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Sample records for galactosylceramide transmembrane asymmetry

  1. Intrinsic potential of cell membranes: opposite effects of lipid transmembrane asymmetry and asymmetric salt ion distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurtovenko, Andrey A; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2009-01-01

    Using atomic-scale molecular dynamics simulations, we consider the intrinsic cell membrane potential that is found to originate from a subtle interplay between lipid transmembrane asymmetry and the asymmetric distribution of monovalent salt ions on the two sides of the cell membrane. It turns out...

  2. Nasopupillary asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Eduardo; Muñoz, Diana; Matheus, Evelyn; Morales, Diana

    2014-01-01

    To establish the prevalence of nasopupillary asymmetry (difference in nasopupillary distances) in the population and its relation with the interpupillary distance. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted by reviewing of 1262 medical records. The values of nasopupillary asymmetry and the interpupillary distance were obtained. A statistical analysis was made and the correlation between these variables was established. Seventy-nine percent of the population presented some degree of nasopupillary asymmetry. The interpupillary distance had a very low correlation with the nasopupillary asymmetry (r = 0.074, P = 0.0). It is advisable to use the nasopupillary distance of each eye as a standard measurement.

  3. Inclusive asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    The polarized proton beam was used to measure left-right asymmetries for the reactions p + p → p, K +- , π +- + anything and also some information on the reaction p + n → p, K +- , π + + anything are presented. The incident momentum is 11.8 GeV/c. The data are preliminary. Six references

  4. Transmembrane Signaling Proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, John R

    2010-01-01

    and their glycosaminoglycan chains is matched by diverse functions. However, all assume roles as coreceptors, often working alongside high-affinity growth factor receptors or adhesion receptors such as integrins. Other common themes are an ability to signal through their cytoplasmic domains, often to the actin cytoskeleton......, and linkage to PDZ protein networks. Many transmembrane proteoglycans associate on the cell surface with metzincin proteases and can be shed by them. Work with model systems in vivo and in vitro reveal roles in growth, adhesion, migration, and metabolism. Furthermore, a wide range of phenotypes for the core...

  5. α-Galactosylceramide protects mice from lethal Coxsackievirus B3 infection and subsequent myocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C Y; Feng, Y; Qian, G C; Wu, J H; Luo, J; Wang, Y; Chen, G J; Guo, X K; Wang, Z J

    2010-10-01

    Myocarditis is an inflammation of the myocardium which often follows virus infections. Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), as a marker of the enterovirus group, is one of the most important infectious agents of virus-induced myocarditis. Using a CVB3-induced myocarditis model, we show that injection α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), a ligand for invariant natural killer (NK) T (iNK T) cells, can protect the mice from viral myocarditis. After the systemic administration of α-GalCer in CVB3 infected mice, viral transcription and titres in mouse heart, sera and spleen were reduced, and the damage to the heart was ameliorated. This is accompanied by a better disease course with an improved weight loss profile. Compared with untreated mice, α-GalCer-treated mice showed high levels of interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-4, and reduced proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in their cardiac tissue. Anti-viral immune response was up-regulated by α-GalCer. Three days after CVB3 infection, α-GalCer-administered mice had larger spleens. Besides NK T cells, more macrophages and CD8(+) T cells were found in these spleens. Upon stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate plus ionomycin, splenocytes from α-GalCer-treated mice produced significantly more cytokines [including IFN-γ, tumour necrosis factor-α, IL-4 and IL-10] than those from untreated mice. These data suggest that administration of α-GalCer during acute CVB3 infection is able to protect the mice from lethal myocarditis by local changes in inflammatory cytokine patterns and enhancement of anti-viral immune response at the early stage. α-GalCer is a potential candidate for viral myocarditis treatment. Our work supports the use of anti-viral treatment early to reduce the incidence of virus-mediated heart damage. © 2010 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Immunology © 2010 British Society for Immunology.

  6. Production of α-galactosylceramide by a prominent member of the human gut microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C Wieland Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available While the human gut microbiota are suspected to produce diffusible small molecules that modulate host signaling pathways, few of these molecules have been identified. Species of Bacteroides and their relatives, which often comprise >50% of the gut community, are unusual among bacteria in that their membrane is rich in sphingolipids, a class of signaling molecules that play a key role in inducing apoptosis and modulating the host immune response. Although known for more than three decades, the full repertoire of Bacteroides sphingolipids has not been defined. Here, we use a combination of genetics and chemistry to identify the sphingolipids produced by Bacteroides fragilis NCTC 9343. We constructed a deletion mutant of BF2461, a putative serine palmitoyltransferase whose yeast homolog catalyzes the committed step in sphingolipid biosynthesis. We show that the Δ2461 mutant is sphingolipid deficient, enabling us to purify and solve the structures of three alkaline-stable lipids present in the wild-type strain but absent from the mutant. The first compound was the known sphingolipid ceramide phosphorylethanolamine, and the second was its corresponding dihydroceramide base. Unexpectedly, the third compound was the glycosphingolipid α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer(Bf, which is structurally related to a sponge-derived sphingolipid (α-GalCer, KRN7000 that is the prototypical agonist of CD1d-restricted natural killer T (iNKT cells. We demonstrate that α-GalCer(Bf has similar immunological properties to KRN7000: it binds to CD1d and activates both mouse and human iNKT cells both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, our study reveals BF2461 as the first known member of the Bacteroides sphingolipid pathway, and it indicates that the committed steps of the Bacteroides and eukaryotic sphingolipid pathways are identical. Moreover, our data suggest that some Bacteroides sphingolipids might influence host immune homeostasis.

  7. Ex-vivo α-galactosylceramide activation of NKT cells in humans and macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Caroline S; Cameron, Garth; Godfrey, Dale I; Kent, Stephen J

    2012-08-31

    NKT cells are key mediators of antiviral and anticancer immunity. Experiments in mice have demonstrated that activation of NKT cells in vivo induces the expression of multiple effector molecules critical to successful immunity. Human clinical trials have shown similar responses, although in vivo activation of NKT cells in humans or primate models are far more limited in number and scope. Measuring ex vivo activation of NKT cells by the CD1d-restricted glycolipid ligand α-Galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) through cytokine expression profiles is a useful marker of NKT cell function, but for reasons that are unclear, this approach does not appear to work as well in humans and non-human primate macaque models in comparison to mice. We performed a series of experiments on human and macaque (Macaca nemestrina) fresh whole blood samples to define optimal conditions to detect NKT cell cytokine (TNF, IFNγ, IL-2) and degranulation marker (CD107a) expression by flow cytometry. We found that conditions previously described for mouse splenocyte NKT cell activation were suboptimal on human or macaque blood NKT cells. In contrast, a 6h incubation with brefeldin A added for the last 4h, in a 96-well plate based assay, and using an α-GalCer concentration of 1 μg/ml were optimal methods to stimulate NKT cells in fresh blood from both humans and macaques. Unexpectedly, we noted that blood NKT cells from macaques infected with SIV were more readily activated by α-GalCer than NKT cells from uninfected macaques, suggesting that SIV infection may have primed the NKT cells. In conclusion, we describe optimized methods for the ex vivo antigen-specific activation of human and macaque blood NKT cells. These assays should be useful in monitoring NKT cells in disease and in immunotherapy studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Puzzling asymmetries

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In a recently published paper, the LHCb Collaboration has reported on a possible deviation from the Standard Model. Theorists are now working to calculate precisely this effect and to evaluate the implications that such unexpected result could have on the established theory.   The Standard Model is able to predict the decay rates of particles with high precision. In most cases, experimentalists confirm the value predicted by theory and the figure is added to the official publications. However, this time, things seem to have taken a different route. Studying data collected in 2011, the LHCb Collaboration found that in a specific decay – a B particle transforming into a K particle plus two charged muons (B -> Kμ-μ+) – the branching ratio of the neutral B in the corresponding decay (i.e. B0 -> K0μ-μ+) is different from that of the positively charged B (i.e. B+ -> K+μ-μ+). Such an “isospin asymmetry&rdquo...

  9. Specific tritium labelling of glucosyl- and galactosylceramides at the 6-position of the carbohydrate moiety using CrO3-graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usuki, S.; Nagai, Y.

    1986-01-01

    A new procedure for introducing tritium into the carbohydrate portions of glucosyl- and galactosylceramides was developed using a new catalyst, CrO3-graphite, which specifically oxidizes the primary alcohol group to the aldehyde. About 10% of the glycolipid was converted to the aldehyde and the aldehyde produced was then reduced back to the original form with KB3H4. After methanolysis, more than 96.7% of the radioactivities of [3H]glucosyl- and [3H]galactosylceramides were found to be located in the carbohydrate portions, and the specific activities of the [3H]galactosyl- and [3H]glucosylceramides were 2.08 to 4.30 X 10(4) cpm/nmol, which could be increased greatly by purifying the aldehydes and reducing them with KB3H4. In addition, beta-galactosidase activity was successfully determined with [3H]galactosylceramide as the enzyme substrate; the Km was 18.73 mM and the Vmax was 11.63 nmol/mg/h, indicating that no significant structural modification occurs during the oxidation

  10. What Can We Learn about Cholesterol's Transmembrane Distribution Based on Cholesterol-Induced Changes in Membrane Dipole Potential?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Falkovich, S. G.; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Nesterenko, A. M.; Vattulainen, I.; Gurtovenko, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 22 (2016), s. 4585-4590 ISSN 1948-7185 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : membrane * cholesterol * membrane asymmetry * membrane dipole potential * transmembrane distribution Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 9.353, year: 2016

  11. Enhancement of Mucosal Immunogenicity of Viral Vectored Vaccines by the NKT Cell Agonist Alpha-Galactosylceramide as Adjuvant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailbala Singh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gene-based vaccination strategies, specifically viral vectors encoding vaccine immunogens are effective at priming strong immune responses. Mucosal routes offer practical advantages for vaccination by ease of needle-free administration, and immunogen delivery at readily accessible oral/nasal sites to efficiently induce immunity at distant gut and genital tissues. However, since mucosal tissues are inherently tolerant for induction of immune responses, incorporation of adjuvants for optimal mucosal vaccination strategies is important. We report here the effectiveness of alpha-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer, a synthetic glycolipid agonist of natural killer T (NKT cells, as an adjuvant for enhancing immunogenicity of vaccine antigens delivered using viral vectors by mucosal routes in murine and nonhuman primate models. Significant improvement in adaptive immune responses in systemic and mucosal tissues was observed by including α-GalCer adjuvant for intranasal immunization of mice with vesicular stomatitis virus vector encoding the model antigen ovalbumin and adenoviral vectors expressing HIV env and Gag antigens. Activation of NKT cells in systemic and mucosal tissues along with significant increases in adaptive immune responses were observed in rhesus macaques immunized by intranasal and sublingual routes with protein or adenovirus vectored antigens when combined with α-GalCer adjuvant. These results support the utility of α-GalCer adjuvant for enhancing immunogenicity of mucosal vaccines delivered using viral vectors.

  12. Natural Killer Dendritic Cells Enhance Immune Responses Elicited by α-Galactosylceramide-Stimulated Natural Killer T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Won Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer dendritic cells (NKDCs possess potent anti-tumor activity, but the cellular effect of NKDC interactions with other innate immune cells is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that the interaction of NKDCs and natural killer T (NKT cells is required for the anti-tumor immune responses that are elicited by α-galactosylceramide (α-GC in mice. The rapid and strong expression of interferon-γ by NKDCs after α-GC stimulation was dependent on NKT cells. Various NK and DC molecular markers and cytotoxic molecules were up-regulated following α-GC administration. This up-regulation could improve NKDC presentation of tumor antigens and increase cytotoxicity against tumor cells. NKDCs were required for the stimulation of DCs, NK cells, and NKT cells. The strong anti-tumor immune responses elicited by α-GC may be due to the down-regulation of regulatory T cells. Furthermore, the depletion of NKDCs dampened the tumor clearance mediated by α-GC-stimulated NKT cells in vivo. Taken together, these results indicate that complex interactions of innate immune cells might be required to achieve optimal anti-tumor immune responses during the early stages of tumorigenesis.

  13. Asymmetries at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartos, Pavol [Comenius U.

    2014-10-28

    In this report, we summarize the latest results of the top-quark pair production asymmetry and present the new result of bottom-quark pair production asymmetry. By looking at the results obtained by the CDF experiment, one can see a discrepancy in both $t\\bar{t}$ inclusive and lepton-based measurements. The D0 results of the $t\\bar{t}$ production asymmetry are compatible with the standard-model predictions as well as with the CDF results. The CDF measurement of $b\\bar{b}$ production asymmetry presents consistency with both zero and with the standard-model predictions.

  14. Liposomal α-galactosylceramide is taken up by gut-associated lymphoid tissue and stimulates local and systemic immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Kan; McDowell, Arlene; Ishii, Yasuyuki; Hook, Sarah

    2017-12-01

    α-Galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), a synthetic glycosphingolipid that exhibits potent immunostimulatory effects through activation of natural killer T (NKT) cells, can be used to treat conditions such as atopy, cancer, infection and autoimmunity. Administration of therapeutics through the oral route has advantages such as patient convenience, safety and reduced cost; however, there has been little research to investigate whether oral delivery of α-GalCer is possible. The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether α-GalCer formulated in either DMSO/Tween 80 or in liposomes, could access lymphoid tissue and stimulate immune activation following oral administration. Fluorescently labelled cationic liposomes incorporating α-GalCer were prepared, characterized and administered by oral gavage to fasted mice. Liposomes were detected inside the Peyer's patches (PPs), in the subepithelial dome just under the follicle-associated epithelium. CD11b + cells and CD11c + were shown to have taken up the formulation in a higher proportion compared to the total cell proportion in the PPs, suggesting that cells with these markers may be the prominent antigen-presenting cells involved in selective uptake. Finally, the liposomal formulation demonstrated a higher degree of immune stimulation compared to the DMSO/Tween 80 solubilized α-GalCer in the PPs, mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen as shown by the increased expression of IL-4 mRNA expression and increased proportion of NKT cells at 6 h and 3 days after administration. These results show that oral delivery of a liposomal α-GalCer can stimulate local and systemic immune responses to a different degree compared to the non-liposomal form. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  15. Anti-inflammatory effects of α-galactosylceramide analogs in activated microglia: involvement of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Hui Jeong

    Full Text Available Microglial activation plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, anti-inflammatory agents that control microglial activation can serve as potential therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we designed and synthesized α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer analogs to exert anti-inflammatory effects in activated microglia. We performed biological evaluations of 25 α-GalCer analogs and observed an interesting preliminary structure-activity relationship in their inhibitory influence on NO release and TNF-α production in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. After identification of 4d and 4e as hit compounds, we further investigated the underlying mechanism of their anti-inflammatory effects using RT-PCR analysis. We confirmed that 4d and 4e regulate the expression of iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, and IL-6 at the mRNA level and the expression of TNF-α at the post-transcriptional level. In addition, both 4d and 4e inhibited LPS-induced DNA binding activities of NF-κB and AP-1 and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK without affecting other MAP kinases. When we examined the anti-inflammatory effect of a p38 MAPK-specific inhibitor, SB203580, on microglial activation, we observed an identical inhibitory pattern as that of 4d and 4e, not only on NO and TNF-α production but also on the DNA binding activities of NF-κB and AP-1. Taken together, these results suggest that p38 MAPK plays an important role in the anti-inflammatory effects of 4d and 4e via the modulation of NF-κB and AP-1 activities.

  16. Therapy for minimal residual tumour disease: beta-galactosylceramide inhibits growth of recurrent HPV16-associated neoplasms after surgery and chemotherapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šímová, Jana; Indrová, Marie; Bieblová, Jana; Mikyšková, Romana; Bubeník, Jan; Reiniš, Milan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 126, č. 12 (2010), s. 2997-3004 ISSN 0020-7136 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/06/0774; GA AV ČR IAA500520807; GA ČR GA301/07/1410; GA ČR GA301/09/1024 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 18933 - CLINIGENE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : beta-galactosylceramide * tumour immunotherapy * NKT cells Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.926, year: 2010

  17. Activation of Invariant NKT cells with glycolipid ligand α-galactosylceramide ameliorates glucose-6-phosphate isomerase peptide-induced arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanobu Horikoshi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Invariant natural killer T (iNKT cells regulate collagen-induced arthritis (CIA when activated by their potent glycolipid ligand, alpha-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer. Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI-induced arthritis is a closer model of human rheumatoid arthritis based on its association with CD4+ T cells and cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6 than CIA. Dominant T cell epitope peptide of GPI (GPI325-339 can induce arthritis similar to GPI-induced arthritis. In this study, we investigated the roles of activation of iNKT cells by α-GalCer in GPI peptide-induced arthritis. METHODS: Arthritis was induced in susceptible DBA1 mice with GPI peptide and its severity was assessed clinically. The arthritic mice were treated with either the vehicle (DMSO or α-GalCer. iNKT cells were detected in draining lymph nodes (dLNs by flow cytometry, while serum anti-GPI antibody levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To evaluate GPI peptide-specific cytokine production from CD4+ T cells, immunized mice were euthanized and dLN CD4+ cells were re-stimulated by GPI-peptide in the presence of antigen-presenting cells. RESULTS: α-GalCer induced iNKT cell expansion in dLNs and significantly decreased the severity of GPI peptide-induced arthritis. In α-GalCer-treated mice, anti-GPI antibody production (total IgG, IgG1, IgG2b and IL-17, IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-α produced by GPI peptide-specific T cells were significantly suppressed at day 10. Moreover, GPI-reactive T cells from mice immunized with GPI and α-GalCer did not generate any cytokines even when these cells were co-cultured with APC from mice immunized with GPI alone. In vitro depletion of iNKT cells did not alter the suppressive effect of α-GalCer on CD4+ T cells. CONCLUSION: α-GalCer significantly suppressed GPI peptide-induced arthritis through the suppression of GPI-specific CD4+ T cells.

  18. Dissymmetry and Asymmetry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 8. Dissymmetry and Asymmetry - A Hopeless Conflict in Chemical Literature. Chandan Saha Suchandra Chakraborty. General Article Volume 17 Issue 8 August 2012 pp 768-778 ...

  19. Biophysical Aspects of Transmembrane Signaling

    CERN Document Server

    Damjanovich, Sandor

    2005-01-01

    Transmembrane signaling is one of the most significant cell biological events in the life and death of cells in general and lymphocytes in particular. Until recently biochemists and biophysicists were not accustomed to thinking of these processes from the side of a high number of complex biochemical events and an equally high number of physical changes at molecular and cellular levels at the same time. Both types of researchers were convinced that their findings are the most decisive, having higher importance than the findings of the other scientist population. Both casts were wrong. Life, even at cellular level, has a number of interacting physical and biochemical mechanisms, which finally build up the creation of an "excited" cell that will respond to particular signals from the outer or inner world. This book handles both aspects of the signalling events, and in some cases tries to unify our concepts and help understand the signals that govern the life and death of our cells. Not only the understanding, bu...

  20. Symmetry, asymmetry and dissymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wackenheim, A.; Zollner, G.

    1987-01-01

    The authors discuss the concept of symmetry and defect of symmetry in radiological imaging and recall the definition of asymmetry (congenital or constitutional) and dissymmetry (acquired). They then describe a rule designed for the cognitive method of automatic evaluation of shape recognition data and propose the use of reversal symmetry [fr

  1. Lepton asymmetry in B decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfenstein, L.

    1998-01-01

    An estimate of the possible magnitude of the lepton asymmetry in B d decay is given in terms of observables. The asymmetry in B s decays is also discussed. It is concluded that the lepton asymmetry is not useful for detecting new physics in B-bar B mixing. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  2. Accurate computational design of multipass transmembrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peilong; Min, Duyoung; DiMaio, Frank; Wei, Kathy Y; Vahey, Michael D; Boyken, Scott E; Chen, Zibo; Fallas, Jorge A; Ueda, George; Sheffler, William; Mulligan, Vikram Khipple; Xu, Wenqing; Bowie, James U; Baker, David

    2018-03-02

    The computational design of transmembrane proteins with more than one membrane-spanning region remains a major challenge. We report the design of transmembrane monomers, homodimers, trimers, and tetramers with 76 to 215 residue subunits containing two to four membrane-spanning regions and up to 860 total residues that adopt the target oligomerization state in detergent solution. The designed proteins localize to the plasma membrane in bacteria and in mammalian cells, and magnetic tweezer unfolding experiments in the membrane indicate that they are very stable. Crystal structures of the designed dimer and tetramer-a rocket-shaped structure with a wide cytoplasmic base that funnels into eight transmembrane helices-are very close to the design models. Our results pave the way for the design of multispan membrane proteins with new functions. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  3. Asymmetry, Symmetry and Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbe R. Kopra

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetry and symmetry coexist in natural and human processes.  The vital role of symmetry in art has been well demonstrated. This article highlights the complementary role of asymmetry. Further we show that the interaction of asymmetric action (recursion and symmetric opposition (sinusoidal waves are instrumental in generating creative features (relatively low entropy, temporal complexity, novelty (less recurrence in the data than in randomized copies and complex frequency composition. These features define Bios, a pattern found in musical compositions and in poetry, except for recurrence instead of novelty. Bios is a common pattern in many natural and human processes (quantum processes, the expansion of the universe, gravitational waves, cosmic microwave background radiation, DNA, physiological processes, animal and human populations, and economic time series. The reduction in entropy is significant, as it reveals creativity and contradicts the standard claim of unavoidable decay towards disorder. Artistic creations capture fundamental features of the world.

  4. Bessel Weighted Asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, Harut [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Gamberg, Leonard [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Rossi, Patrizia [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Prokudin, Alexei [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    We review the concept of Bessel weighted asymmetries for semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and focus on the cross section in Fourier space, conjugate to the outgoing hadron’s transverse momentum, where convolutions of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions and fragmentation functions become simple products. Individual asymmetric terms in the cross section can be projected out by means of a generalized set of weights involving Bessel functions. The procedure is applied to studies of the double longitudinal spin asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a new dedicated Monte Carlo generator which includes quark intrinsic transverse momentum within the generalized parton model. We observe a few percent systematic offset of the Bessel-weighted asymmetry obtained from Monte Carlo extraction compared to input model calculations, which is due to the limitations imposed by the energy and momentum conservation at the given energy and hard scale Q2. We find that the Bessel weighting technique provides a powerful and reliable tool to study the Fourier transform of TMDs with controlled systematics due to experimental acceptances and resolutions with different TMD model inputs.

  5. Strength Asymmetry Increases Gait Asymmetry and Variability in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRoche, Dain P.; Cook, Summer B.; Mackala, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the research was to determine how knee extensor strength asymmetry influences gait asymmetry and variability since these gait parameters have been related to mobility and falls in older adults. Methods Strength of the knee extensors was measured in 24 older women (65 – 80 yr). Subjects were separated into symmetrical strength (SS, n = 13) and asymmetrical strength (SA, n = 11) groups using an asymmetry cutoff of 20%. Subjects walked at a standard speed of 0.8 m s−1 and at maximal speed on an instrumented treadmill while kinetic and spatiotemporal gait variables were measured. Gait and strength asymmetry were calculated as the percent difference between legs and gait variability as the coefficient of variation over twenty sequential steps. Results SA had greater strength asymmetry (27.4 ± 5.5%) than SS (11.7 ± 5.4%, P speeds, SA had greater single (7.1% vs. 2.5%) and double-limb support time asymmetry (7.0 vs. 4.3%) than SS and greater single-limb support time variability (9.7% vs. 6.6%, all P speed interactions occurred for weight acceptance force variability (P = 0.02) and weight acceptance force asymmetry (P = 0.017) with greater variability at the maximal speed in SA (5.0 ± 2.4% vs. 3.7 ± 1.2%) and greater asymmetry at the maximal speed in SA (6.4 ± 5.3% vs. 2.5 ± 2.3%). Conclusion Gait variability and asymmetry are greater in older women with strength asymmetry and increase when they walk near their maximal capacities. The maintenance of strength symmetry, or development of symmetry through unilateral exercise, may be beneficial in reducing gait asymmetry, gait variability, and fall risk in older adults. PMID:22617401

  6. LHCb Semileptonic Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Vesterinen, Mika

    2013-01-01

    A recent LHCb measurement of the CP violating flavour specific asymmetry in $B_s^0$ decays, $a^s_{ls}$, is presented. This measurement is based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1 fb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ $=$ 7 TeV, collected during the 2011 run of the LHC. The result is $a^s_{ls} = (-0.24 \\pm 0.54_{\\rm stat} \\pm 0.33_{\\rm syst})\\times 10^{-2}$, which is the most precise measurement of this quantity to date and agrees with the Standard Model prediction.

  7. PDBTM: Protein Data Bank of transmembrane proteins after 8 years

    OpenAIRE

    Kozma, D?niel; Simon, Istv?n; Tusn?dy, G?bor E.

    2012-01-01

    The PDBTM database (available at http://pdbtm.enzim.hu), the first comprehensive and up-to-date transmembrane protein selection of the Protein Data Bank, was launched in 2004. The database was created and has been continuously updated by the TMDET algorithm that is able to distinguish between transmembrane and non-transmembrane proteins using their 3D atomic coordinates only. The TMDET algorithm can locate the spatial positions of transmembrane proteins in lipid bilayer as well. During the la...

  8. Matter-antimatter asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The Conference is devoted to a multidisciplinary study of matter-antimatter asymmetry and, in particular, from the point of view of particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. A number of topics, such as the practical applications of antimatter in medical imaging, of particular interest to non-specialists, will also be briefly covered. More than thirty years after the discovery of CP violation in the kaon system, precision experiments with kaons at CERN and Fermilab have demonstrated the existence of direct CP violation, opening a window on a hitherto poorly explored part of particle physics. On the one hand, two experiments devoted mainly to CP violation in B mesons, BABAR and Belle, are beginning to test CP violation in the Standard Model in a decisive way. On the other hand, balloon experiments and the space-based AMS project are circumscribing precise limits on the cosmological abundance of antimatter. Finally, the fundamental problem of cosmological matter-antimatter asymmetry at a Grand Unification scale or at the Electroweak phase transition has been the object of intense theoretical activity in recent years. This document gathers most of the slides that have been presented in the plenary and parallel sessions.

  9. Exchange asymmetry in experimental settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Mark D. Morrison; Jacob A. Benfield; Gretchen Nurse Rainbolt; Paul A. Bell

    2015-01-01

    We review past trading experiments and present 11 new experiments designed to show how the trading rate responds to alterations of the experimental procedure. In agreement with earlier studies, results show that if the trade decision is converted to one resembling a choice between goods the exchange asymmetry disappears, but otherwise the asymmetry is...

  10. Asymmetry a challenge for orthodontists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melsen, Birte

    2007-01-01

      Asymmetry is considered a challenge and often the reason for which the optimal result cannot be obtained. The explanations are many. Only rarely, the cause of the asymmetry is localized and camouflage is frequently resulting in the development a different type of asymmetry occurring in all thre...... the required tooth displacements can be generated. In order to control the interaction between the force systems developed in the three planes of space, the appliances should commonly be segmented. Anchorage problems can occasionally only be solved by means of skeletal anchorage....

  11. CLEC4F is an inducible C-type lectin in F4/80-positive cells and is involved in alpha-galactosylceramide presentation in liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ya Yang

    Full Text Available CLEC4F, a member of C-type lectin, was first purified from rat liver extract with high binding affinity to fucose, galactose (Gal, N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc, and un-sialylated glucosphingolipids with GalNAc or Gal terminus. However, the biological functions of CLEC4F have not been elucidated. To address this question, we examined the expression and distribution of murine CLEC4F, determined its binding specificity by glycan array, and investigated its function using CLEC4F knockout (Clec4f-/- mice. We found that CLEC4F is a heavily glycosylated membrane protein co-expressed with F4/80 on Kupffer cells. In contrast to F4/80, CLEC4F is detectable in fetal livers at embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5 but not in yolk sac, suggesting the expression of CLEC4F is induced as cells migrate from yolk cells to the liver. Even though CLEC4F is not detectable in tissues outside liver, both residential Kupffer cells and infiltrating mononuclear cells surrounding liver abscesses are CLEC4F-positive upon Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes infection. While CLEC4F has strong binding to Gal and GalNAc, terminal fucosylation inhibits CLEC4F recognition to several glycans such as Fucosyl GM1, Globo H, Bb3∼4 and other fucosyl-glycans. Moreover, CLEC4F interacts with alpha-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer in a calcium-dependent manner and participates in the presentation of α-GalCer to natural killer T (NKT cells. This suggests that CLEC4F is a C-type lectin with diverse binding specificity expressed on residential Kupffer cells and infiltrating monocytes in the liver, and may play an important role to modulate glycolipids presentation on Kupffer cells.

  12. [Dreams and interhemispheric asymmetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korabel'nikova, E A; Golubev, V L

    2001-01-01

    The dreams of 103 children and adolescents, aged 10-17 years, have been studied. The test group included 78 patients with neurotic disorders; control one consisted of 25 healthy subjects. Dream features, which were common for those with preferentially left asymmetry profile both in patients as well as in healthy subjects, were: less expressed novelty factor and frequent appearance of rare phenomena, such as "déjà vu in wakefulness", reality, "mixed" (overlapped) dreams, prolonged dreams in repeat sleep, frequent changes of personages and scenes of action. Left-hander dream peculiarities, being detected only in neurotic patients but not in healthy subjects, emerged as lucid phenomena deficit, "dream in dreams" and "dream reminiscence in dream" syndrome, which have been found only in left-handers. Right and left hemispheres seem to contribute in different ways to a dream formation. In authors believe that the left hemisphere seems to provide dream origin while the right hemisphere provides dream vividness, figurativeness and affective activation level.

  13. Looking for charming asymmetries

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2016-01-01

    New results presented by the LHCb collaboration on the decay of particles containing a “charm” quark delve deeper into the mystery of matter-antimatter asymmetry.   A view of the LHCb experimental cavern. (Photo: Maximilien Brice/CERN) One of the biggest challenges in physics is to understand why everything we see in our universe seems to be formed only of matter, whereas the Big Bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter. CERN’s LHCb experiment is one of the best hopes for physicists looking to solve this longstanding mystery. At the VIII International Workshop on Charm Physics, which took place in Bologna earlier this month, the LHCb Collaboration presented the most precise measurement to date of a phenomenon called Charge-Parity (CP) violation among particles that contain a charm quark. CP symmetry states that laws of physics are the same if a particle is interchanged with its anti-particle (the “C” part) and if its spatia...

  14. Information Asymmetry and Credit Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena TUPANGIU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Information asymmetry defines relationships where an agent holds information while another does not hold it. Thus, to the extent that one of the parties to the financing agreement has information more or less accurate than another, the asymmetry of information appears to be a major constraint in the financing of a project. Banks, in their capacity of financial intermediary, operate the transfer of funds to agents in need of financing, to the borrowers, being necessary in this process to have more information in order to benefit of expertise in assessing borrowers. The research of information asymmetry and credit risk consists of interrogating the following aspects: information issues between the bank and borrowers; settlement of information issues; bank’s activism towards information asymmetry. In our approach we will look at the first aspect, namely the information issues between the bank and the borrowers.

  15. Hemispheric asymmetries: The comparative view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eOcklenburg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemispheric asymmetries play an important role in almost all cognitive functions. For more than a century, they were considered to be uniquely human but now an increasing number of findings in all vertebrate classes make it likely that we inherited our asymmetries from common ancestors. Thus, studying animal models could provide unique insights into the mechanisms of lateralization. We outline three such avenues of research by providing an overview of experiments on left-right differences in the connectivity of sensory systems, the embryonic determinants of brain asymmetries, and the genetics of lateralization. All these lines of studies could provide a wealth of insights into our own asymmetries that should and will be exploited by future analyses.

  16. Evolution of vertebrate interferon inducible transmembrane proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickford Danielle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferon inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs have diverse roles, including the control of cell proliferation, promotion of homotypic cell adhesion, protection against viral infection, promotion of bone matrix maturation and mineralisation, and mediating germ cell development. Most IFITMs have been well characterised in human and mouse but little published data exists for other animals. This study characterised IFITMs in two distantly related marsupial species, the Australian tammar wallaby and the South American grey short-tailed opossum, and analysed the phylogeny of the IFITM family in vertebrates. Results Five IFITM paralogues were identified in both the tammar and opossum. As in eutherians, most marsupial IFITM genes exist within a cluster, contain two exons and encode proteins with two transmembrane domains. Only two IFITM genes, IFITM5 and IFITM10, have orthologues in both marsupials and eutherians. IFITM5 arose in bony fish and IFITM10 in tetrapods. The bone-specific expression of IFITM5 appears to be restricted to therian mammals, suggesting that its specialised role in bone production is a recent adaptation specific to mammals. IFITM10 is the most highly conserved IFITM, sharing at least 85% amino acid identity between birds, reptiles and mammals and suggesting an important role for this presently uncharacterised protein. Conclusions Like eutherians, marsupials also have multiple IFITM genes that exist in a gene cluster. The differing expression patterns for many of the paralogues, together with poor sequence conservation between species, suggests that IFITM genes have acquired many different roles during vertebrate evolution.

  17. Lepton asymmetries from neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.

    2000-01-01

    Reasonably large relic neutrino asymmetries can be generated by active-sterile neutrino oscillations. After briefly discussing possible applications, I describe the Quantum Kinetic Equation formalism used to compute the asymmetry growth curves. I then show how the basic features of these curves can be understood on the basis of the adiabatic limit approximation in the collision dominated epoch, and the pure MSW effect at lower temperatures (author)

  18. Transmembrane protein sorting driven by membrane curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahl, H.; Ronneau, S.; González, B. Solana; Klutsch, D.; Schaffner-Barbero, C.; Hamoen, L. W.

    2015-11-01

    The intricate structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells depends on the ability to target proteins to specific cellular locations. In most cases, we have a poor understanding of the underlying mechanisms. A typical example is the assembly of bacterial chemoreceptors at cell poles. Here we show that the classical chemoreceptor TlpA of Bacillus subtilis does not localize according to the consensus stochastic nucleation mechanism but accumulates at strongly curved membrane areas generated during cell division. This preference was confirmed by accumulation at non-septal curved membranes. Localization appears to be an intrinsic property of the protein complex and does not rely on chemoreceptor clustering, as was previously shown for Escherichia coli. By constructing specific amino-acid substitutions, we demonstrate that the preference for strongly curved membranes arises from the curved shape of chemoreceptor trimer of dimers. These findings demonstrate that the intrinsic shape of transmembrane proteins can determine their cellular localization.

  19. Virus-Encoded 7 Transmembrane Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølleskov-Jensen, Ann-Sofie; Oliveira, MarthaTrindade; Farrell, Helen Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    have acquired a range of distinctive characteristics. This chapter reviews key features of the v7TMRs which are likely to impact upon their functional roles: trafficking properties, ligand specificity, and signaling capacity. Rapid, constitutive endocytosis, reminiscent of cellular “scavenger......Herpesviruses are an ancient group which have exploited gene capture of multiple cellular modulators of the immune response. Viral homologues of 7 transmembrane receptors (v7TMRs) are a consistent feature of beta- and gammaherpesviruses; the majority of the v7TMRs are homologous to cellular...... chemokine receptors (CKRs). Conserved families of v7TMRs distinguish between beta- versus gammaherpesviruses; furthermore, significant divisions within these subfamilies, such as between genera of the gammaherpesviruses or between the primate and rodent cytomegaloviruses, coincide with specific v7TMR gene...

  20. Specificity of transmembrane protein palmitoylation in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayelén González Montoro

    Full Text Available Many proteins are modified after their synthesis, by the addition of a lipid molecule to one or more cysteine residues, through a thioester bond. This modification is called S-acylation, and more commonly palmitoylation. This reaction is carried out by a family of enzymes, called palmitoyltransferases (PATs, characterized by the presence of a conserved 50- aminoacids domain called "Asp-His-His-Cys- Cysteine Rich Domain" (DHHC-CRD. There are 7 members of this family in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and each of these proteins is thought to be responsible for the palmitoylation of a subset of substrates. Substrate specificity of PATs, however, is not yet fully understood. Several yeast PATs seem to have overlapping specificity, and it has been proposed that the machinery responsible for palmitoylating peripheral membrane proteins in mammalian cells, lacks specificity altogether.Here we investigate the specificity of transmembrane protein palmitoylation in S. cerevisiae, which is carried out predominantly by two PATs, Swf1 and Pfa4. We show that palmitoylation of transmembrane substrates requires dedicated PATs, since other yeast PATs are mostly unable to perform Swf1 or Pfa4 functions, even when overexpressed. Furthermore, we find that Swf1 is highly specific for its substrates, as it is unable to substitute for other PATs. To identify where Swf1 specificity lies, we carried out a bioinformatics survey to identify amino acids responsible for the determination of specificity or Specificity Determination Positions (SDPs and showed experimentally, that mutation of the two best SDP candidates, A145 and K148, results in complete and partial loss of function, respectively. These residues are located within the conserved catalytic DHHC domain suggesting that it could also be involved in the determination of specificity. Finally, we show that modifying the position of the cysteines in Tlg1, a Swf1 substrate, results in lack of palmitoylation, as

  1. Molecular mechanisms for generating transmembrane proton gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunner, M.R.; Amin, Muhamed; Zhu, Xuyu; Lu, Jianxun

    2013-01-01

    Membrane proteins use the energy of light or high energy substrates to build a transmembrane proton gradient through a series of reactions leading to proton release into the lower pH compartment (P-side) and proton uptake from the higher pH compartment (N-side). This review considers how the proton affinity of the substrates, cofactors and amino acids are modified in four proteins to drive proton transfers. Bacterial reaction centers (RCs) and photosystem II (PSII) carry out redox chemistry with the species to be oxidized on the P-side while reduction occurs on the N-side of the membrane. Terminal redox cofactors are used which have pKas that are strongly dependent on their redox state, so that protons are lost on oxidation and gained on reduction. Bacteriorhodopsin is a true proton pump. Light activation triggers trans to cis isomerization of a bound retinal. Strong electrostatic interactions within clusters of amino acids are modified by the conformational changes initiated by retinal motion leading to changes in proton affinity, driving transmembrane proton transfer. Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) catalyzes the reduction of O2 to water. The protons needed for chemistry are bound from the N-side. The reduction chemistry also drives proton pumping from N- to P-side. Overall, in CcO the uptake of 4 electrons to reduce O2 transports 8 charges across the membrane, with each reduction fully coupled to removal of two protons from the N-side, the delivery of one for chemistry and transport of the other to the P-side. PMID:23507617

  2. Functional asymmetry within the Sec61p translocon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Erhan; Junne, Tina; Baday, Sefer; Bernèche, Simon; Spiess, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The Sec61 translocon forms a pore to translocate polypeptide sequences across the membrane and offers a lateral gate for membrane integration of hydrophobic (H) segments. A central constriction of six apolar residues has been shown to form a seal, but also to determine the hydrophobicity threshold for membrane integration: Mutation of these residues in yeast Sec61p to glycines, serines, aspartates, or lysines lowered the hydrophobicity required for integration; mutation to alanines increased it. Whereas four leucines distributed in an oligo-alanine H segment were sufficient for 50% integration, we now find four leucines in the N-terminal half of the H segment to produce significantly more integration than in the C-terminal half, suggesting functional asymmetry within the translocon. Scanning a cluster of three leucines through an oligo-alanine H segment showed high integration levels, except around the position matching that of the hydrophobic constriction in the pore where integration was strongly reduced. Both asymmetry and the position effect of H-segment integration disappeared upon mutation of the constriction residues to glycines or serines, demonstrating that hydrophobicity at this position within the translocon is responsible for the phenomenon. Asymmetry was largely retained, however, when constriction residues were replaced by alanines. These results reflect on the integration mechanism of transmembrane domains and show that membrane insertion of H segments strongly depends not only on their intrinsic hydrophobicity but also on the local conditions in the translocon interior. Thus, the contribution of hydrophobic residues in the H segment is not simply additive and displays cooperativeness depending on their relative position. PMID:24191046

  3. Primary tooth size asymmetry in twins and singletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, T; Harila, V; Ollikkala, A; Alvesalo, L

    2016-08-01

    To explore asymmetry values of antimeric deciduous tooth crown dimensions in three types of twins: monozygotic (MZ), dizygotic same-sex (DZ) and opposite-sex (OS) vs. single-born controls. Mesiodistal and labio-lingual crown dimensions of second deciduous molars and mesiodistal canine and first molar crown dimensions of 2159 children at 6-12 years of age were evaluated, originating from the US cross-sectional Collaborative Perinatal Study from the 1970s, including altogether MZ (n = 28), DZ same-sex (n = 33) and OS (n = 39) pairs. Single born (n = 1959) were used as controls. Dental casts were measured for comparison of variance relationships calculated from antimeric teeth, exhibiting fluctuating (FA), and directional (DA) asymmetry using anova. Significant differences appeared in MZ and OS girls in DA of deciduous canines, which gain size in the first and second trimester, and deciduous second molars, which finally stop crown growth during the early post-natal period. Significantly, increased FA values appeared for lower deciduous canines and second molars, indicating greatest environmental stress in OS girls, MZ girls and DZ boys. Twin girls had more fluctuating and directional crown asymmetry than twin boys, but in some dimensions, the twins were more symmetric than controls. Transmembrane hormonal influence between opposite-sex twins, and late gestational stress factors, caused by placental malfunction and/or monochorionicity, may be involved in asymmetric growth of antimers, during critical periods of crown size gain. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Flavor asymmetry of the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijker, R. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Santopinto, E. [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy)]. e-mail: bijker@nucleares.unam.mx

    2008-12-15

    The flavor asymmetry of the nucleon sea is discussed in an unquenched quark model for baryons in which the effects of quark-antiquark pairs (uu, dd and ss) are taken into account in an explicit form. The inclusion of qq pairs leads automatically to an excess of d over u quarks in the proton, in agreement with experimental data. (Author)

  5. Complex Odontome Causing Facial Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeya Patil

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are the most common non-cystic odontogenic lesions representing 70% of all odontogenic tumors. Often small and asymptomatic, they are detected on routine radiographs. Occasionally they become large and produce expansion of bone with consequent facial asymmetry. We report a case of such a lesion causing expansion of the mandible in an otherwise asymptomatic patient.

  6. Analysis of side writing asymmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hozoi, A.; Groenland, J.P.J.; Albertini, J.B.; Lodder, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    The side writing asymmetry of a recording head was investigated using an overwrite configuration that enhances the edge effects. The track profiles of the overwrite patterns were measured for analyzing the side writing performance of the head. Magnetic force microscope (MFM) images of the overwrite

  7. Guided Transport of a Transmembrane Nanochannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Meenakshi; Kuksenok, Olga; Balazs, Anna

    2011-03-01

    Via the Dissipative Particle Dynamics approach, we design a system that allows transport of a nanochannel to a desired location by applying an external force. Each nanochannel encompasses an ABA architecture, with a hydrophobic shaft (B) with two hydrophilic ends (A). One of the hydrophilic ends of the nanochannel is functionalized with hydrophilic functional groups, or hairs. The hydrophilic hairs serve a dual role: (1) control transport across the membrane barrier when the channel diffuses freely in the membrane, and (2) enable the channel relocation to a specific membrane site. Our system comprises a transmembrane hairy nanochannel with the hairs extending into solution. In our earlier work, we demonstrated the spontaneous insertion of such a hairy nanochannel into a lipid bilayer (Nanoscale DOI: 10.1039/C0NR00578A). First, we hold a suitably functionalized pipette stationary above the membrane while the nanochannel freely diffuses within the membrane. For an optimal range of parameters, we demonstrate that the hairs find the pipette and spontaneously anchor onto it. We then show that by moving the pipette for a range of velocities, we can effectively transport the channel to any location within the membrane. This prototype system can provide guidelines for designing a number of biomimetic applications.

  8. The Origins of Transmembrane Ion Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Even though membrane proteins that mediate transport of ions and small molecules across cell walls are among the largest and least understood biopolymers in contemporary cells, it is still possible to shed light on their origins and early evolution. The central observation is that transmembrane portions of most ion channels are simply bundles of -helices. By combining results of experimental and computer simulation studies on synthetic models and natural channels, mostly of non-genomic origin, we show that the emergence of -helical channels was protobiologically plausible, and did not require highly specific amino acid sequences. Despite their simple structure, such channels could possess properties that, at the first sight, appear to require markedly larger complexity. Specifically, we explain how the antiamoebin channels, which are made of identical helices, 16 amino acids in length, achieve efficiency comparable to that of highly evolved channels. We further show that antiamoebin channels are extremely flexible, compared to modern, genetically coded channels. On the basis of our results, we propose that channels evolved further towards high structural complexity because they needed to acquire stable rigid structures and mechanisms for precise regulation rather than improve efficiency. In general, even though architectures of membrane proteins are not nearly as diverse as those of water-soluble proteins, they are sufficiently flexible to adapt readily to the functional demands arising during evolution.

  9. Asymmetry and coherence weight of quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Kaifeng; Anand, Namit; Singh, Uttam

    2018-03-01

    The asymmetry of quantum states is an important resource in quantum information processing tasks such as quantum metrology and quantum communication. In this paper, we introduce the notion of asymmetry weight—an operationally motivated asymmetry quantifier in the resource theory of asymmetry. We study the convexity and monotonicity properties of asymmetry weight and focus on its interplay with the corresponding semidefinite programming (SDP) forms along with its connection to other asymmetry measures. Since the SDP form of asymmetry weight is closely related to asymmetry witnesses, we find that the asymmetry weight can be regarded as a (state-dependent) asymmetry witness. Moreover, some specific entanglement witnesses can be viewed as a special case of an asymmetry witness—which indicates a potential connection between asymmetry and entanglement. We also provide an operationally meaningful coherence measure, which we term coherence weight, and investigate its relationship to other coherence measures like the robustness of coherence and the l1 norm of coherence. In particular, we show that for Werner states in any dimension d all three coherence quantifiers, namely, the coherence weight, the robustness of coherence, and the l1 norm of coherence, are equal and are given by a single letter formula.

  10. Asymmetry quantization and application to human mandibles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, Nanna; Nielsen, Mads; Sporring, Jon

    2004-01-01

    All biological objects exhibit some degree of asymmetry, but for some parts of the human body, excessive asymmetry is a sign of pathology. Hence, the problem is to draw the line between categorization of objects being too asymmetric and objects exhibiting normal asymmetry. With a measure of asymm...

  11. Cognitive Control Processes and Functional Cerebral Asymmetries: Association with Variation in the Handedness-Associated Gene LRRTM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beste, Christian; Arning, Larissa; Gerding, Wanda M; Epplen, Jörg T; Mertins, Alexandra; Röder, Melanie C; Bless, Josef J; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Westerhausen, René; Güntürkün, Onur; Ocklenburg, Sebastian

    2018-03-01

    Cognitive control processes play an essential role not only in controlling actions but also in guiding attentional selection processes. Interestingly, these processes are strongly affected by organizational principles of the cerebral cortex and related functional asymmetries, but the neurobiological foundations are elusive. We ask whether neurobiological mechanisms that affect functional cerebral asymmetries will also modulate effects of top-down control processes on functional cerebral asymmetries. To this end, we examined potential effects of the imprinted gene leucine-rich repeat transmembrane neuronal 1 (LRRTM1) on attentional biasing processes in a forced attention dichotic listening task in 983 healthy adult participants of Caucasian descent using the "iDichotic smartphone app." The results show that functional cerebral asymmetries in the language domain are associated with the rs6733871 LRRTM1 polymorphism when cognitive control and top-down attentional mechanisms modulate processes in bottom-up attentional selection processes that are dependent on functional cerebral asymmetries. There is no evidence for an effect of LRRTM1 on functional cerebral asymmetries in the language domain unrelated to cognitive control processes. The results suggest that cognitive control processes are an important factor to consider when being interested in the molecular genetic basis of functional cerebral architecture.

  12. Methods of statistical analysis of fluctuating asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorina Anastasia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Methodical problems concerning the practical use of fluctuating asymmetry level of bio-objects are considered. The questions connected with the variety of value asymmetry calculation methods and the use of asymmetry indicators efficiency and integrated indexes are discussed in detail. Discrepancy of research results when using several estimates of asymmetry is connected with their statistical properties and peculiarity of their normal variability which define sensitivity and operability of indicators. Concrete examples illustrating the negative influence of arithmetic transformations on the revealing properties of indicators are given: disturbance of normal distribution and the need of using rough nonparametric criteria , the increase of the importance of rare casual deviations, the introduction of additional variability components into an asymmetry level. Problems which arise in calculating asymmetry integrated indexes when signs unite with different levels of statistical parameters are separately considered. It is recommended to use the indicator of fluctuating asymmetry based on normalized deviation.

  13. Knowledge asymmetries about product "goodness"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    agencies, the companies themselves and scientific research.  The purpose of the Ipod application Good GuideTM is to offer consumers a tool for mediating knowledge asymmetries about the products from multiple perspectives.  In light of this new technology, this paper argues for a shift from the notion......, Goodguide.com, uses an IpodTM application to inform consumers about product ratings from individual health, social and environmental perspectives.  This application gathers data from corporations on their product ingredients, and use organizational rating systems based on information from U.S. Federal...... of institutionalization of CSR as a company-focused model (Schultz & Wehmeier 2010) to a focus on inter-institutional and institution-consumer knowledge asymmetries affecting consumer sensemaking practices in purchasing.  Data from the Good GuideTM Ipod application, YouTube Videos about a legal controversy involving...

  14. Audiometric asymmetry and tinnitus laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Betty S; Sweetow, Robert W; Cheung, Steven W

    2012-05-01

    To identify an optimal audiometric asymmetry index for predicting tinnitus laterality. Retrospective medical record review. Data from adult tinnitus patients (80 men and 44 women) were extracted for demographic, audiometric, tinnitus laterality, and related information. The main measures were sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Three audiometric asymmetry indices were constructed using one, two, or three frequency elements to compute the average interaural threshold difference (aITD). Tinnitus laterality predictive performance of a particular index was assessed by increasing the cutoff or minimum magnitude of the aITD from 10 to 35 dB in 5-dB steps to determine its ROC curve. Single frequency index performance was inferior to the other two (P .05). Two adjoining frequency elements with aITD ≥ 15 dB performed optimally for predicting tinnitus laterality (sensitivity = 0.59, specificity = 0.71, and PPV = 0.76). Absolute and relative magnitudes of hearing loss in the poorer ear were uncorrelated with tinnitus distress. An optimal audiometric asymmetry index to predict tinnitus laterality is one whereby 15 dB is the minimum aITD of two adjoining frequencies, inclusive of the maximal ITD. Tinnitus laterality dependency on magnitude of interaural asymmetry may inform design and interpretation of neuroimaging studies. Monaural acoustic tinnitus therapy may be an initial consideration for asymmetric hearing loss meeting the criterion of aITD ≥ 15 dB. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Asymmetry Reduction Theory of FDI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    In this paper, I first briefly introduce Moon & Roehl’s (1993, 2001) imbalance theory of FDI, then I identify its three deficiencies that may be responsible for the relative lack of impact of the potentially powerful imbalance logic, and then I propose an asymmetry reduction theory (ARC) of FDI...... and explain its aspiration-resource-control (ARC) framework. I conclude the paper with a brief discussion of the OLI framework being a special case of the ARC framework....

  16. INFORMATION ASYMMETRY AND HERDING BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puput Tri Komalasari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Conceptually, the stock market is strong form efficient in the long term. However, in practice, there are various forms of market anomalies that undermine the accuracy of the efficient market hypothesis. One factor suspected as the cause of market inefficiency is herding behavior. Investors herd when they imitate the actions of other investors. This behavior occurs when there is a continuous interaction among rational investors that prevents them from seeking information about market fundamentals. This study provides new insights by including information asymmetry as a moderating variable. This research examines the phenomenon of herding behavior in the Indonesia Stock Exchange as well as examines directly the effect of information asymmetry on herding behavior. The period of study is 2008 using time series of daily stocks data that actively traded in the capital market. Results of this study find that investor tends to follow market consensus when price changes at the low level, but when there is large price swing market participant acts independently from other investors. Interestingly, this study finds that information asymmetry is a necessary condition for the existence of herding behavior.

  17. Constant fluctuating asymmetry but not directional asymmetry along the geographic distribution of Drosophila antonietae (Diptera, Drosophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The population dynamics of a species tends to change from the core to the periphery of its distribution. Therefore, one could expect peripheral populations to be subject to a higher level of stress than more central populations (the center–periphery hypothesis and consequently should present a higher level of fluctuating asymmetry. To test these predictions we study asymmetry in wing shape of five populations of Drosophila antonietae collected throughout the distribution of the species using fluctuating asymmetry as a proxy for developmental instability. More specifically, we addressed the following questions: (1 what types of asymmetry occur in populations of D. antonietae? (2 Does the level of fluctuating asymmetry vary among populations? (3 Does peripheral populations have a higher fluctuating asymmetry level than central populations? We used 12 anatomical landmarks to quantify patterns of asymmetry in wing shape in five populations of D. antonietae within the framework of geometric morphometrics. Net asymmetry – a composite measure of directional asymmetry + fluctuating asymmetry – varied significantly among populations. However, once net asymmetry of each population is decomposed into directional asymmetry and fluctuating asymmetry, most of the variation in asymmetry was explained by directional asymmetry alone, suggesting that populations of D. antonietae have the same magnitude of fluctuating asymmetry throughout the geographical distribution of the species. We hypothesize that larval development in rotting cladodes might play an important role in explaining our results. In addition, our study underscores the importance of understanding the interplay between the biology of a species and its geographical patterns of asymmetry.

  18. PDBTM: Protein Data Bank of transmembrane proteins after 8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Dániel; Simon, István; Tusnády, Gábor E

    2013-01-01

    The PDBTM database (available at http://pdbtm.enzim.hu), the first comprehensive and up-to-date transmembrane protein selection of the Protein Data Bank, was launched in 2004. The database was created and has been continuously updated by the TMDET algorithm that is able to distinguish between transmembrane and non-transmembrane proteins using their 3D atomic coordinates only. The TMDET algorithm can locate the spatial positions of transmembrane proteins in lipid bilayer as well. During the last 8 years not only the size of the PDBTM database has been steadily growing from ∼400 to 1700 entries but also new structural elements have been identified, in addition to the well-known α-helical bundle and β-barrel structures. Numerous 'exotic' transmembrane protein structures have been solved since the first release, which has made it necessary to define these new structural elements, such as membrane loops or interfacial helices in the database. This article reports the new features of the PDBTM database that have been added since its first release, and our current efforts to keep the database up-to-date and easy to use so that it may continue to serve as a fundamental resource for the scientific community.

  19. Breast asymmetry and predisposition to breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Scutt, Diane; Lancaster, Gillian A; Manning, John T

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: It has been shown in our previous work that breast asymmetry is related to several of the known risk factors for breast cancer, and that patients with diagnosed breast cancer have more breast volume asymmetry, as measured from mammograms, than age-matched healthy women. METHODS: In the present study, we compared the breast asymmetry of women who were free of breast disease at time of mammography, but who had subsequently developed breast cancer, with that of age-matched healthy ...

  20. Write field asymmetry in perpendicular magnetic recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanjie; Bai, Daniel Z.; Lin, Ed; Mao, Sining

    2012-04-01

    We present a systematic study of write field asymmetry by using micromagnetic modeling for a perpendicular magnetic recording (PMR) writer structure. Parameters investigated include initial magnetization condition, write current amplitude, write current frequency, and initial write current polarity. It is found that the write current amplitude and frequency (data rate) are the dominant factors that impact the field asymmetry. Lower write current amplitude and higher write current frequency will deteriorate the write field asymmetry, causing recording performance (such as bit error rate) degradation.

  1. Single spin asymmetry for charm mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez Zacarias, G. [PIMAyC, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, Apdo. Postal 14-805, D.F. (Mexico); Herrera, G.; Mercado, J. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Apdo. Postal 14-740, D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-08-15

    We study single spin asymmetries of D{sup 0} and D{sup -} mesons in polarized proton-proton collisions. A two component model is used to describe charm meson production. The production of D mesons occurs by recombination of the constituents present in the initial state as well as by fragmentation of quarks in the final state. This model has proved to describe the production of charm. The recombination component involves a mechanism of spin alignment that ends up in a single spin asymmetry. Experimental measurements of single spin asymmetry for pions at RHIC are compared with the model. Predictions for the asymmetry in D mesons are presented. (orig.)

  2. Single spin asymmetry for charm mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Zacarias, G.; Herrera, G.; Mercado, J.

    2007-01-01

    We study single spin asymmetries of D 0 and D - mesons in polarized proton-proton collisions. A two component model is used to describe charm meson production. The production of D mesons occurs by recombination of the constituents present in the initial state as well as by fragmentation of quarks in the final state. This model has proved to describe the production of charm. The recombination component involves a mechanism of spin alignment that ends up in a single spin asymmetry. Experimental measurements of single spin asymmetry for pions at RHIC are compared with the model. Predictions for the asymmetry in D mesons are presented. (orig.)

  3. THE ONTOGENY OF ASYMMETRY IN EARWIG FORCEPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, Joseph L

    1999-02-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry may play an important role in the evolution of naturally selected and secondary sexual traits. However, very little is known about how asymmetries arise or how organisms maintain symmetry during development. Here I propose three mutually exclusive patterns for the development of asymmetries through consecutive growth stages: (1) compensatory growth, in which growth of the shorter side is greatest at the following growth stage; (2) persistent growth, in which growth of the longer side is greatest at the following growth stage; and (3) uncorrelated growth in which growth of the following stage is unrelated to the asymmetry at the previous one. I followed the growth in the forceps of male earwigs through four successive instars. Dyar's rule was used as a null model of insect growth. In the molt from the second to third instar, asymmetries increased through uncorrelated growth and with the magnitude but not the sign expected from Dyar's rule. However, following this, at the molts between instars 3-4 and 4-5, compensatory growth maintained asymmetries at a lower level than expected from Dyar's rule. Although there was no reduction in the absolute magnitude of asymmetry, relative asymmetry did decline. The net growth of forceps length did not follow Dyar's rule. The interpretation of patterns of growth were more sensitive and informative than the interpretation of the relations between asymmetries at consecutive instars. © 1999 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. Fluctuating Asymmetry of Human Populations: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Graham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry, the random deviation from perfect symmetry, is a widely used population-level index of developmental instability, developmental noise, and robustness. It reflects a population’s state of adaptation and genomic coadaptation. Here, we review the literature on fluctuating asymmetry of human populations. The most widely used bilateral traits include skeletal, dental, and facial dimensions; dermatoglyphic patterns and ridge counts; and facial shape. Each trait has its advantages and disadvantages, but results are most robust when multiple traits are combined into a composite index of fluctuating asymmetry (CFA. Both environmental (diet, climate, toxins and genetic (aneuploidy, heterozygosity, inbreeding stressors have been linked to population-level variation in fluctuating asymmetry. In general, these stressors increase average fluctuating asymmetry. Nevertheless, there have been many conflicting results, in part because (1 fluctuating asymmetry is a weak signal in a sea of noise; and (2 studies of human fluctuating asymmetry have not always followed best practices. The most serious concerns are insensitive asymmetry indices (correlation coefficient and coefficient of indetermination, inappropriate size scaling, unrecognized mixture distributions, inappropriate corrections for directional asymmetry, failure to use composite indices, and inattention to measurement error. Consequently, it is often difficult (or impossible to compare results across traits, and across studies.

