WorldWideScience

Sample records for galactic winds filament

  1. Filament Winding. A Unified Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koussios, S.

    2004-01-01

    In this dissertation we have presented an overview and comprehensive treatment of several facets of the filament winding process. With the concepts of differential geometry and the theory of thin anisotropic shells of revolution, a parametric shape generator has been formulated for the design

  2. Thin filaments at the Galactic Center: identification and proper motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzic, K [I. Physikalishes Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuepicher Str. 77, 50937 Cologne (Germany); Eckart, A [I. Physikalishes Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuepicher Str. 77, 50937 Cologne (Germany); Schoedel, R [I. Physikalishes Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuepicher Str. 77, 50937 Cologne (Germany); Meyer, L [I. Physikalishes Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuepicher Str. 77, 50937 Cologne (Germany); Zensus, A [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2006-12-15

    L'-band (3.8 {mu}m) images of the Galactic Center show a large number of thin filaments in the mini-spiral, located close to the mini-cavity, along the inner edge of the northern arm and in the vicinity of some stars. We interpret them as shock fronts formed by the interaction of a central wind with the mini-spiral or, in some cases, extended dusty stellar envelopes. The observations have been carried out using the NACO adaptive optics system at the ESO VLT, in 5 subsequent epochs from 2002 to 2006. We present a proper motion study of the thin filaments observed in the central parsec around Sgr A*, obtained using the cross- correlation technique. Our interpretation is consistent with a collimated outfbw model from the central few arcseconds. Two possible mechanisms could produce the postulated outfbw: stellar winds originating from the high-mass-loosing He-star cluster as well as a wind from Sgr A* due to accretion from the surrounding disk of stars.

  3. Filament Winding Of Carbon/Carbon Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoy, Paul J.; Schmitigal, Wesley P.; Phillips, Wayne M.

    1991-01-01

    Improved method of winding carbon filaments for carbon/carbon composite structures less costly and labor-intensive, also produces more consistent results. Involves use of roller squeegee to ensure filaments continuously wet with resin during winding. Also involves control of spacing and resin contents of plies to obtain strong bonds between carbon filaments and carbon matrices. Lends itself to full automation and involves use of filaments and matrix-precursor resins in their simplest forms, thereby reducing costs.

  4. Galactic winds and the hubble sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregman, J.N.

    1978-01-01

    The conditions for maintenance of supernova-driven galactic winds have been investigated to assess their role in the morphology of disk-bulge galaxies. A fluid mechanical model with gas and stars which includes galactic rotation has been used to investigate several classes of winds. It is found that many galaxies, once their initial gas is depleted, can maintain a wind throughout the entire galaxy, a conditon most easily satisfied by systems with a small bulge-to-disk ratio. If the ratio of supernova heating to total mass loss falls below a critical value that depends on galaxy type and mass, only a partial wind exterior to a critical surface can exist, with infall occurring at interior points. Galaxies in which only the bulge was depleted of gas may support a bulge wind that does not interact with the colder and denser gas in the disk.These results indicate that if SO galaxies are a transition class between elliptical and spiral galaxies, it is probably because early galactic winds, which may initially deplete a galaxy of gas, are more prevalent in SO than in spiral galaxies. However, if SO's form a parallel sequence with spirals, the initial gas-depletion mechanism must be independent of bulge-to-disk ratio. These results are not strongly influenced by altering the galactic mass model, including electron conduction in the flow equations, or adding massive halos

  5. Dynamical origin of non-thermal states in galactic filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cintio, Pierfrancesco; Gupta, Shamik; Casetti, Lapo

    2018-03-01

    Observations strongly suggest that filaments in galactic molecular clouds are in a non-thermal state. As a simple model of a filament, we study a two-dimensional system of self-gravitating point particles by means of numerical simulations of the dynamics, with various methods: direct N-body integration of the equations of motion, particle-in-cell simulations, and a recently developed numerical scheme that includes multiparticle collisions in a particle-in-cell approach. Studying the collapse of Gaussian overdensities, we find that after the damping of virial oscillations the system settles in a non-thermal steady state whose radial density profile is similar to the observed ones, thus suggesting a dynamical origin of the non-thermal states observed in real filaments. Moreover, for sufficiently cold collapses, the density profiles are anticorrelated with the kinetic temperature, i.e. exhibit temperature inversion, again a feature that has been found in some observations of filaments. The same happens in the state reached after a strong perturbation of an initially isothermal cylinder. Finally, we discuss our results in the light of recent findings in other contexts (including non-astrophysical ones) and argue that the same kind of non-thermal states may be observed in any physical system with long-range interactions.

  6. The physics of galactic winds driven by active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Quataert, Eliot

    2012-09-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) drive fast winds in the interstellar medium of their host galaxies. It is commonly assumed that the high ambient densities and intense radiation fields in galactic nuclei imply short cooling times, thus making the outflows momentum conserving. We show that cooling of high-velocity shocked winds in AGN is in fact inefficient in a wide range of circumstances, including conditions relevant to ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), resulting in energy-conserving outflows. We further show that fast energy-conserving outflows can tolerate a large amount of mixing with cooler gas before radiative losses become important. For winds with initial velocity vin ≳ 10 000 km s-1, as observed in ultraviolet and X-ray absorption, the shocked wind develops a two-temperature structure. While most of the thermal pressure support is provided by the protons, the cooling processes operate directly only on the electrons. This significantly slows down inverse Compton cooling, while free-free cooling is negligible. Slower winds with vin ˜ 1000 km s-1, such as may be driven by radiation pressure on dust, can also experience energy-conserving phases but under more restrictive conditions. During the energy-conserving phase, the momentum flux of an outflow is boosted by a factor ˜vin/2vs by work done by the hot post-shock gas, where vs is the velocity of the swept-up material. Energy-conserving outflows driven by fast AGN winds (vin ˜ 0.1c) may therefore explain the momentum fluxes Ṗ≫LAGN/c of galaxy-scale outflows recently measured in luminous quasars and ULIRGs. Shocked wind bubbles expanding normal to galactic discs may also explain the large-scale bipolar structures observed in some systems, including around the Galactic Centre, and can produce significant radio, X-ray and γ-ray emission. The analytic solutions presented here will inform implementations of AGN feedback in numerical simulations, which typically do not include all the important

  7. Dark Matter and Synchrotron Emission from Galactic Center Radio Filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linden, Tim [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Hooper, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2011-11-10

    The inner degrees of the Galactic center contain a large population of filamentary structures observed at radio frequencies. These so-called non-thermal radio filaments (NRFs) trace magnetic field lines and have attracted significant interest due to their hard (S_v ~ -0.1 +/- 0.4) synchrotron emission spectra. The origin of these filaments remains poorly understood. We show that the electrons and positrons created through the annihilations of a relatively light (~5-10 GeV) dark matter particle with the cross section predicted for a simple thermal relic can provide a compelling match to the intensity, spectral shape, and flux variation of the NRFs. Furthermore, the characteristics of the dark matter particle necessary to explain the synchrotron emission from the NRFs is consistent with those required to explain the excess gamma-ray emission observed from the Galactic center by the Fermi-LAT, as well as the direct detection signals observed by CoGeNT and DAMA/LIBRA.

  8. Filament winding cylinders. I - Process model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Yong; Springer, George S.

    1990-01-01

    A model was developed which describes the filament winding process of composite cylinders. The model relates the significant process variables such as winding speed, fiber tension, and applied temperature to the thermal, chemical and mechanical behavior of the composite cylinder and the mandrel. Based on the model, a user friendly code was written which can be used to calculate (1) the temperature in the cylinder and the mandrel, (2) the degree of cure and viscosity in the cylinder, (3) the fiber tensions and fiber positions, (4) the stresses and strains in the cylinder and in the mandrel, and (5) the void diameters in the cylinder.

  9. A Nonthermal Radio Filament Connected to the Galactic Black Hole?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Mark R.; Zhao, Jun-Hui; Goss, W. M.

    2017-12-01

    Using the Very Large Array, we have investigated a nonthermal radio filament (NTF) recently found very near the Galactic black hole and its radio counterpart, Sgr A*. While this NTF—the Sgr A West Filament (SgrAWF)—shares many characteristics with the population of NTFs occupying the central few hundred parsecs of the Galaxy, the SgrAWF has the distinction of having an orientation and sky location that suggest an intimate physical connection to Sgr A*. We present 3.3 and 5.5 cm images constructed using an innovative methodology that yields a very high dynamic range, providing an unprecedentedly clear picture of the SgrAWF. While the physical association of the SgrAWF with Sgr A* is not unambiguous, the images decidedly evoke this interesting possibility. Assuming that the SgrAWF bears a physical relationship to Sgr A*, we examine the potential implications. One is that Sgr A* is a source of relativistic particles constrained to diffuse along ordered local field lines. The relativistic particles could also be fed into the local field by a collimated outflow from Sgr A*, perhaps driven by the Poynting flux accompanying the black hole spin in the presence of a magnetic field threading the event horizon. Second, we consider the possibility that the SgrAWF is the manifestation of a low-mass-density cosmic string that has become anchored to the black hole. The simplest form of these hypotheses would predict that the filament be bi-directional, whereas the SgrAWF is only seen on one side of Sgr A*, perhaps because of the dynamics of the local medium.

  10. Validation of the filament winding process model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calius, Emilo P.; Springer, George S.; Wilson, Brian A.; Hanson, R. Scott

    1987-01-01

    Tests were performed toward validating the WIND model developed previously for simulating the filament winding of composite cylinders. In these tests two 24 in. long, 8 in. diam and 0.285 in. thick cylinders, made of IM-6G fibers and HBRF-55 resin, were wound at + or - 45 deg angle on steel mandrels. The temperatures on the inner and outer surfaces and inside the composite cylinders were recorded during oven cure. The temperatures inside the cylinders were also calculated by the WIND model. The measured and calculated temperatures were then compared. In addition, the degree of cure and resin viscosity distributions inside the cylinders were calculated for the conditions which existed in the tests.

  11. Design and optimize of 3-axis filament winding machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanjin, Ma; Rejab, M. R. M.; Idris, M. S.; Bachtiar, B.; Siregar, J. P.; Harith, M. N.

    2017-10-01

    Filament winding technique is developed as the primary process for composite cylindrical structures fabrication at low cost. Fibres are wound on a rotating mandrel by a filament winding machine where resin impregnated fibres pass through a pay-out eye. This paper aims to develop and optimize a 3-axis, lightweight, practical, efficient, portable filament winding machine to satisfy the customer demand, which can fabricate pipes and round shape cylinders with resins. There are 3 main units on the 3-axis filament winding machine, which are the rotary unit, the delivery unit and control system unit. Comparison with previous existing filament winding machines in the factory, it has 3 degrees of freedom and can fabricate more complex shape specimens based on the mandrel shape and particular control system. The machine has been designed and fabricated on 3 axes movements with control system. The x-axis is for movement of the carriage, the y-axis is the rotation of mandrel and the z-axis is the movement of the pay-out eye. Cylindrical specimens with different dimensions and winding angles were produced. 3-axis automated filament winding machine has been successfully designed with simple control system.

  12. Screening of epoxy systems for high performance filament winding applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, T. T.; Jessop, E. S.; Penn, L.

    1975-01-01

    Several promising epoxy systems for high performance filament winding applications are described. Viscosities, gel times, and cast resin tensile behavior are given, as well as heat deflection under load and water absorption measurements.

  13. Modeling X-ray Emission of Galactic Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomesh, Teague; Gould Zweibel, Ellen; Bustard, Chad

    2017-06-01

    Despite galaxies being the main players on the cosmological scene, and our living inside of one, the processes of evolution which create these structures are still a mystery. Galactic winds are an important component of galaxy evolution and the mechanisms which drive these outflows have yet to be explained. We have incorporated x-ray production into a preexisting model of galactic outflows in order to generate predictions of x-ray luminosity to test current wind theories against observations. Specifically, the model is a representation of thermally driven winds. First, we incorporated the equations for x-ray luminosity into the wind model and tested its effects over a wide range of parameter space. We then created models to match the parameters of several cool galactic outflows previously studied. Finally, we searched the relevant literature for observations of these galaxies that we could use to compare with our predicted luminosities. Our models consistently predicted luminosities within a factor of two of the observed values. This led to the conclusion that if the hot and cool gas are coupled then thermal energy may play a role in the driving of these winds. Unraveling this mystery will be key to understanding galactic outflows and galactic evolution overall.

  14. Filament winding cylinders. III - Selection of the process variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Yong; Springer, George S.

    1990-01-01

    By using the Lee-Springer filament winding model temperatures, degrees of cure, viscosities, stresses, strains, fiber tensions, fiber motions, and void diameters were calculated in graphite-epoxy composite cylinders during the winding and subsequent curing. The results demonstrate the type of information which can be generated by the model. It is shown, in reference to these results, how the model, and the corresponding WINDTHICK code, can be used to select the appropriate process variables.

  15. GLOBAL SIMULATIONS OF GALACTIC WINDS INCLUDING COSMIC-RAY STREAMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruszkowski, Mateusz [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S University Avenue, 311 West Hall, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Yang, H.-Y. Karen [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Zweibel, Ellen, E-mail: mateuszr@umich.edu, E-mail: hsyang@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: zweibel@astro.wisc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 N. Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    Galactic outflows play an important role in galactic evolution. Despite their importance, a detailed understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for the driving of these winds is lacking. In an effort to gain more insight into the nature of these flows, we perform global three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations of an isolated Milky Way-size starburst galaxy. We focus on the dynamical role of cosmic rays (CRs) injected by supernovae, and specifically on the impact of the streaming and anisotropic diffusion of CRs along the magnetic fields. We find that these microphysical effects can have a significant effect on the wind launching and mass loading factors, depending on the details of the plasma physics. Due to the CR streaming instability, CRs propagating in the interstellar medium scatter on self-excited Alfvén waves and couple to the gas. When the wave growth due to the streaming instability is inhibited by some damping process, such as turbulent damping, the coupling of CRs to the gas is weaker and their effective propagation speed faster than the Alfvén speed. Alternatively, CRs could scatter from “extrinsic turbulence” that is driven by another mechanism. We demonstrate that the presence of moderately super-Alfvénic CR streaming enhances the efficiency of galactic wind driving. Cosmic rays stream away from denser regions near the galactic disk along partially ordered magnetic fields and in the process accelerate more tenuous gas away from the galaxy. For CR acceleration efficiencies broadly consistent with the observational constraints, CRs reduce the galactic star formation rates and significantly aid in launching galactic winds.

  16. Global Simulations of Galactic Winds Including Cosmic-ray Streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszkowski, Mateusz; Yang, H.-Y. Karen; Zweibel, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Galactic outflows play an important role in galactic evolution. Despite their importance, a detailed understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for the driving of these winds is lacking. In an effort to gain more insight into the nature of these flows, we perform global three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations of an isolated Milky Way-size starburst galaxy. We focus on the dynamical role of cosmic rays (CRs) injected by supernovae, and specifically on the impact of the streaming and anisotropic diffusion of CRs along the magnetic fields. We find that these microphysical effects can have a significant effect on the wind launching and mass loading factors, depending on the details of the plasma physics. Due to the CR streaming instability, CRs propagating in the interstellar medium scatter on self-excited Alfvén waves and couple to the gas. When the wave growth due to the streaming instability is inhibited by some damping process, such as turbulent damping, the coupling of CRs to the gas is weaker and their effective propagation speed faster than the Alfvén speed. Alternatively, CRs could scatter from “extrinsic turbulence” that is driven by another mechanism. We demonstrate that the presence of moderately super-Alfvénic CR streaming enhances the efficiency of galactic wind driving. Cosmic rays stream away from denser regions near the galactic disk along partially ordered magnetic fields and in the process accelerate more tenuous gas away from the galaxy. For CR acceleration efficiencies broadly consistent with the observational constraints, CRs reduce the galactic star formation rates and significantly aid in launching galactic winds.

  17. Finite element modeling of the filament winding process using ABAQUS

    OpenAIRE

    Miltenberger, Louis C.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive stress model of the filament winding fabrication process, previously implemented in the finite element program, WACSAFE, was implemented using the ABAQUS finite element software package. This new implementation, referred to as the ABWACSAFE procedure, consists of the ABAQUS software and a pre/postprocessing routine that was developed to prepare necessary ABAQUS input files and process ABAQUS displacement results for stress and strain computation. The ABWACSAF...

  18. Cosmic Ray Acceleration from Multiple Galactic Wind Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Cory; Bustard, Chad; Zweibel, Ellen

    2018-01-01

    Cosmic rays still have an unknown origin. Many mechanisms have been suggested for their acceleration including quasars, pulsars, magnetars, supernovae, supernova remnants, and galactic termination shocks. The source of acceleration may be a mixture of these and a different mixture in different energy regimes. Using numerical simulations, we investigate multiple shocks in galactic winds as potential cosmic rays sources. By having shocks closer to the parent galaxy, more particles may diffuse back to the disk instead of being blown out in the wind, as found in Bustard, Zweibel, and Cotter (2017, ApJ) and also Merten, Bustard, Zweibel, and Tjus (to be submitted to ApJ). Specifically, this flux of cosmic rays could contribute to the unexplained "shin" region between the well-known "knee" and "ankle" of the cosmic ray spectrum. We would like to acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation (NSF) Graduate Research Fellowship Program under grant No. DGE-125625 and NSF grant No. AST-1616037.

  19. Composite Pressure Vessel Variability in Geometry and Filament Winding Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Steven J.; Greene, Nathanael J.

    2012-01-01

    Composite pressure vessels (CPVs) are used in a variety of applications ranging from carbon dioxide canisters for paintball guns to life support and pressurant storage on the International Space Station. With widespread use, it is important to be able to evaluate the effect of variability on structural performance. Data analysis was completed on CPVs to determine the amount of variation that occurs among the same type of CPV, and a filament winding routine was developed to facilitate study of the effect of manufacturing variation on structural response.

  20. Filament winding cylinders. II - Validation of the process model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calius, Emilio P.; Lee, Soo-Yong; Springer, George S.

    1990-01-01

    Analytical and experimental studies were performed to validate the model developed by Lee and Springer for simulating the manufacturing process of filament wound composite cylinders. First, results calculated by the Lee-Springer model were compared to results of the Calius-Springer thin cylinder model. Second, temperatures and strains calculated by the Lee-Springer model were compared to data. The data used in these comparisons were generated during the course of this investigation with cylinders made of Hercules IM-6G/HBRF-55 and Fiberite T-300/976 graphite-epoxy tows. Good agreement was found between the calculated and measured stresses and strains, indicating that the model is a useful representation of the winding and curing processes.

  1. The onset of galactic winds in early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christine

    1992-01-01

    We completed the spectral analysis of 31 early-type galaxies to investigate whether their x-ray emission was predominantly due to thermal bremsstrahlung from a hot gaseous corona or emission from discrete, galactic sources such as x-ray binaries. If a corona dominates the x-ray emission, its spectra is expected to be relatively cool (0.5 - 1 keV) compared to the harder emission associated with x-ray binaries in our galaxy, the Magellanic Clouds and M31. While it is generally accepted that the x-ray emission in luminous E and S0 galaxies arises from hot coronae, the status of hot gas in lower luminosity (and hence lower mass) galaxies is less clear. Calculations show that, for a given supernova rate, a critical galaxy luminosity (mass) exists below which the gas cannot be gravitationally confined and a galactic wind is predicted to be effective in expelling gas from the galaxy. Since significant mass (a dark halo) is required to hold a hot, gaseous corona around a galaxy, we expect that the faintest, smallest galaxies will not have a hot corona, but their x-ray emission will be dominated by galactic sources or by an active galactic nuclei. In the sample we tested which spanned the absolute magnitude range from -21.5 to -19.5, we found that except for two galaxies whose x-ray emission was dominated by an active nucleus, that the others were consistent with emission from hot gas. We also found that there is a correlation between gas temperature and galaxy magnitude (mass), such that the brighter, more luminous galaxies have hotter gas temperatures. Thus even at relatively faint magnitudes, the dominant emission from early-type galaxies appears to be hot gas. We also carried out an investigation of the x-ray surface brightness distribution of the x-ray emission for about 100 early type galaxies to determine whether the x-ray emission from galaxies are extended. Extended x-ray emission is expected if the emission is due to a hot gaseous corona. We determined the ratio

  2. Scaling Relations of Starburst-driven Galactic Winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, Ryan; Cecil, Gerald; Heitsch, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    Using synthetic absorption lines generated from 3D hydrodynamical simulations, we explore how the velocity of a starburst-driven galactic wind correlates with the star formation rate (SFR) and SFR density. We find strong correlations for neutral and low ionized gas, but no correlation for highly ionized gas. The correlations for neutral and low ionized gas only hold for SFRs below a critical limit set by the mass loading of the starburst, above which point the scaling relations flatten abruptly. Below this point the scaling relations depend on the temperature regime being probed by the absorption line, not on the mass loading. The exact scaling relation depends on whether the maximum or mean velocity of the absorption line is used. We find that the outflow velocity of neutral gas can be up to five times lower than the average velocity of ionized gas, with the velocity difference increasing for higher ionization states. Furthermore, the velocity difference depends on both the SFR and mass loading of the starburst. Thus, absorption lines of neutral or low ionized gas cannot easily be used as a proxy for the outflow velocity of the hot gas.

  3. Scaling Relations of Starburst-driven Galactic Winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, Ryan [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912 (United States); Cecil, Gerald; Heitsch, Fabian, E-mail: rytanner@augusta.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States)

    2017-07-10

    Using synthetic absorption lines generated from 3D hydrodynamical simulations, we explore how the velocity of a starburst-driven galactic wind correlates with the star formation rate (SFR) and SFR density. We find strong correlations for neutral and low ionized gas, but no correlation for highly ionized gas. The correlations for neutral and low ionized gas only hold for SFRs below a critical limit set by the mass loading of the starburst, above which point the scaling relations flatten abruptly. Below this point the scaling relations depend on the temperature regime being probed by the absorption line, not on the mass loading. The exact scaling relation depends on whether the maximum or mean velocity of the absorption line is used. We find that the outflow velocity of neutral gas can be up to five times lower than the average velocity of ionized gas, with the velocity difference increasing for higher ionization states. Furthermore, the velocity difference depends on both the SFR and mass loading of the starburst. Thus, absorption lines of neutral or low ionized gas cannot easily be used as a proxy for the outflow velocity of the hot gas.

  4. Time-dependent galactic winds. I. Structure and evolution of galactic outflows accompanied by cosmic ray acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfi, E. A.; Breitschwerdt, D.

    2012-04-01

    Context. Cosmic rays (CRs) are transported out of the galaxy by diffusion and advection due to streaming along magnetic field lines and resonant scattering off self-excited MHD waves. Thus momentum is transferred to the plasma via the frozen-in waves as a mediator assisting the thermal pressure in driving a galactic wind. Aims: The bulk of the Galactic CRs (GCRs) are accelerated by shock waves generated in supernova remnants (SNRs), a significant fraction of which occur in OB associations on a timescale of several 107 years. We examine the effect of changing boundary conditions at the base of the galactic wind due to sequential SN explosions on the outflow. Thus pressure waves will steepen into shock waves leading to in situ post-acceleration of GCRs. Methods: We performed hydrodynamical simulations of galactic winds in flux tube geometry appropriate for disk galaxies, describing the CR diffusive-advective transport in a hydrodynamical fashion (by taking appropriate moments of the Fokker-Planck equation) along with the energy exchange with self-generated MHD waves. Results: Our time-dependent CR hydrodynamic simulations confirm the existence of time asymptotic outflow solutions (for constant boundary conditions), which are in excellent the agreement with the steady state galactic wind solutions described by Breitschwerdt et al. (1991, A&A, 245, 79). It is also found that high-energy particles escaping from the Galaxy and having a power-law distribution in energy (∝E-2.7) similar to the Milky Way with an upper energy cut-off at ~1015 eV are subjected to efficient and rapid post-SNR acceleration in the lower galactic halo up to energies of 1017-1018 eV by multiple shock waves propagating through the halo. The particles can gain energy within less than 3 kpc from the galactic plane corresponding to flow times less than 5 × 106 years. Since particles are advected downstream of the shocks, i.e. towards the galactic disk, they should be easily observable, and their

  5. Development of composite pipelines by filament winding: an study using neural networks; Desenvolvimento de dutos compositos por filament winding: um estudo atraves de redes neurais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contant, Sheila [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Lona, Liliane M.F. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica; Calado, Veronica M.A. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2003-07-01

    The application of composite materials on pipeline systems for transportation of petroleum and natural gas is being pointed as one alternative to conventional materials, improving safety and reliability and reducing costs. Polymeric composite pipes can be manufactured by filament winding, a method that shows several advantages over other manufacturing processes such as low cost, high production rates and ability to produce high specific strength parts. Because of the many parameters involved in this process, among others aspects, mathematical modeling of filament winding process through conventional methods is complex task. In this work the process has been studied using neural networks, a computational technique inspired in human brain that presents several advantages when compared to conventional methods like a reduced processing time. Neural networks have been applied to prediction of mechanical properties of composite tubes and also to prediction of the thermal behavior of the parts during cure step. Results showed the efficacy of the proposed methodology. (author)

  6. Filament formation in wind-cloud interactions- II. Clouds with turbulent density, velocity, and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda-Barragán, W. E.; Federrath, C.; Crocker, R. M.; Bicknell, G. V.

    2018-01-01

    We present a set of numerical experiments designed to systematically investigate how turbulence and magnetic fields influence the morphology, energetics, and dynamics of filaments produced in wind-cloud interactions. We cover 3D, magnetohydrodynamic systems of supersonic winds impacting clouds with turbulent density, velocity, and magnetic fields. We find that lognormal density distributions aid shock propagation through clouds, increasing their velocity dispersion and producing filaments with expanded cross-sections and highly magnetized knots and subfilaments. In self-consistently turbulent scenarios, the ratio of filament to initial cloud magnetic energy densities is ∼1. The effect of Gaussian velocity fields is bound to the turbulence Mach number: Supersonic velocities trigger a rapid cloud expansion; subsonic velocities only have a minor impact. The role of turbulent magnetic fields depends on their tension and is similar to the effect of radiative losses: the stronger the magnetic field or the softer the gas equation of state, the greater the magnetic shielding at wind-filament interfaces and the suppression of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. Overall, we show that including turbulence and magnetic fields is crucial to understanding cold gas entrainment in multiphase winds. While cloud porosity and supersonic turbulence enhance the acceleration of clouds, magnetic shielding protects them from ablation and causes Rayleigh-Taylor-driven subfilamentation. Wind-swept clouds in turbulent models reach distances ∼15-20 times their core radius and acquire bulk speeds ∼0.3-0.4 of the wind speed in one cloud-crushing time, which are three times larger than in non-turbulent models. In all simulations, the ratio of turbulent magnetic to kinetic energy densities asymptotes at ∼0.1-0.4, and convergence of all relevant dynamical properties requires at least 64 cells per cloud radius.

  7. Cosmic Ray Acceleration by a Versatile Family of Galactic Wind Termination Shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustard, Chad; Zweibel, Ellen G. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Cotter, Cory, E-mail: bustard@wisc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 2535 Sterling Hall, 475 N. Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2017-01-20

    There are two distinct breaks in the cosmic ray (CR) spectrum: the so-called “knee” around 3 × 10{sup 15} eV and the so-called “ankle” around 10{sup 18} eV. Diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) at supernova remnant (SNR) shock fronts is thought to accelerate galactic CRs to energies below the knee, while an extragalactic origin is presumed for CRs with energies beyond the ankle. CRs with energies between 3 × 10{sup 15} and 10{sup 18} eV, which we dub the “shin,” have an unknown origin. It has been proposed that DSA at galactic wind termination shocks, rather than at SNR shocks, may accelerate CRs to these energies. This paper uses the galactic wind model of Bustard et al. to analyze whether galactic wind termination shocks may accelerate CRs to shin energies within a reasonable acceleration time and whether such CRs can subsequently diffuse back to the Galaxy. We argue for acceleration times on the order of 100 Myr rather than a few billion years, as assumed in some previous works, and we discuss prospects for magnetic field amplification at the shock front. Ultimately, we generously assume that the magnetic field is amplified to equipartition. This formalism allows us to obtain analytic formulae, applicable to any wind model, for CR acceleration. Even with generous assumptions, we find that very high wind velocities are required to set up the necessary conditions for acceleration beyond 10{sup 17} eV. We also estimate the luminosities of CRs accelerated by outflow termination shocks, including estimates for the Milky Way wind.

