.; Burtin, E.; Bussa, M.; Chapiro, A.; Chiosso, M.; Cicuttin, A.; Colantoni, M.; Costa, S.; Crespo, M.; d'Hose, N.; Dalla Torre, S.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; De Masi, R.; Dedek, N.; Denisov, O.; Dhara, L.; Diaz, V.; Dinkelbach, A.; Donskov, S.; Dorofeev, V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Eversheim, P.; Eyrich, W.; Fabro, M.; Faessler, M.; Falaleev, V.; Ferrero, A.; Ferrero, L.; Finger, M.; Finger jr., M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, J.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.; Gazda, R.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorin, A. M.; Grabmüller, S.; Grajek, O.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hannappel, J.; von Harrach, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Heckmann, J.; Hedicke, S.; Heinsius, F.; Hermann, R.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; von Hodenberg, M.; Horikawa, N.; Horikawa, S.; Ilgner, C.; Ioukaev, A.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Janata, A.; Jasinski, P.; Joosten, R.; Jouravlev, N. I.; Kabuss, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.; Khokhlov, Y.; Kisselev, Y.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.; Kolosov, V.; Komissarov, E.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.; Korentchenko, A.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.; Koutchinski, N.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kravchuk, N.; Kral, A.; Kroumchtein, Z.; Kuhn, R.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Ladygin, M.; Lamanna, M.; Le Goff, J.; Lednev, A.; Lehmann, A.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Ludwig, I.; Maggiora, A.; Maggiora, M.; Magnon, A.; Mallot, G.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Marroncle, J.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Massmann, F.; Matsuda, T.; Maximov, A.; Meyer, W.; Mielech, A.; Mikhailov, Y.; Moinester, M.; Mutter, M.; Nähle, O.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nassalski, J.; Neliba, S.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nikolaev, K.; Olshevsky, A.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Pagano, P.; Panebianco, S.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Paul, S.; Pawlukiewicz-Kaminska, B.; Peshekhonov, D.; Peshekhonov, V.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.; Pretz, J.; Procureur, S.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.; Rapatsky, V.; Ramos, S.; Reicherz, G.; Richter, A.; Robinet, F.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Rozhdestvensky, A.; Ryabchikov, D.; Samoylenko, V.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, H.; Sapozhnikov, M.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schmitt, L.; Schönmeier, P.; Schröder, W.; Shevchenko, O.; Siebert, H.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Sugonyaev, V.; Srnka, Aleš; Stinzing, F.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Takabayashi, N.; Tchalishev, V.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Tkatchev, L.; Venugopal, G.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.; Vossen, A.; Webb, R.; Weise, E.; Weitzel, Q.; Windmolders, R.; Wirth, S.; Wislicki, W.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhao, J.; Ziegler, R.; Zvyagin, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 2 (2007), s. 255-265 ISSN 1434-6044 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 492 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : double spin asymmetry * polarized deuterons * scattering * COMPASS Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.255, year: 2007

  5. Asymmetry in the Perception of Friendship in Students Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancieri, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Several studies point out the link between sociability and academic results. In this paper, we highlight a phenomenon of asymmetry in the perception of friendship. This occurs when a student think he has more or less friends than he really has. We present an experimental method that allows us to analyze this question in relation with the academic…

  6. Asymmetry in Nature-Discrete Symmetries in Particle Physics and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 3. Asymmetry in Nature - Discrete Symmetries in Particle Physics and their Violation - Background and ... Theoretical Studies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India. Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai. Aligarh Muslim University.

  7. Handling power-asymmetry in interactions with infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2013-01-01

    socio-cultural communities deal with power asymmetry in interactions with 3-months old infants. The study consists of a microanalysis of videotaped free play mother-infant interactions from 20 middle class families in Muenster, Germany and 20 traditional farming Nso families in Kikaikelaki, Cameroon...

  8. A New Measure Of Bivariate Asymmetry And Its Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Flavio Henn; Kolev, Nikolai Valtchev

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new measure of bivariate asymmetry, based on conditional correlation coefficients. A decomposition of the Pearson correlation coefficient in terms of its conditional versions is studied and an example of application of the proposed measure is given.

  9. Determining asymmetry of roll-over shapes in prosthetic walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtze, C.; Otten, Bert; Hof, A.L.; Postema, K.

    2011-01-01

    How does the inherent asymmetry of the locomotor system in people with lower-limb amputation affect the ankle-foot roll-over shape of prosthetic walking? In a single-case design, we evaluated the walking patterns of six people with lower-limb amputation (3 transtibial and 3 transfemoral) and three

  10. Network Asymmetries and Access Pricing in Cellular Telecommunications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Kocsis

    2005-01-01

    textabstractNetwork shares and retail prices are not symmetric in the telecommunications market with multiple bottlenecks which give rise to new questions of access fee regulation. In this paper we consider a model with two types of asymmetry arising from different entry timing, i.e. a larger

  11. Beta asymmetry parameter in the decay of In-114

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wauters, F.; De Leebeeck, V.; Kraev, I.; Tandecki, M.; Traykov, E.; Van Gorp, S.; Severijns, N.; Zákoucký, Dalibor

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 6 (2009), 062501/1-062501/5 ISSN 0556-2813 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : beta decay * left -right asymmetry * nuclear oreintation Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.477, year: 2009

  12. Critical asymmetry in renormalization group theory for fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Wu, Liang; Wang, Long; Li, Liyan; Cai, Jun

    2013-06-21

    The renormalization-group (RG) approaches for fluids are employed to investigate critical asymmetry of vapour-liquid equilibrium (VLE) of fluids. Three different approaches based on RG theory for fluids are reviewed and compared. RG approaches are applied to various fluid systems: hard-core square-well fluids of variable ranges, hard-core Yukawa fluids, and square-well dimer fluids and modelling VLE of n-alkane molecules. Phase diagrams of simple model fluids and alkanes described by RG approaches are analyzed to assess the capability of describing the VLE critical asymmetry which is suggested in complete scaling theory. Results of thermodynamic properties obtained by RG theory for fluids agree with the simulation and experimental data. Coexistence diameters, which are smaller than the critical densities, are found in the RG descriptions of critical asymmetries of several fluids. Our calculation and analysis show that the approach coupling local free energy with White's RG iteration which aims to incorporate density fluctuations into free energy is not adequate for VLE critical asymmetry due to the inadequate order parameter and the local free energy functional used in the partition function.

  13. Asymmetry of critical closing pressure following head injury

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, A; Schmidt, E; Hiler, M; Smielewski, P; Pickard, J; Czosnyka, M

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Critical closing pressure (CCP) is the arterial pressure below which the vessels collapse. Hypothetically it is the sum of intracranial pressure (ICP) and vessel wall tension in the cerebral circulation. This study investigated transhemispherical asymmetry of CCP by studying its correlation with radiological findings on computed tomography (CT) scans in head injury patients.

  14. Toroidal asymmetries in divertor impurity influxes in NSTX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Scotti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Toroidal asymmetries in divertor carbon and lithium influxes were observed in NSTX, due to toroidal differences in surface composition, tile leading edges, externally-applied three-dimensional (3D fields and toroidally-localized edge plasma modifications due to radio frequency heating. Understanding toroidal asymmetries in impurity influxes is critical for the evaluation of total impurity sources, often inferred from measurements with a limited toroidal coverage. The toroidally-asymmetric lithium deposition induced asymmetries in divertor lithium influxes. Enhanced impurity influxes at the leading edge of divertor tiles were the main cause of carbon toroidal asymmetries and were enhanced during edge localized modes. Externally-applied 3D fields led to strike point splitting and helical lobes observed in divertor impurity emission, but marginal changes to the toroidally-averaged impurity influxes. Power coupled to the scrape-off layer SOL plasma during radio frequency (RF heating of H-mode discharges enhanced impurity influxes along the non-axisymmetric divertor footprint of flux tubes connecting to plasma in front of the RF antenna.

  15. [Management of Chinese materia medica market based on information asymmetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Nuo; Guo, Lan-Ping; Wang, Yong-Yan; Huang, Lu-Qi; Liu, Jin-Xin

    2013-12-01

    Pharmaceutical market is a typical market with information asymmetry, and which can lead to "lemons" problem. In all developed countries, firms must receive regulatory approval to market a pharmaceutical product. Such administrative department including SFDA, EMA, FDA and so on. Chinese materia medica is a special part of pharmaceutical market in China. The management of Chinese materia medica is a special challenge in China.

  16. Asymmetry of wind waves studied in a laboratory tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Leykin

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetry of wind waves was studied in laboratory tank tinder varied wind and fetch conditions using both bispectral analysis of wave records and third-order statistics of the surface elevation. It is found skewness S (the normalized third-order moment of surface elevation describing the horizontal asymmetry waves varies only slightly with the inverse wave u*/Cm (where u* is the air friction velocity and Cm is phase speed of the dominant waves. At the same time asymmetry A, which is determined from the Hilbert transform of the wave record and characterizes the skewness of the rate of change of surface elevation, increase consistently in magnitude with the ratio u*/Cm. This suggests that nonlinear distortion of the wave profile determined by the degree of wind forcing and is a sensitive indicator of wind-wave interaction processes. It is shown that the asymmetric profile of waves can described within the frameworks of the nonlinear nonspectral concept (Plate, 1972; Lake and Yuen, 197 according to which the wind-wave field can be represented as a coherent bound-wave system consisting mainly of dominant component w. and its harmonics propagating with the same speed C. , as observed by Ramamonjiaris and Coantic (1976. The phase shift between o. harmonics is found and shown to increase with the asymmetry of the waves.

  17. Asymmetry of wind waves studied in a laboratory tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ileykin, L. A.; Donelan, M. A.; Mellen, R. H.; McLaughlin, D. J.

    1995-03-01

    Asymmetry of wind waves was studied in laboratory tank tinder varied wind and fetch conditions using both bispectral analysis of wave records and third-order statistics of the surface elevation. It is found skewness S (the normalized third-order moment of surface elevation describing the horizontal asymmetry waves) varies only slightly with the inverse wave u*/Cm (where u* is the air friction velocity and Cm is phase speed of the dominant waves). At the same time asymmetry A, which is determined from the Hilbert transform of the wave record and characterizes the skewness of the rate of change of surface elevation, increase consistently in magnitude with the ratio u*/Cm. This suggests that nonlinear distortion of the wave profile determined by the degree of wind forcing and is a sensitive indicator of wind-wave interaction processes. It is shown that the asymmetric profile of waves can described within the frameworks of the nonlinear nonspectral concept (Plate, 1972; Lake and Yuen, 197 according to which the wind-wave field can be represented as a coherent bound-wave system consisting mainly of dominant component w. and its harmonics propagating with the same speed C. , as observed by Ramamonjiaris and Coantic (1976). The phase shift between o). harmonics is found and shown to increase with the asymmetry of the waves.

  18. Asymmetry and the shift of the Compton profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, B.K.; Roy, S.C.; Suric, T.; LaJohn, L.A.; Pratt, R.H.

    2007-01-01

    We show that the conventionally defined asymmetry of the Compton profile (CP) is, to a large extent, simply a shift of CP. Compton scattering is widely used in studying the electron momentum distribution (EMD) of complex systems. Extraction of information about the EMD is based on an impulse approximation (IA) description of the process. In IA the scattering from bound electrons is described as scattering from the EMD of free electrons. Most often the angular and energy distributions of scattered photons (doubly differential cross sections (DDCS)) is measured and presented in terms of CP, which is just the DDCS normalized by a kinematical factor. The deviations of measured CP from the IA results are conventionally described as an asymmetry of CP about the IA peak position. IA predicts CP to be symmetric. We have examined the discrepancy between IA predictions (and the corresponding relativistic version of IA, RIA) and more rigorous approaches (A 2 and S-matrix), using independent particle approximations for the description of the bound state of electrons. In the nonrelativistic region (in which many measurements of CP are performed) we find that the conventional asymmetry can largely be understood as the shift of the peak position. The true asymmetry with respect to the shifted peak position is in fact much smaller. RIA has similar properties to IA, except that for atoms with high nuclear charge the p → .A → interaction may modify the shift and limit the utility of description as a shift

  19. The Matter-Antimatter Asymmetry of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    I will give here an overview of the present observational and theoretical situation regarding the question of the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe and the related question of the existence of antimatter on a cosmological scale. I will also give a simple discussion of the role of CP (charge conjugation parity) violation in this subject.

  20. The relation between electroencephalogram asymmetry and attention biases to threat at baseline and under stress

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Kujawa, Autumn; Nelson, S. Katherine; Cole, Claire; Zapp, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry in the alpha frequency band has been implicated in emotion processing and broad approach-withdrawal motivation systems. Questions remain regarding the cognitive mechanisms that may help elucidate the observed links between EEG asymmetry and patterns of socioemotional functioning. The current study observed frontal EEG asymmetry patterns at rest and under social threat among young adults (N=45, M=21.1 years). Asymmetries were, in turn, associated with perfo...

  1. An optimal method of moments to measure the charge asymmetry at the Z0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruemmer, N.C.

    1994-02-01

    Parity violation at LEP or SLC can be measured through the charge asymmetry. An optimal method of moments is developed here to measure this asymmetry, as well as similar asymmetries. This method is equivalent to the likelihood fit. It is simpler in use, as it gives analytical formulas for both the asymmetry and its statistical error. These formulas give the dependence of the accuracy on the experimental angular acceptance explicitly. (orig.)

  2. Communication Apprehension and Resting Alpha Range Asymmetry in the Anterior Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Michael J.; Heisel, Alan D.; Lewis, Robert J.; Pence, Michelle E.; Reinhart, Amber; Tian, Yan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between trait-like communication apprehension (CA) and resting alpha range asymmetry in the anterior cortex (AC). Although theory and research in cognitive neuroscience suggest that asymmetry in the AC constitutes a relatively stable, inborn, substrate of emotion, some studies indicate that asymmetry can…

  3. A Statistical Model of Head Asymmetry in Infants with Deformational Plagiocephaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanche, Stéphanie; Darvann, Tron Andre; Ólafsdóttir, Hildur

    2007-01-01

    Deformational plagiocephaly is a term describing cranial asymmetry and deformation commonly seen in infants. The purpose of this work was to develop a methodology for assessment and modelling of head asymmetry. The clinical population consisted of 38 infants for whom 3-dimensional surface scans...... quantitative description of the asymmetry present in the dataset....