  5. SDN-1/Syndecan Acts in Parallel to the Transmembrane Molecule MIG-13 to Promote Anterior Neuroblast Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, Lakshmi; Norris, Megan L; Lundquist, Erik A

    2015-05-28

    The Q neuroblasts in Caenorhabditis elegans display left-right asymmetry in their migration, with QR and descendants on the right migrating anteriorly, and QL and descendants on the left migrating posteriorly. Initial QR and QL migration is controlled by the transmembrane receptors UNC-40/DCC, PTP-3/LAR, and the Fat-like cadherin CDH-4. After initial migration, QL responds to an EGL-20/Wnt signal that drives continued posterior migration by activating MAB-5/Hox activity in QL but not QR. QR expresses the transmembrane protein MIG-13, which is repressed by MAB-5 in QL and which drives anterior migration of QR descendants. A screen for new Q descendant AQR and PQR migration mutations identified mig-13 as well as hse-5, the gene encoding the glucuronyl C5-epimerase enzyme, which catalyzes epimerization of glucuronic acid to iduronic acid in the heparan sulfate side chains of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). Of five C. elegans HSPGs, we found that only SDN-1/Syndecan affected Q migrations. sdn-1 mutants showed QR descendant AQR anterior migration defects, and weaker QL descendant PQR migration defects. hse-5 affected initial Q migration, whereas sdn-1 did not. sdn-1 and hse-5 acted redundantly in AQR and PQR migration, but not initial Q migration, suggesting the involvement of other HSPGs in Q migration. Cell-specific expression studies indicated that SDN-1 can act in QR to promote anterior migration. Genetic interactions between sdn-1, mig-13, and mab-5 suggest that MIG-13 and SDN-1 act in parallel to promote anterior AQR migration and that SDN-1 also controls posterior migration. Together, our results indicate previously unappreciated complexity in the role of multiple signaling pathways and inherent left-right asymmetry in the control of Q neuroblast descendant migration. Copyright © 2015 Sundararajan et al.

  6. Evaluating asymmetry in prosthetic gait with step-length asymmetry alone is flawed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, M.; Roeles, S.; van der Pas, S.C.H.; Bosboom, O.; Beek, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Prosthetic gait is often asymmetric in step length, but the direction of this asymmetry varies inconsistently across amputees. This situation is akin to that seen in stroke patients, where step-length asymmetry has been shown to be the additive result of asymmetries in trunk progression and

  7. Solid state deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance detection of transmembrane-potential-driven tetraphenylphosphonium redistribution across Giant Unilamellar Vesicle bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzin, Carla Maria Mirella

    1995-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance ( 2 H NMR) of Giant Unilamellar Vesicles (GUVs) consisting of specifically choline-deuterated 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), plus 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG) and cholesterol can be used to monitor the transbilayer redistribution of tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP + ) in response to a transmembrane potential (δψ tm ). The 2 H quadrupolar splittings (δν Q 's) measured reflect the level of TPP + bound at the membrane surface due to the latter's effect on the membrane surface electrostatic potential, ψ s . Results reveal the appearance of two distinct δν Q 's, due to differences in bound TPP + at the inner versus the outer monolayer in response to a δψ tm . The observed values of the δν Q 's agree with theoretical predictions based on a derived mathematical model that takes into account δψ tm , plus ψ s , plus the equilibrium binding of TPP + from solution onto the membrane surface, plus the sensitivity of δν Q to the amount of bound TPP + . This model identifies experimental factors that lead to improvements in spectral resolution. Henceforth, 2 H NMR is a valuable tool for quantifying transmembrane asymmetries of ψ s . (author)

  8. Recent HERMES Results on DVCS Associated Asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanidze, R.

    2002-11-01

    The latest HERMES measurements of the beam--spin and beam--charge azimuthal asymmetries in the hard exclusive electroproduction of photons are reported. The asymmetries are associated with the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) process and can provide new information on the structure of the nucleon.

  9. The Hemispheric Asymmetry of Polar Faculae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... In this paper, the north–south (N–S) asymmetry of the polar faculae at relatively low (RLLs), relatively high (RHLs) as well as total latitudes (TLs) respectively, are investigated. It is found that. the polar faculae behave in a different asymmetrical way at different latitudinal bands;; the asymmetry of solar activity ...

  10. Multiple photon emission and b quark asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadach, S.; Ward, B.F.L.

    1989-08-01

    We discuss the effects of multiple photon final states in high precision tests of the SU 2L x U 1 model wherein one measures the b quark asymmetries at a very high luminosity Z 0 factory, such as the possible high luminosity upgrade of the CERN LEP collider. The specific asymmetries analyzed are the forward-backward asymmetry A FB , the left-right polarized asymmetry A LR and the polarized forward-backward asymmetry A FB,pol. . The radiative effects are found to be significant for A FB as expected, but they are not as large, on a percentage basis, as the corresponding result for muons. (author). 5 refs, 1 tab

  11. Contributions of H G Khorana to Understanding Transmembrane ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    GENERAL | ARTICLE. Contributions of H G Khorana to Understanding. Transmembrane Signal Transduction. David L Farrens and Thomas P Sakmar. Heptahelical G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are lo- cated in the cell's plasma membrane and are responsible for transmitting chemical signals across the lipid bilayer.

  12. Modelling of a transmembrane evaporation module for desalination of seawater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guijt, C.M.; Racz, I.G.; van Heuven, Jan Willem; Reith, T.; de Haan, A.B.

    1999-01-01

    Transmembrane evaporation (often called membrane distillation) carried out in a countercurrent flow module, in which incoming cold seawater is heated by the condensing product water flow, is a promising technology for low-cost seawater desalination. This paper presents a model for preliminary design

  13. Bs semileptonic asymmetry at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Dufour, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    When neutral $B^{0}_{s,d}$ mesons evolve in time they can change into their own antiparticles. In this mixing process CP symmetry is not necessarily conserved, as the probability for a $B^{0}$ meson to change into a $\\bar{B}^{0}$ meson can be different from the probability for the reverse process. The CP violation in the $B^{0}_{s}$ system as measured using semileptonic decays, defined as $a^{s}_{sl}$, is very small according to the Standard Model. However, earlier measurements of the semileptonic mixing asymmetry in both the $B_s^{0}$ and $B_d^{0}$ systems have shown a $3 \\sigma$ deviation with respect to the Standard Model value. A measurement of $a^{s}_{sl}$ performed using $1 \\text{fb}^{-1}$ of data collected at the LHCb detector is presented, together with an outlook to the updated $3 \\text{fb}^{-1}$ result.

  14. Propulsive force asymmetry during tethered-swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, K B; Pereira, G; Papoti, M; Bento, P C B; Rodacki, A

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to determine whether: i) tethe-red-swimming can be used to identify the asymmetry during front crawl swimming style; ii) swimmers that perform unilateral breathing present greater asymmetry in comparison to others that use bilateral breathing; iii) swimmers of best performance present smaller asymmetry than their counterparts; iv) repeated front crawl swimming movements influence body asymmetry. 18 swimmers were assessed for propulsive force parameters (peak force, mean force, impulse and rate of force development) during a maximal front crawl tethered-swimming test lasting 2 min. A factorial analysis showed that propulsive forces decreased at the beginning, intermediate and end of the test (pforce parameters (p>0.05). When performance was considered (below or above mean group time), a larger asymmetry was found in the sub-group of lower performance in comparison to those of best performance (pforces can be detected using tethered-swimming. The propulsive forces decreased during the test but asymmetries did not change under testing conditions. Although breathing preference did not influence asymmetry, swimmers with best performance were less asymmetric than their counterparts. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Prophylactic Sublingual Immunization with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Subunit Vaccine Incorporating the Natural Killer T Cell Agonist Alpha-Galactosylceramide Enhances Protective Immunity to Limit Pulmonary and Extra-Pulmonary Bacterial Burden in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Khan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb remains a major global concern and the available Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG vaccine is poorly efficacious in adults. Therefore, alternative vaccines and delivery strategies focusing on Mtb antigens and appropriate immune stimulating adjuvants are needed to induce protective immunity targeted to the lungs, the primary sites of infections and pathology. We present here evidence in support of mucosal vaccination by the sublingual route in mice using the subunit Mtb antigens Ag85B and ESAT-6 adjuvanted with the glycolipid alpha-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer, a potent natural killer T (NKT cell agonist. Vaccinated animals exhibited strong antigen-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells responses in the spleen, cervical lymph nodes and lungs. In general, inclusion of the α-GalCer adjuvant significantly enhanced these responses that persisted over 50 days. Furthermore, aerosolized Mtb infection of vaccinated mice resulted in a significant reduction of bacterial load of the lungs and spleens as compared to levels seen in naïve controls or those vaccinated with subunit proteins, adjuvant , or BCG alone. The protection induced by the Mtb antigens and-GalCer vaccine through sublingual route correlated with a TH1-type immunity mediated by antigen-specific IFN-γ and IL-2 producing T cells.

  16. Relic density of neutrinos with primordial asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Sergio; Pinto, Teguayco; Raffelt, Georg G

    2009-06-19

    We study flavor oscillations in the early Universe, assuming primordial neutrino-antineutrino asymmetries. Including collisions and pair processes in the kinetic equations, we not only estimate the degree of flavor equilibration, but for the first time also kinetic equilibration among neutrinos and with the ambient plasma. Typically, the restrictive big-bang nucleosynthesis bound on the nu_{e}nu[over]_{e} asymmetry indeed applies to all flavors as claimed in the previous literature, but fine-tuned initial asymmetries always allow for a large surviving neutrino excess radiation that may show up in precision cosmological data.

  17. Automated quantification and analysis of mandibular asymmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darvann, T. A.; Hermann, N. V.; Larsen, P.

    2010-01-01

    We present an automated method of spatially detailed 3D asymmetry quantification in mandibles extracted from CT and apply it to a population of infants with unilateral coronal synostosis (UCS). An atlas-based method employing non-rigid registration of surfaces is used for determining deformation ...... after mirroring the mandible across the MSP. A principal components analysis of asymmetry characterizes the major types of asymmetry in the population, and successfully separates the asymmetric UCS mandibles from a number of less asymmetric mandibles from a control population....

  18. Witnessing Multipartite Entanglement by Detecting Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Girolami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of quantum coherence in the context of quantum information theory and its interplay with quantum correlations is currently subject of intense study. Coherence in a Hamiltonian eigenbasis yields asymmetry, the ability of a quantum system to break a dynamical symmetry generated by the Hamiltonian. We here propose an experimental strategy to witness multipartite entanglement in many-body systems by evaluating the asymmetry with respect to an additive Hamiltonian. We test our scheme by simulating asymmetry and entanglement detection in a three-qubit Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ diagonal state.

  19. Experimental investigation of transverse spin asymmetries in muon-p SIDIS processes: Sivers asymmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C.; Alexakhin, V.Yu.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Antonov, A.A.; Austregesilo, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Bicker, K.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dunnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; von Hohenesche, N.du Fresne; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Guthorl, T.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Hoppner, Ch.; d'Hose, N.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kramer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Lauser, L.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Moinester, M.A.; Morreale, A.; Mutter, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Negrini, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Nowak, W.D.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Perevalova, E.; Pesaro, G.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.F.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Richter, A.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schluter, T.; Schmidt, K.; Schmitt, L.; Schonning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Schroder, W.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.N.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.I.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Wolbeek, J.Ter; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Tkatchev, L.G.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.V.; Wang, L.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wislicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zhuravlev, N.; Zvyagin, A.

    2012-10-31

    The COMPASS Collaboration at CERN has measured the transverse spin azimuthal asymmetry of charged hadrons produced in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a 160 GeV positive muon beam and a transversely polarised NH_3 target. The Sivers asymmetry of the proton has been extracted in the Bjorken x range 0.003 0.03. The asymmetry is different from zero and positive also in the low x region, where sea-quarks dominate. The kinematic dependence of the asymmetry has also been investigated and results are given for various intervals of hadron and virtual photon fractional energy. In contrast to the case of the Collins asymmetry, the results on the Sivers asymmetry suggest a strong dependence on the four-momentum transfer to the nucleon, in agreement with the most recent calculations.

  20. Leptogenesis and gravity: Baryon asymmetry without decays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.I. McDonald

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A popular class of theories attributes the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe to CP-violating decays of super-heavy BSM particles in the Early Universe. Recently, we discovered a new source of leptogenesis in these models, namely that the same Yukawa phases which provide the CP violation for decays, combined with curved-spacetime loop effects, lead to an entirely new gravitational mechanism for generating an asymmetry, driven by the expansion of the Universe and independent of the departure of the heavy particles from equilibrium. In this Letter, we build on previous work by analysing the full Boltzmann equation, exploring the full parameter space of the theory and studying the time-evolution of the asymmetry. Remarkably, we find regions of parameter space where decays play no part at all, and where the baryon asymmetry of the Universe is determined solely by gravitational effects.

  1. Leptogenesis and gravity: Baryon asymmetry without decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, J.I., E-mail: pymcdonald@swansea.ac.uk; Shore, G.M., E-mail: g.m.shore@swansea.ac.uk

    2017-03-10

    A popular class of theories attributes the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe to CP-violating decays of super-heavy BSM particles in the Early Universe. Recently, we discovered a new source of leptogenesis in these models, namely that the same Yukawa phases which provide the CP violation for decays, combined with curved-spacetime loop effects, lead to an entirely new gravitational mechanism for generating an asymmetry, driven by the expansion of the Universe and independent of the departure of the heavy particles from equilibrium. In this Letter, we build on previous work by analysing the full Boltzmann equation, exploring the full parameter space of the theory and studying the time-evolution of the asymmetry. Remarkably, we find regions of parameter space where decays play no part at all, and where the baryon asymmetry of the Universe is determined solely by gravitational effects.

  2. The ER membrane protein complex is a transmembrane domain insertase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guna, Alina; Volkmar, Norbert; Christianson, John C.; Hegde, Ramanujan S.

    2018-01-01

    Insertion of proteins into membranes is an essential cellular process. The extensive biophysical and topological diversity of membrane proteins necessitates multiple insertion pathways that remain incompletely defined. Here, we found that known membrane insertion pathways fail to effectively engage tail-anchored membrane proteins with moderately hydrophobic transmembrane domains. These proteins are instead shielded in the cytosol by calmodulin. Dynamic release from calmodulin allowed sampling of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where the conserved ER membrane protein complex (EMC) was shown to be essential for efficient insertion in vitro and in cells. Purified EMC in synthetic liposomes catalyzed insertion of its substrates in a reconstituted system. Thus, EMC is a transmembrane domain insertase, a function that may explain its widely pleiotropic membrane-associated phenotypes across organisms. PMID:29242231

  3. A monodisperse transmembrane α-helical peptide barrel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendran, Kozhinjampara R.; Niitsu, Ai; Kong, Lingbing; Thomson, Andrew R.; Sessions, Richard B.; Woolfson, Derek N.; Bayley, Hagan

    2017-05-01

    The fabrication of monodisperse transmembrane barrels formed from short synthetic peptides has not been demonstrated previously. This is in part because of the complexity of the interactions between peptides and lipids within the hydrophobic environment of a membrane. Here we report the formation of a transmembrane pore through the self-assembly of 35 amino acid α-helical peptides. The design of the peptides is based on the C-terminal D4 domain of the Escherichia coli polysaccharide transporter Wza. By using single-channel current recording, we define discrete assembly intermediates and show that the pore is most probably a helix barrel that contains eight D4 peptides arranged in parallel. We also show that the peptide pore is functional and capable of conducting ions and binding blockers. Such α-helix barrels engineered from peptides could find applications in nanopore technologies such as single-molecule sensing and nucleic-acid sequencing.

  4. Detecting pore-lining regions in transmembrane protein sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugent Timothy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alpha-helical transmembrane channel and transporter proteins play vital roles in a diverse range of essential biological processes and are crucial in facilitating the passage of ions and molecules across the lipid bilayer. However, the experimental difficulties associated with obtaining high quality crystals has led to their significant under-representation in structural databases. Computational methods that can identify structural features from sequence alone are therefore of high importance. Results We present a method capable of automatically identifying pore-lining regions in transmembrane proteins from sequence information alone, which can then be used to determine the pore stoichiometry. By labelling pore-lining residues in crystal structures using geometric criteria, we have trained a support vector machine classifier to predict the likelihood of a transmembrane helix being involved in pore formation. Results from testing this approach under stringent cross-validation indicate that prediction accuracy of 72% is possible, while a support vector regression model is able to predict the number of subunits participating in the pore with 62% accuracy. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first tool capable of identifying pore-lining regions in proteins and we present the results of applying it to a data set of sequences with available crystal structures. Our method provides a way to characterise pores in transmembrane proteins and may even provide a starting point for discovering novel routes of therapeutic intervention in a number of important diseases. This software is freely available as source code from: http://bioinf.cs.ucl.ac.uk/downloads/memsat-svm/.

  5. Transmembrane electron transport and the neutral theory of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, S

    1984-01-01

    Based on the concept of "pairs of basic functional states" the evolution of the first chemiosmotic mechanism of energy conversion is discussed in terms of point mutations, gene duplications and of the neutral theory of evolution. A model for estimating the overall probability of the evolutionary step in question is presented, both for the "selectionist" and "neutralist" position. It is concluded that, concerning the present stage of knowledge, the evolution of transmembrane electron transport is an unsolved problem in evolutionary biology.

  6. Bilateral Asymmetry in the Human Pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurki, Helen K

    2017-04-01

    Asymmetry of the human axial skeleton has received much less attention that of the limb skeleton. Pelvic morphology is subject to multiple selective factors, including bipedal locomotion and obstetrics, among others, as well as environmental factors such as biomechanical loading. How these various factors influence or restrict asymmetry of the pelvis is unknown and few studies have investigated levels and patterns of pelvic asymmetry. This study examines percentage directional (%DA) and absolute (%AA) asymmetry in 14 bilaterally paired dimensions of the pelvic canal, non-canal pelvis, and femur in female (n = 111) and male (n = 126) skeletons from nine geographically dispersed skeletal samples. Directional asymmetries were uniformly low for all measures and lacked any consistent patterning across the variables, while %AA was highest in the pelvic canal, particularly the posterior aspects. Few sex differences and no population differences were found for %DA and %AA; however the latter was correlated with coefficients of variation across the 14 variables in both sexes. While sample mean %DA were low, standard deviations of the canal variables were high and the majority of individuals in both sexes displayed %DA values >±0.5, suggesting asymmetry is common, if not directionally consistent. Biomechanical loading of the pelvic girdle may influence asymmetry of both the canal and non-canal aspects of the pelvis; however it is unlikely that these asymmetries negatively affect obstetric function, given the prevalence for %DA found in this study. Anat Rec, 300:653-665, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Bottom production asymmetries at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norrbin, E.; Vogt, R.

    1999-01-01

    We present results on bottom hadron production asymmetries at the LHC within both the Lund string fragmentation model and the intrinsic bottom model. The main aspects of the models are summarized and specific predictions for pp collisions at 14 TeV are given. Asymmetries are found to be very small at central rapidities increasing to a few percent at forward rapidities. At very large rapidities intrinsic production could dominate but this region is probably out of reach of any experiment

  8. Bottom production asymmetries at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norrbin, E.; Vogt, R.

    1999-01-01

    We present results on bottom hadron production asymmetries at the LHC within both the Lund string fragmentation model and the intrinsic bottom model. The main aspects of the models are summarized and specific predictions for pp collisions at 14 TeV are given. Asymmetries are found to be very small at central rapidities increasing to a few percent at forward rapidities. At very large rapidities intrinsic production could dominate but this region is probably out of reach of any experiment.

  9. On the asymmetry of selected Fraunhofer lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostik, R.I.; Orlova, T.V.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis is made of the asymmetry of Fraunhofer lines observed with the double-pass monochromator of the horizontal solar telescope ASU-5 of the Main Astronomical Observatory of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. The conclusion is that the character of macromotion in the radial direction varies with height; in a tangential direction the motions at different depths are homogeneous. The asymmetry of weak lines is due to convection rather than to wave motions. (Auth.)

  10. ``Green's function'' approach & low-mode asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Laurent; Clark, Dan; Salmonson, Jay; MacLaren, Steve; Ma, Tammy; Khan, Shahab; Pino, Jesse; Ralph, Jo; Czajka, C.; Tipton, Robert; Landen, Otto; Kyrala, Georges; 2 Team; 1 Team

    2017-10-01

    Long wavelength, low mode asymmetries are believed to play a leading role in limiting the performance of current ICF implosions on NIF. These long wavelength modes are initiated and driven by asymmetries in the x-ray flux from the hohlraum; however, the underlying hydrodynamics of the implosion also act to amplify these asymmetries. The work presented here aim to deepen our understanding of the interplay of the drive asymmetries and the underlying implosion hydrodynamics in determining the final imploded configuration. This is accomplished through a synthesis of numerical modeling, analytic theory, and experimental data. In detail, we use a Green's function approach to connect the drive asymmetry seen by the capsule to the measured inflight and hot spot symmetries. The approach has been validated against a suite of numerical simulations. Ultimately, we hope this work will identify additional measurements to further constrain the asymmetries and increase hohlraum illumination design flexibility on the NIF. The technique and derivation of associated error bars will be presented. LLC, (LLNS) Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  11. Asymmetry of inverted-topology repeats in the AE1 anion exchanger suggests an elevator-like mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficici, Emel; Faraldo-Gómez, José D; Jennings, Michael L; Forrest, Lucy R

    2017-12-04

    The membrane transporter anion exchanger 1 (AE1), or band 3, is a key component in the processes of carbon-dioxide transport in the blood and urinary acidification in the renal collecting duct. In both erythrocytes and the basolateral membrane of the collecting-duct α-intercalated cells, the role of AE1 is to catalyze a one-for-one exchange of chloride for bicarbonate. After decades of biochemical and functional studies, the structure of the transmembrane region of AE1, which catalyzes the anion-exchange reaction, has finally been determined. Each protomer of the AE1 dimer comprises two repeats with inverted transmembrane topologies, but the structures of these repeats differ. This asymmetry causes the putative substrate-binding site to be exposed only to the extracellular space, consistent with the expectation that anion exchange occurs via an alternating-access mechanism. Here, we hypothesize that the unknown, inward-facing conformation results from inversion of this asymmetry, and we propose a model of this state constructed using repeat-swap homology modeling. By comparing this inward-facing model with the outward-facing experimental structure, we predict that the mechanism of AE1 involves an elevator-like motion of the substrate-binding domain relative to the nearly stationary dimerization domain and to the membrane plane. This hypothesis is in qualitative agreement with a wide range of biochemical and functional data, which we review in detail, and suggests new avenues of experimentation. © 2017 Ficici et al.

  12. Asymmetry of inverted-topology repeats in the AE1 anion exchanger suggests an elevator-like mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraldo-Gómez, José D.

    2017-01-01

    The membrane transporter anion exchanger 1 (AE1), or band 3, is a key component in the processes of carbon-dioxide transport in the blood and urinary acidification in the renal collecting duct. In both erythrocytes and the basolateral membrane of the collecting-duct α-intercalated cells, the role of AE1 is to catalyze a one-for-one exchange of chloride for bicarbonate. After decades of biochemical and functional studies, the structure of the transmembrane region of AE1, which catalyzes the anion-exchange reaction, has finally been determined. Each protomer of the AE1 dimer comprises two repeats with inverted transmembrane topologies, but the structures of these repeats differ. This asymmetry causes the putative substrate-binding site to be exposed only to the extracellular space, consistent with the expectation that anion exchange occurs via an alternating-access mechanism. Here, we hypothesize that the unknown, inward-facing conformation results from inversion of this asymmetry, and we propose a model of this state constructed using repeat-swap homology modeling. By comparing this inward-facing model with the outward-facing experimental structure, we predict that the mechanism of AE1 involves an elevator-like motion of the substrate-binding domain relative to the nearly stationary dimerization domain and to the membrane plane. This hypothesis is in qualitative agreement with a wide range of biochemical and functional data, which we review in detail, and suggests new avenues of experimentation. PMID:29167180

  13. Molecular Insights into the Transmembrane Domain of the Thyrotropin Receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Chantreau

    Full Text Available The thyrotropin receptor (TSHR is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR that is member of the leucine-rich repeat subfamily (LGR. In the absence of crystal structure, the success of rational design of ligands targeting the receptor internal cavity depends on the quality of the TSHR models built. In this subfamily, transmembrane helices (TM 2 and 5 are characterized by the absence of proline compared to most receptors, raising the question of the structural conformation of these helices. To gain insight into the structural properties of these helices, we carried out bioinformatics and experimental studies. Evolutionary analysis of the LGR family revealed a deletion in TM5 but provided no information on TM2. Wild type residues at positions 2.58, 2.59 or 2.60 in TM2 and/or at position 5.50 in TM5 were substituted to proline. Depending on the position of the proline substitution, different effects were observed on membrane expression, glycosylation, constitutive cAMP activity and responses to thyrotropin. Only proline substitution at position 2.59 maintained complex glycosylation and high membrane expression, supporting occurrence of a bulged TM2. The TSHR transmembrane domain was modeled by homology with the orexin 2 receptor, using a protocol that forced the deletion of one residue in the TM5 bulge of the template. The stability of the model was assessed by molecular dynamics simulations. TM5 straightened during the equilibration phase and was stable for the remainder of the simulations. Our data support a structural model of the TSHR transmembrane domain with a bulged TM2 and a straight TM5 that is specific of glycoprotein hormone receptors.

  14. Molecular pharmacology of promiscuous seven transmembrane receptors sensing organic nutrients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Johansen, Lars Dan; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2009-01-01

    A number of highly promiscuous seven transmembrane (7TM) receptors have been cloned and characterized within the last few years. It is noteworthy that many of these receptors are activated broadly by amino acids, proteolytic degradation products, carbohydrates, or free fatty acids and are expressed...... receptors FFA1, FFA2, FFA3, GPR84, and GPR120. The involvement of the individual receptors in sensing of food intake has been validated to different degrees because of limited availability of specific pharmacological tools and/or receptor knockout mice. However, as a group, the receptors represent potential...

  15. Role of protein dynamics in transmembrane receptor signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yong; Bugge, Katrine Østergaard; Kragelund, Birthe Brandt

    2018-01-01

    Cells are dependent on transmembrane receptors to communicate and transform chemical and physical signals into intracellular responses. Because receptors transport 'information', conformational changes and protein dynamics play a key mechanistic role. We here review examples where experiment...... and computation have been used to study receptor dynamics. Recent studies on three distinct classes of receptors (G-protein coupled receptors, ligand-gated ion-channels and single-pass receptors) are highlighted to show that conformational changes across a range of time-scales and length-scales are central...

  16. Structure of the transmembrane domain of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing; Chou, James J

    2017-04-01

    HIV-1 envelope spike (Env) is a heavily glycosylated, type I membrane protein that mediates fusion of viral and cell membranes to initiate infection. It is also a primary target of neutralizing antibodies and thus an important candidate for vaccine development. We have recently reported a nuclear magnetic resonance structure of the transmembrane (TM) domain of HIV-1 Env reconstituted in a membrane-like environment. Taking HIV-1 as an example, we discuss here how a TM domain can anchor, stabilize, and modulate a viral envelope spike and how its high-resolution structure can contribute to understanding viral membrane fusion and to immunogen design. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  17. Promiscuous Seven Transmembrane Receptors Sensing L-α-amino Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smajilovic, Sanela; Wellendorph, Petrine; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2014-01-01

    A number of nutrient sensing seven trans-membrane (7TM) receptors have been identified and characterized over the past few years. While the sensing mechanisms to carbohydrates and free fatty acids are well understood, the molecular basis of amino acid sensing has recently come to the limelight. T....... The present review describes the current status of promiscuous L-α-amino acid sensors, the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR), the GPRC6A receptor, the T1R1/T1R3 receptor and also their molecular pharmacology, expression pattern and physiological significance....

  18. Superheavy thermal dark matter and primordial asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramante, Joseph; Unwin, James

    2017-01-01

    The early universe could feature multiple reheating events, leading to jumps in the visible sector entropy density that dilute both particle asymmetries and the number density of frozen-out states. In fact, late time entropy jumps are usually required in models of Affleck-Dine baryogenesis, which typically produces an initial particle-antiparticle asymmetry that is much too large. An important consequence of late time dilution, is that a smaller dark matter annihilation cross section is needed to obtain the observed dark matter relic density. For cosmologies with high scale baryogenesis, followed by radiation-dominated dark matter freeze-out, we show that the perturbative unitarity mass bound on thermal relic dark matter is relaxed to 10 10 GeV. We proceed to study superheavy asymmetric dark matter models, made possible by a sizable entropy injection after dark matter freeze-out, and identify how the Affleck-Dine mechanism would generate the baryon and dark asymmetries.

  19. Asymmetry dependence of the nuclear caloric curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntosh, A.B.; Bonasera, A.; Cammarata, P.; Hagel, K.; Heilborn, L.; Kohley, Z.; Mabiala, J.; May, L.W.; Marini, P.; Raphelt, A.; Souliotis, G.A.; Wuenschel, S.; Zarrella, A.; Yennello, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    A basic feature of the nuclear equation of state is not yet understood: the dependence of the nuclear caloric curve on the neutron–proton asymmetry. Predictions of theoretical models differ on the magnitude and even the sign of this dependence. In this work, the nuclear caloric curve is examined for fully reconstructed quasi-projectiles around mass A=50. The caloric curve extracted with the momentum quadrupole fluctuation thermometer shows that the temperature varies linearly with quasi-projectile asymmetry (N−Z)/A . An increase in asymmetry of 0.15 units corresponds to a decrease in temperature on the order of 1 MeV. These results also highlight the importance of a full quasi-projectile reconstruction in the study of thermodynamic properties of hot nuclei

  20. Forward-backward asymmetries with quark jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davier, M.; Richard, F.

    1979-01-01

    One of the most challenging experimental problems at LEP is the measurement of the weak couplings of the quarks. As is well known for lepton pair production, forward-backward asymmetries are very sensitive to these couplings. The problem of determining the jet flavour in order to measure such asymmetries is considered. Two methods are discussed: (i) measuring the charge of the jet which should reflect the quark charge with unfortunately large fluctuations. This could be a way to isolate Q=2/3 quarks (top) and measure the asymmetry for these tanti t pairs; and (ii) using leading particles to assign the jet flavour. It is known that, when E/Esub(beam) =x→1, the probability that the leading meson carries the initial quark with approach unity. The second method is discussed in detail. (Auth.)

  1. Transverse spin dependent azimuthal asymmetries at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Parsamyan, Bakur

    2011-01-01

    In semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering of polarized leptons on a transversely polarized target eight target transverse spin-dependent azimuthal modulations are allowed. In the QCD parton model half of these asymmetries can be interpreted within the leading order approach and the other four are twist-three contributions. The first two leading twist asymmetries extracted by HERMES and COMPASS experiments are related: one to the transversity distribution and the Collins effect, the other to the Sivers distribution function. These results triggered a lot of interest in the past few years and allowed the first extractions of the transversity and the Sivers distribution functions of nucleon. The remaining six asymmetries were obtained by the COMPASS experiment using a 160 GeV/c longitudinally polarized muon beam and transversely polarized deuteron and proton targets. Here we review preliminary results from COMPASS proton data of 2007.

  2. Quark Model Contributions to Parton Flavor Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesh, C. J.; Olivares, V.; Londergan, J. T.

    2003-04-01

    Simple Quark model calculations of the nucleon sea yield an excess of baru over bard anti-quarks, exactly opposite to what is observed. By calculating the effects of flavor-dependent corrections to the energies of the lowest lying four 4Q-barQ states in the sea, we investigate the extent to which the sign of the flavor asymmetry can be reversed in these models without the explicit introduction of mesonic degrees of freedom. Sea quark polarizations and charge asymmetries are also calculated.

  3. The gluon Sivers asymmetry measurements at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Szabelski, Adam

    2017-01-01

    The Sivers function describes the correlation between the transverse spin of a nucleon and the transverse motion of its partons. As such, a nonzero Sivers effect for gluons could be a signature of their nonzero orbital angular momentum inside the nucleon. COMPASS has collected data of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering by impinging 160 GeV/$c$ muons on transversely polarised proton and deuteron targets. The gluon Sivers asymmetry is extracted from a high-$p_T$ hadron pair sample with the use of monte carlo simulations and the a neural network approach. The results of a similar analysis for a Collins-like asymmetry for gluons will also be given.

  4. Particle-antiparticle asymmetries from annihilations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldes, Iason; Bell, Nicole F; Petraki, Kalliopi; Volkas, Raymond R

    2014-10-31

    An extensively studied mechanism to create particle-antiparticle asymmetries is the out-of-equilibrium and CP violating decay of a heavy particle. We, instead, examine how asymmetries can arise purely from 2→2 annihilations rather than from the usual 1→2 decays and inverse decays. We review the general conditions on the reaction rates that arise from S-matrix unitarity and CPT invariance, and show how these are implemented in the context of a simple toy model. We formulate the Boltzmann equations for this model, and present an example solution.

  5. Top (and Bottom) asymmetries at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Pinamonti, Michele; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The latest top pair production charge asymmetry measurements by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations are presented: inclusive and differential measurements in the single lepton and dilepton channels based on the full 7 TeV data-set, a combination of the 7 TeV single lepton measurements by the two experiments, and a measurement in the single lepton channel on the full 8 TeV data-set performed by the CMS experiment. The first measurement of the bottom pair producion charge asymmetry by the LHCb experiment is also mentioned.

  6. Stability analysis of the inverse transmembrane potential problem in electrocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Martin; Mardal, Kent-André; Nielsen, Bjørn Fredrik

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we study some mathematical properties of an inverse problem arising in connection with electrocardiograms (ECGs). More specifically, we analyze the possibility for recovering the transmembrane potential in the heart from ECG recordings, a challenge currently investigated by a growing number of groups. Our approach is based on the bidomain model for the electrical activity in the myocardium, and leads to a parameter identification problem for elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs). It turns out that this challenge can be split into two subproblems: the task of recovering the potential at the heart surface from body surface recordings; the problem of computing the transmembrane potential inside the heart from the potential determined at the heart surface. Problem (1), which can be formulated as the Cauchy problem for an elliptic PDE, has been extensively studied and is well known to be severely ill-posed. The main purpose of this paper is to prove that problem (2) is stable and well posed if a suitable prior is available. Moreover, our theoretical findings are illuminated by a series of numerical experiments. Finally, we discuss some aspects of uniqueness related to the anisotropy in the heart.

  7. Structure of Staphylococcal α-Hemolysin, a Heptameric Transmembrane Pore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Langzhou; Hobaugh, Michael R.; Shustak, Christopher; Cheley, Stephen; Bayley, Hagan; Gouaux, J. Eric

    1996-12-01

    The structure of the Staphylococcus aureus α-hemolysin pore has been determined to 1.9 overset{circ}{mathrm A} resolution. Contained within the mushroom-shaped homo-oligomeric heptamer is a solvent-filled channel, 100 overset{circ}{mathrm A} in length, that runs along the sevenfold axis and ranges from 14 overset{circ}{mathrm A} to 46 overset{circ}{mathrm A} in diameter. The lytic, transmembrane domain comprises the lower half of a 14-strand antiparallel β barrel, to which each protomer contributes two β strands, each 65 overset{circ}{mathrm A} long. The interior of the β barrel is primarily hydrophilic, and the exterior has a hydrophobic belt 28 overset{circ}{mathrm A} wide. The structure proves the heptameric subunit stoichiometry of the α-hemolysin oligomer, shows that a glycine-rich and solvent-exposed region of a water-soluble protein can self-assemble to form a transmembrane pore of defined structure, and provides insight into the principles of membrane interaction and transport activity of β barrel pore-forming toxins.

  8. Structure and function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Morales

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is a lethal autosomal recessive genetic disease caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR. Mutations in the CFTR gene may result in a defective processing of its protein and alter the function and regulation of this channel. Mutations are associated with different symptoms, including pancreatic insufficiency, bile duct obstruction, infertility in males, high sweat Cl-, intestinal obstruction, nasal polyp formation, chronic sinusitis, mucus dehydration, and chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus lung infection, responsible for 90% of the mortality of CF patients. The gene responsible for the cellular defect in CF was cloned in 1989 and its protein product CFTR is activated by an increase of intracellular cAMP. The CFTR contains two membrane domains, each with six transmembrane domain segments, two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs, and a cytoplasmic domain. In this review we discuss the studies that have correlated the role of each CFTR domain in the protein function as a chloride channel and as a regulator of the outwardly rectifying Cl- channels (ORCCs.

  9. Frontal Brain Asymmetry and Willingness to Pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsøy, Thomas Z.; Skov, Martin; Christensen, Maiken K.

    2018-01-01

    measure-the prefrontal gamma asymmetry-was most strongly related to WTP responses, and was most coupled to the actual decision phase. These findings are discussed in light of the psychology of WTP calculations, and in relation to the recent emergence of consumer neuroscience and neuromarketing....

  10. Frontal Brain Asymmetry and Willingness to Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsøy, Thomas Z; Skov, Martin; Christensen, Maiken K; Stahlhut, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    Consumers frequently make decisions about how much they are willing to pay (WTP) for specific products and services, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying such calculations. In this study, we were interested in testing whether specific brain activation-the asymmetry in engagement of the prefrontal cortex-would be related to consumer choice. Subjects saw products and subsequently decided how much they were willing to pay for each product, while undergoing neuroimaging using electroencephalography. Our results demonstrate that prefrontal asymmetry in the gamma frequency band, and a trend in the beta frequency band that was recorded during product viewing was significantly related to subsequent WTP responses. Frontal asymmetry in the alpha band was not related to WTP decisions. Besides suggesting separate neuropsychological mechanisms of consumer choice, we find that one specific measure-the prefrontal gamma asymmetry-was most strongly related to WTP responses, and was most coupled to the actual decision phase. These findings are discussed in light of the psychology of WTP calculations, and in relation to the recent emergence of consumer neuroscience and neuromarketing.

  11. Neutron contribution to nuclear DVCS asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vadim Guzey

    2008-01-22

    Using a simple model for nuclear GPDs, we study the role of the neutron contribution to nuclear DVCS observables. As an example, we use the beam-spin asymmetry $A_{LU}^A$ measured in coherent and incoherent DVCS on a wide range of nuclear targets in the HERMES and JLab kinematics. We find that at small values of the momentum transfer $t$, $A_{LU}^A$ is dominated by the coherent-enriched contribution, which enhances $A_{LU}^A$ compared to the free proton asymmetry $A_{LU}^p$, $A_{LU}^A(\\phi)/A_{LU}^p(\\phi)=1.8-2.2$. At large values of $t$, the nuclear asymmetry is dominated by the incoherent contribution and $A_{LU}^A/(\\phi)A_{LU}^p(\\phi)=0.66-0.74$. The deviation of $A_{LU}^A(\\phi)/A_{LU}^p(\\phi)$ from unity at large $t$ is a result of the neutron contribution, which gives a possibility to constain neutron GPDs in incoherent nuclear DVCS. A similar trend is expected for other DVCS asymmetries.

  12. Lower limb asymmetry in mechanical muscle function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, M J; Aagaard, Per; Herzog, W

    2015-01-01

    ) for kinetic impulse (CMJ and SJ phase-specific kinetic impulse AI). Dual x-ray absorptiometry scanning was used to assess asymmetry in lower body muscle mass. Compared with controls, ACL-R skiers had increased AI in muscle mass (P 

  13. Effect of stress on structural brain asymmetry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zach, P.; Valeš, Karel; Stuchlík, Aleš; Čermáková, P.; Mrzílková, J.; Koutella, A.; Kutová, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 4 (2016), s. 253-264 ISSN 0172-780X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : laterality * asymmetry * brain * evolution * stress * neuropsychiatric disorders Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2016

  14. Spin asymmetries in inclusive cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shima, T.

    1981-01-01

    Using the now closed Argonne ZGS polarized-proton beam, and the Michigan polarized-proton target, we have studied the one-spin and two-spin asymmetries of pion and proton production in the inclusive reactions p up arrow + p up arrow → p + Anything, and p up arrow + p up arrow → pi/sup +/ + Anything at P/sub lab/ = 6, 11.75, and 12.75 GeV/c. We observed experimental one-spin and two-spin asymmetries by scattering the polarized-proton beam from our polarized-proton target in each of the four possible initial spin states. These inclusive one-spin and two-spin asymmetries were calculated using the measured experimental spin asymmetries and three types of background measurements taken at P/sub lab/ = 6 and 11.75 GeV/c. We varied the transverse momentum P/sub perpendicular/) of the outgoing pion or proton from 0.71 to 1.55 GeV/c, and Feynman x variable from -0.08 to 0.67

  15. Binomial distribution for the charge asymmetry parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.T.; Yang, C.N.

    1984-01-01

    It is suggested that for high energy collisions the distribution with respect to the charge asymmetry z = nsub(F) - nsub(B) is binomial, where nsub(F) and nsub(B) are the forward and backward charge multiplicities. (orig.)

  16. Dominant limb asymmetry associated with prospective injury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to identify associations between dominant lower limb asymmetry in unanticipated agility performance and prospective injury occurrence. Female netball players (N=24) performed unanticipated 180° turn agility sprints on both the dominant and non-dominant legs interspersed with an additional ...

  17. Infant Frontal Asymmetry Predicts Child Emotional Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Maria; Paulus, Markus; Kühn-Popp, Nina; Meinhardt, Jorg; Sodian, Beate

    2015-01-01

    While factors influencing maternal emotional availability (EA) have been well investigated, little is known about the development of child EA. The present longitudinal study investigated the role of frontal brain asymmetry in young children with regard to child EA (child responsiveness and involvement) in mother-child interaction in a sample of 28…

  18. Exploring handedness asymmetries in the Simon effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibold, Julia C; Chen, Jing; Proctor, Robert W

    2016-02-01

    Spatially corresponding stimulus-response pairings usually produce shorter reaction times (RTs) than do non-corresponding pairings, even when the spatial dimension of the stimulus is irrelevant to the task. This "Simon effect" for visual stimuli and manual responses is often larger for the stimulus location on the side to which the person's dominant hand is operating. The present study aimed at replicating and examining the nature of this asymmetry. To determine whether the Simon effect asymmetry is a function of the hand distinction or of conceptual spatial codes, performance with left and right manual key-presses was compared to that with vocal responses "left" and "right." Whether the asymmetric Simon effect pattern is restricted to spatial stimuli was tested by comparing effects obtained with left and right located squares to those found with the centered words Left and Right. The asymmetry was only replicated for the spatial stimulus-manual response Simon task, for which a second experiment showed similar results when the hands and response box were not visible during task performance. The analysis revealed a general dominant-hand RT advantage that similarly adds to both corresponding and non-corresponding trials and is rather independent from the Simon effect. This advantage yields an apparent asymmetry when the data are analyzed as a function of correspondence for each stimulus location because the corresponding and non-corresponding RTs that are compared come from different hands.

  19. Measuring Asymmetry in Insect-Plant Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Claudia P T [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN - Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078 972, Natal, RN (Brazil); De Almeida, Adriana M [Departamento de Botanica, Ecologia e Zoologia, Centro de Biociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN - Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078 972, Natal, RN (Brazil); Corso, Gilberto, E-mail: claudia@dfte.ufrn.br, E-mail: adrianam@ufrn.br, E-mail: corso@cb.ufrn.br [Departamento de Biofisica e Farmacologia, Centro de Biociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN - Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078 972, Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2011-03-01

    In this work we focus on interaction networks between insects and plants and in the characterization of insect plant asymmetry, an important issue in coevolution and evolutionary biology. We analyze in particular the asymmetry in the interaction matrix of animals (herbivorous insects) and plants (food resource for the insects). Instead of driving our attention to the interaction matrix itself we derive two networks associated to the bipartite network: the animal network, D{sub 1}, and the plant network, D{sub 2}. These networks are constructed according to the following recipe: two animal species are linked once if they interact with the same plant. In a similar way, in the plant network, two plants are linked if they interact with the same animal. To explore the asymmetry between D{sub 2} and D{sub 1} we test for a set of 23 networks from the ecologic literature networks: the difference in size, {Delta}L, clustering coefficient difference, {Delta}C, and mean connectivity difference, {Delta}. We used a nonparametric statistical test to check the differences in {Delta}L, {Delta}C and {Delta}. Our results indicate that {Delta}L and {Delta} show a significative asymmetry.

  20. Glycosylation and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlin, Thomas F; Glick, Mary Catherine

    2001-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) has been known for the past 11 years to be a membrane glycoprotein with chloride channel activity. Only recently has the glycosylation of CFTR been examined in detail, by O'Riordan et al in Glycobiology. Using cells that overexpress wild-type (wt)CFTR, the presence of polylactosamine was noted on the fully glycosylated form of CFTR. In the present commentary the results of that work are discussed in relation to the glycosylation phenotype of cystic fibrosis (CF), and the cellular localization and processing of ΔF508 CFTR. The significance of the glycosylation will be known when endogenous CFTR from primary human tissue is examined. PMID:11686896

  1. Glycosylation and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glick Mary Catherine

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR has been known for the past 11 years to be a membrane glycoprotein with chloride channel activity. Only recently has the glycosylation of CFTR been examined in detail, by O'Riordan et al in Glycobiology. Using cells that overexpress wild-type (wtCFTR, the presence of polylactosamine was noted on the fully glycosylated form of CFTR. In the present commentary the results of that work are discussed in relation to the glycosylation phenotype of cystic fibrosis (CF, and the cellular localization and processing of ΔF508 CFTR. The significance of the glycosylation will be known when endogenous CFTR from primary human tissue is examined.

  2. MutHTP: Mutations in Human Transmembrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Kulandaisamy; S, Binny Priya; R, Sakthivel; Tarnovskaya, Svetlana; Bizin, Ilya; Hönigschmid, Peter; Frishman, Dmitrij; Gromiha, M Michael

    2018-02-01

    We have developed a novel database, MutHTP, which contains information on 183395 disease-associated and 17827 neutral mutations in human transmembrane proteins. For each mutation site MutHTP provides a description of its location with respect to the membrane protein topology, structural environment (if available) and functional features. Comprehensive visualization, search, display and download options are available. The database is publicly available at http://www.iitm.ac.in/bioinfo/MutHTP/. The website is implemented using HTML, PHP and javascript and supports recent versions of all major browsers, such as Firefox, Chrome and Opera. gromiha@iitm.ac.in. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2018). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Effect of ionizing radiation on transmembrane potential of Streptococcus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomenko, B.S.; Akoev, I.G.

    1979-01-01

    Treatment of Streptococcus faecalis with ionizing radiation at doses of 5 to 100 krad is shown to reduce the energy-dependent accumulation of dibenzyldimethylammonium (DDA + ) by the cell. Since transmembrane potential is the moving force of DDA + transport across the membrane, the decrease in DDA + accumulation is suggested to be due to potential reduction. This radiation effect was not due to inactivation of the potential-generating mechanism; thus, the ATPase activity and glycolytic activity of the irradiated cells were higher than in the control. At the same time, the membranes exhibited an increased permeability for K + and protons, which is probably due to structural rearrangements in the membranes after irradiation. It is suggested that the potential reduction results from the increase in proton permeability of membranes

  4. The transmembrane channel-like protein family and human papillomaviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Jaime S; Stokes, Alexander J

    2014-01-01

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare genodermatosis characterized by increased sensitivity to infection by the β-subtype of human papillomaviruses (β-HPVs), causing persistent, tinea versicolor-like dermal lesions. In a majority of affected individuals, these macular lesions progress to invasive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in sun-exposed areas. While mutations in transmembrane channel-like 6 (TMC6 / EVER1) and 8 (TMC8 / EVER2) have been causally linked to EV, their molecular functions are unclear. It is likely that their protective effects involve regulation of the β-HPV life cycle, host keratinocyte apoptosis vs. survival balance and/or T-cell interaction with infected host cells. PMID:24800179

  5. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Membranes and a Transmembrane Helix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tap Ha; Mehler, Ernest L.; Weinstein, Harel

    1999-05-01

    Three molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of 1.5-ns length were carried out on fully hydrated patches of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayers in the liquid-crystalline phase. The simulations were performed using different ensembles and electrostatic conditions: a microcanonical ensemble or constant pressure-temperature ensemble, with or without truncated electrostatic interactions. Calculated properties of the membrane patches from the three different protocols were compared to available data from experiments. These data include the resulting overall geometrical dimensions, the order characteristics of the lipid hydrocarbon chains, as well as various measures of the conformations of the polar head groups. The comparisons indicate that the simulation carried out within the microcanonical ensemble with truncated electrostatic interactions yielded results closest to the experimental data, provided that the initial equilibration phase preceding the production run was sufficiently long. The effects of embedding a non-ideal helical protein domain in the membrane patch were studied with the same MD protocols. This simulation was carried out for 2.5 ns. The protein domain corresponds to the seventh transmembrane segment (TMS7) of the human serotonin 5HT 2Areceptor. The peptide is composed of two α-helical segments linked by a hinge domain around a perturbing Asn-Pro motif that produces at the end of the simulation a kink angle of nearly 80° between the two helices. Several aspects of the TMS7 structure, such as the bending angle, backbone Φ and Ψ torsion angles, the intramolecular hydrogen bonds, and the overall conformation, were found to be very similar to those determined by NMR for the corresponding transmembrane segment of the tachykinin NK-1 receptor. In general, the simulations were found to yield structural and dynamic characteristics that are in good agreement with experiment. These findings support the application of simulation methods to the study

  6. Transmembrane protein topology prediction using support vector machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugent Timothy

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alpha-helical transmembrane (TM proteins are involved in a wide range of important biological processes such as cell signaling, transport of membrane-impermeable molecules, cell-cell communication, cell recognition and cell adhesion. Many are also prime drug targets, and it has been estimated that more than half of all drugs currently on the market target membrane proteins. However, due to the experimental difficulties involved in obtaining high quality crystals, this class of protein is severely under-represented in structural databases. In the absence of structural data, sequence-based prediction methods allow TM protein topology to be investigated. Results We present a support vector machine-based (SVM TM protein topology predictor that integrates both signal peptide and re-entrant helix prediction, benchmarked with full cross-validation on a novel data set of 131 sequences with known crystal structures. The method achieves topology prediction accuracy of 89%, while signal peptides and re-entrant helices are predicted with 93% and 44% accuracy respectively. An additional SVM trained to discriminate between globular and TM proteins detected zero false positives, with a low false negative rate of 0.4%. We present the results of applying these tools to a number of complete genomes. Source code, data sets and a web server are freely available from http://bioinf.cs.ucl.ac.uk/psipred/. Conclusion The high accuracy of TM topology prediction which includes detection of both signal peptides and re-entrant helices, combined with the ability to effectively discriminate between TM and globular proteins, make this method ideally suited to whole genome annotation of alpha-helical transmembrane proteins.

  7. Sagittal otolith morphogenesis asymmetry in marine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mille, T; Mahe, K; Villanueva, M C; De Pontual, H; Ernande, B

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated and compared asymmetry in sagittal otolith shape and length between left and right inner ears in four roundfish and four flatfish species of commercial interest. For each species, the effects of ontogenetic changes (individual age and total body length), sexual dimorphism (individual sex) and the otolith's location on the right or left side of the head, on the shape and length of paired otoliths (between 143 and 702 pairs according to species) were evaluated. Ontogenetic changes in otolith shape and length were observed for all species. Sexual dimorphism, either in otolith shape and length or in their ontogenetic changes, was detected for half of the species, be they round or flat. Significant directional asymmetry in otolith shape and length was detected in one roundfish species each, but its inconsistency across species and its small average amplitude (6·17% for shape and 1·99% for length) suggested that it has barely any biological relevance. Significant directional asymmetry in otolith shape and length was found for all flatfish species except otolith length for one species. Its average amplitude varied between 2·06 and 17·50% for shape and between 0·00 and 11·83% for length and increased significantly throughout ontogeny for two species, one dextral and one sinistral. The longer (length) and rounder otolith (shape) appeared to be always on the blind side whatever the species. These results suggest differential biomineralization between the blind and ocular inner ears in flatfish species that could result from perturbations of the proximal-distal gradient of otolith precursors in the endolymph and the otolith position relative to the geometry of the saccular epithelium due to body morphology asymmetry and lateralized behaviour. The fact that asymmetry never exceeded 18% even at the individual level suggests an evolutionary canalization of otolith shape symmetry to avoid negative effects on fish hearing and balance. Technically

  8. 21 CFR 866.5900 - Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance... DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5900 Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR... intended as an aid in confirmatory diagnostic testing of individuals with suspected cystic fibrosis (CF...

  9. Modeling the structure of SARS 3a transmembrane protein using a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 127; Issue 12. Modeling the structure of SARS 3a transmembrane protein using a minimum unfavorable contact approach. S Ramakrishna ... Keywords. Membrane protein modeling; ion channel; transmembrane helices; viroporin; molecular dynamics; SARS 3a.

  10. Hidden markov model for the prediction of transmembrane proteins using MATLAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Navaneet; Shanker, Sudhanshu; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Sinha, Dhiraj; Pandey, Paras Nath

    2011-01-01

    Since membranous proteins play a key role in drug targeting therefore transmembrane proteins prediction is active and challenging area of biological sciences. Location based prediction of transmembrane proteins are significant for functional annotation of protein sequences. Hidden markov model based method was widely applied for transmembrane topology prediction. Here we have presented a revised and a better understanding model than an existing one for transmembrane protein prediction. Scripting on MATLAB was built and compiled for parameter estimation of model and applied this model on amino acid sequence to know the transmembrane and its adjacent locations. Estimated model of transmembrane topology was based on TMHMM model architecture. Only 7 super states are defined in the given dataset, which were converted to 96 states on the basis of their length in sequence. Accuracy of the prediction of model was observed about 74 %, is a good enough in the area of transmembrane topology prediction. Therefore we have concluded the hidden markov model plays crucial role in transmembrane helices prediction on MATLAB platform and it could also be useful for drug discovery strategy. The database is available for free at bioinfonavneet@gmail.comvinaysingh@bhu.ac.in.

  11. Interplay among transversity induced asymmetries in hadron leptoproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C.; Alexeev, M.G.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Augustyniak, W.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C.D.R.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Buchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Chang, W.C.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, I.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Curiel, Q.; d'Hose, N.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; M. Finger jr; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; von Hohenesche, N. du Fresne; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchey, E.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giordano, F.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grosse-Perdekamp, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hahne, D.; von Harrach, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Hsieh, C.Yu; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jorg, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kramer, M.; Kremser, P.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R.P.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Marchand, C.; Marianski, B.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Miyachi, Y.; Montuenga, P.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W.D.; Nukazuka, G.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.C.; Pereira, F.; Pesaro, G.; Pesek, M.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Rychter, A.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, C.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schonning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Selyunin, A.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Wolbeek, J. ter; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Veloso, J.; Virius, M.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.

    2016-01-01

    In the fragmentation of a transversely polarized quark several left-right asymmetries are possible for the hadrons in the jet. When only one unpolarized hadron is selected, it exhibits an azimuthal modulation known as Collins effect. When a pair of oppositely charged hadrons is observed, three asymmetries can be considered, a di-hadron asymmetry and two single hadron asymmetries. In lepton deep inelastic scattering on transversely polarized nucleons all these asymmetries are coupled with the transversity distribution. From the high statistics COMPASS data on oppositely charged hadron-pair production we have investigated for the first time the dependence of these three asymmetries on the difference of the azimuthal angles of the two hadrons. The similarity of transversity induced single and di-hadron asymmetries is discussed. A phenomenological analysis of the data allows to establish quantitative relationships among them, providing strong indication that the underlying fragmentation mechanisms are all driven ...

  12. GDH Integral on the Proton from Asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prok, Yelena [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2004-05-01

    Inclusive double spin electron asymmetries have been measured by scattering polarized electrons off the solid polarized 15NH3 target in Hall B of Jefferson Lab in 2000-2001. The virtual photon asymmetry A1 (x), the longitudinal spin structure function, g1 (x, Q2), and the first moment, γ1p, have been evaluated for a kinematic range of 0.05 ≥ Q2 ≥ 4.5 GeV2. The extracted results complement the existing data in the resonance region, extending it to lower and higher Q2 regions. The results are important in the study of Q2 evolution of nucleon structure from the hadronic to partonic degrees of freedom.

  13. Quantum Correlations Evolution Asymmetry in Quantum Channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Meng; Huang Yun-Feng; Guo Guang-Can

    2017-01-01

    It was demonstrated that the entanglement evolution of a specially designed quantum state in the bistochastic channel is asymmetric. In this work, we generalize the study of the quantum correlations, including entanglement and quantum discord, evolution asymmetry to various quantum channels. We found that the asymmetry of entanglement and quantum discord only occurs in some special quantum channels, and the behavior of the entanglement evolution may be quite different from the behavior of the quantum discord evolution. To quantum entanglement, in some channels it decreases monotonously with the increase of the quantum channel intensity. In some other channels, when we increase the intensity of the quantum channel, it decreases at first, then keeps zero for some time, and then rises up. To quantum discord, the evolution becomes more complex and you may find that it evolutes unsmoothly at some points. These results illustrate the strong dependence of the quantum correlations evolution on the property of the quantum channels. (paper)

  14. Tax asymmetries and corporate income tax reform

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Stewart C.; Majd, Saman.

    1986-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of tax asymmetries (the lack of full loss offsets) under current corporate income tax law and a stylized tax reform proposal. The government's tax claim on the firm's pretax cash flows is modelled as a series of path-dependent call options and valued by option pricing procedures and Monte Carlo simulation.The tax reform investigated reduces the statutory tax rate, eliminates the investment tax credit and sets tax depreciation approximately equal to economic ...

  15. Relic neutrino asymmetry evolution from first principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, N.F.; Volkas, R.R.; Wong, Y.Y.Y.

    1998-09-01

    The exact Quantum Kinetic Equations for a two-flavour active-sterile neutrino system are used to provide a systematic derivation of approximate evolution equations for the relic neutrino asymmetry. An extension of the adiabatic approximation for matter-affected neutrino oscillations is developed which incorporates decoherence due to collisions. Exact and approximate expressions for the decoherence and repopulation functions are discussed. A first pass is made over the exact treatment of multi-flavour partially incoherent oscillations. (authors)

  16. Detecting Gait Asymmetry with Wearable Accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-18

    goal is to utilize these features to detect actual injuries, with the quantification of rehabilitation progress as a logical future continuation. The...gait in post-stroke patients: Is this deficit distinct from asymmetry? a cohort study,” Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation 8(1), 23 (2011...symmetry and regularity in transfemoral amputees assessed by trunk accelerations,” J Neuroeng Rehabil 7(4) (2010). [16] D. Gouwanda and S. Arosha

  17. [Lateralization of behavioral reactions and otolith asymmetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychakov, D V

    2013-01-01

    Lateralized behavior is widely spread among vertebrate animals and is determined first of ally by structural-functional brain asymmetry as well as by the presence of somatic and visceral asymmetry. Some kinds of asymmetric reactions are suggested to be due to the presence of asymmetry at the level of sense organs, in particular, of otolith organs. This review presents data on value and character of otolith asymmetry (OA) in animals of various species and classes, on action upon it of weightlessness and hypergravity; the problem of effect of OA on vestibular and auditory functions is considered. In symmetric vertebrates, OA has been shown to be of fluctuation character and its chi coefficient varies in diapason from -0.2 to 0.2; in the overwhelmed majority of individuals, /chi/ otolith organs to work coordinately; this it why OA is at the equally low level regardless of the individual's taxonomic and ecologic position, its size, age, and otolith growth rate. Individuals with abnormally high OA level can experience difficulties in analysis of auditory and vestibular stimuli, therefore in nature the majority of such individuals are eliminated in the process of natural selection. Unlike symmetrical vertebrates, labyrinths of many Pleuronectiformes have pronounced OA--otoliths of the lower labyrinth, on a average, are significantly heavier than those of the upper labyrinth. Their organs are the only example when OA with directed character seem to play an essential role in lateralized behavior and are suggested to be used in the spatial localization of the sound source. The short-time action of weightlessness and relatively weak hypergravity ( or = 3g, as well as some diseases and shifts connected with processes of aging can enhance OA and cause several functional disturbances.