  8. Feedback by AGN Jets and Wide-angle Winds on a Galactic Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugan, Zachary; Silk, Joseph [The Johns Hopkins University Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bloomberg Center for Physics and Astronomy, Room 366, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gaibler, Volker [Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-07-20

    To investigate the differences in mechanical feedback from radio-loud and radio-quiet active galactic nuclei on the host galaxy, we perform 3D AMR hydrodynamic simulations of wide-angle, radio-quiet winds with different inclinations on a single, massive, gas-rich disk galaxy at a redshift of 2–3. We compare our results to hydrodynamic simulations of the same galaxy but with a jet. The jet has an inclination of 0° (perpendicular to the galactic plane), and the winds have inclinations of 0°, 45°, and 90°. We analyze the impact on the host’s gas, star formation, and circumgalactic medium. We find that jet feedback is energy-driven and wind feedback is momentum-driven. In all the simulations, the jet or wind creates a cavity mostly devoid of dense gas in the nuclear region where star formation is then quenched, but we find strong positive feedback in all the simulations at radii greater than 3 kpc. All four simulations have similar SFRs and stellar velocities with large radial and vertical components. However, the wind at an inclination of 90° creates the highest density regions through ram pressure and generates the highest rates of star formation due to its ongoing strong interaction with the dense gas of the galactic plane. With increased wind inclination, we find greater asymmetry in gas distribution and resulting star formation. Our model generates an expanding ring of triggered star formation with typical velocities of the order of 1/3 of the circular velocity, superimposed on the older stellar population. This should result in a potentially detectable blue asymmetry in stellar absorption features at kiloparsec scales.

  9. The dependence of cosmic ray-driven galactic winds on halo mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Svenja; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Simpson, Christine M.; Springel, Volker; Pfrommer, Christoph

    2018-03-01

    Galactic winds regulate star formation in disc galaxies and help to enrich the circum-galactic medium. They are therefore crucial for galaxy formation, but their driving mechanism is still poorly understood. Recent studies have demonstrated that cosmic rays (CRs) can drive outflows if active CR transport is taken into account. Using hydrodynamical simulations of isolated galaxies with virial masses between 1010 and 1013 M⊙, we study how the properties of CR-driven winds depend on halo mass. CRs are treated in a two-fluid approximation and their transport is modelled through isotropic or anisotropic diffusion. We find that CRs are only able to drive mass-loaded winds beyond the virial radius in haloes with masses below 1012 M⊙. For our lowest examined halo mass, the wind is roughly spherical and has velocities of ˜20 km s-1. With increasing halo mass, the wind becomes biconical and can reach 10 times higher velocities. The mass loading factor drops rapidly with virial mass, a dependence that approximately follows a power law with a slope between -1 and -2. This scaling is slightly steeper than observational inferences, and also steeper than commonly used prescriptions for wind feedback in cosmological simulations. The slope is quite robust to variations of the CR injection efficiency or the CR diffusion coefficient. In contrast to the mass loading, the energy loading shows no significant dependence on halo mass. While these scalings are close to successful heuristic models of wind feedback, the CR-driven winds in our present models are not yet powerful enough to fully account for the required feedback strength.

  10. Examining Sites of Recent Star Formation in the Galactic Center: A Closer Look at the Arched Filaments and H HII Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Matthew; Herter, Terry; Lau, Ryan; Morris, Mark; Mills, Elisabeth

    2018-01-01

    In this dissertation presentation, we analyze mid-infrared imaging of the Arched Filaments and H HII regions in the Galactic center taken with the Faint Object Infrared Camera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST). Examining these regions are of great interest because they provide insights on star formation in the Galactic center and the interactions massive stars have with the ISM. The Arched Filaments are a collection of molecular cloud ridges which are ionized by the nearby Arches star cluster, and give the appearance of large (~25 pc) arch-like structures. The H HII regions are a collection of HII regions just to the west of the Arches cluster (~5-15 pc). The origin of the stars powering the H HII regions is uncertain, as they may have formed in a nearby molecular cloud or could be ejected members of the Arches cluster. FORCAST observations of these regions were used to study the morphology and heating structure of the HII regions, as well as constrain their luminosities.Color-temperature maps of the Arched Filaments created with the FORCAST data reveals fairly uniform dust temperatures (~70-100 K) across the length filaments. The temperature uniformity of the clouds can be explained if they are heated by the Arches cluster but are located at a larger distance from the cluster than they appear. The density of the Arched Filaments clouds was estimated from the FORCAST data and was found to be below the threshold for tidal shearing, indicating that that the clouds will be destroyed by the strong tidal field near the Galactic center. To the west of the Arched Filaments, there is an interesting collection of HII regions, referred to as the H HII regions. These regions are likely heated by massive O/B type stars, and the morphology of the dust emission associated with these objects indicate a mixture of potential in situ formation mechanisms and interlopers. Interestingly, FORCAST imaging of the H HII regions also reveal several compact sources, which may be young

  11. Filament Winding of Co-Extruded Polypropylene Tapes for Fully Recyclable All-Polypropylene Composite Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, N. O.; Alcock, B.; Klompen, E. T. J.; Peijs, T.

    2008-01-01

    The creation of high-strength co-extruded polypropylene (PP) tapes allows the production of recyclable “all-polypropylene” (all-PP) composite products, with a large temperature processing window and a high fibre volume fraction. Available technologies for all-PP composites are mostly based on manufacturing processes such as thermoforming of pre-consolidated sheets. The objective of this research is to assess the potential of filament winding as a manufacturing process for all-PP composites made directly from co-extruded tapes or woven fabric. Filament wound pipes or rings were tested either by the split-disk method or a hydrostatic pressure test in order to determine the hoop properties, while an optical strain mapping system was used to measure the deformation of the pipe surfaces.

  12. The case of the galactic wind in the bright quasar 1H 0419-577

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gesu, L.; Costantini, E.; Piconcelli, E.

    2017-10-01

    We present the analysis of the first Chandra image ever obtained of the Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0419-577. This intriguing AGN is known to host a galactic-extended outflow, that is seen in the O III image, in the UV, and in the X-ray spectrum (Di Gesu et al. 2013). Using Chandra ACIS-S, we were also to observe extended X-ray emission. Ionized gas emitting at soft X-ray energies is detected with Chandra up to a distance of ˜10 kpc from the bright Seyfert nucleus. We will discuss possible scenarios for the physical nature of the extended emission, focusing on how it could be related to the galactic wind.

  13. THE MULTIPHASE STRUCTURE AND POWER SOURCES OF GALACTIC WINDS IN MAJOR MERGERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupke, David S. N.; Veilleux, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Massive, galaxy-scale outflows are known to be ubiquitous in major mergers of disk galaxies in the local universe. In this paper, we explore the multiphase structure and power sources of galactic winds in six ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z –1 , and the highest velocities (2000-3000 km s –1 ) are seen only in ionized gas. The outflow energy and momentum in the QSOs are difficult to produce from a starburst alone, but are consistent with the QSO contributing significantly to the driving of the flow. Finally, when all gas phases are accounted for, the outflows are massive enough to provide negative feedback to star formation.

  14. Development and characterization of composite materials for production of composite risers by filament winding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobrinho, L.L.; Bastian, F.L. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering], e-mail: ledjane@metalmat.ufrj.br; Calado, V.M.A. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Industry has been challenged to provide riser systems which are more cost effective and which can fill the technology gaps with respect to water depth, riser diameter and high temperatures left open by flexible, steel catenary risers (SCRs) and hybrid risers. Composite materials present advantages over conventional steel risers because composite materials are lighter, more fatigue and corrosion resistant, better thermal insulators and can be designed for improving the structural and mechanical response. Besides, composite materials present some attractive attributes for the offshore service, such as: high specific strength and stiffness. This paper focuses on the development and characterization of a polymer matrix (epoxy) and of material composite (epoxy/fiber glass), which will be used in a development for composites risers by the filament winding process (wet winding). (author)

  15. Blowing in the Milky Way Wind: Neutral Hydrogen Clouds Tracing the Galactic Nuclear Outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Teodoro, Enrico M.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Lockman, Felix J.; Denbo, Sara R.; Endsley, Ryan; Ford, H. Alyson; Harrington, Kevin

    2018-03-01

    We present the results of a new sensitive survey of neutral hydrogen above and below the Galactic Center with the Green Bank Telescope. The observations extend up to Galactic latitude | b| Accounting for selection effects, the cloud population is symmetric in longitude, latitude, and V LSR. We model the cloud kinematics in terms of an outflow expanding from the Galactic Center and find the population consistent with being material moving with radial velocity {V}{{w}}≃ 330 {km} {{{s}}}-1 distributed throughout a bicone with opening angle α > 140^\\circ . This simple model implies an outflow luminosity {L}{{w}}> 3× {10}40 erg s‑1 over the past 10 Myr, consistent with star formation feedback in the inner region of the Milky Way, with a cold gas mass-loss rate ≲ 0.1 {{M}ȯ {yr}}-1. These clouds may represent the cold gas component accelerated in the nuclear wind driven by our Galaxy, although some of the derived properties challenge current theoretical models of the entrainment process.

  16. THE MULTIPHASE STRUCTURE AND POWER SOURCES OF GALACTIC WINDS IN MAJOR MERGERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupke, David S. N. [Department of Physics, Rhodes College, Memphis, TN 38112 (United States); Veilleux, Sylvain, E-mail: drupke@gmail.com [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Massive, galaxy-scale outflows are known to be ubiquitous in major mergers of disk galaxies in the local universe. In this paper, we explore the multiphase structure and power sources of galactic winds in six ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z < 0.06 using deep integral field spectroscopy with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) on Gemini North. We probe the neutral, ionized, and dusty gas phases using Na I D, strong emission lines ([O I], H{alpha}, and [N II]), and continuum colors, respectively. We separate outflow motions from those due to rotation and tidal perturbations, and find that all of the galaxies in our sample host high-velocity flows on kiloparsec scales. The properties of these outflows are consistent with multiphase (ionized, neutral, and dusty) collimated bipolar winds emerging along the minor axis of the nuclear disk to scales of 1-2 kpc. In two cases, these collimated winds take the form of bipolar superbubbles, identified by clear kinematic signatures. Less collimated (but still high-velocity) flows are also present on scales up to 5 kpc in most systems. The three galaxies in our sample with obscured QSOs host higher velocity outflows than those in the three galaxies with no evidence for an active galactic nucleus. The peak outflow velocity in each of the QSOs is in the range 1450-3350 km s{sup -1}, and the highest velocities (2000-3000 km s{sup -1}) are seen only in ionized gas. The outflow energy and momentum in the QSOs are difficult to produce from a starburst alone, but are consistent with the QSO contributing significantly to the driving of the flow. Finally, when all gas phases are accounted for, the outflows are massive enough to provide negative feedback to star formation.

  17. Exploring the Dust Content of Galactic Winds with Herschel. II. Nearby Dwarf Galaxies*

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Alexander; Veilleux, Sylvain; Meléndez, Marcio; Martin, Crystal L.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Cecil, Gerald; Heitsch, Fabian; Müller, Thomas; Rupke, David S. N.; Engelbracht, Chad

    2018-03-01

    We present results from analysis of deep Herschel Space Observatory observations of six nearby dwarf galaxies known to host galactic-scale winds. The superior far-infrared sensitivity and angular resolution of Herschel have allowed detection of cold circumgalactic dust features beyond the stellar components of the host galaxies traced by Spitzer 4.5 μm images. Comparisons of these cold dust features with ancillary data reveal an imperfect spatial correlation with the ionized gas and warm dust wind components. We find that typically ˜10-20% of the total dust mass in these galaxies resides outside of their stellar disks, but this fraction reaches ˜60% in the case of NGC 1569. This galaxy also has the largest metallicity (O/H) deficit in our sample for its stellar mass. Overall, the small number of objects in our sample precludes drawing strong conclusions on the origin of the circumgalactic dust. We detect no statistically significant trends with star formation properties of the host galaxies, as might be expected if the dust were lifted above the disk by energy inputs from on-going star formation activity. Although a case for dust entrained in a galactic wind is seen in NGC 1569, in all cases, we cannot rule out the possibility that some of the circumgalactic dust might be associated instead with gas accreted or removed from the disk by recent galaxy interaction events, or that it is part of the outer gas-rich portion of the disk that lies below the sensitivity limit of the Spitzer 4.5 μm data.

  18. Resolving Star Formation, Multiphase ISM Structure, and Wind Driving with MHD and RHD Models of Galactic Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostriker, Eve

    Current studies of star and galaxy formation have concluded that energetic feedback from young stars and supernovae (SNe) is crucial, both for controlling observed interstellar medium (ISM) properties and star formation rates in the Milky Way and other galaxies, and for driving galactic winds that govern the baryon abundance in dark matter halos. However, in many numerical studies of the ISM, energy inputs have not been implemented self-consistently with the evolving rate of gravitational collapse to make stars, or have considered only isolated star-forming clouds without a realistic galactic environment (including sheared rotation and externally-originating SNe), or have not directly incorporated radiation, magnetic, and chemical effects that are important or even dominant. In models of galaxy formation and evolution in the cosmic context, galactic winds are indispensable but highly uncertain as the physics of superbubble evolution and radiation-gas interactions cannot be resolved. Our central objectives are (1) to address the above limitations of current models, developing self-consistent simulations of the multiphase ISM in disk galaxies that resolve both star formation and stellar feedback, covering the range of scales needed to connect star cluster formation to galactic superwind ejection, and the range of environments from dwarfs to ULIRGs; and (2) to analyze the detailed properties of the gas, magnetic field, radiation field, and star formation/SNe in our simulations, including dependencies on local galactic disk environment, and to connect intrinsic properties with observable diagnostics. The proposed project will employ the Athena code for numerical magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) and radiation-hydrodynamic (RHD) simulations, using comprehensive physics modules that have been developed, tested, and demonstrated in sample simulations. We will consider local ``shearing box'' disk models with gas surface density Sigma = 2 - 10,000 Msun/pc^2, and a range of stellar

  19. Numerical Simulations of Multiphase Winds and Fountains from Star-forming Galactic Disks. I. Solar Neighborhood TIGRESS Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Goo; Ostriker, Eve C.

    2018-02-01

    Gas blown away from galactic disks by supernova (SN) feedback plays a key role in galaxy evolution. We investigate outflows utilizing the solar neighborhood model of our high-resolution, local galactic disk simulation suite, TIGRESS. In our numerical implementation, star formation and SN feedback are self-consistently treated and well resolved in the multiphase, turbulent, magnetized interstellar medium. Bursts of star formation produce spatially and temporally correlated SNe that drive strong outflows, consisting of hot (T> 5× {10}5 {{K}}) winds and warm (5050 {{K}}T 1 {kpc} from the midplane has mass and energy fluxes nearly constant with d. The hot flow escapes our local Cartesian box barely affected by gravity, and is expected to accelerate up to terminal velocity of {v}{wind}∼ 350{--}500 {km} {{{s}}}-1. The mean mass and energy loading factors of the hot wind are 0.1 and 0.02, respectively. For warm gas, the mean outward mass flux through d=1 {kpc} is comparable to the mean star formation rate, but only a small fraction of this gas is at velocity > 50 {km} {{{s}}}-1. Thus, the warm outflows eventually fall back as inflows. The warm fountain flows are created by expanding hot superbubbles at dfactor, potentially enabling development of subgrid models for warm galactic winds in arbitrary large-scale galactic potentials.

  20. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC ACCRETION DISK WINDS AS X-RAY ABSORBERS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumura, Keigo; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Behar, Ehud; Contopoulos, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    We present the two-dimensional ionization structure of self-similar magnetohydrodynamic winds off accretion disks around and irradiated by a central X-ray point source. On the basis of earlier observational clues and theoretical arguments, we focus our attention on a subset of these winds, namely those with radial density dependence n(r) ∝ 1/r (r is the spherical radial coordinate). We employ the photoionization code XSTAR to compute the ionic abundances of a large number of ions of different elements and then compile their line-of-sight (LOS) absorption columns. We focus our attention on the distribution of the column density of the various ions as a function of the ionization parameter ξ (or equivalently r) and the angle θ. Particular attention is paid to the absorption measure distribution (AMD), namely their hydrogen-equivalent column per logarithmic ξ interval, dN H /dlog ξ, which provides a measure of the winds' radial density profiles. For the chosen density profile n(r) ∝ 1/r, the AMD is found to be independent of ξ, in good agreement with its behavior inferred from the X-ray spectra of several active galactic nuclei (AGNs). For the specific wind structure and X-ray spectrum, we also compute detailed absorption line profiles for a number of ions to obtain their LOS velocities, v ∼ 100-300 km s -1 (at log ξ ∼ 2-3) for Fe XVII and v ∼ 1000-4000 km s -1 (at log ξ ∼ 4-5) for Fe XXV, in good agreement with the observation. Our models describe the X-ray absorption properties of these winds with only two parameters, namely the mass-accretion rate m-dot and the LOS angle θ. The probability of obscuration of the X-ray ionizing source in these winds decreases with increasing m-dot and increases steeply with the LOS inclination angle θ. As such, we concur with previous authors that these wind configurations, viewed globally, incorporate all the requisite properties of the parsec scale 'torii' invoked in AGN unification schemes. We indicate that a

  1. Line-driven disc wind model for ultrafast outflows in active galactic nuclei - scaling with luminosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, M.; Ohsuga, K.

    2017-03-01

    In order to reveal the origin of the ultrafast outflows (UFOs) that are frequently observed in active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we perform two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations of the line-driven disc winds, which are accelerated by the radiation force due to the spectral lines. The line-driven winds are successfully launched for the range of MBH = 106-9 M⊙ and ε = 0.1-0.5, and the resulting mass outflow rate (dot{M_w}), momentum flux (dot{p_w}), and kinetic luminosity (dot{E_w}) are in the region containing 90 per cent of the posterior probability distribution in the dot{M}_w-Lbol plane, dot{p}_w-Lbol plane, and dot{E}_w-Lbol plane shown in Gofford et al., where MBH is the black hole mass, ε is the Eddington ratio, and Lbol is the bolometric luminosity. The best-fitting relations in Gofford et al., d log dot{M_w}/d log {L_bol}˜ 0.9, d log dot{p_w}/d log {L_bol}˜ 1.2, and d log dot{E_w}/d log {L_bol}˜ 1.5, are roughly consistent with our results, d log dot{M_w}/d log {L_bol}˜ 9/8, d log dot{p_w}/d log {L_bol}˜ 10/8, and d log dot{E_w}/d log {L_bol}˜ 11/8. In addition, our model predicts that no UFO features are detected for the AGNs with ε ≲ 0.01, since the winds do not appear. Also, only AGNs with MBH ≲ 108 M⊙ exhibit the UFOs when ε ∼ 0.025. These predictions nicely agree with the X-ray observations. These results support that the line-driven disc wind is the origin of the UFOs.

  2. Galactic wind X-ray heating of the intergalactic medium during the Epoch of Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiksin, Avery; Khochfar, Sadegh; Paardekooper, Jan-Pieter; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Kohn, Saul

    2017-11-01

    The diffuse soft X-ray emissivity from galactic winds is computed during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). We consider two analytic models, a pressure-driven wind and a superbubble model, and a 3D cosmological simulation including gas dynamics from the First Billion Years (FiBY) project. The analytic models are normalized to match the diffuse X-ray emissivity of star-forming galaxies in the nearby Universe. The cosmological simulation uses physically motivated star formation and wind prescriptions, and includes radiative transfer corrections. The models and the simulation all are found to produce sufficient heating of the intergalactic medium to be detectable by current and planned radio facilities through 21 cm measurements during the EoR. While the analytic models predict a 21 cm emission signal relative to the cosmic microwave backgroundsets in by ztrans ≃ 8-10, the predicted signal in the FiBY simulation remains in absorption until reionization completes. The 21 cm absorption differential brightness temperature reaches a minimum of ΔT ≃ -130 to -200 mK, depending on model. Allowing for additional heat from high-mass X-ray binaries pushes the transition to emission to ztrans ≃ 10-12, with shallower absorption signatures having a minimum of ΔT ≃ -110 to -140 mK. The 21 cm signal may be a means of distinguishing between the wind models, with the superbubble model favouring earlier reheating. While an early transition to emission may indicate X-ray binaries dominate the reheating, a transition to emission as early as ztrans > 12 would suggest the presence of additional heat sources.

  3. Graphite-high density polyethylene laminated composites with high thermal conductivity made by filament winding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lv

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The low thermal conductivity of polymers limits their use in numerous applications, where heat transfer is important. The two primary approaches to overcome this limitation, are to mix in other materials with high thermal conductivity, or mechanically stretch the polymers to increase their intrinsic thermal conductivity. Progress along both of these pathways has been stifled by issues associated with thermal interface resistance and manufacturing scalability respectively. Here, we report a novel polymer composite architecture that is enabled by employing typical composites manufacturing method such as filament winding with the twist that the polymer is in fiber form and the filler in form of sheets. The resulting novel architecture enables accession of the idealized effective medium composite behavior as it minimizes the interfacial resistance. The process results in neat polymer and 50 vol% graphite/polymer plates with thermal conductivity of 42 W·m–1·K–1 (similar to steel and 130 W·m–1·K–1 respectively.

  4. Interchange Reconnection Associated with a Confined Filament Eruption: Implications for the Source of Transient Cold-dense Plasma in Solar Winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Ruisheng; Chen, Yao; Wang, Bing; Li, Gang; Xiang, Yongyuan

    2017-01-01

    The cold-dense plasma is occasionally detected in the solar wind with in situ data, but the source of the cold-dense plasma remains illusive. Interchange reconnections (IRs) between closed fields and nearby open fields are known to contribute to the formation of solar winds. We present a confined filament eruption associated with a puff-like coronal mass ejection (CME) on 2014 December 24. The filament underwent successive activations and finally erupted, due to continuous magnetic flux cancelations and emergences. The confined erupting filament showed a clear untwist motion, and most of the filament material fell back. During the eruption, some tiny blobs escaped from the confined filament body, along newly formed open field lines rooted around the south end of the filament, and some bright plasma flowed from the north end of the filament to remote sites at nearby open fields. The newly formed open field lines shifted southward with multiple branches. The puff-like CME also showed multiple bright fronts and a clear southward shift. All the results indicate an intermittent IR existed between closed fields of the confined erupting filament and nearby open fields, which released a portion of filament material (blobs) to form the puff-like CME. We suggest that the IR provides a possible source of cold-dense plasma in the solar wind.

  5. Interchange Reconnection Associated with a Confined Filament Eruption: Implications for the Source of Transient Cold-dense Plasma in Solar Winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Ruisheng; Chen, Yao; Wang, Bing [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, and Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai 264209 (China); Li, Gang [Department of Physics and CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Xiang, Yongyuan, E-mail: ruishengzheng@sdu.edu.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650216 (China)

    2017-05-01

    The cold-dense plasma is occasionally detected in the solar wind with in situ data, but the source of the cold-dense plasma remains illusive. Interchange reconnections (IRs) between closed fields and nearby open fields are known to contribute to the formation of solar winds. We present a confined filament eruption associated with a puff-like coronal mass ejection (CME) on 2014 December 24. The filament underwent successive activations and finally erupted, due to continuous magnetic flux cancelations and emergences. The confined erupting filament showed a clear untwist motion, and most of the filament material fell back. During the eruption, some tiny blobs escaped from the confined filament body, along newly formed open field lines rooted around the south end of the filament, and some bright plasma flowed from the north end of the filament to remote sites at nearby open fields. The newly formed open field lines shifted southward with multiple branches. The puff-like CME also showed multiple bright fronts and a clear southward shift. All the results indicate an intermittent IR existed between closed fields of the confined erupting filament and nearby open fields, which released a portion of filament material (blobs) to form the puff-like CME. We suggest that the IR provides a possible source of cold-dense plasma in the solar wind.

  6. The origin of fast molecular outflows in quasars: molecule formation in AGN-driven galactic winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richings, Alexander J.; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André

    2018-03-01

    We explore the origin of fast molecular outflows that have been observed in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Previous numerical studies have shown that it is difficult to create such an outflow by accelerating existing molecular clouds in the host galaxy, as the clouds will be destroyed before they can reach the high velocities that are observed. In this work, we consider an alternative scenario where molecules form in situ within the AGN outflow. We present a series of hydro-chemical simulations of an isotropic AGN wind interacting with a uniform medium. We follow the time-dependent chemistry of 157 species, including 20 molecules, to determine whether molecules can form rapidly enough to produce the observed molecular outflows. We find H2 outflow rates up to 140 M_{⊙} yr^{-1}, which is sensitive to density, AGN luminosity, and metallicity. We compute emission and absorption lines of CO, OH, and warm (a few hundred K) H2 from the simulations in post-processing. The CO-derived outflow rates and OH absorption strengths at solar metallicity agree with observations, although the maximum line-of-sight velocities from the model CO spectra are a factor ≈2 lower than is observed. We derive a CO (1-0) to H2 conversion factor of α _{CO (1-0)} = 0.13 M_{⊙} (K km s^{-1} pc2)^{-1}, 6 times lower than is commonly assumed in observations of such systems. We find strong emission from the mid-infrared lines of H2. The mass of H2 traced by this infrared emission is within a few per cent of the total H2 mass. This H2 emission may be observable by James Webb Space Telescope.

  7. Radiation pressure in galactic disks: stability, turbulence, and winds in the single-scattering limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibking, Benjamin D.; Thompson, Todd A.; Krumholz, Mark R.

    2018-04-01

    The radiation force on dust grains may be dynamically important in driving turbulence and outflows in rapidly star-forming galaxies. Recent studies focus on the highly optically-thick limit relevant to the densest ultra-luminous galaxies and super star clusters, where reprocessed infrared photons provide the dominant source of electromagnetic momentum. However, even among starburst galaxies, the great majority instead lie in the so-called "single-scattering" limit, where the system is optically-thick to the incident starlight, but optically-thin to the re-radiated infrared. In this paper we present a stability analysis and multidimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations exploring the stability and dynamics of isothermal dusty gas columns in this regime. We describe our algorithm for full angle-dependent radiation transport based on the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method. For a range of near-Eddington fluxes, we show that the medium is unstable, producing convective-like motions in a turbulent atmosphere with a scale height significantly inflated compared to the gas pressure scale height and mass-weighted turbulent energy densities of ˜0.01 - 0.1 of the midplane radiation energy density, corresponding to mass-weighted velocity dispersions of Mach number ˜0.5 - 2. Extrapolation of our results to optical depths of 103 implies maximum turbulent Mach numbers of ˜20. Comparing our results to galaxy-averaged observations, and subject to the approximations of our calculations, we find that radiation pressure does not contribute significantly to the effective supersonic pressure support in star-forming disks, which in general are substantially sub-Eddington. We further examine the time-averaged vertical density profiles in dynamical equilibrium and comment on implications for radiation-pressure-driven galactic winds.