  4. Collins and Sivers asymmetries for pions and kaons in muon-deuteron DIS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alekseev, M.; Alexakhin, V. Yu.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Arbuzov, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, J.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernet, C.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Brona, G.; Burtin, E.; Bussa, M.; Chapiro, A.; Chiosso, M.; Cicuttin, A.; Colantoni, M.; Costa, S.; Crespo, M.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dafni, T.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; De Masi, R.; Dedek, N.; Denisov, O.; Dhara, L.; Diaz, V.; Dinkelbach, A.; Donskov, S.; Dorofeev, V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Efremov, A.V.; Eversheim, P.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Falaleev, V.; Ferrero, A.; Ferrero, L.; Finger, M.; Finger jr., M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, J.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.; Gazda, R.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorin, A.; Grabmüller, S.; Grajek, O.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hannappel, J.; von Harrach, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Heckmann, J.; Hedicke, S.; Heinsius, F.; Hermann, R.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; von Hodenberg, M.; Horikawa, N.; Horikawa, S.; d'Hose, N.; Ilgner, C.; Ioukaev, A.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Janata, A.; Jasinski, P.; Joosten, R.; Jouravlev, N. I.; Kabuss, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.; Khokhlov, Y.; Kisselev, Y.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.; Kolosov, V.; Komissarov, E.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.; Korentchenko, A.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.; Koutchinski, N.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kral, A.; Kravchuk, N.; Kroumchtein, Z.; Kuhn, R.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Ladygin, M.; Lamanna, M.; Le Goff, J.; Lednev, A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Ludwig, I.; Maggiora, A.; Maggiora, M.; Magnon, A.; Mallot, G.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Marroncle, J.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Massmann, F.; Matsuda, T.; Maximov, A.; Meyer, W.; Mielech, A.; Mikhailov, Y.; Moinester, M.; Mutter, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nähle, O.; Nassalski, J.; Neliba, S.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nikolaev, K.; Olshevsky, A.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Pagano, P.; Panebianco, S.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Paul, S.; Pawlukiewicz-Kaminska, B.; Pesaro, G.; Peshekhonov, D.; Peshekhonov, V.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.; Pretz, J.; Procureur, S.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Reggiani, D.; Richter, A.; Robinet, F.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Rozhdestvensky, A.; Ryabchikov, D.; Samoylenko, V.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, H.; Sapozhnikov, M.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schmitt, L.; Schönmeier, P.; Schröder, W.; Shevchenko, O.; Siebert, H.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, Aleš; Stinzing, F.; Stolarski, M.; Sugonyaev, V.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Tchalishev, V.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Tkatchev, L.; Venugopal, G.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.; Vossen, A.; Webb, R.; Weise, E.; Weitzel, Q.; Windmolders, R.; Wirth, S.; Wislicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhao, J.; Ziegler, R.; Zvyagin, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 673, č. 2 (2009), s. 127-135 ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 492 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : deuteron * transverse single-spin asymmetry * identified hadrons * Collins asymmetry * Sivers asymmetry Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 5.083, year: 2009

  5. Observation of strong azimuthal asymmetry between slow and fast particles from high energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, H.A.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Kolb, B.; Loehner, H.; Ludewigt, B.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Renner, T.; Riedesel, H.; Ritter, H.G.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Stepaniak, J.; Warwick, A.; Wieman, H.

    1984-10-01

    Evidence is presented for the strong azimuthal asymmetry between slow and fast fragments in nuclear collisions in the energy interval of 0.4 to 1 GeV per nucleon. The asymmetry gets stronger when incident energy and impact parameter decrease. The results on the A dependence of the azimuthal asymmetry are also presented. (orig.)

  6. Comparative characteristic of transmembrane currents and caffeine-induced responses of intact and irradiated small intestine smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, Yu.V.; Gordienko, D.V.; Preobrazhenskaya, T.D.; Stepanova, L.I.; Vojtsitskij, V.M.

    1994-01-01

    A comparative investigation of transmembrane ion currents and caffeine-induced responses of single smooth muscle cells isolated from the circular layer of rat small intestine was curried out by the method of 'patch-clamp'. No reliable difference in potential-dependent and amplitude-kinetic characteristics of transmembrane ion currents in cells of intact and irradiated with dose of 3 Gy rats was revealed. In cells of irradiated animals external application of caffeine (4 mM) was not accompanied by strong quick-inactivated transient Ca 2+ -dependent potassium current as in control

  7. Coordinated movement of cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains of RyR1 upon gating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Samsó

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1 produces spatially and temporally defined Ca2+ signals in several cell types. How signals received in the cytoplasmic domain are transmitted to the ion gate and how the channel gates are unknown. We used EGTA or neuroactive PCB 95 to stabilize the full closed or open states of RyR1. Single-channel measurements in the presence of FKBP12 indicate that PCB 95 inverts the thermodynamic stability of RyR1 and locks it in a long-lived open state whose unitary current is indistinguishable from the native open state. We analyzed two datasets of 15,625 and 18,527 frozen-hydrated RyR1-FKBP12 particles in the closed and open conformations, respectively, by cryo-electron microscopy. Their corresponding three-dimensional structures at 10.2 A resolution refine the structure surrounding the ion pathway previously identified in the closed conformation: two right-handed bundles emerging from the putative ion gate (the cytoplasmic "inner branches" and the transmembrane "inner helices". Furthermore, six of the identifiable transmembrane segments of RyR1 have similar organization to those of the mammalian Kv1.2 potassium channel. Upon gating, the distal cytoplasmic domains move towards the transmembrane domain while the central cytoplasmic domains move away from it, and also away from the 4-fold axis. Along the ion pathway, precise relocation of the inner helices and inner branches results in an approximately 4 A diameter increase of the ion gate. Whereas the inner helices of the K+ channels and of the RyR1 channel cross-correlate best with their corresponding open/closed states, the cytoplasmic inner branches, which are not observed in the K+ channels, appear to have at least as important a role as the inner helices for RyR1 gating. We propose a theoretical model whereby the inner helices, the inner branches, and the h1 densities together create an efficient novel gating mechanism for channel opening by relaxing two right

  8. Quantitative phosphoproteomics dissection of seven-transmembrane receptor signaling using full and biased agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gitte L; Kelstrup, Christian D; Lyngsø, Christina

    2010-01-01

    (q)-dependent and -independent AT(1)R signaling. This study provides substantial novel insight into angiotensin II signal transduction and is the first study dissecting the differences between a full agonist and a biased agonist from a 7TMR on a systems-wide scale. Importantly, it reveals a previously unappreciated diversity......Seven-transmembrane receptors (7TMRs) signal through the well described heterotrimeric G proteins but can also activate G protein-independent signaling pathways of which the impact and complexity are less understood. The angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) is a prototypical 7TMR...... and quantity of Galpha(q) protein-independent signaling and uncovers novel signaling pathways. We foresee that the amount and diversity of G protein-independent signaling may be more pronounced than previously recognized for other 7TMRs as well. Quantitative mass spectrometry is a promising tool for evaluation...

  9. Fluorophores, environments, and quantification techniques in the analysis of transmembrane helix interaction using FRET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadria, Ambalika S; Senes, Alessandro

    2015-07-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) has been widely used as a spectroscopic tool in vitro to study the interactions between transmembrane (TM) helices in detergent and lipid environments. This technique has been instrumental to many studies that have greatly contributed to quantitative understanding of the physical principles that govern helix-helix interactions in the membrane. These studies have also improved our understanding of the biological role of oligomerization in membrane proteins. In this review, we focus on the combinations of fluorophores used, the membrane mimetic environments, and measurement techniques that have been applied to study model systems as well as biological oligomeric complexes in vitro. We highlight the different formalisms used to calculate FRET efficiency and the challenges associated with accurate quantification. The goal is to provide the reader with a comparative summary of the relevant literature for planning and designing FRET experiments aimed at measuring TM helix-helix associations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Emerging role of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator- an epithelial chloride channel in gastrointestinal cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuning Hou; Xiaoqing Guan; Zhe Yang; Chunying Li

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator(CFTR), a glycoprotein with 1480 amino acids, has been well established as a chloride channel mainly expressed in the epithelial cells of various tissues and organs such as lungs, sweat glands, gastrointestinal system, and reproductive organs. Although defective CFTR leads to cystic fibrosis, a common genetic disorder in the Caucasian population, there is accumulating evidence that suggests a novel role of CFTR in various cancers, especially in gastroenterological cancers, such as pancreatic cancer and colon cancer. In this review, we summarize the emerging findings that link CFTR with various cancers, with focus on the association between CFTR defects and gastrointestinal cancers as well as the underlying mechanisms. Further study of CFTR in cancer biology may help pave a new way for the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal cancers.

  11. Purification and crystallization of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Mark F; Kamis, Alhaji Bukar; Aleksandrov, Luba A; Ford, Robert C; Riordan, John R

    2004-09-10

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a membrane protein that is mutated in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. Here we report the purification and first crystallization of wild-type human CFTR. Functional characterization of the material showed it to be highly active. Electron crystallography of negatively stained two-dimensional crystals of CFTR has revealed the overall architecture of this channel for two different conformational states. These show a strong structural homology to two conformational states of another eukaryotic ATP-binding cassette transporter, P-glycoprotein. In contrast to P-glycoprotein, however, both conformational states can be observed in the presence of a nucleotide, which may be related to the role of CFTR as an ion channel rather than a transporter. The hypothesis that the two conformations could represent the "open" and "closed" states of the channel is considered.

  12. Coarse Grained Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Transmembrane Protein-Lipid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Spijker

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Many biological cellular processes occur at the micro- or millisecond time scale. With traditional all-atom molecular modeling techniques it is difficult to investigate the dynamics of long time scales or large systems, such as protein aggregation or activation. Coarse graining (CG can be used to reduce the number of degrees of freedom in such a system, and reduce the computational complexity. In this paper the first version of a coarse grained model for transmembrane proteins is presented. This model differs from other coarse grained protein models due to the introduction of a novel angle potential as well as a hydrogen bonding potential. These new potentials are used to stabilize the backbone. The model has been validated by investigating the adaptation of the hydrophobic mismatch induced by the insertion of WALP-peptides into a lipid membrane, showing that the first step in the adaptation is an increase in the membrane thickness, followed by a tilting of the peptide.

  13. Research Advances in CKLFSF-like MARVEL Transmembrane Domain Containing Member 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Feng-zhan; Sheng, Zheng-zuo; Qin, Cai-peng; Xu, Tao

    2016-06-10

    CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain containing member/chemokine-like factor super family member (CKLFSF/CMTM) is a novel tumor suppressor gene. CMTM3 is broadly expressed in normal human tissues and evolutionary conserved,especially in testis,spleen,and some cells of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. However,its expression is undetectable or down-regulated in most carcinoma cell lines and tissues. Restoration of CMTM3 may inhibit the proliferation,migration,and invasion of carcinoma cells. Although the exact mechanism of its anti-tumor activity remains unclear,CKLFSF3/CMTM3 is closely connected with immune system and associated with sex during tumorigenesis. The study advances of CKLFSF3/CMTM3 are elaborated in this review as CMTM3 may be a new target in the gene therapies for tumors,especially genitourinary tumors,while further studies on CMTM3 and its anti-tumor mechanisms are warranted.

  14. Deorphanizing the human transmembrane genome: A landscape of uncharacterized membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Joseph J; Li, Min

    2014-01-01

    The sequencing of the human genome has fueled the last decade of work to functionally characterize genome content. An important subset of genes encodes membrane proteins, which are the targets of many drugs. They reside in lipid bilayers, restricting their endogenous activity to a relatively specialized biochemical environment. Without a reference phenotype, the application of systematic screens to profile candidate membrane proteins is not immediately possible. Bioinformatics has begun to show its effectiveness in focusing the functional characterization of orphan proteins of a particular functional class, such as channels or receptors. Here we discuss integration of experimental and bioinformatics approaches for characterizing the orphan membrane proteome. By analyzing the human genome, a landscape reference for the human transmembrane genome is provided.

  15. Transmembrane molecular transport during versus after extremely large, nanosecond electric pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kyle C; Weaver, James C

    2011-08-19

    Recently there has been intense and growing interest in the non-thermal biological effects of nanosecond electric pulses, particularly apoptosis induction. These effects have been hypothesized to result from the widespread creation of small, lipidic pores in the plasma and organelle membranes of cells (supra-electroporation) and, more specifically, ionic and molecular transport through these pores. Here we show that transport occurs overwhelmingly after pulsing. First, we show that the electrical drift distance for typical charged solutes during nanosecond pulses (up to 100 ns), even those with very large magnitudes (up to 10 MV/m), ranges from only a fraction of the membrane thickness (5 nm) to several membrane thicknesses. This is much smaller than the diameter of a typical cell (∼16 μm), which implies that molecular drift transport during nanosecond pulses is necessarily minimal. This implication is not dependent on assumptions about pore density or the molecular flux through pores. Second, we show that molecular transport resulting from post-pulse diffusion through minimum-size pores is orders of magnitude larger than electrical drift-driven transport during nanosecond pulses. While field-assisted charge entry and the magnitude of flux favor transport during nanosecond pulses, these effects are too small to overcome the orders of magnitude more time available for post-pulse transport. Therefore, the basic conclusion that essentially all transmembrane molecular transport occurs post-pulse holds across the plausible range of relevant parameters. Our analysis shows that a primary direct consequence of nanosecond electric pulses is the creation (or maintenance) of large populations of small pores in cell membranes that govern post-pulse transmembrane transport of small ions and molecules. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Can membrane-bound carotenoid pigment zeaxanthin carry out a transmembrane proton transfer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupisz, Kamila; Sujak, Agnieszka; Patyra, Magdalena; Trebacz, Kazimierz; Gruszecki, Wiesław I

    2008-10-01

    Polar carotenoid pigment zeaxanthin (beta,beta-carotene-3,3'-diol) incorporated into planar lipid membranes formed with diphytanoyl phosphatidylcholine increases the specific electric resistance of the membrane from ca. 4 to 13 x 10(7) Omega cm2 (at 5 mol% zeaxanthin with respect to lipid). Such an observation is consistent with the well known effect of polar carotenoids in decreasing fluidity and structural stabilization of lipid bilayers. Zeaxanthin incorporated into the lipid membrane at 1 mol% has very small effect on the overall membrane resistance but facilitates equilibration of the transmembrane proton gradient, as demonstrated with the application of the H+-sensitive antimony electrodes. Relatively low changes in the electrical potential suggest that the equilibration process may be associated with a symport/antiport activity or with a transmembrane transfer of the molecules of acid. UV-Vis linear dichroism analysis of multibilayer formed with the same lipid-carotenoid system shows that the transition dipole moment of the pigment molecules forms a mean angle of 21 degrees with respect to the axis normal to the plane of the membrane. This means that zeaxanthin spans the membrane and tends to have its two hydroxyl groups anchored in the opposite polar zones of the membrane. Detailed FTIR analysis of beta-carotene and zeaxanthin indicates that the polyene chain of carotenoids is able to form weak hydrogen bonds with water molecules. Possible molecular mechanisms responsible for proton transport by polyenes are discussed, including direct involvement of the polyene chain in proton transfer and indirect effect of the pigment on physical properties of the membrane.