  18. Measurement of semileptonic asymmetries at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    CP violation in neutral B meson mixing is an excellent place to search for the effects of new physics beyond the Standard Model. I report on the first measurements of the CP violating semileptonic asymmetries in the B_s0 and B_d0 systems from LHCb. Both are consistent with the Standard Model expectations and are the most precise single measurements of these parameters to date.

  19. Frontal Brain Asymmetry and Willingness to Pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Z. Ramsøy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Consumers frequently make decisions about how much they are willing to pay (WTP for specific products and services, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying such calculations. In this study, we were interested in testing whether specific brain activation—the asymmetry in engagement of the prefrontal cortex—would be related to consumer choice. Subjects saw products and subsequently decided how much they were willing to pay for each product, while undergoing neuroimaging using electroencephalography. Our results demonstrate that prefrontal asymmetry in the gamma frequency band, and a trend in the beta frequency band that was recorded during product viewing was significantly related to subsequent WTP responses. Frontal asymmetry in the alpha band was not related to WTP decisions. Besides suggesting separate neuropsychological mechanisms of consumer choice, we find that one specific measure—the prefrontal gamma asymmetry—was most strongly related to WTP responses, and was most coupled to the actual decision phase. These findings are discussed in light of the psychology of WTP calculations, and in relation to the recent emergence of consumer neuroscience and neuromarketing.

  20. Nodal signalling determines biradial asymmetry in Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Schmidt, Heiko A; Kuhn, Anne; Höger, Stefanie K; Kocagöz, Yigit; Laumann-Lipp, Nico; Ozbek, Suat; Holstein, Thomas W

    2014-11-06

    In bilaterians, three orthogonal body axes define the animal form, with distinct anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral and left-right asymmetries. The key signalling factors are Wnt family proteins for the anterior-posterior axis, Bmp family proteins for the dorsal-ventral axis and Nodal for the left-right axis. Cnidarians, the sister group to bilaterians, are characterized by one oral-aboral body axis, which exhibits a distinct biradiality of unknown molecular nature. Here we analysed the biradial growth pattern in the radially symmetrical cnidarian polyp Hydra, and we report evidence of Nodal in a pre-bilaterian clade. We identified a Nodal-related gene (Ndr) in Hydra magnipapillata, and this gene is essential for setting up an axial asymmetry along the main body axis. This asymmetry defines a lateral signalling centre, inducing a new body axis of a budding polyp orthogonal to the mother polyp's axis. Ndr is expressed exclusively in the lateral bud anlage and induces Pitx, which encodes an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor that functions downstream of Nodal. Reminiscent of its function in vertebrates, Nodal acts downstream of β-Catenin signalling. Our data support an evolutionary scenario in which a 'core-signalling cassette' consisting of β-Catenin, Nodal and Pitx pre-dated the cnidarian-bilaterian split. We presume that this cassette was co-opted for various modes of axial patterning: for example, for lateral branching in cnidarians and left-right patterning in bilaterians.

  1. Esthetic evaluation of dental and gingival asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Liliana; Pinho, Teresa

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine which smile asymmetries were less esthetic, dental or gingival. Laypeople (297), generalists (223), prosthodontists (50) and orthodontists (49), evaluated the esthetics of digitally-modified images taken from the same frontal intra-oral photograph, using the same lips, simulating upper maxillary midline shift, occlusal plane inclination, asymmetric incisal edge and asymmetric gingival migration. The images were later paired into 3 groups. The only ones considered esthetic were the asymmetric incisal edge of the 0.5 mm shorter upper central incisor and the asymmetric gingival migration (2 mm) of the upper central incisor. In the paired images, upper maxillary midline shift vs. occlusal plane inclination, the former was rated less esthetic, while in the asymmetric incisal edge vs. asymmetric gingival migration pair, the latter was considered to be less esthetic. Laypeople and generalists consider smiles more attractive. The only images considered esthetic were the asymmetric incisal edge of the central incisor shorter by 0.5 mm and the 2 mm asymmetric gingival migration of the upper central incisor. In the horizontal plane (maxillary midline shift vs. occlusal plane cant), the dental asymmetries were considered less esthetic than the gingival asymmetries. However, in the vertical plane (asymmetric incisal edge vs. asymmetric gingival migration) the opposite was recorded. Copyright © 2015 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Signs of Asymmetry in Exploding Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Kerry

    2018-03-01

    Supernova explosions enrich the interstellar medium and can even briefly outshine their host galaxies. However, the mechanism behind these massive explosions still isnt fully understood. Could probing the asymmetry of supernova remnants help us better understand what drives these explosions?Hubble image of the remnant of supernova 1987A, one of the first remnants discovered to be asymmetrical. [ESA/Hubble, NASA]Stellar Send-OffsHigh-mass stars end their lives spectacularly. Each supernova explosion churns the interstellar medium and unleashes high-energy radiation and swarms of neutrinos. Supernovae also suffuse the surrounding interstellar medium with heavy elements that are incorporated into later generations of stars and the planets that form around them.The bubbles of expanding gas these explosions leave behind often appear roughly spherical, but mounting evidence suggests that many supernova remnants are asymmetrical. While asymmetry in supernova remnants can arise when the expanding material plows into the non-uniform interstellar medium, it can also be an intrinsic feature of the explosion itself.Simulation results clockwise from top left: Mass density, calcium mass fraction, oxygen mass fraction, nickel-56 mass fraction. Click to enlarge. [Adapted from Wollaeger et al. 2017]Coding ExplosionsThe presence or absence of asymmetry in a supernova remnant can hold clues as to what drove the explosion. But how can we best observe asymmetry in a supernova remnant? Modeling lets us explore different observational approaches.A team of scientists led by Ryan T. Wollaeger (Los Alamos National Laboratory) used radiative transfer and radiative hydrodynamics simulations to model the explosion of a core-collapse supernova. Wollaeger and collaborators introduced asymmetry into the explosion by creating a single-lobed, fast-moving outflow along one axis.Their simulations showed that while some chemical elements lingered near the origin of the explosion or were distributed

  3. A Novel Type III Endosome Transmembrane Protein, TEMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan D. Teasdale

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As part of a high-throughput subcellular localisation project, the protein encoded by the RIKEN mouse cDNA 2610528J11 was expressed and identified to be associated with both endosomes and the plasma membrane. Based on this, we have assigned the name TEMP for Type III Endosome Membrane Protein. TEMP encodes a short protein of 111 amino acids with a single, alpha-helical transmembrane domain. Experimental analysis of its membrane topology demonstrated it is a Type III membrane protein with the amino-terminus in the lumenal, or extracellular region, and the carboxy-terminus in the cytoplasm. In addition to the plasma membrane TEMP was localized to Rab5 positive early endosomes, Rab5/Rab11 positive recycling endosomes but not Rab7 positive late endosomes. Video microscopy in living cells confirmed TEMP's plasma membrane localization and identified the intracellular endosome compartments to be tubulovesicular. Overexpression of TEMP resulted in the early/recycling endosomes clustering at the cell periphery that was dependent on the presence of intact microtubules. The cellular function of TEMP cannot be inferred based on bioinformatics comparison, but its cellular distribution between early/recycling endosomes and the plasma membrane suggests a role in membrane transport.

  4. MemBrain: improving the accuracy of predicting transmembrane helices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Shen

    Full Text Available Prediction of transmembrane helices (TMH in alpha helical membrane proteins provides valuable information about the protein topology when the high resolution structures are not available. Many predictors have been developed based on either amino acid hydrophobicity scale or pure statistical approaches. While these predictors perform reasonably well in identifying the number of TMHs in a protein, they are generally inaccurate in predicting the ends of TMHs, or TMHs of unusual length. To improve the accuracy of TMH detection, we developed a machine-learning based predictor, MemBrain, which integrates a number of modern bioinformatics approaches including sequence representation by multiple sequence alignment matrix, the optimized evidence-theoretic K-nearest neighbor prediction algorithm, fusion of multiple prediction window sizes, and classification by dynamic threshold. MemBrain demonstrates an overall improvement of about 20% in prediction accuracy, particularly, in predicting the ends of TMHs and TMHs that are shorter than 15 residues. It also has the capability to detect N-terminal signal peptides. The MemBrain predictor is a useful sequence-based analysis tool for functional and structural characterization of helical membrane proteins; it is freely available at http://chou.med.harvard.edu/bioinf/MemBrain/.

  5. Transmembrane topology of the acetylcholine receptor examined in reconstituted vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrea, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    Each of the five acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subunits, α 2 β-γδ, is believed to have the same number of transmembrane crossing and to share the same general folding pattern. AChR isolated from the electric organ of electric fish is predominantly dimeric. We have used this bridge as a marker for the C-terminus of the δ subunit, and presumably that of the other subunits in addition. The disulfide's accessibility to hydrophilic reductants, principally glutathione (GSH), was tested in a reconstituted vesicle system. The reduction of the δ-δ desulfide, as evidenced by the transition of AChrR dimers to monomers, was quantitatively monitored on velocity sedimentation sucrose gradients. Alternatively, the reduction of δ 2 to δ was followed by employing non-reducing SDS-PAGE. Reductants such as GSH were able to access the bridge in intact right-side-out vesicles. No acceleration of this process was evident when the vesicles were disrupted by freeze-thaw or by detergents. Control experiments which determined the rate of reduction of entrapped diphtheria toxin, or that of 3 H-GSH efflux, demonstrated that intact reconstituted vesicles provide an adequate permeability barrier to GSH access of their intravesicular space

  6. Transmembrane channel-like (tmc) gene regulates Drosophila larval locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanmeng; Wang, Yuping; Zhang, Wei; Meltzer, Shan; Zanini, Damiano; Yu, Yue; Li, Jiefu; Cheng, Tong; Guo, Zhenhao; Wang, Qingxiu; Jacobs, Julie S; Sharma, Yashoda; Eberl, Daniel F; Göpfert, Martin C; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung; Wang, Zuoren

    2016-06-28

    Drosophila larval locomotion, which entails rhythmic body contractions, is controlled by sensory feedback from proprioceptors. The molecular mechanisms mediating this feedback are little understood. By using genetic knock-in and immunostaining, we found that the Drosophila melanogaster transmembrane channel-like (tmc) gene is expressed in the larval class I and class II dendritic arborization (da) neurons and bipolar dendrite (bd) neurons, both of which are known to provide sensory feedback for larval locomotion. Larvae with knockdown or loss of tmc function displayed reduced crawling speeds, increased head cast frequencies, and enhanced backward locomotion. Expressing Drosophila TMC or mammalian TMC1 and/or TMC2 in the tmc-positive neurons rescued these mutant phenotypes. Bending of the larval body activated the tmc-positive neurons, and in tmc mutants this bending response was impaired. This implicates TMC's roles in Drosophila proprioception and the sensory control of larval locomotion. It also provides evidence for a functional conservation between Drosophila and mammalian TMCs.

  7. Inflation Asymmetry and Menu Costs - New Micro Data Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Reiff; Peter Karadi

    2009-01-01

    evidence on the asymmetry of inflation response to aggregate shocks. We show that even though a standard menu cost model like that of Golosov and Lucas (2007) underestimates the asymmetry, a sectoral menu cost model with multi-product firms and trend-inflation can quantitatively account for the inflation asymmetry observed in the data, thereby it provides direct evidence to the argument of Ball and Mankiw (1994). The model predicts that the effect of a positive monetary policy shock can have ...

  8. Contract Design: The problem of information asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Amelung, Volker E; Juhnke, Christin

    2018-01-12

    Integrated care systems are advocated as an effective method of improving the performance of healthcare systems. These systems outline a payment and care delivery model that intends to tie provider reimbursements to predefined quality metrics. Little is known about the contractual design and the main challenges of delegating "accountability" to these new kinds of organisations and/or contracts. The research question in this article focuses on how healthcare contracts can look like and which possible problems arise in designing such contracts. In this a special interest is placed on information asymmetries. A comprehensive literature review on methods of designing contracts in Integrated Care was conducted. This article is the first in a row of three that all contribute to a specific issue in designing healthcare contracts. Starting with the organisation of contracts and information asymmetries, part 2 focusses on financial options and risks and part 3 finally concludes with the question of risk management and evaluation. Healthcare contracting between providers and payers will have a major impact on the overall design of future healthcare systems. If Integrated care systems or any other similar concept of care delivery are to be contracted directly by payers to manage the continuum of care the costs of market utilisation play an essential role. Transaction costs also arise in the course of the negotiation and implementation of contracts. These costs are the reason why it is generally not possible to conclude perfect (complete) contracts. Problems with asymmetric distribution of information can relate to the situation before a contract is concluded (adverse selection) and after conclusion of a contract (moral hazard). Information asymmetries are seen as a major obstacle to the efficient operation of integrated care programmes. Coordination and motivation problems cannot be solved at no-costs. The presented problems in the design of selective individual contracts

  9. Asymmetry overlay correction for lithography processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Jui; Yu, Chun-Chi; Weng, Tang Chun; Chang, C.-H.; Chen, Charlie; Lin, Chia Ching; Lio, En Chuan; Yu, Chia Hsiang

    2017-03-01

    Overlay control for semiconductor devices is getting tighter in recent years. In the past, we may only concern the whether the overlay are in spec or not. However, the spec we concerned was the same for both X and Y directions. To achieve the tighter spec in the future, we may consider the asymmetry specs for X and Y directions separately for some specific layers, such as CONT layer. For example, if the spec of X direction is tighter than Y direction, we can lose the precision of overlay from Y direction to let overlay from X direction more precise. Theoretically, the common overlay models such as HOPC or iHOPC set X and Y directions independently. To reach the goal of loss overly from one direction to preserve the overlay from the other direction, we consider the full map measurement overlay historical data. From these data, we can analyze the data to find which overlay targets are more important to X direction, and we can set these corresponding targets as the new measurement locations. This is one concept of "asymmetry" since the chosen measurement locations can provide more precisely correction for the overlay of specific direction. On the other hand, we use the in spec ratio (ISR) index for all measurement overlay targets on wafer to replace the traditional mean plus 3 sigma (M3S) index, since we have the budgets of both X and Y directions. The in spec ratio is defined as ratio that the residuals of X and Y directions fill the corresponding budgets, simultaneously. Since our goal is to maximize the ISR, the traditional M3S optimization algorithm can be replaced by ISR optimization with different overlay specs. That is the reason we call "asymmetry overlay correction".

  10. Symmetry and Asymmetry in Bouncing Gaits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni A. Cavagna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In running, hopping and trotting gaits, the center of mass of the body oscillates each step below and above an equilibrium position where the vertical force on the ground equals body weight. In trotting and low speed human running, the average vertical acceleration of the center of mass during the lower part of the oscillation equals that of the upper part, the duration of the lower part equals that of the upper part and the step frequency equals the resonant frequency of the bouncing system: we define this as on-offground symmetric rebound. In hopping and high speed human running, the average vertical acceleration of the center of mass during the lower part of the oscillation exceeds that of the upper part, the duration of the upper part exceeds that of the lower part and the step frequency is lower than the resonant frequency of the bouncing system: we define this as on-off-ground asymmetric rebound. Here we examine the physical and physiological constraints resulting in this on-off-ground symmetry and asymmetry of the rebound. Furthermore, the average force exerted during the brake when the body decelerates downwards and forwards is greater than that exerted during the push when the body is reaccelerated upwards and forwards. This landing-takeoff asymmetry, which would be nil in the elastic rebound of the symmetric spring-mass model for running and hopping, suggests a less efficient elastic energy storage and recovery during the bouncing step. During hopping, running and trotting the landing-takeoff asymmetry and the mass-specific vertical stiffness are smaller in larger animals than in the smaller animals suggesting a more efficient rebound in larger animals.

  11. Top quark asymmetry and dijet resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Sunghoon; Wells, James D.

    2011-01-01

    CDF recently reported an anomaly in the $m_{jj}$ distribution of dijet events produced in association with a $W$ boson. If this anomaly is associated with a new flavor conserving vector resonance, $V$, one might have expected to observe effects in the analogous $m_{jj}$ distribution produced in association with a $\\gamma$. No such excess is observed. A single $u-t-V$ flavor changing coupling, however, can contribute to the $m_{jj}$ anomaly while being consistent with other resonance searches. Furthermore, it gives a potential explanation of the observed forward-backward asymmetry in top quark production.

  12. General Equilibrium Pricing with Information Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhong eZhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a general equilibrium model for asset pricing that incorporates asymmetric information as the key element determining security prices. In our setting, the concepts of completeness, arbitrage, state price and equivalent martingale measure are extended to the case of asymmetric information. Our model shows that in a so-called quasi-complete market, the agents with differential information can reach an agreement on an universal equilibrium price. The corresponding state price and martingale measure are determined. The key intuition is that agents evaluate consumption choices conditioned on their private information and the public information generated by price. As a consequence, information asymmetry can lead to mispricing as well.

  13. Broiler walking ability and toe asymmetry under harsh rearing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Baracho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Morphological asymmetry has been described as a potential broiler welfare indicator, for interpreting the birds' ability to cope with the challenges that may affect its growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of morphological asymmetry data to estimate broiler walking ability and welfare.dBroilers werefed diets supplemented or not with vitamin D. Toes were measured when birds were 42 and 49 days old using digital caliper.the left and right sides of the following four bilateral traits (tarsometatarsus length, outer toe length, mid toe length, and back toe length were measured twice on intact alive birds by two different researcherh. Data from right and left sides were compared in the two treatments using the Student t-test, and Pearson's correlation was used to analyze the total asymmetry found as a result of the total sum of the differences in the measurements. Asymmetry data were comparedwith the total numberof leg lesions. Mid toe and tarsometatarsus asymmetry resultswere considered as actual fluctuating asymmetry, and presented normal distribution (Test of Kolmogorov-Smirnov, p >0.05. However, back toe and outer toe measurements were not normally distributed, as determined by the test of Kolmogorov-Smirnov (p <0.05, indicating anti-asymmetry; when comparing right with left limb,results were significantly different fron zero (t-Student, p <0.05 indicating directional fluctuating asymmetry.The welfare of broilers withwalking difficulty due to the presence of severe asymmetry in limbs is poor.

  14. [Asymmetry of antennal grooming in the cockroach (Periplaneta americana)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the key features of antennal grooming of male American cockroaches in neutral circumstances. It was shown for the first time that the right antenna was cleaned significantly more often than the left one, which indicates the presence of functional asymmetry of antennal grooming in this insect species. At the same time, no statistically significant asymmetry was found for grooming of antennal bases and legs. Morphological asymmetries of antennae and legs and/or brain lateralization are the plausible sources of observed behavioral asymmetry in antennal grooming.

  15. Experimental investigation of transverse spin asymmetries in muon-p SIDIS processes: Collins asymmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C.; Alexakhin, V.Yu.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Antonov, A.A.; Austregesilo, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Bicker, K.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dunnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; von Hohenesche, N.du Fresne; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Guthorl, T.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Hoppner, Ch.; d'Hose, N.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kramer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Lauser, L.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Moinester, M.A.; Morreale, A.; Mutter, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Negrini, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Nowak, W.D.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Perevalova, E.; Pesaro, G.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.F.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Richter, A.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schluter, T.; Schmidt, K.; Schmitt, L.; Schonning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Schroder, W.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.N.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.I.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Wolbeek, J.Ter; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Tkatchev, L.G.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.V.; Wang, L.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wislicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zhuravlev, N.; Zvyagin, A.

    2012-10-31

    The COMPASS Collaboration at CERN has measured the transverse spin azimuthal asymmetry of charged hadrons produced in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a 160 GeV positive muon beam and a transversely polarised NH_3 target. The Collins asymmetry of the proton was extracted in the Bjorken x range 0.003asymmetries for negative and positive hadrons are similar in magnitude and opposite in sign. They are compatible with model calculations in which the u-quark transversity is opposite in sign and somewhat larger than the d-quark transversity distribution function. The asymmetry is extracted as a function of Bjorken $x$, the relative hadron energy $z$ and the hadron transverse momentum p_T^h. The high statistics and quality of the data also allow for more detailed investigations of the dependence on the ki...

  16. Visualizing water molecules in transmembrane proteins using radiolytic labeling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, Tivadar; Gupta, Sayan; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Chance, Mark R

    2010-02-09

    Essential to cells and their organelles, water is both shuttled to where it is needed and trapped within cellular compartments and structures. Moreover, ordered waters within protein structures often colocalize with strategically placed polar or charged groups critical for protein function, yet it is unclear if these ordered water molecules provide structural stabilization, mediate conformational changes in signaling, neutralize charged residues, or carry out a combination of all these functions. Structures of many integral membrane proteins, including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), reveal the presence of ordered water molecules that may act like prosthetic groups in a manner quite unlike bulk water. Identification of "ordered" waters within a crystalline protein structure requires sufficient occupancy of water to enable its detection in the protein's X-ray diffraction pattern, and thus, the observed waters likely represent a subset of tightly bound functional waters. In this review, we highlight recent studies that suggest the structures of ordered waters within GPCRs are as conserved (and thus as important) as conserved side chains. In addition, methods of radiolysis, coupled to structural mass spectrometry (protein footprinting), reveal dynamic changes in water structure that mediate transmembrane signaling. The idea of water as a prosthetic group mediating chemical reaction dynamics is not new in fields such as catalysis. However, the concept of water as a mediator of conformational dynamics in signaling is just emerging, because of advances in both crystallographic structure determination and new methods of protein footprinting. Although oil and water do not mix, understanding the roles of water is essential to understanding the function of membrane proteins.

  17. Dermatoglyphic asymmetry and hair whorl patterns in schizophrenic and bipolar patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi-Nooraie, Reza; Mortaz-Hedjri, Soroush

    2008-01-15

    Dermatoglyphic quantitative counts, asymmetry between two hands, and hair whorls were assessed in schizophrenic, bipolar and normal samples. Higher dermatoglyphic directional asymmetry and lower fluctuating asymmetry in bipolar patients support their hypernormal asymmetries. An inverse association between hair whorl location and dermatoglyphic asymmetry in schizophrenia may show a higher probability of lateralization problems.

  18. Modeling the Structure of SARS 3a Transmembrane Protein Using a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Modeling the structure of SARS 3a Transmembrane protein using a minimum unfavorable contact approach. S RAMAKRISHNA, SILADITYA PADHI and U DEVA PRIYAKUMAR*. Center for Computational Natural Sciences and Bioinformatics, International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad 500 032, India.

  19. Approaches to ab initio molecular replacement of α-helical transmembrane proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Jens M. H.; Simkovic, Felix; Keegan, Ronan; Mayans, Olga; Zhang, Chengxin; Zhang, Yang; Rigden, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    α-Helical transmembrane proteins are a ubiquitous and important class of proteins, but present difficulties for crystallographic structure solution. Here, the effectiveness of the AMPLE molecular replacement pipeline in solving α-helical transmembrane-protein structures is assessed using a small library of eight ideal helices, as well as search models derived from ab initio models generated both with and without evolutionary contact information. The ideal helices prove to be surprisingly effe...

  20. Asymmetry parameter for nonmesonic hypernuclear decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbero, Cesar; Galeao, Alfredo P.; Krmpotic, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    We give general expressions for the vector asymmetry in the angular distribution of protons in the nonmesonic weak decay of polarized hypernuclei. From these we derive an explicit expression for the calculation of the asymmetry parameter, a Λ , which is applicable to the specific cases of Λ 5 He and Λ 12 C described within the extreme shell model. In contrast to the approximate formula widely used in the literature, it includes the effects of three-body kinematics in the final states of the decay and correctly treats the contribution of transitions originating from single-proton states beyond the s-shell. This expression is then used for the corresponding numerical computation of a Λ within several one-meson-exchange models. Besides the strictly local approximation usually adopted for the transition potential, we also consider the addition of the first-order nonlocality terms. We find values for a Λ ranging from -0.62 to -0.24, in qualitative agreement with other theoretical estimates but in contradiction with some recent experimental determinations

  1. On Introducing Asymmetry into Circular Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Umbach

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} We give a brief history of the results which led to the introduction of asymmetry into symmetric circular distributions. This is followed by the presentation of another method of introducing asymmetry. Some properties of the induced distributions are studied. Finally, this new distribution is shown to be a reasonable fit to the Jander ant data as presented in Fisher (1993.

  2. LOWER LIMB ASYMMETRIES IN RHYTHMIC GYMNASTICS ATHLETES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutuoso, Anderson Simas; Diefenthaeler, Fernando; Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Freitas, Cintia de la Rocha

    2016-02-01

    Different limb training demands and limb preference may determine anthropometric and muscle force inter-limb asymmetries in Rhythmic Gymnastics (RG) athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of lateral preference of the lower extremity on anthropometric, range of motion, and isokinetic torque measurements of RG athletes. Cross sectional study. Lower limb anthropometric measurements (girth, estimated anatomical cross-sectional area), hip, knee and ankle range of motion, flexor and extensor isokinetic torques (angular velocities = 60, 180, e 240 °·s(-1)) and bilateral asymmetry index were evaluated in 11 international level Rhythmic Gymnastics athletes (17.9 ± 4.0 years of age; 9.1 ± 5,1 years of experience; 26.8 ± 6.0 weekly training hours). The preferred limb showed larger thigh girth and anatomical cross-sectional area, higher ankle dorsiflexor range of motion, higher hip flexor torque at 60 °·s(-1) and higher plantarflexor torque at 180 °·s(-1) compared to the non-preferred limb. The observed differences seem to be strictly related to lateral preference and rhythmic gymnastics training. 3.

  3. Perceptual asymmetries and handedness: A neglected link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele eMarzoli

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Healthy individuals tend to weigh in more the left than the right side of visual space in a variety of contexts, ranging from pseudoneglect to perceptual asymmetries for faces. Among the common explanations proposed for the attentional and perceptual advantages of the left visual field, a link with the prevalence of right-handedness in humans has never been suggested, although some evidence seems to converge in favor of a bias of spatial attention towards the region most likely coincident with another person’s right hand during a face-to-face interaction. Such a bias might imply an increased efficiency in monitoring both communicative and aggressive acts, the right limb being more used than the left in both types of behaviour. Although attentional and perceptual asymmetries could be linked to right-handedness at the level of phylogeny because of the evolutionarily advantage of directing attention towards the region where others’ dominant hand usually operates, it is also legitimate to question whether, at the ontogenetic level, frequent exposure to right-handed individuals may foster leftward biases. These views are discussed in the light of extant literature, and a number of tests are proposed in order to assess our hypotheses.

  4. Single transverse spin asymmetry of forward neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan; Soffer, J.

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the single transverse spin asymmetry A N (t), for inclusive neutron production in pp collisions at forward rapidities relative to the polarized proton in the energy range of RHIC. Absorptive corrections to the pion pole generate a relative phase between the spin-flip and nonflip amplitudes, leading to a transverse spin asymmetry which is found to be far too small to explain the magnitude of A N observed in the PHENIX experiment. A larger contribution, which does not vanish at high energies, comes from the interference of pion and a 1 -Reggeon exchanges. The unnatural parity of a 1 guarantees a substantial phase shift, although the magnitude is strongly suppressed by the smallness of diffractive πp→a 1 p cross section. We replace the Regge a 1 pole by the Regge cut corresponding to the πρ exchange in the 1 + S state. The production of such a state, which we treat as an effective pole a, forms a narrow peak in the 3π invariant mass distribution in diffractive πp interactions. The cross section is large, so one can assume that this state saturates the spectral function of the axial current and we can determine its coupling to nucleons via the partially conserved axial-vector-current constraint Goldberger-Treiman relation and the second Weinberg sum rule. The numerical results of the parameter-free calculation of A N are in excellent agreement with the PHENIX data.

  5. Asymmetries in four powerful radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonsdale, C.J.; Morison, I.

    1983-01-01

    The extragalactic radio sources 3C 153, 196, 249.1 and 268.4 have been observed at frequencies of 408 and 1666 MHz with the new MERLIN array operated by Jodrell Bank, giving resolutions of approx. 0.9 and 0.25 arcsec respectively. The sources show marked asymmetries about the central object in spectral index, flux and morphology, which we believe are most naturally accounted for by the effects of a time-dependent asymmetry in the central powerhouse. In the case of 3C 249.1 the observations suggest that energy is being supplied alternately to the two sides of the source. The 1666-MHz observations also show that each of the other three sources contains one extremely compact hotspot. The minimum internal energy densities in these hotspots are such that confinement by ram pressure of motion through the intergalactic medium may not be possible, indicating that such features are transient phenomena in free expansion, or that some other confinement mechanism is operating. (author)

  6. Etik og ansvar, symmetri eller asymmetri ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Britta

    2014-01-01

    Når professionelle relationer, hvor fysioterapeuter, pædagoger, lærere, sygeplejersker optræder, omtales, dukker begrebet symmetri og asymmetri op. Oftest omtales den professionelle relation som asymmetrisk, hvor det næsten implicit og uden for diskussion forstås, at det er den professionelle, der...... har den mest magtfulde position. Med filosoffen Emmanuel Lévinas udfordres denne selvfølgelighed, og jeg vil med artiklen gerne bidrage til at udfordre den selvfølgelighed, hvormed overvejelser om symmetri og asymmetri ofte udtales i relation til det borgerrettede professionelle arbejde. Mange...... fordring, som ikke er noget vi kan undslå os eller bestemme os for, men som er noget der overgår os, og dermed vil den andens liv til dels ligge i vores hænder. Buber omtales ofte som mødets filosof, og for ham er det centrale, at vi i mødet ikke gør den anden til et ”det”, og hans mest kendte værk hedder...

  7. Asymmetries of Knowledge and Epistemic Change in Social Gaming Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piirainen-Marsh, Arja; Tainio, Liisa

    2014-01-01

    While a growing number of studies investigate the role of knowledge and interactional management of knowledge asymmetries in conversation analysis, the epistemic organization of multilingual and second language interactions is still largely unexplored. This article addresses this issue by investigating how knowledge asymmetries and changing…

  8. European economic integration and (A)symmetry of macroeconomic fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, C.J.M.; Economidou, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates output and consumption asymmetries in the Eurozone and enlarged EU over the period 1992-2007, and their consequences for monetary policy. Our results reveal that the introduction of the euro has little impact on output asymmetry so far; however, it has led to

  9. CP violating rate asymmetries in B decays ∑

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CP violating rate asymmetries in B decays. N G DESHPANDE. Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403-5203, USA. Email: desh@oregon.uoregon.edu. Abstract. We briefly discuss measurements of angles β and α of the unitarity triangle. We then review rate asymmetries using SU´3µ ...

  10. Disentangling the Relationship between Hemispheric Asymmetry and Cognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirnstein, Marco; Leask, Stuart; Rose, Jonas; Hausmann, Markus

    2010-01-01

    It is widely believed that advantages of hemispheric asymmetries originated in better cognitive processing, hence it is often implied that the relationship between hemispheric asymmetry and cognitive performance is linearly positive: the higher the degree of lateralization in a specific cognitive domain, the better the performance in a…

  11. Identification of Foot Pathologies Based on Plantar Pressure Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linah Wafai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Foot pathologies can negatively influence foot function, consequently impairing gait during daily activity, and severely impacting an individual’s quality of life. These pathologies are often painful and correspond with high or abnormal plantar pressure, which can result in asymmetry in the pressure distribution between the two feet. There is currently no general consensus on the presence of asymmetry in able-bodied gait, and plantar pressure analysis during gait is in dire need of a standardized method to quantify asymmetry. This paper investigates the use of plantar pressure asymmetry for pathological gait diagnosis. The results of this study involving plantar pressure analysis in fifty one participants (31 healthy and 20 with foot pathologies support the presence of plantar pressure asymmetry in normal gait. A higher level of asymmetry was detected at the majority of the regions in the feet of the pathological population, including statistically significant differences in the plantar pressure asymmetry in two regions of the foot, metatarsophalangeal joint 3 (MPJ3 and the lateral heel. Quantification of plantar pressure asymmetry may prove to be useful for the identification and diagnosis of various foot pathologies.

  12. Spatial asymmetry of post-stroke hemiparetic gait: assessment and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite potential benefits, quantitative analysis of gait asymmetry is still not routinely used in many hospitals and rehabilitation institutions in developing countries due to ... Conclusion: Overall, the study demonstrated asymmetry of step length and foot rotation angle during walking of post-stroke hemiparetic individuals and ...

  13. Information Asymmetries as Trade Barriers: ISO 9000 Increases International Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potoski, Matthew; Prakash, Aseem

    2009-01-01

    Spatial, cultural, and linguistic barriers create information asymmetries between buyers and sellers that impede international trade. The International Organization for Standardization's ISO 9000 program is designed to reduce these information asymmetries by providing assurance about the product quality of firms that receive its certification.…

  14. Regulation of Exocytotic Fusion Pores by SNARE Protein Transmembrane Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyong Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-triggered exocytotic release of neurotransmitters and hormones from neurons and neuroendocrine cells underlies neuronal communication, motor activity and endocrine functions. The core of the neuronal exocytotic machinery is composed of soluble N-ethyl maleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs. Formation of complexes between vesicle-attached v- and plasma-membrane anchored t-SNAREs in a highly regulated fashion brings the membranes into close apposition. Small, soluble proteins called Complexins (Cpx and calcium-sensing Synaptotagmins cooperate to block fusion at low resting calcium concentrations, but trigger release upon calcium increase. A growing body of evidence suggests that the transmembrane domains (TMDs of SNARE proteins play important roles in regulating the processes of fusion and release, but the mechanisms involved are only starting to be uncovered. Here we review recent evidence that SNARE TMDs exert influence by regulating the dynamics of the fusion pore, the initial aqueous connection between the vesicular lumen and the extracellular space. Even after the fusion pore is established, hormone release by neuroendocrine cells is tightly controlled, and the same may be true of neurotransmitter release by neurons. The dynamics of the fusion pore can regulate the kinetics of cargo release and the net amount released, and can determine the mode of vesicle recycling. Manipulations of SNARE TMDs were found to affect fusion pore properties profoundly, both during exocytosis and in biochemical reconstitutions. To explain these effects, TMD flexibility, and interactions among TMDs or between TMDs and lipids have been invoked. Exocytosis has provided the best setting in which to unravel the underlying mechanisms, being unique among membrane fusion reactions in that single fusion pores can be probed using high-resolution methods. An important role will likely be played by methods that can probe single fusion pores

  15. Tubular Unimolecular Transmembrane Channels: Construction Strategy and Transport Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Wen; Xin, Pengyang; Li, Zhan-Ting; Hou, Jun-Li

    2015-06-16

    Lipid bilayer membranes separate living cells from their environment. Membrane proteins are responsible for the processing of ion and molecular inputs and exports, sensing stimuli and signals across the bilayers, which may operate in a channel or carrier mechanism. Inspired by these wide-ranging functions of membrane proteins, chemists have made great efforts in constructing synthetic mimics in order to understand the transport mechanisms, create materials for separation, and develop therapeutic agents. Since the report of an alkylated cyclodextrin for transporting Cu(2+) and Co(2+) by Tabushi and co-workers in 1982, chemists have constructed a variety of artificial transmembrane channels by making use of either the multimolecular self-assembly or unimolecular strategy. In the context of the design of unimolecular channels, important advances have been made, including, among others, the tethering of natural gramicidin A or alamethicin and the modification of various macrocycles such as crown ethers, cyclodextrins, calixarenes, and cucurbiturils. Many of these unimolecular channels exhibit high transport ability for metal ions, particularly K(+) and Na(+). Concerning the development of artificial channels based on macrocyclic frameworks, one straightforward and efficient approach is to introduce discrete chains to reinforce their capability to insert into bilayers. Currently, this approach has found the widest applications in the systems of crown ethers and calixarenes. We envisioned that for macrocycle-based unimolecular channels, control of the arrangement of the appended chains in the upward and/or downward direction would favor the insertion of the molecular systems into bilayers, while the introduction of additional interactions among the chains would further stabilize a tubular conformation. Both factors should be helpful for the formation of new efficient channels. In this Account, we discuss our efforts in designing new unimolecular artificial channels from

  16. Transmembrane TNF-dependent uptake of anti-TNF antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deora, Arun; Hegde, Subramanya; Lee, Jacqueline; Choi, Chee-Ho; Chang, Qing; Lee, Cheryl; Eaton, Lucia; Tang, Hua; Wang, Dongdong; Lee, David; Michalak, Mark; Tomlinson, Medha; Tao, Qingfeng; Gaur, Nidhi; Harvey, Bohdan; McLoughlin, Shaun; Labkovsky, Boris; Ghayur, Tariq

    TNF-α (TNF), a pro-inflammatory cytokine is synthesized as a 26 kDa protein, anchors in the plasma membrane as transmembrane TNF (TmTNF), and is subjected to proteolysis by the TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE) to release the 15 kDa form of soluble TNF (sTNF). TmTNF and sTNF interact with 2 distinct receptors, TNF-R1 (p55) and TNF-R2 (p75), to mediate the multiple biologic effects of TNF described to date. Several anti-TNF biologics that bind to both forms of TNF and block their interactions with the TNF receptors are now approved for the treatment of a variety of immune-mediated diseases. Several reports suggest that binding of anti-TNFs to TmTNF delivers an outside-to-inside 'reverse' signal that may also contribute to the efficacy of anti-TNFs. Some patients, however, develop anti-TNF drug antibody responses (ADA or immunogenicity). Here, we demonstrate biochemically that TmTNF is transiently expressed on the surface of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated primary human monocytes, macrophages, and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and expression of TmTNF on the cell surface is enhanced following treatment of cells with TAPI-2, a TACE inhibitor. Importantly, binding of anti-TNFs to TmTNF on DCs results in rapid internalization of the anti-TNF/TmTNF complex first into early endosomes and then lysosomes. The internalized anti-TNF is processed and anti-TNF peptides can be eluted from the surface of DCs. Finally, tetanus toxin peptides fused to anti-TNFs are presented by DCs to initiate T cell recall proliferation response. Collectively, these observations may provide new insights into understanding the biology of TmTNF, mode of action of anti-TNFs, biology of ADA response to anti-TNFs, and may help with the design of the next generation of anti-TNFs.

  17. Contract Design: The problem of information asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel C. Mühlbacher

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Integrated care systems are advocated as an effective method of improving the performance of healthcare systems. These systems outline a payment and care delivery model that intends to tie provider reimbursements to predefined quality metrics. Little is known about the contractual design and the main challenges of delegating “accountability” to these new kinds of organisations and/or contracts. The research question in this article focuses on how healthcare contracts can look like and which possible problems arise in designing such contracts. In this a special interest is placed on information asymmetries.  Methods: A comprehensive literature review on methods of designing contracts in Integrated Care was conducted. This article is the first in a row of three that all contribute to a specific issue in designing healthcare contracts. Starting with the organisation of contracts and information asymmetries, part 2 focusses on financial options and risks and part 3 finally concludes with the question of risk management and evaluation.  Results: Healthcare contracting between providers and payers will have a major impact on the overall design of future healthcare systems. If Integrated care systems or any other similar concept of care delivery are to be contracted directly by payers to manage the continuum of care the costs of market utilisation play an essential role. Transaction costs also arise in the course of the negotiation and implementation of contracts. These costs are the reason why it is generally not possible to conclude perfect (complete contracts. Problems with asymmetric distribution of information can relate to the situation before a contract is concluded (adverse selection and after conclusion of a contract (moral hazard.  Discussion and Conclusions: Information asymmetries are seen as a major obstacle to the efficient operation of integrated care programmes. Coordination and motivation problems cannot be solved

  18. A Point-Wise Quantification of Asymmetry Using Deformation Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Lanche, Stephanie; Darvann, Tron Andre

    2007-01-01

    of the resulting displacement vectors on the left and right side of the symmetry plane, gives a point-wise measure of asymmetry. The asymmetry measure was applied to the study of Crouzon syndrome using Micro CT scans of genetically modified mice. Crouzon syndrome is characterised by the premature fusion of cranial...... sutures, which gives rise to a highly asymmetric growth. Quantification and localisation of this asymmetry is of high value with respect to surgery planning and treatment evaluation. Using the proposed method, asymmetry was calculated in each point of the surface of Crouzon mice and wild-type mice...... (controls). Asymmetry appeared in similar regions for the two groups but the Crouzon mice were found significantly more asymmetric. The localisation ability of the method was in good agreement with ratings from a clinical expert. Validating the quantification ability is a less trivial task due to the lack...

  19. A Combinatorial Approach to Time Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Tamm

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, simple models for the multiverse are analyzed. Each universe is viewed as a path in a graph, and by considering very general statistical assumptions, essentially originating from Boltzmann, we can make the set of all such paths into a finite probability space. We can then also attempt to compute the probabilities for different kinds of behavior and in particular under certain conditions argue that an asymmetric behavior of the entropy should be much more probable than a symmetric one. This offers an explanation for the asymmetry of time as a broken symmetry in the multiverse. The focus here is on simple models which can be analyzed using methods from combinatorics. Although the computational difficulties rapidly become enormous when the size of the model grows, this still gives hints about how a full-scale model should behave.

  20. Intraday market asymmetries — A Nordic example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soysal, Emilie Rosenlund; Olsen, Ole Jess; Skytte, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    , particularly important for VRE producers, but it also means that the price formation at intraday market can change optimal bidding strategy in the day-ahead market. Through econometric modelling of intraday price premiums, this paper investigates intraday price asymmetries, which potentially can lead...... to strategic bidding. The intraday market is per definition symmetric, as prices for power sales always correspond to prices for power purchases, however, we find that this symmetry is not reflected in the price structure in regards to the total load adjustment needs.......While the majority of electricity in the Nordic and Baltic countries is traded at the day-ahead market, producers and consumers can use the intraday market to adjust their production commitments according to updated forecasts closer to the time of delivery. This reduces the need for balancing...

  1. Cultural Distance Asymmetry in Expatriate Adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Chiu, Randy K.; Shenkar, Oded

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - The current literature implicitly assumes a symmetric impact of cultural distance (CD) on expatriate adjustment. By using distance as a predictor of adjustment, the literature has rendered the direction of the flow irrelevant: a US expatriate in Germany is presumed to face the same hurdle...... of the assignment. Design/methodology/approach - Using a two-flow sample of US expatriates in Germany and German expatriates in the USA, we examine and compare the psychological and socio-cultural adjustment of each group of executives. Findings - Controlling for the length of assignment, we find that German...... expatriates in the USA were better adjusted, both socio-culturally and psychologically, than American expatriates in Germany. These results support the asymmetry hypothesis and call into question previous findings attesting to the relationship between CD and expatriate adjustment. Originality...

  2. Subsurface Nonlinear Dynamical Heating and ENSO Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Michiya; Jin, Fei-Fei

    2017-12-01

    This study presents evidence of interannual to interdecadal variabilities residing in the subsurface nonlinear dynamical heating (NDH) along the equatorial Pacific thermocline based on ocean reanalysis products. In association with a flattened thermocline and drastic halt of the Equatorial Undercurrent, the NDH increases sharply right after a peak of the strong El Niño, reducing the linear anomalous advective subsurface cooling by 30%. As the result, subsurface cold signals in the west are significantly weakened as it reaches the easternmost Pacific, causing less surface cooling in the east and thus weakening the subsequent La Niña. Therefore, the subsurface NDH contributes to asymmetry in both the magnitude and structure between El Niño and La Niña. The acute positive subsurface NDH associated with strong El Niño events leads to substantial variations in its decadal means and serves as a potential source for tropical Pacific decadal to interdecadal variabilities.

  3. Symmetry and asymmetry in mandelate racemase catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitman, C.P.; Hegeman, G.D.; Cleland, W.W.; Kenyon, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    Kinetic properties of mandelate racemase catalysis (Vmax, Km, deuterium isotope effects, and pH profiles) were all measured in both directions by the circular dichroic assay of Sharp. These results, along with those of studying interactions of mandelate racemase with resolved, enantiomeric competitive inhibitors [(R)- and (S)-alpha-phenylglycerates], indicate a high degree of symmetry in both binding and catalysis. Racemization of either enantiomer of mandelate in D 2 O did not show an overshoot region of molecular ellipticity in circular dichroic measurements upon approach to equilibrium. Both the absence of such an overshoot region and the high degree of kinetic symmetry are consistent with a one-base acceptor mechanism for mandelate racemase. On the other hand, results of irreversible inhibition with partially resolved, enantiomeric affinity labels [(R)- and (S)-alpha-phenylglycidates] reveal a ''functional asymmetry'' at the active site. Mechanistic proposals, consistent with these results, are presented

  4. Time-reversal asymmetry in financial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X. F.; Chen, T. T.; Zheng, B.

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the large-fluctuation dynamics in financial markets, based on the minute-to-minute and daily data of the Chinese Indices and the German DAX. The dynamic relaxation both before and after the large fluctuations is characterized by a power law, and the exponents p± usually vary with the strength of the large fluctuations. The large-fluctuation dynamics is time-reversal symmetric at the time scale in minutes, while asymmetric at the daily time scale. Careful analysis reveals that the time-reversal asymmetry is mainly induced by external forces. It is also the external forces which drive the financial system to a non-stationary state. Different characteristics of the Chinese and German stock markets are uncovered.

  5. NMR-based approach to measure the free energy of transmembrane helix-helix interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineev, Konstantin S; Lesovoy, Dmitry M; Usmanova, Dinara R; Goncharuk, Sergey A; Shulepko, Mikhail A; Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P; Bocharov, Eduard V; Arseniev, Alexander S

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the energetic parameters of transmembrane helix-helix interactions is necessary for the establishment of a structure-energy relationship for α-helical membrane domains. A number of techniques have been developed to measure the free energies of dimerization and oligomerization of transmembrane α-helices, and all of these have their advantages and drawbacks. In this study we propose a methodology to determine the magnitudes of the free energy of interactions between transmembrane helices in detergent micelles. The suggested approach employs solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to determine the population of the oligomeric states of the transmembrane domains and introduces a new formalism to describe the oligomerization equilibrium, which is based on the assumption that both the dimerization of the transmembrane domains and the dissociation of the dimer can occur only upon the collision of detergent micelles. The technique has three major advantages compared with other existing approaches: it may be used to analyze both weak and relatively strong dimerization/oligomerization processes, it works well for the analysis of complex equilibria, e.g. when monomer, dimer and high-order oligomer populations are simultaneously present in the solution, and it can simultaneously yield both structural and energetic characteristics of the helix-helix interaction under study. The proposed methodology was applied to investigate the oligomerization process of transmembrane domains of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) and vascular endothelium growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), and allowed the measurement of the free energy of dimerization of both of these objects. In addition the proposed method was able to describe the multi-state oligomerization process of the VEGFR2 transmembrane domain. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Transmembrane-sequence-dependent overexpression and secretion of glycoproteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, M; Wasserbauer, E; Aversa, G; Jungbauer, A

    2001-02-01

    Protein expression using the secretory pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae can lead to high amounts of overexpressed and secreted proteins in culture supernatants in a short period of time. These post-translational modified expression products can be purified up to >90% in a single step. The overexpression and secretion of the transmembrane glycoprotein signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) was studied. SLAM belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and its engagement results in T-cell expansion and INF-gamma production. The molecule is composed of an extracellular, a single-span transmembrane and a cytoplasmatic domain. The extracellular part may be relevant for stimulation studies in vitro since SLAM is a high-affinity self-ligand. Therefore several fragments of this region have been expressed as Flag-fusions in S. cerevisiae: a full-length fragment containing the transmembrane region and the autologous signal sequence, another without the transmembrane region, and two fragments without the autologous signal sequence with and without the transmembrane region. By molecular cloning, the different deletion mutants of the cDNA encoding the full-length construct have been inserted in a yeast episomal plasmid. Upstream of the cDNA, the alpha-leader sequence of a yeast mating pheromone has been cloned to direct the fusion proteins into the secretory protein maturation pathway. All four fragments were expressed but yield, location, and maturation were highly influenced by the transmembrane domain and the autologous signal sequence. Only the fragment without autologous signal sequence and transmembrane domain could be efficiently secreted. High-mannose glycosylation was analyzed by lectin mapping and digestion with specific glycosidases. After enzyme treatment, a single band product with the theoretical size could be detected and identified as SLAM by a specific monoclonal antibody. The fusion protein concentration in the supernatant was 30 microg/ml. The

  7. HMMpTM: improving transmembrane protein topology prediction using phosphorylation and glycosylation site prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaousis, Georgios N; Bagos, Pantelis G; Hamodrakas, Stavros J

    2014-02-01

    During the last two decades a large number of computational methods have been developed for predicting transmembrane protein topology. Current predictors rely on topogenic signals in the protein sequence, such as the distribution of positively charged residues in extra-membrane loops and the existence of N-terminal signals. However, phosphorylation and glycosylation are post-translational modifications (PTMs) that occur in a compartment-specific manner and therefore the presence of a phosphorylation or glycosylation site in a transmembrane protein provides topological information. We examine the combination of phosphorylation and glycosylation site prediction with transmembrane protein topology prediction. We report the development of a Hidden Markov Model based method, capable of predicting the topology of transmembrane proteins and the existence of kinase specific phosphorylation and N/O-linked glycosylation sites along the protein sequence. Our method integrates a novel feature in transmembrane protein topology prediction, which results in improved performance for topology prediction and reliable prediction of phosphorylation and glycosylation sites. The method is freely available at http://bioinformatics.biol.uoa.gr/HMMpTM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Expression of Trans-Membrane Proteins in vitro Using a Cell Free System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisse, Natalie; Noireaux, Vincent; Chalmeau, Jerome

    2010-10-01

    Trans-membrane proteins represent a significant portion of the proteins expressed by cells. The expression of proteins in vitro, however, remains a challenge. Numerous expression approaches have been developed with cell free expression (CFE) being one of the most promising. CFE is based on a transcription-translation system that has been extracted from E. coli bacteria. Adding the desired DNA allows expression of a selected protein, and in the presence of phospholipids the expression of trans-membrane proteins becomes possible. In order to express trans-membrane proteins in a closed native environment, the cell free system (CFS) is encapsulated with a phospholipid bilayer, creating an artificial cell. To verify protein expression, AquaporinZ (AqpZ), a well-known trans-membrane protein tagged with a green fluorescent protein (eGFP), was used so the expressed proteins could be seen under a fluorescent microscope. These artificial cells will serve as an experimental platform for testing the viability of the expressed trans-membrane proteins. Results from the manipulation of these artificial cells by attaching them to the slide surface through streptavidin-biotin bonding will be presented.

  9. Transmembrane domain quality control systems operate at the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briant, Kit; Johnson, Nicholas; Swanton, Eileithyia

    2017-01-01

    Multiple protein quality control systems operate to ensure that misfolded proteins are efficiently cleared from the cell. While quality control systems that assess the folding status of soluble domains have been extensively studied, transmembrane domain (TMD) quality control mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we have used chimeras based on the type I plasma membrane protein CD8 in which the endogenous TMD was substituted with transmembrane sequences derived from different polytopic membrane proteins as a mode to investigate the quality control of unassembled TMDs along the secretory pathway. We find that the three TMDs examined prevent trafficking of CD8 to the cell surface via potentially distinct mechanisms. CD8 containing two distinct non-native transmembrane sequences escape the ER and are subsequently retrieved from the Golgi, possibly via Rer1, leading to ER localisation at steady state. A third chimera, containing an altered transmembrane domain, was predominantly localised to the Golgi at steady state, indicating the existence of an additional quality control checkpoint that identifies non-native transmembrane domains that have escaped ER retention and retrieval. Preliminary experiments indicate that protein retained by quality control mechanisms at the Golgi are targeted to lysosomes for degradation.

  10. Kinetic asymmetries between forward and drop jump landing tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana Alves de Britto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n6p661   Landing asymmetry is a risk factor for knee anterior cruciate ligament injury. The aim of this study was to identify kinetic asymmetries in healthy recreational athletes performing different jump-landing techniques. Twelve recreational athletes engaged in regular training underwent kinetic evaluation using two 3D force plates and were analyzed for: (a three-dimensional peak forces, (b time to peak vertical force, and (c initial phase asymmetries. All data were collected during performance of unilateral and bilateral trials of forward and drop jump tasks. Forward jump-landing tasks elicited greater kinetic asymmetry than drop-landing tasks. Regardless of jump-landing technique, the preferred leg experienced higher forces than the non-preferred leg. The initial landing phase showed more kinetic asymmetries than the later phase when peak vertical forces occur. It was concluded that when screening athletes for kinetic asymmetries that may predispose them to injury, forward jump-landing tasks and the early landing phase might show more kinetic asymmetries than drop jump-landing tasks and the late landing phase, respectively.

  11. Bilateral asymmetry of the humerus during growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Amanda

    2011-08-01

    The development of handedness throughout growth can be investigated by using bilateral asymmetry of the humerus as a proxy for this trait. A large skeletal sample of nonadults from English archaeological sites was examined using standard metric techniques to assess when right-sided asymmetry first appears in the human skeleton. Results of this work indicate a change in directional asymmetry during growth and development, with infants and young children exhibiting no significant asymmetry and older children and adolescents demonstrating right-sidedness. This trend is consistent with what has been observed in previous studies of upper limb asymmetry in skeletal material and behaviorally in living children, adding further strength to the premise that biomechanical forces strongly influence bilateral asymmetry in the upper limb bones. Variability in the magnitude of asymmetry between different features of the humerus was also noted. This characteristic can be explained by differing degrees of genetic canalization, with length and articular dimensions being more strongly canalized than diaphyseal properties. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Measurement of ttbar forward-backward asymmetry at CDF

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Early measurements of the forward-backward ttbar production asymmetry at CDF and D0 suggested significant asymmetries that have been interpreted as evidence for exotic gluon partners or new t-channel interactions. We present new measurements performed with 5 fb-1 of Tevatron ppbar collisions at Ecm = 1.96 TeV, recorded and analyzed at CDF. Significant inclusive asymmetries are observed in both the lepton+jets and the dilepton decay modes of the ttbar pair. In the dilepton mode, the asymmetry is observed in the reconstructed top rapidity, and in the lepton rapidity difference, which is independent of any top reconstruction. In the lepton plus jets sample, the full reconstruction of the top kinematics is used to measure the dependence of the asymmetry on the tt bar rapidity difference Delta(y) and the invariant mass M_(ttbar ) of the ttbar system. The asymmetry is found to be most significant at large Delta(y) and M_(ttbar) . For M_(ttbar) > 450 GeV/c2, the parton-level asymmetry in the t-tbar rest frame is...

  13. Magnetic fields and chiral asymmetry in the early hot universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sydorenko, Maksym; Shtanov, Yuri; Tomalak, Oleksandr

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study analytically the process of external generation and subsequent free evolution of the lepton chiral asymmetry and helical magnetic fields in the early hot universe. This process is known to be affected by the Abelian anomaly of the electroweak gauge interactions. As a consequence, chiral asymmetry in the fermion distribution generates magnetic fields of non-zero helicity, and vice versa. We take into account the presence of thermal bath, which serves as a seed for the development of instability in magnetic field in the presence of externally generated lepton chiral asymmetry. The developed helical magnetic field and lepton chiral asymmetry support each other, considerably prolonging their mutual existence, in the process of 'inverse cascade' transferring magnetic-field power from small to large spatial scales. For cosmologically interesting initial conditions, the chiral asymmetry and the energy density of helical magnetic field are shown to evolve by scaling laws, effectively depending on a single combined variable. In this case, the late-time asymptotics of the conformal chiral chemical potential reproduces the universal scaling law previously found in the literature for the system under consideration. This regime is terminated at lower temperatures because of scattering of electrons with chirality change, which exponentially washes out chiral asymmetry. We derive an expression for the termination temperature as a function of the chiral asymmetry and energy density of helical magnetic field.

  14. Hα LINE PROFILE ASYMMETRIES AND THE CHROMOSPHERIC FLARE VELOCITY FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuridze, D.; Mathioudakis, M.; Kennedy, M.; Keenan, F. P. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Simões, P. J. A.; Voort, L. Rouppe van der; Fletcher, L. [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Carlsson, M.; Jafarzadeh, S. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Allred, J. C.; Kowalski, A. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Graham, D. [INAF-Ossevatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2015-11-10

    The asymmetries observed in the line profiles of solar flares can provide important diagnostics of the properties and dynamics of the flaring atmosphere. In this paper the evolution of the Hα and Ca ii λ8542 lines are studied using high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution ground-based observations of an M1.1 flare obtained with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope. The temporal evolution of the Hα line profiles from the flare kernel shows excess emission in the red wing (red asymmetry) before flare maximum and excess in the blue wing (blue asymmetry) after maximum. However, the Ca ii λ8542 line does not follow the same pattern, showing only a weak red asymmetry during the flare. RADYN simulations are used to synthesize spectral line profiles for the flaring atmosphere, and good agreement is found with the observations. We show that the red asymmetry observed in Hα is not necessarily associated with plasma downflows, and the blue asymmetry may not be related to plasma upflows. Indeed, we conclude that the steep velocity gradients in the flaring chromosphere modify the wavelength of the central reversal in the Hα line profile. The shift in the wavelength of maximum opacity to shorter and longer wavelengths generates the red and blue asymmetries, respectively.

  15. North-South asymmetry of interplanetary plasma and solar parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Borie, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    Data of interplanetary plasma (field magnitude, solar wind speed, ion plasma density and temperature) and solar parameters (sunspot number, solar radio flux, and geomagnetic index) over the period 1965-1991, have been used to examine the asymmetry between the solar field north and south of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS). The dependence of N-S asymmetry of field magnitude (B) upon the interplanetary solar polarities is statistically insignificant. There is no clear indication for the presence of N-S asymmetry in the grand-average field magnitude over the solar cycles. During the period 1981-89 (qA<0; negative solar polarity state), the solar plasma was more dense and cooler south of the HCS than north of it. The solar flux component of toward field vector is larger in magnitude than those of away field vector during the qA<0 epoch, and no asymmetry observed in the qA<0 epoch. Furthermore, the sign of the N-S asymmetry in the solar activity depends positively upon the solar polarity state. In addition, it was studied the N-S asymmetry of solar parameters near the HCS, throughout the periods of northern and southern hemispheres were more active than the other. Some asymmetries (with respect to the HCS) in plasma parameters existed during the periods of southern hemisphere predominance

  16. Shifting brain asymmetry: the link between meditation and structural lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Florian; MacKenzie-Graham, Allan; Toga, Arthur W; Luders, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed an increased fractional anisotropy and greater thickness in the anterior parts of the corpus callosum in meditation practitioners compared with control subjects. Altered callosal features may be associated with an altered inter-hemispheric integration and the degree of brain asymmetry may also be shifted in meditation practitioners. Therefore, we investigated differences in gray matter asymmetry as well as correlations between gray matter asymmetry and years of meditation practice in 50 long-term meditators and 50 controls. We detected a decreased rightward asymmetry in the precuneus in meditators compared with controls. In addition, we observed that a stronger leftward asymmetry near the posterior intraparietal sulcus was positively associated with the number of meditation practice years. In a further exploratory analysis, we observed that a stronger rightward asymmetry in the pregenual cingulate cortex was negatively associated with the number of practice years. The group difference within the precuneus, as well as the positive correlations with meditation years in the pregenual cingulate cortex, suggests an adaptation of the default mode network in meditators. The positive correlation between meditation practice years and asymmetry near the posterior intraparietal sulcus may suggest that meditation is accompanied by changes in attention processing. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Age and Practice Effects on Inter-manual Performance Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Francis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Manual dexterity declines with increasing age however, the way in which inter-manual asymmetry responds to aging is unclear. Our purpose was to determine the effect of age and practice on inter-manual performance asymmetry in an isometric force pinch line tracing task that varied in difficulty within segments. Thirty right handed participants, 5 males and 5 females in each of three age groups, young (Y20, young-old (O70, and old-old (O80, practiced an isometric force pinch task for 10 trials with each hand on each of five consecutive days. Inter-manual performance asymmetry of the right and left hands was analyzed with a repeated measures ANOVA of asymmetry with age groups, practice, task difficulty, and hand as factors. The within-individual magnitude of asymmetry was also analyzed with a repeated measures ANOVA of manual asymmetry calculated as an asymmetry index (AI. Post hoc pair-wise comparisons were performed when significance was found. We observed no inter-manual performance asymmetry on this isometric tracing task among any of the age groups, either in the hand performance differences or in the magnitude of the asymmetry index (AI. Age and practice interacted in terms of manual performance: the Y20 and O70 group improved accuracy and task time across the five days of practice but the O80 group did not. However, practice did not differentially affect the AI for accuracy or task time for any group. Accuracy of performance of the two hands was differentially affected by practice. All age groups exhibited poorer performance and larger AIs on the most difficult segments of the task (3 and 6 and this did not change with practice.