  8. Line-driven disk winds in active galactic nuclei: The critical importance of ionization and radiative transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higginbottom, Nick; Knigge, Christian; Matthews, James H. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Proga, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 4505 South Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4002 (United States); Long, Knox S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sim, Stuart A., E-mail: nick_higginbottom@fastmail.fm [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, University Road, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Accretion disk winds are thought to produce many of the characteristic features seen in the spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasi-stellar objects (QSOs). These outflows also represent a natural form of feedback between the central supermassive black hole and its host galaxy. The mechanism for driving this mass loss remains unknown, although radiation pressure mediated by spectral lines is a leading candidate. Here, we calculate the ionization state of, and emergent spectra for, the hydrodynamic simulation of a line-driven disk wind previously presented by Proga and Kallman. To achieve this, we carry out a comprehensive Monte Carlo simulation of the radiative transfer through, and energy exchange within, the predicted outflow. We find that the wind is much more ionized than originally estimated. This is in part because it is much more difficult to shield any wind regions effectively when the outflow itself is allowed to reprocess and redirect ionizing photons. As a result, the calculated spectrum that would be observed from this particular outflow solution would not contain the ultraviolet spectral lines that are observed in many AGN/QSOs. Furthermore, the wind is so highly ionized that line driving would not actually be efficient. This does not necessarily mean that line-driven winds are not viable. However, our work does illustrate that in order to arrive at a self-consistent model of line-driven disk winds in AGN/QSO, it will be critical to include a more detailed treatment of radiative transfer and ionization in the next generation of hydrodynamic simulations.

  9. Exploring the making of a galactic wind in the star-bursting dwarf irregular galaxy IC 10 with LOFAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesen, V.; Rafferty, D. A.; Horneffer, A.; Beck, R.; Basu, A.; Westcott, J.; Hindson, L.; Brinks, E.; ChyŻy, K. T.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Brüggen, M.; Heald, G.; Fletcher, A.; Horellou, C.; Tabatabaei, F. S.; Paladino, R.; Nikiel-Wroczyński, B.; Hoeft, M.; Dettmar, R.-J.

    2018-02-01

    Low-mass galaxies are subject to strong galactic outflows, in which cosmic rays may play an important role; they can be best traced with low-frequency radio continuum observations, which are less affected by spectral ageing. We present a study of the nearby star burst dwarf irregular galaxy IC 10 using observations at 140 MHz with the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR), at 1580 MHz with the Very Large Array (VLA) and at 6200 MHz with the VLA and the 100-m Effelsberg telescope. We find that IC 10 has a low-frequency radio halo, which manifests itself as a second component (thick disc) in the minor axis profiles of the non-thermal radio continuum emission at 140 and 1580 MHz. These profiles are then fitted with 1D cosmic-ray transport models for pure diffusion and advection. We find that a diffusion model fits best, with a diffusion coefficient of D = (0.4-0.8) × 1026(E/GeV)0.5 cm2 s-1, which is at least an order of magnitude smaller than estimates both from anisotropic diffusion and the diffusion length. In contrast, advection models, which cannot be ruled out due to the mild inclination, while providing poorer fits, result in advection speeds close to the escape velocity of ≈50 km s^{-1}, as expected for a cosmic-ray driven wind. Our favoured model with an accelerating wind provides a self-consistent solution, where the magnetic field is in energy equipartition with both the warm neutral and warm ionized medium with an important contribution from cosmic rays. Consequently, cosmic rays can play a vital role for the launching of galactic winds in the disc-halo interface.

  10. Exploring the making of a galactic wind in the starbursting dwarf irregular galaxy IC 10 with LOFAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesen, V.; Rafferty, D. A.; Horneffer, A.; Beck, R.; Basu, A.; Westcott, J.; Hindson, L.; Brinks, E.; ChyŻy, K. T.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Brüggen, M.; Heald, G.; Fletcher, A.; Horellou, C.; Tabatabaei, F. S.; Paladino, R.; Nikiel-Wroczyński, B.; Hoeft, M.; Dettmar, R.-J.

    2018-05-01

    Low-mass galaxies are subject to strong galactic outflows, in which cosmic rays may play an important role; they can be best traced with low-frequency radio continuum observations, which are less affected by spectral ageing. We present a study of the nearby starburst dwarf irregular galaxy IC 10 using observations at 140 MHz with the Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR), at 1580 MHz with the Very Large Array (VLA), and at 6200 MHz with the VLA and the 100-m Effelsberg telescope. We find that IC 10 has a low-frequency radio halo, which manifests itself as a second component (thick disc) in the minor axis profiles of the non-thermal radio continuum emission at 140 and 1580 MHz. These profiles are then fitted with 1D cosmic ray transport models for pure diffusion and advection. We find that a diffusion model fits best, with a diffusion coefficient of D = (0.4-0.8) × 1026(E/GeV)0.5 cm2 s-1, which is at least an order of magnitude smaller than estimates both from anisotropic diffusion and the diffusion length. In contrast, advection models, which cannot be ruled out due to the mild inclination, while providing poorer fits, result in advection speeds close to the escape velocity of ≈ 50 km s- 1, as expected for a cosmic ray-driven wind. Our favoured model with an accelerating wind provides a self-consistent solution, where the magnetic field is in energy equipartition with both the warm neutral and warm ionized medium with an important contribution from cosmic rays. Consequently, cosmic rays can play a vital role for the launching of galactic winds in the disc-halo interface.

  11. The population of TeV pulsar wind nebulae in the H.E.S.S. Galactic Plane Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abdalla, H.; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Andersson, T.; Angüner, E. O.; Arrieta, M.; Aubert, P.; Backes, M.; Balzer, A.; Barnard, M.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Blackwell, R.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Bulik, T.; Capasso, M.; Carr, J.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chen, A.; Chevalier, J.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Condon, B.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Devin, J.; deWilt, P.; Dirson, L.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O.'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Eschbach, S.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Funk, S.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Goyal, A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, J.; Haupt, M.; Hawkes, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hoischen, C.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, D.; Jankowsky, F.; Jingo, M.; Jogler, T.; Jouvin, L.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kerszberg, D.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; King, J.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Kraus, M.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lau, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Leser, E.; Lohse, T.; Lorentz, M.; Liu, R.; López-Coto, R.; Lypova, I.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Mariaud, C.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; Meintjes, P. J.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Mohrmann, L.; Morå, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; de Naurois, M.; Niederwanger, F.; Niemiec, J.; Oakes, L.; O'Brien, P.; Odaka, H.; Öttl, S.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Padovani, M.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perennes, C.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Prokhorov, D.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Sasaki, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwemmer, S.; Settimo, M.; Seyffert, A. S.; Shafi, N.; Shilon, I.; Simoni, R.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tibaldo, L.; Tiziani, D.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Tuffs, R.; Uchiyama, Y.; Valerius, K.; van der Walt, D. J.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Voisin, F.; Völk, H. J.; Vuillaume, T.; Wadiasingh, Z.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zefi, F.; Ziegler, A.; Żywucka, N.

    2018-04-01

    The nine-year H.E.S.S. Galactic Plane Survey (HGPS) has yielded the most uniform observation scan of the inner Milky Way in the TeV gamma-ray band to date. The sky maps and source catalogue of the HGPS allow for a systematic study of the population of TeV pulsar wind nebulae found throughout the last decade. To investigate the nature and evolution of pulsar wind nebulae, for the first time we also present several upper limits for regions around pulsars without a detected TeV wind nebula. Our data exhibit a correlation of TeV surface brightness with pulsar spin-down power Ė. This seems to be caused both by an increase of extension with decreasing Ė, and hence with time, compatible with a power law RPWN(Ė) Ė-0.65±0.20, and by a mild decrease of TeV gamma-ray luminosity with decreasing Ė, compatible with L1-10 TeV Ė0.59±0.21. We also find that the offsets of pulsars with respect to the wind nebula centre with ages around 10 kyr are frequently larger than can be plausibly explained by pulsar proper motion and could be due to an asymmetric environment. In the present data, it seems that a large pulsar offset is correlated with a high apparent TeV efficiency L1-10 TeV/Ė. In addition to 14 HGPS sources considered firmly identified pulsar wind nebulae and 5 additional pulsar wind nebulae taken from literature, we find 10 HGPS sources that are likely TeV pulsar wind nebula candidates. Using a model that subsumes the present common understanding of the very high-energy radiative evolution of pulsar wind nebulae, we find that the trends and variations of the TeV observables and limits can be reproduced to a good level, drawing a consistent picture of present-day TeV data and theory.

  12. System for maintaining the alignment of mandrels in filament winding operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Samuel C.; Dodge, William G.; Pollard, Roy E.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a system for sensing and correcting the alignment of a mandrel being wound with filamentary material with respect to the filamentary material winding mechanism. A positioned reference pin attached to the mandrel is positioned in a beam of collimated light emanating from a laser so as to bisect the light beam and create a shadow therebetween. A pair of photocells are positioned to receive the bisected light beam with the shadow uniformly located between the photocells when the pin is in a selected position. The mandrel is supported in the selected position for the winding of a filamentary material by a position adjustable roller mechanism which is coupled by a screw drive to a reversible motor. Changes in the pin position such as caused by winding growth are sensed by the photocells to provide the displacement of the roller mechanism in the direction necessary to return the mandrel to the selected position.

  13. Parameters of galactic early B supergiants. The influence of the wind on the interstellar extinction determination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kraus, Michaela; Borges Fernandes, M.; Kubát, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 499, č. 1 (2009), s. 291-299 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB300030701; GA ČR GA205/08/0003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : stars * fundamental parameters * winds Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.179, year: 2009

  14. The Origin of Fast Molecular Outflows in Quasars: Molecule Formation in AGN-Driven Galactic Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richings, Alexander James; Faucher-Giguere, Claude-Andre

    2017-07-01

    Observations of AGN host galaxies have detected fast molecular outflows, with velocities up to 1000 km s-1. However, the origin of these molecular outflows is currently unclear. One possibility is that they are formed from molecular gas that is swept up from the host galaxy by the AGN wind. However, previous studies have suggested that molecular clouds that are swept up by an AGN wind are unlikely to survive being accelerated to such high velocities. An alternative scenario is that molecules may form within the AGN wind material itself. We present a suite of 3D hydrodynamic simulations of an idealised AGN wind that we have run to explore this scenario. These simulations are coupled to a time-dependent chemical model to follow the creation and destruction of molecules, including H2, CO, OH and HCO+. We find that molecules do form within the wind, with molecular outflow rates up to 140 M⊙ yr-1 after 1 Myr. This is sensitive to the ambient ISM density, metallicity, and AGN luminosity. We also compute observable CO emission lines from these simulations using a radiative transfer code in post-processing. The CO-derived outflow rates are comparable to those seen in observations, although the maximum line of sight velocities are a factor ≍2 lower than observed. We find a CO (1-0) to H2 conversion factor of αCO = 0.15 M⊙ (K km s-1 pc2)-1 at solar metallicity, 5 times lower than is typically assumed in observations of such systems.

  15. Deep Chandra Observations of HCG 16. I. Active Nuclei, Star Formation, and Galactic Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, E.; Zezas, A.; Vrtilek, J. M.; Giacintucci, S.; Trevisan, M.; David, L. P.; Ponman, T. J.; Mamon, G. A.; Raychaudhury, S.

    2014-10-01

    We present new, deep Chandra X-ray and Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope 610 MHz observations of the spiral-galaxy-rich compact group HCG 16, which we use to examine nuclear activity, star formation, and high-luminosity X-ray binary populations in the major galaxies. We confirm the presence of obscured active nuclei in NGC 833 and NGC 835, and identify a previously unrecognized nuclear source in NGC 838. All three nuclei are variable on timescales of months to years, and for NGC 833 and NGC 835 this is most likely caused by changes in accretion rate. The deep Chandra observations allow us to detect for the first time an Fe Kα emission line in the spectrum of the Seyfert 2 nucleus of NGC 835. We find that NGC 838 and NGC 839 are both starburst-dominated systems, with only weak nuclear activity, in agreement with previous optical studies. We estimate the star formation rates in the two galaxies from their X-ray and radio emission, and compare these results with estimates from the infrared and ultraviolet bands to confirm that star formation in both galaxies is probably declining after galaxy-wide starbursts were triggered ~400-500 Myr ago. We examine the physical properties of their galactic superwinds, and find that both have temperatures of ~0.8 keV. We also examine the X-ray and radio properties of NGC 848, the fifth largest galaxy in the group, and show that it is dominated by emission from its starburst.

  16. Deep Chandra observations of HCG 16. I. Active nuclei, star formation, and galactic winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, E.; Zezas, A.; Vrtilek, J. M.; David, L. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Giacintucci, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Trevisan, M. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Av. dos Astronautas 1758, 12227-010, São José dos Campos (Brazil); Ponman, T. J.; Raychaudhury, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Mamon, G. A., E-mail: eosullivan@cfa.harvard.edu [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris (UMR 7095 CNRS and UMPC), 98 bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2014-10-01

    We present new, deep Chandra X-ray and Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope 610 MHz observations of the spiral-galaxy-rich compact group HCG 16, which we use to examine nuclear activity, star formation, and high-luminosity X-ray binary populations in the major galaxies. We confirm the presence of obscured active nuclei in NGC 833 and NGC 835, and identify a previously unrecognized nuclear source in NGC 838. All three nuclei are variable on timescales of months to years, and for NGC 833 and NGC 835 this is most likely caused by changes in accretion rate. The deep Chandra observations allow us to detect for the first time an Fe Kα emission line in the spectrum of the Seyfert 2 nucleus of NGC 835. We find that NGC 838 and NGC 839 are both starburst-dominated systems, with only weak nuclear activity, in agreement with previous optical studies. We estimate the star formation rates in the two galaxies from their X-ray and radio emission, and compare these results with estimates from the infrared and ultraviolet bands to confirm that star formation in both galaxies is probably declining after galaxy-wide starbursts were triggered ∼400-500 Myr ago. We examine the physical properties of their galactic superwinds, and find that both have temperatures of ∼0.8 keV. We also examine the X-ray and radio properties of NGC 848, the fifth largest galaxy in the group, and show that it is dominated by emission from its starburst.

  17. CONSTRAINTS ON THE GALACTIC POPULATION OF TeV PULSAR WIND NEBULAE USING FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acero, F.; Brandt, T. J.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Buehler, R.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Buson, S.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.

    2013-01-01

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) have been established as the most populous class of TeV γ-ray emitters. Since launch, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has identified five high-energy (100 MeV < E < 100 GeV) γ-ray sources as PWNe and detected a large number of PWN candidates, all powered by young and energetic pulsars. The wealth of multi-wavelength data available and the new results provided by Fermi-LAT give us an opportunity to find new PWNe and to explore the radiative processes taking place in known ones. The TeV γ-ray unidentified (UNID) sources are the best candidates for finding new PWNe. Using 45 months of Fermi-LAT data for energies above 10 GeV, an analysis was performed near the position of 58 TeV PWNe and UNIDs within 5° of the Galactic plane to establish new constraints on PWN properties and find new clues on the nature of UNIDs. Of the 58 sources, 30 were detected, and this work provides their γ-ray fluxes for energies above 10 GeV. The spectral energy distributions and upper limits, in the multi-wavelength context, also provide new information on the source nature and can help distinguish between emission scenarios, i.e., between classification as a pulsar candidate or as a PWN candidate. Six new GeV PWN candidates are described in detail and compared with existing models. A population study of GeV PWN candidates as a function of the pulsar/PWN system characteristics is presented

  18. CONSTRAINTS ON THE GALACTIC POPULATION OF TeV PULSAR WIND NEBULAE USING FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acero, F.; Brandt, T. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ackermann, M. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Buehler, R. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Baldini, L. [Universita di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D.; Buson, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bonamente, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Brigida, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' M. Merlin' ' dell' Universita e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bruel, P., E-mail: funk@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: joshualande@gmail.com, E-mail: lemoine@cenbg.in2p3.fr, E-mail: rousseau@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); and others

    2013-08-10

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) have been established as the most populous class of TeV {gamma}-ray emitters. Since launch, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has identified five high-energy (100 MeV < E < 100 GeV) {gamma}-ray sources as PWNe and detected a large number of PWN candidates, all powered by young and energetic pulsars. The wealth of multi-wavelength data available and the new results provided by Fermi-LAT give us an opportunity to find new PWNe and to explore the radiative processes taking place in known ones. The TeV {gamma}-ray unidentified (UNID) sources are the best candidates for finding new PWNe. Using 45 months of Fermi-LAT data for energies above 10 GeV, an analysis was performed near the position of 58 TeV PWNe and UNIDs within 5 Degree-Sign of the Galactic plane to establish new constraints on PWN properties and find new clues on the nature of UNIDs. Of the 58 sources, 30 were detected, and this work provides their {gamma}-ray fluxes for energies above 10 GeV. The spectral energy distributions and upper limits, in the multi-wavelength context, also provide new information on the source nature and can help distinguish between emission scenarios, i.e., between classification as a pulsar candidate or as a PWN candidate. Six new GeV PWN candidates are described in detail and compared with existing models. A population study of GeV PWN candidates as a function of the pulsar/PWN system characteristics is presented.

  19. Solar Energetic Particles (SEP) and Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) as tracers of solar wind conditions near Saturn: Event lists and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussos, E.; Jackman, C. M.; Thomsen, M. F.; Kurth, W. S.; Badman, S. V.; Paranicas, C.; Kollmann, P.; Krupp, N.; Bučík, R.; Mitchell, D. G.; Krimigis, S. M.; Hamilton, D. C.; Radioti, A.

    2018-01-01

    The lack of an upstream solar wind monitor poses a major challenge to any study that investigates the influence of the solar wind on the configuration and the dynamics of Saturn's magnetosphere. Here we show how Cassini MIMI/LEMMS observations of Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) and Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) transients, that are both linked to energetic processes in the heliosphere such us Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs) and Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs), can be used to trace enhanced solar wind conditions at Saturn's distance. SEP protons can be easily distinguished from magnetospheric ions, particularly at the MeV energy range. Many SEPs are also accompanied by strong GCR Forbush Decreases. GCRs are detectable as a low count-rate noise signal in a large number of LEMMS channels. As SEPs and GCRs can easily penetrate into the outer and middle magnetosphere, they can be monitored continuously, even when Cassini is not situated in the solar wind. A survey of the MIMI/LEMMS dataset between 2004 and 2016 resulted in the identification of 46 SEP events. Most events last more than two weeks and have their lowest occurrence rate around the extended solar minimum between 2008 and 2010, suggesting that they are associated to ICMEs rather than CIRs, which are the main source of activity during the declining phase and the minimum of the solar cycle. We also list of 17 time periods ( > 50 days each) where GCRs show a clear solar periodicity ( ∼ 13 or 26 days). The 13-day period that derives from two CIRs per solar rotation dominates over the 26-day period in only one of the 17 cases catalogued. This interval belongs to the second half of 2008 when expansions of Saturn's electron radiation belts were previously reported to show a similar periodicity. That observation not only links the variability of Saturn's electron belts to solar wind processes, but also indicates that the source of the observed periodicity in GCRs may be local. In this case GCR

  20. Development of a polymeric matrix for composite material produced by the filament winding technique; Desenvolvimento de matriz polimerica visando a producao de material composito atraves da tecnica de enrolamento filamentar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobrinho, Ledjane Lima; Ferreira, Marisilvia; Bastian, Fernando Luiz [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    2005-07-01

    The study of the resin for composite materials to be produced by the filament winding technique is very important, since the good applicability of the technique is in part function of the characteristics of the resin. The objective of this work is the development of a polymeric matrix using vinyl ester resin for composite to be produced by the filament winding technique. Therefore, vinyl ester resin systems developed from Derakane 411-350 by varying the percentage of cure agent and activator. The system which presented the best behavior in tension (Yong's modulus 2,42 GPa, tensile strength = 47,67 MPa, elongation = 7,31 % and fracture toughness 2,67 J), adequate gel time and exothermic peak for the manufacture process was submitted to hygrothermal aging by immersion in water at 60 deg C for a maximum period of 64 days. (author)

  1. Galactic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The occurrence of hot, apparently normal, massive stars far from the galactic plane has been a major puzzle in an understanding of galactic structure and evolution. Such stars have been discovered and studied at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) over a number of years. During 1989 further evidence has been obtained indicating that these stars are normal, massive objects. Other studies of galactic structure conducted by the SAAO have included research on: the central bulge region of our galaxy; populations of M giants in the galaxy; a faint blue object survey; a survey of the galactic plane for distant Cepheid variables; interstellar reddening, and K-type dwarfs as tracers for the gravitational force perpendicular to the galactic plane. 1 fig

  2. Galactic dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Binney, James

    2008-01-01

    Since it was first published in 1987, Galactic Dynamics has become the most widely used advanced textbook on the structure and dynamics of galaxies and one of the most cited references in astrophysics. Now, in this extensively revised and updated edition, James Binney and Scott Tremaine describe the dramatic recent advances in this subject, making Galactic Dynamics the most authoritative introduction to galactic astrophysics available to advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and researchers. Every part of the book has been thoroughly overhauled, and many section

  3. Galactic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchler, J.R.; Gottesman, S.T.; Hunter, J.H. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Various papers on galactic models are presented. Individual topics addressed include: observations relating to galactic mass distributions; the structure of the Galaxy; mass distribution in spiral galaxies; rotation curves of spiral galaxies in clusters; grand design, multiple arm, and flocculent spiral galaxies; observations of barred spirals; ringed galaxies; elliptical galaxies; the modal approach to models of galaxies; self-consistent models of spiral galaxies; dynamical models of spiral galaxies; N-body models. Also discussed are: two-component models of galaxies; simulations of cloudy, gaseous galactic disks; numerical experiments on the stability of hot stellar systems; instabilities of slowly rotating galaxies; spiral structure as a recurrent instability; model gas flows in selected barred spiral galaxies; bar shapes and orbital stochasticity; three-dimensional models; polar ring galaxies; dynamical models of polar rings

  4. H I Clouds in the Lower Halo. I. The Galactic All-Sky Survey Pilot Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, H. Alyson; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Calabretta, M. R.; Lockman, Felix J.; Pisano, D. J.; Bailin, J.; Kalberla, P. M. W.; Murphy, T.

    2008-01-01

    We have detected over 400 H I clouds in the lower halo of the Galaxy within the pilot region of the Galactic All-Sky Survey (GASS), a region of the fourth quadrant that spans 18 deg. in longitude, 40 deg. in latitude, and is centered on the Galactic equator. These clouds have a median peak brightness temperature of 0.6 K, a median velocity width of 12.8 km s -1 , and angular sizes ∼ -1 . A sample of clouds likely to be near tangent points was analyzed in detail. These clouds have radii on the order of 30 pc and a median H I mass of 630 M sun . The population has a vertical scale height of 400 pc and is concentrated in Galactocentric radius, peaking at R = 3.8 kpc. This confined structure suggests that the clouds are linked to spiral features, while morphological evidence that many clouds are aligned with loops and filaments is suggestive of a relationship with star formation. The clouds might result from supernovae and stellar winds in the form of fragmenting shells and gas that has been pushed into the halo rather than from a galactic fountain.

  5. Galactic bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Peletier, Reynier; Gadotti, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    This book consists of invited reviews on Galactic Bulges written by experts in the field. A central point of the book is that, while in the standard picture of galaxy formation a significant amount of the baryonic mass is expected to reside in classical bulges, the question what is the fraction of galaxies with no classical bulges in the local Universe has remained open. The most spectacular example of a galaxy with no significant classical bulge is the Milky Way. The reviews of this book attempt to clarify the role of the various types of bulges during the mass build-up of galaxies, based on morphology, kinematics, and stellar populations, and connecting their properties at low and high redshifts. The observed properties are compared with the predictions of the theoretical models, accounting for the many physical processes leading to the central mass concentration and their destruction in galaxies. This book serves as an entry point for PhD students and non-specialists and as a reference work for researchers...

  6. Solar Features - Prominences and Filaments - Filaments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Filaments are formed in magnetic loops that hold relatively cool, dense gas suspended above the surface of the Sun (David Hathaway/NASA)

  7. Galactic radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Sofue, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    This book is a concise primer on galactic radio astronomy for undergraduate and graduate students, and provides wide coverage of galactic astronomy and astrophysics such as the physics of interstellar matter and the dynamics and structure of the Milky Way Galaxy and galaxies. Radio astronomy and its technological development have led to significant progress in galactic astronomy and contributed to understanding interstellar matter and galactic structures. The book begins with the fundamental physics of radio-wave radiation, i.e., black body radiation, thermal emission, synchrotron radiation, and HI and molecular line emissions. The author then gives overviews of ingredients of galactic physics, including interstellar matter such as the neutral (HI), molecular hydrogen, and ionized gases, as well as magnetic fields in galaxies. In addition, more advanced topics relevant to the Galaxy and galaxies are also contained here: star formation, supernova remnants, the Galactic Center and black holes, galactic dynamics...

  8. Laboratory Calibration of X-ray Velocimeters for Radiation Driven Winds and Outflows Surrounding X-ray Binaries and Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory V.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Graf, A.; Hell, N.; Liedahl, D.; Magee, E. W.; Träbert, E.; Beilmann, C.; Bernitt, S.; Crespo-Lopez-Urritiua, J.; Eberle, S.; Kubicek, K.; Mäckel, V.; Rudolph, J.; Steinbrügge, R.; Ullrich, J.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Leutenegger, M.; Porter, F. S.; Rasmussen, A.; Simon, M.; Epp, S.

    2011-09-01

    High resolution measurements of X-ray absorption and fluorescence by radiation driven winds and outflows surrounding X-ray binaries and AGN provide a powerful means for measuring wind velocities. The accuracy of these X-ray velocimeters is limited by the accuracy of atomic data. For example, in the case of the high mass X-ray binary Vela X-1 the uncertainty in the calculated transition wavelengths of the K alpha lines produced by photoionization and photoexcitation of Si L-shell ions is comparable to the likely Doppler shifts, making it impossible to determine a reliable velocity. Similar problems also exist in the case of absorption of X-rays by M-shell Fe ions, which produces in some AGN the so-called unresolved transition array across the 15-17 angstrom band. In this case, there is a 15-45 milliangstrom variation among different wavelength calculations. The uncertainty in the calculations makes it impossible to reliably determine the true velocity structure of the outflow, and in turn, prevents a reliable determination of the mass-loss rate of the AGN. We present results of a recent series of laboratory experiments conducted using an electron beam ion trap coupled with the LCLS X-ray free electron laser and the BESSY-II synchrotron and designed to calibrate the velocimeters provided by high resolution instruments on Chandra and XMM-Newton. We also present results of resonant photoexcitation measurements of the transition wavelength of an Fe XVI satellite line 'coincident' with the 2p-3d Fe XVII line 3D at 15.26 angstroms. This line has never been resolved using emission spectroscopy and its measurement confirms the intensity of line 3D is sensitive to the relative abundance of Fe XVI and XVII and thus temperature. Work at LLNL was performed under the auspices of DOE under contract DE-AC53-07NA27344 and supported by NASA's APRA program.

  9. Enhanced dust emissivity power-law index along the western Hα filament of NGC 1569

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T.; Kaneda, H.; Onaka, T.; Yamagishi, M.; Ishihara, D.; Kokusho, T.; Tsuchikawa, T.

    2018-03-01

    We used a data set from AKARI and Herschel images at wavelengths from 7 μm to 500 μm to catch the evidence of dust processing in galactic winds in NGC 1569. Images show a diffuse infrared (IR) emission extending from the galactic disk into the halo region. The most prominent filamentary structure seen in the diffuse IR emission is spatially in good agreement with the western Hα filament (western arm). The spatial distribution of the F350/F500 map shows high values in regions around the super-star clusters (SSCs) and towards the western arm, which are not found in the F250/F350 map. The color-color diagram of F250/F350-F350/F500 indicates high values of the emissivity power-law index (βc) of the cold dust component in those regions. From a spectral decomposition analysis on a pixel-by-pixel basis, a βc map shows values ranging from ˜1 to ˜2 over the whole galaxy. In particular, high βc values of ˜2 are only observed in the regions indicated by the color-color diagram. Since the average cold dust temperature in NGC 1569 is ˜30 K, βc starburst activities and that those grains are blown away along the HI ridge and thus the western arm.