  17. Comparing side chain packing in soluble proteins, protein-protein interfaces, and transmembrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, J C; Acebes, S; Virrueta, A; Butler, M; Regan, L; O'Hern, C S

    2018-05-01

    We compare side chain prediction and packing of core and non-core regions of soluble proteins, protein-protein interfaces, and transmembrane proteins. We first identified or created comparable databases of high-resolution crystal structures of these 3 protein classes. We show that the solvent-inaccessible cores of the 3 classes of proteins are equally densely packed. As a result, the side chains of core residues at protein-protein interfaces and in the membrane-exposed regions of transmembrane proteins can be predicted by the hard-sphere plus stereochemical constraint model with the same high prediction accuracies (>90%) as core residues in soluble proteins. We also find that for all 3 classes of proteins, as one moves away from the solvent-inaccessible core, the packing fraction decreases as the solvent accessibility increases. However, the side chain predictability remains high (80% within 30°) up to a relative solvent accessibility, rSASA≲0.3, for all 3 protein classes. Our results show that ≈40% of the interface regions in protein complexes are "core", that is, densely packed with side chain conformations that can be accurately predicted using the hard-sphere model. We propose packing fraction as a metric that can be used to distinguish real protein-protein interactions from designed, non-binding, decoys. Our results also show that cores of membrane proteins are the same as cores of soluble proteins. Thus, the computational methods we are developing for the analysis of the effect of hydrophobic core mutations in soluble proteins will be equally applicable to analyses of mutations in membrane proteins. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Induction of IL-1 during hemodialysis: Transmembrane passage of intact endotoxins (LPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laude-Sharp, M.; Caroff, M.; Simard, L.; Pusineri, C.; Kazatchkine, M.D.; Haeffner-Cavaillon, N. (INSERM U 28, Hopital Broussais, Paris (France))

    1990-12-01

    Circulating monocytes of patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis are triggered to produce interleukin-1 (IL-1) in vivo. Intradialytic induction of IL-1 is associated with complement activation in patients dialyzed with first-use cellulose membranes. Chronic stimulation of IL-1 production occurs because of an yet unidentified mechanism in patients dialyzed with high permeability membranes. The present study demonstrates that intact bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules may cross cuprophan, AN69 and polysulfone membranes under in vitro conditions simulating in vivo hemodialysis. The experiments used purified LPS from Neisseria meningitidis and LPS from Pseudomonas testosteroni, a bacterial strain grown out from a clinically used dialysate. LPS were purified to homogeneity and radiolabeled. Transmembrane passage of 3H-labeled LPS was observed within the first five minutes of dialysis. A total of 0.1 to 1% of 3H-labeled LPS were recovered in the dialysate compartment after one hour of dialysis. High amounts of LPS, representing 40 to 70% of the amount originally present in the dialysate, were absorbed onto high permeability membranes. Low amounts of LPS were absorbed onto cuprophan membranes. The amount of LPS absorbed decreased with the concentration of LPS in the dialysate. LPS recovered from the blood compartment exhibited the same molecular weight as that used to contaminate the dialysate. Biochemically detectable transmembrane passage of LPS was not associated with that of material detectable using the limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. An IL-1-inducing activity was, however, detected in the blood compartment upon dialysis with high permeability membranes, as previously found by others with cuprophan membranes.

  19. Overexpression of transmembrane protein 168 in the mouse nucleus accumbens induces anxiety and sensorimotor gating deficit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kequan Fu

    Full Text Available Transmembrane protein 168 (TMEM168 comprises 697 amino acid residues, including some putative transmembrane domains. It is reported that TMEM168 controls methamphetamine (METH dependence in the nucleus accumbens (NAc of mice. Moreover, a strong link between METH dependence-induced adaptive changes in the brain and mood disorders has been evaluated. In the present study, we investigated the effects of accumbal TMEM168 in a battery of behavioral paradigms. The adeno-associated virus (AAV Tmem168 vector was injected into the NAc of C57BL/6J mice (NAc-TMEM mice. Subsequently, the accumbal TMEM168 mRNA was increased approximately by seven-fold when compared with the NAc-Mock mice (controls. The NAc-TMEM mice reported no change in the locomotor activity, cognitive ability, social interaction, and depression-like behaviors; however, TMEM168 overexpression enhanced anxiety in the elevated-plus maze and light/dark box test. The increased anxiety was reversed by pretreatment with the antianxiety drug diazepam (0.3 mg/kg i.p.. Moreover, the NAc-TMEM mice exhibited decreased prepulse inhibition (PPI in the startle response test, and the induced schizophrenia-like behavior was reversed by pretreatment with the antipsychotic drug risperidone (0.01 mg/kg i.p.. Furthermore, accumbal TMEM168 overexpression decreased the basal levels of extracellular GABA in the NAc and the high K+ (100 mM-stimulated GABA elevation; however, the total contents of GABA in the NAc remained unaffected. These results suggest that the TMEM168-regulated GABAergic neuronal system in the NAc might become a novel target while studying the etiology of anxiety and sensorimotor gating deficits.

  20. Induction of IL-1 during hemodialysis: Transmembrane passage of intact endotoxins (LPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laude-Sharp, M.; Caroff, M.; Simard, L.; Pusineri, C.; Kazatchkine, M.D.; Haeffner-Cavaillon, N.

    1990-01-01

    Circulating monocytes of patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis are triggered to produce interleukin-1 (IL-1) in vivo. Intradialytic induction of IL-1 is associated with complement activation in patients dialyzed with first-use cellulose membranes. Chronic stimulation of IL-1 production occurs because of an yet unidentified mechanism in patients dialyzed with high permeability membranes. The present study demonstrates that intact bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules may cross cuprophan, AN69 and polysulfone membranes under in vitro conditions simulating in vivo hemodialysis. The experiments used purified LPS from Neisseria meningitidis and LPS from Pseudomonas testosteroni, a bacterial strain grown out from a clinically used dialysate. LPS were purified to homogeneity and radiolabeled. Transmembrane passage of 3H-labeled LPS was observed within the first five minutes of dialysis. A total of 0.1 to 1% of 3H-labeled LPS were recovered in the dialysate compartment after one hour of dialysis. High amounts of LPS, representing 40 to 70% of the amount originally present in the dialysate, were absorbed onto high permeability membranes. Low amounts of LPS were absorbed onto cuprophan membranes. The amount of LPS absorbed decreased with the concentration of LPS in the dialysate. LPS recovered from the blood compartment exhibited the same molecular weight as that used to contaminate the dialysate. Biochemically detectable transmembrane passage of LPS was not associated with that of material detectable using the limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. An IL-1-inducing activity was, however, detected in the blood compartment upon dialysis with high permeability membranes, as previously found by others with cuprophan membranes

  1. Digitizing the moving face: asymmetries of emotion and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Desai

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study with dextral males, Richardson and Bowers (1999 digitized real time video signals and found movement asymmetries over the left lower face for emotional, but not non-emotional expressions. These findings correspond to observations, based on subjective ratings of static pictures, that the left side of the face is more intensely expressive than the right (Sackeim, 1978. From a neuropsychological perspective, one possible interpretation of these findings is that emotional priming of the right hemisphere of the brain results in more muscular activity over the contralateral left than ipsilateral right side of the lower face. The purpose of the present study was to use computer-imaging methodology to determine whether there were gender differences in movement asymmetries across the face. We hypothesized that females would show less evidence of facial movement asymmetries during the expression of emotion. This hypothesis was based on findings of gender differences in the degree to which specific cognitive functions may be lateralized in the brain (i.e., females less lateralized than males. Forty-eight normal dextral college students (25 females, 23 males were videotaped while they displayed voluntary emotional expressions. A quantitative measure of movement change (called entropy was computed by subtracting the values of corresponding pixel intensities between adjacent frames and summing their differences. The upper and lower hemiface regions were examined separately due to differences in the cortical enervation of facial muscles in the upper (bilateral versus lower face (contralateral. Repeated measures ANOVA’s were used to analyze for the amount of overall facial movement and for facial asymmetries. Certain emotions were associated with significantly greater overall facial movement than others (p fear > (angry =sad > neutral. Both males and females showed this same pattern, with no gender differences in the total amount of facial

  2. What Can We Learn about Cholesterol's Transmembrane Distribution Based on Cholesterol-Induced Changes in Membrane Dipole Potential?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkovich, Stanislav G.; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Nesterenko, Alexey M.

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol is abundant in the plasma membranes of animal cells and is known to regulate a variety of membrane properties. Despite decades of research, the transmembrane distribution of cholesterol is still a matter of debate. Here we consider this outstanding issue through atomistic simulations ...

  3. A monocyte chemotaxis inhibiting factor in serum of HIV infected men shares epitopes with the HIV transmembrane protein gp41

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, M.; Drexhage, H. A.; Goudsmit, J.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes that gp41, the transmembranous envelope protein of HIV, is able to inhibit monocyte chemotaxis (measured as FMLP-induced polarization). To study the presence of such immunosuppressive HIV env proteins in the circulation of HIV-infected men, fractions were prepared from serum

  4. Impact of biofilm accumulation on transmembrane and feed channel pressure drop: Effects of crossflow velocity, feed spacer and biodegradable nutrient

    KAUST Repository

    Dreszer, C.; Flemming, H. C.; Zwijnenburg, A.; Kruithof, J. C.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2014-01-01

    . As biodegradable nutrient, acetate was dosed to the feed water (1.0 and 0.25mgL-1 carbon) to enhance biofilm accumulation in the monitors. The studies showed that biofilm formation caused an increased transmembrane resistance and feed channel pressure drop

  5. Localization of the transmembrane proteoglycan syndecan-4 and its regulatory kinases in costameres of rat cardiomyocytes: a deconvolution microscopic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    VanWinkle, W Barry; Snuggs, Mark B; De Hostos, Eugenio L

    2002-01-01

    Syndecan-4 (syn-4), a transmembrane heparan sulfate-containing proteoglycan, is unique among the four members of the syndecan family in its specific cellular localization to complex cytoskeletal adhesion sites, i.e., focal adhesions. During early phenotypic redifferentiation of neonatal cardiomyo...

  6. Characterization of the GXXXG motif in the first transmembrane segment of Japanese encephalitis virus precursor membrane (prM protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Suh-Chin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The interaction between prM and E proteins in flavivirus-infected cells is a major driving force for the assembly of flavivirus particles. We used site-directed mutagenesis to study the potential role of the transmembrane domains of the prM proteins of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV in prM-E heterodimerization as well as subviral particle formation. Alanine insertion scanning mutagenesis within the GXXXG motif in the first transmembrane segment of JEV prM protein affected the prM-E heterodimerization; its specificity was confirmed by replacing the two glycines of the GXXXG motif with alanine, leucine and valine. The GXXXG motif was found to be conserved in the JEV serocomplex viruses but not other flavivirus groups. These mutants with alanine inserted in the two prM transmembrane segments all impaired subviral particle formation in cell cultures. The prM transmembrane domains of JEV may play importation roles in prM-E heterodimerization and viral particle assembly.

  7. Selective elimination of high constitutive activity or chemokine binding in the human herpesvirus 8 encoded seven transmembrane oncogene ORF74

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M M; Kledal, T N; Holst, Peter Johannes

    2000-01-01

    Open reading frame 74 (ORF74) encoded by human herpesvirus 8 is a highly constitutively active seven transmembrane (7TM) receptor stimulated by angiogenic chemokines, e.g. growth-related oncogene-alpha, and inhibited by angiostatic chemokines e.g. interferon-gamma-inducible protein. Transgenic mice...

  8. Agonists and inverse agonists for the herpesvirus 8-encoded constitutively active seven-transmembrane oncogene product, ORF-74

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M M; Kledal, T N; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    1999-01-01

    A number of CXC chemokines competed with similar, nanomolar affinity against 125I-interleukin-8 (IL-8) binding to ORF-74, a constitutively active seven-transmembrane receptor encoded by human herpesvirus 8. However, in competition against 125I-labeled growth-related oncogene (GRO)-alpha, the ORF-74...

  9. Defining the transmembrane helix of M2 protein from influenza A by molecular dynamics simulations in a lipid bilayer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forrest, LR; Tieleman, DP; Sansom, MSP

    Integral membrane proteins containing at least one transmembrane (TM) alpha-helix are believed to account for between 20% and 30% of most genomes. There are several algorithms that accurately predict the number and position of TM helices within,a membrane protein sequence. However, these methods

  10. Aging effects on cerebral asymmetry: a voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Hidemasa; Abe, Osamu; Yamasue, Hidenori; Aoki, Shigeki; Kasai, Kiyoto; Sasaki, Hiroki; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2010-01-01

    The hemispheres of the human brain are functionally and structurally asymmetric. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of aging on gray and white matter asymmetry. Two hundred twenty-six right-handed normal volunteers aged 21-71 years were included in this study. The effects of aging on gray matter volume asymmetry and white matter fractional anisotropy asymmetry were evaluated with use of voxel-based morphometry and voxel-based analysis of fractional anisotropy maps derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), respectively. The voxel-based morphometry showed no significant correlation between age and gray matter volume asymmetry. The voxel-based analysis of DTI also showed no significant correlation between age and white matter fractional anisotropy asymmetry. Our results showed no significant effects of aging on either gray matter volume asymmetry or white matter fractional anisotropy asymmetry.

  11. Double Spin Asymmetries, ALL, for Di-hadrons in PHENIX

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Cameron

    2010-11-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), through its polarized proton-proton collisions, provides leading order access to δG, the gluon contribution to the proton spin. Previous measurements have shown δG(x) dx to be consistent with zero in the Bjorken-x range of 0.05 to 0.2, whereas there is presently no measurement constraining δG (x) for x below or above this range. The Muon Piston Calorimeter provides the opportunity to expand the constrained range by allowing measurements of double spin asymmetries for azimuthally-separated pairs of 0̂'s at forward rapidity, 3.1<=|η|<=3.9, for √s=200 GeV and 500 GeV data taken in 2009. We present PYTHIA simulations studying the kinematics and possible asymmetries from di-hadron production at RHIC.