  18. Measuring the cosmological lepton asymmetry through the CMB anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Kinney, W H; Kinney, William H.; Riotto, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    A large lepton asymmetry in the Universe is still a viable possibility and leads to many interesting phenomena such as gauge symmetry nonrestoration at high temperature. We show that a large lepton asymmetry changes the predicted cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy and that any degeneracy in the relic neutrino sea will be measured to a precision of 1% or better when the CMB anisotropy is measured at the accuracy expected to result from the planned satellite missions MAP and Planck. In fact, the current measurements already put an upper limit on the lepton asymmetry of the Universe which is stronger than the one coming from considerations of primordial nucleosynthesis and structure formation.

  19. Baryogenesis and dark matter through a Higgs asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servant, Géraldine; Tulin, Sean

    2013-10-11

    In addition to explaining the masses of elementary particles, the Higgs boson may have far-reaching implications for the generation of the matter content in the Universe. For instance, the Higgs boson plays a key role in two main theories of baryogenesis, namely, electroweak baryogenesis and leptogenesis. In this Letter, we propose a new cosmological scenario where the Higgs chemical potential mediates asymmetries between visible and dark matter sectors, either generating a baryon asymmetry from a dark matter asymmetry or vice versa. We illustrate this mechanism with a simple model with two new fermions coupled to the Higgs boson and discuss the associated signatures.

  20. Transmembrane topology of FRO2, a ferric chelate reductase from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schagerlöf, Ulrika; Wilson, Greer; Hebert, Hans; Al-Karadaghi, Salam; Hägerhäll, Cecilia

    2006-09-01

    Iron uptake in Arabidopsis thaliana is mediated by ferric chelate reductase FRO2, a transmembrane protein belonging to the flavocytochrome b family. There is no high resolution structural information available for any member of this family. We have determined the transmembrane topology of FRO2 experimentally using the alkaline phosphatase fusion method. The resulting topology is different from that obtained by theoretical predictions and contains 8 transmembrane helices, 4 of which build up the highly conserved core of the protein. This core is present in the entire flavocytochrome b family. The large water soluble domain of FRO2, which contains NADPH, FAD and oxidoreductase sequence motifs, was located on the inside of the membrane.

  1. Photosensitized electron transport across lipid vesicle walls: Enhancement of quantum yield by ionophores and transmembrane potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laane, Colja; Ford, William E.; Otvos, John W.; Calvin, Melvin

    1981-01-01

    The photosensitized reduction of heptylviologen in the bulk aqueous phase of phosphatidylcholine vesicles containing EDTA inside and a membrane-bound tris(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(2+) derivative is enhanced by a factor of 6.5 by the addition of valinomycin in the presence of K+. A 3-fold stimulation by gramicidin and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone is observed. The results suggest that, under these conditions, the rate of photoinduced electron transfer across vesicle walls in the absence of ion carriers is limited by cotransport of cations. The rate of electron transfer across vesicle walls could be influenced further by generating transmembrane potentials with K+ gradients in the presence of valinomycin. When vesicles are made with transmembrane potentials, interior more negative, the quantum yield of heptylviologen reduction is doubled, and, conversely, when vesicles are made with transmembrane potentials, interior more positive, the quantum yield is decreased and approaches the value found in the absence of valinomycin. PMID:16593002

  2. Assessing the Structure and Stability of Transmembrane Oligomeric Intermediates of an α-Helical Toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desikan, Rajat; Maiti, Prabal K; Ayappa, K Ganapathy

    2017-10-24

    Protein membrane interactions play an important role in our understanding of diverse phenomena ranging from membrane-assisted protein aggregation to oligomerization and folding. Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) are the primary vehicle for infection by several strains of bacteria. These proteins which are expressed in a water-soluble form (monomers) bind to the target membrane and conformationally transform (protomers) and self-assemble to form a multimer transmembrane pore complex through a process of oligomerization. On the basis of the structure of the transmembrane domains, PFTs are broadly classified into β or α toxins. In contrast to β-PFTs, the paucity of available crystal structures coupled with the amphipathic nature of the transmembrane domains has hindered our understanding of α-PFT pore formation. In this article, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to examine the process of pore formation of the bacterial α-PFT, cytolysin A from Escherichia coli (ClyA) in lipid bilayer membranes. Using atomistic MD simulations ranging from 50 to 500 ns, we show that transmembrane oligomeric intermediates or "arcs" form stable proteolipidic complexes consisting of protein arcs with toroidal lipids lining the free edges. By creating initial conditions where the lipids are contained within the arcs, we study the dynamics of spontaneous lipid evacuation and toroidal edge formation. This process occurs on the time scale of tens of nanoseconds, suggesting that once protomers oligomerize, transmembrane arcs are rapidly stabilized to form functional water channels capable of leakage. Using umbrella sampling with a coarse-grained molecular model, we obtain the free energy of insertion of a single protomer into the membrane. A single inserted protomer has a stabilization free energy of -52.9 ± 1.2 kJ/mol and forms a stable transmembrane water channel capable of leakage. Our simulations reveal that arcs are stable and viable intermediates that can occur during the pore

  3. Use of Membrane Potential to Achieve Transmembrane Modification with an Artificial Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Wataru; Kawaguchi, Miki; Sun, Xizheng; Nagao, Yusuke; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Hashida, Mitsuru; Higuchi, Yuriko; Kishimura, Akihiro; Katayama, Yoshiki; Mori, Takeshi

    2017-02-15

    We developed a strategy to modify cell membranes with an artificial transmembrane receptor. Coulomb force on the receptor, caused by the membrane potential, was used to achieve membrane penetration. A hydrophobically modified cationic peptide was used as a membrane potential sensitive region that was connected to biotin through a transmembrane oligoethylene glycol (OEG) chain. This artificial receptor gradually disappeared from the cell membrane via penetration despite the presence of a hydrophilic OEG chain. However, when the receptor was bound to streptavidin (SA), it remained on the cell membrane because of the large and hydrophilic nature of SA.

  4. Supersymmetry protects the primordial baryon asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Ibáñez, L E; Ibanez, Luis E.; Quevedo, Fernando

    1992-01-01

    It has been argued that any primordial B+L asymmetry existing at very high temperatures can be subsequently erased by anomalous electroweak effects. We argue that this is not necessarily the case in the supersymmetric standard model because, apart from B and/or L, there are, above a certain temperature $T_{SS}$, two other anomalous U(1) currents. As a consequence, anomalous electroweak effects are only able to partially transform a B+L excess into a generation of primordial sparticle (e.g. gaugino) density. This relaxes recent bounds on B,L-violating non-renormalizable couplings by several orders of magnitude. In particular, dimension-5 couplings inducing neutrino masses may be 4 orders of magnitude larger than in the non-supersymmetric case, allowing for neutrino masses of the order of 10 eV. These values are consistent with a MSW+see-saw explanation of the solar-neutrino data and also with possible neutrino oscillations measurable at accelerators. Cosmological bounds on other rare processes, such as neutron...

  5. Asymmetry in serial femtosecond crystallography data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit; Johansson, Linda; Dunevall, Elin; Wahlgren, Weixiao Y; Neutze, Richard; Katona, Gergely

    2017-03-01

    Serial crystallography is an increasingly important approach to protein crystallography that exploits both X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) and synchrotron radiation. Serial crystallography recovers complete X-ray diffraction data by processing and merging diffraction images from thousands of randomly oriented non-uniform microcrystals, of which all observations are partial Bragg reflections. Random fluctuations in the XFEL pulse energy spectrum, variations in the size and shape of microcrystals, integrating over millions of weak partial observations and instabilities in the XFEL beam position lead to new types of experimental errors. The quality of Bragg intensity estimates deriving from serial crystallography is therefore contingent upon assumptions made while modeling these data. Here it is observed that serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) Bragg reflections do not follow a unimodal Gaussian distribution and it is recommended that an idealized assumption of single Gaussian peak profiles be relaxed to incorporate apparent asymmetries when processing SFX data. The phenomenon is illustrated by re-analyzing data collected from microcrystals of the Blastochloris viridis photosynthetic reaction center and comparing these intensity observations with conventional synchrotron data. The results show that skewness in the SFX observations captures the essence of the Wilson plot and an empirical treatment is suggested that can help to separate the diffraction Bragg intensity from the background.

  6. CP asymmetries in Strange Baryon Decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigi, I. I.; Kang, Xian-Wei; Li, Hai-Bo

    2018-01-01

    While indirect and direct CP violation (CPV) has been established in the decays of strange and beauty mesons, no CPV has yet been found for baryons. There are different paths to finding CP asymmetry in the decays of strange baryons; they are all highly non-trivial. The HyperCP Collaboration has probed CPV in the decays of single Ξ and Λ [1]. We discuss future lessons from {{{e}}}+{{{e}}}- collisions at BESIII/BEPCII: probing decays of pairs of strange baryons, namely Λ, Σ and Ξ. Realistic goals are to learn about non-perturbative QCD. One can hope to find CPV in the decays of strange baryons; one can also dream of finding the impact of New Dynamics. We point out that an important new era will start with the BESIII/BEPCII data accumulated by the end of 2018. This also supports new ideas to trigger {{J}}/{{\\psi }}\\to \\bar{{{Λ }}}{{Λ }} at the LHCb collaboration. Supported by National Science Foundation (PHY-1520966), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11335009, 11125525), Joint Large-Scale Scientific Facility Funds of the NSFC and CAS (U1532257), the National Key Basic Research Program of China (2015CB856700), Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, CAS, (QYZDJ-SSW-SLH003), XWK’s work is also supported by MOST (Taiwan) (104-2112-M-001-022)

  7. The Lateralizing Asymmetry of Adrenal Adenomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Meng; Lopez, Diana; Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Cote, Kathryn; Newfield, Jessica; Connors, Molly; Vaidya, Anand

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Context It is presumed that the incidence of adrenal adenomas is symmetric between the left and right adrenal gland; however, anecdotal observations suggest a potential lateralizing asymmetry. Objective To investigate the symmetry in detection of adrenal adenomas and relevance to patient care. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Population and Setting One thousand three hundred seventy-six patients with abdominal computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging demonstrating benign-appearing adrenal adenomas. Main Outcome Location and size of adrenal adenomas. Results Left-sided adenomas were discovered in 65% of patients, right-sided in 21%, and bilateral adenomas in 14%. Among unilateral adenomas, 75% were left-sided. Left-sided adenomas were more prevalent than right-sided adenomas in each size category except the largest: Adrenal adenomas are substantially more likely to be identified on the left adrenal than the right. This observation may be due to detection bias attributed to the location of the right adrenal, which may preclude identification of right-sided adenomas until they are substantially larger. These findings suggest the potential for an underrecognition of right-sided adenomas that may also impair the accurate detection of bilateral adrenal diseases. PMID:29644340

  8. Asymmetries of the solar Ca II lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heasley, J.N.

    1975-01-01

    A theoretical study of the influence of propagating acoustic pulses in the solar chromosphere upon the line profiles of the Ca II resonance and infrared triplet lines has been made. The major objective has been to explain the observed asymmetries seen in the cores of the H and K lines and to predict the temporal behavior of the infrared lines caused by passing acoustic or shock pulses. The velocities in the pulses, calculated from weak shock theory, have been included consistently in the non-LTE calculations. The results of the calculations show that these lines are very sensitive to perturbations in the background atmosphere caused by the pulses. Only minor changes in the line shapes result from including the velocities consistently in the line source function calculations. The qualitative changes in the line profiles vary markedly with the strength of the shock pulses. The observed differences in the K line profiles seen on the quiet Sun can be explained in terms of a spectrum of pulses with different wavelengths and initial amplitudes in the photosphere. (Auth.)

  9. Cerebral blood flow asymmetries in headache-free migraineurs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, S.R.; Welch, K.M.; Ewing, J.R.; Joseph, R.; D'Andrea, G.

    1987-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) asymmetries were studied in controls and patients with common and classic/complicated migraine using 133 Xe inhalation with 8 homologously situated external collimators over each cerebral hemisphere. Migraine patients as a group more frequently had posterior rCBF asymmetries than controls (p less than 0.03). Although there were no differences in the number of anterior rCBF asymmetries, migraine patients had 2 or more asymmetric probe pairs more often than controls (p less than 0.02). The posterior rCBF asymmetries, consistent with the site of activation of many migraine attacks, may be related to more labile control of the cerebral circulation

  10. Axial asymmetry, finite particle number and the IBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casten, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Although the IBA-1 contains no solutions corresponding to a rigid triaxial shape, it does contain an effective asymmetry. This arises from zero point motion in a γ-soft potential leading to a non-zero mean or rms γ. Three aspects of this feature will be discussed: (1) The relation between IBA-1 calculations and the corresponding γ. This point is developed in the context of the Consistent Q Formalism (CQF) of the IBA. (2) The dependence of this asymmetry on boson number, N, and the exploitation of this dependence to set limits on both the relative and absolute values of N for deformed nuclei. (3) The relation between this asymmetry and the triaxiality arising from the introduction of cubic terms into the IBA Hamiltonian. Various observables will be inspected in order both to determine their sensitivity to these two structural features and to explore empirical ways of distinguishing which origin of asymmetry applies in any given nucleus. 16 references

  11. Analysis of Resonance Asymmetry Phenomenon in Resonant Fiber Optic Gyro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoyan Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This experiment demonstrated the resonance asymmetry phenomenon in the resonant fiber optic gyro. The asymmetry of resonant curve affects the system open-loop bias and its stability, which directly affects the accuracy of angular velocity measurement. In this paper, a new mathematic model is established. The influence of the coupler normal mode loss difference (the phase difference between the coupler cross port output optical field and direct port is less than the ideal π/2 on the symmetry of resonant curve, the resonant signal modulated by the triangular wave, and the demodulation curve are analyzed. Moreover, the asymmetry of the resonant curve leads to the asymmetry of the resonant signal, as modulated by the triangular wave and the demodulation curve from the theoretical simulation and the experiment.

  12. Analysis of Resonance Asymmetry Phenomenon in Resonant Fiber Optic Gyro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuoyan; He, Nie; Sun, Xuqiang; Jin, Chao; Liu, Chengxiang; Wu, Xu

    2018-02-26

    This experiment demonstrated the resonance asymmetry phenomenon in the resonant fiber optic gyro. The asymmetry of resonant curve affects the system open-loop bias and its stability, which directly affects the accuracy of angular velocity measurement. In this paper, a new mathematic model is established. The influence of the coupler normal mode loss difference (the phase difference between the coupler cross port output optical field and direct port is less than the ideal π/2) on the symmetry of resonant curve, the resonant signal modulated by the triangular wave, and the demodulation curve are analyzed. Moreover, the asymmetry of the resonant curve leads to the asymmetry of the resonant signal, as modulated by the triangular wave and the demodulation curve from the theoretical simulation and the experiment.

  13. Flavor versus mass eigenstates in neutrino asymmetries: implications for cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barenboim, Gabriela [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Departament de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Burjassot (Spain); Kinney, William H. [University at Buffalo, Department of Physics, Buffalo, NY (United States); Park, Wan-Il [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Departament de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Burjassot (Spain); Chonbuk National University, Division of Science Education and Institute of Fusion Science, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    We show that, if they exist, lepton number asymmetries (L{sub α}) of neutrino flavors should be distinguished from the ones (L{sub i}) of mass eigenstates, since Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) bounds on the flavor eigenstates cannot be directly applied to the mass eigenstates. Similarly, Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) constraints on the mass eigenstates do not directly constrain flavor asymmetries. Due to the difference of mass and flavor eigenstates, the cosmological constraint on the asymmetries of neutrino flavors can be much stronger than the conventional expectation, but they are not uniquely determined unless at least the asymmetry of the heaviest neutrino is well constrained. The cosmological constraint on L{sub i} for a specific case is presented as an illustration. (orig.)

  14. Hemispheric asymmetry in the influence of language on visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanliang; Cai, Yongchun; Lu, Shena

    2015-07-01

    Many studies have shown that language can affect visual perception; however, our understanding of the neural basis of linguistic influence is inadequate. This can be investigated by examining the hemispheric asymmetry of linguistic influence. The left and right hemispheres are dominant in close and distant semantic processing, respectively. In this study, we investigated whether the hemispheric asymmetry of semantic processing led to hemispheric asymmetry for concept priming on the detection of objects degraded by continuous flash suppression. We combined a priming paradigm with the divided visual field paradigm and used continuous flash suppression, which renders objects invisible. The results indicated that the hemispheric asymmetry of semantic processing led to a right lateralization in the influence of more abstract concepts on visual perception. The lateralization of brain connectomes may be the underlying neural basis of this effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigation of asymmetry of vortex flow over slender delta wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atashbaz, Ghasem

    Vortex flow, a major area of interest in fluid mechanics, is widespread in nature and in many man-made fluid mechanical devices. It can create havoc as cyclones or tornadoes or have significant implications in the performance of turbo-fluid machines or supersonic vehicles and so forth. Asymmetric vortices can cause a loss of lift and increase in rolling moment which can significantly affect wing stability and control. Up until the early nineties, it was generally believed that vortex asymmetry was the result of vortex interactions due to the close proximity of vortices over slender delta wings. However, some recent studies have thrown considerable doubt on the validity of this hypothesis. As a result, wind tunnel investigations were conducted on a series of nine delta wing planforms with sharp and round leading edges to examine the occurrence of vortex asymmetry at different angles of attack and sideslip. The study included surface oil and laser light sheet flow visualization in addition to surface pressure and hot-wire velocity measurements under static conditions. The effects of incidence, sideslip and sweep angles as well as Reynolds number variations were investigated. In this study, it was found that the effect of apex and leading edge shape played an important role in vortex asymmetry generation at high angle of attack. Vortex asymmetry was not observed over slender sharp leading edge delta wings due to the separation point being fixed at the sharp leading edge. Experimental results for these wings showed that the vortices do not impinge on one another because they do not get any closer beyond a certain value of angle of attack. Thus vortex asymmetry was not generated. However, significant vortex asymmetry was observed for round leading-edged delta wings. Asymmetric separation positions over the round leading edge was the result of laminar/turbulent transition which caused vortex asymmetry on these delta wing configurations. Sideslip angle and vortex

  16. Tuning piezoresistive transduction in nanomechanical resonators by geometrical asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llobet, J.; Sansa, M.; Lorenzoni, M.; Pérez-Murano, F., E-mail: francesc.perez@csic.es [Institut de Microelectrònica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Borrisé, X. [Institut Català de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia (ICN2), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra Spain (Spain); San Paulo, A. [Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid (IMM-CSIC), 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-08-17

    The effect of geometrical asymmetries on the piezoresistive transduction in suspended double clamped beam nanomechanical resonators is investigated. Tapered silicon nano-beams, fabricated using a fast and flexible prototyping method, are employed to determine how the asymmetry affects the transduced piezoresistive signal for different mechanical resonant modes. This effect is attributed to the modulation of the strain in pre-strained double clamped beams, and it is confirmed by means of finite element simulations.

  17. The 'Goldilocks Zone': getting the measure of manual asymmetries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael K Raw

    Full Text Available Some studies have shown that manual asymmetries decrease in older age. These results have often been explained with reference to models of reduced hemispheric specialisation. An alternative explanation, however, is that hand differences are subtle, and capturing them requires tasks that yield optimal performance with both hands. Whereas the hemispheric specialisation account implies that reduced manual asymmetries should be reliably observed in older adults, the 'measurement difficulty' account suggests that manual asymmetries will be hard to detect unless a task has just the right level of difficulty--i.e. within the 'Goldilocks Zone', where it is not too easy or too hard, but just right. Experiment One tested this hypothesis and found that manual asymmetries were only detected when participants performed in this zone; specifically, performance on a tracing task was only superior in the preferred hand when task constraints were high (i.e. fast speed tracing. Experiment Two used three different tasks to examine age differences in manual asymmetries; one task produced no asymmetries, whilst two tasks revealed asymmetries in both younger and older groups (with poorer overall performance in the old group across all tasks. Experiment Three revealed task-dependent asymmetries in both age groups, but highlighted further detection difficulties linked with the metric of performance and compensatory strategies used by participants. Results are discussed with reference to structural learning theory, whereby we suggest that the processes of inter-manual transfer lead to relatively small performance differences between the hands (despite a strong phenomenological sense of performance disparities.

  18. Polarization asymmetries and gauge theory interactions at short distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craigie, N.S.

    1983-01-01

    In this talk, we give the arguments as to why spin asymmetries test fundamental properties of the underlying gauge theories of elementary particles, concentrating mainly on electro-weak and QCD interactions, but also looking at the future and possible signatures for supersymmetric strong interactions. We also mention briefly the role helicity asymmetry measurements can play as regards higher order corrections, including higher twist, in QCD. (orig./HSI)

  19. Kinetic Asymmetry during Running at Preferred and Nonpreferred Speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Laura-Anne M; Egginton, Natalie L

    2018-01-23

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of altering preferred running speed by ±20% on kinetic asymmetry. Three-dimensional motion analysis and force data were acquired from 15 healthy males (age: 27 ± 4.6 years, height: 1.81 ± 0.09 m, mass: 80.4 ± 12.4 kg) during their preferred running speed, and at ±20% of this speed. 3T magnetic resonance images were used to measure Achilles tendon cross-sectional area and moment arm, for use in calculation of tendon stress. Kinetic and tendon stress asymmetry were subsequently calculated in each condition using the symmetry index. Across all joints and conditions, average asymmetry of peak moments was between ±6% but higher individual values were observed; there was no effect of speed on magnitude of asymmetry. Ground contact times, vertical ground reaction forces and support and ankle moments (maximum absolute asymmetry: 9%) were more symmetrical than hip and knee moments (up to 18%). Individual joint contribution to support moment and positive work were similar in both limbs, and ankle and hip compensatory interactions were observed with alterations in running speed. Achilles tendon stress increased with increased running speed, with higher stress in the preferred limb; asymmetry in tendon stress was not related to asymmetry in vertical ground reaction forces. Results show small effects of altering running speed on kinetic asymmetry, but responses are individual-specific with interactions occurring between joints to maintain overall movement symmetry. Further research is needed to understand the mechanical and neuromuscular mechanisms underpinning these compensations.

  20. Mercury exposure may influence fluctuating asymmetry in waterbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2017-01-01

    Variation in avian bilateral symmetry can be an indicator of developmental instability in response to a variety of stressors, including environmental contaminants. The authors used composite measures of fluctuating asymmetry to examine the influence of mercury concentrations in 2 tissues on fluctuating asymmetry within 4 waterbird species. Fluctuating asymmetry increased with mercury concentrations in whole blood and breast feathers of Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri), a species with elevated mercury concentrations. Specifically, fluctuating asymmetry in rectrix feather 1 was the most strongly correlated structural variable of those tested (wing chord, tarsus, primary feather 10, rectrix feather 6) with mercury concentrations in Forster's terns. However, for American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia), the authors found no relationship between fluctuating asymmetry and either whole-blood or breast feather mercury concentrations, even though these species had moderate to elevated mercury exposure. The results indicate that mercury contamination may act as an environmental stressor during development and feather growth and contribute to fluctuating asymmetry of some species of highly contaminated waterbirds.

  1. The validity of individual frontal alpha asymmetry EEG neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaedflieg, C W E M; Smulders, F T Y; Meyer, T; Peeters, F; Merckelbach, H; Smeets, T

    2016-01-01

    Frontal asymmetry in alpha oscillations is assumed to be associated with psychopathology and individual differences in emotional responding. Brain-activity-based feedback is a promising tool for the modulation of cortical activity. Here, we validated a neurofeedback protocol designed to change relative frontal asymmetry based on individual alpha peak frequencies, including real-time average referencing and eye-correction. Participants (N = 60) were randomly assigned to a right, left or placebo neurofeedback group. Results show a difference in trainability between groups, with a linear change in frontal alpha asymmetry over time for the right neurofeedback group during rest. Moreover, the asymmetry changes in the right group were frequency and location specific, even though trainability did not persist at 1 week and 1 month follow-ups. On the behavioral level, subjective stress on the second test day was reduced in the left and placebo neurofeedback groups, but not in the right neurofeedback group. We found individual differences in trainability that were dependent on training group, with participants in the right neurofeedback group being more likely to change their frontal asymmetry in the desired direction. Individual differences in trainability were also reflected in the ability to change frontal asymmetry during the feedback. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Role of quasiprojectile isospin asymmetry in nuclear fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R.; Bonasera, A.; Wuenschel, S.

    2012-01-01

    Fragment yield data, selected with different values of the isospin asymmetry of the quasiprojectile from 78, 86 Kr + 58, 64 Ni reactions at E lab = 35 MeV/nucleon, have been analyzed within the framework of Landau free energy approach. Fits to the free energy data indicated the system to be in the regime of a first-order phase transition. The plot of free energy versus isospin asymmetry of the fragments showed a systematic change with increasing isospin asymmetry of the fragmenting source. This observation demonstrated the role of quasiprojectile isospin asymmetry as an external field which governed the minima positions in the free energy plot. The position of the central minimum was found to be in close agreement with the average isospin asymmetry of the fragments calculated excluding neutrons and protons. Significant deviations from the free energy plot were observed for N = Z fragments, particularly for the lighter ones, which could be corrected after inclusion of odd–even effects in the analysis. Analysis of yield data of N = Z nuclei gave a reasonable estimate of temperature. Analysis of free energy data gated with excitation energy of the fragmenting source showed a dependence of fit parameters of Landau free energy equation on the excitation energy as well as isospin asymmetry of the source. (author)

  3. Mercury exposure may influence fluctuating asymmetry in waterbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Ackerman, Joshua T

    2017-06-01

    Variation in avian bilateral symmetry can be an indicator of developmental instability in response to a variety of stressors, including environmental contaminants. The authors used composite measures of fluctuating asymmetry to examine the influence of mercury concentrations in 2 tissues on fluctuating asymmetry within 4 waterbird species. Fluctuating asymmetry increased with mercury concentrations in whole blood and breast feathers of Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri), a species with elevated mercury concentrations. Specifically, fluctuating asymmetry in rectrix feather 1 was the most strongly correlated structural variable of those tested (wing chord, tarsus, primary feather 10, rectrix feather 6) with mercury concentrations in Forster's terns. However, for American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia), the authors found no relationship between fluctuating asymmetry and either whole-blood or breast feather mercury concentrations, even though these species had moderate to elevated mercury exposure. The results indicate that mercury contamination may act as an environmental stressor during development and feather growth and contribute to fluctuating asymmetry of some species of highly contaminated waterbirds. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1599-1605. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  4. Nanocrystal Bioassembly: Asymmetry, Proximity, and Enzymatic Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claridge, Shelley A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Research at the interface between biomolecules and inorganic nanocrystals has resulted in a great number of new discoveries. In part this arises from the synergistic duality of the system: biomolecules may act as self-assembly agents for organizing inorganic nanocrystals into functional materials; alternatively, nanocrystals may act as microscopic or spectroscopic labels for elucidating the behavior of complex biomolecular systems. However, success in either of these functions relies heavily uponthe ability to control the conjugation and assembly processes.In the work presented here, we first design a branched DNA scaffold which allows hybridization of DNA-nanocrystal monoconjugates to form discrete assemblies. Importantly, the asymmetry of the branched scaffold allows the formation of asymmetric2assemblies of nanocrystals. In the context of a self-assembled device, this can be considered a step toward the ability to engineer functionally distinct inputs and outputs.Next we develop an anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography purification method which allows large gold nanocrystals attached to single strands of very short DNA to be purified. When two such complementary conjugates are hybridized, the large nanocrystals are brought into close proximity, allowing their plasmon resonances to couple. Such plasmon-coupled constructs are of interest both as optical interconnects for nanoscale devices and as `plasmon ruler? biomolecular probes.We then present an enzymatic ligation strategy for creating multi-nanoparticle building blocks for self-assembly. In constructing a nanoscale device, such a strategy would allow pre-assembly and purification of components; these constructs can also act as multi-label probes of single-stranded DNA conformational dynamics. Finally we demonstrate a simple proof-of-concept of a nanoparticle analog of the polymerase chain reaction.

  5. Structural hemispheric asymmetries underlie verbal Stroop performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallesi, Antonino; Mazzonetto, Ilaria; Ambrosini, Ettore; Babcock, Laura; Capizzi, Mariagrazia; Arbula, Sandra; Tarantino, Vincenza; Semenza, Carlo; Bertoldo, Alessandra

    2017-09-29

    Performance on tasks involving cognitive control such as the Stroop task is often associated with left lateralized brain activations. Based on this neuro-functional evidence, we tested whether leftward structural grey matter asymmetries would also predict inter-individual differences in combatting Stroop interference. To check for the specificity of the results, both a verbal Stroop task and a spatial one were administered to a total of 111 healthy young individuals, for whom T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images were also acquired. Surface thickness and area estimations were calculated using FreeSurfer. Participants' hemispheres were registered to a symmetric template and Laterality Indices (LI) for the surface thickness and for the area at each vertex in each participant were computed. The correlation of these surface LI measures with the verbal and spatial Stroop effects (incongruent-congruent difference in trial performance) was assessed at each vertex by means of general linear models at the whole-brain level. We found a significant correlation between performance and surface area LI in an inferior posterior temporal cluster (overlapping with the so-called visual word form area, VWFA), with a more left-lateralized area in this region associated with a smaller Stroop effect only in the verbal task. These results point to an involvement of the VWFA for higher-level processes based on word reading, including the suppression of this process when required by the task, and could be interpreted in the context of cross-hemispheric rivalry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of transmembrane segment II in 7TM receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benned-Jensen, Tau; Rosenkilde, M M

    2009-01-01

    During the two past decades tremendous effort has been put into uncovering the activation mechanism of 7TM receptors. The majority of such studies have focused on the major binding pocket, comprised of transmembrane segments (TM) -III through -VII, as most non-peptide and peptide ligands, in addi...

  7. Role of Side-Chain Conformational Entropy in Transmembrane Helix Dimerization of Glycophorin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Crocker, Evan; Siminovitch, David J.; Smith, Steven O.

    2003-01-01

    Dimerization of the transmembrane domain of glycophorin A is mediated by a seven residue motif LIxxGVxxGVxxT through a combination of van der Waals and hydrogen bonding interactions. One of the unusual features of the motif is the large number of β-branched amino acids that may limit the entropic cost of dimerization by restricting side-chain motion in the monomeric transmembrane helix. Deuterium NMR spectroscopy is used to characterize the dynamics of fully deuterated Val80 and Val84, two essential amino acids of the dimerization motif. Deuterium spectra of the glycophorin A transmembrane dimer were obtained using synthetic peptides corresponding to the transmembrane sequence containing either perdeuterated Val80 or Val84. These data were compared with spectra of monomeric glycophorin A peptides deuterated at Val84. In all cases, the deuterium line shapes are characterized by fast methyl group rotation with virtually no motion about the Cα-Cβ bond. This is consistent with restriction of the side chain in both the monomer and dimer due to intrahelical packing interactions involving the β-methyl groups, and indicates that there is no energy cost associated with dimerization due to loss of conformational entropy. In contrast, deuterium NMR spectra of Met81 and Val82, in the lipid interface, reflected greater motional averaging and fast exchange between different side-chain conformers. PMID:12547806

  8. SCIMP, a transmembrane adaptor protein involved in major histocompatibility complex class II signaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dráber, Peter; Vonková, Ivana; Štěpánek, Ondřej; Hrdinka, Matouš; Kucová, Markéta; Skopcová, Tereza; Otáhal, Pavel; Angelisová, Pavla; Hořejší, Václav; Yeung, M.; Weiss, A.; Brdička, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 22 (2011), s. 4550-4562 ISSN 0270-7306 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0506; GA ČR GEMEM/09/E011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : SCIMP * transmembrane adaptor protein * MHC II Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.527, year: 2011

  9. Self-assembly of small-molecule fumaramides allows transmembrane chloride channel formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arundhati; Gautam, Amitosh; Malla, Javid Ahmad; Sarkar, Sohini; Mukherjee, Arnab; Talukdar, Pinaki

    2018-02-20

    This study reports the formation of self-assembled transmembrane anion channels by small-molecule fumaramides. Such artificial ion channel formation was confirmed by ion transport across liposomes and by planar bilayer conductance measurements. The geometry-optimized model of the channel and Cl - ion selectivity within the channel lumen was also illustrated.

  10. Intact transmembrane isoforms of the neural cell adhesion molecule are released from the plasma membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M; Krog, L; Edvardsen, K

    1993-01-01

    . By density-gradient centrifugation it was shown that shed transmembrane NCAM-B was present in fractions of high, as well as low, density, indicating that a fraction of the shed NCAM is associated with minor plasma membrane fragments. Finally, it was shown that isolated soluble NCAM inhibited cell binding......-s1 and NCAM-s2 and the function of soluble NCAM forms were investigated. It was shown that all three soluble forms could be released from brain membranes with M(r) values identical to the three major membrane-associated forms: the large transmembrane 190,000-M(r) form (NCAM-A), the smaller...... intact soluble form from membranes of cells transfected with this isoform. Thus, NCAM-s1 and NCAM-s2 probably represent intact released transmembrane NCAM-A and NCAM-B. The soluble transmembrane forms are likely to exist in vivo, as NCAM-s1 and NCAM-s2 were readily demonstrated in cerebrospinal fluid...

  11. CoPreTHi: a Web tool which combines transmembrane protein segment prediction methods

    OpenAIRE

    Promponas, Vasilis; Palaios, Giorgos; Pasquier, Claude; Hamodrakas, Ioannis; Hamodrakas, Stavros

    2009-01-01

    International audience; CoPreTHi is a Java based web application, which combines the results of methods that predict the location of transmembrane segments in protein sequences into a joint prediction histogram. Clearly, the joint prediction algorithm, produces superior quality results than individual prediction schemes. The program is available at http://o2.db.uoa.gr/CoPreTHi.

  12. Transmembrane Domain Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Impair Expression and Transport Activity of ABC Transporter ABCG2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjostedt, N.; Heuvel, J.J.M.W. van den; Koenderink, J.B.; Kidron, H.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the function and expression of nine naturally occurring single-nucleotide polymorphisms (G406R, F431L, S441N, P480L, F489L, M515R, L525R, A528T and T542A) that are predicted to reside in the transmembrane regions of the ABC transporter ABCG2. METHODS: The transport activity of the

  13. Detergent properties influence the stability of the glycophorin A transmembrane helix dimer in lysophosphatidylcholine micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangl, Michael; Veerappan, Anbazhagan; Kroeger, Anja; Vogel, Peter; Schneider, Dirk

    2012-12-19

    Detergents might affect membrane protein structures by promoting intramolecular interactions that are different from those found in native membrane bilayers, and fine-tuning detergent properties can be crucial for obtaining structural information of intact and functional transmembrane proteins. To systematically investigate the influence of the detergent concentration and acyl-chain length on the stability of a transmembrane protein structure, the stability of the human glycophorin A transmembrane helix dimer has been analyzed in lyso-phosphatidylcholine micelles of different acyl-chain length. While our results indicate that the transmembrane protein is destabilized in detergents with increasing chain-length, the diameter of the hydrophobic micelle core was found to be less crucial. Thus, hydrophobic mismatch appears to be less important in detergent micelles than in lipid bilayers and individual detergent molecules appear to be able to stretch within a micelle to match the hydrophobic thickness of the peptide. However, the stability of the GpA TM helix dimer linearly depends on the aggregation number of the lyso-PC detergents, indicating that not only is the chemistry of the detergent headgroup and acyl-chain region central for classifying a detergent as harsh or mild, but the detergent aggregation number might also be important. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The trans-membrane potential of biological membranes in computer simulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melcr, Josef; Timr, Štěpán; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 44, Suppl 1 (2015), S170 ISSN 0175-7571. [EBSA European Biophysics Congress /10./. 18.07.2015-22.07.2015, Dresden] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : molecular dynamics * trans-membrane potential Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  15. Structural insights into triglyceride storage mediated by fat storage-inducing transmembrane (FIT protein 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Gross

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Fat storage-Inducing Transmembrane proteins 1 & 2 (FIT1/FITM1 and FIT2/FITM2 belong to a unique family of evolutionarily conserved proteins localized to the endoplasmic reticulum that are involved in triglyceride lipid droplet formation. FIT proteins have been shown to mediate the partitioning of cellular triglyceride into lipid droplets, but not triglyceride biosynthesis. FIT proteins do not share primary sequence homology with known proteins and no structural information is available to inform on the mechanism by which FIT proteins function. Here, we present the experimentally-solved topological models for FIT1 and FIT2 using N-glycosylation site mapping and indirect immunofluorescence techniques. These methods indicate that both proteins have six-transmembrane-domains with both N- and C-termini localized to the cytosol. Utilizing this model for structure-function analysis, we identified and characterized a gain-of-function mutant of FIT2 (FLL(157-9AAA in transmembrane domain 4 that markedly augmented the total number and mean size of lipid droplets. Using limited-trypsin proteolysis we determined that the FLL(157-9AAA mutant has enhanced trypsin cleavage at K86 relative to wild-type FIT2, indicating a conformational change. Taken together, these studies indicate that FIT2 is a 6 transmembrane domain-containing protein whose conformation likely regulates its activity in mediating lipid droplet formation.

  16. NTAL (non-T cell activation linker):a transmembrane adaptor protein involved in immunoreceptor signaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brdička, Tomáš; Imrich, Martin; Angelisová, Pavla; Brdičková, Naděžda; Horváth, Ondřej; Špička, Jiří; Hilgert, Ivan; Lusková, Petra; Dráber, Petr; Novák, P.; Engels, N.; Wienands, J.; Simeoni, L.; Osterreicher, J.; Aguado, E.; Malissen, M.; Schraven, B.; Hořejší, Václav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 196, č. 12 (2002), s. 16180-16185 ISSN 0022-1007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A026 Keywords : NTAL * transmembrane adaptor * immunoreceptor signaling Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 15.838, year: 2002

  17. Simulations of Skin Barrier Function: Free Energies of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Transmembrane Pores in Ceramide Bilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notman, Rebecca; Anwar, Jamshed; Briels, Willem J.; Noro, Massimo G.; den Otter, Wouter K.

    2008-01-01

    Transmembrane pore formation is central to many biological processes such as ion transport, cell fusion, and viral infection. Furthermore, pore formation in the ceramide bilayers of the stratum corneum may be an important mechanism by which penetration enhancers such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)

  18. Large-scale identification of membrane proteins based on analysis of trypsin-protected transmembrane segments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vít, O.; Man, Petr; Kádek, Alan; Hausner, Jiří; Sklenář, A.; Harant, K.; Novák, Petr; Scigelová, M.; Wofferndin, G.; Petrák, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 146, SI (2016), s. 15-22 ISSN 1874-3919 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Integral membrane proteins * CNBr * Transmembrane Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.914, year: 2016

  19. Transmembrane Helices Are an Overlooked Source of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Epitopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianchi, F.; Textor, J.C.; Bogaart, G. van den

    2017-01-01

    About a fourth of the human proteome is anchored by transmembrane helices (TMHs) to lipid membranes. TMHs require multiple hydrophobic residues for spanning membranes, and this shows a striking resemblance with the requirements for peptide binding to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I.

  20. Advantages of combined transmembrane topology and signal peptide prediction--the Phobius web server

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Käll, Lukas; Krogh, Anders; Sonnhammer, Erik L L

    2007-01-01

    When using conventional transmembrane topology and signal peptide predictors, such as TMHMM and SignalP, there is a substantial overlap between these two types of predictions. Applying these methods to five complete proteomes, we found that 30-65% of all predicted signal peptides and 25-35% of al...

  1. The transmembrane region is responsible for targeting of adaptor protein LAX into "heavy rafts''

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrdinka, Matouš; Otáhal, Pavel; Hořejší, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 5 (2012), e36330 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GEMEM/09/E011; GA MŠk 1M0506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : LAX * transmembrane domain * DRM Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  2. Modeling the structure of SARS 3a transmembrane protein using a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. 3a is an accessory protein from SARS coronavirus that is known to play a significant role in the proliferation of the virus by forming tetrameric ion channels. Although the monomeric units are known to consist of three transmembrane (TM) domains, there are no solved structures available for the complete monomer.

  3. Structure, function and physiological consequences of virally encoded chemokine seven transmembrane receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenkilde, M.M.; Smit, M.J.; Waldhoer, M.

    2008-01-01

    A number of human and animal herpes viruses encode G-protein coupled receptors with seven transmembrane (7TM) segments - most of which are clearly related to human chemokine receptors. It appears, that these receptors are used by the virus for immune evasion, cellular transformation, tissue

  4. Electrochemical Platform for the Detection of Transmembrane Proteins Reconstituted into Liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacek, Jan; Zatloukalova, Martina; Geleticova, Jaroslava; Kubala, Martin; Modriansky, Martin; Fekete, Ladislav; Masek, Josef; Hubatka, Frantisek; Turanek, Jaroslav

    2016-04-19

    The development of new methods and strategies for the investigation of membrane proteins is limited by poor solubility of these proteins in an aqueous environment and hindered by a number of other problems linked to the instability of the proteins outside lipid bilayers. Therefore, current research focuses on an analysis of membrane proteins incorporated into model lipid membrane, most frequently liposomes. In this work, we introduce a new electrochemical methodology for the analysis of transmembrane proteins reconstituted into a liposomal system. The proposed analytical approach is based on proteoliposomal sample adsorption on the surface of working electrodes followed by analysis of the anodic and cathodic signals of the reconstituted proteins. It works based on the fact that proteins are electroactive species, in contrast to the lipid components of the membranes under the given experimental conditions. Electroanalytical experiments were performed with two transmembrane proteins; the Na(+)/K(+)ATPase that contains transmembrane as well as large extramembraneous segments and the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1, which is a transmembrane protein essentially lacking extramembraneous segments. Electrochemical analyses of proteoliposomes were compared with analyses of both proteins solubilized with detergents (C12E8 and octyl-PoE) and supported by the following complementary methods: microscopy techniques, protein activity testing, molecular model visualizations, and immunochemical identification of both proteins. The label-free electrochemical platform presented here enables studies of reconstituted transmembrane proteins at the nanomolar level. Our results may contribute to the development of new electrochemical sensors and microarray systems applicable within the field of poorly water-soluble proteins.

  5. Effect of flow rate and temperature on transmembrane blood pressure drop in an extracorporeal artificial lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M; Costa, E L V; Maciel, A T; Barbosa, E V S; Hirota, A S; Schettino, G de P; Azevedo, L C P

    2014-11-01

    Transmembrane pressure drop reflects the resistance of an artificial lung system to blood transit. Decreased resistance (low transmembrane pressure drop) enhances blood flow through the oxygenator, thereby, enhancing gas exchange efficiency. This study is part of a previous one where we observed the behaviour and the modulation of blood pressure drop during the passage of blood through artificial lung membranes. Before and after the induction of multi-organ dysfunction, the animals were instrumented and analysed for venous-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, using a pre-defined sequence of blood flows. Blood flow and revolutions per minute (RPM) of the centrifugal pump varied in a linear fashion. At a blood flow of 5.5 L/min, pre- and post-pump blood pressures reached -120 and 450 mmHg, respectively. Transmembrane pressures showed a significant spread, particularly at blood flows above 2 L/min; over the entire range of blood flow rates, there was a positive association of pressure drop with blood flow (0.005 mmHg/mL/minute of blood flow) and a negative association of pressure drop with temperature (-4.828 mmHg/(°Celsius). These associations were similar when blood flows of below and above 2000 mL/minute were examined. During its passage through the extracorporeal system, blood is exposed to pressure variations from -120 to 450 mmHg. At high blood flows (above 2 L/min), the drop in transmembrane pressure becomes unpredictable and highly variable. Over the entire range of blood flows investigated (0-5500 mL/min), the drop in transmembrane pressure was positively associated with blood flow and negatively associated with body temperature. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Quantification of upper limb kinetic asymmetries in front crawl swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morouço, Pedro G; Marinho, Daniel A; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Marques, Mário C

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed at quantifying upper limb kinetic asymmetries in maximal front crawl swimming and to examine if these asymmetries would affect the contribution of force exertion to swimming performance. Eighteen high level male swimmers with unilateral breathing patterns and sprint or middle distance specialists, volunteered as participants. A load-cell was used to quantify the forces exerted in water by completing a 30s maximal front crawl tethered swimming test and a maximal 50 m free swimming was considered as a performance criterion. Individual force-time curves were obtained to calculate the mean and maximum forces per cycle, for each upper limb. Following, symmetry index was estimated and breathing laterality identified by questionnaire. Lastly, the pattern of asymmetries along the test was estimated for each upper limb using linear regression of peak forces per cycle. Asymmetrical force exertion was observed in the majority of the swimmers (66.7%), with a total correspondence of breathing laterality opposite to the side of the force asymmetry. Forces exerted by the dominant upper limb presented a higher decrease than from the non-dominant. Very strong associations were found between exerted forces and swimming performance, when controlling the isolated effect of symmetry index. Results point that force asymmetries occur in the majority of the swimmers, and that these asymmetries are most evident in the first cycles of a maximum bout. Symmetry index stood up as an influencing factor on the contribution of tethered forces over swimming performance. Thus, to some extent, a certain degree of asymmetry is not critical for short swimming performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Karyotipic asymmetry of both wild and cultivated species of Pennisetum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Helena Techio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed the establishment of the relation between karyotipic asymmetry values obtained for different accessions of both wild and cultivated species of Pennisetum from Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Gado de Leite/Juiz de Fora-Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Conventional cell cycle synchronization protocols and Feulgen staining method were used to obtain metaphases plates. The wild-type accessions corresponded to the species P. setosum (2n=6x=54, P. nervosum (2n=4x=36, and P. orientale (2n=4x=36, and the cultivated to P. purpureum (2n=4x=28 and P. glaucum (2n=2x=14. No significant difference was found for the total length of chromosomes (p>0.05 among the species. The analysis of intra-chromosomal asymmetry (A1 and inter-chromosomal asymmetry (A2 has shown that P. setosum has a tendency to chromosome asymmetry. P. nervosum, P. orientale, and P. purpureum have presented an intermediary level of asymmetry and P. glaucum, low asymmetry. Considering Stebbins criteria, the karyotype of P. glaucum and those from the three wild species fitted into the category 1A-symmetrical. With regard to P. purpureum, karyotypes of the accessions BAGs 54, 65 and 91 fitted into the category 2B and the other two genotypes (BAGs 63 and 75 fitted into the 1A. Comparison between the karyotype classification according to the inter- and intra-chromosomal asymmetry and Stebbins methodologies revealed that this last one alone was not able to detect small variations between karyotypes of the taxa closely related.

  8. Conserved allosteric hot spots in the transmembrane domains of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channels and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shipeng; Roessler, Bryan C; Chauvet, Sylvain; Guo, Jingyu; Hartman, John L; Kirk, Kevin L

    2014-07-18

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are an ancient family of transmembrane proteins that utilize ATPase activity to move substrates across cell membranes. The ABCC subfamily of the ABC transporters includes active drug exporters (the multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs)) and a unique ATP-gated ion channel (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)). The CFTR channel shares gating principles with conventional ligand-gated ion channels, but the allosteric network that couples ATP binding at its nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) with conformational changes in its transmembrane helices (TMs) is poorly defined. It is also unclear whether the mechanisms that govern CFTR gating are conserved with the thermodynamically distinct MRPs. Here we report a new class of gain of function (GOF) mutation of a conserved proline at the base of the pore-lining TM6. Multiple substitutions of this proline promoted ATP-free CFTR activity and activation by the weak agonist, 5'-adenylyl-β,γ-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP). TM6 proline mutations exhibited additive GOF effects when combined with a previously reported GOF mutation located in an outer collar of TMs that surrounds the pore-lining TMs. Each TM substitution allosterically rescued the ATP sensitivity of CFTR gating when introduced into an NBD mutant with defective ATP binding. Both classes of GOF mutations also rescued defective drug export by a yeast MRP (Yor1p) with ATP binding defects in its NBDs. We conclude that the conserved TM6 proline helps set the energy barrier to both CFTR channel opening and MRP-mediated drug efflux and that CFTR channels and MRP pumps utilize similar allosteric mechanisms for coupling conformational changes in their translocation pathways to ATP binding at their NBDs. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Hemispheric asymmetry and theory of mind: is there an association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Daniela A; Sullivan, Sarah; Evans, Jonathan; Corcoran, Rhiannon; Mohr, Christine

    2012-01-01

    In autism and schizophrenia attenuated/atypical functional hemispheric asymmetry and theory of mind impairments have been reported, suggesting common underlying neuroscientific correlates. We here investigated whether impaired theory of mind performance is associated with attenuated/atypical hemispheric asymmetry. An association may explain the co-occurrence of both dysfunctions in psychiatric populations. Healthy participants (n=129) performed a left hemisphere (lateralised lexical decision task) and right hemisphere (lateralised face decision task) dominant task as well as a visual cartoon task to assess theory of mind performance. Linear regression analyses revealed inconsistent associations between theory of mind performance and functional hemisphere asymmetry: enhanced theory of mind performance was only associated with (1) faster right hemisphere language processing, and (2) reduced right hemisphere dominance for face processing (men only). The majority of non-significant findings suggest that theory of mind and functional hemispheric asymmetry are unrelated. Instead of "overinterpreting" the two significant results, discrepancies in the previous literature relating to the problem of the theory of mind concept, the variety of tasks, and the lack of normative data are discussed. We also suggest how future studies could explore a possible link between hemispheric asymmetry and theory of mind.

  10. [Perception of asymmetry smile: Attempt to evaluation through Photoshop].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakite, C; Diep, D; Labbe, D

    2016-04-01

    In the labial palliative surgery of facial paralysis, it can persist asymmetry smile. Evaluate the impact of an augmentation or reduction of the commissural course on the perception of a smile anomaly, and determine from which asymmetry threshold, the smile is estimated unsightly. We took a picture of two people with a smile not forced; including one with a "cuspid smile", and the another one with a "Mona Lisa" smile. The pictures obtained were modified by the Photoshop software, to simulate an asymmetry labial smile. The changes were related to the move of the left labial commissure, the left nasolabial furrow, and the left cheek using under-correction and overcorrection, every 4 mm. Three pictures with under-correction and four pictures with over-correction were obtained. These smiles were shown to three groups of five people, which included doctors in smile specialties, doctors in other specialties, and non-doctors. Participants were then asked to indicate on which of the pictures, the smile seemed abnormal. Between -8 mm under-correction, and +8 mm over-correction, the asymmetry of the commissural course does not hinder the perception of smile. In the labial palliative surgery of facial paralysis, in the case of persistent asymmetry, there is a tolerance in the perception of "normality" of smile concerning the amplitude of the commissural course going up to 8 mm of asymmetric with under-correction or over-correction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Frontal EEG Asymmetry of Mood: A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Palmiero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present mini-review was aimed at exploring the frontal EEG asymmetry of mood. With respect to emotion, interpreted as a discrete affective process, mood is more controllable, more nebulous, and more related to mind/cognition; in addition, causes are less well-defined than those eliciting emotion. Therefore, firstly, the rational for the distinction between emotion and mood was provided. Then, the main frontal EEG asymmetry models were presented, such as the motivational approach/withdrawal, valence/arousal, capability, and inhibition asymmetric models. Afterward, the frontal EEG asymmetry of mood was investigated following three research lines, that is considering studies involving different mood induction procedures, dispositional mood (positive and negative affect, and mood alterations in both healthy and clinical populations. In general, results were found to be contradictory, no model is unequivocally supported regardless the research line considered. Different methodological issues were raised, such as: the composition of samples used across studies, in particular, gender and age were found to be critical variables that should be better addressed in future studies; the importance of third variables that might mediate the relationship between frontal EEG asymmetries and mood, for example bodily states and hormonal responses; the role of cognition, namely the interplay between mood and executive functions. In light of these issues, future research directions were proposed. Amongst others, the need to explore the neural connectivity that underpins EEG asymmetries, and the need to include both positive and negative mood conditions in the experimental designs have been highlighted.

  12. Prediction of Gap Asymmetry in Differential Micro Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping He

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Gap asymmetry in differential capacitors is the primary source of the zero bias output of force-balanced micro accelerometers. It is also used to evaluate the applicability of differential structures in MEMS manufacturing. Therefore, determining the asymmetry level has considerable significance for the design of MEMS devices. This paper proposes an experimental-theoretical method for predicting gap asymmetry in differential sensing capacitors of micro accelerometers. The method involves three processes: first, bi-directional measurement, which can sharply reduce the influence of the feedback circuit on bias output, is proposed. Experiments are then carried out on a centrifuge to obtain the input and output data of an accelerometer. Second, the analytical input-output relationship of the accelerometer with gap asymmetry and circuit error is theoretically derived. Finally, the prediction methodology combines the measurement results and analytical derivation to identify the asymmetric error of 30 accelerometers fabricated by DRIE. Results indicate that the level of asymmetry induced by fabrication uncertainty is about ±5 × 10−2, and that the absolute error is about ±0.2 µm under a 4 µm gap.

  13. Frequency of dentofacial asymmetries: a cross-sectional study on orthodontic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhateja, Nita Kumari; Fida, Mubassar; Shaikh, Attiya

    2014-01-01

    Correction of orthodontic asymmetries is crucial to achieve functional occlusion, aesthetics and stability of post orthodontic treatment results. To date valid frequency data of dentofacial asymmetries in Pakistani orthodontic patients do not exist to document orthodontic treatment need. The objectives of this study were to determine frequency of dento-facial asymmetries, severity of dental asymmetries and to determine difference in frequency of dentofacial asymmetries in mixed and permanent dentition. The sample of this cross-sectional study comprised of 280 patients (177 females and 103 males) with no history of previous orthodontic treatment having no craniofacial anomalies. Dento-facial asymmetries were assessed from pre-treatment records of patients. Descriptive statistics were used to determine frequency of dentofacial asymmetries and severity of dental asymmetries. Chi-square test was used to determine difference in frequency of dentofacial asymmetries in mixed and permanent dentition. Seventy eight percent (219) of patients had noncoincident midlines, 67.5% (189) had mandibular midline asymmetry, 43.2% (122) had molar asymmetry, 15.7% (44) had mandibular arch asymmetry, 14.3% (40) had maxillary midline asymmetry, 13.6% (38) had maxillary arch asymmetry, 6.1% (17) had nose deviation, and 12.1% (34) had facial asymmetry and chin deviation. In most patients dental midlines were deviated from one another and from facial midline by ¼ lower incisor widths, while molar asymmetry was found in most patients by ¼ cusp width. Mandibular arch asymmetry was more frequent in permanent than mixed dentition (p = 0.054). Non-coincident dental midline is most commonly seen. Nose deviation is least commonly observed. Mandibular arch asymmetry is more frequent in permanent than mixed dentition.

  14. Expression of genes encoding multi-transmembrane proteins in specific primate taste cell populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan D Moyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Using fungiform (FG and circumvallate (CV taste buds isolated by laser capture microdissection and analyzed using gene arrays, we previously constructed a comprehensive database of gene expression in primates, which revealed over 2,300 taste bud-associated genes. Bioinformatics analyses identified hundreds of genes predicted to encode multi-transmembrane domain proteins with no previous association with taste function. A first step in elucidating the roles these gene products play in gustation is to identify the specific taste cell types in which they are expressed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using double label in situ hybridization analyses, we identified seven new genes expressed in specific taste cell types, including sweet, bitter, and umami cells (TRPM5-positive, sour cells (PKD2L1-positive, as well as other taste cell populations. Transmembrane protein 44 (TMEM44, a protein with seven predicted transmembrane domains with no homology to GPCRs, is expressed in a TRPM5-negative and PKD2L1-negative population that is enriched in the bottom portion of taste buds and may represent developmentally immature taste cells. Calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1, a component of a novel calcium channel, along with family members CALHM2 and CALHM3; multiple C2 domains; transmembrane 1 (MCTP1, a calcium-binding transmembrane protein; and anoctamin 7 (ANO7, a member of the recently identified calcium-gated chloride channel family, are all expressed in TRPM5 cells. These proteins may modulate and effect calcium signalling stemming from sweet, bitter, and umami receptor activation. Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2B (SV2B, a regulator of synaptic vesicle exocytosis, is expressed in PKD2L1 cells, suggesting that this taste cell population transmits tastant information to gustatory afferent nerve fibers via exocytic neurotransmitter release. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Identification of genes encoding multi-transmembrane domain proteins

  15. The soluble loop BC region guides, but not dictates, the assembly of the transmembrane cytochrome b6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Tome-Stangl

    Full Text Available Studying folding and assembly of naturally occurring α-helical transmembrane proteins can inspire the design of membrane proteins with defined functions. Thus far, most studies have focused on the role of membrane-integrated protein regions. However, to fully understand folding pathways and stabilization of α-helical membrane proteins, it is vital to also include the role of soluble loops. We have analyzed the impact of interhelical loops on folding, assembly and stability of the heme-containing four-helix bundle transmembrane protein cytochrome b6 that is involved in charge transfer across biomembranes. Cytochrome b6 consists of two transmembrane helical hairpins that sandwich two heme molecules. Our analyses strongly suggest that the loop connecting the helical hairpins is not crucial for positioning the two protein "halves" for proper folding and assembly of the holo-protein. Furthermore, proteolytic removal of any of the remaining two loops, which connect the two transmembrane helices of a hairpin structure, appears to also not crucially effect folding and assembly. Overall, the transmembrane four-helix bundle appears to be mainly stabilized via interhelical interactions in the transmembrane regions, while the soluble loop regions guide assembly and stabilize the holo-protein. The results of this study might steer future strategies aiming at designing heme-binding four-helix bundle structures, involved in transmembrane charge transfer reactions.

  16. Take your seats: Leftward asymmetry in classroom seating choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Lynn Harms

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite an overall body symmetry, human behaviour is full of examples of asymmetry, from writing or gesturing to kissing and cradling. Prior research has revealed that theatre patrons show a bias towards sitting on the right side of a movie theatre. Two competing theories have attempted to explain this seating asymmetry: one posits that expectation of processing demand drives the bias; the other posits that basic motor asymmetries drive the bias. To test these theories we assessed the real-world classroom seating choices of university students using photographs. A bias for students to choose seats on the left side of the classroom was observed, in contrast to the right side bias observed in theatre seating studies. These results provide evidence in support of a processing-expectation bias.