  10. Tungsten Filament Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Perkins, James

    2016-01-01

    We safely remove the outer glass bulb from an incandescent lamp and burn up the tungsten filament after the glass is removed. This demonstration dramatically illustrates the necessity of a vacuum or inert gas for the environment surrounding the tungsten filament inside the bulb. Our approach has added historical importance since the incandescent…

  11. Proteomics of Filamentous Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passel, van M.W.J.; Schaap, P.J.; Graaff, de L.H.

    2013-01-01

    Filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae traditionally have had an important role in providing enzymes and enzyme cocktails that are used in food industry. In recent years the genome sequences of many filamentous fungi have become available. This combined with

  12. Evolution of Filament Barbs

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Rui; Xu, Yan; Wang, Haimin

    2010-01-01

    We present a selected few cases in which the sense of chirality of filament barbs changed within as short as hours. We investigate in detail a quiescent filament on 2003 September 10 and 11. Of its four barbs displaying such changes only one overlay a small polarity inversion line inside the EUV filament channel (EFC). No magnetic elements with magnitude above the noise level were detected at the endpoints of all barbs. In particular, a pair of barbs first approached toward and then departed ...

  13. Observations of the Growth of an Active Region Filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo

    2017-04-01

    We present observations of the growth of an active region filament caused by magnetic interactions among the filament and its adjacent superpenumbral filament (SF) and dark thread-like structures (T). Multistep reconnections are identified during the whole growing process. Magnetic flux convergence and cancellation occurring at the positive footpoint region of the filament is the first step reconnection, which resulted in the filament bifurcating into two sets of intertwined threads. One set anchored in situ, while the other set moved toward and interacted with the SF and part of T. This indicates the second step reconnection, which gave rise to the disappearance of the SF and the formation of a long thread-like structure that connects the far ends of the filament and T. The long thread-like structure further interacted with the T and then separated into two parts, representing the third step reconnection. Finally, another similar long thread-like structure, which intertwined with the fixed filament threads, appeared. Hαobservations show that this twisted structure is a longer sinistral filament. Based on the observed photospheric vector magnetograms, we performed a non-linear force-free field extrapolation to reconstruct the magnetic fields above the photosphere and found that the coronal magnetic field lines associated with the filament consists of two twisted flux ropes winding around each other. These results suggest that magnetic interactions among filaments and their adjacent SFs and T could lead to the growth of the filaments, and the filament is probably supported in a flux rope.

  14. Femtosecond Laser Filamentation

    CERN Document Server

    Chin, See Leang

    2010-01-01

    Femtosecond Laser Filamentation gives a comprehensive review of the physics of propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses in optical media (principally air) and the applications and challenges of this new technique. This book presents the modern understanding of the physics of femtosecond laser pulse propagation, including unusual new effects such as the self-transformation of the pulse into a white light laser pulse, intensity clamping, the physics of multiple filamentation and competition, and how filaments’ ability to melt glass leads to wave guide writing. The potential applications of laser filamentation in atmospheric sensing and the generation of other electromagnetic pulses from the UV to the radio frequency are treated, together with possible future challenges in the excitation of super-excited states of molecules. Exciting new phenomena such as filament induced ultrafast birefringence and the excitation of molecular rotational wave packets and their multiple revivals in air (gases) will also ...

  15. Filament Substructures and their Interrelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Martin, S. F.; Engvold, O.

    The main structural components of solar filaments, their spines, barbs, and legs at the extreme ends of the spine, are illustrated from recent high-resolution observations. The thread-like structures appear to be present in filaments everywhere and at all times. They are the fundamental elements of solar filaments. The interrelation of the spines, barbs and legs are discussed. From observations, we present a conceptual model of the magnetic field of a filament. We suggest that only a single physical model is needed to explain filaments in a continuous spectrum represented by active region filaments at one end and quiescent filaments at the other end.

  16. Filament-filament switching can be regulated by separation between filaments together with cargo motor number.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P Erickson

    Full Text Available How intracellular transport controls the probability that cargos switch at intersections between filaments is not well understood. In one hypothesis some motors on the cargo attach to one filament while others attach to the intersecting filament, and the ensuing tug-of-war determines which filament is chosen. We investigate this hypothesis using 3D computer simulations, and discover that switching at intersections increases with the number of motors on the cargo, but is not strongly dependent on motor number when the filaments touch. Thus, simply controlling the number of active motors on the cargo cannot account for in vivo observations that found reduced switching with increasing motor number, suggesting additional mechanisms of regulation. We use simulations to show that one possible way to regulate switching is by simultaneously adjusting the separation between planes containing the crossing filaments and the total number of active motors on the cargo. Heretofore, the effect of filament-filament separation on switching has been unexplored. We find that the switching probability decreases with increasing filament separation. This effect is particularly strong for cargos with only a modest number of motors. As the filament separation increases past the maximum head-to-head distance of the motor, individual motors walking along a filament will be unable to reach the intersecting filament. Thus, any switching requires that other motors on the cargo attach to the intersecting filament and haul the cargo along it, while motor(s engaged on the original filament detach. Further, if the filament separation is large enough, the cargo can have difficulty proceeding along the initial filament because the engaged motors can walk underneath the intersecting filament, but the cargo itself cannot fit between the filaments. Thus, the cargo either detaches entirely from the original filament, or must dip to the side of the initial filament and then pass below

  17. Filament-filament switching can be regulated by separation between filaments together with cargo motor number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Robert P; Gross, Steven P; Yu, Clare C

    2013-01-01

    How intracellular transport controls the probability that cargos switch at intersections between filaments is not well understood. In one hypothesis some motors on the cargo attach to one filament while others attach to the intersecting filament, and the ensuing tug-of-war determines which filament is chosen. We investigate this hypothesis using 3D computer simulations, and discover that switching at intersections increases with the number of motors on the cargo, but is not strongly dependent on motor number when the filaments touch. Thus, simply controlling the number of active motors on the cargo cannot account for in vivo observations that found reduced switching with increasing motor number, suggesting additional mechanisms of regulation. We use simulations to show that one possible way to regulate switching is by simultaneously adjusting the separation between planes containing the crossing filaments and the total number of active motors on the cargo. Heretofore, the effect of filament-filament separation on switching has been unexplored. We find that the switching probability decreases with increasing filament separation. This effect is particularly strong for cargos with only a modest number of motors. As the filament separation increases past the maximum head-to-head distance of the motor, individual motors walking along a filament will be unable to reach the intersecting filament. Thus, any switching requires that other motors on the cargo attach to the intersecting filament and haul the cargo along it, while motor(s) engaged on the original filament detach. Further, if the filament separation is large enough, the cargo can have difficulty proceeding along the initial filament because the engaged motors can walk underneath the intersecting filament, but the cargo itself cannot fit between the filaments. Thus, the cargo either detaches entirely from the original filament, or must dip to the side of the initial filament and then pass below the crossing

  18. Suppression of star formation in the galaxy NGC 253 by a starburst-driven molecular wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolatto, Alberto D; Warren, Steven R; Leroy, Adam K; Walter, Fabian; Veilleux, Sylvain; Ostriker, Eve C; Ott, Jürgen; Zwaan, Martin; Fisher, David B; Weiss, Axel; Rosolowsky, Erik; Hodge, Jacqueline

    2013-07-25

    The under-abundance of very massive galaxies in the Universe is frequently attributed to the effect of galactic winds. Although ionized galactic winds are readily observable, most of the expelled mass (that is, the total mass flowing out from the nuclear region) is likely to be in atomic and molecular phases that are cooler than the ionized phases. Expanding molecular shells observed in starburst systems such as NGC 253 (ref. 12) and M 82 (refs 13, 14) may facilitate the entrainment of molecular gas in the wind. Although shell properties are well constrained, determining the amount of outflowing gas emerging from such shells and the connection between this gas and the ionized wind requires spatial resolution better than 100 parsecs coupled with sensitivity to a wide range of spatial scales, a combination hitherto not available. Here we report observations of NGC 253, a nearby starburst galaxy (distance ∼ 3.4 megaparsecs) known to possess a wind, that trace the cool molecular wind at 50-parsec resolution. At this resolution, the extraplanar molecular gas closely tracks the Hα filaments, and it appears to be connected to expanding molecular shells located in the starburst region. These observations allow us to determine that the molecular outflow rate is greater than 3 solar masses per year and probably about 9 solar masses per year. This implies a ratio of mass-outflow rate to star-formation rate of at least 1, and probably ∼3, indicating that the starburst-driven wind limits the star-formation activity and the final stellar content.

  19. Interstellar Matters: Neutral Hydrogen and the Galactic Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuur, Gerrit; Schmelz, Joan T.; Asgari-Targhi asgari-Targhi, M.

    2018-01-01

    The physics of the interstellar medium was revolutionized by the observations of the Galactic Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (GALFA) HI survey done at the Arecibo Observatory. The high-resolution, high-sensitivity, high-dynamic- range images show complex, tangled, extended filaments, and reveal that the fabric of the neutral interstellar medium is deeply tied to the structure of the ambient magnetic field. This discovery prompts an obvious question – how exactly is the interstellar {\\it neutral} hydrogen being affected by the galactic magnetic field? We look into this question by examining a set of GALFA-HI data in great detail. We have chosen a long, straight filament in the southern galactic sky. This structure is both close by and isolated in velocity space. Gaussian analysis of profiles both along and across the filament reveal internal structure – braided strands that can be traced through the simplest part, but become tangled in more complex segments. These braids do not resemble in any way the old spherical HI clouds and rudimentary pressure balance models that were used to explain the pre-GALFA- HI interstellar medium. It is clear that these structures are created, constrained, and dominated by magnetic fields. Like many subfields of astronomy before it, e.g., physics of the solar coronal, extragalactic radio jets, and pulsar environment, scientists are confronted with observations that simply cannot be explained by simple hydrodynamics and are forced to consider magneto-hydrodynamics.

  20. Where Galactic Snakes Live

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows what astronomers are referring to as a 'snake' (upper left) and its surrounding stormy environment. The sinuous object is actually the core of a thick, sooty cloud large enough to swallow dozens of solar systems. In fact, astronomers say the 'snake's belly' may be harboring beastly stars in the process of forming. The galactic creepy crawler to the right of the snake is another thick cloud core, in which additional burgeoning massive stars might be lurking. The colorful regions below the two cloud cores are less dense cloud material, in which dust has been heated by starlight and glows with infrared light. Yellow and orange dots throughout the image are monstrous developing stars; the red star on the 'belly' of the snake is 20 to 50 times as massive as our sun. The blue dots are foreground stars. The red ball at the bottom left is a 'supernova remnant,' the remains of massive star that died in a fiery blast. Astronomers speculate that radiation and winds from the star before it died, in addition to a shock wave created when it exploded, might have played a role in creating the snake. Spitzer was able to spot the two black cloud cores using its heat-seeking infrared vision. The objects are hiding in the dusty plane of our Milky Way galaxy, invisible to optical telescopes. Because their heat, or infrared light, can sneak through the dust, they first showed up in infrared images from past missions. The cloud cores are so thick with dust that if you were to somehow transport yourself into the middle of them, you would see nothing but black, not even a star in the sky. Now, that's spooky! Spitzer's new view of the region provides the best look yet at the massive embryonic stars hiding inside the snake. Astronomers say these observations will ultimately help them better understand how massive stars form. By studying the clustering and range of masses of the stellar embryos, they hope to determine if the stars

  1. Evolution of filament barbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R.; Xu, Y.; Wang, H.

    We present a selected few cases in which the sense of chirality of filament barbs changed within periods as short as hours. We investigate in detail a quiescent filament on 2003 September 10 and 11. Of its four barbs displaying such changes, only one overlays a small polarity inversion line inside the EUV filament channel (EFC). No magnetic elements with magnitude above the noise level were detected at the endpoints of all barbs. In particular, a pair of barbs first approached toward, and then departed from, each other in Halpha , with the barb endpoints migrating as far as ˜ 10 arcsec. We conclude that the evolution of the barbs was driven by flux emergence and cancellation of small bipolar units at the EFC border.

  2. Filaments in Lupus I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satoko; Rodon, J.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Plunkett, A.

    2017-06-01

    The mechanisms behind the formation of sub-stellar mass sources are key to determine the populations at the low-mass end of the stellar distribution. Here, we present mapping observations toward the Lupus I cloud in C18O(2-1) and 13CO(2-1) obtained with APEX. We have identified a few velocity-coherent filaments. Each contains several substellar mass sources that are also identified in the 1.1mm continuum data (see also SOLA catalogue presentation). We will discuss the velocity structure, fragmentation properties of the identified filaments, and the nature of the detected sources.

  3. Active galactic nucleus outflows in galaxy discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Tilman; Volonteri, Marta; Dashyan, Gohar

    2018-05-01

    Galactic outflows, driven by active galactic nuclei (AGNs), play a crucial role in galaxy formation and in the self-regulated growth of supermassive black holes (BHs). AGN feedback couples to and affects gas, rather than stars, and in many, if not most, gas-rich galaxies cold gas is rotationally supported and settles in a disc. We present a 2D analytical model for AGN-driven outflows in a gaseous disc and demonstrate the main improvements, compared to existing 1D solutions. We find significant differences for the outflow dynamics and wind efficiency. The outflow is energy-driven due to inefficient cooling up to a certain AGN luminosity (˜1043 erg s-1 in our fiducial model), above which the outflow remains momentum-driven in the disc up to galactic scales. We reproduce results of 3D simulations that gas is preferentially ejected perpendicular to the disc and find that the fraction of ejected interstellar medium is lower than in 1D models. The recovery time of gas in the disc, defined as the free-fall time from the radius to which the AGN pushes the ISM at most, is remarkably short, of the order 1 Myr. This indicates that AGN-driven winds cannot suppress BH growth for long. Without the inclusion of supernova feedback, we find a scaling of the BH mass with the halo velocity dispersion of MBH ∝ σ4.8.

  4. Diffuse galactic annihilation radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    The study reports observations of positron annihilation radiation from the inner region of the Galaxy which show that there are two components of the radiation: a steady, diffuse Galactic component and a variable component from discrete, presumably compact sources. The existence of the variable component is supported by the ensemble of all narrow FOV 511 keV line observations, including recent detections with OSSE. The fit of this ensemble to a time-independent source distribution can be excluded at the approximately 3-sigma level. The same ensemble, combined with the broad FOV SMM observations of Galactic 511 keV line emission, sets constraints on the Galactic distribution of the diffuse component.

  5. Positrusion Filament Recycling System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TUI proposes a novel process to produce 3d printer feedstock filament out of scrap ABS on the ISS. Currently the plastic filament materials that most 3d printers use...

  6. Solar Features - Prominences and Filaments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Prominences and filaments are two manifestations of the same phenomenon. Both prominences and filaments are features formed above the chromosphere by cool dense...

  7. The jet/wind outflow in Centaurus A: a local laboratory for AGN feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, B.; Tingay, S. J.; Carretti, E.; Ellis, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Morganti, R.; Line, J.; McDonald, M.; Veilleux, S.; Wahl Olsen, R.; Sidonio, M.; Ekers, R.; Offringa, A. R.; Procopio, P.; Pindor, B.; Wayth, R. B.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Bernardi, G.; Gaensler, B. M.; Haverkorn, M.; Kesteven, M.; Poppi, S.; Staveley-Smith, L.

    2018-03-01

    We present new radio and optical images of the nearest radio galaxy Centaurus A and its host galaxy NGC 5128. We focus our investigation on the northern transition region, where energy is transported from the ˜5 kpc (˜5 arcmin) scales of the northern inner lobe (NIL) to the ˜30 kpc (˜30 arcmin) scales of the northern middle lobe (NML). Our Murchison Widefield Array observations at 154 MHz and our Parkes radio telescope observations at 2.3 GHz show diffuse radio emission connecting the NIL to the NML, in agreement with previous Australia Telescope Compact Array observations at 1.4 GHz. Comparison of these radio data with our wide-field optical emission-line images show the relationship between the NML radio emission and the ionized filaments that extend north from the NIL, and reveal a new ionized filament to the east, possibly associated with a galactic wind. Our deep optical images show clear evidence for a bipolar outflow from the central galaxy extending to intermediate scales, despite the non-detection of a southern radio counterpart to the NML. Thus, our observational overview of Centaurus A reveals a number of features proposed to be associated with active galactic nucleus feedback mechanisms, often cited as likely to have significant effects in galaxy evolution models. As one of the closest galaxies to us, Centaurus A therefore provides a unique laboratory to examine feedback mechanisms in detail.

  8. Distant galactic open clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    The motivation for studying distant open clusters primarily arose out of a desire to gain some understanding of star formation processes in the general context of galactic structure. Of specific interest are faint open clusters near the galactic anticenter which are part of a larger survey of objects which may be located in the 'periphery' of the Galaxy. A sample of results from broad-band photometric studies for clusters near lsup(II)=180 0 , bsup(II)=0 0 is presented. (Auth.)

  9. Method for preparing metallated filament-wound structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, George R.

    1979-01-01

    Metallated graphite filament-wound structures are prepared by coating a continuous multi-filament carbon yarn with a metal carbide, impregnating the carbide coated yarn with a polymerizable carbon precursor, winding the resulting filament about a mandrel, partially curing the impregnation in air, subjecting the wound composite to heat and pressure to cure the carbon precursor, and thereafter heating the composite in a sizing die at a pressure loading of at least 1000 psi for graphitizing the carbonaceous material in the composite. The carbide in the composite coalesces into rod-like shapes which are disposed in an end-to-end relationship parallel with the filaments to provide resistance to erosion in abrasive laden atmospheres.

  10. Active Galactic Nuclei Feedback and Clusters Biman B. Nath

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The Intracluster Medium (ICM) is believed to have been affected by feedback from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and/or supernovae-driven winds. These sources are supposed to have injected entropy into the ICM gas. The recently determined universal pressure pro- file of the ICM gas has been used and after ...

  11. Continuing galactic formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCanney, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    A new theory for galactic arm formation shows the arms to be continually eminating from the galactic nucleus due to a continual influx of cosmic dust. In the neighborhood of the nucleus the problem is treated as a fluid flow and a simple solution is given using conservation of momentum. When rotational dynamics are included the spinning arm system is the result. This solution resolves the problem of the missing mass, accounts for warped disk galaxies and gives a probable source for the gravity waves measured by Weber which eminate from our galactic center. Reversal of arm direction is demonstrated and examples of such reversals are cited. An approximate theoretical estimate of the age of our Sun is found to be in good agreement with radio isotope dating. A general result shows why twin star systems are in such great abundance in a galaxy. It gives a model of galactic evolution which begins with only a single massive nucleus with the collapsing gas clouds forming the arms. (orig.)

  12. Bacterial intermediate filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Cabeen, M.; Jacobs-Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Crescentin, which is the founding member of a rapidly growing family of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins, was previously proposed to resemble eukaryotic intermediate filament (IF) proteins based on structural prediction and in vitro polymerization properties. Here, we demonstrate that crescentin...... also shares in vivo properties of assembly and dynamics with IF proteins by forming stable filamentous structures that continuously incorporate subunits along their length and that grow in a nonpolar fashion. De novo assembly of crescentin is biphasic and involves a cell size-dependent mechanism...... a new function for MreB and providing a parallel to the role of actin in IF assembly and organization in metazoan cells. Additionally, analysis of an MreB localization mutant suggests that cell wall insertion during cell elongation normally occurs along two helices of opposite handedness, each...

  13. Filamentous Fungi Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Anders; Stocks, Stuart; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi (including microorganisms such as Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae) represent an enormously important platform for industrial fermentation. Two particularly valuable features are the high yield coefficients and the ability to secrete products. However, the filamentous...... morphology, together with non-Newtonian rheological properties (shear thinning), result in poor oxygen transfer unless sufficient energy is provided to the fermentation. While genomic research may improve the organisms, there is no doubt that to enable further application in future it will be necessary...... to match such research with studies of oxygen transfer and energy supply to high viscosity fluids. Hence, the implementation of innovative solutions (some of which in principle are already possible) will be essential to ensure the further development of such fermentations....

  14. Numerical Models of Starburst Galaxies: A Study of Outflows and ISM Morphology in Galactic Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Ryan; Cecil, G. N.; Heitsch, F.

    2014-01-01

    Starbursts and AGN winds in galaxy cores can produce large scale outflows. Whether any given outburst can create an outflow depends on several variables including the rate at which the energy is injected into the interstellar medium (ISM), the distribution of clouds with in the ISM, and the overall shape of the ISM. Previous simulations by Cooper et al. (2008) reproduce linear filaments like that in M 82, but were limited in the parameter space that they could explore. We have modified the public Athena hydro code (Stone et al. 2008) to greatly reduce the computation time of high resolution 3D simulations similar to Cooper et al. (2008) and to handle accurate gas cooling down to lower molecule-forming temperatures (10 K). We are exploring the parameter space of a galactic “blowout”, the origin and evolution of interesting ISM morphology such as the curved filamentary “towers” observed at the center of NGC 3079, and how different ISM morphologies may influence the outflow. These simulations are being compared with spectral imaging obtained with the Herschel space telescope to study the connection between regions of the cold neutral medium, warm neutral medium, and warm ionized medium. Those observations are being presented in another session of this AAS meeting. Our work is supported by NASA/Herschel and NC Space Grant funding.

  15. Stellar Feedback from Galactic Bulges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shikui; Wang, D. Q.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that feedback from galactic bulges can play an essential role in the halo gas dynamics and the evolution of their host galaxies by conducting a series of 1-D and 3-D simulations. In our 1-D models we approximately divide the the bulge stellar feedback into two phases: 1) a starbusrt-induced blastwave from the formation of bulge built up through frequent major mergers at high redshift and 2) a gradual feedback in forms of stellar wind and Type Ia SNe from low mass stars. Our simulations show that the combination of the two-phase feedback can heat the surrounding gas beyond the virial radius and stop further gas accretion, which naturally produces a baryon deficit around MW-like galaxies and explains the lack of large-scale X-ray halos, consistent with observations. The hot gas dynamics depends sensitively on the environment and bulge formation history. This dependency may account for the large dispersion in the X-ray luminosities of the galaxies with similar L_B. In the 3-D simulations, we examine the spatial, thermal, and chemical substructures and their effects on X-ray measurements. The sporadic SN explosion creates wealth of filamentary and shell-like structures in the hot gas and produces a broad lognormal-like emission-measure distribution, which enhances the X-ray emission at a low and high temperatures. The luminosity at 0.3-2.0 keV band is nearly tripled due to the gas structures. We find that the SN Ia ejecta are not well-mixed with the ambient medium within the bulge scale, and the X-ray emission is primarily from shocked stellar wind materials which in general has low metallicity.

  16. A hot X-ray filament associated with A3017 galaxy cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, V.; Durret, F.; Padmanabh, P.; Pandge, M. B.

    2017-09-01

    Recent simulations and observations have shown large-scale filaments in the cosmic web connecting nodes, with accreting materials (baryonic and dark matter) flowing through them. Current high-sensitivity observations also show that the propagation of shocks through filaments can heat them up and make filaments visible between two or more galaxy clusters or around massive clusters, based on optical and/or X-ray observations. We are reporting here the special case of the cluster A3017 associated with a hot filament. The temperature of the filament is 3.4^{-0.77}_{+1.30} keV and its length is ∼1 Mpc. We have analysed its archival Chandra data and report various properties. We also analysed GMRT 235/610 MHz radio data. Radio observations have revealed symmetric two-sided lobes that fill cavities in the A3017 cluster core region, associated with central active galactic nucleus. In the radio map, we also noticed a peculiar linear vertical radio structure in the X-ray filament region which might be associated with a cosmic filament shock. This radio structure could be a radio phoenix or old plasma where an old relativistic population is re-accelerated by shock propagation. Finally, we put an upper limit on the radio luminosity of the filament region.

  17. Modeling galactic extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Cecchi-Pestellini, C.; Mulas, G.; Casu, S.; Iatì, M. A.; Saija, R.; Cacciola, A.; Borghese, F.; Denti, P.

    2011-01-01

    We present a model for interstellar extinction dust, in which we assume a bimodal distribution of extinction carriers, a dispersion of core-mantle grains, supplemented by a collection of PAHs in free molecular form. We use state-of-the-art methods to calculate the extinction due to macroscopic dust particles, and the absorption cross-sections of PAHs in four different charge states. While successfull for most of observed Galactic extinction curves, in few cases the model cannot provide reliab...

  18. Filament wound structure and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dritt, W.S.; Gerth, H.L.; Knight, C.E. Jr.; Pardue, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    A filament wound spherical structure is described comprising a plurality of filament band sets disposed about the surface of a mandrel with each band of each set formed of a continuous filament circumferentially wound about the mandrel a selected number of circuits and with each circuit of filament being wound parallel to and contiguous with an immediate previously wound circuit. Each filament band in each band set is wound at the same helix angle from the axis of revolution of the mandrel and all of the bands of each set are uniformly distributed about the mandrel circumference. The pole-to-equator wall thickness taper associated with each band set, as several contiguous band sets are wound about the mandrel starting at the poles, is accumulative as the band sets are nested to provide a complete filament wound sphere of essentially uniform thickness

  19. Magnetic vortex filament flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Manuel; Cabrerizo, Jose L.; Fernandez, Manuel; Romero, Alfonso

    2007-01-01

    We exhibit a variational approach to study the magnetic flow associated with a Killing magnetic field in dimension 3. In this context, the solutions of the Lorentz force equation are viewed as Kirchhoff elastic rods and conversely. This provides an amazing connection between two apparently unrelated physical models and, in particular, it ties the classical elastic theory with the Hall effect. Then, these magnetic flows can be regarded as vortex filament flows within the localized induction approximation. The Hasimoto transformation can be used to see the magnetic trajectories as solutions of the cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation showing the solitonic nature of those

  20. Transition from galactic to extra-galactic cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloisio, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we review the main features of the observed Cosmic Rays spectrum in the energy range 10 17 eV to 10 20 eV. We present a theoretical model that explains the main observed features of the spectrum, namely the second Knee and Dip, and implies a transition from Galactic to Extra-Galactic cosmic rays at energy E ≅ 10 18 eV, with a proton dominated Extra-Galactic spectrum

  1. Solar Filament Extraction and Characterizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Shih, F. Y.; Jing, J.; Wang, H.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a new method to extract and characterize solar filaments from H-alpha full-disk images produced by Big Bear Solar Observatory. A cascading Hough Transform method is designed to identify solar disk center location and radius. Solar disks are segmented from the background, and unbalanced illumination on the surface of solar disks is removed using polynomial surface fitting. And then a localized adaptive thresholding is employed to extract solar filament candidates. After the removal of small solar filament candidates, the remaining larger candidates are used as the seeds of region growing. The procedure of region growing not only connects broken filaments but also generate complete shape for each filament. Mathematical morphology thinning is adopted to produce the skeleton of each filament, and graph theory is used to prune branches and barbs to get the main skeleton. The length and the location of the main skeleton is characterized. The proposed method can help scientists and researches study the evolution of solar filament, for instance, to detect solar filament eruption. The presented method has already been used by Space Weather Research Lab of New Jersey Institute of Technology (http://swrl.njit.edu) to generate the solar filament online catalog using H-alpha full-disk images of Global H-alpha Network (http://swrl.njit.edu/ghn_web/).

  2. Chaperonin filaments: The archael cytoskeleton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent, J.D.; Kagawa, H.K.; Yaoi, Takuro; Olle, E.; Zaluzec, N.J.