  12. Beam spin asymmetry in deep and exclusive pi0 electroproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. De Masi

    2007-01-01

    The beam spin asymmetry (BSA) in the exclusive reaction ep->ep pi0 was measured with the CEBAF 5.77 GeV polarized electron beam and Large Acceptance Spectrometer(CLAS). The xB, Q2, t and phi dependences of the pi0 BSA are presented in the deep inelastic regime. The asymmetries are fitted with a sin(phi) function and their amplitudes are extracted. Overall, they are of the order of 0.04 - 0.11 and roughly independent of t. This is the signature of a non-zero longitudinal-transverse interference. The implications concerning the applicability of a formalism based on generalized parton distributions, as well as the extension of a Regge formalism at high photon virtualities, are discussed

  13. Spin asymmetries for elastic scattering in krypton at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Went, M R; McEachran, R P; Lohmann, Birgit; MacGillivray, W R

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of the spin asymmetry for elastic scattering of spin-polarized electrons from krypton are presented, for incident energies in the range 20-200 eV. The measured spin asymmetries are generally small, and do not exceed 0.25 in magnitude at any energy or angle. The experimental results are compared with calculated values of the Sherman function, obtained by solution of the Dirac-Fock equations. The calculations have been performed with the inclusion of polarization and dynamic distortion potentials, and with the addition of an absorption potential to model inelastic processes. For incident energies of 50, 60 and 65 eV, the calculated values of the Sherman function are shown to be extremely sensitive to the details of the model, with the addition of the absorption potential producing dramatically different results

  14. Hemispherical power asymmetry from scale-dependent modulated reheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, John

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new model for the hemispherical power asymmetry of the CMB based on modulated reheating. Non-Gaussianity from modulated reheating can be small enough to satisfy the bound from Planck if the dominant modulation of the inflaton decay rate is linear in the modulating field σ. σ must then acquire a spatially-modulated power spectrum with a red scale-dependence. This can be achieved if the primordial perturbation of σ is generated via tachyonic growth of a complex scalar field. Modulated reheating due to σ then produces a spatially modulated and scale-dependent sub-dominant contribution to the adiabatic density perturbation. We show that it is possible to account for the observed asymmetry while remaining consistent with bounds from quasar number counts, non-Gaussianity and the CMB temperature quadupole. The model predicts that the adiabatic perturbation spectral index and its running will be modified by the modulated reheating component

  15. Hemispheric asymmetry of liking for representational and abstract paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Marcos; Schiavi, Susanna; Cattaneo, Zaira

    2017-10-13

    Although the neural correlates of the appreciation of aesthetic qualities have been the target of much research in the past decade, few experiments have explored the hemispheric asymmetries in underlying processes. In this study, we used a divided visual field paradigm to test for hemispheric asymmetries in men and women's preference for abstract and representational artworks. Both male and female participants liked representational paintings more when presented in the right visual field, whereas preference for abstract paintings was unaffected by presentation hemifield. We hypothesize that this result reflects a facilitation of the sort of visual processes relevant to laypeople's liking for art-specifically, local processing of highly informative object features-when artworks are presented in the right visual field, given the left hemisphere's advantage in processing such features.

  16. Tau lepton charge asymmetry and new physics at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sudhir Kumar; Valencia, German

    2011-01-01

    We consider the possibility of studying new physics that singles out the tau lepton at the LHC. We concentrate on the tau lepton charge asymmetry in τ + τ - pair production as a tool to probe this physics beyond the standard model. We consider two generic scenarios for the new physics. We first study a nonuniversal Z' boson as an example of a new resonance that can single out tau leptons. We then consider vector lepto-quarks coupling the first-generation quarks with the third-generation leptons as an example of nonresonant new physics. We find that in both cases the charge asymmetry can be sufficiently sensitive to the new physics to provide useful constraints at the LHC.

  17. ASYMMETRY OF THE BRAIN AT ADAPTATION TO HYPOXIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Portnichenko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Association between cerebral blood flow and higher nervous activity in people at different stages of adaptation to the midlands was studied. Investigation were performed before, during and after a three-week stay in the mountains at an altitude of 2100 m, as well as during short-term ups without the physical load on the height of 3900 m. In the initial period of adaptation to hypoxia desynchronization between the nerve processes in the cerebral cortex and brain blood flow was observed. There was an inversion and an increase in the asymmetry of cerebral blood flow in the direction of the dominance of the left hemisphere of the brain. After the three-week stay in the mountains asymmetry of cerebral blood flow was disappeared, blood flow to the brain was reduced, hemispheric symmetry was formed, and blood flow synchronized with the nerve processes in the cerebral cortex again was restored.

  18. Two-dimensional chiral asymmetry in unidirectional magnetic anisotropy structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Perna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the symmetry-breaking effects of magnetic nanostructures that present unidirectional (one-fold magnetic anisotropy. Angular and field dependent transport and magnetic properties have been studied in two different exchange-biased systems, i.e. ferromagnetic (FM/ antiferromagnetic (AFM bilayer and spin-valve structures. We experimentally show the direct relationships between the magnetoresistance (MR response and the magnetization reversal pathways for any field value and direction. We demonstrate that even though the MR signals are related to different transport phenomena, namely anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR and giant magnetoresistance (GMR, chiral asymmetries are found around the magnetization hard-axis direction, in both cases originated from the one-fold symmetry of the interfacial exchange coupling. Our results indicate that the chiral asymmetry of transport and magnetic behaviors are intrinsic of systems with an unidirectional contribution.

  19. Matter-antimatter asymmetry induced by a running vacuum coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, J.A.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Astronomia, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Singleton, D. [California State University Fresno, Department of Physics, Fresno, CA (United States); Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics Al-Farabi KazNU, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2017-12-15

    We show that a CP-violating interaction induced by a derivative coupling between the running vacuum and a non-conserving baryon current may dynamically break CPT and trigger baryogenesis through an effective chemical potential. By assuming a non-singular class of running vacuum cosmologies which provides a complete cosmic history (from an early inflationary de Sitter stage to the present day quasi-de Sitter acceleration), it is found that an acceptable baryon asymmetry is generated for many different choices of the model parameters. It is interesting that the same ingredient (running vacuum energy density) addresses several open cosmological questions/problems: avoids the initial singularity, provides a smooth exit for primordial inflation, alleviates both the coincidence and the cosmological constant problems, and, finally, is also capable of explaining the generation of matter-antimatter asymmetry in the very early Universe. (orig.)

  20. Double spin asymmetry in exclusive $\\rho^0$ muoproduction at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Alexakhin, V Yu; Alexandrov, Yu A; Alexeev, G D; Amoroso, A; Arbuzov, A; Badelek, B; Balestra, F; Ball, J; Baum, G; Barth, J; Bedfer, Y; Bernet, C; Bertini, R; Bettinelli, M; Birsa, R; Bisplinghoff, J; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, Franco; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Brona, G; Burtin, E; Bussa, M P; Chapiro, A; Chiosso, M; Cicuttin, A; Colantoni, M L; Costa, S; Crespo, M L; D'Hose, N; Dalla Torre, S; Das, S; Das-Gupta, S S; De Masi, R; Dedek, N; Denisov, O Yu; Dhara, L; Díaz, V; Dinkelbach, A M; Donskov, S V; Dorofeev, V A; Doshita, N; Duic, V; Dünnweber, W; Eversheim, P D; Eyrich, W; Fabro, M; Faessler, M; Falaleev, V; Ferrero, A; Ferrero, L; Finger, M; Finger, M Jr; Fischer, H; Franco, C; Franz, J; Friedrich, J M; Frolov, V; Garfagnini, R; Gautheron, F; Gavrichtchouk, O P; Gazda, R; Gerassimov, S G; Geyer, R; Giorgi, M; Gobbo, B; Görtz, S; Gorin, A M; Grabmuller, S; Grajek, O A; Grasso, A; Grube, B; Gushterski, R; Guskov, A; Haas, F; Hannappel, J; Von Harrach, D; Hasegawa, T; Heckmann, J; Hedicke, S; Heinsius, F H; Hermann, R; Hess, C; Hinterberger, F; Von Hodenberg, M; Horikawa, N; Horikawa, S; Ilgner, C; Ioukaev, A I; Ishimoto, S; Ivanov, O; Ivanshin, Yu; Iwata, T; Jahn, R; Janata, A; Jasinski, P; Joosten, R; Jouravlev, N I; Kabuss, E M; Kang, D; Ketzer, B; Khaustov, G V; Khokhlov, Yu A; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F; Klimaszewski, K; Koblitz, S; Koivuniemi, J H; Kolosov, V N; Komissarov, E V; Kondo, K; Knigsmann, K; Konorov, I; Konstantinov, V F; Korentchenko, A S; Korzenev, A; Kotzinian, A M; Koutchinski, N A; Kuznetsov, O; Kravchuk, N P; Kral, A; Kroumchtein, Z V; Kühn, R; Kunne, Fabienne; Kurek, K; Ladygin, M E; Lamanna, M; Le Goff, J M; Lednev, A A; Lehmann, A; Lichtenstadt, J; Liska, T; Ludwig, I; Maggiora, A; Maggiora, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Mann, A; Marchand, C; Marroncle, J; Martin, A; Marzec, J; Massmann, F; Matsuda, T; Maksimov, A N; Meyer, W; Mielech, A; Mikhailov, Yu V; Moinester, M A; Mutter, A; Nahle, O; Nagaytsev, A; Nagel, T; Nassalski, J P; Neliba, S; Nerling, F; Neubert, a S; Neyret, D P; Nikolaenko, V I; Nikolaev, K; Olshevskii, A G; Ostrick, M; Padee, A; Pagano, P; Panebianco, S; Panknin, R; Panzieri, D; Paul, S; Pawlukiewicz-Kaminska, B; Peshekhonov, V D; Piragino, G; Platchkov, S; Pochodzalla, J; Polak, J; Polyakov, V A; Pretz, J; Procureur, S; Quintans, C; Rajotte, J F; Rapatsky, V; Ramos, S; Reicherz, G; Richter, A; Robinet, F; Rocco, E; Rondio, E; Rozhdestvensky, A M; Ryabchikov, D I; Samoylenko, V D; Sandacz, A; Santos, H; Sapozhnikov, M G; Sarkar, S; Savin, I A; Schiavon, Paolo; Schill, C; Schmitt, L; Schonmeier, P; Schroder, W; Shevchenko, O Yu; Siebert, H W; Silva, L; Sinha, L; Sissakian, A N; Slunecka, M; Smirnov, G I; Sosio, S; Sozzi, F; Sugonyaev, V P; Srnka, A; Stinzing, F; Stolarski, M; Sulc, M; Sulej, R; Takabayashi, N; Tchalishev, V V; Tessaro, S; Tessarotto, F; Teufel, A; Tkatchev, L G; Venugopal, G; Virius, M; Vlassov, N V; Vossen, A; Webb, R; Weise, E; Weitzel, Q; Windmolders, R; Wirth, S; Wilicki, W; Zaremba, s K; Zavertyaev, M; Zemlyanichkina, E; Zhao, J; Ziegler, R; Zvyagin, A

    2007-01-01

    The longitudinal double spin asymmetry A_1^rho for exclusive leptoproduction of rho^0 mesons, mu + N -> mu + N + rho, is studied using the COMPASS 2002 and 2003 data. The measured reaction is incoherent exclusive rho^0 production on polarised deuterons. The Q^2 and x dependence of A_1^rho is presented in a wide kinematical range: 3x10^-3 < Q^2 < 7 (GeV/c)^2 and 5x10^-5 < x < 0.05. The presented results are the first measurements of A_1^rho at small Q2 (Q2 < 0.1 (GeV/c)^2) and small x (x < 3x10^-3). The asymmetry is in general compatible with zero in the whole kinematical range.

  1. Top forward-backward asymmetry with general Z' couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duraisamy, Murugeswaran; Datta, Alakabha; Rashed, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of the top forward-backward asymmetry in tt production measured at the Tevatron shows deviation from the standard model prediction. A u→t transition via a flavor-changing Z ' can explain the data. We show that left-handed t L u L Z ' couplings can be constrained from B d,s mixing while the constrains on the right-handed couplings t R u R Z ' vanish in the limit of m u →0. We then consider the most general form of the tuZ ' interaction which includes vector-axial vector as well as tensor type couplings and study how these couplings affect the top forward-backward asymmetry.

  2. Two-dimensional chiral asymmetry in unidirectional magnetic anisotropy structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perna, P., E-mail: paolo.perna@imdea.org; Guerrero, R.; Niño, M. A. [IMDEA-Nanoscience, c/ Faraday, 9 Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ajejas, F.; Maccariello, D.; Cuñado, J. L. [IMDEA-Nanoscience, c/ Faraday, 9 Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); DFMC and Instituto “Nicolás Cabrera”, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Muñoz, M. [IMM-CSIC, Isaac Newton 8, PTM, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); ISOM, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Prieto, J. L. [ISOM, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Miranda, R.; Camarero, J. [IMDEA-Nanoscience, c/ Faraday, 9 Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); DFMC and Instituto “Nicolás Cabrera”, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    We investigate the symmetry-breaking effects of magnetic nanostructures that present unidirectional (one-fold) magnetic anisotropy. Angular and field dependent transport and magnetic properties have been studied in two different exchange-biased systems, i.e. ferromagnetic (FM)/ antiferromagnetic (AFM) bilayer and spin-valve structures. We experimentally show the direct relationships between the magnetoresistance (MR) response and the magnetization reversal pathways for any field value and direction. We demonstrate that even though the MR signals are related to different transport phenomena, namely anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and giant magnetoresistance (GMR), chiral asymmetries are found around the magnetization hard-axis direction, in both cases originated from the one-fold symmetry of the interfacial exchange coupling. Our results indicate that the chiral asymmetry of transport and magnetic behaviors are intrinsic of systems with an unidirectional contribution.