  17. PERANAN KONSERVATISME PADA INFORMATION ASYMMETRY: SUATU TINJAUAN TEORETIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I G.A.N. BUDIASIH

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Conservatism is one of mechanisms of corporate governance that could reduce managers’ capability to manipulate and overstate financial report, especially financial performance, so cash flow and company’s value could be increased. Conservatism is also important in decreasing agency cost and increasing the quality of financial information to increase company’s value and the share price. Financial statement employing principle of conservatism could reduce management chance to manipulate financial report and decrease deadweight loss as an agency cost emerged due to information asymmetry. Thus it can be said that conservative financial statement could reduce information asymmetry. Information asymmetry can be handled by forcing management to fully disclose the company’s condition on the financial statement. Another way is to monitor management conduct by employing independent auditor.

  18. Right-frontal cortical asymmetry predicts increased proneness to nostalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullett, Alexa M; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Inzlicht, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Nostalgia is often triggered by feelings-such as sadness, loneliness, or meaninglessness-that are typically associated with withdrawal motivation. Here, we examined whether a trait tendency to experience withdrawal motivation is associated with nostalgia proneness. Past work indicates that baseline right-frontal cortical asymmetry is a neural correlate of withdrawal-related motivation. We therefore hypothesized that higher baseline levels of right-frontal asymmetry would predict increased proneness to nostalgia. We assessed participants' baseline levels of frontal cortical activity using EEG. Results supported the hypothesis and demonstrated that the association between relative right-frontal asymmetry and increased nostalgia remained significant when controlling for the Big Five personality traits. Overall, these findings indicate that individuals with a stronger dispositional tendency to experience withdrawal-related motivation are more prone to nostalgia. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  19. Azimuthal asymmetries in the unpolarized SIDIS cross section at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Sbrizzai, G

    2011-01-01

    The study of the spin structure of the nucleon and of the effects rising from the quarks transverse momentum are part of the scientific program of COMPASS, a fixed target experiment at the CERN SPS. The azimuthal asymmetries which appear in the cross-section of SIDIS off unpolarized targets can give insights on the intrinsic momentum structure of the nucleon and on the possible correlation between transverse spin and transverse momentum of the quarks. Here we present the new results for these asymmetries obtained from the COMPASS data collected with a 160 GeV/c positive muon beam impinging on a $^6LiD$ target. The asymmetries are measured for both positive and negative hadrons, and their dependence on several kinematical variable has been studied

  20. Investors’ risk attitudes and stock price fluctuation asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Honggang

    2011-05-01

    Price rise/fall asymmetry, which indicates enduring but modest rises and sudden short-term falls, is a ubiquitous phenomenon in stock markets throughout the world. Instead of the widely used time series method, we adopt inverse statistics from turbulence to analyze this asymmetry. To explore its underlying mechanism, we build a multi-agent model with two kinds of investors, which are specifically referred to as fundamentalists and chartists. Inspired by Kahneman and Tversky’s claim regarding peoples’ asymmetric psychological responses to the equivalent levels of gains and losses, we assume that investors take different risk attitudes to gains and losses and adopt different trading strategies. The simulation results of the model developed herein are consistent with empirical work, which may support our conjecture that investors’ asymmetric risk attitudes might be one origin of rise/fall asymmetry.

  1. MANDIBULAR ASYMMETRY CHARACTERIZATION USING GENERALIZED TENSOR-BASED MORPHOMETRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Beatriz; Alhadidi, Abeer; Cevidanes, Lucia; Styner, Martin; Oguz, Ipek

    2011-12-31

    Quantitative assessment of facial asymmetry is crucial for successful planning of corrective surgery. We propose a tensor-based morphometry (TBM) framework to locate and quantify asymmetry using 3D CBCT images. To this end, we compute a rigid transformation between the mandible segmentation and its mirror image, which yields global rotation and translation with respect to the cranial base to guide the surgery's first stage. Next, we nonrigidly register the rigidly aligned images and use TBM methods to locally analyze the deformation field. This yields data on the location, amount and direction of "growth" (or "shrinkage") between the left and right sides. We visualize this data in a volumetric manner and via scalar and vector maps on the mandibular surface to provide the surgeon with optimal understanding of the patient's anatomy. We illustrate the feasibility and strength of our technique on 3 representative patients with a wide range of facial asymmetries.

  2. Visual Representation Determines Search Difficulty: Explaining Visual Search Asymmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil eBruce

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In visual search experiments there exist a variety of experimental paradigms in which a symmetric set of experimental conditions yields asymmetric corresponding task performance. There are a variety of examples of this that currently lack a satisfactory explanation. In this paper, we demonstrate that distinct classes of asymmetries may be explained by virtue of a few simple conditions that are consistent with current thinking surrounding computational modeling of visual search and coding in the primate brain. This includes a detailed look at the role that stimulus familiarity plays in the determination of search performance. Overall, we demonstrate that all of these asymmetries have a common origin, namely, they are a consequence of the encoding that appears in the visual cortex. The analysis associated with these cases yields insight into the problem of visual search in general and predictions of novel search asymmetries.

  3. Transverse target spin asymmetries in exclusive $\\rho^0$ muoproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C; Alexakhin, V Yu; Alexandrov, Yu; Alexeev, G D; Amoroso, A; Andrieux, V; Austregesilo, A; Badelek, B; Balestra, F; Barth, J; Baum, G; Bedfer, Y; Berlin, A; Bernhard, J; Bertini, R; Bicker, K; Bieling, J; Birsa, R; Bisplinghoff, J; Boer, M; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Braun, C; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Büchele, M; Burtin, E; Capozza, L; Chiosso, M; Chung, S U; Cicuttin, A; Crespo, M L; Dalla Torre, S; Dasgupta, S S; Dasgupta, S; Denisov, O Yu; Donskov, S V; Doshita, N; Duic, V; Dünnweber, W; Dziewiecki, M; Efremov, A; Elia, C; Eversheim, P D; Eyrich, W; Faessler, M; Ferrero, A; Filin, A; Finger, M; Finger, M jr; Fischer, H; Franco, C; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N; Friedrich, J M; Frolov, V; Garfagnini, R; Gautheron, F; Gavrichtchouk, O P; Gerassimov, S; Geyer, R; Giorgi, M; Gnesi, I; Gobbo, B; Goertz, S; Grabmüller, S; Grasso, A; Grube, B; Gushterski, R; Guskov, A; Guthörl, T; Haas, F; von Harrach, D; Hahne, D; Heinsius, F H; Herrmann, F; Hess, C; Hinterberger, F; Höppner, Ch; Horikawa, N; d'Hose, N; Huber, S; Ishimoto, S; Ivanshin, Yu; Iwata, T; Jahn, R; Jary, V; Jasinski, P; Joosten, R; Kabuss, E; Kang, D; Ketzer, B; Khaustov, G V; Khokhlov, Yu A; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F; Klimaszewski, K; Koivuniemi, J H; Kolosov, V N; Kondo, K; Königsmann, K; Konorov, I; Konstantinov, V F; Kotzinian, A M; Kouznetsov, O; Krämer, M; Kroumchtein, Z V; Kuchinski, N; Kunne, F; Kurek, K; Kurjata, R P; Lednev, A A; Lehmann, A; Levorato, S; Lichtenstadt, J; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Makke, N; Mallot, G K; Marchand, C; Martin, A; Marzec, J; Matousek, J; Matsuda, H; Matsuda, T; Meshcheryakov, G; Meyer, W; Michigami, T; Mikhailov, Yu V; Miyachi, Y; Morreale, A; Nagaytsev, A; Nagel, T; Nerling, F; Neubert, S; Neyret, D; Nikolaenko, V I; Novy, J; Nowak, W D; Nunes, A.S; Olshevsky, A G; Ostrick, M; Panknin, R; Panzieri, D; Parsamyan, B; Paul, S; Pesek, M; Piragino, G; Platchkov, S; Pochodzalla, J; Polak, J; Polyakov, V A; Pretz, J; Quaresma, M; Quintans, C; Ramos, S; Reicherz, G; Rocco, E; Rodionov, V; Rondio, E; Rossiyskaya, N S; Ryabchikov, D I; Samoylenko, V D; Sandacz, A; Sapozhnikov, M G; Sarkar, S; Savin, I A; Sbrizzai, G; Schiavon, P; Schill, C; Schlüter, T; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, K; Schmitt, L; Schmïden, H; Schönning, K; Schopferer, S; Schott, M; Shevchenko, O Yu; Silva, L; Sinha, L; Sirtl, S; Slunecka, M; Sosio, S; Sozzi, F; Srnka, A; Steiger, L; Stolarski, M; Sulc, M; Sulej, R; Suzuki, H; Sznajder, P; Takekawa, S; Ter Wolbeek, J; Tessaro, S; Tessarotto, F; Thibaud, F; Uhl, S; Uman, I; Vandenbroucke, M; Virius, M; Vondra, J; Wang, L; Weisrock, T; Wilfert, M; Windmolders, R; Wislicki, W; Wollny, H; Zaremba, K; Zavertyaev, M; Zemlyanichkina, E; Zhuravlev, N; Ziembicki, M

    2014-01-01

    Exclusive production of $\\rho^0$ mesons was studied at the COMPASS experiment by scattering 160 GeV/$c$ muons off transversely polarised protons. Five single-spin and three double-spin azimuthal asymmetries were measured as a function of $Q^2$, $x_{Bj}$, or $p_{T}^{2}$. The $\\sin \\phi_S$ asymmetry is found to be $-0.019 \\pm 0.008(stat.) \\pm 0.003(syst.)$. All other asymmetries are also found to be of small magnitude and consistent with zero within experimental uncertainties. Very recent calculations using a GPD-based model agree well with the present results. The data is interpreted as evidence for the existence of chiral-odd, transverse generalized parton distributions.

  4. Characteristics of toroidal energy deposition asymmetries in ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.E.; Neuhauser, J.; Leuterer, F.; Mueller, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    Large toroidal and poloidal asymmetries with characteristics which are sensitively dependent on q a , the vertical position of the plasma, and the type of additional heating are observed in the energy flow to the ASDEX divertor target plates. The largest asymmetries and total energy depositions are observed during lower hybrid wave injection experiments with approximately 50% of the input energy going to the combined divertor targets and shields. A maximum localized energy density loading of 10 MJ/m 2 is typical under these conditions. Measurements of the asymmetries are consistent with a model in which magnetic islands and ergodicity due to intrinsic magnetic perturbations dominate the energy transpot across the primary magnetic separatrix. The results emphasize the essential role of resonant magnetic perturbations in determining the performance of tokamaks and demonstrate that non-axisymmetric effects caused by small perturbations become increasingly important in determining the transport properties as the injected power is increased. (orig.)

  5. Bessel-Weighted Asymmetries in Semi Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, D.; Gamberg, L.; Musch, B.U.; Prokudin, A.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of weighted asymmetries is revisited for semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. We consider the cross section in Fourier space, conjugate to the outgoing hadron's transverse momentum, where convolutions of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions and fragmentation functions become simple products. Individual asymmetric terms in the cross section can be projected out by means of a generalized set of weights involving Bessel functions. Advantages of employing these Bessel weights are that they suppress (divergent) contributions from high transverse momentum and that soft factors cancel in (Bessel-) weighted asymmetries. Also, the resulting compact expressions immediately connect to previous work on evolution equations for transverse momentum dependent parton distribution and fragmentation functions and to quantities accessible in lattice QCD. Bessel weighted asymmetries are thus model independent observables that augment the description and our understanding of correlations of spin and momentum in nucleon structure.

  6. Proton GE/GM from beam-target asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark Jones; Aram Aghalaryan; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Razmik Asaturyan; Frederic Bloch; Werner Boeglin; Peter Bosted; Cedric Carasco; Roger Carlini; Jinseok Cha; Jian-Ping Chen; Michael Christy; Leon Cole; Luminita Coman; Donald Crabb; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; James Dunne; Mostafa Elaasar; Rolf Ent; Howard Fenker; Emil Frlez; David Gaskell; Liping Gan; Javier Gomez; Bitao Hu; Juerg Jourdan; Christopher Keith; Cynthia Keppel; Mahbubul Khandaker; Andreas Klein; Laird Kramer; Yongguang Liang; Jechiel Lichtenstadt; Richard Lindgren; David Mack; Paul McKee; Dustin McNulty; David Meekins; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Rakhsha Nasseripour; Maria-Ioana Niculescu; Kristoff Normand; Blaine Norum; Dinko Pocanic; Yelena Prok; Brian Raue; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Daniela Rohe; Oscar Rondon-Aramayo; Nikolai Savvinov; Bradley Sawatzky; Mikell Seely; Ingo Sick; Karl Slifer; C. Smith; Gregory Smith; S. Stepanyan; Liguang Tang; Shigeyuki Tajima; Giuseppe Testa; William Vulcan; Kebin Wang; Glen Warren; Frank Wesselmann; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Lulin Yuan; Junho Yun; Markus Zeier; Hong Guo Zhu

    2006-01-01

    The ratio of the proton's electric to magnetic form factor, G E /G M , can be extracted in elastic electron-proton scattering by measuring either cross sections, beam-target asymmetry or recoil polarization. Separate determinations of G E /G M by cross sections and recoil polarization observables disagree for Q 2 > 1 (GeV/c) 2 . Measurement by a third technique might uncover an unknown systematic error in either of the previous measurements. The beam-target asymmetry has been measured for elastic electron-proton scattering at Q 2 = 1.51 (GeV/c) 2 for target spin orientation aligned perpendicular to the beam momentum direction. This is the largest Q 2 at which G E /G M has been determined by a beam-target asymmetry experiment. The result, μG E /G M = 0.884 +/- 0.027 +/- 0.029, is compared to previous world data

  7. Load Asymmetry Observed During Orion Main Parachute Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Aaron L.; Taylor, Thomas; Olson, Leah

    2011-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) has flight tested the first two generations of the Orion parachute program. Three of the second generation tests instrumented the dispersion bridles of the Main parachute with a Tension Measuring System. The goal of this load measurement was to better understand load asymmetry during the inflation process of a cluster of Main parachutes. The CPAS Main parachutes exhibit inflations that are much less symmetric than current parachute literature and design guides would indicate. This paper will examine loads data gathered on three cluster tests, quantify the degree of asymmetry observed, and contrast the results with published design guides. Additionally, the measured loads data will be correlated with videos of the parachute inflation to make inferences about the shape of the parachute and the relative load asymmetry. The goal of this inquiry and test program is to open a dialogue regarding asymmetrical parachute inflation load factors.

  8. New Views on Strand Asymmetry in Insect Mitochondrial Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shu-Jun; Shi, Min; Chen, Xue-Xin; Sharkey, Michael J.; van Achterberg, Cornelis; Ye, Gong-Yin; He, Jun-Hua

    2010-01-01

    Strand asymmetry in nucleotide composition is a remarkable feature of animal mitochondrial genomes. Understanding the mutation processes that shape strand asymmetry is essential for comprehensive knowledge of genome evolution, demographical population history and accurate phylogenetic inference. Previous studies found that the relative contributions of different substitution types to strand asymmetry are associated with replication alone or both replication and transcription. However, the relative contributions of replication and transcription to strand asymmetry remain unclear. Here we conducted a broad survey of strand asymmetry across 120 insect mitochondrial genomes, with special reference to the correlation between the signs of skew values and replication orientation/gene direction. The results show that the sign of GC skew on entire mitochondrial genomes is reversed in all species of three distantly related families of insects, Philopteridae (Phthiraptera), Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera) and Braconidae (Hymenoptera); the replication-related elements in the A+T-rich regions of these species are inverted, confirming that reversal of strand asymmetry (GC skew) was caused by inversion of replication origin; and finally, the sign of GC skew value is associated with replication orientation but not with gene direction, while that of AT skew value varies with gene direction, replication and codon positions used in analyses. These findings show that deaminations during replication and other mutations contribute more than selection on amino acid sequences to strand compositions of G and C, and that the replication process has a stronger affect on A and T content than does transcription. Our results may contribute to genome-wide studies of replication and transcription mechanisms. PMID:20856815

  9. New views on strand asymmetry in insect mitochondrial genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Jun Wei

    Full Text Available Strand asymmetry in nucleotide composition is a remarkable feature of animal mitochondrial genomes. Understanding the mutation processes that shape strand asymmetry is essential for comprehensive knowledge of genome evolution, demographical population history and accurate phylogenetic inference. Previous studies found that the relative contributions of different substitution types to strand asymmetry are associated with replication alone or both replication and transcription. However, the relative contributions of replication and transcription to strand asymmetry remain unclear. Here we conducted a broad survey of strand asymmetry across 120 insect mitochondrial genomes, with special reference to the correlation between the signs of skew values and replication orientation/gene direction. The results show that the sign of GC skew on entire mitochondrial genomes is reversed in all species of three distantly related families of insects, Philopteridae (Phthiraptera, Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera and Braconidae (Hymenoptera; the replication-related elements in the A+T-rich regions of these species are inverted, confirming that reversal of strand asymmetry (GC skew was caused by inversion of replication origin; and finally, the sign of GC skew value is associated with replication orientation but not with gene direction, while that of AT skew value varies with gene direction, replication and codon positions used in analyses. These findings show that deaminations during replication and other mutations contribute more than selection on amino acid sequences to strand compositions of G and C, and that the replication process has a stronger affect on A and T content than does transcription. Our results may contribute to genome-wide studies of replication and transcription mechanisms.

  10. Ozone zonal asymmetry and planetary wave characterization during Antarctic spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ialongo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A large zonal asymmetry of ozone has been observed over Antarctica during winter-spring, when the ozone hole develops. It is caused by a planetary wave-driven displacement of the polar vortex. The total ozone data by OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument and the ozone profiles by MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder and GOMOS (Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars were analysed to characterize the ozone zonal asymmetry and the wave activity during Antarctic spring. Both total ozone and profile data have shown a persistent zonal asymmetry over the last years, which is usually observed from September to mid-December. The largest amplitudes of planetary waves at 65° S (the perturbations can achieve up to 50% of zonal mean values is observed in October. The wave activity is dominated by the quasi-stationary wave 1 component, while the wave 2 is mainly an eastward travelling wave. Wave numbers 1 and 2 generally explain more than the 90% of the ozone longitudinal variations. Both GOMOS and MLS ozone profile data show that ozone zonal asymmetry covers the whole stratosphere and extends up to the altitudes of 60–65 km. The wave amplitudes in ozone mixing ratio decay with altitude, with maxima (up to 50% below 30 km.

    The characterization of the ozone zonal asymmetry has become important in the climate research. The inclusion of the polar zonal asymmetry in the climate models is essential for an accurate estimation of the future temperature trends. This information might also be important for retrieval algorithms that rely on ozone a priori information.

  11. The relationship between skull asymmetry and CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamori, Yuriko; Yuge, Mariko; Kanda, Toyoko; Ashida, Hiromi; Fukase, Hiroshi

    1987-01-01

    In order to clarify the relationship between brain damage and skull asymmetry or supine head position preference, we classified CT findings of 330 cases with cerebral palsy or risk of motor disturbance into 6 groups according to skull shape. Those were severe (I, n = 37) and mild (II, n = 114) grades in the right occipital flatness, severe (III, n = 34) and mild (IV, n = 58) grades in the left occipital flatness, long skull with temporal flatness (V, n = 33) and symmetric round skull (control, n = 54). It was considered that the asymmetry of cortical atrophy in appearance was formed physicaly by skull asymmetry but that the asymmetric dilatation in appearance of lateral ventricle was related to the asymmetry of brain damage. The severity and the asymmetry of brain damage were tend to increase the grade of skull asymmetry. The incidence of cases with the right occipital flatness was 1.6 times more frequently than the left sided. The incidence of cases whose left (lateral) ventricle was larger than the right was 4.1 times more than the cases whose right ventricle was larger than the left. The cases with occipital flatness in the contralateral side of the larger lateral ventricle were found more than the cases with occipital flatness in the ipsilateral side of the larger ventricle, that is to say, the direction of supine head position preference during early infant was suspected to be the more severely disturbed side of body. These results suggest that the supine head position preference to the right in newborn babies and infants with scoliosis or cerebral palsy might be the result of transient or permanent asymmetric (left > right) brain dysfunction. (author)

  12. Kinetic asymmetries between forward and drop jump landing tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Morgana Alves de Britto; Pedro Silvelo Franco; Evangelos Pappas; Felipe P Carpes

    2015-01-01

    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n6p661   Landing asymmetry is a risk factor for knee anterior cruciate ligament injury. The aim of this study was to identify kinetic asymmetries in healthy recreational athletes performing different jump-landing techniques. Twelve recreational athletes engaged in regular training underwent kinetic evaluation using two 3D force plates and were analyzed for: (a) three-dimensional peak forces, (b) time to peak vertical force, and (c) initi...

  13. Top polarization, forward-backward asymmetry and new physics

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Debajyoti; Rindani, Saurabh D; Saha, Pratishruti

    2011-01-01

    We consider how the measurement of top polarization at the Tevatron can be used to characterise and discriminate among different new physics models that have been suggested to explain the anomalous top forward-backward asymmetry reported at the Tevatron. This has the advantage of catching the essence of the parity violating effect characteristic to the different suggested new physics models. Other observables constructed from these asymmetries are shown to be useful in discriminating between the models, even after taking into account the statistical errors. Finally, we discuss some signals at the 7 TeV LHC.

  14. Beam-charge azimuthal asymmetry and deeply virtual Compton scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Amarian, M.; Andrus, A.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Augustyniak, W.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Avetissian, E.; Bailey, P.; Balin, D.; Beckmann, M.; Belostotski, S.; Bianchi, N.; Blok, H. P.; Böttcher, H.; Borissov, A.; Borysenko, A.; Bouwhuis, M.; Brüll, A.; Bryzgalov, V.; Capiluppi, M.; Capitani, G. P.; Chen, T.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P. F.; Deconinck, W.; de Leo, R.; Demey, M.; de Nardo, L.; de Sanctis, E.; Devitsin, E.; di Nezza, P.; Dreschler, J.; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Elalaoui-Moulay, A.; Elbakian, G.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elschenbroich, U.; Fabbri, R.; Fantoni, A.; Felawka, L.; Frullani, S.; Funel, A.; Gapienko, G.; Gapienko, V.; Garibaldi, F.; Garrow, K.; Gaskell, D.; Gavrilov, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Grebeniouk, O.; Gregor, I. M.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hafidi, K.; Hartig, M.; Hasch, D.; Hesselink, W. H. A.; Hillenbrand, A.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hommez, B.; Hristova, I.; Iarygin, G.; Ivanilov, A.; Izotov, A.; Jackson, H. E.; Jgoun, A.; Kaiser, R.; Kinney, E.; Kisselev, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kopytin, M.; Korotkov, V.; Kozlov, V.; Krauss, B.; Krivokhijine, V. G.; Lagamba, L.; Lapikás, L.; Laziev, A.; Lenisa, P.; Liebing, P.; Linden-Levy, L. A.; Lorenzon, W.; Lu, H.; Lu, J.; Lu, S.; Ma, B.-Q.; Maiheu, B.; Makins, N. C. R.; Mao, Y.; Marianski, B.; Marukyan, H.; Masoli, F.; Mexner, V.; Meyners, N.; Michler, T.; Mikloukho, O.; Miller, C. A.; Miyachi, Y.; Muccifora, V.; Murray, M.; Nagaitsev, A.; Nappi, E.; Naryshkin, Y.; Negodaev, M.; Nowak, W.-D.; Oganessyan, K.; Ohsuga, H.; Osborne, A.; Pickert, N.; Potterveld, D. H.; Raithel, M.; Reggiani, D.; Reimer, P. E.; Reischl, A.; Reolon, A. R.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rostomyan, A.; Rubacek, L.; Rubin, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Sanjiev, I.; Savin, I.; Schäfer, A.; Schnell, G.; Schüler, K. P.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Seitz, B.; Shanidze, R.; Shearer, C.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shutov, V.; Sinram, K.; Sommer, W.; Stancari, M.; Statera, M.; Steffens, E.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, J.; Stinzing, F.; Tait, P.; Tanaka, H.; Taroian, S.; Tchuiko, B.; Terkulov, A.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; van der Nat, P. B.; van der Steenhoven, G.; van Haarlem, Y.; Vikhrov, V.; Vincter, M. G.; Vogel, C.; Volmer, J.; Wang, S.; Wendland, J.; Ye, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yen, S.; Zihlmann, B.; Zupranski, P.

    2007-01-01

    The first observation of an azimuthal cross section asymmetry with respect to the charge of the incoming lepton beam is reported from a study of hard exclusive electroproduction of real photons. The data have been accumulated by the HERMES experiment at DESY, in which the HERA 27.6 GeV electron or positron beam scattered off an unpolarized hydrogen gas target. The observed asymmetry is attributed to the interference between the Bethe-Heitler process and the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) process. The interference term is sensitive to DVCS amplitudes, which provide the most direct access to generalized parton distributions.

  15. Urban and Domestic Workers: The Federal Constitution and its Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ragone de Mattos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Constitution established a lower level of protection rights to domestic servants, if compared with the rights given to regular workers. This asymmetry can be explained by particularities of this kind of job and the need to keep costs down, specially considering that domestic servants are not part of a capitalistic enterprise. However there are a series of nonrecognized rights to the domestic servants that can not be explained by its incompatibility or cost. Perhaps this group is the focus of the next step of constitutional change, reducing the asymmetry between the rights of the domestic workers and the regular ones.

  16. Investigation of Inclusive CP Asymmetries in B$^{0}$ Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Barate, R; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Merle, E; Minard, M N; Pietrzyk, B; Bravo, S; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Graugès-Pous, E; Martínez, M; Merino, G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Pacheco, A; Ruiz, H; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Boix, G; Buchmüller, O L; Cattaneo, M; Cerutti, F; Dissertori, G; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Greening, T C; Hansen, J B; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Lehraus, Ivan; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Moutoussi, A; Ranjard, F; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Spagnolo, P; Tejessy, W; Teubert, F; Tournefier, E; Wright, A E; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Badaud, F; Chazelle, G; Deschamps, O; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Petersen, B; Wäänänen, A; Daskalakis, G; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Vayaki, Anna; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Swynghedauw, M; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Zachariadou, K; Antonelli, A; Antonelli, M; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Halley, A W; Lynch, J G; Negus, P; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Cavanaugh, R J; Dhamotharan, S; Geweniger, C; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Girone, M; Marinelli, N; Sedgbeer, J K; Thompson, J C; Thomson, E; Ghete, V M; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Buck, P G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Jones, R W L; Robertson, N A; Giehl, I; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Wachsmuth, H W; Zeitnitz, C; Bonissent, A; Carr, J; Coyle, P; Leroy, O; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Aleppo, M; Ragusa, F; Dietl, H; Ganis, G; Heister, A; Hüttmann, K; Lütjens, G; Mannert, C; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Stenzel, H; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Azzurri, P; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Chen, S; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacholkowska, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Schune, M H; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Yuan, C; Zerwas, D; Bagliesi, G; Boccali, T; Calderini, G; Ciulli, V; Foà, L; Giassi, A; Ligabue, F; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Sguazzoni, G; Tenchini, Roberto; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Blair, G A; Cowan, G D; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Norton, P R; Tomalin, I R; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Konstantinidis, N P; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Lehto, M H; Thompson, L F; Affholderbach, K; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Grupen, Claus; Misiejuk, A; Prange, G; Sieler, U; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Cranmer, K; Elmer, P; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y; González, S; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; Kile, J; McNamara, P A; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, J; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Zobernig, G

    2001-01-01

    A search for CP violating effects in the mixing of neutral B mesons is performed using a sample of 4.1 million hadronic Z decays collected with the ALEPH detector from 1991 to 1995. By studying time-dependent asymmetries in flavour-tagged samples of semileptonic and fully inclusive b-hadron decays, two measurements of the semileptonic asymmetry a_cp are extracted. No evidence for CP violation is observed, and the combined value a_cp = -0.013 +- 0.026 is obtained.

  17. Asymmetry and basic pathways in sleep-stage transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chung-Chuan; Bartsch, Ronny P.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2013-04-01

    We study dynamical aspects of sleep micro-architecture. We find that sleep dynamics exhibits a high degree of asymmetry, and that the entire class of sleep-stage transition pathways underlying the complexity of sleep dynamics throughout the night can be characterized by two independent asymmetric transition paths. These basic pathways remain stable under sleep disorders, even though the degree of asymmetry is significantly reduced. Our findings demonstrate an intriguing temporal organization in sleep micro-architecture at short time scales that is typical for physical systems exhibiting self-organized criticality (SOC), and indicates nonequilibrium critical dynamics in brain activity during sleep.

  18. Think over nuclear safety. ''Information asymmetry'' and ''comminicative action''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear safety should be fully understood not only technically but also socially. In order to think over nuclear safety socially, four different concepts were recommended to refer, which were ''procedural rationality'', information asymmetry'', ''certainty effect'' and ''communicative action'' proposed by three economists and a philosopher respectively. Risk-based communication approach for nuclear safety could be effective within the higher frequency area than safety goal, but not good for the lower frequency area than safety goal. The latter could be highly subjective and more qualitative. For this area, ''safety communication'' would be highly maintained with taking account of existence of ''information asymmetry'' and need of ''communicative action''. (T.Tanaka)

  19. First principles design of a core bioenergetic transmembrane electron-transfer protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goparaju, Geetha; Fry, Bryan A; Chobot, Sarah E; Wiedman, Gregory; Moser, Christopher C; Leslie Dutton, P; Discher, Bohdana M

    2016-05-01

    Here we describe the design, Escherichia coli expression and characterization of a simplified, adaptable and functionally transparent single chain 4-α-helix transmembrane protein frame that binds multiple heme and light activatable porphyrins. Such man-made cofactor-binding oxidoreductases, designed from first principles with minimal reference to natural protein sequences, are known as maquettes. This design is an adaptable frame aiming to uncover core engineering principles governing bioenergetic transmembrane electron-transfer function and recapitulate protein archetypes proposed to represent the origins of photosynthesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biodesign for Bioenergetics--the design and engineering of electronic transfer cofactors, proteins and protein networks, edited by Ronald L. Koder and J.L. Ross Anderson. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Transmembrane proteoglycans control stretch-activated channels to set cytosolic calcium levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gopal, Sandeep; Søgaard, Pernille; Multhaupt, Hinke A B

    2015-01-01

    Transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycans regulate multiple aspects of cell behavior, but the molecular basis of their signaling is unresolved. The major family of transmembrane proteoglycans is the syndecans, present in virtually all nucleated cells, but with mostly unknown functions. Here, we...... show that syndecans regulate transient receptor potential canonical (TRPCs) channels to control cytosolic calcium equilibria and consequent cell behavior. In fibroblasts, ligand interactions with heparan sulfate of syndecan-4 recruit cytoplasmic protein kinase C to target serine714 of TRPC7...... the loss of syndecan by suppressing neuronal guidance and locomotory defects related to increases in neuronal calcium levels. The widespread and conserved syndecan-TRPC axis therefore fine tunes cytoskeletal organization and cell behavior....

  1. Buried lysine, but not arginine, titrates and alters transmembrane helix tilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Nicholas J; Vostrikov, Vitaly V; Greathouse, Denise V; Koeppe, Roger E

    2013-01-29

    The ionization states of individual amino acid residues of membrane proteins are difficult to decipher or assign directly in the lipid-bilayer membrane environment. We address this issue for lysines and arginines in designed transmembrane helices. For lysines (but not arginines) at two locations within dioleoyl-phosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes, we measure pK(a) values below 7.0. We find that buried charged lysine, in fashion similar to arginine, will modulate helix orientation to maximize its own access to the aqueous interface or, if occluded by aromatic rings, may cause a transmembrane helix to exit the lipid bilayer. Interestingly, the influence of neutral lysine (vis-à-vis leucine) upon helix orientation also depends upon its aqueous access. Our results suggest that changes in the ionization states of particular residues will regulate membrane protein function and furthermore illustrate the subtle complexity of ionization behavior with respect to the detailed lipid and protein environment.

  2. Metal ion site engineering indicates a global toggle switch model for seven-transmembrane receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Christian E; Frimurer, Thomas M; Gerlach, Lars-Ole

    2006-01-01

    Much evidence indicates that, during activation of seven-transmembrane (7TM) receptors, the intracellular segments of the transmembrane helices (TMs) move apart with large amplitude, rigid body movements of especially TM-VI and TM-VII. In this study, AspIII:08 (Asp113), the anchor point...... in sites constructed between positions III:08 (Asp or His), VI:16 (preferentially Cys), and/or VII:06 (preferentially Cys). In molecular models built over the backbone conformation of the inactive rhodopsin structure, the heavy atoms that coordinate the metal ion were located too far away from each other...... ion sites, we propose a global toggle switch mechanism for 7TM receptor activation in which inward movement of the extracellular segments of especially TM-VI and, to some extent, TM-VII is coupled to the well established outward movement of the intracellular segments of these helices. We suggest...

  3. A Dimeric Bis(melamine)-Substituted Bispidine for Efficient Transmembrane H+/Cl-Cotransport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Sopan Valiba; Talukdar, Pinaki

    2017-04-03

    A 3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane linking to two melamines is a unique transmembrane H + /Cl - carrier. In the solid state, the V-shaped compound forms a HCl-bound zig-zag network through cooperative protonation and hydrogen bond interactions. In the lipid membrane, the receptor forms a dimeric self-assembly involving multiple H + and Cl - leading to the efficient transport of the acid. The pH-dependent Cl - efflux observed for the compound was rationalized based on a gradual protonation model that confers an active transmembrane carrier at physiological pH. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Combined effect of cortical cytoskeleton and transmembrane proteins on domain formation in biomembranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikder, K. U.; Stone, K. A.; Kumar, P. B. S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the combined effects of transmembrane proteins and the subjacent cytoskeleton on the dynamics of phase separation in multicomponent lipid bilayers using computer simulations of a particle-based implicit solvent model for lipid membranes with soft-core interactions. We find that mic...... that microphase separation can be achieved by the protein confinement by the cytoskeleton. Our results have relevance to the finite size of lipid rafts in the plasma membrane of mammalian cells. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.......We investigate the combined effects of transmembrane proteins and the subjacent cytoskeleton on the dynamics of phase separation in multicomponent lipid bilayers using computer simulations of a particle-based implicit solvent model for lipid membranes with soft-core interactions. We find...

  5. First principles design of a core bioenergetic transmembrane electron-transfer protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goparaju, Geetha; Fry, Bryan A.; Chobot, Sarah E.; Wiedman, Gregory; Moser, Christopher C.; Leslie Dutton, P.; Discher, Bohdana M.

    2016-05-01

    Here we describe the design, Escherichia coli expression and characterization of a simplified, adaptable and functionally transparent single chain 4-α-helix transmembrane protein frame that binds multiple heme and light activatable porphyrins. Such man-made cofactor-binding oxidoreductases, designed from first principles with minimal reference to natural protein sequences, are known as maquettes. This design is an adaptable frame aiming to uncover core engineering principles governing bioenergetic transmembrane electron-transfer function and recapitulate protein archetypes proposed to represent the origins of photosynthesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biodesign for Bioenergetics — the design and engineering of electronic transfer cofactors, proteins and protein networks, edited by Ronald L. Koder and J.L. Ross Anderson.

  6. Cancer Research Advance in CKLF-like MARVEL Transmembrane Domain Containing Member Family (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jia; Wu, Qian-Qian; Zhou, Ya-Bo; Zhang, Kai-Hua; Pang, Bing-Xin; Li, Liang; Sun, Nan; Wang, Heng-Shu; Zhang, Song; Li, Wen-Jian; Zheng, Wei; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing family (CMTM) is a novel family of genes first reported at international level by Peking University Human Disease Gene Research Center. The gene products are between chemokines and the transmembrane-4 superfamily. Loaceted in several human chromosomes, CMTMs, which are unregulated in kinds of tumors, are potential tumor suppressor genes consisting of CKLF and CMTM1 to CMTM8. CMTMs play important roles in immune, male reproductive and hematopoietic systems. Also, it has been approved that CMTM family has strong connection with diseases of autoimmunity, haematopoietic system and haematopoietic system. The in-depth study in recent years found the close relation between CMTMs and umorigenesis, tumor development and metastasis. CMTM family has a significant clinical value in diagnosis and treatment to the diseases linking to tumor and immune system.

  7. [Research advances in CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain containing member 5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ye-qing; Xiao, Yun-bei; Liu, Zhen-hua; Zhang, Xiao-wei; Xu, Tao; Wang, Xiao-feng

    2012-12-01

    CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain containing member(CMTM)is a novel generic family firstly reported by Peking University Center for Human Disease Genomics. CMTM5 belongs to this family and has exhibited tumor-inhibiting activities. It can encode proteins approaching to the transmembrane 4 superfamily(TM4SF). CMTM5 is broadly expressed in normal adult and fetal human tissues, but is undetectable or down-regulated in most carcinoma cell lines and tissues. Restoration of CMTM5 may inhibit the proliferation, migration, and invasion of carcinoma cells. Although the exact mechanism of its anti-tumor activity remains unclear, CMTM5 may be involved in various signaling pathways governing the occurrence and development of tumors. CMTM5 may be a new target in the gene therapies for tumors, while further studies on CMTM5 and its anti-tumor mechanisms are warranted.

  8. Single methyl groups can act as toggle switches to specify transmembrane protein-protein interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Li; Steinocher, Helena; Shelar, Ashish

    2017-01-01

    of leucine and isoleucine (called LIL traptamers) that specifically activate the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) in mouse cells to confer growth factor independence. We discovered that the placement of a single side chain methyl group at specific positions in a traptamer determined whether it associated......Transmembrane domains (TMDs) engage in protein-protein interactions that regulate many cellular processes, but the rules governing the specificity of these interactions are poorly understood. To discover these principles, we analyzed 26-residue model transmembrane proteins consisting exclusively...... productively with the TMD of the human EPOR, the mouse EPOR, or both receptors. Association of the traptamers with the EPOR induced EPOR oligomerization in an orientation that stimulated receptor activity. These results highlight the high intrinsic specificity of TMD interactions, demonstrate that a single...

  9. Recombinant expression in E. coli of human FGFR2 with its transmembrane and extracellular domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Bajinting

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs are a family of receptor tyrosine kinases containing three domains: an extracellular receptor domain, a single transmembrane helix, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. FGFRs are activated by fibroblast growth factors (FGFs as part of complex signal transduction cascades regulating angiogenesis, skeletal formation, cell differentiation, proliferation, cell survival, and cancer. We have developed the first recombinant expression system in E. coli to produce a construct of human FGFR2 containing its transmembrane and extracellular receptor domains. We demonstrate that the expressed construct is functional in binding heparin and dimerizing. Size exclusion chromatography demonstrates that the purified FGFR2 does not form a complex with FGF1 or adopts an inactive dimer conformation. Progress towards the successful recombinant production of intact FGFRs will facilitate further biochemical experiments and structure determination that will provide insight into how extracellular FGF binding activates intracellular kinase activity.

  10. TMDIM: an improved algorithm for the structure prediction of transmembrane domains of bitopic dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Han; Ng, Marcus C. K.; Jusoh, Siti Azma; Tai, Hio Kuan; Siu, Shirley W. I.

    2017-09-01

    α-Helical transmembrane proteins are the most important drug targets in rational drug development. However, solving the experimental structures of these proteins remains difficult, therefore computational methods to accurately and efficiently predict the structures are in great demand. We present an improved structure prediction method TMDIM based on Park et al. (Proteins 57:577-585, 2004) for predicting bitopic transmembrane protein dimers. Three major algorithmic improvements are introduction of the packing type classification, the multiple-condition decoy filtering, and the cluster-based candidate selection. In a test of predicting nine known bitopic dimers, approximately 78% of our predictions achieved a successful fit (RMSD MySQL and Apache, with all major browsers supported.

  11. Role of ATP binding and hydrolysis in the gating of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taras Gout

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The CFTR gene is unique within the ATP-binding cassette (ABC protein family, predominantly of transporters, by coding a chloride channel. The gating mechanism of ABC proteins has been characterized by the ATP Switch model in terms cycles of dimer formation and dissociation linked to ATP binding and hydrolysis, respectively. It would be of interest to assess the extent that Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR, a functional channel, fits the ATP Switch model for ABC transporters. Additional transporter mechanisms, namely those of Pgp and HlyB, are discussed for perspective. Literature search of databases selected key references in comparing and contrasting the gating mechanism. CFTR is a functional chloride channel facilitating transmembrane anion flow down electrochemical gradients. A dysfunctional CFTR protein results in cystic fibrosis, a fatal pleiotropic disease currently managed symptomatically. Understanding the gating mechanism will help target drug development aimed at alleviating and curing the disease.

  12. Approaches to ab initio molecular replacement of α-helical transmembrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jens M H; Simkovic, Felix; Keegan, Ronan; Mayans, Olga; Zhang, Chengxin; Zhang, Yang; Rigden, Daniel J

    2017-12-01

    α-Helical transmembrane proteins are a ubiquitous and important class of proteins, but present difficulties for crystallographic structure solution. Here, the effectiveness of the AMPLE molecular replacement pipeline in solving α-helical transmembrane-protein structures is assessed using a small library of eight ideal helices, as well as search models derived from ab initio models generated both with and without evolutionary contact information. The ideal helices prove to be surprisingly effective at solving higher resolution structures, but ab initio-derived search models are able to solve structures that could not be solved with the ideal helices. The addition of evolutionary contact information results in a marked improvement in the modelling and makes additional solutions possible.

  13. Agonist activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors via an allosteric transmembrane site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, JasKiran K.; Savolainen, Mari; Young, Gareth T.; Zwart, Ruud; Sher, Emanuele; Millar, Neil S.

    2011-01-01

    Conventional nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists, such as acetylcholine, act at an extracellular “orthosteric” binding site located at the interface between two adjacent subunits. Here, we present evidence of potent activation of α7 nAChRs via an allosteric transmembrane site. Previous studies have identified a series of nAChR-positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) that lack agonist activity but are able to potentiate responses to orthosteric agonists, such as acetylcholine. It has been shown, for example, that TQS acts as a conventional α7 nAChR PAM. In contrast, we have found that a compound with close chemical similarity to TQS (4BP-TQS) is a potent allosteric agonist of α7 nAChRs. Whereas the α7 nAChR antagonist metyllycaconitine acts competitively with conventional nicotinic agonists, metyllycaconitine is a noncompetitive antagonist of 4BP-TQS. Mutation of an amino acid (M253L), located in a transmembrane cavity that has been proposed as being the binding site for PAMs, completely blocks agonist activation by 4BP-TQS. In contrast, this mutation had no significant effect on agonist activation by acetylcholine. Conversely, mutation of an amino acid located within the known orthosteric binding site (W148F) has a profound effect on agonist potency of acetylcholine (resulting in a shift of ∼200-fold in the acetylcholine dose-response curve), but had little effect on the agonist dose-response curve for 4BP-TQS. Computer docking studies with an α7 homology model provides evidence that both TQS and 4BP-TQS bind within an intrasubunit transmembrane cavity. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that agonist activation of nAChRs can occur via an allosteric transmembrane site. PMID:21436053

  14. Prognostic significance of INF-induced transmembrane protein 1 in colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jingdong; Li, Jin; Feng, Wanting; Chen, Longbang; Yang, Kangqun

    2015-01-01

    Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) has recently been implicated in tumorigenesis. However, the prognostic value of IFITM1 in colorectal cancer remains unknown. The present study aimed to examine the expression and prognostic significance of IFITM1 in human colorectal cancer. IFITM1 expression was analyzed in 144 archived, paraffin-embedded colorectal cancer tissues and corresponding normal colorectal mucosa by immunohistochemistry. The correlation of IFITM1 with clinic-pathol...

  15. Comparative genomic sequence analysis of the human and mouse cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator genes

    OpenAIRE

    Ellsworth, Rachel E.; Jamison, D. Curtis; Touchman, Jeffrey W.; Chissoe, Stephanie L.; Braden Maduro, Valerie V.; Bouffard, Gerard G.; Dietrich, Nicole L.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M.; Iyer, Leslie M.; Weintraub, Lauren A.; Cotton, Marc; Courtney, Laura; Edwards, Jennifer; Maupin, Rachel; Ozersky, Philip

    2000-01-01

    The identification of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR) in 1989 represents a landmark accomplishment in human genetics. Since that time, there have been numerous advances in elucidating the function of the encoded protein and the physiological basis of cystic fibrosis. However, numerous areas of cystic fibrosis biology require additional investigation, some of which would be facilitated by information about the long-range sequence context of the CFTR gene. Fo...

  16. Simulations of Skin Barrier Function: Free Energies of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Transmembrane Pores in Ceramide Bilayers

    OpenAIRE

    Notman, Rebecca; Anwar, Jamshed; Briels, W. J.; Noro, Massimo G.; den Otter, Wouter K.

    2008-01-01

    Transmembrane pore formation is central to many biological processes such as ion transport, cell fusion, and viral infection. Furthermore, pore formation in the ceramide bilayers of the stratum corneum may be an important mechanism by which penetration enhancers such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) weaken the barrier function of the skin. We have used the potential of mean constraint force (PMCF) method to calculate the free energy of pore formation in ceramide bilayers in both the innate gel pha...

  17. Functional relevance of aromatic residues in the first transmembrane domain of P2X receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jindřichová, Marie; Vávra, Vojtěch; Obšil, Tomáš; Stojilkovic, S. S.; Zemková, Hana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 3 (2009), s. 923-934 ISSN 0022-3042 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA5011408; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110702; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110910 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : purinergic receptors * gating * transmembrane domain Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.999, year: 2009

  18. The PEST sequence does not contribute to the stability of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Eva Y; Clarke, David M

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background Endoplasmic reticulum retention of misfolded cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutants and their rapid degradation is the major cause of cystic fibrosis (CF). An important goal is to understand the mechanism of how the misfolded proteins are recognized, retained, and targeted for degradation. Results Using a web-based algorithm, PESTFind, we found a PEST sequence in the regulatory (R) domain of CFTR. The PEST sequence is found in many short-lived e...

  19. Electrochemical platform for the detection of transmembrane proteins reconstituted into liposomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vacek, J.; Zatloukalová, M.; Geletičová, J.; Kubala, M.; Modriansky, M.; Fekete, Ladislav; Mašek, J.; Hubatka, F.; Turánek, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 8 (2016), s. 4548-4556 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk LM2015088 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : detection * transmembrane proteins * liposomes * electrochemistry Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 6.320, year: 2016

  20. Combined effect of cortical cytoskeleton and transmembrane proteins on domain formation in biomembranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikder, Md. Kabir Uddin; Stone, Kyle A.; Kumar, P. B. Sunil; Laradji, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the combined effects of transmembrane proteins and the subjacent cytoskeleton on the dynamics of phase separation in multicomponent lipid bilayers using computer simulations of a particle-based implicit solvent model for lipid membranes with soft-core interactions. We find that microphase separation can be achieved by the protein confinement by the cytoskeleton. Our results have relevance to the finite size of lipid rafts in the plasma membrane of mammalian cells. PMID:25106608

  1. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein expression in the male excretory duct system during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcorelles, Pascale; Gillet, Danièle; Friocourt, Gaëlle; Ledé, Françoise; Samaison, Laura; Huguen, Geneviève; Ferec, Claude

    2012-03-01

    Sterility due to bilateral destruction in utero or in early infancy resulting in congenital absence of the vas deferens is the rule in male patients with cystic fibrosis. To understand the developmental pattern of this anomaly, the microscopic morphology of the male excretory system was analyzed during development and the expression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein was explored by immunohistochemistry. We observed that cystic fibrosis fetuses had no excretory ducts agenesis or obstruction until 22 weeks of gestation. However, a focal inflammatory pattern and mucinous plugs in the oldest cystic fibrosis case suggested a disruptive mechanism. Immunolabeling of cytoplasmic epithelial cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein was demonstrated in all cystic fibrosis and control cases with a similar pattern of expression of the protein between age-matched controls and cystic fibrosis cases. At midgestation, an apical intensification appeared in both cystic fibrosis and control cases and was stable during the remainder of fetal life. No gradient of intensity could be detected between the different segments of the excretory tract. These findings are different from those reported in adults. The absence of any morphologic anomaly until 22 weeks of gestation, the focal destruction of the epithelial structures during the second trimester, and the chronological pattern of expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator are of interest for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of directional selection for body size on fluctuating asymmetry ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Variation in the subtle differences between the right and left sides of bilateral characters or fluctuating asymmetry (FA) has been considered as an indicator of an organism's ability to cope with genetic and environmental stresses during development. However, due to inconsistency in the results of empirical studies, the ...

  3. Double spin asymmetry in exclusive rho(0) muoproduction at COMPASS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alekseev, M.; Alexakhin, V. Yu.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Arbuzov, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, J.; Baum, G.; Barth, J.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernet, C.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Brona, G.; Burtin, E.; Bussa, M.; Chapiro, A.; Chiosso, M.; Cicuttin, A.; Colantoni, M.; Costa, S.; Crespo, M.; d'Hose, N.; Dalla Torre, S.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; De Masi, R.; Dedek, N.; Denisov, O.; Dhara, L.; Diaz, V.; Dinkelbach, A.; Donskov, S.; Dorofeev, V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Eversheim, P.; Eyrich, W.; Fabro, M.; Faessler, M.; Falaleev, V.; Ferrero, A.; Ferrero, L.; Finger, M.; Finger jr., M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, J.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.; Gazda, R.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorin, A. M.; Grabmüller, S.; Grajek, O.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hannappel, J.; von Harrach, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Heckmann, J.; Hedicke, S.; Heinsius, F.; Hermann, R.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; von Hodenberg, M.; Horikawa, N.; Horikawa, S.; Ilgner, C.; Ioukaev, A.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Janata, A.; Jasinski, P.; Joosten, R.; Jouravlev, N. I.; Kabuss, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.; Khokhlov, Y.; Kisselev, Y.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.; Kolosov, V.; Komissarov, E.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.; Korentchenko, A.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.; Koutchinski, N.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kravchuk, N.; Kral, A.; Kroumchtein, Z.; Kuhn, R.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Ladygin, M.; Lamanna, M.; Le Goff, J.; Lednev, A.; Lehmann, A.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Ludwig, I.; Maggiora, A.; Maggiora, M.; Magnon, A.; Mallot, G.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Marroncle, J.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Massmann, F.; Matsuda, T.; Maximov, A.; Meyer, W.; Mielech, A.; Mikhailov, Y.; Moinester, M.; Mutter, M.; Nähle, O.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nassalski, J.; Neliba, S.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nikolaev, K.; Olshevsky, A.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Pagano, P.; Panebianco, S.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Paul, S.; Pawlukiewicz-Kaminska, B.; Peshekhonov, D.; Peshekhonov, V.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.; Pretz, J.; Procureur, S.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.; Rapatsky, V.; Ramos, S.; Reicherz, G.; Richter, A.; Robinet, F.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Rozhdestvensky, A.; Ryabchikov, D.; Samoylenko, V.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, H.; Sapozhnikov, M.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schmitt, L.; Schönmeier, P.; Schröder, W.; Shevchenko, O.; Siebert, H.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Sugonyaev, V.; Srnka, Aleš; Stinzing, F.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Takabayashi, N.; Tchalishev, V.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Tkatchev, L.; Venugopal, G.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.; Vossen, A.; Webb, R.; Weise, E.; Weitzel, Q.; Windmolders, R.; Wirth, S.; Wislicki, W.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhao, J.; Ziegler, R.; Zvyagin, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 2 (2007), s. 255-265 ISSN 1434-6044 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 492 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : double spin asymmetry * polarized deuterons * scattering * COMPASS Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.255, year: 2007

  4. Asymmetry of wind waves studied in a laboratory tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Leykin

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetry of wind waves was studied in laboratory tank tinder varied wind and fetch conditions using both bispectral analysis of wave records and third-order statistics of the surface elevation. It is found skewness S (the normalized third-order moment of surface elevation describing the horizontal asymmetry waves varies only slightly with the inverse wave u*/Cm (where u* is the air friction velocity and Cm is phase speed of the dominant waves. At the same time asymmetry A, which is determined from the Hilbert transform of the wave record and characterizes the skewness of the rate of change of surface elevation, increase consistently in magnitude with the ratio u*/Cm. This suggests that nonlinear distortion of the wave profile determined by the degree of wind forcing and is a sensitive indicator of wind-wave interaction processes. It is shown that the asymmetric profile of waves can described within the frameworks of the nonlinear nonspectral concept (Plate, 1972; Lake and Yuen, 197 according to which the wind-wave field can be represented as a coherent bound-wave system consisting mainly of dominant component w. and its harmonics propagating with the same speed C. , as observed by Ramamonjiaris and Coantic (1976. The phase shift between o. harmonics is found and shown to increase with the asymmetry of the waves.

  5. Sex-specific asymmetry in eye development in interspecific hybrids ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 94; Issue 3. Sex-specific asymmetry in eye development in interspecific hybrids in the Drosophila bipectinata species complex. Bashisth N. Singh Parul Banerjee. Research Note Volume 94 Issue 3 September 2015 pp 493-495 ...

  6. Effect of track asymmetry and curvature on shingle writing scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Li, Shaoping; Bai, Daniel; Mendez, Hector; Pan, Tao; Han, Dehua; Mao, Sining

    2011-04-01

    Written transition curvature in perpendicular magnetic recording is generally understood to result in increased transition jitter noise and degraded signal to noise ratio or byte error rate (BER) performance. For the shingle writing scheme, asymmetry or curvature in written tracks is considered inherent due to the erasure and track edge writing characteristics. It is proposed that such a track asymmetry is more prominent at high track density/smaller track pitch recording conditions. In this report we present spin stand experimental results to study the effect of the possible track asymmetry or curvature by shingle writing and reading back in different skews. By comparing shingle writing BER bathtub profiles in different writing skew conditions 0°, +/-2°, +/-4°, +/-6°, the effect of varying shingle track asymmetry and curvature is analyzed via subsequent skewed reading process. The shingle writing BER bathtub profiles as well as the read back amplitude cross track profile are generally symmetric upon one sided erasure at different track pitches. We found that the 0° skew writing and reading process provides both the maximum BER and amplitude.

  7. Critical asymmetry in renormalization group theory for fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Wu, Liang; Wang, Long; Li, Liyan; Cai, Jun

    2013-06-01

    The renormalization-group (RG) approaches for fluids are employed to investigate critical asymmetry of vapour-liquid equilibrium (VLE) of fluids. Three different approaches based on RG theory for fluids are reviewed and compared. RG approaches are applied to various fluid systems: hard-core square-well fluids of variable ranges, hard-core Yukawa fluids, and square-well dimer fluids and modelling VLE of n-alkane molecules. Phase diagrams of simple model fluids and alkanes described by RG approaches are analyzed to assess the capability of describing the VLE critical asymmetry which is suggested in complete scaling theory. Results of thermodynamic properties obtained by RG theory for fluids agree with the simulation and experimental data. Coexistence diameters, which are smaller than the critical densities, are found in the RG descriptions of critical asymmetries of several fluids. Our calculation and analysis show that the approach coupling local free energy with White's RG iteration which aims to incorporate density fluctuations into free energy is not adequate for VLE critical asymmetry due to the inadequate order parameter and the local free energy functional used in the partition function.

  8. Age-Related Differences in Bilateral Asymmetry in Cycling Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Jensen, Jody L.

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral asymmetry, a form of limb laterality in the context of moving two limbs, emerges in childhood. Children and adults show lateral preference in tasks that involve the upper and lower limbs. The importance of research in limb laterality is the insight it could provide about lateralized functions of the cerebral hemispheres. Analyzing…

  9. Prevention of Potential Falls of Elderly Healthy Women: Gait Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jung-suk; Kim, Sukwon

    2014-01-01

    The study attempted to see if exercise training would alleviate gait asymmetry between nondominant and dominant legs, thus, eliminate the likelihood of slips. The present study provided 18 older adults exercise training for eight weeks and evaluated kinematics and ground reaction forces (GRFs) in both legs. Participants were randomly assigned to…

  10. Measurement of CP asymmetry in D-0 -> K- K+ decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Dufour, L.; Mulder, M; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Tolk, S.; van Veghel, M.

    2017-01-01

    A measurement of the time-integrated CP asymmetry in the Cabibbo-suppressed decay D-0 -> K- K+ is performed using pp collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb(-1), collected with the LHCb detector at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. The flavour of the charm meson at

  11. Asymmetry in the Perception of Friendship in Students Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancieri, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Several studies point out the link between sociability and academic results. In this paper, we highlight a phenomenon of asymmetry in the perception of friendship. This occurs when a student think he has more or less friends than he really has. We present an experimental method that allows us to analyze this question in relation with the academic…

  12. Reduction of asymmetry by rank-one matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Berge, J.M.F.

    1997-01-01

    Gower has shown how to partition the sum of squares of an asymmetric matrix into independent parts associated with the symmetric and the skew-symmetric parts of the matrix; and has pointed out that asymmetry can be removed by subtracting certain unit-rank matrices, which improve the symmetry in

  13. Evidence for an anomalous like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, Braden Keim; /Oklahoma U.; Abolins, Maris A.; /Michigan State U.; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; /Tata Inst.; Adams, Mark Raymond; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, Todd; /Florida State U.; Aguilo, Ernest; /York U., Canada; Alexeev, Guennadi D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, Andrew K.; /Michigan U. /Augustana Coll., Sioux Falls; Alverson, George O.; /Northeastern U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF

    2010-05-01

    We measure the charge asymmetry A of like-sign dimuon events in 6.1 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions recorded with the DO detector at a center of mass energy sqrt s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider.

  14. Asymmetries in import-retail cost pass-through

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah-Yeboah, Isaac; Bronnmann, Julia

    2017-01-01

    monthly average prices, the Johansen and consistent threshold cointegration models are estimated. The results indicate the presence of price transmission relationship and equilibrium adjustment asymmetries, such that agents only react to shocks when the deviation from equilibrium is above or below...

  15. Toroidal asymmetries in divertor impurity influxes in NSTX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Scotti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Toroidal asymmetries in divertor carbon and lithium influxes were observed in NSTX, due to toroidal differences in surface composition, tile leading edges, externally-applied three-dimensional (3D fields and toroidally-localized edge plasma modifications due to radio frequency heating. Understanding toroidal asymmetries in impurity influxes is critical for the evaluation of total impurity sources, often inferred from measurements with a limited toroidal coverage. The toroidally-asymmetric lithium deposition induced asymmetries in divertor lithium influxes. Enhanced impurity influxes at the leading edge of divertor tiles were the main cause of carbon toroidal asymmetries and were enhanced during edge localized modes. Externally-applied 3D fields led to strike point splitting and helical lobes observed in divertor impurity emission, but marginal changes to the toroidally-averaged impurity influxes. Power coupled to the scrape-off layer SOL plasma during radio frequency (RF heating of H-mode discharges enhanced impurity influxes along the non-axisymmetric divertor footprint of flux tubes connecting to plasma in front of the RF antenna.