    1997-08-01

    Chaperonins are multi-subunit double-ring complexed composed of 60-kDa proteins that are believed to mediate protein folding in vivo. The chaperonins in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae are composed of the organism`s two most abundant proteins, which represent 4% of its total protein and have an intracellular concentration of {ge} 3.0 mg/ml. At concentrations of 1.0 mg/ml, purified chaperonin proteins aggregate to form ordered filaments. Filament formation, which requires Mg{sup ++} and nucleotide binding (not hydrolysis), occurs at physiological temperatures under conditions suggesting filaments may exist in vivo. If the estimated 4,600 chaperonins per cell, formed filaments in vivo, they could create a matrix of filaments that would span the diameter of an average S. shibatae cell 100 times. Direct observations of unfixed, minimally treated cells by intermediate voltage electron microscopy (300 kV) revealed an intracellular network of filaments that resembles chaperonin filaments produced in vitro. The hypothesis that the intracellular network contains chaperonins is supported by immunogold analyses. The authors propose that chaperonin activity may be regulated in vivo by filament formation and that chaperonin filaments may serve a cytoskeleton-like function in archaea and perhaps in other prokaryotes.

  3. Metallic Winds in Dwarf Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles-Valdez, F.; Rodríguez-González, A.; Hernández-Martínez, L.; Esquivel, A., E-mail: fatima.robles@correo.nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, 04510, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2017-02-01

    We present results from models of galactic winds driven by energy injected from nuclear (at the galactic center) and non-nuclear starbursts. The total energy of the starburst is provided by very massive young stellar clusters, which can push the galactic interstellar medium and produce an important outflow. Such outflow can be a well or partially mixed wind, or a highly metallic wind. We have performed adiabatic 3D N -Body/Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics simulations of galactic winds using the gadget-2 code. The numerical models cover a wide range of parameters, varying the galaxy concentration index, gas fraction of the galactic disk, and radial distance of the starburst. We show that an off-center starburst in dwarf galaxies is the most effective mechanism to produce a significant loss of metals (material from the starburst itself). At the same time, a non-nuclear starburst produces a high efficiency of metal loss, in spite of having a moderate to low mass loss rate.

  4. Filament Eruptions, Jets, and Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ronald; Sterling, Alphonse; Robe, Nick; Falconer, David; Cirtain, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    -plasma component of coronal X-ray jets. This favors the idea that Type-II spicules are miniature counterparts of coronal X-ray jets. In Moore et al (2011, ApJ, 731, L18), we pointed out that if Type-II spicules are magnetic eruptions that work like coronal X-ray jets, they carry an area-averaged mechanical energy flux of approximately 7x10)(exp 5) erg cm(exp -2) s(exp-1) into the corona in the form of MHD waves and jet outflow, enough to power the heating of the global corona and solar wind. On this basis, from our observations of mini-filament eruptions in blowout X-ray jets, we infer that magnetic explosions of the type that have erupting filaments in them are the main engines of both (1) the steady solar wind and (2) the CMEs that produce the most severe space weather by blasting out through the corona and solar wind, making solar energetic particle storms, and bashing the Earth's magnetosphere. We conclude that in focusing on prominences and filament eruptions, Einar had his eye on the main bet for understanding what powers all space weather, both the extreme and the normal.

  5. The Galactic metallicity gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolleston, W. R. J.; Smartt, S. J.; Dufton, P. L.; Ryans, R. S. I.

    2000-11-01

    We have previously published intermediate to high resolution spectroscopic observations of approximately 80 early B-type main-sequence stars situated in 19 Galactic open clusters/associations with Galactocentric distances distributed over 6Twarog et al. \\cite{twa97}). However, there is no evidence to suggest that our data would be better fitted with a two-zone model. Moreover, we observe a N/O gradient of -0.04+/-0.02 dex kpc-1 which is consistent with that found for other spiral galaxies (Vila-Costas & Edmunds \\cite{vil93}).

  6. Active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Blandford, RD; Woltjer, L

    1990-01-01

    Starting with this volume, the Lecture Notes of the renowned Advanced Courses of the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy will be published annually. In each course, three extensive lectures given by leading experts in their respective fields cover different and essential aspects of the subject. The 20th course, held at Les Diablerets in April 1990, dealt with current research on active galactic nuclei; it represents the most up-to-date views on the subject, presented with particular regard for clarity. The previous courses considered a wide variety of subjects, beginning with ""Theory

  7. Filamentation instability of large-amplitude Alfven waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, S.P.; Whang, M.H.; Lee, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    An instability that leads to the filamentation of large-amplitude Alfven waves and gives rise to purely growing density and magnetic field fluctuations is studied. The dispersion relation of the instability is derived, from which the threshold conditions and the growth rates of the instability are analyzed quantitatively for applications to the solar wind plasma. We have examined their dependence on the filamentation spectrum, the plasma β, and the pump frequency and intensity for both right-hand and left-hand circularly polarized Alfven waves. The excitation of filamentation instability for certain cases of interest is discussed and compared with that of the parametric decay and modulation instability. The relevance of the proposed instability with some observations is discussed. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988

  8. Ram pressure effects in the galactic plane and galactic dynamos in the no-z approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, D.; Sokoloff, D.; Beck, R.

    2012-08-01

    Context. The magnetic field of galaxies is believed to be produced by internal dynamo action, but can be affected by motion of the galaxy through the surrounding medium. Observations of polarized radio emission of galaxies located in galaxy clusters have revealed noticeable features of large-scale magnetic configurations, including displacements of the magnetic structures from the optical images and tails, which are possible imprints of ram pressure effects arising from motion of the galaxies through the intracluster medium. Aims: We present a quantitative dynamo model, which attempts to describe the above effects. In contrast, to the traditional problem of a wind affecting a body with a prescribed magnetic field, we investigate how a non-magnetized wind flow affects a magnetic field that is being self-excited by galactic dynamo action. Methods: To isolate the leading physical effects, we exploit a simple dynamo model that can describe relevant effects. In particular, we use what is known as the "no-z" approximation for the mean-field dynamo equations. Results: In a suitable parametric range we obtain displacements of the large-scale magnetic field, as well as magnetic tails. However, the specific details of their locations are quite counterintuitive. The direction of displacement is perpendicular to, rather than parallel to, the wind direction. The point at which the tail emerges from the galaxy depends on details of the model. The tail is eventually directed downstream. In the simplest case the magnetic tail begins in the region where the wind decreases the total gas velocity. Any wind that penetrates the galaxy modifies the intrinsic dynamo action. These features are different from those found in ram-pressure models. Conclusions: Any determination of galactic motion through the cluster medium from observational data needs to take the effects of dynamo action into account.

  9. RADIATION SPECTRAL SYNTHESIS OF RELATIVISTIC FILAMENTATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederiksen, Jacob Trier; Haugboelle, Troels; Medvedev, Mikhail V.; Nordlund, Ake

    2010-01-01

    Radiation from many astrophysical sources, e.g., gamma-ray bursts and active galactic nuclei, is believed to arise from relativistically shocked collisionless plasmas. Such sources often exhibit highly transient spectra evolving rapidly compared with source lifetimes. Radiation emitted from these sources is typically associated with nonlinear plasma physics, complex field topologies, and non-thermal particle distributions. In such circumstances, a standard synchrotron paradigm may fail to produce accurate conclusions regarding the underlying physics. Simulating spectral emission and spectral evolution numerically in various relativistic shock scenarios is then the only viable method to determine the detailed physical origin of the emitted spectra. In this Letter, we present synthetic radiation spectra representing the early stage development of the filamentation (streaming) instability of an initially unmagnetized plasma, which is relevant for both collisionless shock formation and reconnection dynamics in relativistic astrophysical outflows as well as for laboratory astrophysics experiments. Results were obtained using a highly efficient in situ diagnostics method, based on detailed particle-in-cell modeling of collisionless plasmas. The synthetic spectra obtained here are compared with those predicted by a semi-analytical model for jitter radiation from the filamentation instability, the latter including self-consistent generated field topologies and particle distributions obtained from the simulations reported upon here. Spectra exhibit dependence on the presence-or the absence-of an inert plasma constituent, when comparing baryonic plasmas (i.e., containing protons) with pair plasmas. The results also illustrate that considerable care should be taken when using lower-dimensional models to obtain information about the astrophysical phenomena generating observed spectra.

  10. The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hynes, Robert I.; Jonker, P.G.; Bassa, C. G.; Dieball, A.; Greiss, S.; Maccarone, T. J.; Nelemans, G.; Steeghs, D.; Torres, M. A. P.; Britt, C. T.; Clem, J. L.; Gossen, L.; Grindlay, J. E.; Groot, P.J.; Kuiper, L.; Kuulkers, E.; Mendez, M.; Mikles, V. J.; Ratti, E. M.; Rea, N.; van Haaften, L.; Wijnands, R.; in't Zand, J. J. M.

    The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (CGBS) is a shallow but wide survey of two approximately 6x1 degree strips of the Galactic Bulge about a degree above and below the plane. The survey by design targets regions where extinction and crowding are manageable and optical counterparts are accessible to

  11. The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hynes, Robert I.; Jonker, P. G.; Bassa, C. G.; Nelemans, G.; Steeghs, D.; Torres, M. A. P.; Maccarone, T. J.; Greiss, S.; Clem, J.; Dieball, A.; Mikles, V. J.; Britt, C. T.; Gossen, L.; Collazzi, A. C.; Wijnands, R.; In't Zand, J. J. M.; Mendez, M.; Rea, N.; Kuulkers, E.; Ratti, E. M.; van Haaften, L. M.; Heinke, C.; Ozel, F.; Groot, P. J.; Verbunt, F.

    2012-01-01

    The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS) is a shallow but wide survey of two approximately 6x1 degree strips of the Galactic Bulge about a degree above and below the plane. The survey by design targets regions where extinction and crowding are manageable and optical counterparts are accessible to

  12. The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hynes, Robert I.; Jonker, P. G.; Bassa, C. G.; Nelemans, G.; Steeghs, D.; Torres, M. A. P.; Maccarone, T. J.; Greiss, S.; Clem, J.; Dieball, A.; Mikles, V. J.; Britt, C. T.; Gossen, L.; Collazzi, A. C.; Wijnands, R.; In't Zand, J. J. M.; Mendez, M.; Rea, N.; Kuulkers, E.; Ratti, E. M.; van Haaften, L. M.; Heinke, C.; Ozel, F.; Groot, P. J.; Verbunt, F.

    The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS) is a shallow but wide survey of two approximately 6x1 degree strips of the Galactic Bulge about a degree above and below the plane. The survey by design targets regions where extinction and crowding are manageable and optical counterparts are accessible to

  13. Failure assessment of aluminum liner based filament-wound hybrid riser subjected to internal hydrostatic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, Vishwesh; Seng, Ong Lin; Maheshwari, Muneesh; Asundi, A.

    2015-03-01

    The present study describes the burst behavior of aluminum liner based prototype filament-wound hybrid riser under internal hydrostatic pressure. The main objective of present study is to developed an internal pressure test rig set-up for filament-wound hybrid riser and investigate the failure modes of filament-wound hybrid riser under internal hydrostatic burst pressure loading. The prototype filament-wound hybrid riser used for burst test consists of an internal aluminum liner and outer composite layer. The carbon-epoxy composites as part of the filament-wound hybrid risers were manufactured with [±55o] lay-up pattern with total composite layer thickness of 1.6 mm using a CNC filament-winding machine. The burst test was monitored by video camera which helps to analyze the failure mechanism of the fractured filament-wound hybrid riser. The Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor was used to monitor and record the strain changes during burst test of prototype filament-wound hybrid riser. This study shows good improvements in burst strength of filament-wound hybrid riser compared to the monolithic metallic riser. Since, strain measurement using FBG sensors has been testified as a reliable method, we aim to further understand in detail using this technique.

  14. Infrared imaging spectroscopy of the Galactic center - Distribution and motions of the ionized gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, T. M.; Beckwith, S. V. W.; Forrest, W. J.; Pipher, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    High spatial spectral resolution IR images of the Galactic center in the Br-gamma recombination line of hydrogen were taken. A coherent filament of gas extending from north of IRS 1, curving around IRS 16/Sgr A complex, and continuing to the southwest, is seen. Nine stellar sources have associated Br-gamma emission. The total Br-gamma line flux in the filament is approximately 3 x 10 exp -15 W/sq m. The distribution and kinematics of the northern arm suggest orbital motion; the observations are accordingly fit with elliptical orbits in the field of a central point of mass.

  15. A model of filament-wound thin cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calius, Emilio P.; Springer, George S.

    1990-01-01

    A model was developed for simulating he manufacturing process of filament-wound cylinders made of a thermoset matrix composite. The model relates the process variables (winding speed, fiber tension, applied temperature) to the parameters characterizing the composite cylinder and the mandrel. The model is applicable to cylinders for which the diameter is large compared to the wall thickness. The model was implemented by a user-friendly computer code suitable for generating numerical results.

  16. Comparative Biomechanics of Thick Filaments and Thin Filaments with Functional Consequences for Muscle Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Miller

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The scaffold of striated muscle is predominantly comprised of myosin and actin polymers known as thick filaments and thin filaments, respectively. The roles these filaments play in muscle contraction are well known, but the extent to which variations in filament mechanical properties influence muscle function is not fully understood. Here we review information on the material properties of thick filaments, thin filaments, and their primary constituents; we also discuss ways in which mechanical properties of filaments impact muscle performance.

  17. Natural Fiber Filament Wound Composites: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ansari Suriyati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent development, natural fibers have attracted the interest of engineers, researchers, professionals and scientists all over the world as an alternative reinforcement for fiber reinforced polymer composites. This is due to its superior properties such as high specific strength, low weight, low cost, fairly good mechanical properties, non-abrasive, eco-friendly and bio-degradable characteristics. In this point of view, natural fiber-polymer composites (NFPCs are becoming increasingly utilized in a wide variety of applications because they represent an ecological and inexpensive alternative to conventional petroleum-derived materials. On the other hand, considerable amounts of organic waste and residue from the industrial and agricultural processes are still underutilized as low-value energy sources. This is a comprehensive review discussing about natural fiber reinforced composite produced by filament winding technique.

  18. Colloidal transport by active filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Raj Kumar; Kumar, P B Sunil; Adhikari, R

    2017-01-14

    Enhanced colloidal transport beyond the limit imposed by diffusion is usually achieved through external fields. Here, we demonstrate the ballistic transport of a colloidal sphere using internal sources of energy provided by an attached active filament. The latter is modeled as a chain of chemo-mechanically active beads connected by potentials that enforce semi-flexibility and self-avoidance. The fluid flow produced by the active beads and the forces they mediate are explicitly taken into account in the overdamped equations of motion describing the colloid-filament assembly. The speed and efficiency of transport depend on the dynamical conformational states of the filament. We characterize these states using filament writhe as an order parameter and identify ones yielding maxima in speed and efficiency of transport. The transport mechanism reported here has a remarkable resemblance to the flagellar propulsion of microorganisms which suggests its utility in biomimetic systems.

  19. Colloidal transport by active filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Raj Kumar; Kumar, P. B. Sunil; Adhikari, R.

    2017-01-01

    Enhanced colloidal transport beyond the limit imposed by diffusion is usually achieved through external fields. Here, we demonstrate the ballistic transport of a colloidal sphere using internal sources of energy provided by an attached active filament. The latter is modeled as a chain of chemo-mechanically active beads connected by potentials that enforce semi-flexibility and self-avoidance. The fluid flow produced by the active beads and the forces they mediate are explicitly taken into account in the overdamped equations of motion describing the colloid-filament assembly. The speed and efficiency of transport depend on the dynamical conformational states of the filament. We characterize these states using filament writhe as an order parameter and identify ones yielding maxima in speed and efficiency of transport. The transport mechanism reported here has a remarkable resemblance to the flagellar propulsion of microorganisms which suggests its utility in biomimetic systems.

  20. Stability of two-dimensional vorticity filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhmaidi, D.; Provenzale, A.; Lili, T.; Babiano, A.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the results of a numerical study on the stability of two-dimensional vorticity filaments around a circular vortex. We illustrate how the stability of the filaments depends on the balance between the strain associated with the far field of the vortex and the local vorticity of the filament, and we discuss an empirical criterion for filament stability

  1. Boolean gates on actin filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siccardi, Stefano, E-mail: ssiccardi@2ssas.it [The Unconventional Computing Centre, University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom); Tuszynski, Jack A., E-mail: jackt@ualberta.ca [Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Adamatzky, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.adamatzky@uwe.ac.uk [The Unconventional Computing Centre, University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-08

    Actin is a globular protein which forms long polar filaments in the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Actin networks play a key role in cell mechanics and cell motility. They have also been implicated in information transmission and processing, memory and learning in neuronal cells. The actin filaments have been shown to support propagation of voltage pulses. Here we apply a coupled nonlinear transmission line model of actin filaments to study interactions between voltage pulses. To represent digital information we assign a logical TRUTH value to the presence of a voltage pulse in a given location of the actin filament, and FALSE to the pulse's absence, so that information flows along the filament with pulse transmission. When two pulses, representing Boolean values of input variables, interact, then they can facilitate or inhibit further propagation of each other. We explore this phenomenon to construct Boolean logical gates and a one-bit half-adder with interacting voltage pulses. We discuss implications of these findings on cellular process and technological applications. - Highlights: • We simulate interaction between voltage pulses using on actin filaments. • We use a coupled nonlinear transmission line model. • We design Boolean logical gates via interactions between the voltage pulses. • We construct one-bit half-adder with interacting voltage pulses.

  2. Gamma-Rays from Galactic Compact Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaret, Philip

    2007-04-01

    Recent discoveries have revealed many sources of TeV photons in our Mikly Way galaxy powered by compact objects, either neutron stars or black holes. These objects must be powerful particle accelerators, some with peak energies of at least 100 TeV, and may be neutrino, as well as photon, sources. Future TeV observations will enable us to address key questions concerning particle acceleration by compact objects including the fraction of energy which accreting black holes channel into relativstic jet production, whether the compact object jets are leptonic or hadronic, and the mechanism by which pulsar winds accelerate relativistic particles. We report on work done related to compact Galactic objects in preparation of a White Paper on the status and future of ground-based gamma-ray astronomy requested by the Division of Astrophysics of the American Physical Society.

  3. Book Review: Galactic Encounters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasis, Georgios, E-mail: gbalasis@noa.gr [Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2016-05-23

    Galactic Encounters” by Sheehan and Conselice provides a view of galaxies telling the story of how astronomers have pieced together what is known about the modern view of the Universe. The book helps the reader to understand “why” we know what we do, not simply “what,” starting with the development of the telescope that coincides with the modern picture of the Universe. William Sheehan is a noted historian of astronomy but also a Doctor of Medicine, specializing in psychiatry. In this perspective, he has a unique insight into the personalities of the pioneering figures of the history of science. Christopher Conselice is a Professor of Astrophysics at the University of Nottingham, who studies the formation of galaxies, addressing the issue of “how” rather than “when” galaxies form. Reading the book, amateur astronomers would have been able to feel what actually drives them: “it is the desire to participate in this vast universe, in their own small way,…and not let the experts do everything for them.” I have to admit that I have also quite enjoyed the author's remark pertinent to the history and philosophy of science about the distinction, nowadays, between “polymaths” and “monomaths.”.

  4. Book Review: Galactic Encounters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Galactic Encounters” by Sheehan and Conselice provides a view of galaxies telling the story of how astronomers have pieced together what is known about the modern view of the Universe. The book helps the reader to understand “why” we know what we do, not simply “what,” starting with the development of the telescope that coincides with the modern picture of the Universe. William Sheehan is a noted historian of astronomy but also a Doctor of Medicine, specializing in psychiatry. In this perspective, he has a unique insight into the personalities of the pioneering figures of the history of science. Christopher Conselice is a Professor of Astrophysics at the University of Nottingham, who studies the formation of galaxies, addressing the issue of “how” rather than “when” galaxies form. Reading the book, amateur astronomers would have been able to feel what actually drives them: “it is the desire to participate in this vast universe, in their own small way,…and not let the experts do everything for them.” I have to admit that I have also quite enjoyed the author's remark pertinent to the history and philosophy of science about the distinction, nowadays, between “polymaths” and “monomaths.”

  5. Galactic planetary science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinetti, Giovanna

    2014-04-28

    Planetary science beyond the boundaries of our Solar System is today in its infancy. Until a couple of decades ago, the detailed investigation of the planetary properties was restricted to objects orbiting inside the Kuiper Belt. Today, we cannot ignore that the number of known planets has increased by two orders of magnitude nor that these planets resemble anything but the objects present in our own Solar System. Whether this fact is the result of a selection bias induced by the kind of techniques used to discover new planets--mainly radial velocity and transit--or simply the proof that the Solar System is a rarity in the Milky Way, we do not know yet. What is clear, though, is that the Solar System has failed to be the paradigm not only in our Galaxy but even 'just' in the solar neighbourhood. This finding, although unsettling, forces us to reconsider our knowledge of planets under a different light and perhaps question a few of the theoretical pillars on which we base our current 'understanding'. The next decade will be critical to advance in what we should perhaps call Galactic planetary science. In this paper, I review highlights and pitfalls of our current knowledge of this topic and elaborate on how this knowledge might arguably evolve in the next decade. More critically, I identify what should be the mandatory scientific and technical steps to be taken in this fascinating journey of remote exploration of planets in our Galaxy.

  6. Boolean gates on actin filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siccardi, Stefano; Tuszynski, Jack A.; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Actin is a globular protein which forms long polar filaments in the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Actin networks play a key role in cell mechanics and cell motility. They have also been implicated in information transmission and processing, memory and learning in neuronal cells. The actin filaments have been shown to support propagation of voltage pulses. Here we apply a coupled nonlinear transmission line model of actin filaments to study interactions between voltage pulses. To represent digital information we assign a logical TRUTH value to the presence of a voltage pulse in a given location of the actin filament, and FALSE to the pulse's absence, so that information flows along the filament with pulse transmission. When two pulses, representing Boolean values of input variables, interact, then they can facilitate or inhibit further propagation of each other. We explore this phenomenon to construct Boolean logical gates and a one-bit half-adder with interacting voltage pulses. We discuss implications of these findings on cellular process and technological applications.

  7. Fatigue testing of low-cost fiberglass composite wind turbine blade materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, K. E.; Bennett, L. C.

    1981-01-01

    The static and fatigue behavior of transverse filament tape (TFT) fiberglass/epoxy and TFT/polyester composites was established by the testing of specimens cut from panels fabricated by a filament winding process used for the construction of large experimental wind turbine blades.

  8. Evolution of Supernova Remnants Near the Galactic Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalinewich, A.; Piran, T.; Sari, R. [Racah Institute of Physics, the Hebrew University, 91904, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2017-03-20

    Supernovae near the Galactic center (GC) evolve differently from regular Galactic supernovae. This is mainly due to the environment into which the supernova remnants (SNRs) propagate. SNRs near the GC propagate into a wind swept environment with a velocity directed away from the GC, and a graded density profile. This causes these SNRs to be non-spherical, and to evolve faster than their Galactic counterparts. We develop an analytic theory for the evolution of explosions within a stellar wind, and verify it using a hydrodynamic code. We show that such explosions can evolve in one of three possible morphologies. Using these results we discuss the association between the two SNRs (SGR East and SGR A’s bipolar radio/X-ray lobes) and the two neutron stars (the Cannonball and SGR J1745-2900) near the GC. We show that, given the morphologies of the SNR and positions of the neutron stars, the only possible association is between SGR A’s bipolar radio/X-ray lobes and SGR J1745-2900. If a compact object was created in the explosion of SGR East, it remains undetected, and the SNR of the supernova that created the Cannonball has already disappeared.

  9. Beam distribution function after filamentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raubenheimer, T.O.; Decker, F.J.; Seeman, J.T.

    1995-05-01

    In this paper, the authors calculate the beam distribution function after filamentation (phase-mixing) of a focusing mismatch. This distribution is relevant when interpreting beam measurements and sources of emittance dilution in linear colliders. It is also important when considering methods of diluting the phase space density, which may be required for the machine protection system in future linear colliders, and it is important when studying effects of trapped ions which filament in the electron beam potential. Finally, the resulting distribution is compared with measured beam distributions from the SLAC linac.

  10. The WSRT virgo filament survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popping, A.; Braun, R.

    In the last few years, the realization has emerged that the universal baryons are almost equally distributed by mass in three components: (1) galactic concentrations, (2) a warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) and (3) a diffuse intergalactic medium. These three components are predicted by

  11. Magnetic helicity and active filament configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, P.; Zuccarello, F.; Poedts, S.; Soenen, A.; Zuccarello, F. P.

    2009-11-01

    Context: The role of magnetic helicity in active filament formation and destabilization is still under debate. Aims: Although active filaments usually show a sigmoid shape and a twisted configuration before and during their eruption, it is unclear which mechanism leads to these topologies. In order to provide an observational contribution to clarify these issues, we describe a filament evolution whose characteristics seem to be directly linked to the magnetic helicity transport in corona. Methods: We applied different methods to determine the helicity sign and the chirality of the filament magnetic field. We also computed the magnetic helicity transport rate at the filament footpoints. Results: All the observational signatures provided information on the positive helicity and sinistral chirality of the flux rope containing the filament material: its forward S shape, the orientation of its barbs, the bright and dark threads at 195 Å. Moreover, the magnetic helicity transport rate at the filament footpoints showed a clear accumulation of positive helicity. Conclusions: The study of this event showed a correspondence between several signatures of the sinistral chirality of the filament and several evidences of the positive magnetic helicity of the filament magnetic field. We also found that the magnetic helicity transported along the filament footpoints showed an increase just before the change of the filament shape observed in Hα images. We argued that the photospheric regions where the filament was rooted might be the preferential ways where the magnetic helicity was injected along the filament itself and where the conditions to trigger the eruption were yielded.

  12. Towards filament free semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McInerney, John; O'Brien, Peter; Skovgaard, Peter M. W.

    2000-01-01

    We outline physical models and simulations for suppression of self-focusing and filamentation in large aperture semiconductor lasers. The principal technical objective is to generate multi-watt CW or quasi-CW outputs with nearly diffraction limited beams, suitable for long distance free space...

  13. Capillary thinning of polymeric filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Szabo, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The capillary thinning of filaments of a Newtonian polybutene fluid and a viscoelastic polyisobutylene solution are analyzed experimentally and by means of numerical simulation. The experimental procedure is as follows. Initially, a liquid sample is placed between two cylindrical plates. Then...

  14. Capillary thinning of polymeric filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Szabo, Peter; Hassager, Ole

    1998-01-01

    The capillary thinning of a polymeric filament is analysed experimentally as well as by means of numerical simulation. The experimental procedure is as follows. Initially a liquid sample is kept between two cylindrical plates. Then the bottom plate is lowered under gravity to yield a given strain...

  15. Various Barbs in Solar Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, Boris

    2017-07-01

    Interest to lateral details of the solar filament shape named barbs, motivated by their relationship to filament chirality and helicity, showed their different orientation relative to the expected direction of the magnetic field. While the majority of barbs are stretched along the field, some barbs seem to be transversal to it and are referred to as anomalous barbs. We analyse the deformation of helical field lines by a small parasitic polarity using a simple flux rope model with a force-free field. A rather small and distant source of parasitic polarity stretches the bottom parts of the helical lines in its direction creating a lateral extension of dips below the flux-rope axis. They can be considered as normal barbs of the filament. A stronger and closer source of parasitic polarity makes the flux-rope field lines to be convex below its axis and creates narrow and deep dips near its position. As a result, the narrow structure, with thin threads across it, is formed whose axis is nearly perpendicular to the field. The structure resembles an anomalous barb. Hence, the presence of anomalous barbs does not contradict the flux-rope structure of a filament.

  16. Transient filament stretching rheometer II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    1997-01-01

    The Lagrangian sspecification is used to simulate the transient stretching filament rheometer. Simulations are performed for dilute PIB-solutions modeled as a four mode Oldroyd-B fluid and a semidilute PIB-solution modeled as a non-linear single integral equation. The simulations are compared...

  17. Towards filament free semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McInerney, John; O'Brien, Peter; Skovgaard, Peter M. W.