  3. Synchro-betatron resonance due to gap voltage asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baartman, R

    1992-11-01

    RF cavities for synchrotrons are not in general axially symmetric. This can be due, for example, to the location of the input power coupling loop. It can cause the voltage on one side of the accelerating gap to be different from that on the other side. Associated with this asymmetry is an rf magnetic field which deflects a beam particle by an amount depending upon its rf phase. The deflection can accumulate if the betatron tune is situated on a synchrotron sideband of the integer resonance. We develop the theory for this resonance and apply it to the KAON Factory Booster and to the SSC LEB. We find that the upper limit on allowable voltage asymmetry across the beam pipe is 0.1% in both cases. (author) 5 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Study of interhemispheric asymmetries in electroencephalographic signals by frequency analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, J F; Garzon, J

    2011-01-01

    This study provides a new method for the detection of interhemispheric asymmetries in patients with continuous video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring at Intensive Care Unit (ICU), using wavelet energy. We obtained the registration of EEG signals in 42 patients with different pathologies, and then we proceeded to perform signal processing using the Matlab program, we compared the abnormalities recorded in the report by the neurophysiologist, the images of each patient and the result of signals analysis with the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). Conclusions: there exists correspondence between the abnormalities found in the processing of the signal with the clinical reports of findings in patients; according to previous conclusion, the methodology used can be a useful tool for diagnosis and early quantitative detection of interhemispheric asymmetries.

  5. A search asymmetry reversed by figure-ground assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, G W; Müller, H

    2000-05-01

    We report evidence demonstrating that a search asymmetry favoring concave over convex targets can be reversed by altering the figure-ground assignment of edges in shapes. Visual search for a concave target among convex distractors is faster than search for a convex target among concave distractors (a search asymmetry). By using shapes with ambiguous local figure-ground relations, we demonstrated that search can be efficient (with search slopes around 10 ms/item) or inefficient (with search slopes around 30-40 ms/item) with the same stimuli, depending on whether edges are assigned to concave or convex "figures." This assignment process can operate in a top-down manner, according to the task set. The results suggest that attention is allocated to spatial regions following the computation of figure-ground relations in parallel across the elements present. This computation can also be modulated by top-down processes.

  6. Asymmetry and irregularity border as discrimination factor between melanocytic lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbrissa, David; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Salvio, Ana Gabriela; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvadori; Costa, Luciano Da Fontoura; Travieso, Gonzalo

    2015-06-01

    Image processing tools have been widely used in systems supporting medical diagnosis. The use of mobile devices for the diagnosis of melanoma can assist doctors and improve their diagnosis of a melanocytic lesion. This study proposes a method of image analysis for melanoma discrimination from other types of melanocytic lesions, such as regular and atypical nevi. The process is based on extracting features related with asymmetry and border irregularity. It were collected 104 images, from medical database of two years. The images were obtained with standard digital cameras without lighting and scale control. Metrics relating to the characteristics of shape, asymmetry and curvature of the contour were extracted from segmented images. Linear Discriminant Analysis was performed for dimensionality reduction and data visualization. Segmentation results showed good efficiency in the process, with approximately 88:5% accuracy. Validation results presents sensibility and specificity 85% and 70% for melanoma detection, respectively.

  7. Cold fission description with constant and varying mass asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, S.B.; Rodriguez, O.; Tavares, O.A.P.; Goncalves, M.; Garcia, F.; Guzman, F.

    1998-01-01

    Different description for varying the mass asymmetry in the fragmentation process are used to calculate the cold fission barrier penetrability. The relevance of the appropriate choice for both the description of the pre-scission phase and inertia coefficient to unify alpha decay, cluster radioactivity, and spontaneous cold fission processes in the same theoretical framework is explicitly shown. We calculate the half-life of all possible partition modes of nuclei of A > 200 following the most recent Mass Table by Audi and Wapstra. It is shown that if one uses the description in which the mass asymmetry is maintained constant during the fragmentation process, the experimental half-life-values and mass yield of 234 U cold fission are satisfactorily reproduced. (author)

  8. Cosmic microwave background power asymmetry from non-Gaussian modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Fabian; Hui, Lam

    2013-01-04

    Non-Gaussianity in the inflationary perturbations can couple observable scales to modes of much longer wavelength (even superhorizon), leaving as a signature a large-angle modulation of the observed cosmic microwave background power spectrum. This provides an alternative origin for a power asymmetry that is otherwise often ascribed to a breaking of statistical isotropy. The non-Gaussian modulation effect can be significant even for typical ~10(-5) perturbations while respecting current constraints on non-Gaussianity if the squeezed limit of the bispectrum is sufficiently infrared divergent. Just such a strongly infrared-divergent bispectrum has been claimed for inflation models with a non-Bunch-Davies initial state, for instance. Upper limits on the observed cosmic microwave background power asymmetry place stringent constraints on the duration of inflation in such models.

  9. Lepton asymmetry, neutrino spectral distortions, and big bang nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohs, E.; Fuller, George M.; Kishimoto, C. T.; Paris, Mark W.

    2017-03-01

    We calculate Boltzmann neutrino energy transport with self-consistently coupled nuclear reactions through the weak-decoupling-nucleosynthesis epoch in an early universe with significant lepton numbers. We find that the presence of lepton asymmetry enhances processes which give rise to nonthermal neutrino spectral distortions. Our results reveal how asymmetries in energy and entropy density uniquely evolve for different transport processes and neutrino flavors. The enhanced distortions in the neutrino spectra alter the expected big bang nucleosynthesis light element abundance yields relative to those in the standard Fermi-Dirac neutrino distribution cases. These yields, sensitive to the shapes of the neutrino energy spectra, are also sensitive to the phasing of the growth of distortions and entropy flow with time/scale factor. We analyze these issues and speculate on new sensitivity limits of deuterium and helium to lepton number.

  10. High mass-asymmetry distributions of fissioning nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandulescu, A.; Lusting, H.J.; Hahn, J.; Greiner, W.

    1978-07-01

    It is shown that new mass-asymmetry valleys are appearing in the fragmentation potential V(l,eta) as function of the length l and mass-asymmetry coordinate eta = (A 1 - A 2 )to a correct treatment of the shell effects such that for separated fragments the shell effects equal the sum of the shell effects of the individual fragments and correspond to the double magic fragments 48 Ca, 78 Ni, 132 Sn and 208 Pb or may be 56 Ni. Also is shown that the fission mass-distributions have additional peaks corresponding to the bottom of these new valleys. The calculations are illustrated for 252 No and 238 U. The preliminary results show for 238 U relatively high percent yields in agreement with present available experimental data. (author)

  11. Time symmetry and asymmetry in quantum mechanics and quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gell-Mann, M.; Hartle, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The disparity between the time symmetry of the fundamental laws of physics and the time asymmetries of the observed universe has been a subject of fascination for physicists since the late 19th century. It was also for Sakharov, if the authors judge correctly from his writings the following general time asymmetries are observed in this universe: The thermodynamic arrow of time --- the fact that approximately isolated systems are now almost all evolving towards equilibrium in the same direction of time. The psychological arrow of time --- we remember the past, we predict the future. The arrow of time of retarded electromagnetic radiation. The arrow of time supplied by the CP non-invariance of the weak interactions and the CPT invariance of field theory. The arrow of time of the approximately uniform expansion of the universe. The arrow of time supplied by the growth of inhomogeneity in the expanding universe

  12. Asymmetries: a fuzzy topic in the process of integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alberto Rendón Acevedo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available FTAs have gained prominence in the trade policy of Latin American countries to the detriment of other forms of economic integration. In this trend there is a predominance of south-north schemes, where all kinds of asymmetries are evident. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that the reduction of asymmetries should be a primary goal of the FTAs. The methodology is a review of literature on Latin American FTAs with the United States, particularly those signed by Mexico, Chile and Colombia. As a result, we see that an appropriate treatment of the differences between involved economies is not only desirable for the development of Latin American countries but also it is possible through monetary and industrial policy adjusted to the reality of these countries.

  13. SANE Of Jefferson Lab: Spin Asymmetries on the Nucleon Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmidouch, Abdellah

    2011-01-01

    The Spin Asymmetry on the Nucleon Experiment (SANE) at Jefferson Lab measures proton spin observables A 1 p , A 2 p and structure functions g 1 p and g 2 p over a broad range of Bjorken scaling variable x from 0.3 to 0.8, for four-momentum transfers ranging from 2.5 GeV 2 to 6.5 GeV 2 . Inclusive double spin asymmetries were measured by scattering 4.7 and 5.9-GeV longitudinally polarized electron beam off a polarized solid NH 3 target, in both parallel and near-perpendicular configuration. Scattered electrons were detected using a novel non-magnetic detector array with 194-msr acceptance. This paper presents the physics motivation for the experiment, the detector performance, and the latest status of the ongoing data analysis.

  14. Asymmetry effects of supersymmetric QCD in dilepton production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contogouris, A.P.; Tanaka, H.

    1985-01-01

    A Callan-Gross-type relation between the structure functions determining dilepton production, which is satisfied by the basic O(1) and O(α/sub s/) subprocesses of conventional QCD, is investigated in supersymmetric QCD (SQCD). It is found that SQCD subprocesses, mainly due to the presence of scalar quarks, strongly violate this relation, thus leading to sizable asymmetry effects in the angular distribution of dileptons. As an illustration, calculations are carried for p-barp→l + l - +X at CERN collider and Fermilab Tevatron energies (√s = 540 and 1600 GeV, respectively) and for pp→l + l - +X at Tevatron energy; with scalar quarks of mass 20 GeV and light gluinos, asymmetries in the range of 20%--5% are found. The significance of the effects as a test of the short-distance structure of SQCD (valence part of the scalar-quark distribution) is discussed

  15. Longitudinal Target-Spin Asymmetries for Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seder, E.; Biselli, A.; Pisano, S.; Niccolai, S.; Smith, G. D.; Joo, K.; Adhikari, K.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bono, J.; Boiarinov, S.; Bosted, P.; Briscoe, W.; Brock, J.; Brooks, W. K.; Bültmann, S.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Carlin, C.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crabb, D.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Fradi, A.; Garillon, B.; Garçon, M.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guegan, B.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hirlinger Saylor, N.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jo, H. S.; Joosten, S.; Keith, C. D.; Keller, D.; Khachatryan, G.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Meekins, D. G.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R.; Moody, C. I.; Moutarde, H.; Movsisyan, A.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paolone, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Peng, P.; Phelps, W.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Senderovich, I.; Simonyan, A.; Skorodumina, I.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Tian, Y.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A measurement of the electroproduction of photons off protons in the deeply inelastic regime was performed at Jefferson Lab using a nearly 6 GeV electron beam, a longitudinally polarized proton target, and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Target-spin asymmetries for e p →e'p'γ events, which arise from the interference of the deeply virtual Compton scattering and the Bethe-Heitler processes, were extracted over the widest kinematics in Q2 , xB, t , and ϕ , for 166 four-dimensional bins. In the framework of generalized parton distributions, at leading twist the t dependence of these asymmetries provides insight into the spatial distribution of the axial charge of the proton, which appears to be concentrated in its center. These results also bring important and necessary constraints for the existing parametrizations of chiral-even generalized parton distributions.

  16. Molecular cloning and tissue-specific expression analysis of mouse spinesin, a type II transmembrane serine protease 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Okui, Akira; Mitsui, Shinichi; Kawarabuki, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Tatsuyuki; Uemura, Hidetoshi; Yamaguchi, Nozomi

    2004-01-01

    We have previously reported novel serine proteases isolated from cDNA libraries of the human and mouse central nervous system (CNS) by PCR using degenerate oligodeoxyribonucleotide primers designed on the basis of the serine protease motifs, AAHC and DSGGP. Here we report a newly isolated serine protease from the mouse CNS. This protease is homologous (77.9% identical) to human spinesin type II transmembrane serine protease 5. Mouse spinesin (m-spinesin) is also composed of (from the N-terminus) a short cytoplasmic domain, a transmembrane domain, a stem region containing a scavenger-receptor-like domain, and a serine protease domain, as is h-spinesin. We also isolated type 1, type 2, and type 3 variant cDNAs of m-spinesin. Full-length spinesin (type 4) and type 3 contain all the domains, whereas type 1 and type 2 variants lack the cytoplasmic, transmembrane, and scavenger-receptor-like domains. Subcellular localization of the variant forms was analyzed using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fusion proteins. EGFP-type 4 fusion protein was predominantly localized to the ER, Golgi apparatus, and plasma membrane, whereas EGFP-type 1 was localized to the cytoplasm, reflecting differential classification of m-spinesin variants into transmembrane and cytoplasmic types. We analyzed the distribution of m-spinesin variants in mouse tissues, using RT-PCR with variant-specific primer sets. Interestingly, transmembrane-type spinesin, types 3 and 4, was specifically expressed in the spinal cord, whereas cytoplasmic type, type 1, was expressed in multiple tissues, including the cerebrum and cerebellum. Therefore, m-spinesin variants may have distinct biological functions arising from organ-specific variant expression

  17. Identification of MarvelD3 as a tight junction-associated transmembrane protein of the occludin family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balda Maria S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tight junctions are an intercellular adhesion complex of epithelial and endothelial cells, and form a paracellular barrier that restricts the diffusion of solutes on the basis of size and charge. Tight junctions are formed by multiprotein complexes containing cytosolic and transmembrane proteins. How these components work together to form functional tight junctions is still not well understood and will require a complete understanding of the molecular composition of the junction. Results Here we identify a new transmembrane component of tight junctions: MarvelD3, a four-span transmembrane protein. Its predicted transmembrane helices form a Marvel (MAL and related proteins for vesicle traffic and membrane link domain, a structural motif originally discovered in proteins involved in membrane apposition and fusion events, such as the tight junction proteins occludin and tricellulin. In mammals, MarvelD3 is expressed as two alternatively spliced isoforms. Both isoforms exhibit a broad tissue distribution and are expressed by different types of epithelial as well as endothelial cells. MarvelD3 co-localises with occludin at tight junctions in intestinal and corneal epithelial cells. RNA interference experiments in Caco-2 cells indicate that normal MarvelD3 expression is not required for the formation of functional tight junctions but depletion results in monolayers with increased transepithelial electrical resistance. Conclusions Our data indicate that MarvelD3 is a third member of the tight junction-associated occludin family of transmembrane proteins. Similar to occludin, normal expression of MarvelD3 is not essential for the formation of functional tight junctions. However, MarvelD3 functions as a determinant of epithelial paracellular permeability properties.

  18. Comunication: the Paradigms of symmetry, antisymmetry anda asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Winfried Nöth

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines how the process of communication is represented (a) in the etymology of the conceptof communication, (b) in everyday metaphors of communication, and (c) in 20th century theories andmodels of communication. These reflect this paradox in three different scenarios: the paradigms ofsymmetry, antisymmetry and asymmetry. The dead end into which communication theory is led by theproponents of the latter paradigm is contrasted with some solutions offered by Charles S. Peirce’scommu...

  19. ASYMMETRY OF MARKET RETURNS AND THE MEAN VARIANCE FRONTIER

    OpenAIRE

    SENGUPTA, Jati K.; PARK, Hyung S.