  16. Comparing Neutron Star Kicks to Supernova Remnant Asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland-Ashford, Tyler; Lopez, Laura A. [The Ohio State University Department of Astronomy, 140 W 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43201 (United States); Auchettl, Katie [The Ohio State University Center for Cosmology and Astro-particle Physics, 191 West Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Temim, Tea [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico, E-mail: holland-ashford.1@osu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2017-07-20

    Supernova explosions are inherently asymmetric and can accelerate new-born neutron stars (NSs) to hundreds of km s{sup −1}. Two prevailing theories to explain NS kicks are ejecta asymmetries (e.g., conservation of momentum between NS and ejecta) and anisotropic neutrino emission. Observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) can give us insights into the mechanism that generates these NS kicks. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between NS kick velocities and the X-ray morphologies of 18 SNRs observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Röntgen Satellite ( ROSAT ). We measure SNR asymmetries using the power-ratio method (a multipole expansion technique), focusing on the dipole, quadrupole, and octupole power ratios. Our results show no correlation between the magnitude of the power ratios and NS kick velocities, but we find that for Cas A and G292.0+1.8, whose emission traces the ejecta distribution, their NSs are preferentially moving opposite to the bulk of the X-ray emission. In addition, we find a similar result for PKS 1209–51, CTB 109, and Puppis A; however, their emission is dominated by circumstellar/interstellar material, so their asymmetries may not reflect their ejecta distributions. Our results are consistent with the theory that NS kicks are a consequence of ejecta asymmetries as opposed to anisotropic neutrino emission. In the future, additional observations to measure NS proper motions within ejecta-dominated SNRs are necessary to robustly constrain the NS kick mechanism.

  17. Nonlinear growth dynamics and the origin of fluctuating asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emlen, J.M.; Freeman, D.C.; Graham, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    The nonlinear, complex nature of biosynthesis magnifies the impacts of small, random perturbations on organism growth, leading to distortions in adaptive allometries and, in particular, to fluctuating asymmetry. These distortions can be partly checked by cell-cell and inter-body part feedback during growth and development, though the latter mechanism also may lead to complex patterns in right-left asymmetry. Stress can be expected to increase the degree to which random growth perturbations are magnified and may also result in disruption of the check mechanisms, thus exaggerating fluctuating asymmetry.The processes described not only provide one explanation for the existence of fluctuating asymmetry and its augmentation under stress, but suggest additional effects of stress as well. Specifically, stress is predicted to lead to decreased fractal dimension of bone sutures and branching structures in animals, and in increased dimension of growth trace patterns such as those found in mollusc shells and fish otoliths and scales.A basic yet broad primer on fractals and chaos is provided as background for the theoretical development in this manuscript.

  18. Hints of Greater Matter - Antimatter Asymmetry Challenge Theorists

    CERN Multimedia

    Cho, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    "The universe is chock-full of matter and devoid of antimatter, and physicists can't say why. They think that matter piled up after the big bang thanks to a slight asymmetry, called charge-parity (CP) violation, in the way matter and antimatter behave, but the effects seen so far are too small to do the job" (1 page)

  19. Baryon - antibaryon asymmetry in central rapidity region at LHC ALICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broz, M.

    2008-01-01

    Study of asymmetry in number of baryons and antibaryons in central rapidity region is important for clarification of baryon number carriers character. Effect we are interested in is small, can be hidden by systematical processes of particle track reconstruction and identification. To make corrections on these effects is the aim of this thesis. (author)

  20. Neutrino-antineutrino asymmetry around rotating black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    important effects and hence can be constrained by Big Bang nucleosynthesis and power spectrum of cosmic microwave background, it becomes an important issue by itself to study new mechanisms which can generate neutrino asymmetry specially in the present epoch. When Dirac neutrinos propagate in gravitational ...

  1. Asymmetry of wind waves studied in a laboratory tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ileykin, L. A.; Donelan, M. A.; Mellen, R. H.; McLaughlin, D. J.

    1995-03-01

    Asymmetry of wind waves was studied in laboratory tank tinder varied wind and fetch conditions using both bispectral analysis of wave records and third-order statistics of the surface elevation. It is found skewness S (the normalized third-order moment of surface elevation describing the horizontal asymmetry waves) varies only slightly with the inverse wave u*/Cm (where u* is the air friction velocity and Cm is phase speed of the dominant waves). At the same time asymmetry A, which is determined from the Hilbert transform of the wave record and characterizes the skewness of the rate of change of surface elevation, increase consistently in magnitude with the ratio u*/Cm. This suggests that nonlinear distortion of the wave profile determined by the degree of wind forcing and is a sensitive indicator of wind-wave interaction processes. It is shown that the asymmetric profile of waves can described within the frameworks of the nonlinear nonspectral concept (Plate, 1972; Lake and Yuen, 197 according to which the wind-wave field can be represented as a coherent bound-wave system consisting mainly of dominant component w. and its harmonics propagating with the same speed C. , as observed by Ramamonjiaris and Coantic (1976). The phase shift between o). harmonics is found and shown to increase with the asymmetry of the waves.

  2. The Matter-Antimatter Asymmetry of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    I will give here an overview of the present observational and theoretical situation regarding the question of the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe and the related question of the existence of antimatter on a cosmological scale. I will also give a simple discussion of the role of CP (charge conjugation parity) violation in this subject.

  3. Preschoolers' Mental Rotation: Sex Differences in Hemispheric Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Nicola; Jansen, Petra; Heil, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Mental rotation performance has been found to produce one of the largest sex differences in cognition accompanied by sex differences in functional cerebral asymmetry. Although sex differences in mental rotation performance can be reliably demonstrated as early as age 5 years old, that is, long before puberty, no data exist as to whether…

  4. Suppression of maximal linear gluon polarization in angular asymmetries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Daniel; Mulders, Piet J.; Zhou, Jian; Zhou, Ya-jin

    2017-01-01

    We perform a phenomenological analysis of the cos 2 phi azimuthal asymmetry in virtual photon plus jet production induced by the linear polarization of gluons in unpolarized pA collisions. Although the linearly polarized gluon distribution becomes maximal at small x, TMD evolution leads to a Sudakov

  5. On the conception of fundamental time asymmetries in physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlfarth, Daniel

    2013-02-05

    The investigation is divided in 7 chapters and aims to argue for the realizability of a new conception of 'fundamental time asymmetries' in physics. After an introduction (chapter 1) in the field of interest, the investigation continues by developing a conception of fundamentality for time asymmetries in chapter 2. Chapter 3 shows that this conception is realized in classical cosmology and chapter 4 demonstrates, by taking in to account the result from chapter 3, that classical electrodynamics is understandable as a time asymmetric theory. Chapter 5 focuses on time asymmetries in quantum cosmology as well as quantum thermodynamics and demonstrates - as in the classical case - that a fundamental time asymmetry is imbedded in those fields. The considerations, contained in chapter 6, are focused on non relativistic quantum mechanics (NRQM). Here the main aim is to demonstrate that NRQM can be understood as a time asymmetric theory - even without using the measurement-process for that purpose. Chapter 7 summarized the main arguments and conclusions.

  6. On the conception of fundamental time asymmetries in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlfarth, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The investigation is divided in 7 chapters and aims to argue for the realizability of a new conception of 'fundamental time asymmetries' in physics. After an introduction (chapter 1) in the field of interest, the investigation continues by developing a conception of fundamentality for time asymmetries in chapter 2. Chapter 3 shows that this conception is realized in classical cosmology and chapter 4 demonstrates, by taking in to account the result from chapter 3, that classical electrodynamics is understandable as a time asymmetric theory. Chapter 5 focuses on time asymmetries in quantum cosmology as well as quantum thermodynamics and demonstrates - as in the classical case - that a fundamental time asymmetry is imbedded in those fields. The considerations, contained in chapter 6, are focused on non relativistic quantum mechanics (NRQM). Here the main aim is to demonstrate that NRQM can be understood as a time asymmetric theory - even without using the measurement-process for that purpose. Chapter 7 summarized the main arguments and conclusions.

  7. Asymmetry in Nature-Discrete Symmetries in Particle Physics and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 3. Asymmetry in Nature - Discrete Symmetries in Particle Physics and their Violation - Background and ... Theoretical Studies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India. Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai. Aligarh Muslim University.

  8. Effect of directional selection for body size on fluctuating asymmetry ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhsudhan

    Over the past three decades, fluctuating asymmetry (FA, small random deviations from perfect bilateral symmetry,. Van Valen [1962]) has received special attention in ecological and evolutionary studies. This is due to the resurgence of interest in FA as an indicator of genetic or environmental stress (Parsons 1990, 1992), ...

  9. Spatial tidal asymmetry of Cochin estuary, West Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinita, J.; Shivaprasad, A.; Manoj, N.T.; Revichandran, C.; Naveenkumar, K.R.; Jineesh, V.K.

    inside the estuary were found to either augment or transform the asymmetry imposed by the principal tides The study showed that friction causes flood dominance at the northern inlet (Munambam) and in the shallow regions of the upstream during dry season...

  10. A new genus of long-legged flies displaying remarkable wing directional asymmetry.

    OpenAIRE

    Runyon, Justin B; Hurley, Richard L

    2004-01-01

    A previously unknown group of flies is described whose males exhibit directional asymmetry, in that the left wing is larger than, and of a different shape from, the right wing. To our knowledge, wing asymmetry of this degree has not previously been reported in an animal capable of flight. Such consistent asymmetry must result from a left-right axis during development, a level of differentiation whose existence has been questioned for insects. Wing asymmetry of this magnitude has implications ...

  11. An optimal method of moments to measure the charge asymmetry at the Z0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruemmer, N.C.

    1994-02-01

    Parity violation at LEP or SLC can be measured through the charge asymmetry. An optimal method of moments is developed here to measure this asymmetry, as well as similar asymmetries. This method is equivalent to the likelihood fit. It is simpler in use, as it gives analytical formulas for both the asymmetry and its statistical error. These formulas give the dependence of the accuracy on the experimental angular acceptance explicitly. (orig.)

  12. Collins and Sivers asymmetries for pions and kaons in muon-deuteron DIS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alekseev, M.; Alexakhin, V. Yu.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Arbuzov, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, J.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernet, C.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Brona, G.; Burtin, E.; Bussa, M.; Chapiro, A.; Chiosso, M.; Cicuttin, A.; Colantoni, M.; Costa, S.; Crespo, M.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dafni, T.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; De Masi, R.; Dedek, N.; Denisov, O.; Dhara, L.; Diaz, V.; Dinkelbach, A.; Donskov, S.; Dorofeev, V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Efremov, A.V.; Eversheim, P.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Falaleev, V.; Ferrero, A.; Ferrero, L.; Finger, M.; Finger jr., M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, J.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.; Gazda, R.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorin, A.; Grabmüller, S.; Grajek, O.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hannappel, J.; von Harrach, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Heckmann, J.; Hedicke, S.; Heinsius, F.; Hermann, R.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; von Hodenberg, M.; Horikawa, N.; Horikawa, S.; d'Hose, N.; Ilgner, C.; Ioukaev, A.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Janata, A.; Jasinski, P.; Joosten, R.; Jouravlev, N. I.; Kabuss, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.; Khokhlov, Y.; Kisselev, Y.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.; Kolosov, V.; Komissarov, E.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.; Korentchenko, A.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.; Koutchinski, N.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kral, A.; Kravchuk, N.; Kroumchtein, Z.; Kuhn, R.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Ladygin, M.; Lamanna, M.; Le Goff, J.; Lednev, A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Ludwig, I.; Maggiora, A.; Maggiora, M.; Magnon, A.; Mallot, G.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Marroncle, J.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Massmann, F.; Matsuda, T.; Maximov, A.; Meyer, W.; Mielech, A.; Mikhailov, Y.; Moinester, M.; Mutter, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nähle, O.; Nassalski, J.; Neliba, S.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nikolaev, K.; Olshevsky, A.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Pagano, P.; Panebianco, S.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Paul, S.; Pawlukiewicz-Kaminska, B.; Pesaro, G.; Peshekhonov, D.; Peshekhonov, V.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.; Pretz, J.; Procureur, S.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Reggiani, D.; Richter, A.; Robinet, F.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Rozhdestvensky, A.; Ryabchikov, D.; Samoylenko, V.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, H.; Sapozhnikov, M.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schmitt, L.; Schönmeier, P.; Schröder, W.; Shevchenko, O.; Siebert, H.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, Aleš; Stinzing, F.; Stolarski, M.; Sugonyaev, V.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Tchalishev, V.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Tkatchev, L.; Venugopal, G.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.; Vossen, A.; Webb, R.; Weise, E.; Weitzel, Q.; Windmolders, R.; Wirth, S.; Wislicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhao, J.; Ziegler, R.; Zvyagin, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 673, č. 2 (2009), s. 127-135 ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 492 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : deuteron * transverse single-spin asymmetry * identified hadrons * Collins asymmetry * Sivers asymmetry Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 5.083, year: 2009

  13. Communication Apprehension and Resting Alpha Range Asymmetry in the Anterior Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Michael J.; Heisel, Alan D.; Lewis, Robert J.; Pence, Michelle E.; Reinhart, Amber; Tian, Yan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between trait-like communication apprehension (CA) and resting alpha range asymmetry in the anterior cortex (AC). Although theory and research in cognitive neuroscience suggest that asymmetry in the AC constitutes a relatively stable, inborn, substrate of emotion, some studies indicate that asymmetry can…

  14. A Statistical Model of Head Asymmetry in Infants with Deformational Plagiocephaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanche, Stéphanie; Darvann, Tron Andre; Ólafsdóttir, Hildur

    2007-01-01

    Deformational plagiocephaly is a term describing cranial asymmetry and deformation commonly seen in infants. The purpose of this work was to develop a methodology for assessment and modelling of head asymmetry. The clinical population consisted of 38 infants for whom 3-dimensional surface scans...... quantitative description of the asymmetry present in the dataset....

  15. Observation of strong azimuthal asymmetry between slow and fast particles from high energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, H.A.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Kolb, B.; Loehner, H.; Ludewigt, B.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Renner, T.; Riedesel, H.; Ritter, H.G.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Stepaniak, J.; Warwick, A.; Wieman, H.

    1984-10-01

    Evidence is presented for the strong azimuthal asymmetry between slow and fast fragments in nuclear collisions in the energy interval of 0.4 to 1 GeV per nucleon. The asymmetry gets stronger when incident energy and impact parameter decrease. The results on the A dependence of the azimuthal asymmetry are also presented. (orig.)

  16. CP violation, single lepton polarization asymmetry, and polarized CP asymmetry in B→K*l+l- decay in the four-generation standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashiry, V.; Shirkhanghah, N.; Zeynali, K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a study of CP asymmetry, single lepton polarization asymmetry and polarized CP asymmetry in B→K*l + l - decay within the four-generation standard model. Taking |V t ' s *V t ' b |=0.01, 0.02, 0.03 with phase {60 deg. -120 deg.}, which is consistent with the b→sl + l - rate and the Bs mixing parameter Δm Bs , we find that CP asymmetry, single lepton polarization asymmetry and polarized CP asymmetry are sensitive to the existence of the fourth generation. This can serve as an indirect method to search for new physics effects, in particular, to search for the fourth-generation quarks(t ' ,b ' ) via their indirect manifestations in loop diagrams.

  17. Resolving the biophysics of axon transmembrane polarization in a single closed-form description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melendy, Robert F., E-mail: rfmelendy@liberty.edu [School of Engineering and Computational Sciences, Liberty University, Lynchburg, Virginia 24515 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    When a depolarizing event occurs across a cell membrane there is a remarkable change in its electrical properties. A complete depolarization event produces a considerably rapid increase in voltage that propagates longitudinally along the axon and is accompanied by changes in axial conductance. A dynamically changing magnetic field is associated with the passage of the action potential down the axon. Over 75 years of research has gone into the quantification of this phenomenon. To date, no unified model exist that resolves transmembrane polarization in a closed-form description. Here, a simple but formative description of propagated signaling phenomena in the membrane of an axon is presented in closed-form. The focus is on using both biophysics and mathematical methods for elucidating the fundamental mechanisms governing transmembrane polarization. The results presented demonstrate how to resolve electromagnetic and thermodynamic factors that govern transmembrane potential. Computational results are supported by well-established quantitative descriptions of propagated signaling phenomena in the membrane of an axon. The findings demonstrate how intracellular conductance, the thermodynamics of magnetization, and current modulation function together in generating an action potential in a unified closed-form description. The work presented in this paper provides compelling evidence that three basic factors contribute to the propagated signaling in the membrane of an axon. It is anticipated this work will compel those in biophysics, physical biology, and in the computational neurosciences to probe deeper into the classical and quantum features of membrane magnetization and signaling. It is hoped that subsequent investigations of this sort will be advanced by the computational features of this model without having to resort to numerical methods of analysis.

  18. The activation energy for insertion of transmembrane alpha-helices is dependent on membrane composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijberg, Wim; Booth, Paula J

    2002-06-07

    The physical mechanisms that govern the folding and assembly of integral membrane proteins are poorly understood. It appears that certain properties of the lipid bilayer affect membrane protein folding in vitro, either by modulating helix insertion or packing. In order to begin to understand the origin of this effect, we investigate the effect of lipid forces on the insertion of a transmembrane alpha-helix using a water-soluble, alanine-based peptide, KKAAAIAAAAAIAAWAAIAAAKKKK-amide. This peptide binds to preformed 1,2-dioleoyl-l-alpha-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) vesicles at neutral pH, but spontaneous transmembrane helix insertion directly from the aqueous phase only occurs at high pH when the Lys residues are de-protonated. These results suggest that the translocation of charge is a major determinant of the activation energy for insertion. Time-resolved measurements of the insertion process at high pH indicate biphasic kinetics with time constants of ca 30 and 430 seconds. The slower phase seems to correlate with formation of a predominantly transmembrane alpha-helical conformation, as determined from the transfer of the tryptophan residue to the hydrocarbon region of the membrane. Temperature-dependent measurements showed that insertion can proceed only above a certain threshold temperature and that the Arrhenius activation energy is of the order of 90 kJ mol(-1). The kinetics, threshold temperature and the activation energy change with the mole fraction of 1,2-dioleoyl-l-alpha-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) introduced into the DOPC membrane. The activation energy increases with increasing DOPE content, which could reflect the fact that this lipid drives the bilayer towards a non-bilayer transition and increases the lateral pressure in the lipid chain region. This suggests that folding events involving the insertion of helical segments across the bilayer can be controlled by lipid forces. (c) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  19. Obif, a Transmembrane Protein, Is Required for Bone Mineralization and Spermatogenesis in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Mizuhashi

    Full Text Available Various kinds of transmembrane and secreted proteins play pivotal roles in development through cell-cell communication. We previously reported that Obif (Osteoblast induction factor, Tmem119, encoding a single transmembrane protein, is expressed in differentiating osteoblasts, and that Obif-/- mice exhibit significantly reduced bone volume in the femur. In the current study, we characterized the Obif protein and further investigated the biological phenotypes of a variety of tissues in Obif-/- mice.First, we found that O-glycosylation of the Obif protein occurs at serine residue 36 in the Obif extracellular domain. Next, we observed that Obif-/- mice exhibit bone dysplasia in association with significantly increased osteoid volume per osteoid surface (OV/OS and osteoid maturation time (Omt, and significantly decreased mineral apposition rate (MAR and bone formation rate per bone surface (BFR/BS. In addition, we observed that Obif-/- mice show a significant decrease in testis weight as well as in sperm number. By histological analysis, we found that Obif is expressed in spermatocytes and spermatids in the developing testis and that spermatogenesis is halted at the round spermatid stage in the Obif-/- testis that lacks sperm. However, the number of litters fathered by male mice was slightly reduced in Obif-/- mice compared with wild-type mice, although this was not statistically significant.Our results, taken together with previous observations, indicate that Obif is a type Ia transmembrane protein whose N-terminal region is O-glycosylated. In addition, we found that Obif is required for normal bone mineralization and late testicular differentiation in vivo. These findings suggest that Obif plays essential roles in the development of multiple tissues.

  20. Probing the interaction mechanisms between transmembrane peptides and the chaperonin GroEL with fluorescence anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Han; Lu, Xinwei; Chi, Haixia; Li, Shixin; Huang, Fang

    2018-04-01

    Proper translocation, membrane insertion and folding are crucial biophysical steps in the biogenesis of functional transmembrane peptides/proteins (TMPs). ATP-dependent chaperonins are able to regulate each of these processes, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this work, interaction between the bacterial chaperonin GroEL and a synthetic fluorescent transmembrane peptide was investigated by fluorescence anisotropy. Binding of the peptide with GroEL resulted in increased fluorescence anisotropy and intensity. The dissociation constant and binding stoichiometry, as assessed by titration of the peptide with GroEL, were estimated to be 0.6 ± 0.2 μM and 2.96 ± 0.35, respectively. Complementary study with the single-ring version of GroEL confirmed the high-affinity peptide binding, and indicates that the two GroEL rings may function alternatively in binding the peptides. The co-chaperonin GroES was found to be effective at releasing the peptides initially bound to GroEL with the help of ATP. Moreover, our observation with the single-ring GroEL mutant demonstrated that during the encapsulation of GroEL by GroES, the bound peptides may either be confined in the cage thus formed, or escape outside. Competitive binding experiments indicated that the peptides studied interact with GroEL through the paired helices H and I on its apical domain. Our spectroscopic studies revealed some basic mechanisms of interaction between transmembrane peptides and GroEL, which would be instrumental for deciphering the chaperonin-mediated TMP biogenesis.

  1. TMFoldWeb: a web server for predicting transmembrane protein fold class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Dániel; Tusnády, Gábor E

    2015-09-17

    Here we present TMFoldWeb, the web server implementation of TMFoldRec, a transmembrane protein fold recognition algorithm. TMFoldRec uses statistical potentials and utilizes topology filtering and a gapless threading algorithm. It ranks template structures and selects the most likely candidates and estimates the reliability of the obtained lowest energy model. The statistical potential was developed in a maximum likelihood framework on a representative set of the PDBTM database. According to the benchmark test the performance of TMFoldRec is about 77 % in correctly predicting fold class for a given transmembrane protein sequence. An intuitive web interface has been developed for the recently published TMFoldRec algorithm. The query sequence goes through a pipeline of topology prediction and a systematic sequence to structure alignment (threading). Resulting templates are ordered by energy and reliability values and are colored according to their significance level. Besides the graphical interface, a programmatic access is available as well, via a direct interface for developers or for submitting genome-wide data sets. The TMFoldWeb web server is unique and currently the only web server that is able to predict the fold class of transmembrane proteins while assigning reliability scores for the prediction. This method is prepared for genome-wide analysis with its easy-to-use interface, informative result page and programmatic access. Considering the info-communication evolution in the last few years, the developed web server, as well as the molecule viewer, is responsive and fully compatible with the prevalent tablets and mobile devices.

  2. Morphological asymmetry and habitat quality: using fleas and their rodent hosts as a novel experimental system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Elizabeth M; Khokhlova, Irina S; Kiefer, Daniel; Krasnov, Boris R

    2017-04-01

    Morphological asymmetry is widely used to measure developmental instability and higher levels of asymmetry often correlate with decreased mating success, increased inbreeding, increased stress and decreased habitat quality. We studied asymmetry and relationships between asymmetry and host identity in two flea species, host generalist Xenopsylla ramesis and host specialist Parapulex chephrenis , and asked: (1) what the level of asymmetry was in their femurs and tibiae; (2) which type of asymmetry predominates; and (3) whether fleas that fed on host species distantly related to their principal host species produced offspring that exhibited greater asymmetry compared with offspring of fleas that fed on their principal host species. We found fluctuating asymmetry in femurs and tibiae of X. ramesis and in the tibiae of P. chephrenis as well as significantly left-handed directional asymmetry in the femurs of P. chephrenis Host species identity significantly impacted asymmetry in leg segments of P. chephrenis but not in those of X. ramesis Offspring asymmetry increased when mother fleas fed on a host that was distantly related to the principal host. Fleas parasitizing multiple host species might compensate for developmental instability when utilizing a novel host species; therefore, host-switching events in host-specific parasites could be constrained by the relatedness between a novel and a principal host species. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Aging effects on cerebral asymmetry: a voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Hidemasa; Abe, Osamu; Yamasue, Hidenori; Aoki, Shigeki; Kasai, Kiyoto; Sasaki, Hiroki; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2010-01-01

    The hemispheres of the human brain are functionally and structurally asymmetric. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of aging on gray and white matter asymmetry. Two hundred twenty-six right-handed normal volunteers aged 21-71 years were included in this study. The effects of aging on gray matter volume asymmetry and white matter fractional anisotropy asymmetry were evaluated with use of voxel-based morphometry and voxel-based analysis of fractional anisotropy maps derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), respectively. The voxel-based morphometry showed no significant correlation between age and gray matter volume asymmetry. The voxel-based analysis of DTI also showed no significant correlation between age and white matter fractional anisotropy asymmetry. Our results showed no significant effects of aging on either gray matter volume asymmetry or white matter fractional anisotropy asymmetry.

  4. Artificial Diels–Alderase based on the transmembrane protein FhuA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Osseili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Copper(I and copper(II complexes were covalently linked to an engineered variant of the transmembrane protein Ferric hydroxamate uptake protein component A (FhuA ΔCVFtev. Copper(I was incorporated using an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC ligand equipped with a maleimide group on the side arm at the imidazole nitrogen. Copper(II was attached by coordination to a terpyridyl ligand. The spacer length was varied in the back of the ligand framework. These biohybrid catalysts were shown to be active in the Diels–Alder reaction of a chalcone derivative with cyclopentadiene to preferentially give the endo product.

  5. Trafficking and function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator: a complex network of posttranslational modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Michelle L.; Barnes, Stephen; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications add diversity to protein function. Throughout its life cycle, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) undergoes numerous covalent posttranslational modifications (PTMs), including glycosylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation, phosphorylation, and palmitoylation. These modifications regulate key steps during protein biogenesis, such as protein folding, trafficking, stability, function, and association with protein partners and therefore may serve as targets for therapeutic manipulation. More generally, an improved understanding of molecular mechanisms that underlie CFTR PTMs may suggest novel treatment strategies for CF and perhaps other protein conformational diseases. This review provides a comprehensive summary of co- and posttranslational CFTR modifications and their significance with regard to protein biogenesis. PMID:27474090

  6. Structure, function and physiological consequences of virally encoded chemokine seven transmembrane receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M M; Smit, M J; Waldhoer, M

    2008-01-01

    A number of human and animal herpes viruses encode G-protein coupled receptors with seven transmembrane (7TM) segments-most of which are clearly related to human chemokine receptors. It appears, that these receptors are used by the virus for immune evasion, cellular transformation, tissue targeting...... pathogenesis is still poorly understood. Here we focus on the current knowledge of structure, function and trafficking patterns of virally encoded chemokine receptors and further address the putative roles of these receptors in virus survival and host -cell and/or -immune system modulation. Finally, we...

  7. Transmembrane adaptor proteins in the high-affinity IgE receptor signaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dráber, Petr; Hálová, Ivana; Levi-Schaffer, F.; Dráberová, Lubica

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, 11.1. (2012), s. 95 ISSN 1664-3224 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0506; GA ČR GA301/09/1826; GA ČR GAP302/10/1759; GA AV ČR KAN200520701 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200520901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : IgE receptor * LAT/LAT1 * LAX * NTAL/Lab/LAT2 * PAG/Cbp * mast cells * plasma membrane * transmembrane adaptor proteins Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  8. Exploiting hydrophobicity for efficient production of transmembrane helices for structure determination by NMR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Katrine Østergaard; Steinocher, Helena; Brooks, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    -labeled protein. In this work, we have exploited the hydrophobic nature of membrane proteins to develop a simple and efficient production scheme for isotope-labeled single-pass transmembrane domains (TMDs) with or without intrinsically disordered regions. We have evaluated the applicability and limitations...... of the strategy using seven membrane protein variants that differ in their overall hydrophobicity and length and show a recovery for suitable variants of >70%. The developed production scheme is cost-efficient and easy to implement and has the potential to facilitate an increase in the number of structures...

  9. A portable lipid bilayer system for environmental sensing with a transmembrane protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuji Kawano

    Full Text Available This paper describes a portable measurement system for current signals of an ion channel that is composed of a planar lipid bilayer. A stable and reproducible lipid bilayer is formed in outdoor environments by using a droplet contact method with a micropipette. Using this system, we demonstrated that the single-channel recording of a transmembrane protein (alpha-hemolysin was achieved in the field at a high-altitude (∼3623 m. This system would be broadly applicable for obtaining environmental measurements using membrane proteins as a highly sensitive sensor.

  10. Perceptual asymmetry for chimeric faces across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, S C; Levy, J

    1986-07-01

    Perceptual asymmetries for processing chimeric faces were investigated in dextral subjects, ranging in age from 5 years to elderly adults. The task involved deciding which member of a pair of face chimeras presented in free vision looks happier, the one with the smile to the left or its mirror image with the smile to the right (Levy, Heller, Banich, & Burton, 1983a, Brain and Cognition, 2, 404-419). A leftward bias was found for all age groups. However, kindergarteners' mean asymmetry score was lower than that of all other groups combined, most likely due to noise in their data. The direction in which subjects drew circles with their left and right hands was also observed as an index of interhemispheric communication. All groups showed a bias toward drawing the circles in concordant directions except the kindergarteners. The relation between subjects' performance on the circle drawing and facebook tasks is discussed.

  11. Cold fission description with constant and varying mass asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, S.B.; Rodriguez, O.; Tavares, O.A.P.; Goncalves, M.; Garcia, F.; Guzman, F.

    1998-01-01

    Different description for varying the mass asymmetry in the fragmentation process are used to calculate the cold fission barrier penetrability. The relevance of the appropriate choice for both the description of the pre-scission phase and inertia coefficient to unify alpha decay, cluster radioactivity, and spontaneous cold fission processes in the same theoretical framework is explicitly shown. We calculate the half-life of all possible partition modes of nuclei of A > 200 following the most recent Mass Table by Audi and Wapstra. It is shown that if one uses the description in which the mass asymmetry is maintained constant during the fragmentation process, the experimental half-life-values and mass yield of 234 U cold fission are satisfactorily reproduced. (author)

  12. Two-dimensional chiral asymmetry in unidirectional magnetic anisotropy structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perna, P., E-mail: paolo.perna@imdea.org; Guerrero, R.; Niño, M. A. [IMDEA-Nanoscience, c/ Faraday, 9 Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ajejas, F.; Maccariello, D.; Cuñado, J. L. [IMDEA-Nanoscience, c/ Faraday, 9 Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); DFMC and Instituto “Nicolás Cabrera”, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Muñoz, M. [IMM-CSIC, Isaac Newton 8, PTM, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); ISOM, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Prieto, J. L. [ISOM, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Miranda, R.; Camarero, J. [IMDEA-Nanoscience, c/ Faraday, 9 Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); DFMC and Instituto “Nicolás Cabrera”, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    We investigate the symmetry-breaking effects of magnetic nanostructures that present unidirectional (one-fold) magnetic anisotropy. Angular and field dependent transport and magnetic properties have been studied in two different exchange-biased systems, i.e. ferromagnetic (FM)/ antiferromagnetic (AFM) bilayer and spin-valve structures. We experimentally show the direct relationships between the magnetoresistance (MR) response and the magnetization reversal pathways for any field value and direction. We demonstrate that even though the MR signals are related to different transport phenomena, namely anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and giant magnetoresistance (GMR), chiral asymmetries are found around the magnetization hard-axis direction, in both cases originated from the one-fold symmetry of the interfacial exchange coupling. Our results indicate that the chiral asymmetry of transport and magnetic behaviors are intrinsic of systems with an unidirectional contribution.

  13. Two-dimensional chiral asymmetry in unidirectional magnetic anisotropy structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Perna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the symmetry-breaking effects of magnetic nanostructures that present unidirectional (one-fold magnetic anisotropy. Angular and field dependent transport and magnetic properties have been studied in two different exchange-biased systems, i.e. ferromagnetic (FM/ antiferromagnetic (AFM bilayer and spin-valve structures. We experimentally show the direct relationships between the magnetoresistance (MR response and the magnetization reversal pathways for any field value and direction. We demonstrate that even though the MR signals are related to different transport phenomena, namely anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR and giant magnetoresistance (GMR, chiral asymmetries are found around the magnetization hard-axis direction, in both cases originated from the one-fold symmetry of the interfacial exchange coupling. Our results indicate that the chiral asymmetry of transport and magnetic behaviors are intrinsic of systems with an unidirectional contribution.

  14. Matter-antimatter asymmetry induced by a running vacuum coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, J.A.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Astronomia, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Singleton, D. [California State University Fresno, Department of Physics, Fresno, CA (United States); Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics Al-Farabi KazNU, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2017-12-15

    We show that a CP-violating interaction induced by a derivative coupling between the running vacuum and a non-conserving baryon current may dynamically break CPT and trigger baryogenesis through an effective chemical potential. By assuming a non-singular class of running vacuum cosmologies which provides a complete cosmic history (from an early inflationary de Sitter stage to the present day quasi-de Sitter acceleration), it is found that an acceptable baryon asymmetry is generated for many different choices of the model parameters. It is interesting that the same ingredient (running vacuum energy density) addresses several open cosmological questions/problems: avoids the initial singularity, provides a smooth exit for primordial inflation, alleviates both the coincidence and the cosmological constant problems, and, finally, is also capable of explaining the generation of matter-antimatter asymmetry in the very early Universe. (orig.)

  15. Tau lepton charge asymmetry and new physics at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sudhir Kumar; Valencia, German

    2011-01-01

    We consider the possibility of studying new physics that singles out the tau lepton at the LHC. We concentrate on the tau lepton charge asymmetry in τ + τ - pair production as a tool to probe this physics beyond the standard model. We consider two generic scenarios for the new physics. We first study a nonuniversal Z' boson as an example of a new resonance that can single out tau leptons. We then consider vector lepto-quarks coupling the first-generation quarks with the third-generation leptons as an example of nonresonant new physics. We find that in both cases the charge asymmetry can be sufficiently sensitive to the new physics to provide useful constraints at the LHC.

  16. Strange particle production and s-quark asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, S.

    1996-08-01

    Using hadronic Z 0 decays recorded by the SLD experiment at SLAC, we have studied the production of strange particles as a function of momentum. A high-purity sample of K ± was tagged using Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector (CRID). The φ, Λ and K s were reconstructed in the K + K - , p-π and π + π - modes respectively, and CRID identification of K ± and p was used to obtain pure samples of φ and Λ. We have used the high electron-beam polarisation delivered by the SLC to measure the left-right forward-backward production asymmetries of these particles, and discuss the relationship of these quantities to the underlying strange quark asymmetry in Z 0 decays

  17. Time symmetry and asymmetry in quantum mechanics and quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gell-Mann, M.; Hartle, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The disparity between the time symmetry of the fundamental laws of physics and the time asymmetries of the observed universe has been a subject of fascination for physicists since the late 19th century. It was also for Sakharov, if the authors judge correctly from his writings the following general time asymmetries are observed in this universe: The thermodynamic arrow of time --- the fact that approximately isolated systems are now almost all evolving towards equilibrium in the same direction of time. The psychological arrow of time --- we remember the past, we predict the future. The arrow of time of retarded electromagnetic radiation. The arrow of time supplied by the CP non-invariance of the weak interactions and the CPT invariance of field theory. The arrow of time of the approximately uniform expansion of the universe. The arrow of time supplied by the growth of inhomogeneity in the expanding universe

  18. Asymmetry effects of supersymmetric QCD in dilepton production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contogouris, A.P.; Tanaka, H.

    1985-01-01

    A Callan-Gross-type relation between the structure functions determining dilepton production, which is satisfied by the basic O(1) and O(α/sub s/) subprocesses of conventional QCD, is investigated in supersymmetric QCD (SQCD). It is found that SQCD subprocesses, mainly due to the presence of scalar quarks, strongly violate this relation, thus leading to sizable asymmetry effects in the angular distribution of dileptons. As an illustration, calculations are carried for p-barp→l + l - +X at CERN collider and Fermilab Tevatron energies (√s = 540 and 1600 GeV, respectively) and for pp→l + l - +X at Tevatron energy; with scalar quarks of mass 20 GeV and light gluinos, asymmetries in the range of 20%--5% are found. The significance of the effects as a test of the short-distance structure of SQCD (valence part of the scalar-quark distribution) is discussed

  19. Handling power-asymmetry in interactions with infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2013-01-01

    socio-cultural communities deal with power asymmetry in interactions with 3-months old infants. The study consists of a microanalysis of videotaped free play mother-infant interactions from 20 middle class families in Muenster, Germany and 20 traditional farming Nso families in Kikaikelaki, Cameroon......Interaction between adults and infants by nature constitutes a strong power-asymmetry relationship. Based on the assumption that communicative practices with infants are inseparably intertwined with broader cultural ideologies of good child care, this paper will contrast how parents in two distinct....... Analysis followed a discursive psychology approach. The focus of analysis is on how mothers handle and negotiate power-distance in these interactions and what discursive strategies they draw on. Mothers in both groups used various forms of directives and control strategies. The Muenster mothers, however...

  20. ASYMMETRY OF THE BRAIN AT ADAPTATION TO HYPOXIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Portnichenko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Association between cerebral blood flow and higher nervous activity in people at different stages of adaptation to the midlands was studied. Investigation were performed before, during and after a three-week stay in the mountains at an altitude of 2100 m, as well as during short-term ups without the physical load on the height of 3900 m. In the initial period of adaptation to hypoxia desynchronization between the nerve processes in the cerebral cortex and brain blood flow was observed. There was an inversion and an increase in the asymmetry of cerebral blood flow in the direction of the dominance of the left hemisphere of the brain. After the three-week stay in the mountains asymmetry of cerebral blood flow was disappeared, blood flow to the brain was reduced, hemispheric symmetry was formed, and blood flow synchronized with the nerve processes in the cerebral cortex again was restored.

  1. Asymmetry Inside The Symmetry: Mechanisms and Disorders Of Laterality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Alanay

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetry of the left-right (L-R axis is a feature of vertebrates that is apparent in the viscera and vasculature. An understanding of L-R patterning in human dev elopment is aided by familiarity with key events and important pathways in mammalian embryogenesis.The induction of L-R asymmetry follows the establishment of the anteroposterior (A-P or rostrocaudal and dorsov entral (D-V axes and requires the pre-existing midline symmetry to be broken before sidedness is induced via a series of complex, coordinated molecular signaling events. In this review, our aim is to describe the molecular background of this embryological process, and give brief knowledge concerning its clinical consequences.

  2. Asymmetries: a fuzzy topic in the process of integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alberto Rendón Acevedo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available FTAs have gained prominence in the trade policy of Latin American countries to the detriment of other forms of economic integration. In this trend there is a predominance of south-north schemes, where all kinds of asymmetries are evident. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that the reduction of asymmetries should be a primary goal of the FTAs. The methodology is a review of literature on Latin American FTAs with the United States, particularly those signed by Mexico, Chile and Colombia. As a result, we see that an appropriate treatment of the differences between involved economies is not only desirable for the development of Latin American countries but also it is possible through monetary and industrial policy adjusted to the reality of these countries.

  3. Poloidal asymmetries of flows in the Tore Supra tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermare, L.; Hennequin, P.; Gürcan, Ö. D.; Garbet, X.; Honoré, C.; Clairet, F.; Giacalone, J. C.; Morel, P.; Storelli, A.; Tore Supra Team

    2018-02-01

    Simultaneous measurements of binormal velocity of density fluctuations using two separate Doppler backscattering systems at the low field side and at the top of the plasma show significant poloidal asymmetry. The measurements are performed in the core region between the radii 0.7 Supra tokamak. A possible generation mechanism by the ballooned structure of the underlying turbulence, in the form of convective cells, is proposed for explaining the observation of these poloidally asymmetric mean flows.

  4. Asymmetry of Anticipatory Postural Adjustment During Gait Initiation

    OpenAIRE

    Hiraoka, Koichi; Hatanaka, Ryota; Nikaido, Yasutaka; Jono, Yasutomo; Nomura, Yoshifumi; Tani, Keisuke; Chujo, Yuta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the asymmetry of anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) during gait initiation and to determine whether the process of choosing the initial swing leg affects APA during gait initiation. The participants initiated gait with the leg indicated by a start tone or initiated gait with the leg spontaneously chosen. The dependent variables of APA were not significantly different among the condition of initiating gait with the preferred leg indicated by the...

  5. Evidence for an anomalous like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Kupčo, Alexander; Lokajíček, Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 3 (2010), 032001/1-032001/30 ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC527; GA MŠk LA08047 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : D0 * dimuon * asymmetry * mesons Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.964, year: 2010 http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevD.82.032001

  6. Forward-backward asymmetry in top quark-antiquark production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B.S.; Kupčo, Alexander; Lokajíček, Miloš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 11 (2011), "112005-1"-"112005-13" ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08047 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : Batavia TEVATRON Coll * DZERO * angular distribution * asymmetry * pair production * gluon radiation higher-order Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.558, year: 2011 http://prd.aps.org/abstract/PRD/v84/i11/e112005

  7. LEP asymmetries and fits of the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzyk, B.

    1994-01-01

    The lepton and quark asymmetries measured at LEP are presented. The results of the Standard Model fits to the electroweak data presented at this conference are given. The top mass obtained from the fit to the LEP data is 172 -14-20 +13+18 GeV; it is 177 -11-19 +11+18 when also the collider, ν and A LR data are included. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Asymmetry features for classification of thermograms in breast cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Robert M.; Okuniewski, Rafał; Oleszkiewicz, Witold; Cichosz, Paweł; Jagodziński, Dariusz; Matysiewicz, Mateusz; Neumann, Łukasz

    2016-09-01

    The computer system for an automatic interpretation of thermographic pictures created by the Br-aster devices uses image processing and machine learning algorithms. The huge set of attributes analyzed by this software includes the asymmetry measurements between corresponding images, and these features are analyzed in presented paper. The system was tested on real data and achieves accuracy comparable to other popular techniques used for breast tumour detection.

  9. Modification of Otolith Reflex Asymmetries Following Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Andrew H.; Schoenfeld, Uwe; Wood, Scott J.

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesize that changes in otolith-mediated reflexes adapted for microgravity contribute to perceptual, gaze and postural disturbances upon return to Earth s gravity. Our goal was to determine pre- versus post-fight differences in unilateral otolith reflexes that reflect these adaptive changes. This study represents the first comprehensive examination of unilateral otolith function following space flight. Ten astronauts participated in unilateral otolith function tests three times pre-flight and up to four times after Shuttle flights from landing day through the subsequent 10 days. During unilateral centrifugation (UC, +/- 3.5cm at 400deg/s), utricular function was examined by the perceptual changes reflected by the subjective visual vertical (SVV) and by video-oculographic measurement of the otolith-mediated ocular counter-roll (OOR). Unilateral saccular reflexes were recorded by measurement of collic Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential (cVEMP). Although data from a few subjects were not obtained early post-flight, a general increase in asymmetry of otolith responses was observed on landing day relative to pre-flight baseline, with a subsequent reversal in asymmetry within 2-3 days. Recovery to baseline levels was achieved within 10 days. This fluctuation in the asymmetry measures appeared strongest for SVV, in a consistent direction for OOR, and in an opposite direction for cVEMP. These results are consistent with our hypothesis that space flight results in adaptive changes in central nervous system processing of otolith input. Adaptation to microgravity may reveal asymmetries in otolith function upon to return to Earth that were not detected prior to the flight due to compensatory mechanisms.

  10. Measurements of the B0 bar B0 CP asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueth, V.

    1993-01-01

    A figure of merit for a measurement of CP violation is the error on the intrinsic asymmetry A CP . The observed asymmetry A obs will always be smaller than A CP due to a number of effects that dilute the measurement. If one defines A obs =DA CP , where D represents the product of all dilution factors, then the error on A CP , δA CP is related to the number of produced B 0 or bar B 0 , N prod , needed to obtain a given error on δA CP by N prod =1/((δA CP ) 2 D 2 εBr). To determine the figure of merit for a particular decay mode one must determine the number of reconstructed events N obs and calculate the corresponding dilution factor D. N obs depends on the luminosity and production cross section, on the branching ratio of the B 0 or bar B 0 into the specific final state under study, Br, and on ε, the reconstruction efficiency for both the combination of the signal CP state and any tagging signal. The production rate N prod , the dilution factor D, and the efficiency ε, differ substantially in magnitude as a function of energy and detector layout. The detection efficiency and dilution factor can both be written as a product of several factors that can be estimated for a particular experiment. These factors depend critically on the decay mode under study, the tagging method, the detector configuration, and more generally on the production process, backgrounds, and detector performance. Furthermore, the present knowledge of these quantities varies largely, as well as ones ability to ultimately measure the dilution factor which relates the experimentally observed asymmetry to the true CP asymmetry

  11. Asymmetry of radiation damage properties in Al–Ti nanolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setyawan, Wahyu; Gerboth, Matthew; Yao, Bo; Henager, Charles H.; Devaraj, Arun; Vemuri, Venkata R.S.R.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam

    2014-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were employed with empirical potentials to study the effects of multilayer interfaces and interface spacing in Al–Ti nanolayers. Several model interfaces derived from stacking of close-packed layers or face-centered cubic {1 0 0} layers were investigated. The simulations reveal significant and important asymmetries in defect production with ∼60% of vacancies created in Al layers compared to Ti layers within the Al–Ti multilayer system. The asymmetry in the creation of interstitials is even more pronounced. The asymmetries cause an imbalance in the ratio of vacancies and interstitials in films of dissimilar materials leading to >90% of the surviving interstitials located in the Al layers. While in the close-packed nanolayers the interstitials migrate to the atomic layers adjacent to the interface of the Al layers, in the {1 0 0} nanolayers the interstitials migrate to the center of the Al layers and away from the interfaces. The degree of asymmetry and defect ratio imbalance increases as the layer spacing decreases in the multilayer films. Underlying physical processes are discussed including the interfacial strain fields and the individual elemental layer stopping power in nanolayered systems. In addition, experimental work was performed on low-dose (10 16 atoms/cm 2 ) helium (He) irradiation on Al/Ti nanolayers (5 nm per film), resulting in He bubble formation ∼1 nm in diameter in the Ti film near the interface. The correlation between the preferential flux of displaced atoms from Ti films to Al films during the defect production that is revealed in the simulations and the morphology and location of He bubbles from the experiments is discussed

  12. Asymmetry of eye color in the common cuckoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ha-Na; Lee, Jin-Won; Yoo, Jeong-Chil

    2017-08-08

    Bilateral symmetry is assumed to contribute to the evolution of eye color, with the left and right eye being the same color in most vertebrates; yet, few studies tested this assumption. Here, we compared the amount of iris flecking (black spots presented on the iris) between the left and right eye of 76 adult common cuckoos Cuculus canorus. We found considerable variation in the total amount of iris flecking among individuals, with variation being associated with body size and sex. We also found that the amount of iris flecking differed between the left and right eye and that this left-right asymmetry was not random, with the left eye almost always being darker than the right eye. Furthermore, this asymmetry was negatively associated with wing length; however, this effect was limited to individuals with dark eyes. Overall, the asymmetric, but non-random, distribution of iris flecking between the left and right eye may indicate that selection pressures driving asymmetry (such as visual lateralization) act on the development of iris colors, even though this effect might be limited, due to the role of bilateral symmetry.

  13. A Matter of Degree: Strength of Brain Asymmetry and Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley J. Rogers

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on a growing number of vertebrate species has shown that the left and right sides of the brain process information in different ways and that lateralized brain function is expressed in both specific and broad aspects of behaviour. This paper reviews the available evidence relating strength of lateralization to behavioural/cognitive performance. It begins by considering the relationship between limb preference and behaviour in humans and primates from the perspectives of direction and strength of lateralization. In birds, eye preference is used as a reflection of brain asymmetry and the strength of this asymmetry is associated with behaviour important for survival (e.g., visual discrimination of food from non-food and performance of two tasks in parallel. The same applies to studies on aquatic species, mainly fish but also tadpoles, in which strength of lateralization has been assessed as eye preferences or turning biases. Overall, the empirical evidence across vertebrate species points to the conclusion that stronger lateralization is advantageous in a wide range of contexts. Brief discussion of interhemispheric communication follows together with discussion of experiments that examined the effects of sectioning pathways connecting the left and right sides of the brain, or of preventing the development of these left-right connections. The conclusion reached is that degree of functional lateralization affects behaviour in quite similar ways across vertebrate species. Although the direction of lateralization is also important, in many situations strength of lateralization matters more. Finally, possible interactions between asymmetry in different sensory modalities is considered.

  14. Top quark asymmetry from a non-Abelian horizontal symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Sunghoon; Wells, James D

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the persistence of a large measured top quark forward-backward asymmetry at the Tevatron, we examine a model of non-Abelian flavor gauge symmetry. The exchange of the gauge bosons in the $t$-channel can give a large $\\Afb$ due to the forward Rutherford scattering peak. We address generic constraints on non-Abelian $t$-channel physics models including flavor diagonal resonances and potentially dangerous contributions to inclusive top pair cross sections. We caution on the general difficulty of comparing theoretical predictions for top quark signals to the existing experimental results due to potentially important acceptance effects. The first signature at the Large Hadron Collider can be a large inclusive top pair cross section, or like-sign dilepton events, although the latter signal is much smaller than in Abelian models. Deviations of the invariant mass distributions at the LHC will also be promising signatures. A more direct consistency check of the Tevatron asymmetry through the LHC asymmetry...

  15. Functional asymmetry of emotions in primates: new findings in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Carriba, Samuel; Loeches, Angela; Morcillo, Ana; Hopkins, William D

    In the past 15 years, there have been a number of studies conducted on asymmetries in the perception and production of facial expressions in human and non-human primates as a means of inferring hemispheric specialization for emotions. We review these studies to assess continuity and discontinuity between species in these emotional processes. We further present new data on asymmetries in the production of facial expressions in a sample of captive chimpanzees. Objective measures (hemimouth length and area) and subjective measures (human judgement's of chimeric stimuli) indicate that chimpanzees' facial expressions are asymmetric, with a greater involvement of the left side of the face (right hemisphere) in the production of emotional responses. Left hemimouth was bigger than the right in the facial expressions of pant-hooting, play, and silent bared-teeth (p bared-teeth, and scream face (p bared-teeth categories (p < 0.01). Thus, chimpanzees, like humans and some other non-human primates, show a right hemisphere specialization for facial expression of emotions, which suggests that this functional asymmetry is homologous in all these species.

  16. Baryon asymmetry of the Universe in the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, G.R.; Shaposhnikov, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    We study the interactions of quarks and antiquarks with the changing Higgs field during the electroweak phase transition, including quantum mechanical and some thermal effects, with the only source of CP violation being the known CKM phase. We show that the GIM cancellation, which has been commonly thought to imply a prediction which is at least 10 orders of magnitude too small, can be evaded in certain kinematic regimes, for instance, when the strange quark is totally reflected but the down quark is not. We report on a quantitative calculation of the asymmetry in a one-dimensional approximation based on the present understanding of the physics of the high-temperature environment, but with some aspects of the problem oversimplified. The resulting prediction for the magnitude and sign of the present baryonic asymmetry of the Universe agrees with the observed value, with moderately optimistic assumptions about the dynamics of the phase transition. Both magnitude and sign of the asymmetry have an intricate dependence on quark masses and mixings, so that quantitative agreement between prediction and observation would be highly nontrivial. At present uncertainties related to the dynamics of the EW phase transition and the oversimplifications of our treatment are too great to decide whether or not this is the correct explanation for the presence of remnant matter in our Universe; however, the present work makes it clear that the minimal standard model cannot be discounted as a contender for explaining this phenomenon

  17. Effects of memory load on hemispheric asymmetries of colour memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Wes; Kirk, Ian J; Hausmann, Markus

    2007-03-01

    Hemispheric asymmetries in colour perception have been a matter of debate for some time. Recent evidence suggests that lateralisation of colour processing may be largely task specific. Here we investigated hemispheric asymmetries during different types and phases of a delayed colour-matching (recognition) memory task. A total of 11 male and 12 female right-handed participants performed colour-memory tasks. The task involved presentation of a set of colour stimuli (encoding), and subsequent indication (forced choice) of which colours in a larger set had previously appeared at the retrieval or recognition phase. The effect of memory load (set size), and the effect of lateralisation at the encoding or retrieval phases were investigated. Overall, the results indicate a right hemisphere advantage in colour processing, which was particularly pronounced in high memory load conditions, and was seen in males rather than female participants. The results suggest that verbal (mnemonic) strategies can significantly affect the magnitude of hemispheric asymmetries in a non-verbal task.

  18. Molecular asymmetry in extraterrestrial chemistry: Insights from a pristine meteorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzarello, Sandra; Huang, Yongsong; Alexandre, Marcelo R

    2008-03-11

    The nonracemic amino acids of meteorites provide the only natural example of molecular asymmetry measured so far outside the biosphere. Because extant life depends on chiral homogeneity for the structure and function of biopolymers, the study of these meteoritic compounds may offer insights into the establishment of prebiotic attributes in chemical evolution as well as the origin of terrestrial homochirality. However, all efforts to understand the origin, distribution, and scope of these amino acids' enantiomeric excesses (ee) have been frustrated by the ready exposure of meteorites to terrestrial contaminants and the ubiquitous homochirality of such contamination. We have analyzed the soluble organic composition of a carbonaceous meteorite from Antarctica that was collected and stored under controlled conditions, largely escaped terrestrial contamination and offers an exceptionally pristine sample of prebiotic material. Analyses of the meteorite diastereomeric amino acids alloisoleucine and isoleucine allowed us to show that their likely precursor molecules, the aldehydes, also carried a sizable molecular asymmetry of up to 14% in the asteroidal parent body. Aldehydes are widespread and abundant interstellar molecules; that they came to be present, survived, and evolved in the solar system carrying ee gives support to the idea that biomolecular traits such as chiral asymmetry could have been seeded in abiotic chemistry ahead of life.

  19. Preparation of artificial plasma membrane mimicking vesicles with lipid asymmetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Lin

    Full Text Available Lipid asymmetry, the difference in lipid distribution across the lipid bilayer, is one of the most important features of eukaryotic cellular membranes. However, commonly used model membrane vesicles cannot provide control of lipid distribution between inner and outer leaflets. We recently developed methods to prepare asymmetric model membrane vesicles, but facile incorporation of a highly controlled level of cholesterol was not possible. In this study, using hydroxypropyl-α-cyclodextrin based lipid exchange, a simple method was devised to prepare large unilamellar model membrane vesicles that closely resemble mammalian plasma membranes in terms of their lipid composition and asymmetry (sphingomyelin (SM and/or phosphatidylcholine (PC outside/phosphatidylethanolamine (PE and phosphatidylserine (PS inside, and in which cholesterol content can be readily varied between 0 and 50 mol%. We call these model membranes "artificial plasma membrane mimicking" ("PMm" vesicles. Asymmetry was confirmed by both chemical labeling and measurement of the amount of externally-exposed anionic lipid. These vesicles should be superior and more realistic model membranes for studies of lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interaction in a lipid environment that resembles that of mammalian plasma membranes.

  20. Preparation of artificial plasma membrane mimicking vesicles with lipid asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qingqing; London, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Lipid asymmetry, the difference in lipid distribution across the lipid bilayer, is one of the most important features of eukaryotic cellular membranes. However, commonly used model membrane vesicles cannot provide control of lipid distribution between inner and outer leaflets. We recently developed methods to prepare asymmetric model membrane vesicles, but facile incorporation of a highly controlled level of cholesterol was not possible. In this study, using hydroxypropyl-α-cyclodextrin based lipid exchange, a simple method was devised to prepare large unilamellar model membrane vesicles that closely resemble mammalian plasma membranes in terms of their lipid composition and asymmetry (sphingomyelin (SM) and/or phosphatidylcholine (PC) outside/phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) inside), and in which cholesterol content can be readily varied between 0 and 50 mol%. We call these model membranes "artificial plasma membrane mimicking" ("PMm") vesicles. Asymmetry was confirmed by both chemical labeling and measurement of the amount of externally-exposed anionic lipid. These vesicles should be superior and more realistic model membranes for studies of lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interaction in a lipid environment that resembles that of mammalian plasma membranes.

  1. Asymmetry in Determinants of Running Speed During Curved Sprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimura, Kazuhiro; Sakurai, Shinji

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the potential asymmetries between inside and outside legs in determinants of curved running speed. To test these asymmetries, a deterministic model of curved running speed was constructed based on components of step length and frequency, including the distances and times of different step phases, takeoff speed and angle, velocities in different directions, and relative height of the runner's center of gravity. Eighteen athletes sprinted 60 m on the curved path of a 400-m track; trials were recorded using a motion-capture system. The variables were calculated following the deterministic model. The average speeds were identical between the 2 sides; however, the step length and frequency were asymmetric. In straight sprinting, there is a trade-off relationship between the step length and frequency; however, such a trade-off relationship was not observed in each step of curved sprinting in this study. Asymmetric vertical velocity at takeoff resulted in an asymmetric flight distance and time. The runners changed the running direction significantly during the outside foot stance because of the asymmetric centripetal force. Moreover, the outside leg had a larger tangential force and shorter stance time. These asymmetries between legs indicated the outside leg plays an important role in curved sprinting.

  2. Detection of grating asymmetries by phase-structured illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gödecke, M. L.; Peterhänsel, S.; Buchta, D.; Frenner, K.; Osten, W.

    2017-06-01

    The characterization of nanoscale grating asymmetries is an indispensable prerequisite for improving the accuracy of process control in modern semiconductor lithography. Model-based scatterometry is the state-of-the-art optical waferinspection technique. We suggest to extend it by coherent phase-structured illumination. The resulting intensity and phase profiles are evaluated in the far-field image plane. By means of rigorous simulations, it has already been demonstrated that the use of phase-structured illumination increases the sensitivity towards any kind of grating asymmetry including asymmetric sidewall angles (SWAs), floor tilts, asymmetric top and bottom roundings, and even overlay errors. Furthermore, it is possible to determine both the absolute value and the sign (magnitude and direction) of an asymmetry. In this paper, we will recapitulate the evaluation strategy and summarize the most important simulation results. Subsequently, we will present first proof-of-principle measurements obtained by digital off-axis holography. A direct comparison between simulation and measurement demonstrates the validity of the suggested approach.

  3. Lower Limb Neuromuscular Asymmetry in Volleyball and Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, Azahara; Gual, Gabriel; Romero-Rodriguez, Daniel; Unnitha, Viswanath

    2016-04-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the agreement between the dominant leg (DL) (determined subjectively) and the stronger leg (SL) (determined via a functional test) in a group of basketball and volleyball players. The secondary objective was to calculate lower limb neuromuscular asymmetry when comparing the DL vs the non-dominant leg (NDL) and the SL vs the weaker (WL) leg in the whole group and when differentiating by sex. Seventy-nine male and female volleyball and basketball players (age: 23.7 ± 4.5 years) performed three single-leg vertical countermovement jumps (SLVCJ) on a contact mat. Vertical jump height and an inter-limb asymmetry index (ASI) were determined. Only 32 (40%) of the subjects had a concordance between the perception of their dominant leg and the limb reaching the highest jump height. Using the DL as the discriminating variable, significant (pjump performance. Vertical jump asymmetry of 10-15% exists and this can be considered as a reference value for male and female basketball and volleyball players.