    2000-01-01

    We outline physical models and simulations for suppression of self-focusing and filamentation in large aperture semiconductor lasers. The principal technical objective is to generate multi-watt CW or quasi-CW outputs with nearly diffraction limited beams, suitable for long distance free space...... propagation structures in lasers and amplifiers which suppress lateral reflections....

  18. Positrusion Filament Recycling System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TUI proposes a novel process to produce 3d printer feedstock filament out of scrap ABS on the ISS. Currently the plastic filament materials that most 3d printers use...

  19. Observing the Next Galactic Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Scott M.; Kochanek, C. S.; Beacom, John F.; Vagins, Mark R.; Stanek, K. Z.

    2013-12-01

    No supernova (SN) in the Milky Way has been observed since the invention of the optical telescope, instruments for other wavelengths, neutrino detectors, or gravitational wave observatories. It would be a tragedy to miss the opportunity to fully characterize the next one. To aid preparations for its observations, we model the distance, extinction, and magnitude probability distributions of a successful Galactic core-collapse supernova (ccSN), its shock breakout radiation, and its massive star progenitor. We find, at very high probability (sime 100%), that the next Galactic SN will easily be detectable in the near-IR and that near-IR photometry of the progenitor star very likely (sime 92%) already exists in the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Most ccSNe (98%) will be easily observed in the optical, but a significant fraction (43%) will lack observations of the progenitor due to a combination of survey sensitivity and confusion. If neutrino detection experiments can quickly disseminate a likely position (~3°), we show that a modestly priced IR camera system can probably detect the shock breakout radiation pulse even in daytime (64% for the cheapest design). Neutrino experiments should seriously consider adding such systems, both for their scientific return and as an added and internal layer of protection against false triggers. We find that shock breakouts from failed ccSNe of red supergiants may be more observable than those of successful SNe due to their lower radiation temperatures. We review the process by which neutrinos from a Galactic ccSN would be detected and announced. We provide new information on the EGADS system and its potential for providing instant neutrino alerts. We also discuss the distance, extinction, and magnitude probability distributions for the next Galactic Type Ia supernova (SN Ia). Based on our modeled observability, we find a Galactic ccSN rate of 3.2^{+7.3}_{-2.6} per century and a Galactic SN Ia rate of 1.4^{+1.4}_{-0.8} per century for a

  20. Massive stars, x-ray ridge, and galactic 26Al gamma-ray line emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montmerle, T.

    1986-07-01

    Massive stars interact with their parent molecular cloud by means of their ionizing flux and strong winds, thereby creating giant, hollow HII regions. To account for the observed structure of these HII regions, it appears necessary that all the wind energy be dissipated. Dorland and Montmerle have recently proposed a new dissipation mechanism, in the process, diffuse hard X-rays are emitted. If the observed galactic X-ray ''ridge'' results from this process on a galactic scale, it can be accounted for by the interaction of ∼3000 Wolf-Rayet stars (mostly within a ∼6.5 kpc ring) with their surrounding interstellar gas. This result is essentially consistent with the suggestion by Prantzos and Casse that the galactic 26 Al γ-ray line emission originates in Wolf-Rayet stars

  1. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role wind energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of wind energy use, the wind energy resource, wind energy technology including intermediate-size and small wind turbines and intermittency of wind power, public attitudes toward wind power, and environmental, siting and land use issues

  2. Blowing bubbles in the cosmos astronomical winds, jets, and explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Hartquist, T W; Ruffle, D P

    2004-01-01

    1. The First Discoveries of Astronomical Winds2. The Magnitudes of Astronomical Quantities3. Stellar Evolution4. Basic Structures of Winds and Windblown Bubbles5. Star Formation and Low-Mass Young Stellar Objects6. Regions of High-Mass Star Formation7. Winds from Main-Sequence and Post-Main-Sequence Stars8. Supernovae and Their Remnants9. Galactic Winds, Starburst Superwinds, and the Epoch of Galaxy Formation10. Active Galaxies and Their Nuclei11. Some Other Windy and Explosive Sources

  3. Femtosecond Laser Filamentation for Atmospheric Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Huai Liang Xu; See Leang Chin

    2010-01-01

    Powerful femtosecond laser pulses propagating in transparent materials result in the formation of self-guided structures called filaments. Such filamentation in air can be controlled to occur at a distance as far as a few kilometers, making it ideally suited for remote sensing of pollutants in the atmosphere. On the one hand, the high intensity inside the filaments can induce the fragmentation of all matters in the path of filaments, resulting in the emission of characteristic fluorescence sp...

  4. Implications of the Diffuse Galactic Continuum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Skibo, J. G; Ramaty, R; Purcell, W. R

    1996-01-01

    .... This exceeds by an order of magnitude the total power provided by Galactic supernovae. We suggest that this power might be derived form the gravitational potential released on the passage of the ISM through Galactic spiral arm compressions...

  5. Winding of fibre composites; Vikling af fiberkompositter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lystrup, Aage

    2006-01-01

    Within the project 'Storage of hydrogen in advanced high pressure vessels' under the PSO-R AND D 2005 program one of the tasks is to describe the technology, which is used for manufacturing of fibre reinforced pressure vessels. Fibre reinforced pressure vessels for high pressures are manufactured by winding structural load bearing fibres around a mandrel or an internal liner. There are two different types of cylindrical pressure vessels: 1) Cylinders with thick metal liner, where only the cylindrical part is over wrapped with hoop windings, and 2) cylinders with a thin metal or polymer liner, where both the cylindrical part and the end domes are over wrapped with more layers with different fibre orientations (helical and hoop windings). This report describes the fundamental principles for filament winding of fibre reinforced polymer composites. After a short introduction to the advanced fibre composites, their properties and semi-raw materials used for fibre composites, the focus is on the process parameters, which have influence on the material quality of filament wound components. The report is both covering winding of fibre reinforced thermo-setting polymers as well as thermoplastic polymers, and there are references to vendors of filament winding machines, accessory equipment and computer software for design and manufacturing of filament wound components. (au)

  6. Solar Filaments as Tracers of Subsurface Processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Filaments are clouds of relatively cool and dense gas in the solar atmosphere. ... First-tier filaments may be related to a peculiar feature of the solar dynamo. .... Still, an appeal to subsurface processes should be resisted, but surface motion models have been able to reproduce neither the pattern of filament field orientations ...

  7. Striation and convection in penumbral filaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, H.C.; Scharmer, G.B.; Löfdahl, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Observations with the 1-m Swedish Solar Telescope of the flows seen in penumbral filaments are presented. Time sequences of bright filaments show overturning motions strikingly similar to those seen along the walls of small isolated structures in the active regions. The filaments show outward

  8. Solar Filaments as Tracers of Subsurface Processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    according to which, probably all the magnetic flux that emerges into the photosphere is twisted. Twisted flux forms sunspots, active regions (ARs) and filaments. The twist accumulates in filaments and coronal arcades. Eventually the accumulated, highly twisted fields become unstable and erupt. From a study of filament ...

  9. Utrecht and Galactic Radio Astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woerden, H.

    Important roles in early Dutch Galactic radio astronomy were played by several Utrecht astronomers: Van de Hulst, Minnaert and Houtgast. The poster announcing the conference contained a number of pictures referring to scientific achievements of the Astronomical Institute Utrecht. One of these

  10. Abundances in the Galactic bulge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbuy, B; Alves-Brito, A [Universidade de Sao Paulo, IAG, Rua do Matao 1226, Sao Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil); Ortolani, S; Zoccali, M [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 2, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Hill, V; Gomez, A [Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 92195 Meudon Cedex (France); Melendez, J [Centro de AstrofIsica da Universidade de Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Asplund, M [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Postfach 1317, 85741 Garching (Germany); Bica, E [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, CP 15051, Porto Alegre 91501-970 (Brazil); Renzini, A [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Minniti, D [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)], E-mail: barbuy@astro.iag.usp.br

    2008-12-15

    The metallicity distribution and abundance ratios of the Galactic bulge are reviewed. Issues raised by recent work of different groups, in particular the high metallicity end, the overabundance of {alpha}-elements in the bulge relative to the thick disc and the measurement of giants versus dwarfs, are discussed. Abundances in the old moderately metal-poor bulge globular clusters are described.

  11. Elasticity of a Filament with Kinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razbin, Mohammadhosein

    2017-12-01

    Using the wormlike chain model, we analytically study the elasticity of a filament with kinks. We calculate the position probability density function and the force constant of a kinked filament with a general kink angle. Then, using the mathematical induction, we obtain the positional-orientational probability density function of a filament with regular kinks. For this filament, we compute the force constant in two different directions. In longitudinal direction of the filament, the force constant is proportional to the inverse of the number of the segments, i.e., 1 / m, while in transverse direction, it is proportional to 1/m^3.

  12. UNUSUAL FILAMENTS INSIDE THE UMBRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleint, L. [High Altitude Observatory/NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States); Sainz Dalda, A., E-mail: kleintl@ucar.edu [Stanford-Lockheed Institute for Space Research, Stanford University, HEPL, 466 Via Ortega, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    We analyze several unusual filamentary structures which appeared in the umbra of one of the sunspots in AR 11302. They do not resemble typical light bridges in morphology or in evolution. We analyze data from SDO/HMI to investigate their temporal evolution, Hinode/SP for photospheric inversions, IBIS for chromospheric imaging, and SDO/AIA for the overlying corona. Photospheric inversions reveal a horizontal, inverse Evershed flow along these structures, which we call umbral filaments. Chromospheric images show brightenings and energy dissipation, while coronal images indicate that bright coronal loops seem to end in these umbral filaments. These rapidly evolving features do not seem to be common, and are possibly related to the high flare-productivity of the active region. Their analysis could help to understand the complex evolution of active regions.

  13. [Chitinolytic activity of filamentous fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubakov, A A; Kucheriavykh, P S

    2004-01-01

    The chitinolytic activity of nine species of filamentous fungi, classified with seven genera (specifically, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma, Paecilomyces, Sporotrichum, Beaueria, and Mucor), was studied. When cultured in liquid medium containing 1% crystalline chitin, all fungi produced extracellular chitosans with activity varying from 0.2 U/mg protein (Sporotrichum olivaceum, Mucor sp., etc.) to 4.0-4.2 U/mg protein (Trichoderma lignorum, Aspergillus niger).

  14. Lighting the universe with filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liang; Theuns, Tom

    2007-09-14

    The first stars in the universe form when chemically pristine gas heats as it falls into dark-matter potential wells, cools radiatively because of the formation of molecular hydrogen, and becomes self-gravitating. Using supercomputer simulations, we demonstrated that the stars' properties depend critically on the currently unknown nature of the dark matter. If the dark-matter particles have intrinsic velocities that wipe out small-scale structure, then the first stars form in filaments with lengths on the order of the free-streaming scale, which can be approximately 10(20) meters (approximately 3 kiloparsecs, corresponding to a baryonic mass of approximately 10(7) solar masses) for realistic "warm dark matter" candidates. Fragmentation of the filaments forms stars with a range of masses, which may explain the observed peculiar element abundance pattern of extremely metal-poor stars, whereas coalescence of fragments and stars during the filament's ultimate collapse may seed the supermassive black holes that lurk in the centers of most massive galaxies.

  15. Novel Actin-like Filament Structure from Clostridium tetani*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, David; Narita, Akihiro; Lee, Lin Jie; Ghoshdastider, Umesh; Xue, Bo; Srinivasan, Ramanujam; Balasubramanian, Mohan K.; Tanaka, Toshitsugu; Robinson, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Eukaryotic F-actin is constructed from two protofilaments that gently wind around each other to form a helical polymer. Several bacterial actin-like proteins (Alps) are also known to form F-actin-like helical arrangements from two protofilaments, yet with varied helical geometries. Here, we report a unique filament architecture of Alp12 from Clostridium tetani that is constructed from four protofilaments. Through fitting of an Alp12 monomer homology model into the electron microscopy data, the filament was determined to be constructed from two antiparallel strands, each composed of two parallel protofilaments. These four protofilaments form an open helical cylinder separated by a wide cleft. The molecular interactions within single protofilaments are similar to F-actin, yet interactions between protofilaments differ from those in F-actin. The filament structure and assembly and disassembly kinetics suggest Alp12 to be a dynamically unstable force-generating motor involved in segregating the pE88 plasmid, which encodes the lethal tetanus toxin, and thus a potential target for drug design. Alp12 can be repeatedly cycled between states of polymerization and dissociation, making it a novel candidate for incorporation into fuel-propelled nanobiopolymer machines. PMID:22514279

  16. Novel actin-like filament structure from Clostridium tetani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, David; Narita, Akihiro; Lee, Lin Jie; Ghoshdastider, Umesh; Xue, Bo; Srinivasan, Ramanujam; Balasubramanian, Mohan K; Tanaka, Toshitsugu; Robinson, Robert C

    2012-06-15

    Eukaryotic F-actin is constructed from two protofilaments that gently wind around each other to form a helical polymer. Several bacterial actin-like proteins (Alps) are also known to form F-actin-like helical arrangements from two protofilaments, yet with varied helical geometries. Here, we report a unique filament architecture of Alp12 from Clostridium tetani that is constructed from four protofilaments. Through fitting of an Alp12 monomer homology model into the electron microscopy data, the filament was determined to be constructed from two antiparallel strands, each composed of two parallel protofilaments. These four protofilaments form an open helical cylinder separated by a wide cleft. The molecular interactions within single protofilaments are similar to F-actin, yet interactions between protofilaments differ from those in F-actin. The filament structure and assembly and disassembly kinetics suggest Alp12 to be a dynamically unstable force-generating motor involved in segregating the pE88 plasmid, which encodes the lethal tetanus toxin, and thus a potential target for drug design. Alp12 can be repeatedly cycled between states of polymerization and dissociation, making it a novel candidate for incorporation into fuel-propelled nanobiopolymer machines.

  17. Reanalysis of galactic primary nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twarog, B.A.; Wheeler, J.C.

    1987-05-01

    Primary nucleosynthesis in the Galactic disk is reexamined in light of improved observational data for Mg in field stars and improved theoretical data in the form of stellar elemental yields and a higher C-12(alpha, gamma)O-16 reaction rate. It is concluded that the data for O, C, Fe, and Mg are consistent with a constant relative production rate for these elements over the lifetime of the disk in a standard infall model. The yield distribution is nonsolar. Additionally, any continuous mass function in which all stars over 12 solar masses explode both fails to meet the observational constraints on elemental production ratios and overproduces significant amounts of O for the most plausible mass function. Consideration of the probable uncertainties indicates that the discrepancy is real and casts doubt on the capability of current stellar nucleosynthesis theory to provide reliable constraints on stellar evolution, the history of the mass function, or models of galactic chemical evolution. 32 references.

  18. Kinematics of galactic planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiosa, M.I.; Khromov, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    The classical method of determining the components of the solar motion relative to the centroid of the system of planetary nebulae with known radial velocities is investigated. It is shown that this method is insensitive to random errors in the radial velocities and that low accuracy in determining the coordinates of the solar apex and motion results from the insufficient number of planetaries with measured radial velocities. The planetary nebulae are found not to satisfy well the law of differential galactic rotation with circular orbits. This is attributed to the elongation of their galactic orbits. A method for obtaining the statistical parallax of planetary nebulae is considered, and the parallax calculated from the tau components of their proper motion is shown to be the most reliable

  19. UBVJHK synthetic photometry of Galactic O stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, F.; Plez, B.

    2006-10-01

    Aims.The development of powerful infrared observational techniques enables the study of very extincted objects and young embedded star-forming regions. This is especially interesting in the context of massive stars that form and spend a non negligible fraction of their life still enshrouded in their parental molecular cloud. Spectrophotometric calibrations are thus necessary to constrain the physical properties of heavily extincted objects. Methods: Here, we derive UBVJHK magnitudes and bolometric corrections from a grid of atmosphere models for O stars. Bessel passbands are used. Bolometric corrections (BC) are derived as a function of Teff and are subsequently used to derive BC -spectral type (ST) and absolute magnitudes- ST relations. Results: Infrared magnitudes and, for the first time, bolometric corrections are given for the full range of spectral types and luminosity classes. Infrared colors are essentially constant, and (H-K)0 is 0.05 mag bluer than previously proposed. Optical calibrations are also provided and are similar to previous work, except for (B-V)0 which is found to be at minimum -0.28 for standard O stars, slightly higher (0.04 mag) than commonly accepted. Conclusions: We present a consistent set of photometric calibrations of optical and infrared magnitudes and bolometric corrections for Galactic O stars as a function of Teff and spectral type based on non-LTE atmosphere models including winds and line-blanketing.

  20. Galactic Structures from Gravitational Radii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Capozziello

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that the existence of a Noether symmetry in f ( R theories of gravity gives rise to an additional gravitational radius, besides the standard Schwarzschild one, determining the dynamics at galactic scales. By this feature, it is possible to explain the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation and the rotation curve of gas-rich galaxies without the dark matter hypothesis. Furthermore, under the same standard, the Fundamental Plane of elliptical galaxies can be addressed.

  1. The H.E.S.S. Galactic plane survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abdalla, H.; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Angüner, E. O.; Arakawa, M.; Arrieta, M.; Aubert, P.; Backes, M.; Balzer, A.; Barnard, M.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Blackwell, R.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Büchele, M.; Bulik, T.; Capasso, M.; Carrigan, S.; Caroff, S.; Carosi, A.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chen, A.; Chevalier, J.; Colafrancesco, S.; Condon, B.; Conrad, J.; Davids, I. D.; Decock, J.; Deil, C.; Devin, J.; deWilt, P.; Dirson, L.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O.'C.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Emery, G.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Eschbach, S.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Funk, S.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Gast, H.; Gaté, F.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glawion, D.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Grondin, M.-H.; Hahn, J.; Haupt, M.; Hawkes, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hoischen, C.; Holch, T. L.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Iwasaki, H.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jamrozy, M.; Jankowsky, D.; Jankowsky, F.; Jingo, M.; Jouvin, L.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katsuragawa, M.; Katz, U.; Kerszberg, D.; Khangulyan, D.; Khélifi, B.; King, J.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Kraus, M.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lau, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Leser, E.; Lohse, T.; Lorentz, M.; Liu, R.; López-Coto, R.; Lypova, I.; Marandon, V.; Malyshev, D.; Marcowith, A.; Mariaud, C.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; Meintjes, P. J.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Mohrmann, L.; Morå, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Nakashima, S.; de Naurois, M.; Ndiyavala, H.; Niederwanger, F.; Niemiec, J.; Oakes, L.; O'Brien, P.; Odaka, H.; Ohm, S.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Padovani, M.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perennes, C.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Piel, Q.; Pita, S.; Poireau, V.; Poon, H.; Prokhorov, D.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Rauth, R.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rinchiuso, L.; Romoli, C.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Safi-Harb, S.; Sahakian, V.; Saito, S.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Sasaki, M.; Schandri, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwemmer, S.; Seglar-Arroyo, M.; Settimo, M.; Seyffert, A. S.; Shafi, N.; Shilon, I.; Shiningayamwe, K.; Simoni, R.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spir-Jacob, M.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Steppa, C.; Sushch, I.; Takahashi, T.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tibaldo, L.; Tiziani, D.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Tsirou, M.; Tsuji, N.; Tuffs, R.; Uchiyama, Y.; van der Walt, D. J.; van Eldik, C.; van Rensburg, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Voisin, F.; Völk, H. J.; Vuillaume, T.; Wadiasingh, Z.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zanin, R.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zefi, F.; Ziegler, A.; Zorn, J.; Żywucka, N.

    2018-04-01

    We present the results of the most comprehensive survey of the Galactic plane in very high-energy (VHE) γ-rays, including a public release of Galactic sky maps, a catalog of VHE sources, and the discovery of 16 new sources of VHE γ-rays. The High Energy Spectroscopic System (H.E.S.S.) Galactic plane survey (HGPS) was a decade-long observation program carried out by the H.E.S.S. I array of Cherenkov telescopes in Namibia from 2004 to 2013. The observations amount to nearly 2700 h of quality-selected data, covering the Galactic plane at longitudes from ℓ = 250° to 65° and latitudes |b|≤ 3°. In addition to the unprecedented spatial coverage, the HGPS also features a relatively high angular resolution (0.08° ≈ 5 arcmin mean point spread function 68% containment radius), sensitivity (≲1.5% Crab flux for point-like sources), and energy range (0.2-100 TeV). We constructed a catalog of VHE γ-ray sources from the HGPS data set with a systematic procedure for both source detection and characterization of morphology and spectrum. We present this likelihood-based method in detail, including the introduction of a model component to account for unresolved, large-scale emission along the Galactic plane. In total, the resulting HGPS catalog contains 78 VHE sources, of which 14 are not reanalyzed here, for example, due to their complex morphology, namely shell-like sources and the Galactic center region. Where possible, we provide a firm identification of the VHE source or plausible associations with sources in other astronomical catalogs. We also studied the characteristics of the VHE sources with source parameter distributions. 16 new sources were previously unknown or unpublished, and we individually discuss their identifications or possible associations. We firmly identified 31 sources as pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe), supernova remnants (SNRs), composite SNRs, or gamma-ray binaries. Among the 47 sources not yet identified, most of them (36) have possible

  2. Femtosecond Laser Filamentation for Atmospheric Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai Liang Xu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Powerful femtosecond laser pulses propagating in transparent materials result in the formation of self-guided structures called filaments. Such filamentation in air can be controlled to occur at a distance as far as a few kilometers, making it ideally suited for remote sensing of pollutants in the atmosphere. On the one hand, the high intensity inside the filaments can induce the fragmentation of all matters in the path of filaments, resulting in the emission of characteristic fluorescence spectra (fingerprints from the excited fragments, which can be used for the identification of various substances including chemical and biological species. On the other hand, along with the femtosecond laser filamentation, white-light supercontinuum emission in the infrared to UV range is generated, which can be used as an ideal light source for absorption Lidar. In this paper, we present an overview of recent progress concerning remote sensing of the atmosphere using femtosecond laser filamentation.

  3. The Mysterious Case of the Missing Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, C. R.

    2016-12-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections, or CMEs, are large solar eruptions that can have major debilitating impacts on society. Typically, these eruptions have the three following key structures: the leading edge, the empty chamber known as the cavity, and the filament which often is the brightest part of the CME. When we can see all three structures clearly with a coronagraph, it is called a classic three-part CME, also referred to as a 'lightbulb' CME. According to current knowledge, when a CME erupts, a filament should also erupt or lift off the Sun in order to have the bright center within the CME. However, we do not always see a filament erupt at the surface, and yet we still get a 'filament' within the coronagraph CME. To better understand what might be occurring with these missing filaments, we looked at three-part CMEs using the SOHO LASCO CME Catalog and filaments from the SDO AIA Filament Catalog in order to create a list of 50 CMEs without a listed filament erupting at the surface. For those CMEs without filaments in the list we closely inspected the AIA images for evidence of filament eruption. To ensure that there were no filaments past the limb of the Sun, we used data from the STEREO-A and STEREO-B spacecraft's to look at the Sun from other angles. We have found numerous events where no filament erupts from the surface, but we still see the classic three-part CME. We believe this may be due to an optical illusion occurring from the twisting of the flux rope.

  4. Assembly of Superparamagnetic Filaments in External Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiachen; Song, Fan; Dobnikar, Jure

    2016-09-13

    We present a theoretical and simulation study of anchored magneto-elastic filaments in external magnetic field. The filaments are composed of a mixture of superparamagnetic and nonmagnetic colloidal beads interlinked with elastic springs. We explore the steady-state structures of filaments with various composition and bending rigidity subject to external magnetic field parallel to the surface. The interplay of elastic and induced magnetic interactions results in a rich phase behavior with morphologies reminiscent of macromolecular folding: bent filaments, loops, sheets, helicoids, and other collapsed structures. Our results provide new insights into the design of hierarchically assembled supramolecular structures with controlled response to external stimuli.

  5. Chaperonin filaments: The archaeal cytoskeleton?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan D.; Kagawa, Hiromi K.; Yaoi, Takuro; Olle, Eric; Zaluzec, Nestor J.

    1997-01-01

    Chaperonins are high molecular mass double-ring structures composed of 60-kDa protein subunits. In the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae the two chaperonin proteins represent ≈4% of its total protein and have a combined intracellular concentration of >30 mg/ml. At concentrations ≥ 0.5 mg/ml purified chaperonins form filaments in the presence of Mg2+ and nucleotides. Filament formation requires nucleotide binding (not hydrolysis), and occurs at physiological temperatures in biologically relevant buffers, including a buffer made from cell extracts. These observations suggest that chaperonin filaments may exist in vivo and the estimated 4600 chaperonins per cell suggest that such filaments could form an extensive cytostructure. We observed filamentous structures in unfixed, uranyl-acetate-stained S. shibatae cells, which resemble the chaperonin filaments in size and appearance. ImmunoGold (Janssen) labeling using chaperonin antibodies indicated that many chaperonins are associated with insoluble cellular structures and these structures appear to be filamentous in some areas, although they could not be uranyl-acetate-stained. The existence of chaperonin filaments in vivo suggests a mechanism whereby their protein-folding activities can be regulated. More generally, the filaments themselves may play a cytoskeletal role in Archaea. PMID:9144246

  6. Structure and content of the galaxy and galactic gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The conference included papers on γ-ray pulsars, galactic diffuse flux and surveys, radio surveys of external galaxies, galactic distribution of pulsars, and galactic gamma emission. Galactic structure drawing on all branches of galactic astronomy is discussed. New and unpublished material is included

  7. Structure and content of the galaxy and galactic gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    The conference included papers on ..gamma..-ray pulsars, galactic diffuse flux and surveys, radio surveys of external galaxies, galactic distribution of pulsars, and galactic gamma emission. Galactic structure drawing on all branches of galactic astronomy is discussed. New and unpublished material is included. (JFP)

  8. Subcutaneous implants of polypropylene filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, T C; Chartoff, R P; Cosgrove, S L; McCuskey, R S

    1976-11-01

    Extruded filaments of unmodified polypropylene (PP) with and without antioxidant were implanted subcutaneously in hamsters in order to determine their rate of degradation. Specimens were removed periodically during a 5 month test period and analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and dynamic mechanical testing. The analyses show that degradation beigns to occur after only a few days. Although the reaction sequence is not known, several factors suggest that the in vivo degradation process is similar to autoxidation which occurs in air or oxygen. The infrared data indicate that the hydroxyl content of the implants increases at a rate of 0.061 mg/g polypropylene per day during the initiation phase of the reaction. An induction time of 108 days was extablished. Carbonyl bonds appear after an implantation time of 50--90 days and increase therafter. Mechanical tests indicate a decrease in the dynamic loss tangent, tan delta, during the first month of implantation for unmodified polypropylene. No change in the infrared spectra or tan delta was observed, however, for implants containing an antioxidant. Thus, it is apparent that polypropylene filaments implanted subcutaneously in hamsters degrade by an oxidation process which is retarded effectively by using an antioxidant. While the findings reported are specific to subcutaneous polypropylene implants, they suggest that degradation of other systems may involve similar processes. This notion suggests directions for further research on increasing the in vivo stability of synthetic polymers. Long-term effects of polymer implantation upon tissue were not studied in this work.

  9. SHARC 350 micron Mapping of the Galactic Center from the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, C. D.; Lis, D. C.; Serabyn, E.; Gardner, M.; Kovacs, A.; Yamashita, S.