    1994-01-01

    The hypothesis that the skewness and asymmetry have no significant impact on the mean variance frontier is found to be strongly violated by monthly U.S. data over the period January 1965 through December 1974. This result raises serious doubts whether the common market portifolios such as SP 500, value weighted and equal weighted returns can serve as suitable proxies for meanvariance efficient portfolios in the CAPM framework. A new test for assessing the impact of skewness on the variance fr...

  20. Asymmetry in ecosystem responses to precipitation: Theory, observation and experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, O.; Gherardi, L.; Reichmann, L.; Peters, D.

    2017-12-01

    Ecosystem processes such as primary production respond to changes in precipitation that occur annually and at longer time scales. The questions guiding this presentation are whether ecosystem responses to wet and dry years are symmetrical. Is the increase in productivity in a wet year similar in absolute value to the decrease in productivity in a dry year following a wet year? Is the response to one dry or wet year similar tot response of several consecutive wet and dry years? Do all plant-functional groups respond in a similar way to changes in precipitation? To address the questions we explore the theory behind a potential asymmetry and report on experimental results. Analysis of the cost and benefits of plant responses to changes in precipitation support the idea asymmetrical responses because the threshold for abscising organs that have already been deployed should be higher than the threshold to deploy new organs. However, experiments in a desert grassland in New Mexico where we experimentally increased and decreased precipitation from one year to the next showed that the response was symmetrical. Another mechanism that may yield asymmetries is the productivity response to changes in precipitation is associated with the shape of the relationship between precipitation and productivity. Straight-line relationship may yield no asymmetries whereas a saturating or concave up relationship may result in different asymmetries. Here, we report results from an experiment that yielded concave down responses for grasses and concave up for shrubs. Finally, we report results from a 10-year experiment showing asymmetric responses of grasses and shrubs. Moreover, the magnitude of the sign of the responses changed with the time since the beginning of the precipitation manipulation.

  1. Modification of Otolith Reflex Asymmetries Following Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Andrew H.; Schoenfeld, Uwe; Wood, Scott J.

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesize that changes in otolith-mediated reflexes adapted for microgravity contribute to perceptual, gaze and postural disturbances upon return to Earth s gravity. Our goal was to determine pre- versus post-fight differences in unilateral otolith reflexes that reflect these adaptive changes. This study represents the first comprehensive examination of unilateral otolith function following space flight. Ten astronauts participated in unilateral otolith function tests three times pre-flight and up to four times after Shuttle flights from landing day through the subsequent 10 days. During unilateral centrifugation (UC, +/- 3.5cm at 400deg/s), utricular function was examined by the perceptual changes reflected by the subjective visual vertical (SVV) and by video-oculographic measurement of the otolith-mediated ocular counter-roll (OOR). Unilateral saccular reflexes were recorded by measurement of collic Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential (cVEMP). Although data from a few subjects were not obtained early post-flight, a general increase in asymmetry of otolith responses was observed on landing day relative to pre-flight baseline, with a subsequent reversal in asymmetry within 2-3 days. Recovery to baseline levels was achieved within 10 days. This fluctuation in the asymmetry measures appeared strongest for SVV, in a consistent direction for OOR, and in an opposite direction for cVEMP. These results are consistent with our hypothesis that space flight results in adaptive changes in central nervous system processing of otolith input. Adaptation to microgravity may reveal asymmetries in otolith function upon to return to Earth that were not detected prior to the flight due to compensatory mechanisms.

  2. Discrete ambiguities in CP-violating asymmetries in B decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, David

    1998-01-01

    The CP-angles α, β and γ can be extracted from CP-violating asymmetries in the B system, but only up to discrete ambiguities. These discrete ambiguities make it difficult to determine with certainty whether or not new physics is present. I show that, if the condition α+β+γ=π is imposed, there remains a twofold ambiguity in the CP-angle set (α,β,γ), and I discuss ways to cleanly resolve this final discrete ambiguity

  3. Manual asymmetries in bimanual isochronous tapping tasks in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Inês; Diniz, Ana; Barreiros, João

    2017-01-01

    Tapping tasks have been investigated throughout the years, with variations in features such as the complexity of the task, the use of one or both hands, the employ of auditory or visual stimuli, and the characteristics of the subjects. The evaluation of lateral asymmetries in tapping tasks in children offers an insight into the structure of rhythmic movements and handedness at early stages of development. The current study aims to investigate the ability of children (aged six and seven years-old) to maintain a rhythm, in a bimanual tapping task at two different target frequencies, as well as the manual asymmetries displayed while doing so. The analyzed data in this work are the series of the time intervals between successive taps. We suggest several profiles of behavior, regarding the overall performance of children in both tempo conditions. We also propose a new method of quantifying the variability of the performance and the asymmetry of the hands, based on ellipses placed on scatter plots of the non-dominant-dominant series versus the dominant-non-dominant series. We then use running correlations to identify changes of coordination tendencies over time. The main results show that variability is larger in the task with the longer target interval. Furthermore, most children evidence lateral asymmetries, but in general they show the capacity to maintain the mean of consecutive intertap intervals of both hands close to the target interval. Finally, we try to interpret our findings in the light of existing models and timing modes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prospects for time-dependent asymmetries at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00260500

    2012-01-01

    LHCb is already providing leading measurements of time-dependent CP asymmetries with 1 fb$^{-1}$ of data. With the LHCb detector, and further one with the LHCb upgrade, very high-precision time-dependent CP measurements are expected to stringently test the CKM paradigm and to the search for possible small NP effects. A review of the current precision and the prospects for these time-dependent quantities with the LHCb and LHCb upgraded detectors are summarised in this paper.

  5. Asymmetry within social groups: division of labour and intergroup competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J L; Loope, K J; Reeve, H K

    2016-03-01

    Social animals vary in their ability to compete with group members over shared resources and also vary in their cooperative efforts to produce these resources. Competition among groups can promote within-group cooperation, but many existing models of intergroup cooperation do not explicitly account for observations that group members invest differentially in cooperation and that there are often within-group competitive or power asymmetries. We present a game theoretic model of intergroup competition that investigates how such asymmetries affect within-group cooperation. In this model, group members adopt one of two roles, with relative competitive efficiency and the number of individuals varying between roles. Players in each role make simultaneous, coevolving decisions. The model predicts that although intergroup competition increases cooperative contributions to group resources by both roles, contributions are predominantly from individuals in the less competitively efficient role, whereas individuals in the more competitively efficient role generally gain the larger share of these resources. When asymmetry in relative competitive efficiency is greater, a group's per capita cooperation (averaged across both roles) is higher, due to increased cooperation from the competitively inferior individuals. For extreme asymmetry in relative competitive efficiency, per capita cooperation is highest in groups with a single competitively superior individual and many competitively inferior individuals, because the latter acquiesce and invest in cooperation rather than within-group competition. These predictions are consistent with observed features of many societies, such as monogynous Hymenoptera with many workers and caste dimorphism. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  6. Single spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulders, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    In this talk I want to illustrate the many possibilities for studying the structure of hadrons in hard scattering processes by giving a number of examples involving increasing complexity in the demands for particle polarization, particle identification or polarimetry. In particular the single spin asymmetries will be discussed. The measurements discussed in this talk are restricted to lepton-hadron scattering, but can be found in various other hard processes such as Drell-Yan scattering or e + e - annihilation. (author)

  7. The Asymmetry and Modularity of the Hyoid Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Urbanová, Petra; Hejna, Petr; Zátopková, Lenka; Safr, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Morphological variation is a result of interplay among multiple intervening factors. For hyoid bones, the shape and size differences have been scarcely covered in the literature and in majority limited to studies of sexual dimorphism or age dependency. To our knowledge, the human hyoid bone, in complete opposite to other cranial bones, has not been fully utilized to address development questions in terms of asymmetry or modularity. In the present paper, we used landmark-based methods of geome...

  8. LEP asymmetries and fits of the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzyk, B.

    1994-01-01

    The lepton and quark asymmetries measured at LEP are presented. The results of the Standard Model fits to the electroweak data presented at this conference are given. The top mass obtained from the fit to the LEP data is 172 -14-20 +13+18 GeV; it is 177 -11-19 +11+18 when also the collider, ν and A LR data are included. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Asymmetry in development (mineralisation of permanent mandibular canine roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burić Mirjana V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The development of the teeth is closely associated with the proper and unobstructed physical and psychological development of the child. Aim. To determine the existence of asymmetry in the development of the roots of the lower permanent canine teeth in different age groups of children of both sexes. Material and methods. The study was conducted on 523 ortopantomograms (253 boys and 270 girls of orthodontic patients aged 6 to 14 years of the Dental Clinic in Niš. We analyzed the development of asymmetry in the lower permanent canine root, using the method of Gleiser and Hunt, or the modification by Tijanić (1981. Results. It was found that asymmetry in the development of the root in both sexes of the lower canine teeth was present in 20 patients (3.82%, 10 boys (3.95% and 10 girls (3.70%. The difference is in the range of one stage. Asymmetric development of the roots of the lower incisors in girls and boys usually present in the 7th and 8th stages (60% in girls and in 50% in boys. In 90% of girls in developing asymmetry the root of the lower canine is present in a single stage, and in 10% of girls it presents within three stages. Asymmetric development of the root of the lower canine is the most common in the 7th and 8th stages of development (55%. Conclusion. Asymmetric root development of permanent lower canines was found in 3.82% of patients. More than half of respondents (55% had asymmetrical canine root development stage in half and three quarters of the total root length. The results of this study indicate that the canine is the tooth with very little variations in its development.

  10. Measurements of the B0 bar B0 CP asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueth, V.

    1993-01-01

    A figure of merit for a measurement of CP violation is the error on the intrinsic asymmetry A CP . The observed asymmetry A obs will always be smaller than A CP due to a number of effects that dilute the measurement. If one defines A obs =DA CP , where D represents the product of all dilution factors, then the error on A CP , δA CP is related to the number of produced B 0 or bar B 0 , N prod , needed to obtain a given error on δA CP by N prod =1/((δA CP ) 2 D 2 εBr). To determine the figure of merit for a particular decay mode one must determine the number of reconstructed events N obs and calculate the corresponding dilution factor D. N obs depends on the luminosity and production cross section, on the branching ratio of the B 0 or bar B 0 into the specific final state under study, Br, and on ε, the reconstruction efficiency for both the combination of the signal CP state and any tagging signal. The production rate N prod , the dilution factor D, and the efficiency ε, differ substantially in magnitude as a function of energy and detector layout. The detection efficiency and dilution factor can both be written as a product of several factors that can be estimated for a particular experiment. These factors depend critically on the decay mode under study, the tagging method, the detector configuration, and more generally on the production process, backgrounds, and detector performance. Furthermore, the present knowledge of these quantities varies largely, as well as ones ability to ultimately measure the dilution factor which relates the experimentally observed asymmetry to the true CP asymmetry

  11. Poloidal asymmetries of flows in the Tore Supra tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermare, L.; Hennequin, P.; Gürcan, Ö. D.; Garbet, X.; Honoré, C.; Clairet, F.; Giacalone, J. C.; Morel, P.; Storelli, A.; Tore Supra Team

    2018-02-01

    Simultaneous measurements of binormal velocity of density fluctuations using two separate Doppler backscattering systems at the low field side and at the top of the plasma show significant poloidal asymmetry. The measurements are performed in the core region between the radii 0.7 Supra tokamak. A possible generation mechanism by the ballooned structure of the underlying turbulence, in the form of convective cells, is proposed for explaining the observation of these poloidally asymmetric mean flows.

  12. Asymmetry of Anticipatory Postural Adjustment During Gait Initiation

    OpenAIRE

    Hiraoka, Koichi; Hatanaka, Ryota; Nikaido, Yasutaka; Jono, Yasutomo; Nomura, Yoshifumi; Tani, Keisuke; Chujo, Yuta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the asymmetry of anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) during gait initiation and to determine whether the process of choosing the initial swing leg affects APA during gait initiation. The participants initiated gait with the leg indicated by a start tone or initiated gait with the leg spontaneously chosen. The dependent variables of APA were not significantly different among the condition of initiating gait with the preferred leg indicated by the...

  13. Asymmetry features for classification of thermograms in breast cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Robert M.; Okuniewski, Rafał; Oleszkiewicz, Witold; Cichosz, Paweł; Jagodziński, Dariusz; Matysiewicz, Mateusz; Neumann, Łukasz

    2016-09-01

    The computer system for an automatic interpretation of thermographic pictures created by the Br-aster devices uses image processing and machine learning algorithms. The huge set of attributes analyzed by this software includes the asymmetry measurements between corresponding images, and these features are analyzed in presented paper. The system was tested on real data and achieves accuracy comparable to other popular techniques used for breast tumour detection.

  14. Gluon asymmetries in the leptoproduction of J/Ψ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godbole, R.M.; Gupta, S.; Sridhar, K.

    1990-07-01

    We study J/Ψ production, in deep inelastic scattering experiments with polarised beams and polarised targets. The spin asymmetries are seen to depend strongly on the particular form of the spin dependent gluon distributions used. Therefore, it should be possible in these experiments, to discriminate between different parametrizations of polarised gluon distributions, and hence between the distinctly different physical pictures of the proton spin underlying these parametrizations. (author). 18 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  15. Evaluation of asymmetry collimator for a new generation telecobalt machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suliman, E.E.