  4. Biased Brownian motion in narrow channels with asymmetry and anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Kiwing; Peng, Zheng

    2016-11-01

    We study Brownian motion of a single millimeter size bead confined in a quasi-two-dimensional horizontal channel with built-in anisotropy and asymmetry. Channel asymmetry is implemented by ratchet walls while anisotropy is introduced using a channel base that is grooved along the channel axis so that a bead can acquire a horizontal impulse perpendicular to the longitudinal direction when it collides with the base. When energy is injected to the channel by vertical vibration, the combination of asymmetric walls and anisotropic base induces an effective force which drives the bead into biased diffusive motion along the channel axis with diffusivity and drift velocity increase with vibration strength. The magnitude of this driving force, which can be measured in experiments of tilted channel, is found to be consistent to those obtained from dynamic mobility and position probability distribution measurements. These results are explained by a simple collision model that suggests the random kinetic energies transfer between different translational degrees of freedom may be turned into useful work in the presence of asymmetry and anisotropy.

  5. Effect of cephalometer misalignment on calculations of facial asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Heon; Hwang, Hyeon-Shik; Curry, Sean; Boyd, Robert L; Norris, Kevin; Baumrind, Sheldon

    2007-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated errors introduced into the interpretation of facial asymmetry on posteroanterior (PA) cephalograms due to malpositioning of the x-ray emitter focal spot. We tested the hypothesis that horizontal displacements of the emitter from its ideal position would produce systematic displacements of skull landmarks that could be fully accounted for by the rules of projective geometry alone. A representative dry skull with 22 metal markers was used to generate a series of PA images from different emitter positions by using a fully calibrated stereo cephalometer. Empirical measurements of the resulting cephalograms were compared with mathematical predictions based solely on geometric rules. The empirical measurements matched the mathematical predictions within the limits of measurement error (x= 0.23 mm), thus supporting the hypothesis. Based upon this finding, we generated a completely symmetrical mathematical skull and calculated the expected errors for focal spots of several different magnitudes. Quantitative data were computed for focal spot displacements of different magnitudes. Misalignment of the x-ray emitter focal spot introduces systematic errors into the interpretation of facial asymmetry on PA cephalograms. For misalignments of less than 20 mm, the effect is small in individual cases. However, misalignments as small as 10 mm can introduce spurious statistical findings of significant asymmetry when mean values for large groups of PA images are evaluated.

  6. Darier disease mutation E917K of SERCA2b relieves the inhibitory influence of the 11th transmembrane segment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Stine; Holdensen, Anne Nyholm; Vangheluwe, Peter

    partners located in M5, M7 and M10. Hence, mutation of the glutamate to lysine could interfere with these bonds and lead to disturbance of the stabilization of the cytoplasmic loop L8-9. It is believed that the 11th transmembrane segment of SERCA2b is located in the groove between transmembrane segments M7...... to the proteins SERCA1, SERCA2 and SERCA3. SERCA2 is spliced into three variants SERCA2a, SERCA2b and SERCA2c, the only difference between SERCA2a and SERCA2b is the extended C-terminus of SERCA2b (49 amino acids) which forms an extra 11th transmembrane segment (compared with the 10 transmembrane segments of all...... loop between transmembrane segments M8 and M9 (L8-9) and mutation E917K leads to decreased Ca2+ affinity and increased catalytic turnover rate. Our kinetic analysis demonstrates that the increased turnover rate is caused by an increase of the rates of the partial reaction steps E1PE2P, E2PE2 and E2E...

  7. Metal bridges between the PhoQ sensor domain and the membrane regulate transmembrane signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Uhn Soo; Bader, Martin W; Amaya, Maria F; Daley, Margaret E; Klevit, Rachel E; Miller, Samuel I; Xu, Wenqing

    2006-03-10

    Bacterial histidine kinases respond to environmental stimuli by transducing a signal from an extracytosolic sensor domain to a cytosolic catalytic domain. Among them, PhoQ promotes bacterial virulence and is tightly repressed by the divalent cations such as calcium and magnesium. We have determined the crystal structure of the PhoQ sensor domain from Salmonella typhimurium in the Ca2+-bound state, which reveals a highly negatively charged surface that is in close proximity to the inner membrane. This acidic surface binds at least three Ca2+, which mediate the PhoQ-membrane interaction. Mutagenesis analysis indicates that structural integrity at the membrane proximal region of the PhoQ sensor domain promotes metal-mediated repression. We propose that depletion or displacement of divalent cations leads to charge repulsion between PhoQ and the membrane, which initiates transmembrane signaling through a change in orientation between the PhoQ sensor domain and membrane. Therefore, both PhoQ and the membrane are required for extracytosolic sensing and transmembrane signaling.

  8. Dissecting the functions of conserved prolines within transmembrane helices of the D2 dopamine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Arnam, Ethan B; Lester, Henry A; Dougherty, Dennis A

    2011-10-21

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) contain a number of conserved proline residues in their transmembrane helices, and it is generally assumed these play important functional and/or structural roles. Here we use unnatural amino acid mutagenesis, employing α-hydroxy acids and proline analogues, to examine the functional roles of five proline residues in the transmembrane helices of the D2 dopamine receptor. The well-known tendency of proline to disrupt helical structure is important at all sites, while we find no evidence for a functional role for backbone amide cis-trans isomerization, another feature associated with proline. At most proline sites, the loss of the backbone NH is sufficient to explain the role of the proline. However, at one site, P210(5.50), a substituent on the backbone N appears to be essential for proper function. Interestingly, the pattern in functional consequences that we see is mirrored in the pattern of structural distortions seen in recent GPCR crystal structures.

  9. Transmembrane signal transduction by peptide hormones via family B G protein-coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culhane, Kelly J; Liu, Yuting; Cai, Yingying; Yan, Elsa C Y

    2015-01-01

    Although family B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) contain only 15 members, they play key roles in transmembrane signal transduction of hormones. Family B GPCRs are drug targets for developing therapeutics for diseases ranging from metabolic to neurological disorders. Despite their importance, the molecular mechanism of activation of family B GPCRs remains largely unexplored due to the challenges in expression and purification of functional receptors to the quantity for biophysical characterization. Currently, there is no crystal structure available of a full-length family B GPCR. However, structures of key domains, including the extracellular ligand binding regions and seven-helical transmembrane regions, have been solved by X-ray crystallography and NMR, providing insights into the mechanisms of ligand recognition and selectivity, and helical arrangements within the cell membrane. Moreover, biophysical and biochemical methods have been used to explore functions, key residues for signaling, and the kinetics and dynamics of signaling processes. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the signal transduction mechanism of family B GPCRs at the molecular level and comments on the challenges and outlook for mechanistic studies of family B GPCRs.

  10. Transmembrane signal transduction by peptide hormones via family B G protein-coupled receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J Culhane

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although family B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs contain only 15 members, they play key roles in transmembrane signal transduction of hormones. Family B GPCRs are drug targets for developing therapeutics for diseases ranging from metabolic to neurological disorders. Despite their importance, the molecular mechanism of activation of family B GPCRs remains largely unexplored due to the challenges in expression and purification of functional receptors to the quantity for biophysical characterization. Currently, there is no crystal structure available of a full-length family B GPCR. However, structures of key domains, including the extracellular ligand binding regions and seven-helical transmembrane regions, have been solved by X-ray crystallography and NMR, providing insights into the mechanisms of ligand recognition and selectivity, and helical arrangements within the cell membrane. Moreover, biophysical and biochemical methods have been used to explore functions, key residues for signaling, and the kinetics and dynamics of signaling processes. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the signal transduction mechanism of family B GPCRs at the molecular level and comments on the challenges and outlook for mechanistic studies of family B GPCRs.

  11. Structural Organization of a Full-Length Gp130/LIF-R Cytokine Receptor Transmembrane Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiniotis, G.; Lupardus, P.J.; Martick, M.; Walz, T.; Garcia, K.C.

    2009-05-26

    gp130 is a shared receptor for at least nine cytokines, and can signal either as a homodimer, or as a heterodimer with Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor (LIF-R). Here we biophysically and structurally characterize the full-length, transmembrane form of a quaternary cytokine receptor complex consisting of gp130, LIF-R, the cytokine Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF), and its alpha receptor (CNTF-R{alpha}). Thermodynamic analysis indicates that, unlike the cooperative assembly of the symmetric gp130/Interleukin-6/IL-6R{alpha} hexameric complex, CNTF/CNTF-R{alpha} heterodimerizes gp130 and LIF-R via non-cooperative energetics to form an asymmetric 1:1:1:1 complex. Single particle electron microscopic (EM) analysis of the full-length gp130/LIF-R/CNTF-R{alpha}/CNTF quaternary complex elucidates an asymmetric structural arrangement, in which the receptor extracellular and transmembrane segments join as a continuous, rigid unit, poised to sensitively transduce ligand engagement to the membrane-proximal intracellular signaling regions. These studies also enumerate the organizing principles for assembly of the 'tall' class of gp130-family cytokine receptor complexes including LIF, IL-27, IL-12, and others.

  12. Impact of axial velocity and transmembrane pressure (TMP) on ARP filter performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-29

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Recently, the low filter flux through the ARP of approximately 5 gallons per minute has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Salt Batch 6 had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. One potential method for increasing filter flux is to adjust the axial velocity and transmembrane pressure (TMP). SRR requested SRNL to conduct bench-scale filter tests to evaluate the effects of axial velocity and transmembrane pressure on crossflow filter flux. The objective of the testing was to determine whether increasing the axial velocity at the ARP could produce a significant increase in filter flux. The authors conducted the tests by preparing slurries containing 6.6 M sodium Salt Batch 6 supernate and 2.5 g MST/L, processing the slurry through a bench-scale crossflow filter unit at varying axial velocity and TMP, and measuring filter flux as a function of time.

  13. Channel Gating Regulation by the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) First Cytosolic Loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Annette; Chung, W Joon; Pyle, Louise C; Wang, Wei; Nowotarski, Krzysztof; Mulvihill, Cory M; Ramjeesingh, Mohabir; Hong, Jeong; Velu, Sadanandan E; Lewis, Hal A; Atwell, Shane; Aller, Steve; Bear, Christine E; Lukacs, Gergely L; Kirk, Kevin L; Sorscher, Eric J

    2016-01-22

    In this study, we present data indicating a robust and specific domain interaction between the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) first cytosolic loop (CL1) and nucleotide binding domain 1 (NBD1) that allows ion transport to proceed in a regulated fashion. We used co-precipitation and ELISA to establish the molecular contact and showed that binding kinetics were not altered by the common clinical mutation F508del. Both intrinsic ATPase activity and CFTR channel gating were inhibited severely by CL1 peptide, suggesting that NBD1/CL1 binding is a crucial requirement for ATP hydrolysis and channel function. In addition to cystic fibrosis, CFTR dysregulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of prevalent diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acquired rhinosinusitis, pancreatitis, and lethal secretory diarrhea (e.g. cholera). On the basis of clinical relevance of the CFTR as a therapeutic target, a cell-free drug screen was established to identify modulators of NBD1/CL1 channel activity independent of F508del CFTR and pharmacologic rescue. Our findings support a targetable mechanism of CFTR regulation in which conformational changes in the NBDs cause reorientation of transmembrane domains via interactions with CL1 and result in channel gating. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Construction and genetic selection of small transmembrane proteins that activate the human erythropoietin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammett, Tobin J; Jun, Susan J; Cohen, Emily B; Barrera, Francisco N; Engelman, Donald M; Dimaio, Daniel

    2010-02-23

    This work describes a genetic approach to isolate small, artificial transmembrane (TM) proteins with biological activity. The bovine papillomavirus E5 protein is a dimeric, 44-amino acid TM protein that transforms cells by specifically binding and activating the platelet-derived growth factor beta receptor (PDGFbetaR). We used the E5 protein as a scaffold to construct a retrovirus library expressing approximately 500,000 unique 44-amino acid proteins with randomized TM domains. We screened this library to select small, dimeric TM proteins that were structurally unrelated to erythropoietin (EPO), but specifically activated the human EPO receptor (hEPOR). These proteins did not activate the murine EPOR or the PDGFbetaR. Genetic studies with one of these activators suggested that it interacted with the TM domain of the hEPOR. Furthermore, this TM activator supported erythroid differentiation of primary human hematopoietic progenitor cells in vitro in the absence of EPO. Thus, we have changed the specificity of a protein so that it no longer recognizes its natural target but, instead, modulates an entirely different protein. This represents a novel strategy to isolate small artificial proteins that affect diverse membrane proteins. We suggest the word "traptamer" for these transmembrane aptamers.

  15. Structural Changes Fundamental to Gating of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Anion Channel Pore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsdell, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an epithelial cell anion channel. Potentiator drugs used in the treatment of cystic fibrosis act on the channel to increase overall channel function, by increasing the stability of its open state and/or decreasing the stability of its closed state. The structure of the channel in either the open state or the closed state is not currently known. However, changes in the conformation of the protein as it transitions between these two states have been studied using functional investigation and molecular modeling techniques. This review summarizes our current understanding of the architecture of the transmembrane channel pore that controls the movement of chloride and other small anions, both in the open state and in the closed state. Evidence for different kinds of changes in the conformation of the pore as it transitions between open and closed states is described, as well as the mechanisms by which these conformational changes might be controlled to regulate normal channel gating. The ways that key conformational changes might be targeted by small compounds to influence overall CFTR activity are also discussed. Understanding the changes in pore structure that might be manipulated by such small compounds is key to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cystic fibrosis.

  16. Transmembrane Domain Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Impair Expression and Transport Activity of ABC Transporter ABCG2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöstedt, Noora; van den Heuvel, Jeroen J M W; Koenderink, Jan B; Kidron, Heidi

    2017-08-01

    To study the function and expression of nine naturally occurring single-nucleotide polymorphisms (G406R, F431L, S441N, P480L, F489L, M515R, L525R, A528T and T542A) that are predicted to reside in the transmembrane regions of the ABC transporter ABCG2. The transport activity of the variants was tested in inside-out membrane vesicles from Sf9 insect and human derived HEK293 cells overexpressing ABCG2. Lucifer Yellow and estrone sulfate were used as probe substrates of activity. The expression levels and cellular localization of the variants was compared to the wild-type ABCG2 by western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. All studied variants of ABCG2 displayed markedly decreased transport in both Sf9-ABCG2 and HEK293-ABCG2 vesicles. Impaired transport could be explained for some variants by altered expression levels and cellular localization. Moreover, the destructive effect on transport activity of variants G406R, P480L, M515R and T542A is, to our knowledge, reported for the first time. These results indicate that the transmembrane region of ABCG2 is sensitive to amino acid substitution and that patients harboring these ABCG2 variant forms could suffer from unexpected pharmacokinetic events of ABCG2 substrate drugs or have an increased risk for diseases such as gout where ABCG2 is implicated.

  17. Nanoporous microbead supported bilayers: stability, physical characterization, and incorporation of functional transmembrane proteins.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan W. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Brozik, James A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Brozik, Susan Marie; Cox, Jason M. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Lopez, Gabriel P. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Barrick, Todd A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Flores, Adrean (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-03-01

    The introduction of functional transmembrane proteins into supported bilayer-based biomimetic systems presents a significant challenge for biophysics. Among the various methods for producing supported bilayers, liposomal fusion offers a versatile method for the introduction of membrane proteins into supported bilayers on a variety of substrates. In this study, the properties of protein containing unilamellar phosphocholine lipid bilayers on nanoporous silica microspheres are investigated. The effects of the silica substrate, pore structure, and the substrate curvature on the stability of the membrane and the functionality of the membrane protein are determined. Supported bilayers on porous silica microspheres show a significant increase in surface area on surfaces with structures in excess of 10 nm as well as an overall decrease in stability resulting from increasing pore size and curvature. Comparison of the liposomal and detergent-mediated introduction of purified bacteriorhodopsin (bR) and the human type 3 serotonin receptor (5HT3R) are investigated focusing on the resulting protein function, diffusion, orientation, and incorporation efficiency. In both cases, functional proteins are observed; however, the reconstitution efficiency and orientation selectivity are significantly enhanced through detergent-mediated protein reconstitution. The results of these experiments provide a basis for bulk ionic and fluorescent dye-based compartmentalization assays as well as single-molecule optical and single-channel electrochemical interrogation of transmembrane proteins in a biomimetic platform.

  18. Transmembrane Inhibitor of RICTOR/mTORC2 in Hematopoietic Progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjun Lee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Central to cellular proliferative, survival, and metabolic responses is the serine/threonine kinase mTOR, which is activated in many human cancers. mTOR is present in distinct complexes that are either modulated by AKT (mTORC1 or are upstream and regulatory of it (mTORC2. Governance of mTORC2 activity is poorly understood. Here, we report a transmembrane molecule in hematopoietic progenitor cells that physically interacts with and inhibits RICTOR, an essential component of mTORC2. Upstream of mTORC2 (UT2 negatively regulates mTORC2 enzymatic activity, reducing AKTS473, PKCα, and NDRG1 phosphorylation and increasing FOXO transcriptional activity in an mTORC2-dependent manner. Modulating UT2 levels altered animal survival in a T cell acute lymphoid leukemia (T-ALL model that is known to be mTORC2 sensitive. These studies identify an inhibitory component upstream of mTORC2 in hematopoietic cells that can reduce mortality from NOTCH-induced T-ALL. A transmembrane inhibitor of mTORC2 may provide an attractive target to affect this critical cell regulatory pathway.

  19. HMM_RA: An Improved Method for Alpha-Helical Transmembrane Protein Topology Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhui Yan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available α-helical transmembrane (TM proteins play important and diverse functional roles in cells. The ability to predict the topology of these proteins is important for identifying functional sites and inferring function of membrane proteins. This paper presents a Hidden Markov Model (referred to as HMM_RA that can predict the topology of α-helical transmembrane proteins with improved performance. HMM_RA adopts the same structure as the HMMTOP method, which has five modules: inside loop, inside helix tail, membrane helix, outside helix tail and outside loop. Each module consists of one or multiple states. HMM_RA allows using reduced alphabets to encode protein sequences. Thus, each state of HMM_RA is associated with n emission probabilities, where n is the size of the reduced alphabet set. Direct comparisons using two standard data sets show that HMM_RA consistently outperforms HMMTOP and TMHMM in topology prediction. Specifically, on a high-quality data set of 83 proteins, HMM_RA outperforms HMMTOP by up to 7.6% in topology accuracy and 6.4% in α-helices location accuracy. On the same data set, HMM_RA outperforms TMHMM by up to 6.4% in topology accuracy and 2.9% in location accuracy. Comparison also shows that HMM_RA achieves comparable performance as Phobius, a recently published method.

  20. Transmembrane amyloid-related proteins in CSF as potential biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada eLopez-Font

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the continuing search for new cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease (AD, reasonable candidates are the secretase enzymes involved in the processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP, as well as the large proteolytic cleavage fragments sAPPα and sAPPβ. The enzymatic activities of some of these secretases, such as BACE1 and TACE, have been investigated as potential AD biomarkers, and it has been assumed that these activities present in human CSF result from the soluble truncated forms of the membrane-bound enzymes. However, we and others recently identified soluble forms of BACE1 and APP in CSF containing the intracellular domains, as well as the multi-pass transmembrane presenilin-1 (PS1 and other subunits of γ-secretase. We also review recent findings that suggest that most of these soluble transmembrane proteins could display self-association properties based on hydrophobic and/or ionic interactions leading to the formation of heteromeric complexes. The oligomerization state of these potential new biomarkers needs to be taken into consideration for assessing their real potential as CSF biomarkers for AD by adequate molecular tools.

  1. ER-mediated control for abundance, quality, and signaling of transmembrane immune receptors in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico eTintor

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants recognize a wide range of microbes with cell-surface and intracellular immune receptors. Transmembrane pattern recognition receptors (PRRs initiate immune responses upon recognition of cognate ligands characteristic of microbes or aberrant cellular states, designated microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs, respectively. Pattern-triggered immunity (PTI provides a first line of defense that restricts the invasion and propagation of both adapted and non-adapted pathogens. Receptor kinases (RKs and receptor-like proteins (RLPs with an extracellular leucine-rich repeat (LRR or lysine-motif (LysM domain are extensively used as PRRs. The correct folding of the extracellular domain of these receptors is under quality control (QC in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, which thus provides a critical step in plant immunity. Genetic and structural insight suggests that ERQC regulates not only the abundance and quality of transmembrane receptors but also affects signal sorting between multi-branched pathways downstream of the receptor. However, ERQC dysfunction can also positively stimulate plant immunity, possibly through cell death and DAMP signaling pathways.

  2. Multifunctional Transmembrane Protein Ligands for Cell-Specific Targeting of Plasma Membrane-Derived Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chi; Busch, David J; Vershel, Connor P; Stachowiak, Jeanne C

    2016-07-01

    Liposomes and nanoparticles that bind selectively to cell-surface receptors can target specific populations of cells. However, chemical conjugation of ligands to these particles is difficult to control, frequently limiting ligand uniformity and complexity. In contrast, the surfaces of living cells are decorated with highly uniform populations of sophisticated transmembrane proteins. Toward harnessing cellular capabilities, here it is demonstrated that plasma membrane vesicles (PMVs) derived from donor cells can display engineered transmembrane protein ligands that precisely target cells on the basis of receptor expression. These multifunctional targeting proteins incorporate (i) a protein ligand, (ii) an intrinsically disordered protein spacer to make the ligand sterically accessible, and (iii) a fluorescent protein domain that enables quantification of the ligand density on the PMV surface. PMVs that display targeting proteins with affinity for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) bind at increasing concentrations to breast cancer cells that express increasing levels of EGFR. Further, as an example of the generality of this approach, PMVs expressing a single-domain antibody against green fluorescence protein (eGFP) bind to cells expressing eGFP-tagged receptors with a selectivity of ≈50:1. The results demonstrate the versatility of PMVs as cell targeting systems, suggesting diverse applications from drug delivery to tissue engineering. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Differential transmembrane domain GXXXG motif pairing impacts major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Ann M; Drake, Lisa; Hughes, Kelly T; Sargent, Elizabeth; Hunt, Danielle; Harton, Jonathan A; Drake, James R

    2014-04-25

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules exhibit conformational heterogeneity, which influences their ability to stimulate CD4 T cells and drive immune responses. Previous studies suggest a role for the transmembrane domain of the class II αβ heterodimer in determining molecular structure and function. Our previous studies identified an MHC class II conformer that is marked by the Ia.2 epitope. These Ia.2(+) class II conformers are lipid raft-associated and able to drive both tyrosine kinase signaling and efficient antigen presentation to CD4 T cells. Here, we establish that the Ia.2(+) I-A(k) conformer is formed early in the class II biosynthetic pathway and that differential pairing of highly conserved transmembrane domain GXXXG dimerization motifs is responsible for formation of Ia.2(+) versus Ia.2(-) I-A(k) class II conformers and controlling lipid raft partitioning. These findings provide a molecular explanation for the formation of two distinct MHC class II conformers that differ in their inherent ability to signal and drive robust T cell activation, providing new insight into the role of MHC class II in regulating antigen-presenting cell-T cell interactions critical to the initiation and control of multiple aspects of the immune response.

  4. Conformational constraining of inactive and active States of a seven transmembrane receptor by metal ion site engineering in the extracellular end of transmembrane segment V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Mette M; David, Ralf; Oerlecke, Ilka

    2006-01-01

    The extracellular part of transmembrane segment V (TM-V) is expected to be involved in the activation process of 7TM receptors, but its role is far from clear. Here, we study the highly constitutively active CXC-chemokine receptor encoded by human herpesvirus 8 (ORF74-HHV8), in which a metal ion......-fold). Zn(II) in activating concentrations (100 microM) acted as an allosteric enhancer as it increased the B(max) (7.1-fold), the potency (9.9-fold), the affinity (1.7- and 6.1-fold in competition against agonist and inverse agonist, respectively), and the efficacy (2.5-fold) of CXCL1/GROalpha....... The activating properties of Zn(II) were not due to a metal ion site between the ligand and the receptor because CXCL1/GROalpha analogs in which the putative metal-ion binding residues had been substituted-[H19A] and [H34A]-acted like wild-type CXCL1/GROalpha. Based on the complex action of Zn...

  5. Cloning and characterization of SCART1, a novel scavenger receptor cysteine-rich type I transmembrane molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Dorte; Fink, Dorte Rosenbek; Grønlund, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    We have cloned and characterized a novel murine transmembrane molecule, mSCART1 belonging to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily. The cDNA encodes a polypeptide chain of 989 amino acids, organized as a type I transmembrane protein that contains eight extracellular SRCR domains followed...... family of the SRCR superfamily. Finally, a novel human scavenger receptor cysteine-rich molecule with high homology to mSCART1 was identified by searching in the human genomic databases using the mSCART1 cDNA sequence....

  6. A New Method to Determine the Transmembrane Conformation of Substrates in Intramembrane Proteolysis by Deep-UV Resonance Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, J W; Abdine, A; Brown, M; Chavez, J; Lada, B; JiJi, R D; Ubarretxena-Belandia, I

    2017-01-01

    We present a new method based on deep-UV resonance Raman spectroscopy to determine the backbone conformation of intramembrane protease substrates. The classical amide vibrational modes reporting on the conformation of just the transmembrane region of the substrate can be resolved from solvent exchangeable regions outside the detergent micelle by partial deuteration of the solvent. In the presence of isotopically triple-labeled intramembrane protease, these amide modes can be accurately measured to monitor the transmembrane conformation of the substrate during intramembrane proteolysis. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Definition of the G protein-coupled receptor transmembrane bundle binding pocket and calculation of receptor similarities for drug design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gloriam, David Erik Immanuel; Foord, Steven M; Blaney, Frank E

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in structural biology for G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have provided new opportunities to improve the definition of the transmembrane binding pocket. Here a reference set of 44 residue positions accessible for ligand binding was defined through detailed analysis of all...... to endogenous ligand types, although it revealed subdivision of certain classes, notably peptide and lipid receptors. The transmembrane binding site reference set, particularly when coupled with a means of identifying the subset of ligand binding residues, provides a general paradigm for understanding...

  8. Coordinated movement of cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains of RyR1 upon gating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Samsó

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1 produces spatially and temporally defined Ca2+ signals in several cell types. How signals received in the cytoplasmic domain are transmitted to the ion gate and how the channel gates are unknown. We used EGTA or neuroactive PCB 95 to stabilize the full closed or open states of RyR1. Single-channel measurements in the presence of FKBP12 indicate that PCB 95 inverts the thermodynamic stability of RyR1 and locks it in a long-lived open state whose unitary current is indistinguishable from the native open state. We analyzed two datasets of 15,625 and 18,527 frozen-hydrated RyR1-FKBP12 particles in the closed and open conformations, respectively, by cryo-electron microscopy. Their corresponding three-dimensional structures at 10.2 A resolution refine the structure surrounding the ion pathway previously identified in the closed conformation: two right-handed bundles emerging from the putative ion gate (the cytoplasmic "inner branches" and the transmembrane "inner helices". Furthermore, six of the identifiable transmembrane segments of RyR1 have similar organization to those of the mammalian Kv1.2 potassium channel. Upon gating, the distal cytoplasmic domains move towards the transmembrane domain while the central cytoplasmic domains move away from it, and also away from the 4-fold axis. Along the ion pathway, precise relocation of the inner helices and inner branches results in an approximately 4 A diameter increase of the ion gate. Whereas the inner helices of the K+ channels and of the RyR1 channel cross-correlate best with their corresponding open/closed states, the cytoplasmic inner branches, which are not observed in the K+ channels, appear to have at least as important a role as the inner helices for RyR1 gating. We propose a theoretical model whereby the inner helices, the inner branches, and the h1 densities together create an efficient novel gating mechanism for channel opening by relaxing two right

  9. Frontal alpha asymmetry neurofeedback for the reduction of negative affect and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Rocco; Patron, Elisabetta; Palomba, Daniela

    2017-05-01

    Frontal alpha asymmetry has been proposed to underlie the balance between approach and withdrawal motivation associated to each individual's affective style. Neurofeedback of EEG frontal alpha asymmetry represents a promising tool to reduce negative affect, although its specific effects on left/right frontal activity and approach/withdrawal motivation are still unclear. The present study employed a neurofeedback training to increase frontal alpha asymmetry (right - left), in order to evaluate discrete changes in alpha power at left and right sites, as well as in positive and negative affect, anxiety and depression. Thirty-two right-handed females were randomly assigned to receive either the neurofeedback on frontal alpha asymmetry, or an active control training (N = 16 in each group). The asymmetry group showed an increase in alpha asymmetry driven by higher alpha at the right site (p neurofeedback for the reduction of negative affect and anxiety in clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An Empirical Study on Listed Company’s Value of Cash Holdings: An Information Asymmetry Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuangxia Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The value of a company’s cash holdings is currently a hot issue in corporate finance research. Current studies have not reached a unified conclusion. Moreover, no one has ever studied that from the perspective of information asymmetry. However, there still exist disputes about the measurement of the degree of information asymmetry. Previous studies mostly adopt single index to analysis this issue, and the economic meaning it represents only reflects some information of asymmetric information, so it was one-sided and the conclusion also differ. Drawing on the market microstructure and the index of information asymmetry of managers and investors, this paper constructs a new proxy for information asymmetry based on the principal component analysis. We find that a company’s value of cash holdings decreases increasingly with its level of information asymmetry, and the relationship between information asymmetry and the value of cash holdings is nonlinear.

  11. Tree asymmetry--a sensitive and practical measure for binary topological trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Pelt, J; Uylings, H B; Verwer, R W; Pentney, R J; Woldenberg, M J

    1992-09-01

    The topological structure of a binary tree is characterized by a measure called tree asymmetry, defined as the mean value of the asymmetry of its partitions. The statistical properties of this tree-asymmetry measure have been studied using a growth model for binary trees. The tree-asymmetry measure appears to be sensitive for topological differences and the tree-asymmetry expectation for the growth model that we used appears to be almost independent of the size of the trees. These properties and the simple definition make the measure suitable for practical use, for instance for characterizing, comparing and interpreting sets of branching patterns. Examples are given of the analysis of three sets of neuronal branching patterns. It is shown that the variance in tree-asymmetry values for these observed branching patterns corresponds perfectly with the variance predicted by the used growth model.

  12. The role of three-gluon correlation functions in the single spin asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beppu Hiroo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the twist-3 three-gluon contribution to the single spin asymmetry in the light-hadron production in pp collision in the framework of the collinear factorization. We derive the corresponding cross section formula in the leading order with respect to the QCD coupling constant. We also present a numerical calculation of the asymmetry at the RHIC energy, using a model for the three-gluon correlation functions suggested by the asymmetry for the D-meson production at RHIC. We found that the asymmetries for the light-hadron and the jet productions are very useful to constrain the magnitude and form of the correlation functions. Since the three-gluon correlation functions shift the asymmetry for all kinds of hadrons in the same direction, it is unlikely that they become a main source of the asymmetry.

  13. Study on parallel-channel asymmetry in supercritical flow instability experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Ting; Yu Junchong; Yan Xiao; Huang Yanping; Xiao Zejun; Huang Shanfang

    2013-01-01

    Due to the urgent need for experimental study on supercritical water flow instability, the parallel-channel asymmetry which determines the feasibility of such experiments was studied with the experimental and numerical results in parallel dual channel. The evolution of flow rates in the experiments was analyzed, and the steady-state characteristics as well as transient characteristics of the system were obtained by self-developed numerical code. The results show that the asymmetry of the parallel dual channel would reduce the feasibility of experiments. The asymmetry of flow rates is aroused by geometrical asymmetry. Due to the property variation characteristics of supercritical water, the flow rate asymmetry is enlarged while rising beyond the pseudo critical point. The extent of flow rate asymmetry is affected by the bulk temperature and total flow rate; therefore the experimental feasibility can be enhanced by reducing the total flow rate. (authors)

  14. Exclusive B→ρl+l- decay and polarized lepton pair forward-backward asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, T.M.; Bashiry, V.; Savci, M.

    2006-01-01

    The polarized lepton pair forward-backward asymmetries in B→ρl + l - decay using a general, model independent form of the four-Fermi interaction is studied. The general expressions for nine double-lepton polarization forward-backward asymmetries are calculated. The study of the forward-backward asymmetries of the doubly polarized lepton pair proves to be a very useful tool in looking for new physics beyond the standard model

  15. A new genus of long-legged flies displaying remarkable wing directional asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin B. Runyon; Richard L. Hurley

    2004-01-01

    A previously unknown group of flies is described whose males exhibit directional asymmetry, in that the left wing is larger than, and of a different shape from, the right wing. To our knowledge, wing asymmetry of this degree has not previously been reported in an animal capable of flight. Such consistent asymmetry must result from a left­right axis during development...

  16. Ear asymmetries in middle-ear, cochlear, and brainstem responses in human infants

    OpenAIRE

    Keefe, Douglas H.; Gorga, Michael P.; Jesteadt, Walt; Smith, Lynette M.

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, Sininger and Cone-Wesson examined asymmetries in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of otoacoustic emissions (OAE) in infants, reporting that distortion-product (DP)OAE SNR was larger in the left ear, whereas transient-evoked (TE)OAE SNR was larger in the right. They proposed that cochlear and brainstem asymmetries facilitate development of brain-hemispheric specialization for sound processing. Similarly, in 2006 Sininger and Cone-Wesson described ear asymmetries mainly favoring the rig...

  17. The Magnetism of Power in Helping Relationships. Professional Attitude and Asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Schuyt, Theo N.M.

    2004-01-01

    What makes helping relationships - or social interventions in general - so sensitive to abuse? These problems are directly related to the nature of the helping relationship. The core of this relationship is the inequality, the asymmetry, between the helper and the person being helped, and the dependence of the latter. Asymmetry is the driving force behind every social intervention and at the same time its weakest point. Handling asymmetry in an appropriate manner constitutes a major part of t...

  18. Right-handed snakes: convergent evolution of asymmetry for functional specialization

    OpenAIRE

    Hoso, Masaki; Asami, Takahiro; Hori, Michio

    2007-01-01

    External asymmetry found in diverse animals bears critical functions to fulfil ecological requirements. Some snail-eating arthropods exhibit directional asymmetry in their feeding apparatus for foraging efficiency because dextral (clockwise) species are overwhelmingly predominant in snails. Here, we show convergence of directional asymmetry in the dentition of snail-eating vertebrates. We found that snakes in the subfamily Pareatinae, except for non-snail-eating specialists, have more teeth o...

  19. Evidence from intrinsic activity that asymmetry of the human brain is controlled by multiple factors

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hesheng; Stufflebeam, Steven M.; Sepulcre, Jorge; Hedden, Trey; Buckner, Randy L.

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral lateralization is a fundamental property of the human brain and a marker of successful development. Here we provide evidence that multiple mechanisms control asymmetry for distinct brain systems. Using intrinsic activity to measure asymmetry in 300 adults, we mapped the most strongly lateralized brain regions. Both men and women showed strong asymmetries with a significant, but small, group difference. Factor analysis on the asymmetric regions revealed 4 separate factors that each ac...

  20. Perception of temporal asymmetries in dynamic facial expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren eReinl

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the current study we examined whether timeline-reversals and emotional direction of dynamic facial expressions affect subjective experience of human observers. We recorded natural movies of faces that increased or decreased their expressions of fear, and played them either in the natural frame order or reversed from last to first frame (reversed timeline. This led to four conditions of increasing or decreasing fear, either following the natural or reversed temporal trajectory of facial dynamics. This 2-by-2 factorial design controlled for visual low-level properties, static visual content, and motion energy across the different factors. It allowed us to examine perceptual consequences that would occur if the timeline trajectory of facial muscle movements during the increase of an emotion are not the exact mirror of the timeline during the decrease. It additionally allowed us to study perceptual differences between increasing and decreasing emotional expressions. Perception of these time-dependent asymmetries have not yet been quantified. We found that three emotional measures, emotional intensity, artificialness of facial movement, and convincingness or plausibility of emotion portrayal, were affected by timeline reversals as well as by the emotional direction of the facial expressions. Our results imply that natural dynamic facial expressions contain temporal asymmetries, and show that deviations from the natural timeline lead to a reduction of perceived emotional intensity and convincingness, and to an increase of perceived artificialness of the dynamic facial expression. In addition, they show that decreasing facial expressions are judged as less plausible than increasing facial expressions. Our findings are of relevance for both, behavioural as well as neuroimaging studies, as processing and perception are influenced by temporal asymmetries.

  1. Lower Limb Neuromuscular Asymmetry in Volleyball and Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe Azahara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the agreement between the dominant leg (DL (determined subjectively and the stronger leg (SL (determined via a functional test in a group of basketball and volleyball players. The secondary objective was to calculate lower limb neuromuscular asymmetry when comparing the DL vs the non-dominant leg (NDL and the SL vs the weaker (WL leg in the whole group and when differentiating by sex. Seventy-nine male and female volleyball and basketball players (age: 23.7 ± 4.5 years performed three single-leg vertical countermovement jumps (SLVCJ on a contact mat. Vertical jump height and an inter-limb asymmetry index (ASI were determined. Only 32 (40% of the subjects had a concordance between the perception of their dominant leg and the limb reaching the highest jump height. Using the DL as the discriminating variable, significant (p<0.05 inter-limb differences were found in the total group of players. When comparing between sexes, significant differences (p<0.05 arose in the female group only. With regard to the WL vs. the SL, significant (p<0.05 differences were noted in the whole group and when stratified into males and females. The mean ASI ranged from 9.31% (males to 12.84% (females and from 10.49% (males to 14.26% (females, when comparing the DL vs. the NDL and the SL vs. the WL, respectively. Subjective expression of leg dominance cannot be used as a predictor of limb jump performance. Vertical jump asymmetry of 10-15% exists and this can be considered as a reference value for male and female basketball and volleyball players.

  2. Differential actigraphy for monitoring asymmetry in upper limb motor activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabuffetti, M; Meriggi, P; Pagliari, C; Bartolomeo, P; Ferrarin, M

    2016-09-21

    Most applications of accelerometry-based actigraphy require a single sensor, properly located onto the body, to estimate, for example, the level of activity or the energy expenditure. Some approaches adopt a multi-sensor setup to improve those analyses or to classify different types of activity. The specific case of two symmetrically placed actigraphs allowing, by some kind of differential analysis, for the assessment of asymmetric motor behaviors, has been considered in relatively few studies. This article presents a novel method for differential actigraphy, which requires the synchronized measurements of two triaxial accelerometers (programmable eZ430-Chronos, Texas Instruments, USA) placed symmetrically on both wrists. The method involved the definition of a robust epoch-related activity index and its implementation on-board the adopted programmable platform. Finally, the activity recordings from both sensors allowed us to define a novel asymmetry index AR 24 h ranging from  -100% (only the left arm moves) to  +100% (only the right arm moves) with null value marking a perfect symmetrical behavior. The accuracy of the AR 24 h index was 1.3%. Round-the-clock monitoring on 31 healthy participants (20-79 years old, 10 left handed) provided for the AR 24 h reference data (range  -5% to 21%) and a fairly good correlation to the clinical handedness index (r  =  0.66, p  <  0.001). A subset of 20 participants repeated the monitoring one week apart evidencing an excellent test-retest reliability (r  =  0.70, p  <  0.001). Such figures support future applications of the methodology for the study of pathologies involving motor asymmetries, such as in patients with motor hemisyndromes and, in general, for those subjects for whom a quantification of the asymmetry in daily motor performances is required to complement laboratory tests.

  3. Energetics of side-chain snorkeling in transmembrane helices probed by nonproteinogenic amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öjemalm, Karin; Higuchi, Takashi; Lara, Patricia; Lindahl, Erik; Suga, Hiroaki; von Heijne, Gunnar

    2016-09-20

    Cotranslational translocon-mediated insertion of membrane proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum is a key process in membrane protein biogenesis. Although the mechanism is understood in outline, quantitative data on the energetics of the process is scarce. Here, we have measured the effect on membrane integration efficiency of nonproteinogenic analogs of the positively charged amino acids arginine and lysine incorporated into model transmembrane segments. We provide estimates of the influence on the apparent free energy of membrane integration (ΔGapp) of "snorkeling" of charged amino acids toward the lipid-water interface, and of charge neutralization. We further determine the effect of fluorine atoms and backbone hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) on ΔGapp These results help establish a quantitative basis for our understanding of membrane protein assembly in eukaryotic cells.

  4. Purification and crystallization of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Mark F; Kamis, Alhaji Bukar; Aleksandrov, Luba A; Ford, Robert C; Riordan, John R

    2004-09-10

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a membrane protein that is mutated in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. Here we report the purification and first crystallization of wild-type human CFTR. Functional characterization of the material showed it to be highly active. Electron crystallography of negatively stained two-dimensional crystals of CFTR has revealed the overall architecture of this channel for two different conformational states. These show a strong structural homology to two conformational states of another eukaryotic ATP-binding cassette transporter, P-glycoprotein. In contrast to P-glycoprotein, however, both conformational states can be observed in the presence of a nucleotide, which may be related to the role of CFTR as an ion channel rather than a transporter. The hypothesis that the two conformations could represent the "open" and "closed" states of the channel is considered.

  5. Tedizolid Adsorption and Transmembrane Clearance during in vitro Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Susan J; Switaj, Lynn A; Mueller, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    To study transmembrane clearance (CLTM) and adsorption of tedizolid, a novel oxazolidinone antibiotic, in continuous hemofiltration (CVVH) and continuous hemodialysis (CVVHD). In vitro CVVH/CVVHD models with polysulfone and AN69 hemodiafilters were used. Tedizolid CLTM during CVVH/CVVHD was assessed at various ultrafiltrate (Quf) and dialysate rates (Qd). Tedizolid adsorption was tested in a recirculating CVVH model over 4 h. In CVVH, CLTM did not differ between filter types. In CVVHD, tedizolid CLTM was significantly higher with the polysulfone hemodiafilter at Qd 6 l/h (p Tedizolid exhibited irreversible adsorption to the CRRT apparatus and bound significantly higher to the polysulfone hemodiafilter. Tedizolid's CLTM is dependent on Qd, Quf, and hemodiafilter type. At conventional CRRT rates, tedizolid CLTM appears modest relative to total body clearance and is unlikely to require dose adjustments. CRRT adsorption in the clinical setting is likely less than what we observed in this in vitro, continuously recirculating blood model. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Coarse Grained Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Transmembrane Protein-Lipid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Spijker

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Many biological cellular processes occur at the micro- or millisecond time scale. With traditional all-atom molecular modeling techniques it is difficult to investigate the dynamics of long time scales or large systems, such as protein aggregation or activation. Coarse graining (CG can be used to reduce the number of degrees of freedom in such a system, and reduce the computational complexity. In this paper the first version of a coarse grained model for transmembrane proteins is presented. This model differs from other coarse grained protein models due to the introduction of a novel angle potential as well as a hydrogen bonding potential. These new potentials are used to stabilize the backbone. The model has been validated by investigating the adaptation of the hydrophobic mismatch induced by the insertion of WALP-peptides into a lipid membrane, showing that the first step in the adaptation is an increase in the membrane thickness, followed by a tilting of the peptide.

  7. The role of transmembrane segment II in 7TM receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benned-Jensen, Tau; Rosenkilde, M M

    2009-01-01

    During the two past decades tremendous effort has been put into uncovering the activation mechanism of 7TM receptors. The majority of such studies have focused on the major binding pocket, comprised of transmembrane segments (TM) -III through -VII, as most non-peptide and peptide ligands......, in addition to biogenic amines and retinal a.m.o. bind to residues in this region. Consequently the major helical movements occur here during activation, as described recently in the Global Toggle Switch Model for Family A (also known as rhodopsin-like) members of the 7TM receptors. As a result, the minor......, accumulating evidence emphasize that this is not the case. In this review, we focus on TM-II with an emphasis on position II:20/2.60, and present data from structure-activity studies on a range of Family A 7TM receptors including chemokine, ghrelin and melanocortin receptors in addition to the orphan EBI2...

  8. Deorphanizing the human transmembrane genome: A landscape of uncharacterized membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Joseph J; Li, Min

    2014-01-01

    The sequencing of the human genome has fueled the last decade of work to functionally characterize genome content. An important subset of genes encodes membrane proteins, which are the targets of many drugs. They reside in lipid bilayers, restricting their endogenous activity to a relatively specialized biochemical environment. Without a reference phenotype, the application of systematic screens to profile candidate membrane proteins is not immediately possible. Bioinformatics has begun to show its effectiveness in focusing the functional characterization of orphan proteins of a particular functional class, such as channels or receptors. Here we discuss integration of experimental and bioinformatics approaches for characterizing the orphan membrane proteome. By analyzing the human genome, a landscape reference for the human transmembrane genome is provided.

  9. Inhibition of Ebola virus glycoprotein-mediated cytotoxicity by targeting its transmembrane domain and cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacke, Moritz; Björkholm, Patrik; Hellwig, Andrea; Himmels, Patricia; Ruiz de Almodóvar, Carmen; Brügger, Britta; Wieland, Felix; Ernst, Andreas M

    2015-07-09

    The high pathogenicity of the Ebola virus reflects multiple concurrent processes on infection. Among other important determinants, Ebola fusogenic glycoprotein (GP) has been associated with the detachment of infected cells and eventually leads to vascular leakage and haemorrhagic fever. Here we report that the membrane-anchored GP is sufficient to induce the detachment of adherent cells. The results show that the detachment induced through either full-length GP1,2 or the subunit GP2 depends on cholesterol and the structure of the transmembrane domain. These data reveal a novel molecular mechanism in which GP regulates Ebola virus assembly and suggest that cholesterol-reducing agents could be useful as therapeutics to counteract GP-mediated cell detachment.

  10. Research Advances in CKLFSF-like MARVEL Transmembrane Domain Containing Member 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Feng-zhan; Sheng, Zheng-zuo; Qin, Cai-peng; Xu, Tao

    2016-06-10

    CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain containing member/chemokine-like factor super family member (CKLFSF/CMTM) is a novel tumor suppressor gene. CMTM3 is broadly expressed in normal human tissues and evolutionary conserved,especially in testis,spleen,and some cells of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. However,its expression is undetectable or down-regulated in most carcinoma cell lines and tissues. Restoration of CMTM3 may inhibit the proliferation,migration,and invasion of carcinoma cells. Although the exact mechanism of its anti-tumor activity remains unclear,CKLFSF3/CMTM3 is closely connected with immune system and associated with sex during tumorigenesis. The study advances of CKLFSF3/CMTM3 are elaborated in this review as CMTM3 may be a new target in the gene therapies for tumors,especially genitourinary tumors,while further studies on CMTM3 and its anti-tumor mechanisms are warranted.

  11. Reverse endocytosis of transmembrane ephrin-B ligands via a clathrin-mediated pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, Monica; Roberts, Richard; Enriquez, Miriam; Zhao Xia; Takahashi, Takamune; Pat Cerretti, Douglas; Daniel, Tom; Chen Jin

    2004-01-01

    Eph/ephrin receptors and ligands mediate cell-cell interaction through reciprocal signaling upon juxtacrine contact, and play a critical role in embryonic patterning, neuronal targeting, and vascular assembly. To study transmembrane ephrin-B ligand trafficking, we determined the cellular localization of ephrin-B1-GFP upon engagement by EphB1. Under normal culture conditions ephrin-B1-GFP is localized to the plasma membrane, mostly at the lateral cell borders. Addition of soluble EphB1-Fc receptor induces ephrin-B1-GFP clustering on the cell surface and subsequent internalization, as judged by biochemical studies, electron microscopy, and co-localization with endosomal markers. A dominant-negative mutant of dynamin or potassium depletion blocks ephrin-B1 endocytosis. These results suggest that ephrin-B1 internalization is an active receptor-mediated process that utilizes the clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway

  12. Transmembrane Helices Are an Overlooked Source of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Epitopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Frans; Textor, Johannes; van den Bogaart, Geert

    2017-01-01

    About a fourth of the human proteome is anchored by transmembrane helices (TMHs) to lipid membranes. TMHs require multiple hydrophobic residues for spanning membranes, and this shows a striking resemblance with the requirements for peptide binding to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I. It, therefore, comes as no surprise that bioinformatics analysis predicts an over-representation of TMHs among strong MHC class I (MHC-I) binders. Published peptide elution studies confirm that TMHs are indeed presented by MHC-I. This raises the question how membrane proteins are processed for MHC-I (cross-)presentation, with current research focusing on soluble antigens. The presentation of membrane-buried peptides is likely important in health and disease, as TMHs are considerably conserved and their presentation might prevent escape mutations by pathogens. Therefore, it could contribute to the disease correlations described for many human leukocyte antigen haplotypes. PMID:28959259

  13. Breast hamartomas – Differential consideration in slow developing breast asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cazorla

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Breast hamartoma is a relatively rare entity with an incidence of approximately 0.7% of benign breast masses. Hamartomas may become large and cause breast asymmetry. Hamartomas, although benign, have the potential for malignant transformation and should be treated or monitored closely when encountered especially if microcalcifications or speculated lesions are seen within the mass. The following cases demonstrate two of the largest documented harmartomas since they were recognized as distinct entities in the early 1970's. Proper referral to the appropriate specialists can result in earlier detection and resolution of symptoms.

  14. CP asymmetry in Bd→φKS: Standard model pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, Y.; Isidori, G.; Worah, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    The difference in the time dependent CP asymmetries between the modes B→ψK S and B→φK S is a clean signal for physics beyond the standard model. This interpretation could fail if there is a large enhancement of the matrix element of the b→u bar us operator between the B d initial state and the φK S final state. We argue against this possibility and propose some experimental tests that could shed light on the situation. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  15. Measurement of the muon charge asymmetry from W boson decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Aguilo, E.; Ahn, S. H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Ancu, L. S.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, S.; Andrieu, B.; Anzelc, M. S.; Arnoud, Y.; Arov, M.; Arthaud, M.; Askew, A.; Åsman, B.; Assis Jesus, A. C. S.; Atramentov, O.; Autermann, C.; Avila, C.; Ay, C.; Badaud, F.; Baden, A.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, P.; Barberis, E.; Barfuss, A.-F.; Bargassa, P.; Baringer, P.; Barreto, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bauer, D.; Beale, S.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Begel, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bellantoni, L.; Bellavance, A.; Benitez, J. A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Berntzon, L.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Biscarat, C.; Blazey, G.; Blekman, F.; Blessing, S.; Bloch, D.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Bolton, T. A.; Borissov, G.; Bose, T.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, D.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, S.; Burdin, S.; Burke, S.; Burnett, T. H.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, J. M.; Calfayan, P.; Calvet, S.; Cammin, J.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, B. C. K.; Cason, N. M.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chan, K.; Chandra, A.; Charles, F.; Cheu, E.; Chevallier, F.; Cho, D. K.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Christofek, L.; Christoudias, T.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clément, B.; Coadou, Y.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cutts, D.; Ćwiok, M.; da Motta, H.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; de, K.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Cruz-Burelo, E.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Degenhardt, J. D.; Déliot, F.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Dominguez, A.; Dong, H.; Dudko, L. V.; Duflot, L.; Dugad, S. R.; Duggan, D.; Duperrin, A.; Dyer, J.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Eno, S.; Ermolov, P.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Ferapontov, A. V.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Ford, M.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fu, S.; Fuess, S.; Gadfort, T.; Galea, C. F.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, E.; Garcia, C.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, P.; Geist, W.; Gelé, D.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gillberg, D.; Ginther, G.; Gollub, N.; Gómez, B.; Goussiou, A.; Grannis, P. D.; Greenlee, H.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregores, E. M.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guo, J.; Guo, F.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutierrez, G.; Haas, A.; Hadley, N. J.; Haefner, P.; Hagopian, S.; Haley, J.; Hall, I.; Hall, R. E.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hansson, P.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harrington, R.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hauser, R.; Hays, J.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegeman, J. G.; Heinmiller, J. M.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoeth, H.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hong, S. J.; Hossain, S.; Houben, P.; Hu, Y.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jain, S.; Jakobs, K.; Jarvis, C.; Jesik, R.; Johns, K.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Juste, A.; Käfer, D.; Kahn, S.; Kajfasz, E.; Kalinin, A. M.; Kalk, J. R.; Kalk, J. M.; Kappler, S.; Karmanov, D.; Kasper, J.; Kasper, P.; Katsanos, I.; Kau, D.; Kaur, R.; Kaushik, V.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. M.; Khatidze, D.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Kirby, M. H.; Kirsch, M.; Klima, B.; Kohli, J. M.; Konrath, J.-P.; Kopal, M.; Korablev, V. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Krop, D.; Kuhl, T.; Kumar, A.; Kunori, S.; Kupco, A.; Kurča, T.; Kvita, J.; Lacroix, F.; Lam, D.; Lammers, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, W. M.; Leflat, A.; Lehner, F.; Lellouch, J.; Leveque, J.; Lewis, P.; Li, J.; Li, Q. Z.; Li, L.; Lietti, S. M.; Lima, J. G. R.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Lobo, L.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lounis, A.; Love, P.; Lubatti, H. J.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Mackin, D.; Madaras, R. J.; Mättig, P.; Magass, C.; Magerkurth, A.; Makovec, N.; Mal, P. K.; Malbouisson, H. B.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mao, H. S.; Maravin, Y.; Martin, B.; McCarthy, R.; Melnitchouk, A.; Mendes, A.; Mendoza, L.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, A.; Michaut, M.; Millet, T.; Mitrevski, J.; Molina, J.; Mommsen, R. K.; Mondal, N. K.; Moore, R. W.; Moulik, T.; Muanza, G. S.; Mulders, M.; Mulhearn, M.; Mundal, O.; Mundim, L.; Nagy, E.; Naimuddin, M.; Narain, M.; Naumann, N. A.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Nilsen, H.

    2008-01-01

    We present a measurement of the muon charge asymmetry from W boson decays using 0.3fb-1 of data collected at s=1.96GeV between 2002 and 2004 with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron pp¯ Collider. We compare our findings with expectations from next-to-leading-order calculations performed using the CTEQ6.1M and MRST04 NLO parton distribution functions. Our findings can be used to constrain future parton distribution function fits.

  16. Belousov Zhabotinsky Autonomic Hydrogel Composites: Regulating Waves via Asymmetry (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-23

    Ru(bpy)3 2+ is e = 14,600M−1 cm−1 at l = 452 nm (34, 35). Applying the Beer - Lambert law and correcting for polymer absorbance, the average Ru... law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB...ASYMMETRY (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-11-D-5801-0012 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR( S ) Philip R

  17. Restrictions for asymmetry and polarizations of recoil in muon capture

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J

    1975-01-01

    Using the helicity formalism, muon capture by targets of spin-zero is discussed. Owing to the definite neutrino helicity, three independent observables define a complete experiment. The precise relation between asymmetry alpha and longitudinal polarization P/sub L/ of recoil, alpha =1+2jP/sub L/, comes only from rotational invariance. When time- reversal invariance is inserted, there is an additional restriction between the average polarization P/sub av/ and the longitudinal polarization P/sub L/. (7 refs).

  18. Price asymmetry in the Dutch retail gasoline market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettendorf, L.; Van der Geest, S.A.; Varkevisser, M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses retail price adjustments in the Dutch gasoline market. We estimate an asymmetric error correction model on weekly price changes for the years 1996 to 2001. We construct five datasets, one for each working day. The conclusions on asymmetric pricing are shown to differ over these datasets, suggesting that the choice of the day for which prices are observed matters more than commonly believed. In our view, the insufficient robustness of outcomes might explain the mixed conclusions found in the literature. Using two approaches, we also show that the effect of asymmetry on Dutch consumer costs is negligible

  19. Theories relating baryon asymmetry and dark matter: a Mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano eMorisi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of dark matter and the origin of the baryon asymmetry are two of the deepest mysteries of modern particle physics. In the absence of hints regarding a possible solution to these mysteries, many approaches have been developed to tackle them simultaneously { leading to very diverse and rich models}. We give a short review where we describe the general features of some of these models and an overview on the general problem. We also propose a diagrammatic notation to label the different models.

  20. Evidence for an anomalous like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.R.J.; /Lancaster U.

    2011-01-01

    We present a measurement of the like-sign dimuon asymmetry in semileptonic b-hadron decays, performed using 6.1 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions recorded with the D0 detector at a center-of-mass energy {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. This measured value is A{sub sl}{sup b} = [-0.957 {+-} 0.251 (stat) {+-} 0.146 (syst)] %, which disagrees with the Standard Model prediction at a statistical level of 3.2 {sigma}, and provides the first evidence of anomalous CP violation in the mixing of neutral B mesons.

  1. Goal-Source Asymmetry and Russian Spatial Prefixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Markovskaya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I draw on data from Russian to argue for the asymmetry between Goal and Source prepositional phrases. Source prepositional phrases are structurally ambiguous; they can occur both as arguments and adjuncts in certain syntactic contexts. Goal prepositional phrases are unambiguously arguments. I claim that Source prepositions have lexically specified semantics, which determines their relative structural freedom; whereas Goal prepositions are derived from locative prepositions when the building of the event structure takes place and therefore they are bound to be the arguments of the verb.

  2. Supersymmetric inflation, baryon asymmetry and the gravitino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovrut, B.A.; Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia; Steinhardt, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    A special class of locally supersymmetric models has been found which can produce a phase transition that meets all the conditions necessary for the inflationary universe scenario and which sets, via spontaneous supersymmetry breaking, a mass hierarchy consistent with the electroweak unification scale. In this paper we show that the same models can produce a baryon asymmetry after inflation that is consistent with astrophysical observations and can avoid the cosmological problems caused by gravitinos that appear in almost all other locally supersymmetric models. (orig.)

  3. Magnetic-field asymmetry of nonlinear thermoelectric and heat transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Sun-Yong; Sánchez, David; López, Rosa; Lee, Minchul

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear transport coefficients do not obey, in general, reciprocity relations. We here discuss the magnetic-field asymmetries that arise in thermoelectric and heat transport of mesoscopic systems. Based on a scattering theory of weakly nonlinear transport, we analyze the leading-order symmetry parameters in terms of the screening potential response to either voltage or temperature shifts. We apply our general results to a quantum Hall antidot system. Interestingly, we find that certain symmetry parameters show a dependence on the measurement configuration. (paper)

  4. Vertical poloidal asymmetries of low-Z element radiation in the PDX tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brau, K.; Suckewer, S.; Wong, S.K.

    1983-06-01

    Vertical poloidal asymmetries of hydrogen isotopes and low-Z impurity radiation in the PDX tokamak may be caused by poloidally asymmetric sources of these elements at gas inlet valves, limiters or vacuum vessel walls, asymmetric magnetic field geometry in the region beyond the plasma boundary, or by ion curvature drifts. Low ionization states of carbon (C II- C IV) are more easily influenced by edge conditions than is CV. Vertical poloidal asymmetries of CV are correlated with the direction of the toroidal field. The magnitude of the asymmetry agrees with the predictions of a quasifluid neoclassical model. Experimental data and numerical simulations are presented to investigate different models of impurity poloidal asymmetries.