    1999-06-01

    Using the 20-pixel camera SHARC, we have surveyed the 350 micron emission from a 60 arcmin by 12 arcmin region in the Galactic center. A comparable region has been observed at 800 micron by Lis & Carlstrom (1994); the SHARC map has better spatial resolution and sensitivity to extended emission, however. This paper introduces several features not visible in prior maps of dust emission. We have detected a 10+ pc band of emission peaking at l = -0.14 °, b = +0.02°, which is probably associated with the 'negative velocity arc' observed in 13CO (Bally et al. 1988). We suggest an association of a rounded 350 micron feature near the Radio Arc with an expanding shell observed in CS (Tsuboi, Ukita, & Handa 1997). Faint emission at the same Galactic longitude as the Dust Ridge (Lis & Carlstrom 1994) but at opposite latitude is visible as well as a compact source at the base of a thermal radio filament at negative Galactic latitude. Diffuse dust emission within a few arc-minutes of the Sgr D core is detected for the first time. 350 micron sources are associated with both H2O masers in Sgr D, but only one out of four OH masers (Mehringer et al. 1998). The mean 350 micron /800 micron flux ratio for the Galactic center is approximately 17 (β ~ 2.0) over the map but is higher (β ~ 2.5) in parts of the Dust Ridge and lower in Sgr B2 (N).

  10. Filament poisoning at typical carbon nanotube deposition conditions by hot-filament CVD

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oliphant, CJ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the poisoning of tungsten filaments during the hot-filament chemical vapour deposition process at typical carbon nanotube (CNT) deposition conditions and filament temperatures ranging from 1400 to 2000 °C. The morphological...

  11. A Statistical Study of Solar Filament Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanche, Nicole; Aggarwal, Ashna; Reeves, Kathy; Kempton, Dustin James; Angryk, Rafal

    2016-05-01

    Solar filaments are cool, dark channels of partially-ionized plasma that lie above the chromosphere. Their structure follows the neutral line between local regions of opposite magnetic polarity. Previous research (e.g. Schmieder et al. 2013, McCauley et al. 2015) has shown a positive correlation (70-80%) between the occurrence of filament eruptions and coronal mass ejections (CME’s). In this study, we attempt to use properties of the filament in order to predict whether or not a given filament will erupt. This prediction would help to better predict the occurrence of an oncoming CME. To track the evolution of a filament over time, a spatio-temporal algorithm that groups separate filament instances from the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK) into filament tracks was developed. Filament features from the HEK metadata, such as length, chirality, and tilt are then combined with other physical features, such as the overlying decay index for two sets of filaments tracks - those that erupt and those that remain bound. Using statistical methods such as the Kolmogrov-Smirnov test and a Random Forest Classifier, we determine the effectiveness of the combined features in prediction. We conclude that there is significant overlap between the properties of filaments that erupt and those that do not, leading to predictions only ~5-10% above chance. However, the changes in features, such as a change in the filament's length over time, were determined to have the highest predictive power. We discuss the possible physical connections with the change in these features."This project has been supported by funding from the Division of Advanced Cyberinfrastructure within the Directorate for Computer and Information Science and Engineering, the Division of Astronomical Sciences within the Directorate for Mathematical and Physical Sciences, and the Division of Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences within the Directorate for Geosciences, under NSF award #1443061.”

  12. Active galactic nuclei. From the central engine to the host galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, Didier

    2008-01-01

    After some recalls on galaxies, on their classification, on the Universe expansion and on the Hubble law, this academic report addresses active galactic nuclei (AGN) by describing their anatomy (central black hole, accretion disk, jets and winds, Broad Line Region, Narrow Line Region, molecular torus and dusts, radio lobes). The author also presents the unified model. In the next part, he proposes an overview of active galaxies and active galactic nuclei by distinguishing galaxies with a strong stellar activity, radio-quiet and radio-loud active galactic nuclei. Examples are presented for each of these types. In the last part, the author draws perspectives for research in cosmology, and outlines questions which are still to be answered

  13. Wind Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez D, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The general theory of the wind energy conversion systems is presented. The availability of the wind resource in Colombia and the ranges of the speed of the wind in those which is possible economically to use the wind turbines are described. It is continued with a description of the principal technological characteristics of the wind turbines and are split into wind power and wind-powered pumps; and its use in large quantities grouped in wind farms or in autonomous systems. Finally, its costs and its environmental impact are presented

  14. A First Approach to Filament Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, P. E. S.; de Abreu, F. Vistulo; Simoes, R.; Dias, R. G.

    2010-01-01

    Modelling elastic filament dynamics is a topic of high interest due to the wide range of applications. However, it has reached a high level of complexity in the literature, making it unaccessible to a beginner. In this paper we explain the main steps involved in the computational modelling of the dynamics of an elastic filament. We first derive…

  15. Fine filament NbTi superconductive composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S.; Grabinsky, G.; Marancik, W.; Pattanayak, D.

    1986-01-01

    The large superconducting magnet for the high energy physics accelerator requires fine filament composite to minimize the field error due to the persistent current in the filaments. New concepts toward the fine filament composite and its cable fabrication are discussed. Two-stage cables of fine wire with intermediate number of filaments were introduced. The first stage was six wires cables around one and in the second stage this was used to produce a Rutherford cable. The advantage of this process is in the ease of billet fabrication since the number of filaments in a single wire is within the range of easy billet fabrication. The disadvantage is in the cable fabrication. One of the major concerns in the fabrication of fine NbTi filaments composite in a copper matrix is the intermetallic compound formation during the extrusion and heat treatment steps. The hard intermetallic particles degrade the uniformity of the filaments and reduce the critical current density. The process of using Nb barrier between the filaments and copper matrix in order to prevent this CuTi intermetallic particle formation is described

  16. Theory of Semiflexible Filaments and Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanlong Meng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We briefly review the recent developments in the theory of individual semiflexible filaments, and of a crosslinked network of such filaments, both permanent and transient. Starting from the free energy of an individual semiflexible chain, models on its force-extension relation and other mechanical properties such as Euler buckling are discussed. For a permanently crosslinked network of filaments, theories on how the network responds to deformation are provided, with a focus on continuum approaches. Characteristic features of filament networks, such as nonlinear stress-strain relation, negative normal stress, tensegrity, and marginal stability are discussed. In the new area of transient filament network, where the crosslinks can be dynamically broken and re-formed, we show some recent attempts for understanding the dynamics of the crosslinks, and the related rheological properties, such as stress relaxation, yield stress and plasticity.

  17. Epithelial Intermediate Filaments: Guardians against Microbial Infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Geisler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate filaments are abundant cytoskeletal components of epithelial tissues. They have been implicated in overall stress protection. A hitherto poorly investigated area of research is the function of intermediate filaments as a barrier to microbial infection. This review summarizes the accumulating knowledge about this interaction. It first emphasizes the unique spatial organization of the keratin intermediate filament cytoskeleton in different epithelial tissues to protect the organism against microbial insults. We then present examples of direct interaction between viral, bacterial, and parasitic proteins and the intermediate filament system and describe how this affects the microbe-host interaction by modulating the epithelial cytoskeleton, the progression of infection, and host response. These observations not only provide novel insights into the dynamics and function of intermediate filaments but also indicate future avenues to combat microbial infection.

  18. Particles trajectories in magnetic filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bret, A. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2015-07-15

    The motion of a particle in a spatially harmonic magnetic field is a basic problem involved, for example, in the mechanism of formation of a collisionless shock. In such settings, it is generally reasoned that particles entering a Weibel generated turbulence are trapped inside it, provided their Larmor radius in the peak field is smaller than the field coherence length. The goal of this work is to put this heuristic conclusion on firm ground by studying, both analytically and numerically, such motion. A toy model is analyzed, consisting of a relativistic particle entering a region of space occupied by a spatially harmonic field. The particle penetrates the magnetic structure in a direction aligned with the magnetic filaments. Although the conclusions are not trivial, the main result is confirmed.

  19. Kinetics of filamentous phage assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploss, Martin; Kuhn, Andreas

    2010-12-01

    Filamentous phages release their progeny particles by a secretory process without lysing the bacterial cell. By this process about 6 viral particles per min are secreted from each cell. We show here that when the major coat protein (gp8) is provided from a plasmid we observe a phage progeny production rate depending on the induction of gp8 by IPTG. We also show that a transfection of Escherichia coli lacking F-pili is observed using a mutant of M13 that carries an ampicillin resistance gene, and phage particles are secreted in the absence of an F-plasmid. Extruding phage was visualized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using gold-labeled antibodies to the major coat protein.

  20. Filamentous Growth in Eremothecium Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskarsson, Therese

    , this thesis deals with some of the aspects of hyphal growth, which is an important virulence factor for pathogenic fungi infecting both humans and plants. Hyphal establishment through continuous polar growth is a complex process, requiring the careful coordination of a large subset of proteins involved...... in polarity establishment and maintenance, cytoskeleton dynamics and intracellular transport. The first part of this thesis addresses the A. gossypii Arf3 small GTPase and its GEF- and GAP regulators; Yel1 and Gts1, which has been implicated in polar growth in a wide range of organisms. We could demonstrate......-regulatory activity of AgGts1, the protein could have additional actin organizing properties. In the second and third part, this thesis addresses the use of A. gossypii and its relative E. cymbalariae as model organisms for filamentous growth. A series of assays analyzed the capability of Eremothecium genus fungi...

  1. Polar patterns of driven filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Volker; Weber, Christoph; Semmrich, Christine; Frey, Erwin; Bausch, Andreas R

    2010-09-02

    The emergence of collective motion exhibited by systems ranging from flocks of animals to self-propelled microorganisms to the cytoskeleton is a ubiquitous and fascinating self-organization phenomenon. Similarities between these systems, such as the inherent polarity of the constituents, a density-dependent transition to ordered phases or the existence of very large density fluctuations, suggest universal principles underlying pattern formation. This idea is followed by theoretical models at all levels of description: micro- or mesoscopic models directly map local forces and interactions using only a few, preferably simple, interaction rules, and more macroscopic approaches in the hydrodynamic limit rely on the systems' generic symmetries. All these models characteristically have a broad parameter space with a manifold of possible patterns, most of which have not yet been experimentally verified. The complexity of interactions and the limited parameter control of existing experimental systems are major obstacles to our understanding of the underlying ordering principles. Here we demonstrate the emergence of collective motion in a high-density motility assay that consists of highly concentrated actin filaments propelled by immobilized molecular motors in a planar geometry. Above a critical density, the filaments self-organize to form coherently moving structures with persistent density modulations, such as clusters, swirls and interconnected bands. These polar nematic structures are long lived and can span length scales orders of magnitudes larger than their constituents. Our experimental approach, which offers control of all relevant system parameters, complemented by agent-based simulations, allows backtracking of the assembly and disassembly pathways to the underlying local interactions. We identify weak and local alignment interactions to be essential for the observed formation of patterns and their dynamics. The presented minimal polar-pattern-forming system

  2. Galactic Diffuse Polarized Emission Ettore Carretti

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to decouple from the spiral arms taking a ring-like shape. The big picture is thus starting to take shape, but essential points are still under debate, like number and position of reversals or the field pattern in the outer galaxy. The situation in the galactic halo is far less clear, essentially because of lack of data at high galactic ...

  3. A synoptic view of galactic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1981-01-01

    The power of using synoptic galactic surveys in many wavelength bands in order to obtain a more complete picture and a better understanding of the dynamics of the interstellar medium and to study galactic structure and evolution on a large scale is discussed. The implications of the picture presented by mm wave CO, far infrared and X ray surveys of the Galaxy are emphasized.

  4. Dust properties in the Galactic bulge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Bernard-Salas, J.

    Context. It has been suggested that the ratio of total-to-selective extinction R-V in dust in the interstellar medium differs in the Galactic bulge from its value in the local neighborhood. Aims. We attempt to test this suggestion. Methods. The mid-infrared hydrogen lines in 16 Galactic bulge PNe

  5. Very High Energy -rays from Galactic Sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The field of Very High Energy (VHE) gamma ray astronomy using the Atmospheric Cerenkov Technique has entered an interesting phase with detection of various galactic and extragalactic sources. Among galactic sources, only the Crab nebula has been established as a standard candle.

  6. Filament Activation in Response to Magnetic Flux Emergence and Cancellation in Filament Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Zhang, Jun; Ji, Haisheng

    2015-06-01

    We conducted a comparative analysis of two filaments that showed a quite different activation in response to the flux emergence within the filament channels. The observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) were made to analyze the two filaments on 2013 August 17 - 20 (SOL2013-08-17) and September 29 (SOL2013-09-29). The first event showed that the main body of the filament was separated into two parts when an active region (AR) emerged with a maximum magnetic flux of about 6.4×1021 Mx underlying the filament. The close neighborhood and common direction of the bright threads in the filament and the open AR fan loops suggest a similar magnetic connectivity of these two flux systems. The equilibrium of the filament was not destroyed three days after the start of the emergence of the AR. To our knowledge, similar observations have never been reported before. In the second event, the emerging flux occurred nearby a barb of the filament with a maximum magnetic flux of 4.2×1020 Mx, about one order of magnitude lower than that of the first event. Two patches of parasitic polarity in the vicinity of the barb merged, then cancelled with nearby network fields. About 20 hours after the onset of the emergence, the filament erupted. Our findings imply that the location of emerging flux within the filament channel is probably crucial to filament evolution. If the flux emergence appears nearby the barbs, it is highly likely that the emerging flux and the filament magnetic fields will cancel, which may lead to the eruption of the filament. The comparison of the two events shows that the emergence of a small AR may still not be enough to disrupt the stability of a filament system, and the actual eruption only occurs after the flux cancellation sets in.

  7. Automatic Detect and Trace of Solar Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Cheng; Chen, P. F.; Tang, Yu-hua; Hao, Qi; Guo, Yang

    We developed a series of methods to automatically detect and trace solar filaments in solar Hα images. The programs are able to not only recognize filaments and determine their properties, such as the position, the area and other relevant parameters, but also to trace the daily evolution of the filaments. For solar full disk Hα images, the method consists of three parts: first, preprocessing is applied to correct the original images; second, the Canny edge-detection method is used to detect the filaments; third, filament properties are recognized through the morphological operators. For each Hα filament and its barb features, we introduced the unweighted undirected graph concept and adopted Dijkstra shortest-path algorithm to recognize the filament spine; then, using polarity inversion line shift method for measuring the polarities in both sides of the filament to determine the filament axis chirality; finally, employing connected components labeling method to identify the barbs and calculating the angle between each barb and spine to indicate the barb chirality. Our algorithms are applied to the observations from varied observatories, including the Optical & Near Infrared Solar Eruption Tracer (ONSET) in Nanjing University, Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) and Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). The programs are demonstrated to be effective and efficient. We used our method to automatically process and analyze 3470 images obtained by MLSO from January 1998 to December 2009, and a butterfly diagram of filaments is obtained. It shows that the latitudinal migration of solar filaments has three trends in the Solar Cycle 23: The drift velocity was fast from 1998 to the solar maximum; after the solar maximum, it became relatively slow and after 2006, the migration became divergent, signifying the solar minimum. About 60% filaments with the latitudes larger than 50 degree migrate towards the Polar Regions with relatively high velocities, and the latitudinal migrating

  8. Overview of galactic results obtained by MAGIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanin, Roberta

    2013-06-15

    MAGIC is a system of two atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes which explores the very-high-energy sky, from some tens of GeV up to tens of TeV. Located in the Canary island of La Palma, MAGIC has the lowest energy threshold among the instruments of its kind, well suited to study the still poorly explored energy band below 100 GeV. Although the space-borne gamma-ray telescope Fermi/LAT is sensitive up to 300 GeV, gamma-ray rates drop fast with increasing energy, so γ-ray collection areas larger than 10{sup 4}m{sup 2}, as those provided by grounds-based instruments, are crucial above a few GeV. The combination of MAGIC and Fermi/LAT observations have provided the first astrophysical spectra sampled in the inverse Compton peak region, resulting in a complete coverage from MeV up to TeV energies, as well as the discovery of a pulsed emission in the very-high-energy band. This paper focuses on the latest results on Galactic sources obtained by MAGIC which are highlighted by the detection of the pulsed gamma-ray emission from the Crab pulsar up to 400 GeV. In addition, we will present the morphological study on the W51 complex which allowed to pinpoint the location of the majority of the emission around the interaction point between the supernova remnant W51C and the star forming region W51B, but also to find a possible contribution from the associated pulsar wind nebula. Other important scientific achievements involve the Crab Nebula with an unprecedented spectrum covering three decades in energy starting from 50 GeV and a morphological study of the unidentified source HESS J1857+026 which supports the pulsar wind nebula scenario. Finally we will report on the searches of very-high-energy signals from gamma-ray binaries, mainly LS I 303+ and HESS J0632+057.

  9. Lifetime of titanium filament at constant current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.S.; Lanni, C.

    1981-01-01

    Titanium Sublimation Pump (TSP) represents the most efficient and the least expensive method to produce Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) in storage rings. In ISABELLE, a proton storage accelerator under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory, for example, TSP provides a pumping speed for hydrogen of > 2 x 10 6 l/s. Due to the finite life of titanium filaments, new filaments have to be switched in before the end of filament burn out, to ensure smooth operation of the accelerator. Therefore, several operational modes that can be used to activate the TSP were studied. The constant current mode is a convenient way of maintaining constant evaporating rate by increasing the power input while the filament diameter decreases as titanium evaporates. The filaments used in this experiment were standard Varian 916-0024 filaments made of Ti 85%, Mo 15% alloy. During their lifetime at a constant current of 48 amperes, the evaporation rate rose to a maximum at about 10% of their life and then flattened out to a constant value, 0.25 g/hr. The maximum evaporation rate occurs coincidently with the recrystallization of 74% Ti 26% Mo 2 from microstructure crystalline at higher titanium concentration to macrostructure crystalline at lower titanium concentration. As the macrocrystal grows, the slip plane develops at the grain boundary resulting in high resistance at the slip plane which will eventually cause the filament burn out due to local heating

  10. Elemental abundances in AGB stars and the formation of the Galactic bulge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood P.R.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We obtained high-resolution near-IR spectra of 45 AGB stars located in the Galactic bulge. The aim of the project is to determine key elemental abundances in these stars to help constrain the formation history of the bulge. A further aim is to link the photospheric abundances to the dust species found in the winds of the stars. Here we present a progress report of the analysis of the spectra.

  11. Filaments in simulations of molecular cloud formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez, Gilberto C.; Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Morelia Apartado Postal 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico)

    2014-08-20

    We report on the filaments that develop self-consistently in a new numerical simulation of cloud formation by colliding flows. As in previous studies, the forming cloud begins to undergo gravitational collapse because it rapidly acquires a mass much larger than the average Jeans mass. Thus, the collapse soon becomes nearly pressureless, proceeding along its shortest dimension first. This naturally produces filaments in the cloud and clumps within the filaments. The filaments are not in equilibrium at any time, but instead are long-lived flow features through which the gas flows from the cloud to the clumps. The filaments are long-lived because they accrete from their environment while simultaneously accreting onto the clumps within them; they are essentially the locus where the flow changes from accreting in two dimensions to accreting in one dimension. Moreover, the clumps also exhibit a hierarchical nature: the gas in a filament flows onto a main, central clump but other, smaller-scale clumps form along the infalling gas. Correspondingly, the velocity along the filament exhibits a hierarchy of jumps at the locations of the clumps. Two prominent filaments in the simulation have lengths ∼15 pc and masses ∼600 M {sub ☉} above density n ∼ 10{sup 3} cm{sup –3} (∼2 × 10{sup 3} M {sub ☉} at n > 50 cm{sup –3}). The density profile exhibits a central flattened core of size ∼0.3 pc and an envelope that decays as r {sup –2.5} in reasonable agreement with observations. Accretion onto the filament reaches a maximum linear density rate of ∼30 M {sub ☉} Myr{sup –1} pc{sup –1}.

  12. Thermal and Chemical Evolution of Collapsing Filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, William J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Scannapieco, Evan [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States). School of Earth and Space Exploration

    2013-01-15

    Intergalactic filaments form the foundation of the cosmic web that connect galaxies together, and provide an important reservoir of gas for galaxy growth and accretion. Here we present very high resolution two-dimensional simulations of the thermal and chemical evolution of such filaments, making use of a 32 species chemistry network that tracks the evolution of key molecules formed from hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon. We study the evolution of filaments over a wide range of parameters including the initial density, initial temperature, strength of the dissociating UV background, and metallicity. In low-redshift, Z ≈ 0.1Z filaments, the evolution is determined completely by the initial cooling time. If this is sufficiently short, the center of the filament always collapses to form dense, cold core containing a substantial fraction of molecules. In high-redshift, Z = 10-3Z filaments, the collapse proceeds much more slowly. This is due mostly to the lower initial temperatures, which leads to a much more modest increase in density before the atomic cooling limit is reached, making subsequent molecular cooling much less efficient. Finally, we study how the gravitational potential from a nearby dwarf galaxy affects the collapse of the filament and compare this to NGC 5253, a nearby starbusting dwarf galaxy thought to be fueled by the accretion of filament gas. In contrast to our fiducial case, a substantial density peak forms at the center of the potential. This peak evolves faster than the rest of the filament due to the increased rate at which chemical species form and cooling occur. We find that we achieve similar accretion rates as NGC 5253, but our two-dimensional simulations do not recover the formation of the giant molecular clouds that are seen in radio observations.

  13. Galactic Astronomy in the Ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastorguev, A. S.; Sachkov, M. E.; Zabolotskikh, M. V.

    2017-12-01

    We propose a number of prospective observational programs for the ultraviolet space observatory WSO-UV, which seem to be of great importance to modern galactic astronomy. The programs include the search for binary Cepheids; the search and detailed photometric study and the analysis of radial distribution of UV-bright stars in globular clusters ("blue stragglers", blue horizontal-branch stars, RR Lyrae variables, white dwarfs, and stars with UV excesses); the investigation of stellar content and kinematics of young open clusters and associations; the study of spectral energy distribution in hot stars, including calculation of the extinction curves in the UV, optical and NIR; and accurate definition of the relations between the UV-colors and effective temperature. The high angular resolution of the observatory allows accurate astrometric measurements of stellar proper motions and their kinematic analysis.

  14. The galactic model of GRBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colgate, S.A.; Li, H.

    1997-09-01

    The galactic model of gamma ray bursts (GRBs) is based upon the observed production of soft gamma ray repeaters (SGRs) in the galaxy and the consequences of a reasonable model to explain them. In this view GRBs are the long term result of the burn-out conditions of the SGRs in this and in other galaxies. A delay of {approximately} 30 million years before GRBs are being actively produced can be understood as the time required for the ejected matter during the SGR phase to cool, condense, and form planetesimals that are eventually captured by the central neutron star. The amount of disk matter and the interaction between each GRB and the disk determine the rate of burst production and turn-off time of GRBs. The x-ray afterglow as well as optical emission is derived from x-ray fluorescence and ionization of previously ablated matter.

  15. Current filamentation in high-current diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordeev, A.V.; Kuksov, P.V.; Fanchenko, S.D.; Shuvaev, V.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental data are reported on the filamentation of a high-current relativistic electron beam in the Kal'mar-1 relativistic-electron-beam source. A possible mechanism for this filamentation is studied theoretically. It is shown that the experimental results on the number of filaments into which the relativistic electron beam breaks up can be explained on the basis of an azimuthal nonuniformity of the current. This nonuniformity develops in the plasma near the cathode as the result of a Rayleigh--Taylor electron instability

  16. Membrane Buckling Induced by Curved Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Martin; Crow, Daniel J. G.; Joanny, Jean-François

    2009-07-01

    We present a novel buckling instability relevant to membrane budding in eukaryotic cells. In this mechanism, curved filaments bind to a lipid bilayer without changing its intrinsic curvature. As more and more filaments adsorb, newly added ones are more and more strained, which destabilizes the flat membrane. We perform a linear stability analysis of filament-dressed membranes and find that the buckling threshold is within reasonable in vivo parameter values. We account for the formation of long tubes previously observed in cells and in purified systems. We study strongly deformed dressed membranes and their bifurcation diagram numerically. Our mechanism could be validated by a simple experiment.

  17. The metallicity distribution of stars in the Galactic bulge and disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeppen, J.; Arimoto, N.

    1989-06-01

    The chemical evolution of the three-component system of halo-bulge-disc is calculated. If the bulge accretes primordial halo matter quickly and forms stars rapidly before the gas is ejected by a galactic wind after 10 to the 9th yr, the metallicity distribution of the bulge K-giants (Rich, 1988) is reproduced. The metal-enriched matter in a wind from the bulge is mixed with the halo gas which is accreted into the disc. The metallicity distribution of the G-dwarfs and Twarog's (1980) age-metallicity relation in the solar neighborhood can be well reproduced by assuming reasonable bulge-to-disc mass ratio.

  18. Energy spectrum of galactic cosmic ray modulation and dependence of modulation parameters on distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkhov, V.I.; Kolomeets, E.V.; Likhoded, V.A.; Sevast'yanov, V.N.; Stekol'nikov, N.V.

    1981-01-01

    The paper presents the results of numerical calculation of galactic cosmic ray modulation by solar wind. Calculations were carried out on the basis of diffusion model taking into account convection and adiabatic loss of particles in interplanetary space. Both isotropic and anisotropic models were used in calculations. Modulation coefficient was calculated using the data on intensity of neutron component of cosmic rays and primary cosmic rays in the stratosphere for the period 1958-1979. The form of modulation function was determined. Obtained results allow to determine the size of modulation region and dependence of solar wind speed and diffusion coefficient on distance

  19. ULTRAFAST OUTFLOWS: GALAXY-SCALE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, A. Y.; Umemura, M. [Center for Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8577 (Japan); Bicknell, G. V., E-mail: ayw@ccs.tsukuba.ac.jp [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2013-01-20

    We show, using global three-dimensional grid-based hydrodynamical simulations, that ultrafast outflows (UFOs) from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) result in considerable feedback of energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy. The AGN wind interacts strongly with the inhomogeneous, two-phase ISM consisting of dense clouds embedded in a tenuous, hot, hydrostatic medium. The outflow floods through the intercloud channels, sweeps up the hot ISM, and ablates and disperses the dense clouds. The momentum of the UFO is primarily transferred to the dense clouds via the ram pressure in the channel flow, and the wind-blown bubble evolves in the energy-driven regime. Any dependence on UFO opening angle disappears after the first interaction with obstructing clouds. On kpc scales, therefore, feedback by UFOs operates similarly to feedback by relativistic AGN jets. Negative feedback is significantly stronger if clouds are distributed spherically rather than in a disk. In the latter case, the turbulent backflow of the wind drives mass inflow toward the central black hole. Considering the common occurrence of UFOs in AGNs, they are likely to be important in the cosmological feedback cycles of galaxy formation.

  20. ULTRAFAST OUTFLOWS: GALAXY-SCALE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, A. Y.; Umemura, M.; Bicknell, G. V.

    2013-01-01

    We show, using global three-dimensional grid-based hydrodynamical simulations, that ultrafast outflows (UFOs) from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) result in considerable feedback of energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy. The AGN wind interacts strongly with the inhomogeneous, two-phase ISM consisting of dense clouds embedded in a tenuous, hot, hydrostatic medium. The outflow floods through the intercloud channels, sweeps up the hot ISM, and ablates and disperses the dense clouds. The momentum of the UFO is primarily transferred to the dense clouds via the ram pressure in the channel flow, and the wind-blown bubble evolves in the energy-driven regime. Any dependence on UFO opening angle disappears after the first interaction with obstructing clouds. On kpc scales, therefore, feedback by UFOs operates similarly to feedback by relativistic AGN jets. Negative feedback is significantly stronger if clouds are distributed spherically rather than in a disk. In the latter case, the turbulent backflow of the wind drives mass inflow toward the central black hole. Considering the common occurrence of UFOs in AGNs, they are likely to be important in the cosmological feedback cycles of galaxy formation.

  1. Ultrafast Outflows: Galaxy-scale Active Galactic Nucleus Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A. Y.; Umemura, M.; Bicknell, G. V.