    2008-01-01

    A new model of the telecobalt unit, theratron equinox-100, (MDS Nordion, Canada) equipped with a single 60 degree motorized wedge (MW) and upper (X) and lower (Y) asymmetric jaws have been evaluated. Symmetrical jaws were commissioned in pinnacle 3 (Philips), the 3D treatment planning system (TPS). The profiles and central axis depth dose (CADD) were measured with wellhofer blue water phantom for various field sizes using 0.13 cc thimble ionization chamber (Scanditronix wellhofer, Uppsala, Sweden) and the data were commissioned in pinnacle 3 . These profiles and CADD for symmetry jaws were compared with asymmetry jaws for various field sizes. Also beam profiles for 5*5, 10*10 and 20*20 cm 2 for symmetry and asymmetry field sizes at 5 and 10 cm depths measured with 2D-array (two dimensional detector array with 729 vented ionization chambers with a size of 5*5 mm 2 , PTW, Germany), are compared. A homogeneous phantom generated in pinnacle 3 . The dose calculated in this phantom at 10 cm depth for various field sizes of symmetry and asymmetry jaws using collapse cone convolution (cc convolution) model with a grid size of 4 mm, and compared with measured dose in a water phantom at 10 cm depth with a 0.6 cc thimble ion chamber FC-65-G and DOSEI electrometer for field sizes of 5*5, 10*10 and 20*20 cm 2 using IAEA dosimetry protocol TRS-398. The variation of measured and calculated doses at 10 cm depth were within 1%. The asymmetry jaws were successfully commissioned in pinnacle 3 .(Author)

  16. Tidal Turbines’ Layout in a Stream with Asymmetry and Misalignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Guillou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A refined assessment of tidal currents variability is a prerequisite for successful turbine deployment in the marine environment. However, the numerical evaluation of the tidal kinetic energy resource relies, most of the time, on integrated parameters, such as the averaged or maximum stream powers. Predictions from a high resolution three-dimensional model are exploited here to characterize the asymmetry and misalignment between the flood and ebb tidal currents in the “Raz de Sein”, a strait off western Brittany (France with strong potential for array development. A series of parameters is considered to assess resource variability and refine the cartography of local potential tidal stream energy sites. The strait is characterized by strong tidal flow divergence with currents’ asymmetry liable to vary output power by 60% over a tidal cycle. Pronounced misalignments over 20 ∘ are furthermore identified in a great part of energetic locations, and this may account for a deficit of the monthly averaged extractable energy by more than 12%. As sea space is limited for turbines, it is finally suggested to aggregate flood and ebb-dominant stream powers on both parts of the strait to output energy with reduced asymmetry.

  17. Gender differences in hemispheric asymmetry for face processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matarazzo Silvia

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current cognitive neuroscience models predict a right-hemispheric dominance for face processing in humans. However, neuroimaging and electromagnetic data in the literature provide conflicting evidence of a right-sided brain asymmetry for decoding the structural properties of faces. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether this inconsistency might be due to gender differences in hemispheric asymmetry. Results In this study, event-related brain potentials (ERPs were recorded in 40 healthy, strictly right-handed individuals (20 women and 20 men while they observed infants' faces expressing a variety of emotions. Early face-sensitive P1 and N1 responses to neutral vs. affective expressions were measured over the occipital/temporal cortices, and the responses were analyzed according to viewer gender. Along with a strong right hemispheric dominance for men, the results showed a lack of asymmetry for face processing in the amplitude of the occipito-temporal N1 response in women to both neutral and affective faces. Conclusion Men showed an asymmetric functioning of visual cortex while decoding faces and expressions, whereas women showed a more bilateral functioning. These results indicate the importance of gender effects in the lateralization of the occipito-temporal response during the processing of face identity, structure, familiarity, or affective content.

  18. Baryon asymmetry of the Universe in the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, G.R.; Shaposhnikov, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    We study the interactions of quarks and antiquarks with the changing Higgs field during the electroweak phase transition, including quantum mechanical and some thermal effects, with the only source of CP violation being the known CKM phase. We show that the GIM cancellation, which has been commonly thought to imply a prediction which is at least 10 orders of magnitude too small, can be evaded in certain kinematic regimes, for instance, when the strange quark is totally reflected but the down quark is not. We report on a quantitative calculation of the asymmetry in a one-dimensional approximation based on the present understanding of the physics of the high-temperature environment, but with some aspects of the problem oversimplified. The resulting prediction for the magnitude and sign of the present baryonic asymmetry of the Universe agrees with the observed value, with moderately optimistic assumptions about the dynamics of the phase transition. Both magnitude and sign of the asymmetry have an intricate dependence on quark masses and mixings, so that quantitative agreement between prediction and observation would be highly nontrivial. At present uncertainties related to the dynamics of the EW phase transition and the oversimplifications of our treatment are too great to decide whether or not this is the correct explanation for the presence of remnant matter in our Universe; however, the present work makes it clear that the minimal standard model cannot be discounted as a contender for explaining this phenomenon

  19. Effect of cephalometer misalignment on calculations of facial asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Heon; Hwang, Hyeon-Shik; Curry, Sean; Boyd, Robert L; Norris, Kevin; Baumrind, Sheldon

    2007-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated errors introduced into the interpretation of facial asymmetry on posteroanterior (PA) cephalograms due to malpositioning of the x-ray emitter focal spot. We tested the hypothesis that horizontal displacements of the emitter from its ideal position would produce systematic displacements of skull landmarks that could be fully accounted for by the rules of projective geometry alone. A representative dry skull with 22 metal markers was used to generate a series of PA images from different emitter positions by using a fully calibrated stereo cephalometer. Empirical measurements of the resulting cephalograms were compared with mathematical predictions based solely on geometric rules. The empirical measurements matched the mathematical predictions within the limits of measurement error (x= 0.23 mm), thus supporting the hypothesis. Based upon this finding, we generated a completely symmetrical mathematical skull and calculated the expected errors for focal spots of several different magnitudes. Quantitative data were computed for focal spot displacements of different magnitudes. Misalignment of the x-ray emitter focal spot introduces systematic errors into the interpretation of facial asymmetry on PA cephalograms. For misalignments of less than 20 mm, the effect is small in individual cases. However, misalignments as small as 10 mm can introduce spurious statistical findings of significant asymmetry when mean values for large groups of PA images are evaluated.

  20. Moral asymmetries in judgments of agency withstand ludicrous causal deviance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Paulo; Holbrook, Colin; Swiney, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Americans have been shown to attribute greater intentionality to immoral than to amoral actions in cases of causal deviance, that is, cases where a goal is satisfied in a way that deviates from initially planned means (e.g., a gunman wants to hit a target and his hand slips, but the bullet ricochets off a rock into the target). However, past research has yet to assess whether this asymmetry persists in cases of extreme causal deviance. Here, we manipulated the level of mild to extreme causal deviance of an immoral versus amoral act. The asymmetry in attributions of intentionality was observed at all but the most extreme level of causal deviance, and, as we hypothesized, was mediated by attributions of blame/credit and judgments of action performance. These findings are discussed as they support a multiple-concepts interpretation of the asymmetry, wherein blame renders a naïve concept of intentional action (the outcome matches the intention) more salient than a composite concept (the outcome matches the intention and was brought about by planned means), and in terms of their implications for cross-cultural research on judgments of agency. PMID:26441755

  1. Cell chirality: emergence of asymmetry from cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Leo Q; Chin, Amanda S; Worley, Kathryn E; Ray, Poulomi

    2016-12-19

    Increasing evidence suggests that intrinsic cell chirality significantly contributes to the left-right (LR) asymmetry in embryonic development, which is a well-conserved characteristic of living organisms. With animal embryos, several theories have been established, but there are still controversies regarding mechanisms associated with embryonic LR symmetry breaking and the formation of asymmetric internal organs. Recently, in vitro systems have been developed to determine cell chirality and to recapitulate multicellular chiral morphogenesis on a chip. These studies demonstrate that chirality is indeed a universal property of the cell that can be observed with well-controlled experiments such as micropatterning. In this paper, we discuss the possible benefits of these in vitro systems to research in LR asymmetry, categorize available platforms for single-cell chirality and multicellular chiral morphogenesis, and review mathematical models used for in vitro cell chirality and its applications in in vivo embryonic development. These recent developments enable the interrogation of the intracellular machinery in LR axis establishment and accelerate research in birth defects in laterality.This article is part of the themed issue 'Provocative questions in left-right asymmetry'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. A Matter of Degree: Strength of Brain Asymmetry and Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley J. Rogers

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on a growing number of vertebrate species has shown that the left and right sides of the brain process information in different ways and that lateralized brain function is expressed in both specific and broad aspects of behaviour. This paper reviews the available evidence relating strength of lateralization to behavioural/cognitive performance. It begins by considering the relationship between limb preference and behaviour in humans and primates from the perspectives of direction and strength of lateralization. In birds, eye preference is used as a reflection of brain asymmetry and the strength of this asymmetry is associated with behaviour important for survival (e.g., visual discrimination of food from non-food and performance of two tasks in parallel. The same applies to studies on aquatic species, mainly fish but also tadpoles, in which strength of lateralization has been assessed as eye preferences or turning biases. Overall, the empirical evidence across vertebrate species points to the conclusion that stronger lateralization is advantageous in a wide range of contexts. Brief discussion of interhemispheric communication follows together with discussion of experiments that examined the effects of sectioning pathways connecting the left and right sides of the brain, or of preventing the development of these left-right connections. The conclusion reached is that degree of functional lateralization affects behaviour in quite similar ways across vertebrate species. Although the direction of lateralization is also important, in many situations strength of lateralization matters more. Finally, possible interactions between asymmetry in different sensory modalities is considered.

  3. Top quark asymmetry from a non-Abelian horizontal symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Sunghoon; Wells, James D

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the persistence of a large measured top quark forward-backward asymmetry at the Tevatron, we examine a model of non-Abelian flavor gauge symmetry. The exchange of the gauge bosons in the $t$-channel can give a large $\\Afb$ due to the forward Rutherford scattering peak. We address generic constraints on non-Abelian $t$-channel physics models including flavor diagonal resonances and potentially dangerous contributions to inclusive top pair cross sections. We caution on the general difficulty of comparing theoretical predictions for top quark signals to the existing experimental results due to potentially important acceptance effects. The first signature at the Large Hadron Collider can be a large inclusive top pair cross section, or like-sign dilepton events, although the latter signal is much smaller than in Abelian models. Deviations of the invariant mass distributions at the LHC will also be promising signatures. A more direct consistency check of the Tevatron asymmetry through the LHC asymmetry...

  4. Asymmetry in species regional dispersal ability and the neutral theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Liu

    Full Text Available The neutral assumption that individuals of either the same or different species share exactly the same birth, death, migration, and speciation probabilities is fundamental yet controversial to the neutral theory. Several theoretical studies have demonstrated that a slight difference in species per capita birth or death rates can have a profound consequence on species coexistence and community structure. Whether asymmetry in migration, a vital demographic parameter in the neutral model, plays an important role in community assembly still remains unknown. In this paper, we relaxed the ecological equivalence assumption of the neutral model by introducing differences into species regional dispersal ability. We investigated the effect of asymmetric dispersal on the neutral local community structure. We found that per capita asymmetric dispersal among species could reduce species richness of the local community and result in deviations of species abundance distributions from those predicted by the neutral model. But the effect was moderate compared with that of asymmetries in birth or death rates, unless very large asymmetries in dispersal were assumed. A large difference in species dispersal ability, if there is, can overwhelm the role of random drift and make local community dynamics deterministic. In this case, species with higher regional dispersal abilities tended to dominate in the local community. However, the species abundance distribution of the local community under asymmetric dispersal could be well fitted by the neutral model, but the neutral model generally underestimated the fundamental biodiversity number but overestimated the migration rate in such communities.

  5. Lower Limb Neuromuscular Asymmetry in Volleyball and Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, Azahara; Gual, Gabriel; Romero-Rodriguez, Daniel; Unnitha, Viswanath

    2016-04-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the agreement between the dominant leg (DL) (determined subjectively) and the stronger leg (SL) (determined via a functional test) in a group of basketball and volleyball players. The secondary objective was to calculate lower limb neuromuscular asymmetry when comparing the DL vs the non-dominant leg (NDL) and the SL vs the weaker (WL) leg in the whole group and when differentiating by sex. Seventy-nine male and female volleyball and basketball players (age: 23.7 ± 4.5 years) performed three single-leg vertical countermovement jumps (SLVCJ) on a contact mat. Vertical jump height and an inter-limb asymmetry index (ASI) were determined. Only 32 (40%) of the subjects had a concordance between the perception of their dominant leg and the limb reaching the highest jump height. Using the DL as the discriminating variable, significant (pjump performance. Vertical jump asymmetry of 10-15% exists and this can be considered as a reference value for male and female basketball and volleyball players.

  6. Attentional sensitivity and asymmetries of vertical saccade generation in monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wu; King, W. M.; Shelhamer, M. J. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    The first goal of this study was to systematically document asymmetries in vertical saccade generation. We found that visually guided upward saccades have not only shorter latencies, but higher peak velocities, shorter durations and smaller errors. The second goal was to identify possible mechanisms underlying the asymmetry in vertical saccade latencies. Based on a recent model of saccade generation, three stages of saccade generation were investigated using specific behavioral paradigms: attention shift to a visual target (CUED paradigm), initiation of saccade generation (GAP paradigm) and release of the motor command to execute the saccade (DELAY paradigm). Our results suggest that initiation of a saccade (or "ocular disengagement") and its motor release contribute little to the asymmetry in vertical saccade latency. However, analysis of saccades made in the CUED paradigm indicated that it took less time to shift attention to a target in the upper visual field than to a target in the lower visual field. These data suggest that higher attentional sensitivity to targets in the upper visual field may contribute to shorter latencies of upward saccades.

  7. Using CSR to mitigate information asymmetry in the banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenescu Andreea

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the power of corporate social responsibility to reduce information asymmetry and to act as a marketing instrument in the banking sector. Trust is the most important asset of a bank. Therefore, banks are motivated to use the most effective instruments to diminish information asymmetry with their stakeholders. The fact that cash disbursements in CSR actions are not directed towards shareholders makes them more valuable signals to other stakeholders regarding the financial soundness of the bank. The empirical study conducted based on limited dependent variable models supports the effectiveness of the CSR as marketing instrument in banking. It reveals the circumstances associated to a higher probability of an active CSR policy conducted by a banking institution. The results support the hypothesis that in the banking sector CSR is perceived as an instrument which helps stakeholders reduce information asymmetry. As marketing instrument, CSR contributes to increasing the tangibility of the banking products, decreasing their perceived variability and thus making them more attractive for the clients and allowing for differentiation between competitors.