  5. Theoretical morphology and development of flight feather vane asymmetry with experimental tests in parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feo, Teresa J; Prum, Richard O

    2014-06-01

    Asymmetry in flight feather vane width is a major functional innovation associated with the evolution of flight in the ancestors of birds. However, the developmental and morphological basis of feather shape is not simple, and the developmental processes involved in vane width asymmetry are poorly understood. We present a theoretical model of feather morphology and development that describes the possible ways to modify feather development and produce vane asymmetry. Our model finds that the theoretical morphospace of feather shape is redundant, and that many different combinations of parameters could be responsible for vane asymmetry in a given feather. Next, we empirically measured morphological and developmental model parameters in asymmetric and symmetric feathers from two species of parrots to identify which combinations of parameters create vane asymmetry in real feathers. We found that both longer barbs, and larger barb angles in the relatively wider trailing vane drove asymmetry in tail feathers. Developmentally, longer barbs were the result of an offset of the radial position of the new barb locus, whereas larger barb angles were produced by differential expansion of barbs as the feather unfurls from the tubular feather germ. In contrast, the helical angle of barb ridge development did not contribute to vane asymmetry and could be indicative of a constraint. This research provides the first comprehensive description of both the morphological and developmental modifications responsible for vane asymmetry within real feathers, and identifies key steps that must have occurred during the evolution of vane asymmetry. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Ear asymmetries in middle-ear, cochlear, and brainstem responses in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Douglas H; Gorga, Michael P; Jesteadt, Walt; Smith, Lynette M

    2008-03-01

    In 2004, Sininger and Cone-Wesson examined asymmetries in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of otoacoustic emissions (OAE) in infants, reporting that distortion-product (DP)OAE SNR was larger in the left ear, whereas transient-evoked (TE)OAE SNR was larger in the right. They proposed that cochlear and brainstem asymmetries facilitate development of brain-hemispheric specialization for sound processing. Similarly, in 2006 Sininger and Cone-Wesson described ear asymmetries mainly favoring the right ear in infant auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). The present study analyzed 2640 infant responses to further explore these effects. Ear differences in OAE SNR, signal, and noise were evaluated separately and across frequencies (1.5, 2, 3, and 4 kHz), and ABR asymmetries were compared with cochlear asymmetries. Analyses of ear-canal reflectance and admittance showed that asymmetries in middle-ear functioning did not explain cochlear and brainstem asymmetries. Current results are consistent with earlier studies showing right-ear dominance for TEOAE and ABR. Noise levels were higher in the right ear for OAEs and ABRs, causing ear asymmetries in SNR to differ from those in signal level. No left-ear dominance for DPOAE signal was observed. These results do not support a theory that ear asymmetries in cochlear processing mimic hemispheric brain specialization for auditory processing.

  7. Asymmetry of cerebral glucose metabolism in very low-birth-weight infants without structural abnormalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hyun Park

    Full Text Available Thirty-six VLBW infants who underwent F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG brain PET and MRI were prospectively enrolled, while infants with evidence of parenchymal brain injury on MRI were excluded. The regional glucose metabolic ratio and asymmetry index were calculated. The asymmetry index more than 10% (right > left asymmetry or less than -10% (left > right asymmetry were defined as abnormal. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism were compared between right and left cerebral hemispheres, and between the following subgroups: multiple gestations, premature rupture of membrane, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and low-grade intraventricular hemorrhage.In the individual analysis, 21 (58.3% of 36 VLBW infants exhibited asymmetric cerebral glucose metabolism. Fifteen infants (41.7% exhibited right > left asymmetry, while six (16.7% exhibited left > right asymmetry. In the regional analysis, right > left asymmetry was more extensive than left > right asymmetry. The metabolic ratio in the right frontal, temporal, and occipital cortices and right thalamus were significantly higher than those in the corresponding left regions. In the subgroup analyses, the cerebral glucose metabolism in infants with multiple gestations, premature rupture of membrane, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or low-grade intraventricular hemorrhage were significantly lower than those in infants without these.VLBW infants without structural abnormalities have asymmetry of cerebral glucose metabolism. Decreased cerebral glucose metabolism are noted in infants with neurodevelopmental risk factors. F-18 FDG PET could show microstructural abnormalities not detected by MRI in VLBW infants.

  8. Measurement of the Collins and Sivers asymmetries on transversely polarised protons

    CERN Document Server

    Alekseev, M.G.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Austregesilo, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, J.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Brona, G.; Burtin, E.; Bussa, M.P.; Chaberny, D.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Colantoni, M.; Crespo, M.L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Diaz, V.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dunnweber, W.; Efremov, A.; El Alaoui, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., jr.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Friedrich, J.M.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gazda, R.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Heinsius, F.H.; Hermann, R.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Hoppner, Ch.; d'Hose, N.; Ilgner, C.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jasinski, P.; Jegou, G.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Kafer, W.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kiefer, J.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Komissarov, E.V.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konopka, R.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kowalik, K.; Kramer, M.; Kral, A.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kuhn, R.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Lauser, L.; Le Goff, J.M.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Maggiora, A.; Maggiora, M.; Magnon, A.; Mallot, G.K.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Massmann, F.; Matsuda, T.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Moinester, M.A.; Mutter, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nassalski, J.; Negrini, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Pawlukiewicz-Kaminska, B.; Perevalova, E.; Pesaro, G.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pontecorvo, G.; Pretz, J.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.-F.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Richter, A.; Robinet, F.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, H.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizza, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schluter, T.; Schmitt, L.; Schopferer, S.; Schroder, W.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Siebert, H.-W.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.N.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.I.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Takekawa, S.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Tkatchev, L.G.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.V.; Vossen, A.; Weitzel, Q.; Windmolders, R.; Wislicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zhao, J.; Zhuravlev, N.; Zvyagin, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Collins and Sivers asymmetries for charged hadrons produced in deeply inelastic scattering on transversely polarised protons have been extracted from the data collected in 2007 with the CERN SPS muon beam tuned at 160 GeV/c. At large values of the Bjorken x variable non-zero Collins asymmetries are observed both for positive and negative hadrons while the Sivers asymmetry for positive hadrons is slightly positive over almost all the measured x range. These results nicely support the present theoretical interpretation of these asymmetries, in terms of leading-twist quark distribution and fragmentation functions.

  9. Induction of IL-1 during hemodialysis: Transmembrane passage of intact endotoxins (LPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laude-Sharp, M.; Caroff, M.; Simard, L.; Pusineri, C.; Kazatchkine, M.D.; Haeffner-Cavaillon, N. (INSERM U 28, Hopital Broussais, Paris (France))

    1990-12-01

    Circulating monocytes of patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis are triggered to produce interleukin-1 (IL-1) in vivo. Intradialytic induction of IL-1 is associated with complement activation in patients dialyzed with first-use cellulose membranes. Chronic stimulation of IL-1 production occurs because of an yet unidentified mechanism in patients dialyzed with high permeability membranes. The present study demonstrates that intact bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules may cross cuprophan, AN69 and polysulfone membranes under in vitro conditions simulating in vivo hemodialysis. The experiments used purified LPS from Neisseria meningitidis and LPS from Pseudomonas testosteroni, a bacterial strain grown out from a clinically used dialysate. LPS were purified to homogeneity and radiolabeled. Transmembrane passage of 3H-labeled LPS was observed within the first five minutes of dialysis. A total of 0.1 to 1% of 3H-labeled LPS were recovered in the dialysate compartment after one hour of dialysis. High amounts of LPS, representing 40 to 70% of the amount originally present in the dialysate, were absorbed onto high permeability membranes. Low amounts of LPS were absorbed onto cuprophan membranes. The amount of LPS absorbed decreased with the concentration of LPS in the dialysate. LPS recovered from the blood compartment exhibited the same molecular weight as that used to contaminate the dialysate. Biochemically detectable transmembrane passage of LPS was not associated with that of material detectable using the limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. An IL-1-inducing activity was, however, detected in the blood compartment upon dialysis with high permeability membranes, as previously found by others with cuprophan membranes.

  10. Comparing side chain packing in soluble proteins, protein-protein interfaces, and transmembrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, J C; Acebes, S; Virrueta, A; Butler, M; Regan, L; O'Hern, C S

    2018-05-01

    We compare side chain prediction and packing of core and non-core regions of soluble proteins, protein-protein interfaces, and transmembrane proteins. We first identified or created comparable databases of high-resolution crystal structures of these 3 protein classes. We show that the solvent-inaccessible cores of the 3 classes of proteins are equally densely packed. As a result, the side chains of core residues at protein-protein interfaces and in the membrane-exposed regions of transmembrane proteins can be predicted by the hard-sphere plus stereochemical constraint model with the same high prediction accuracies (>90%) as core residues in soluble proteins. We also find that for all 3 classes of proteins, as one moves away from the solvent-inaccessible core, the packing fraction decreases as the solvent accessibility increases. However, the side chain predictability remains high (80% within 30°) up to a relative solvent accessibility, rSASA≲0.3, for all 3 protein classes. Our results show that ≈40% of the interface regions in protein complexes are "core", that is, densely packed with side chain conformations that can be accurately predicted using the hard-sphere model. We propose packing fraction as a metric that can be used to distinguish real protein-protein interactions from designed, non-binding, decoys. Our results also show that cores of membrane proteins are the same as cores of soluble proteins. Thus, the computational methods we are developing for the analysis of the effect of hydrophobic core mutations in soluble proteins will be equally applicable to analyses of mutations in membrane proteins. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Role of the vaccinia virus O3 protein in cell entry can be fulfilled by its Sequence flexible transmembrane domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheshkumar, P.S.; Chavre, James; Moss, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The vaccinia virus O3 protein, a component of the entry–fusion complex, is encoded by all chordopox-viruses. We constructed truncation mutants and demonstrated that the transmembrane domain, which comprises two-thirds of this 35 amino acid protein, is necessary and sufficient for interaction with the entry–fusion complex and function in cell entry. Nevertheless, neither single amino acid substitutions nor alanine scanning mutagenesis revealed essential amino acids within the transmembrane domain. Moreover, replication-competent mutant viruses were generated by randomization of 10 amino acids of the transmembrane domain. Of eight unique viruses, two contained only two amino acids in common with wild type and the remainder contained one or none within the randomized sequence. Although these mutant viruses formed normal size plaques, the entry–fusion complex did not co-purify with the mutant O3 proteins suggesting a less stable interaction. Thus, despite low specific sequence requirements, the transmembrane domain is sufficient for function in entry. PMID:23816434

  12. A monocyte chemotaxis inhibiting factor in serum of HIV infected men shares epitopes with the HIV transmembrane protein gp41

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, M.; Drexhage, H. A.; Goudsmit, J.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes that gp41, the transmembranous envelope protein of HIV, is able to inhibit monocyte chemotaxis (measured as FMLP-induced polarization). To study the presence of such immunosuppressive HIV env proteins in the circulation of HIV-infected men, fractions were prepared from serum

  13. Localization of the transmembrane proteoglycan syndecan-4 and its regulatory kinases in costameres of rat cardiomyocytes: a deconvolution microscopic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    VanWinkle, W Barry; Snuggs, Mark B; De Hostos, Eugenio L

    2002-01-01

    Syndecan-4 (syn-4), a transmembrane heparan sulfate-containing proteoglycan, is unique among the four members of the syndecan family in its specific cellular localization to complex cytoskeletal adhesion sites, i.e., focal adhesions. During early phenotypic redifferentiation of neonatal cardiomyo...

  14. Impact of signal peptide and transmembrane segments on expression and biochemical properties of a lipase from Bacillus sphaericus 205y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masomian, Malihe; Jasni, Azmiza Syawani; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Basri, Mahiran

    2017-12-20

    A total of 97 amino acids, considered as the signal peptide and transmembrane segments were removed from 205y lipase gene using polymerase chain reaction technique that abolished the low activity of this enzyme. The mature enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli using pBAD expression vector, which gave up to a 13-fold increase in lipase activity. The mature 205y lipase (without signal peptide and transmembrane; -SP/TM) was purified to homogeneity using the isoelectric focusing technique with 53% recovery. Removing of the signal peptide and transmembrane segments had resulted in the shift of optimal pH, an increase in optimal temperature and tolerance towards more water-miscible organic solvents as compared to the characteristics of open reading frame (ORF) of 205y lipase. Also, in the presence of 1mM inhibitors, less decrease in the activity of mature 205y lipase was observed compared to the ORF of the enzyme. Protein structure modeling showed that 205y lipase consisted of an α/β hydrolase fold without lid domain. However, the transmembrane segment could effect on the enzyme activity by covering the active site or aggregation the protein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of the GXXXG motif in the first transmembrane segment of Japanese encephalitis virus precursor membrane (prM protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Suh-Chin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The interaction between prM and E proteins in flavivirus-infected cells is a major driving force for the assembly of flavivirus particles. We used site-directed mutagenesis to study the potential role of the transmembrane domains of the prM proteins of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV in prM-E heterodimerization as well as subviral particle formation. Alanine insertion scanning mutagenesis within the GXXXG motif in the first transmembrane segment of JEV prM protein affected the prM-E heterodimerization; its specificity was confirmed by replacing the two glycines of the GXXXG motif with alanine, leucine and valine. The GXXXG motif was found to be conserved in the JEV serocomplex viruses but not other flavivirus groups. These mutants with alanine inserted in the two prM transmembrane segments all impaired subviral particle formation in cell cultures. The prM transmembrane domains of JEV may play importation roles in prM-E heterodimerization and viral particle assembly.

  16. A calcium-sensing receptor mutation causing hypocalcemia disrupts a transmembrane salt bridge to activate β-arrestin-biased signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorvin, Caroline M.; Babinsky, Valerie N.; Malinauskas, Tomas

    2018-01-01

    SR mutation selectively enhanced β-arrestin signaling by disrupting a salt bridge formed between Arg680 and Glu767, which are located in CaSR transmembrane domain 3 and extracellular loop 2, respectively. Thus, our results demonstrate CaSR signaling through β-arrestin and the importance of the Arg680-Glu767...... salt bridge in mediating signaling bias....

  17. A bioluminescence resonance energy transfer 2 (BRET2) assay for monitoring seven transmembrane receptor and insulin receptor crosstalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanni, Samra Joke; Kulahin, Nikolaj; Jorgensen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    The angiotensin AT1 receptor is a seven transmembrane (7TM) receptor, which mediates the regulation of blood pressure. Activation of angiotensin AT1 receptor may lead to impaired insulin signaling indicating crosstalk between angiotensin AT1 receptor and insulin receptor signaling pathways. To el...

  18. Brain asymmetry in the white matter making and globularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantina eTheofanopoulou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies from the field of language genetics and evolutionary anthropology have put forward the hypothesis that the emergence of our species-specific brain is to be understood not in terms of size, but in light of developmental changes that gave rise to a more globular braincase configuration after the split from Neanderthals-Denisovans. On the grounds that (i white matter myelination is delayed relative to other brain structures and in humans is protracted compared with other primates and (ii neural connectivity is linked genetically to our brain/skull morphology and language-ready brain, I take it that one significant evolutionary change in Homo sapiens’ lineage is the interhemispheric connectivity mediated by the Corpus Callosum. The size, myelination and fiber caliber of the Corpus Callosum presents an anterior-to-posterior increase, in a way that inter-hemispheric connectivity is more prominent in the sensory motor areas, whereas high- order areas are more intra-hemispherically connected. Building on evidence from language-processing studies that account for this asymmetry (‘lateralization’ in terms of brain rhythms, I present an evo-devo hypothesis according to which the myelination of the Corpus Callosum, Brain Asymmetry and Globularity are conjectured to make up the angles of a co-evolutionary triangle that gave rise to our language-ready brain.

  19. SIDIS transverse spin azimuthal asymmetries at COMPASS: Multidimensional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Parsamyan, Bakur

    2015-01-01

    Exploration of transverse spin structure of the nucleon via study of the spin (in)dependent azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) and Drell-Yan (DY) reactions is one of the main aspects of the broad physics program of the COMPASS experiment (CERN, Switzerland). In past decade COMPASS has collected a considerable amount of polarized deuteron and proton SIDIS data while 2014 and 2015 runs were dedicated to the Drell-Yan measurements. Results on SIDIS azimuthal effects provided so far by COMPASS play an important role in general understanding of the three-dimensional nature of the nucleon. Giving access to the entire "twist-2" set of transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions (PDFs) and fragmentation functions (FFs) COMPASS data are being widely used in phenomenological analyses and experimental data fits. Recent unique and first ever x-$Q^{2}$-z-pT multidimensional results for transverse spin asymmetries obtained by COMPASS serve as a direct and unprece...

  20. First observation of the parity violaing asymmetry in moller scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younus, Imran [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    2003-11-01

    This thesis reports on the E158 experiment at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), which has made the first observation of the parity non-conserving asymmetry in Moller scattering. Longitudinally polarized 48 GeV electrons are scattered off unpolarized (atomic) electrons in a liquid hydrogen target with an average Q2 of 0.027 GeV2. The asymmetry in this process is proportional to ( 1 4 ₋ sin2 θW), where sin2 =W gives the weak mixing angle. The thesis describes the experiment in detail, with a particular focus on the design and construction of the electromagnetic calorimeter. This calorimeter was the primary detector in the experiment used to measure the flux of the scattered Moller electrons and eP electrons. It employed the quartz fiber calorimetry technique, and was built at Syracuse University. The preliminary results from the first experimental data taken in spring 2002 give APV = ₋151.9±29.0(stat)±32.5(syst) parts per billion. This in turn gives sin2θW = 0.

  1. Asymmetry of mass and charge division in spontaneous fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, P.P.; Iyer, M.R.; Ganguly, A.K.

    The order-disorder model (ODM) has been used to explain asymmetry of mass and charge division and related phenomena in fission. According to this model the fission process involves two steps consisting of charge polarisation into two impending fragments with beta stable neutron numbers and subsequent distribution of the balance neutrons between the two. The statistics developed on the principle of equal a priori probability of all charge polarisation is used. The shell effects comes into play only in deciding stable neutron number for the charges. The total isotopic yield distribution for a number of fission reactions are presented. These show asymmetry in the actinide region which reduces with increasing mass/charge of the fissioning nuclide and bunching of the higher z peaks. The mass yields obtained therefrom for a number of fission reactions are compared with experimental results. Though there is general agreement with experimental data, the peaks of the distributions are slightly shifted away from the symmetric point and the distributions are somewhat narrower. Charge distribution parameters obtained from these results are also presented. The model predicts preference of asymmetric division for super heavy nuclides. (author)

  2. Spin Asymmetries on Nucleon Experiment at Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spin Asymmetries of the Nucleon Experiment (SANE) of Jefferson Lab is a comprehensive measurement of double spin asymmetries of the proton for both parallel and almost perpendicular spin configurations of the proton spin and the electron beam polarization directions. The experiment will provide both spin structure functions, g2 and g1 and spin observable A2 and A1 of the proton over Q2 region from 2.5 to 6.5 GeV2/c2 and Bjorken x region of 0.3 to 0.8. Using the polarized electron beam of Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and the polarized frozen NH3 target, the data were taken early 2009 in Hall C of Jefferson Lab. Scattered electrons from the inclusive reaction were detected by the Big Electron Telescope Array (BETA), a new non-magnetic detector with a large acceptance of 194 msr. The current analysis effort is focused on the proton spin structure functions g2 and g1. Physics motivations with the experimental methods will be presented with an overvew of the current status of the data analysis.

  3. Baryon asymmetry from leptogenesis with four zero neutrino Yukawa textures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikary, Biswajit; Ghosal, Ambar; Roy, Probir, E-mail: biswajit.adhikary@saha.ac.in, E-mail: ambar.ghosal@saha.ac.in, E-mail: probir.roy@saha.ac.in [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2011-01-01

    The generation of the right amount of baryon asymmetry η of the Universe from supersymmetric leptogenesis is studied within the type-I seesaw framework with three heavy singlet Majorana neutrinos N{sub i} (i = 1,2,3) and their superpartners. We assume the occurrence of four zeroes in the neutrino Yukawa coupling matrix Y{sub ν}, taken to be μτ symmetric, in the weak basis where N{sub i} (with real masses M{sub i} > 0) and the charged leptons l{sub α} (α = e,μ,τ) are mass diagonal. The quadrant of the single nontrivial phase, allowed in the corresponding light neutrino mass matrix m{sub ν}, gets fixed and additional constraints ensue from the requirement of matching η with its observed value. Special attention is paid to flavor effects in the washout of the lepton asymmetry. We also comment on the role of small departures from high scale μτ symmetry due to RG evolution.

  4. Hemispheric asymmetries and gender influence Rembrandt's portrait orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirillo, J A

    2000-01-01

    For centuries painters have predominantly painted portraits with the model's left-cheek facing the viewer. This has been even more prevalent with females ( approximately 68%) than males ( approximately 56%). Numerous portraits painted by Rembrandt typify this unexplained phenomenon. In a preliminary experiment, subjects judged 24 emotional and social character traits in 20 portraits by Rembrandt. A factor analysis revealed that females with their left cheek exposed were judged to be much less socially appealing than less commonly painted right-cheeked females. Conversely, the more commonly painted right-cheeked males were judged to be more socially appealing than either left-cheeked males or females facing either direction. It is hypothesized that hemispheric asymmetries regulating emotional facial displays of approach and avoidance influenced the side of the face Rembrandt's models exposed due to prevailing social norms. A second experiment had different subjects judge a different collection of 20 portraits by Rembrandt and their mirror images. Mirror-reversed images produced the same pattern of results as their original orientation counterparts. Consequently, hemispheric asymmetries that specify the emotional expression on each side of the face are posited to account for the obtained results.

  5. A new “culprit” for matter-antimatter asymmetry

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2013-01-01

    In our matter-dominated Universe, the observation of new processes showing matter-antimatter asymmetry allows scientists to test their theories and, possibly, to explore new territories. The LHCb collaboration has recently observed matter-antimatter asymmetries in the decays of the B0s meson, which thus becomes the fourth particle known to present such behaviour.   The VELO detector: a crucial element for particle identifiation in LHCb. Almost all physics processes known to scientists show perfect symmetry if a particle is interchanged with its antiparticle (C symmetry), and then if left and right are swapped (P symmetry). So it becomes very hard to explain why the Universe itself does not conform to this symmetry and, instead, shows a huge preference for matter. Processes that violate this symmetry are rare and of great interest to scientists. Violation of the CP symmetry in neutral kaons was first observed by Nobel Prize Laureates James Cronin and Val Fitch in the 1960s. About 40 years la...

  6. Measurement of CP asymmetries in neutralino production at the ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittel, O.; Rolbiecki, K.; Terwort, M.; Schade, P.

    2011-08-01

    We study the prospects to measure the CP-sensitive triple-product asymmetries in neutralino production e + e - → χ 0 i χ 0 1 and subsequent leptonic twobody decays χ 0 i → l R l, l R → χ 0 1 l for l=e,μ within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. We include a full detector simulation of the International Large Detector for the International Linear Collider. The simulation was performed at a center of mass energy of √(s)=500 GeV, including the relevant Standard Model background processes, a realistic beam energy spectrum, beam backgrounds and a beam polarization of 80% and -60% for the electron and positron beams, respectively. In order to effectively disentangle different signal samples and reduce SM and SUSY backgrounds we apply a method of kinematic reconstruction. Assuming an integrated luminosity of 500 fb -1 collected by the experiment and the performance of the current ILD detector, we arrive at a relative measurement accuracy of 10% for the CP-sensitive asymmetry in our scenario. (orig.)

  7. An observational study of foot lifts asymmetry during obstacle avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjawal Singh Tomar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Specific information regarding obstacle-clearance strategies used by community-dwelling young and elderly is scant in the literature, and physical barriers encountered in real-life situations have not been used in most of the studies. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine foot lift asymmetry during obstacle avoidance in young and elderly subjects. Settings and Design: This was an observational study. Materials and Methods: Thirty elderly and 30 young individuals were taken for the study. All the subjects were evaluated using different scales and foot lift asymmetry was measured on a walkway using three obstacles of different heights. Results: The mean and standard deviation (SD value of the asymmetric index of the young was 3.25±0.28 and the mean and SD value of the asymmetric index of the elderly was 3.53±0.47. The asymmetric index of the elderly population was found to be higher than that of the younger population. Conclusion: The asymmetric index of the elderly population was found to be higher than that of the younger population, though it is not clinically significant.

  8. Standard Model CP-violation and baryon asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Gavela, M.B.; Orloff, J.; Pene, O.

    1994-01-01

    Simply based on CP arguments, we argue against a Standard Model explanation of the baryon asymmetry of the universe in the presence of a first order phase transition. A CP-asymmetry is found in the reflection coefficients of quarks hitting the phase boundary created during the electroweak transition. The problem is analyzed both in an academic zero temperature case and in the realistic finite temperature one. The building blocks are similar in both cases: Kobayashi-Maskawa CP-violation, CP-even phases in the reflection coefficients of quarks, and physical transitions due to fermion self-energies. In both cases an effect is present at order $\\alpha_W^2$ in rate. A standard GIM behaviour is found as intuitively expected. In the finite temperature case, a crucial role is played by the damping rate of quasi-particles in a hot plasma, which is a relevant scale together with $M_W$ and the temperature. The effect is many orders of magnitude below what observation requires, and indicates that non standard physics is ...

  9. Is "circling" behavior in humans related to postural asymmetry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Bestaven

    Full Text Available In attempting to walk rectilinearly in the absence of visual landmarks, persons will gradually turn in a circle to eventually become lost. The aim of the present study was to provide insights into the possible underlying mechanisms of this behavior. For each subject (N = 15 six trajectories were monitored during blindfolded walking in a large enclosed area to suppress external cues, and ground irregularities that may elicit unexpected changes in direction. There was a substantial variability from trial to trial for a given subject and between subjects who could either veer very early or relatively late. Of the total number of trials, 50% trajectories terminated on the left side, 39% on the right side and 11% were defined as "straight". For each subject, we established a "turning score" that reflected his/her preferential side of veering. The turning score was found to be unrelated to any evident biomechanical asymmetry or functional dominance (eye, hand.... Posturographic analysis, used to assess if there was a relationship between functional postural asymmetry and veering revealed that the mean position of the center of foot pressure during balance tests was correlated with the turning score. Finally, we established that the mean position of the center of pressure was correlated with perceived verticality assessed by a subjective verticality test. Together, our results suggest that veering is related to a "sense of straight ahead" that could be shaped by vestibular inputs.

  10. Restoring autonomy. Symmetry and asymmetry in care relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frits De Lange

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In this article the complexity of a professional care relationship as a whole of symmetrical and asymmetrical, formal and informal dimensions, is presented. Its ethical simplicity, however, is safeguarded as long as the

    telos of a care relationship is seen as the restoration of the autonomy of the care receiver. Autonomy is interpreted as the capability of persons to develop their uniqueness throughout their life course. The undeniable asymmetry of the care relationship is an essential, but temporary moment in its dynamics. The dynamics of a care relationship corresponds to the heart of the Christian ethos: in the Christian narrative, the asymmetry of humiliation precedes the exaltation, understood as the restoration of human dignity as ‘living upright’. The theological concept of exaltation can be interpreted as God’s ‘care for autonomy’ in a ethics of care.

     

     

  11. Molecular Asymmetry in Prebiotic Chemistry: An Account from Meteorites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pizzarello

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbonaceous Chondrite (CC meteorites are fragments of asteroids, solar planetesimals that never became large enough to separate matter by their density, like terrestrial planets. CC contains various amounts of organic carbon and carry a record of chemical evolution as it came to be in the Solar System, at the time the Earth was formed and before the origins of life. We review this record as it pertains to the chiral asymmetry determined for several organic compounds in CC, which reaches a broad molecular distribution and enantiomeric excesses of up to 50%–60%. Because homochirality is an indispensable attribute of extant polymers and these meteoritic enantiomeric excesses are still, to date, the only case of chiral asymmetry in organic molecules measured outside the biosphere, the possibility of an exogenous delivery of primed prebiotic compounds to early Earth from meteorites is often proposed. Whether this exogenous delivery held a chiral advantage in molecular evolution remains an open question, as many others regarding the origins of life are.

  12. Separate T, CP, CPT Asymmetries in Neutral Meson Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabéu, José

    2017-07-01

    Symmetries, and Symmetry Breakings, in the Laws of Physics play a crucial role in Fundamental Science. Parity and Charge Conjugation Violations prompted the consideration of Chiral Fields in the construction of the Standard Model, whereas CP-Violation needed at least three families of Quarks leading to Flavour Physics. In this Lecture I will discuss the Conceptual Basis and the present experimental results for a Direct Evidence of Separate Reversal-in-Time T, CP and CPT Genuine Asymmetries in Decaying Particles like Neutral Meson Transitions, using Quantum Entanglement and the Decay as a Filtering Measurement. The eight transitions associated to the Flavour-CP eigenstate decay products of entangled neutral mesons have demonstrated with impressive significance a separate evidence of TRV and CPV in Bd-physics, whereas a CPTV asymmetry shows a 2-σ effect interpreted as an upper limit. Novel CPTV observables are discussed for K and Bd transitions. Their observation would lead to a change of paradigm beyond Quantum Field Theory, however there is nothing in Quantum Mechanics forbidding CPTV. A clean methodology to disentangle CPTV effects in the Hamiltonian dynamics and the ω-effect weakening Entanglement in a given experiment is discussed.

  13. Measurement of CP asymmetries in neutralino production at the ILC

    CERN Document Server

    Kittel, O; Rolbiecki, K; Schade, P; Terwort, M

    2012-01-01

    We study the prospects to measure the CP-sensitive triple-product asymmetries in neutralino production e+e- -> ~chi^0_i ~chi^0_1 and subsequent leptonic two-body decays ~chi^0_i -> ~l_R l, ~l_R -> ~chi^0_1 l, for l=e, mu, within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. We include a full detector simulation of the International Large Detector for the International Linear Collider. The simulation was performed at a center of mass energy of sqrt{s}=500 GeV, including the relevant Standard Model background processes, a realistic beam energy spectrum, beam backgrounds and a beam polarization of 80% and -60% for the electron and positron beams, respectively. In order to effectively disentangle different signal samples and reduce SM and SUSY backgrounds we apply a method of kinematic reconstruction. Assuming an integrated luminosity of 500 fb^-1 collected by the experiment and the performance of the current ILD detector, we arrive at a relative measurement accuracy of 10% for the CP-sensitive asymmetry in our scen...

  14. Preferred axis of CMB parity asymmetry in the masked maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Cheng [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhao, Wen, E-mail: wzhao7@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory for Researches in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Huang, Qing-Guo [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Santos, Larissa [CAS Key Laboratory for Researches in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2016-06-10

    Both WMAP and Planck data show a significant odd-multipole preference in the large scales of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies. If this pattern originates from cosmological effects, then it can be considered a crucial clue for a violation in the cosmological principle. By defining various direction dependent statistics in the full-sky Planck 2015 maps (see, for instance, Naselsky et al. (2012); W. Zhao (2014)), we found that the CMB parity asymmetry has a preferred direction, which is independent of the choices of the statistics. In particular, this preferred axis is strongly aligned with those in the CMB quadrupole and octopole, as well as that in the CMB kinematic dipole, which hints to their non-cosmological origin. In realistic observations, the foreground residuals are inevitable, and should be properly masked out in order to avoid possible misinterpretation of the results. In this paper, we extend our previous analyses to the masked Planck 2015 data. By defining a similar direction dependent statistic in the masked map, we find a preferred direction of the CMB parity asymmetry, in which the axis also coincides with that found in the full-sky analysis. Therefore, our conclusions on the CMB parity violation and its directional properties are confirmed.

  15. Dependence of enhanced asymmetry-induced transport on collision frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggleston, D. L.

    2014-01-01

    A single-particle code with collisional effects is used to study how asymmetry-induced radial transport in a non-neutral plasma depends on collision frequency. For asymmetries of the form ϕ 1 (r) cos(kz) cos(ωt−lθ), two sources for the transport have been identified: resonant particles and axially trapped particles. The simulation shows that this latter type, which occurs near the radius where ω matches the azimuthal rotation frequency ω R , is usually dominant at low collision frequency ν but becomes negligible at higher ν. This behavior can be understood by noting that axially trapped particles have a lower trapping frequency than resonant particles. In the low ν (banana) regime, the radial oscillations have amplitude Δr ≈ v r /ω T , so axially trapped particles dominate, and the transport may even exceed the resonant particle plateau regime level. As ν increases, collisions start to interrupt the slower axially trapped particle oscillations, while the resonant particles are still in the banana regime, so the axially trapped particle contribution to the transport decreases. At the largest ν values, axially trapped particle transport is negligible and the observed diffusion coefficient matches that given by plateau regime resonant particle theory. Heuristic models based on these considerations give reasonable agreement with the observed scaling laws for the value of the collision frequency where axially trapped particle transport starts to decrease and for the enhancement of the diffusion coefficient produced by axially trapped particles

  16. Femoral rotational asymmetry is a common anatomical variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Christopher R; Walter, William L; Talbot, Simon

    2018-01-23

    The sulcus line (SL) is a three-dimensional landmark that corrects for individual variation in the coronal alignment of the trochlear groove in contrast to the traditional Whiteside's line (WL). Femoral rotational asymmetry (FRA) is an anatomical variation in which the posterior condyles and trochlear groove are not perpendicular to each other. This study aims to measure the SL and assess its reliability relative to WL, in addition to measuring and classifying the FRA. A retrospective analysis of a series of 191 CT scans of nonarthritic knees was performed. Measurements were taken of rotational landmarks in three-dimensional reconstructions. The variability and outlier rate of SL was less than WL (P axis (SEA) (P > 0.05), however it decreased the rate of change of the rotational alignment of the trochlear groove between the native knee and the prosthetic knee from 31% to 5% (P 5° in 56/191 (29%) of cases. The SL technique is more accurate than WL for determining the rotational alignment of the trochlear groove. Nonarthritic femora have a high rate of rotational asymmetry. Identifying and classifying FRA in individual cases allows the femoral component to be inserted in a position which gives the best possible match to both the native posterior condyles and trochlear groove. Clin. Anat., 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. $\\beta$ - decay asymmetry in mirror nuclei: A = 9

    CERN Multimedia

    Axelsson, L E; Smedberg, M

    2002-01-01

    Investigations of light nuclei close to the drip lines have revealed new and intriguing features of the nuclear structure. The occurrence of halo structures in loosely bound systems has had a great impact on the nuclear physics research in the last years. As intriguing but not yet solved is the nature of transitions with very large $\\beta$ - strength. \\\\ \\\\We report here on the investigation of this latter feature by an accurate measurement of the $\\beta$ - decay asymmetry between the mirror nuclei in the A=9 mass chain.\\\\ \\\\The possible asymmetry for the decay to the states around 12 MeV is interesting not only due to the fact that the individual B$_{GT}$ values are large (with large overlap in wave-functions, an unambiguous interpretation is much easier made), but also due to the special role played by this transition for the $^{9}$Li decay. It seems to belong to a class of high-B$_{GT}$ transitions observed at the neutron drip line and has been suggested to be due either to a lowering of the giant Gamow-Te...

  18. The role of perceptual reference frames in visual field asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, L C; Lamb, M R

    1988-01-01

    The direct access model of hemispheric asymmetry was tested in a letter reflection (normal of reflected) judgement task. In the baseline condition letters were presented in their upright orientation, and reaction times were faster to letters presented in the right visual field than to those presented in the left visual field. In two other conditions the slides, and thus the letters, were rotated +90 degrees clockwise (Rotated +90) from upright or -90 degrees counterclockwise (Rotated -90). This resulted in the letters in both rotated conditions being shown in the upper or lower visual field through the sagittal plane but rotated 90 degrees. Despite this fact a "right field" advantage was again found when the right field was defined relative to the orientation of the tops of the rotated letters (lower visual field in the Rotated +90 condition and upper visual field in the Rotated -90 condition). These results demonstrate that the internal representation of locations in space is more important in predicting visual field asymmetries, at least in the present task, than the field of stimulus presentation relative to the fovea.

  19. Energy asymmetry in melting and solidifying processes of PCM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Xing; Hu, Huoyan; Shi, Xing; Zhang, Xiaosong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The melting process and the solidifying process of PCM were asymmetrical. • The enthalpy and state of PCM were affected by its previous state. • The main reason for energy asymmetry of PCM was supercooling. - Abstract: The solidifying process of phase change material (PCM) was usually recognized as the exact inverse process of its melting process, especially when building the heat transfer model of PCM. To figure out that whether the melting process and the solidifying process of PCM were symmetrical, several kinds of PCMs were tested by a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) in this paper. The experimental results showed that no matter using the DSC dynamic measurement method or the DSC step measurement method, the melting process and the solidifying process of PCM were asymmetrical. Because of the energy asymmetry in the melting and solidifying processes of PCM, it was also found that the enthalpy and the state of PCM were not only dependent on its temperature, but also affected by its “previous state”.

  20. Moduli induced cogenesis of baryon asymmetry and dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansi Dhuria

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We study a cogenesis mechanism in which the observed baryon asymmetry of the universe and the dark matter abundance can be produced simultaneously at low reheating temperature without violating baryon number in the fundamental interactions. In particular, we consider a model which can be realized in the context of type IIB large volume string compactifications. The matter superfields in this model include additional pairs of color triplet and singlet superfields in addition to the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM superfields. Assuming that the mass of the additional singlet fermions is O(GeV and of the color triplet fermions is O(TeV, we show that the modulus dominantly decays into the additional color triplet superfields. After soft supersymmetry (SUSY breaking, the lightest eigenstate of scalar component of color triplet superfield further decays into fermionic component of singlet superfield and quarks without violating baryon number. Imposing discrete Z2 symmetry, it follows that the singlet fermion will not further decay into the SM particles and therefore it can be considered as a stable asymmetric dark matter (ADM component. We find that the decay of the lightest eigenstate of scalar component of color triplet superfield gives the observed baryon asymmetry in the visible sector, an asymmetric dark matter component with the right abundance and naturally explains cosmic coincidence.

  1. Identification of MarvelD3 as a tight junction-associated transmembrane protein of the occludin family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balda Maria S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tight junctions are an intercellular adhesion complex of epithelial and endothelial cells, and form a paracellular barrier that restricts the diffusion of solutes on the basis of size and charge. Tight junctions are formed by multiprotein complexes containing cytosolic and transmembrane proteins. How these components work together to form functional tight junctions is still not well understood and will require a complete understanding of the molecular composition of the junction. Results Here we identify a new transmembrane component of tight junctions: MarvelD3, a four-span transmembrane protein. Its predicted transmembrane helices form a Marvel (MAL and related proteins for vesicle traffic and membrane link domain, a structural motif originally discovered in proteins involved in membrane apposition and fusion events, such as the tight junction proteins occludin and tricellulin. In mammals, MarvelD3 is expressed as two alternatively spliced isoforms. Both isoforms exhibit a broad tissue distribution and are expressed by different types of epithelial as well as endothelial cells. MarvelD3 co-localises with occludin at tight junctions in intestinal and corneal epithelial cells. RNA interference experiments in Caco-2 cells indicate that normal MarvelD3 expression is not required for the formation of functional tight junctions but depletion results in monolayers with increased transepithelial electrical resistance. Conclusions Our data indicate that MarvelD3 is a third member of the tight junction-associated occludin family of transmembrane proteins. Similar to occludin, normal expression of MarvelD3 is not essential for the formation of functional tight junctions. However, MarvelD3 functions as a determinant of epithelial paracellular permeability properties.

  2. Molecular cloning and tissue-specific expression analysis of mouse spinesin, a type II transmembrane serine protease 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Okui, Akira; Mitsui, Shinichi; Kawarabuki, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Tatsuyuki; Uemura, Hidetoshi; Yamaguchi, Nozomi

    2004-01-01

    We have previously reported novel serine proteases isolated from cDNA libraries of the human and mouse central nervous system (CNS) by PCR using degenerate oligodeoxyribonucleotide primers designed on the basis of the serine protease motifs, AAHC and DSGGP. Here we report a newly isolated serine protease from the mouse CNS. This protease is homologous (77.9% identical) to human spinesin type II transmembrane serine protease 5. Mouse spinesin (m-spinesin) is also composed of (from the N-terminus) a short cytoplasmic domain, a transmembrane domain, a stem region containing a scavenger-receptor-like domain, and a serine protease domain, as is h-spinesin. We also isolated type 1, type 2, and type 3 variant cDNAs of m-spinesin. Full-length spinesin (type 4) and type 3 contain all the domains, whereas type 1 and type 2 variants lack the cytoplasmic, transmembrane, and scavenger-receptor-like domains. Subcellular localization of the variant forms was analyzed using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fusion proteins. EGFP-type 4 fusion protein was predominantly localized to the ER, Golgi apparatus, and plasma membrane, whereas EGFP-type 1 was localized to the cytoplasm, reflecting differential classification of m-spinesin variants into transmembrane and cytoplasmic types. We analyzed the distribution of m-spinesin variants in mouse tissues, using RT-PCR with variant-specific primer sets. Interestingly, transmembrane-type spinesin, types 3 and 4, was specifically expressed in the spinal cord, whereas cytoplasmic type, type 1, was expressed in multiple tissues, including the cerebrum and cerebellum. Therefore, m-spinesin variants may have distinct biological functions arising from organ-specific variant expression

  3. Quadriceps strength asymmetry predicts loading asymmetry during sit-to-stand task in patients with unilateral total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnahdi, Ali H; Zeni, Joseph A; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to examine interlimb differences in muscle strength and sit-to-stand (STS) kinetics in persons who underwent unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and to determine whether knee pain, quadriceps or hip abductor weakness contributes to altered STS performance. It was hypothesized that the operated limb would have weaker muscles, lower mechanical loading and that operated knee pain and muscle strength symmetry would predict loading symmetry between limbs during STS. One hundred and forty-two patients, 6 or 12 months post-unilateral TKA, underwent 3D motion analysis (VICON) of the STS task and isometric strength testing of the quadriceps and hip abductors. Knee pain was also quantified using a question from the Knee Outcome Survey-Activities of Daily Living Scale. The operated limb had weaker quadriceps (P lower hip (P = 0.004) and knee extension moments (P lower vertical ground reaction forces (P strength symmetry were related to symmetry in knee extension moment (P strength symmetry was related to symmetry in vertical ground reaction forces (P = 0.03), 1 year after surgery. Patients with unilateral TKA unload the operated limb and shift the mechanical load to the joints of the contralateral limb even 1 year after surgery. Knee pain and quadriceps strength asymmetry may play a role in the asymmetrical loading during STS post-TKA. Clinicians should consider addressing these modifiable impairments to resolve the loading asymmetry. III.

  4. Differences in kinetic asymmetry between injured and noninjured novice runners : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredeweg, S. W.; Buist, I.; Kluitenberg, B.

    Purpose: The purpose of this prospective study was to describe natural levels of asymmetry in running, compare levels of asymmetry between injured and noninjured novice runners and compare kinetic variables between the injured and noninjured lower limb within the novice runners with an injury.

  5. Double Sivers effect asymmetries and their impact on transversity measurements at RHIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Daniel; den Dunnen, Wilco J.; Kotzinian, Aram

    2011-01-01

    We study double transverse spin asymmetries in the Drell-Yan process at measured transverse momentum of the lepton pair. Contrary to what a collinear factorization approach would suggest, a nonzero double transverse spin asymmetry in the laboratory frame a priori does not imply nonzero transversity.

  6. The functional role of individual-alpha based frontal asymmetry in stress responding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaedflieg, C.W.E.M.; Meyer, T.; Smulders, F.T.Y.; Smeets, T.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Asymmetry in frontal electrical activity has been suggested to index tendencies in affective responding and thus may be associated with hormonal stress responses. To assess the functional role of frontal asymmetry (FA) in stress, we measured FA at rest and following exposure to acute stress induced

  7. A new measurement of the Collins and Sivers asymmetries on a transversely polarised deuteron target

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ageev, E.; Alexakhin, V.; Alexandrov, Y.; Alexeev, G.; Amoroso, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Berglund, P.; Bernet, C.; Bertini, R.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Burtin, E.; Bussa, M.; Bytchkov, V.; Cerini, L.; Chapiro, A.; Cicuttin, A.; Colantoni, M.; Colavita, A.; Costa, S.; Crespo, M.; d'Hose, N.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; De Masi, R.; Dedek, N.; Denisov, O.; Dhara, L.; Diaz Kavka, V.; Dinkelbach, A.; Dolgopolov, A.; Donskov, S.; Dorofeev, V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Ehlers, J.; Eversheim, P.; Eyrich, W.; Fabro, M.; Faessler, M.; Falaleev, V.; Fauland, P.; Ferrero, A.; Ferrero, L.; Finger, M.; Finger jr., M.; Fischer, H.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, J.; Frolov, V.; Fuchs, U.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorin, A.; Grajek, O.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Grünemaier, A.; Hannappel, J.; von Harrach, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Hedicke, S.; Heinsius, F.; Hermann, R.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; von Hodenberg, M.; Horikawa, N.; Horikawa, S.; Ijaduola, R.; Ilgner, C.; Ioukaev, A.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Janata, A.; Joosten, R.; Jouravlev, N. I.; Kabuss, E.; Kalinnikov, V.; Kang, D.; Karstens, F.; Kastaun, W.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.; Khokhlov, Y.; Khomutov, N.; Kisselev, Y.; Klein, F.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.; Kolosov, V.; Komissarov, E.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konoplyannikov, A.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.; Korentchenko, A.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.; Koutchinski, N.; Kowalik, K.; Kravchuk, N.; Krivokhizhin, G.; Kroumchtein, Z.; Kuhn, R.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Ladygin, M.; Lamanna, M.; Le Goff, J.; Leberig, M.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Ludwig, I.; Maggiora, A.; Maggiora, M.; Magnon, A.; Mallot, G.; Manuilov, I.; Marchand, C.; Marroncle, J.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matsuda, T.; Maximov, A.; Medved, K.; Meyer, W.; Mielech, A.; Mikhailov, Y.; Moinester, M.; Nähle, O.; Nassalski, J.; Neliba, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nozdrin, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevsky, A.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Pagano, P.; Panebianco, S.; Panzieri, D.; Paul, S.; Pereira, H.; Peshekhonov, D.; Peshekhonov, V.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Platzer, K.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.; Popov, A.; Pretz, J.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Rebourgeard, P.; Reicherz, G.; Reymann, J.; Rith, K.; Rozhdestvensky, A.; Rondio, E.; Sadovski, A.; Saller, E.; Samoylenko, V.; Sandacz, A.; Sans, M.; Sapozhnikov, M.; Savin, I.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitt, H.; Schmitt, L.; Shevchenko, O.; Shishkin, A.; Siebert, H.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.; Skachkova, A.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.; Sozzi, F.; Sugonyaev, V.; Srnka, Aleš; Stinzing, F.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Takabayashi, N.; Tchalishev, V.; Tassarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Thers, D.; Tkatchev, L.; Toeda, T.; Tretyak, V.; Trousov, S.; Varanda, M.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.; Wagner, M.; Webb, R.; Weise, E.; Weitzel, Q.; Wiedner, U.; Wiesmann, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wirth, S.; Wislicki, W.; Zanetti, A.; Zaremba, K.; Zhao, J.; Ziegler, R.; Zvyagin, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 765, 1-2 (2007), s. 31-70 ISSN 0550-3213 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME 492 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : transversity * deuteron * Collins asymmetry * Sivers asymmetry Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.645, year: 2007

  8. Measurement of the Collins and Sivers asymmetries on transversely polarised protons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alekseev, M.; Alexakhin, V. Yu.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Austregisilio, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, J.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Brona, G.; Burtin, E.; Bussa, M.; Chaberny, D.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Colantoni, M.; Crespo, M.; Dalla Torre, S.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Denisov, O.; Dhara, L.; Diaz, V.; Donskov, S.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Efremov, A.V.; El Alaoui, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Finger jr., M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Friedrich, J.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.; Gazda, R.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Heinsius, F.; Hermann, R.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Höppner, Ch.; d'Hose, N.; Ilgner, C.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jasinski, P.; Jegou, G.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Käfer, W.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.; Khokhlov, Y.; Kisselev, Y.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.; Kolosov, V.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konopka, R.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kowalik, K.; Krämer, M.; Kral, A.; Kroumchtein, Z.; Kuhn, R.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Lauser, L.; Le Goff, J.; Lednev, A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Maggiora, A.; Maggiora, M.; Magnon, A.; Mallot, G.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Massmann, F.; Matsuda, T.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Y.; Moinester, M.; Mutter, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nassalski, J.; Negrini, S.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Pawlukiewicz-Kaminska, B.; Perevalova, E.; Pesaro, G.; Peshekhonov, D.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.; Pontecorvo, G.; Pretz, J.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Richter, A.; Robinet, F.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Ryabchikov, D.; Samoylenko, V.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, H.; Sapozhnikov, M.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schlütter, T.; Schmitt, L.; Schopferer, S.; Schröder, W.; Shevchenko, O.; Siebert, H.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, Aleš; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Takekawa, S.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Tkatchev, L.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.; Vossen, A.; Weitzel, Q.; Windmolders, R.; Wislicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zhao, J.; Zhuravlev, N.; Zvyagin, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 692, č. 4 (2010), s. 240-246 ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 492 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : transverse spin effects * proton * Collins asymmetry * Sivers asymmetry Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 5.255, year: 2010

  9. Human subcortical brain asymmetries in 15,847 people worldwide reveal effects of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadalupe, Tulio; Mathias, Samuel R; vanErp, Theo G M; Whelan, Christopher D; Zwiers, Marcel P; Abe, Yoshinari; Abramovic, Lucija; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Arolt, Volker; Artiges, Eric; Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Baboyan, Vatche G; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bastin, Mark E; Baune, Bernhard T; Blangero, John; Bokde, Arun L W; Boedhoe, Premika S W; Bose, Anushree; Brem, Silvia; Brodaty, Henry; Bromberg, Uli; Brooks, Samantha; Büchel, Christian; Buitelaar, Jan; Calhoun, Vince D; Cannon, Dara M; Cattrell, Anna; Cheng, Yuqi; Conrod, Patricia J; Conzelmann, Annette; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Crivello, Fabrice; Dannlowski, Udo; de Zubicaray, Greig I; de Zwarte, Sonja M C; Deary, Ian J; Desrivières, Sylvane; Doan, Nhat Trung; Donohoe, Gary; Dørum, Erlend S; Ehrlich, Stefan; Espeseth, Thomas; Fernández, Guillén; Flor, Herta; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Frouin, Vincent; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gill, Michael; Suarez, Andrea Gonzalez; Gowland, Penny; Grabe, Hans J; Grotegerd, Dominik; Gruber, Oliver; Hagenaars, Saskia; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hauser, Tobias U; Heinz, Andreas; Hibar, Derrek P; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hoogman, Martine; Howells, Fleur M; Hu, Hao; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Huyser, Chaim; Ittermann, Bernd; Jahanshad, Neda; Jönsson, Erik G; Jurk, Sarah; Kahn, Rene S; Kelly, Sinead; Kraemer, Bernd; Kugel, Harald; Kwon, Jun Soo; Lemaitre, Herve; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Lochner, Christine; Luciano, Michelle; Marquand, Andre F; Martin, Nicholas G; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mataix-Cols, David; Mather, Karen; McDonald, Colm; McMahon, Katie L; Medland, Sarah E; Menchón, José M; Morris, Derek W; Mothersill, Omar; Maniega, Susana Munoz; Mwangi, Benson; Nakamae, Takashi; Nakao, Tomohiro; Narayanaswaamy, Janardhanan C; Nees, Frauke; Nordvik, Jan E; Onnink, A Marten H; Opel, Nils; Ophoff, Roel; Paillère Martinot, Marie-Laure; Papadopoulos Orfanos, Dimitri; Pauli, Paul; Paus, Tomáš; Poustka, Luise; Reddy, Janardhan Yc; Renteria, Miguel E; Roiz-Santiáñez, Roberto; Roos, Annerine; Royle, Natalie A; Sachdev, Perminder; Sánchez-Juan, Pascual; Schmaal, Lianne; Schumann, Gunter; Shumskaya, Elena; Smolka, Michael N; Soares, Jair C; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Stein, Dan J; Strike, Lachlan T; Toro, Roberto; Turner, Jessica A; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Uhlmann, Anne; Hernández, Maria Valdés; van den Heuvel, Odile A; van der Meer, Dennis; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Veltman, Dick J; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Vetter, Nora C; Vuletic, Daniella; Walitza, Susanne; Walter, Henrik; Walton, Esther; Wang, Zhen; Wardlaw, Joanna; Wen, Wei; Westlye, Lars T; Whelan, Robert; Wittfeld, Katharina; Wolfers, Thomas; Wright, Margaret J; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiufeng; Yun, Je-Yeon; Zhao, JingJing; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M; Glahn, David C; Mazoyer, Bernard; Fisher, Simon E; Francks, Clyde

    2017-10-01

    The two hemispheres of the human brain differ functionally and structurally. Despite over a century of research, the extent to which brain asymmetry is influenced by sex, handedness, age, and genetic factors is still controversial. Here we present the largest ever analysis of subcortical brain asymmetries, in a harmonized multi-site study using meta-analysis methods. Volumetric asymmetry of seven subcortical structures was assessed in 15,847 MRI scans from 52 datasets worldwide. There were sex differences in the asymmetry of the globus pallidus and putamen. Heritability estimates, derived from 1170 subjects belonging to 71 extended pedigrees, revealed that additive genetic factors influenced the asymmetry of these two structures and that of the hippocampus and thalamus. Handedness had no detectable effect on subcortical asymmetries, even in this unprecedented sample size, but the asymmetry of the putamen varied with age. Genetic drivers of asymmetry in the hippocampus, thalamus and basal ganglia may affect variability in human cognition, including susceptibility to psychiatric disorders.

  10. Periodic Variation of the North-South Asymmetry of Solar Activity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    periodic behaviour. The present study has been carried out to know the trend of N-S asymmetry in solar activity phenomena after the research works of Verma ... with long term period we have calculated the N-S asymmetry for solar cycles period. Table 1. Shows types of solar activity phenomena, period and their references.

  11. Frontal EEG asymmetry in borderline personality disorder is associated with alexithymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasbeck, Vera; Popkirov, Stoyan; Brüne, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Frontal EEG asymmetry is a widely studied correlate of emotion processing and psychopathology. Recent research suggests that frontal EEG asymmetry during resting state is related to approach/withdrawal motivation and is also found in affective disorders such as major depressive disorder. Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) show aberrant behavior in relation to both approach and withdrawal motivation, which may arguably be associated with their difficulties in emotion processing. The occurrence and significance of frontal EEG asymmetry in BPD, however, has received little attention. Thirty-seven BPD patients and 39 controls underwent resting EEG and completed several psychometric questionnaires. While there were no between-group differences in frontal EEG asymmetry, in BPD frontal EEG asymmetry scores correlated significantly with alexithymia. That is, higher alexithymia scores were associated with relatively lower right-frontal activity. A subsequent analysis corroborated the significant interaction between frontal EEG asymmetry and alexithymia, which was moderated by group. Our findings reveal that lower right frontal EEG asymmetry is associated with alexithymia in patients with BPD. This finding is in accordance with neurophysiological models of alexithymia that implicate a right hemisphere impairment in emotion processing, and could suggest frontal EEG asymmetry as a potential biomarker of relevant psychopathology in these patients.

  12. Reducing Asymmetries in Intergenerational Justice: Descent from Modernity or Space Industrialization?

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    Normally, contractual conceptions of intergenerational justice regard the responsibility held by each generation as symmetrical. This article argues that the late modern society has created an asymmetry because of its unprecendented instrumental and destructive capacity. Historically unique risks such as thermonuclear destruction, global ecological deprivation, and resource depletion all point at this asymmetry and unequal distribution of responsibility between generations. Extending one cont...

  13. The visual-auditory color-word Stroop asymmetry and its time course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Four experiments examined crossmodal versions of the Stroop task in order (1) to look for Stroop asymmetries in color naming, spoken-word naming, and written-word naming and to evaluate the time course of these asymmetries, and (2) to compare these findings to current models of the Stroop effect.

  14. Aortic root asymmetry in marfan patients; evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging and comparison with standard echocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijboom, L. J.; Groenink, M.; van der Wall, E. E.; Romkes, H.; Stoker, J.; Mulder, B. J.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with Marfan syndrome may develop aortic root dissection despite only mild aortic root dilation as shown by standard echocardiography, which may be due to aortic root asymmetry. Purpose of the present study was to investigate aortic root asymmetry by magnetic resonance (MR)

  15. Symptomatic asymmetry in the first six months of life: differential diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuysink, Jacqueline; Haastert, I.C. van; Takken, T.; Helders, P.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Asymmetry in infancy is a clinical condition with a wide variation in appearances (shape, posture, and movement), etiology, localization, and severity. The prevalence of an asymmetric positional preference is 12% of all newborns during the first six months of life. The asymmetry is either

  16. Understanding inconsistent step-length asymmetries across hemiplegic stroke patients: Impairments and compensatory gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, M.; Beek, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background. In hemiplegic gait, step length typically differs in magnitude between paretic and nonparetic sides. However, the direction of step-length asymmetry varies across stroke patients. Objective. The study sought to understand directional variations in step-length asymmetry in terms of

  17. Transverse target-spin asymmetry in exclusive electroproduction of {rho}{sup 0} mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreschler, Jeroen

    2008-10-15

    This thesis reports the first measurements of the asymmetry in exclusive {rho}{sup 0} electroproduction from a transversely polarized proton. The asymmetry was extracted from data taken by the HERMES experiment at DESY with a polarized internal hydrogen gas target and the 27.6 GeV electron (positron) beam of HERA. (orig.)

  18. Single transverse-spin asymmetry in high transverse momentum pion production in pp collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, Christoforos; Qiu, Jian-Wei; Vogelsang, Werner

    2006-01-01

    We study the single-spin (left-right) asymmetry in single-inclusive pion production in hadronic scattering. This asymmetry is power-suppressed in the transverse momentum of the produced pion and can be analyzed in terms of twist-three parton correlation functions in the proton. We present new...

  19. Measurement of azimuthal asymmetries associated with deeply virtual Compton scattering on a longitudinally polarized deuterium target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany)] [Randall Laboratory of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States); Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Akopov, Z. [DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Aschenauer, E.C. [DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Augustyniak, W. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 00-689 Warsaw (Poland); Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Avetisyan, E. [DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Belostotski, S. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Leningrad region 188300 (Russian Federation); Bianchi, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Blok, H.P. [National Institute for Subatomic Physics (Nikhef), 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, VU University, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Borissov, A. [DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Bowles, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Brodski, I. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Bryzgalov, V. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino, Moscow region 142281 (Russian Federation); Burns, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Capiluppi, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Capitani, G.P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Cisbani, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione Roma 1, Gruppo Sanita and Physics Laboratory, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, 00161 Roma (Italy); Ciullo, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara (Italy)

    2011-01-21

    Azimuthal asymmetries in exclusive electroproduction of a real photon from a longitudinally polarized deuterium target are measured with respect to target polarization alone and with respect to target polarization combined with beam helicity and/or beam charge. The asymmetries appear in the distribution of the real photons in the azimuthal angle {phi} around the virtual photon direction, relative to the lepton scattering plane. The asymmetries arise from the deeply virtual Compton scattering process and its interference with the Bethe-Heitler process. The results for the beam-charge and beam-helicity asymmetries from a tensor polarized deuterium target with vanishing vector polarization are shown to be compatible with those from an unpolarized deuterium target, which is expected for incoherent scattering dominant at larger momentum transfer. Furthermore, the results for the single target-spin asymmetry and for the double-spin asymmetry are found to be compatible with the corresponding asymmetries previously measured on a hydrogen target. For coherent scattering on the deuteron at small momentum transfer to the target, these findings imply that the tensor contribution to the cross section is small. Furthermore, the tensor asymmetry is found to be compatible with zero.

  20. QED polarization asymmetries for e+e- scattering due to helicity flips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, T.B.; Sell, E.W.

    1992-01-01

    The polarization asymmetries for the e + e - scattering with polarized incoming of outgoing beams, which are proportional to the amplitudes φ 5 describing one helicity flip and φ 2 describing two helicity flips, have been calculated including their pure QED radiative corrections. These asymmetries are partly large and can be observed well at low energies. (orig.)