  8. Board effectiveness: Investigating payment asymmetry between board members and shareholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuchun Chi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Board members may well be responsible for dissension between themselves and shareholders since they are simultaneously the setters and receivers of both board remuneration and dividends. They may act out of their own personal interests at the expense of external shareholders. We investigate the impact of ownership structure, board structure and control deviation on payment asymmetry, where excessively high remuneration is paid to board members but considerably lower dividends are distributed to shareholders. We find strong evidence confirming that the smaller the shareholdings of board members and outside blockholders are, the more asymmetric the payments are. With controlling family members on the board and a higher percentage of seats held by independent board members, there is a slight reduction in the likelihood and severity of payment asymmetry. In addition, it is abundantly clear that the larger the board seat-control deviation is, the greater is the likelihood and severity of payment asymmetry. While prior research has primarily focused on board-manager agency issues, the board-shareholder perspective could be even more important in that it is the board that is the most directly delegated agent of shareholders, not the managers

  9. Directional asymmetries in human smooth pursuit eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Sally R; Lam, Jessica; Pai, Dinesh K; Spering, Miriam

    2013-06-27

    Humans make smooth pursuit eye movements to bring the image of a moving object onto the fovea. Although pursuit accuracy is critical to prevent motion blur, the eye often falls behind the target. Previous studies suggest that pursuit accuracy differs between motion directions. Here, we systematically assess asymmetries in smooth pursuit. In experiment 1, binocular eye movements were recorded while observers (n = 20) tracked a small spot of light moving along one of four cardinal or diagonal axes across a featureless background. We analyzed pursuit latency, acceleration, peak velocity, gain, and catch-up saccade latency, number, and amplitude. In experiment 2 (n = 22), we examined the effects of spatial location and constrained stimulus motion within the upper or lower visual field. Pursuit was significantly faster (higher acceleration, peak velocity, and gain) and smoother (fewer and later catch-up saccades) in response to downward versus upward motion in both the upper and the lower visual fields. Pursuit was also more accurate and smoother in response to horizontal versus vertical motion. CONCLUSIONS. Our study is the first to report a consistent up-down asymmetry in human adults, regardless of visual field. Our findings suggest that pursuit asymmetries are adaptive responses to the requirements of the visual context: preferred motion directions (horizontal and downward) are more critical to our survival than nonpreferred ones.

  10. Effects of memory load on hemispheric asymmetries of colour memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Wes; Kirk, Ian J; Hausmann, Markus

    2007-03-01

    Hemispheric asymmetries in colour perception have been a matter of debate for some time. Recent evidence suggests that lateralisation of colour processing may be largely task specific. Here we investigated hemispheric asymmetries during different types and phases of a delayed colour-matching (recognition) memory task. A total of 11 male and 12 female right-handed participants performed colour-memory tasks. The task involved presentation of a set of colour stimuli (encoding), and subsequent indication (forced choice) of which colours in a larger set had previously appeared at the retrieval or recognition phase. The effect of memory load (set size), and the effect of lateralisation at the encoding or retrieval phases were investigated. Overall, the results indicate a right hemisphere advantage in colour processing, which was particularly pronounced in high memory load conditions, and was seen in males rather than female participants. The results suggest that verbal (mnemonic) strategies can significantly affect the magnitude of hemispheric asymmetries in a non-verbal task.

  11. Using effect size to quantify plantar pressure asymmetry of gait of nondisabled adults and patients with hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potdevin, François J; Femery, Virginie G; Decatoire, Aurélien; Bosquet, Laurent; Coello, Yann; Moretto, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    In the literature, numerous statistical analyses are used to quantify asymmetry in gait. This study tested the effect size (ES) statistic for quantifying asymmetry in nondisabled and pathological populations. The plantar pressure peaks on eight footprint locations of 27 nondisabled subjects and 18 patients with hemiparesis were bilaterally compared. Asymmetry quantifications were performed with ES and standard statistical tests (index of asymmetry, symmetry index, and ratio index). The results show an advantage in using ES to quantify asymmetry when confidence limits are also calculated. Conversely, traditional asymmetry indexes immediately implied asymmetry without statistical basis. These findings should be considered when one is attempting to diagnose pathological walking patterns or guide rehabilitation processes.

  12. Transmembrane transporter expression regulated by the glucosylceramide pathway in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arpita; Rella, Antonella; Schwacke, John; Vacchi-Suzzi, Caterina; Luberto, Chiara; Del Poeta, Maurizio

    2015-11-16

    disrupt transmembrane signaling complex, which in turn contributes to cryptococcal osmotic, pH, ion homeostasis and its pathobiology. Six genes identified from gene expression microarrays by gene set enrichment analysis and validated by RT-PCR, are membrane located and associated with the growth defect at neutral-alkaline pH due to the absence and or presence of a structurally modified GlcCer. They may be involved in the transmembrane signaling network in Cryptococcus neoformans, and therefore the pathobiology of the fungus in these conditions.

  13. New tuning method of the low-mode asymmetry for ignition capsule implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Jianfa; Dai, Zhensheng; Zou, Shiyang; Song, Peng; Ye, Wenhua; Zheng, Wudi; Gu, Peijun

    2015-01-01

    In the deuterium-tritium inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility, the hot spot and the surrounding main fuel layer show obvious P2 asymmetries. This may be caused by the large positive P2 radiation flux asymmetry during the peak pulse resulting form the poor propagation of the inner laser beam in the gas-filled hohlraum. The symmetry evolution of ignition capsule implosions is investigated by applying P2 radiation flux asymmetries during different time intervals. A series of two-dimensional simulation results show that a positive P2 flux asymmetry during the peak pulse results in a positive P2 shell ρR asymmetry; while an early time positive P2 flux asymmetry causes a negative P2 in the fuel ρR shape. The opposite evolution behavior of shell ρR asymmetry is used to develop a new tuning method to correct the radiation flux asymmetry during the peak pulse by adding a compensating same-phased P2 drive asymmetry during the early time. The significant improvements of the shell ρR symmetry, hot spot shape, hot spot internal energy, and neutron yield indicate that the tuning method is quite effective. The similar tuning method can also be used to control the early time drive asymmetries

  14. Frontal brain asymmetry in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): extending the motivational dysfunction hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keune, Philipp M; Wiedemann, Eva; Schneidt, Alexander; Schönenberg, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) involves motivational dysfunction, characterized by excessive behavioral approach tendencies. Frontal brain asymmetry in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) in resting-state electroencephalogram (EEG) represents a neural correlate of global motivational tendencies, and abnormal asymmetry, indicating elevated approach motivation, was observed in pediatric and adult patients. To date, the relation between ADHD symptoms, depression and alpha asymmetry, its temporal metric properties and putative gender-specificity remain to be explored. Adult ADHD patients (n=52) participated in two resting-state EEG recordings, two weeks apart. Asymmetry measures were aggregated across recordings to increase trait specificity. Putative region-specific associations between asymmetry, ADHD symptoms and depression, its gender-specificity and test-retest reliability were examined. ADHD symptoms were associated with approach-related asymmetry (stronger relative right-frontal alpha power). Approach-related asymmetry was pronounced in females, and also associated with depression. The latter association was mediated by ADHD symptoms. Test-retest reliability was sufficient. The association between reliably assessable alpha asymmetry and ADHD symptoms supports the motivational dysfunction hypothesis. ADHD symptoms mediating an atypical association between asymmetry and depression may be attributed to depression arising secondary to ADHD. Gender-specific findings require replication. Frontal alpha asymmetry may represent a new reliable marker of ADHD symptoms. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Accelerated SDS depletion from proteins by transmembrane electrophoresis: Impacts of Joule heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterlander, Nicole; Doucette, Alan Austin

    2018-02-08

    SDS plays a key role in proteomics workflows, including protein extraction, solubilization and mass-based separations (e.g. SDS-PAGE, GELFrEE). However, SDS interferes with mass spectrometry and so it must be removed prior to analysis. We recently introduced an electrophoretic platform, termed transmembrane electrophoresis (TME), enabling extensive depletion of SDS from proteins in solution with exceptional protein yields. However, our prior TME runs required 1 h to complete, being limited by Joule heating which causes protein aggregation at higher operating currents. Here, we demonstrate effective strategies to maintain lower TME sample temperatures, permitting accelerated SDS depletion. Among these strategies, the use of a magnetic stir bar to continuously agitate a model protein system (BSA) allows SDS to be depleted below 100 ppm (>98% removal) within 10 min of TME operations, while maintaining exceptional protein recovery (>95%). Moreover, these modifications allow TME to operate without any user intervention, improving throughput and robustness of the approach. Through fits of our time-course SDS depletion curves to an exponential model, we calculate SDS depletion half-lives as low as 1.2 min. This promising electrophoretic platform should provide proteomics researchers with an effective purification strategy to enable MS characterization of SDS-containing proteins. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Effects of centrifugation on transmembrane water loss from normal and pathologic erythrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaperonis, A.A.; Chien, S.

    1989-02-01

    Plasma /sup 125/I-albumin was used as a marker of extracellular dilution in order to study the effect of high-speed centrifugation on transmembrane water distribution in several types of human red cells, including normal (AA), hemoglobin variants (beta A, AS, SC, beta S, and SS), and those from patients with hereditary spherocytosis. SS and AA erythrocytes were also examined for changes in intracellular hemoglobin concentration of three different density fractions and with increasing duration of spin. The minimum force and duration of centrifugation required to impair water permeability were found to vary with the red cell type, the anticoagulant used (heparin or EDTA), the initial hematocrit of the sample centrifuged, as well as among the individual erythrocyte fractions within the same sample. When subjecting pathologic erythrocytes to high-speed centrifugation, the /sup 125/I-albumin dilution technique can be used to determine whether the centrifugation procedure has led to an artifactual red cell water loss and to correct for this when it does occur. An abnormal membrane susceptibility to mechanical stress was demonstrated in erythrocytes from patients with hereditary spherocytosis and several hemoglobinopathies.

  17. Fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 is required for normal fat storage in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Diego A; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Nguyen, Long N; Cheng, Wang; Tan, Bryan C; Goh, Vera J; Tan, Jolene S Y; Yaligar, Jadegoud; Kn, Bhanu Prakash; Velan, S Sendhil; Wang, Hongyan; Silver, David L

    2014-04-04

    Triglycerides within the cytosol of cells are stored in a phylogenetically conserved organelle called the lipid droplet (LD). LDs can be formed at the endoplasmic reticulum, but mechanisms that regulate the formation of LDs are incompletely understood. Adipose tissue has a high capacity to form lipid droplets and store triglycerides. Fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 (FITM2/FIT2) is highly expressed in adipocytes, and data indicate that FIT2 has an important role in the formation of LDs in cells, but whether FIT2 has a physiological role in triglyceride storage in adipose tissue remains unproven. Here we show that adipose-specific deficiency of FIT2 (AF2KO) in mice results in progressive lipodystrophy of white adipose depots and metabolic dysfunction. In contrast, interscapular brown adipose tissue of AF2KO mice accumulated few but large LDs without changes in cellular triglyceride levels. High fat feeding of AF2KO mice or AF2KO mice on the genetically obese ob/ob background accelerated the onset of lipodystrophy. At the cellular level, primary adipocyte precursors of white and brown adipose tissue differentiated in vitro produced fewer but larger LDs without changes in total cellular triglyceride or triglyceride biosynthesis. These data support the conclusion that FIT2 plays an essential, physiological role in fat storage in vivo.

  18. Self-Assembling Organic Nanopores as Synthetic Transmembrane Channels with Tunable Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoxi

    A long-standing goal in the area of supramolecular self-assembly involves the development of synthetic ion/water channels capable of mimicking the mass-transport characteristics of biological channels and pores. Few examples of artificial transmembrane channels with large lumen, high conductivity and selectivity are known. A review of pronounced biological transmembrane protein channels and some representative synthetic models have been provided in Chapter 1, followed by our discovery and initial investigation of shape-persistent oligoamide and phenylene ethynylene macrocycles as synthetic ion/water channels. In Chapter 2, the systematic structural modification of oligoamide macrocycles 1, the so-called first-generation of these shape-persistent macrocycles, has led to third-generation macrocycles 3. The third generation was found to exhibit unprecedented, strong intermolecular association in both the solid state and solution via multiple techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, and 1H NMR. Fluorescence spectroscopy paired with dynamic light scattering (DLS) revealed that macrocycles 3 can assemble into a singly dispersed nanotubular structure in solution. The resultant self-assembling pores consisting of 3 were examined by HPTS-LUVs assays and BLM studies (Chapter 3) and found to form cation-selective (PK+/PCl- = 69:1) transmembrane ion channels with large conductance (200 ˜ 2000 pS for alkali cations) and high stability with open times reaching to 103 seconds. Tuning the aggregation state of macrocycles by choosing an appropriate polar solvent mixture (i.e., 3:1, THF:DMF, v/v) and concentration led to the formation of ion channels with well-defined square top behavior. A parallel study using DLS to examine the size of aggregates was used in conjunction with channel activity assays (LUVs/BLM) to reveal the effects of the aggregation state on channel activity. Empirical evidence now clearly indicates that a preassembled state, perhaps that of a

  19. The position of the Gly-xxx-Gly motif in transmembrane segments modulates dimer affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rachel M; Rath, Arianna; Deber, Charles M

    2006-12-01

    Although the intrinsic low solubility of membrane proteins presents challenges to their high-resolution structure determination, insight into the amino acid sequence features and forces that stabilize their folds has been provided through study of sequence-dependent helix-helix interactions between single transmembrane (TM) helices. While the stability of helix-helix partnerships mediated by the Gly-xxx-Gly (GG4) motif is known to be generally modulated by distal interfacial residues, it has not been established whether the position of this motif, with respect to the ends of a given TM segment, affects dimer affinity. Here we examine the relationship between motif position and affinity in the homodimers of 2 single-spanning membrane protein TM sequences: glycophorin A (GpA) and bacteriophage M13 coat protein (MCP). Using the TOXCAT assay for dimer affinity on a series of GpA and MCP TM segments that have been modified with either 4 Leu residues at each end or with 8 Leu residues at the N-terminal end, we show that in each protein, centrally located GG4 motifs are capable of stronger helix-helix interactions than those proximal to TM helix ends, even when surrounding interfacial residues are maintained. The relative importance of GG4 motifs in stabilizing helix-helix interactions therefore must be considered not only in its specific residue context but also in terms of the location of the interactive surface relative to the N and C termini of alpha-helical TM segments.

  20. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator intracellular processing, trafficking, and opportunities for mutation-specific treatment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rogan, Mark P

    2012-02-01

    Recent advances in basic science have greatly expanded our understanding of the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the chloride and bicarbonate channel that is encoded by the gene, which is mutated in patients with CF. We review the structure, function, biosynthetic processing, and intracellular trafficking of CFTR and discuss the five classes of mutations and their impact on the CF phenotype. The therapeutic discussion is focused on the significant progress toward CFTR mutation-specific therapies. We review the results of encouraging clinical trials examining orally administered therapeutics, including agents that promote read-through of class I mutations (premature termination codons); correctors, which overcome the CFTR misfolding that characterizes the common class II mutation F508del; and potentiators, which enhance the function of class III or IV mutated CFTR at the plasma membrane. Long-term outcomes from successful mutation-specific treatments could finally answer the question that has been lingering since and even before the CFTR gene discovery: Will therapies that specifically restore CFTR-mediated chloride secretion slow or arrest the deleterious cascade of events leading to chronic infection, bronchiectasis, and end-stage lung disease?