    2013-01-01

    We show, using global three-dimensional grid-based hydrodynamical simulations, that ultrafast outflows (UFOs) from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) result in considerable feedback of energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy. The AGN wind interacts strongly with the inhomogeneous, two-phase ISM consisting of dense clouds embedded in a tenuous, hot, hydrostatic medium. The outflow floods through the intercloud channels, sweeps up the hot ISM, and ablates and disperses the dense clouds. The momentum of the UFO is primarily transferred to the dense clouds via the ram pressure in the channel flow, and the wind-blown bubble evolves in the energy-driven regime. Any dependence on UFO opening angle disappears after the first interaction with obstructing clouds. On kpc scales, therefore, feedback by UFOs operates similarly to feedback by relativistic AGN jets. Negative feedback is significantly stronger if clouds are distributed spherically rather than in a disk. In the latter case, the turbulent backflow of the wind drives mass inflow toward the central black hole. Considering the common occurrence of UFOs in AGNs, they are likely to be important in the cosmological feedback cycles of galaxy formation.

  2. Structural CNT Composites. Part I; Developing a Carbon Nanotube Filament Winder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauti, Godfrey; Kim, Jae-Woo; Wincheski, Russell A.; Antczak, Andrew; Campero, Jamie C.; Luong, Hoa H.; Shanahan, Michelle H.; Stelter, Christopher J.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) based materials promise advances in the production of high strength and multifunctional components for aerospace and other applications. Specifically, in tension dominated applications, the latest CNT based filaments are yielding composite properties comparable to or exceeding composites from more established fibers such as Kevlar and carbon fiber. However, for the properties of these materials to be fully realized at the component level, suitable manufacturing processes have to be developed. These materials handle differently from conventional fibers, with different wetting characteristics and behavior under load. The limited availability of bulk forms also requires that the equipment be scaled down accordingly to tailor the process development approach to material availability. Here, the development of hardware and software for filament winding of carbon nanotube based tapes and yarns is described. This hardware features precision guidance of the CNT material and control of the winding tension over a wide range in an open architecture that allows for effective process control and troubleshooting during winding. Use of the filament winder to develop CNT based Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) shall also be discussed.

  3. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emission Toward the Galactic Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, M. J.; Peeters, E.; Cami, J.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L.

    2018-03-01

    We examine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), dust, and atomic/molecular emission toward the Galactic bulge using Spitzer Space Telescope observations of four fields: C32, C35, OGLE, and NGC 6522. These fields are approximately centered on (l, b) = (0.°0, 1.°0), (0.°0, ‑1.°0), (0.°4, ‑2.°4), and (1.°0, ‑3.°8), respectively. Far-infrared photometric observations complement the Spitzer/IRS spectroscopic data and are used to construct spectral energy distributions. We find that the dust and PAH emission are exceptionally similar between C32 and C35 overall, in part explained due to their locations—they reside on or near boundaries of a 7 Myr old Galactic outflow event and are partly shock-heated. Within the C32 and C35 fields, we identify a region of elevated Hα emission that is coincident with elevated fine-structure and [O IV] line emission and weak PAH feature strengths. We are likely tracing a transition zone of the outflow into the nascent environment. PAH abundances in these fields are slightly depressed relative to typical ISM values. In the OGLE and NGC 6522 fields, we observe weak features on a continuum dominated by zodiacal dust. SED fitting indicates that thermal dust grains in C32 and C35 have temperatures comparable to those of diffuse, high-latitude cirrus clouds. Little variability is detected in the PAH properties between C32 and C35, indicating that a stable population of PAHs dominates the overall spectral appearance. In fact, their PAH features are exceptionally similar to that of the M82 superwind, emphasizing that we are probing a local Galactic wind environment.

  4. Wind Structure and Wind Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    The purpose of this note is to provide a short description of wind, i.e. of the flow in the atmosphere of the Earth and the loading caused by wind on structures. The description comprises: causes to the generation of windhe interaction between wind and the surface of the Earthhe stochastic nature...... of windhe interaction between wind and structures, where it is shown that wind loading depends strongly on this interaction...

  5. The L1495-B218 filaments in Taurus seen in NH3 & CCS and Dynamical Stability of Filaments and Dense Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Youngmin

    2016-01-01

    We present deep NH3 map of L1495-B218 filaments and the dense cores embedded within the filaments in Taurus. The L1495-B218 filaments form an interconnected, nearby, large complex extending 8 pc. We observed the filaments in NH3 (1,1) & (2,2) and CCS 21-10 with spectral resolution of 0.038 km/s and spatial resolution of 31". The CSAR algorithm, which is a hybrid of seeded-watershed and binary dendrogram algorithm, identifies 39 leaves and 16 branches in NH3 (1,1). Applying a virial analysis for the 39 NH3 leaves, we find only 9 out of 39 leaves are gravitationally bound, and 12 out of 30 gravitationally unbound leaves are pressure-confined. Our analysis suggests that a dense core may form as a pressure-confined structure, evolve to a gravitationally bound core, and then undergo collapse to form a protostar (Seo et al. 2015).We also present more realistic dynamic stability conditions for dense cores with converging motions and under the influence of radiation pressure. The critical Bonnor-Ebert sphere and the isothermal cylinder have been widely used to test stability of dense cores and filaments; however, these assume a quiescent environment while actual star forming regions are turbulent and illuminated by radiation. In a new analysis of stability conditions we account for converging motions which have been modeled toward starless cores (Seo et al. 2011) and the effect of radiation fields into account. We find that the critical size of a dense core having a homologous converging motion with its peak speed being the sound speed is roughly half of the critical size of the Bonnor-Ebert sphere (Seo et al. 2013). We also find that the critical mass/line density of a dense core/filament irradiated by radiation are considerably smaller than that of the Bonnor-Ebert sphere/isothermal cylinder when the radiation pressure is stronger than the central gas pressure of dense core/isothermal cylinder. For inner Galactic regions and regions near OB associations, the critical

  6. Two-step solar filament eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, B.

    2018-04-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are closely related to eruptive filaments and usually are the continuation of the same eruptive process into the upper corona. There are failed filament eruptions when a filament decelerates and stops at some greater height in the corona. Sometimes the filament after several hours starts to rise again and develops into the successful eruption with a CME formation. We propose a simple model for the interpretation of such two-step eruptions in terms of equilibrium of a flux rope in a two-scale ambient magnetic field. The eruption is caused by a slow decrease of the holding magnetic field. The presence of two critical heights for the initiation of the flux-rope vertical instability allows the flux rope to stay after the first jump some time in a metastable equilibrium near the second critical height. If the decrease of the ambient field continues, the next eruption step follows.

  7. Intense EM filamentation in relativistic hot plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Qiang-Lin [Department of Physics, Jinggangshan University, Ji' an, Jiangxi 343009 (China); Chen, Zhong-Ping [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Mahajan, Swadesh M., E-mail: mahajan@mail.utexas.edu [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Department of Physics, School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, Uttar Pradesh 201314 (India)

    2017-03-03

    Highlights: • Breaking up of an intense EM pulse into filaments is a spectacular demonstration of the nonlinear wave-plasma interaction. • Filaments are spectacularly sharper, highly extended and longer lived at relativistic temperatures. • EM energy concentration can trigger new nonlinear phenomena with absolute consequences for high energy density matter. - Abstract: Through 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we demonstrate that the nature of filamentation of a high intensity electromagnetic (EM) pulse propagating in an underdense plasma, is profoundly affected at relativistically high temperatures. The “relativistic” filaments are sharper, are dramatically extended (along the direction of propagation), and live much longer than their lower temperature counterparts. The thermally boosted electron inertia is invoked to understand this very interesting and powerful phenomenon.

  8. Galactic bulge preferred over dark matter for the Galactic centre gamma-ray excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Oscar; Gordon, Chris; Crocker, Roland M.; Coleman, Brendan; Paterson, Dylan; Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Pohl, Martin

    2018-03-01

    An anomalous gamma-ray excess emission has been found in the Fermi Large Area Telescope data1 covering the centre of the Galaxy2,3. Several theories have been proposed for this `Galactic centre excess'. They include self-annihilation of dark-matter particles4, an unresolved population of millisecond pulsars5, an unresolved population of young pulsars6, or a series of burst events7. Here, we report on an analysis that exploits hydrodynamical modelling to register the position of interstellar gas associated with diffuse Galactic gamma-ray emission. We find evidence that the Galactic centre excess gamma rays are statistically better described by the stellar over-density in the Galactic bulge and the nuclear stellar bulge, rather than a spherical excess. Given its non-spherical nature, we argue that the Galactic centre excess is not a dark-matter phenomenon but rather associated with the stellar population of the Galactic bulge and the nuclear bulge.

  9. Morgellons disease: a filamentous borrelial dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Middelveen MJ; Stricker RB

    2016-01-01

    Marianne J Middelveen, Raphael B Stricker International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USA Abstract: Morgellons disease (MD) is a dermopathy characterized by multicolored filaments that lie under, are embedded in, or project from skin. Although MD was initially considered to be a delusional disorder, recent studies have demonstrated that the dermopathy is associated with tickborne infection, that the filaments are composed of keratin and collagen, and that they resu...

  10. A Robust Actin Filaments Image Analysis Framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchel Alioscha-Perez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The cytoskeleton is a highly dynamical protein network that plays a central role in numerous cellular physiological processes, and is traditionally divided into three components according to its chemical composition, i.e. actin, tubulin and intermediate filament cytoskeletons. Understanding the cytoskeleton dynamics is of prime importance to unveil mechanisms involved in cell adaptation to any stress type. Fluorescence imaging of cytoskeleton structures allows analyzing the impact of mechanical stimulation in the cytoskeleton, but it also imposes additional challenges in the image processing stage, such as the presence of imaging-related artifacts and heavy blurring introduced by (high-throughput automated scans. However, although there exists a considerable number of image-based analytical tools to address the image processing and analysis, most of them are unfit to cope with the aforementioned challenges. Filamentous structures in images can be considered as a piecewise composition of quasi-straight segments (at least in some finer or coarser scale. Based on this observation, we propose a three-steps actin filaments extraction methodology: (i first the input image is decomposed into a 'cartoon' part corresponding to the filament structures in the image, and a noise/texture part, (ii on the 'cartoon' image, we apply a multi-scale line detector coupled with a (iii quasi-straight filaments merging algorithm for fiber extraction. The proposed robust actin filaments image analysis framework allows extracting individual filaments in the presence of noise, artifacts and heavy blurring. Moreover, it provides numerous parameters such as filaments orientation, position and length, useful for further analysis. Cell image decomposition is relatively under-exploited in biological images processing, and our study shows the benefits it provides when addressing such tasks. Experimental validation was conducted using publicly available datasets, and in

  11. Can we determine the filament chirality by the filament footpoint location or the barb-bearing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qi; Guo, Yang; Fang, Cheng; Chen, Peng-Fei; Cao, Wen-Da

    2016-01-01

    We attempt to propose a method for automatically detecting the solar filament chirality and barb bearing. We first introduce the concept of an unweighted undirected graph and adopt the Dijkstra shortest path algorithm to recognize the filament spine. Then, we use the polarity inversion line (PIL) shift method for measuring the polarities on both sides of the filament, and employ the connected components labeling method to identify the barbs and calculate the angle between each barb and the spine to determine the bearing of the barbs, i.e., left or right. We test the automatic detection method with Hα filtergrams from the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) Hα archive and magnetograms observed with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Four filaments are automatically detected and illustrated to show the results. The barbs in different parts of a filament may have opposite bearings. The filaments in the southern hemisphere (northern hemisphere) mainly have left-bearing (right-bearing) barbs and positive (negative) magnetic helicity, respectively. The tested results demonstrate that our method is efficient and effective in detecting the bearing of filament barbs. It is demonstrated that the conventionally believed one-to-one correspondence between filament chirality and barb bearing is not valid. The correct detection of the filament axis chirality should be done by combining both imaging morphology and magnetic field observations.

  12. Can we determine the filament chirality by the filament footpoint location or the barb-bearing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Qi; Guo, Yang; Fang, Cheng; Chen, Peng-Fei; Cao, Wen-Da

    2016-01-01

    We attempt to propose a method for automatically detecting the solar filament chirality and barb bearing. We first introduce the concept of an unweighted undirected graph and adopt the Dijkstra shortest path algorithm to recognize the filament spine. Then, we use the polarity inversion line (PIL) shift method for measuring the polarities on both sides of the filament, and employ the connected components labeling method to identify the barbs and calculate the angle between each barb and the spine to determine the bearing of the barbs, i.e., left or right. We test the automatic detection method with Hα filtergrams from the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) Hα archive and magnetograms observed with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Four filaments are automatically detected and illustrated to show the results. The barbs in different parts of a filament may have opposite bearings. The filaments in the southern hemisphere (northern hemisphere) mainly have left-bearing (right-bearing) barbs and positive (negative) magnetic helicity, respectively. The tested results demonstrate that our method is efficient and effective in detecting the bearing of filament barbs. It is demonstrated that the conventionally believed one-to-one correspondence between filament chirality and barb bearing is not valid. The correct detection of the filament axis chirality should be done by combining both imaging morphology and magnetic field observations. (paper)

  13. Dynamics of contracting surfactant-covered filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Pritish; Thete, Sumeet; Xu, Qi; Basaran, Osman

    2013-11-01

    When drops are produced from a nozzle, a thin liquid thread connects the primary drop that is about to form to the rest of the liquid in the nozzle. Often, the thread becomes disconnected from both the primary drop and the remnant liquid mass hanging from the nozzle and thereby gives rise to a free filament. Due to surface tension, the free filament then contracts or recoils. During recoil, the filament can either contract into a single satellite droplet or break up into several small satellites. Such satellite droplets are undesirable in applications where they can, for example, cause misting in a manufacturing environment and mar product quality in ink-jet printing. In many applications, the filaments are coated with a monolayer of surfactant. In this work, we study the dynamics of contraction of slender filaments of a Newtonian fluid that are covered with a monolayer of surfactant when the surrounding fluid is a passive gas. Taking advantage of the fact that the filaments are long and slender, we use a 1D-slender-jet approximation of the governing system of equations consisting of the Navier-Stokes system and the convection-diffusion equation for surfactant transport. We solve the 1D system of equations by a finite element based numerical method.

  14. Evidence for Mixed Helicity in Erupting Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muglach, K.; Wang, Y.-M.; Kliem, B.

    2009-09-01

    Erupting filaments are sometimes observed to undergo a rotation about the vertical direction as they rise. This rotation of the filament axis is generally interpreted as a conversion of twist into writhe in a kink-unstable magnetic flux rope. Consistent with this interpretation, the rotation is usually found to be clockwise (as viewed from above) if the post-eruption arcade has right-handed helicity, but counterclockwise if it has left-handed helicity. Here, we describe two non-active-region filament events recorded with the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory in which the sense of rotation appears to be opposite to that expected from the helicity of the post-event arcade. Based on these observations, we suggest that the rotation of the filament axis is, in general, determined by the net helicity of the erupting system, and that the axially aligned core of the filament can have the opposite helicity sign to the surrounding field. In most cases, the surrounding field provides the main contribution to the net helicity. In the events reported here, however, the helicity associated with the filament "barbs" is opposite in sign to and dominates that of the overlying arcade.

  15. Prokaryotic cytoskeletons: protein filaments organizing small cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, James; Löwe, Jan

    2018-04-01

    Most, if not all, bacterial and archaeal cells contain at least one protein filament system. Although these filament systems in some cases form structures that are very similar to eukaryotic cytoskeletons, the term 'prokaryotic cytoskeletons' is used to refer to many different kinds of protein filaments. Cytoskeletons achieve their functions through polymerization of protein monomers and the resulting ability to access length scales larger than the size of the monomer. Prokaryotic cytoskeletons are involved in many fundamental aspects of prokaryotic cell biology and have important roles in cell shape determination, cell division and nonchromosomal DNA segregation. Some of the filament-forming proteins have been classified into a small number of conserved protein families, for example, the almost ubiquitous tubulin and actin superfamilies. To understand what makes filaments special and how the cytoskeletons they form enable cells to perform essential functions, the structure and function of cytoskeletal molecules and their filaments have been investigated in diverse bacteria and archaea. In this Review, we bring these data together to highlight the diverse ways that linear protein polymers can be used to organize other molecules and structures in bacteria and archaea.

  16. The identification of filaments on far-infrared and submillimiter images: Morphology, physical conditions and relation with star formation of filamentary structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schisano, E.; Carey, S.; Paladini, R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rygl, K. L. J. [European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA-ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, P.O. Box 299, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Molinari, S.; Elia, D.; Pestalozzi, M. [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, INAF-IAPS, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Busquet, G. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucia, CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía, s/n, E-18008, Granada (Spain); Polychroni, D. [Departement of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Faculty of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, 15784 Zografos, Athens (Greece); Billot, N. [Instituto de RadioAstronomía Milimétrica Avenida Divina Pastora, 7, Núcleo Central, E-18012 Granada (Spain); Noriega-Crespo, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Moore, T. J. T. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Plume, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Institute for Space Imaging Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N IN4 (Canada); Glover, S. C. O. [Zentrüm für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Vázquez-Semadeni, E., E-mail: eugenio@ipac.caltech.edu [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica (CRyA), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CP 58190 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico)

    2014-08-10

    Observations of molecular clouds reveal a complex structure, with gas and dust often arranged in filamentary, rather than spherical geometries. The association of pre- and proto-stellar cores with the filaments suggests a direct link with the process of star formation. Any study of the properties of such filaments requires representative samples from different environments for an unbiased detection method. We developed such an approach using the Hessian matrix of a surface-brightness distribution to identify filaments and determine their physical and morphological properties. After testing the method on simulated, but realistic, filaments, we apply the algorithms to column-density maps computed from Herschel observations of the Galactic plane obtained by the Hi-GAL project. We identified ∼500 filaments, in the longitude range of l = 216.°5 to l = 225.°5, with lengths from ∼1 pc up to ∼30 pc and widths between 0.1 pc and 2.5 pc. Average column densities are between 10{sup 20} cm{sup –2} and 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}. Filaments include the majority of dense material with N{sub H{sub 2}} > 6 × 10{sup 21} cm{sup –2}. We find that the pre- and proto-stellar compact sources already identified in the same region are mostly associated with filaments. However, surface densities in excess of the expected critical values for high-mass star formation are only found on the filaments, indicating that these structures are necessary to channel material into the clumps. Furthermore, we analyze the gravitational stability of filaments and discuss their relationship with star formation.

  17. Spitzer Digs Up Galactic Fossil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2 This false-color image taken by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows a globular cluster previously hidden in the dusty plane of our Milky Way galaxy. Globular clusters are compact bundles of old stars that date back to the birth of our galaxy, 13 or so billion years ago. Astronomers use these galactic 'fossils' as tools for studying the age and formation of the Milky Way. Most clusters orbit around the center of the galaxy well above its dust-enshrouded disc, or plane, while making brief, repeated passes through the plane that each last about a million years. Spitzer, with infrared eyes that can see into the dusty galactic plane, first spotted the newfound cluster during its current pass. A visible-light image (inset of Figure 1) shows only a dark patch of sky. The red streak behind the core of the cluster is a dust cloud, which may indicate the cluster's interaction with the Milky Way. Alternatively, this cloud may lie coincidentally along Spitzer's line of sight. Follow-up observations with the University of Wyoming Infrared Observatory helped set the distance of the new cluster at about 9,000 light-years from Earth - closer than most clusters - and set the mass at the equivalent of 300,000 Suns. The cluster's apparent size, as viewed from Earth, is comparable to a grain of rice held at arm's length. It is located in the constellation Aquila. Astronomers believe that this cluster may be one of the last in our galaxy to be uncovered. This image composite was taken on April 21, 2004, by Spitzer's infrared array camera. It is composed of images obtained at four wavelengths: 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange) and 8 microns (red). Galactic Fossil Found Behind Curtain of Dust In Figure 2, the image mosaic shows the same patch of sky in various wavelengths of light. While the visible-light image (left) shows a dark sky speckled

  18. Galactic Dark Matter and Terrestrial Periodicities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clube, S

    1998-01-01

    .... The Earth may thus be regarded as a probe of the disc environment; and to account for the periodicity, the Galactic disc is required to have a substantial dark matter component ( approx .15 molar mass/cu pc...

  19. White Dwarfs Cosmological and Galactic Probes

    CERN Document Server

    Sion, Edward M; Vennes, Stéphane

    2005-01-01

    The emphasis on white dwarf stars and cosmology arises from the most recent advances in cosmological and galactic structure research in which white dwarf stars are playing a very prominent role. Examples are Type Ia supernovae (i.e. white dwarf supernovae), the origin and evolution of the universe, the age of the galactic disk, cosmochronology using white dwarfs in globular clusters and galactic clusters, and the physics of accretion onto compact (very dense) stars. As an assisting guide to the reader, we have included, by invitation, comprehensive review articles in each of the four major areas of the book, white dwarf supernovae, cosmology, accretion physics and galactic structure. The reviews include introductory material that they build upon. The book is suitable and most useful to advanced undergraduates, graduate students and scientific professionals (e.g. astronomers, astrophysicists, cosmologists, physicists).

  20. Solar filament impact on 21 January 2005: Geospace consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyra, J. U.; Liemohn, M. W.; Cattell, C.; De Zeeuw, D.; Escoubet, C. P.; Evans, D. S.; Fang, X.; Fok, M.-C.; Frey, H. U.; Gonzalez, W. D.; Hairston, M.; Heelis, R.; Lu, G.; Manchester, W. B.; Mende, S.; Paxton, L. J.; Rastaetter, L.; Ridley, A.; Sandanger, M.; Soraas, F.; Sotirelis, T.; Thomsen, M. W.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Verkhoglyadova, O.

    2014-07-01

    On 21 January 2005, a moderate magnetic storm produced a number of anomalous features, some seen more typically during superstorms. The aim of this study is to establish the differences in the space environment from what we expect (and normally observe) for a storm of this intensity, which make it behave in some ways like a superstorm. The storm was driven by one of the fastest interplanetary coronal mass ejections in solar cycle 23, containing a piece of the dense erupting solar filament material. The momentum of the massive solar filament caused it to push its way through the flux rope as the interplanetary coronal mass ejection decelerated moving toward 1 AU creating the appearance of an eroded flux rope (see companion paper by Manchester et al. (2014)) and, in this case, limiting the intensity of the resulting geomagnetic storm. On impact, the solar filament further disrupted the partial ring current shielding in existence at the time, creating a brief superfountain in the equatorial ionosphere—an unusual occurrence for a moderate storm. Within 1 h after impact, a cold dense plasma sheet (CDPS) formed out of the filament material. As the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) rotated from obliquely to more purely northward, the magnetotail transformed from an open to a closed configuration and the CDPS evolved from warmer to cooler temperatures. Plasma sheet densities reached tens per cubic centimeter along the flanks—high enough to inflate the magnetotail in the simulation under northward IMF conditions despite the cool temperatures. Observational evidence for this stretching was provided by a corresponding expansion and intensification of both the auroral oval and ring current precipitation zones linked to magnetotail stretching by field line curvature scattering. Strong Joule heating in the cusps, a by-product of the CDPS formation process, contributed to an equatorward neutral wind surge that reached low latitudes within 1-2 h and intensified the

  1. A general winding law of modular stellarator coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmeyer, E.; Kisslinger, J.; Rau, F.; Wobig, H.

    1985-03-01

    A general winding law for twisted coils is described in terms of analytic functions. On a toroidal surface given as x vector = x vector (φ,Θ) (φ = toroidal coordinate, Θ = poloidal coordinate) the current filaments φ = φ κ (Θ) are represented in terms of sin-functions. The paper includes several examples of classical stellarator and HELIAC configurations. By specifying a separate winding law for every single coil also WVII-AS type configurations can be modelled. The numerical code describing the central filament and the borderlines of the coils are given in the appendix. (orig.)

  2. Radioactivity in the galactic plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walraven, G. D.; Haymes, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reports the detection of a large concentration of interstellar radioactivity during balloon-altitude measurements of gamma-ray energy spectra in the band between 0.02 and 12.27 MeV from galactic and extragalactic sources. Enhanced counting rates were observed in three directions towards the plane of the Galaxy; a power-law energy spectrum is computed for one of these directions (designated B 10). A large statistical deviation from the power law in a 1.0-FWHM interval centered near 1.16 MeV is discussed, and the existence of a nuclear gamma-ray line at 1.15 MeV in B 10 is postulated. It is suggested that Ca-44, which emits gamma radiation at 1.156 MeV following the decay of radioactive Sc-44, is a likely candidate for this line, noting that Sc-44 arises from Ti-44 according to explosive models of supernova nucleosynthesis. The 1.16-MeV line flux inferred from the present data is shown to equal the predicted flux for a supernova at a distance of approximately 3 kpc and an age not exceeding about 100 years.

  3. The Zwicky Transient Facility Galactic Plane Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Thomas; Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) Project Team

    2018-01-01

    The Zwicky Transient Faciility (ZTF) is a new survey camera mounted on the 1.2m Oschin Schmidt Telescope on Mount Palomar. The camera has a 47 square degree field of view and is expected to start public survey observations in early 2018. The public surveys are undertaken with support provided by the NSF MSIP program. One of the two public surveys is a twice nightly scan of the central Galactic Plane visible from Mount Palomar, one scan in r-band and one in g-band. Publicly accessible data from the survey will be one of two types: (1) prompt alerts of variable activity of Galactic Plane sources using image difference source identification, and (2) photometric light curves of Galactic Plane sources extracted from calibrated images. Data will be made accessible through the Caltech Image Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC). The ZTF Galactic Plane Survey, combined with Gaia and PanSTARRS data, will be an exciting new resource for time domain astronomy observations of Galactic sources.We will describe the details of the ZTF Galactic Plane survey, including estimated coverage of the plane and light curve sampling. We will also describe plans for public access to the data, as well as comment on some of the important science that will be possible using the survey data.

  4. Quantifying the impact of an upwelling filament on the physical-chemical-biological interactions off SW Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravo, A.; Sanchez, R.; Monteiro, C.; Cardeira, S.; Madureira, M.; Rita, F.; Relvas, P.

    2017-12-01

    Upwelling filaments are mesoscale structures of cold water that stretch seaward in a tongue-like shape with origin in the coastal upwelling zone. Filaments off the Iberian Peninsula are recurrent, showing similarities with those in the Californian coast. The Cape São Vicente, the SW tip of the Iberian Peninsula, is the root of recurrent filaments observed in the satellite imagery during the upwelling season. However, the understanding of its physical and chemical impact on the biological productivity is rather limited. There, a relatively small filament ( 80 km long) was investigated through remote sensing and in situ multidisciplinary observations during an upwelling favourable wind relaxation event, but just after an intense upwelling period. A total of 42 CTD+Rosette casts up to 400 m depth were distributed on an almost regular grid of 15 km mean spacing guided by guided by satellite SST imagery transmitted to the ship in near-real time. The parameters sampled during the sea campaign included: velocity field sampled along the ship track through a hull-mounted 38 kHz RDI ADCP, meteorological variables, temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, phosphate, silicate, cadmium, lead and zinc. The extent of the impact of the filament was evaluated by quantifying the cross-shelf transports of several properties. The amounts conveyed by the filament were much stronger than those expected by the wind-driven Ekman mechanism, showing that it represents an efficient feature for the exchange of water, dissolved and particulate matter from the productive shelf towards the oligotrophic offshore region. Considering the periods of strong upwelling events and the extent of their duration along the year, the amounts of exported matter will certainly enhance the biological productivity of these waters, including its fisheries. These filament data contribute to better understand the physical-chemical-biological interactions of this regional ecosystem.

  5. THE EVOLUTION OF GAS CLOUDS FALLING IN THE MAGNETIZED GALACTIC HALO: HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUDS (HVCs) ORIGINATED IN THE GALACTIC FOUNTAIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Kyujin; Shelton, Robin L.; Raley, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    In the Galactic fountain scenario, supernovae and/or stellar winds propel material into the Galactic halo. As the material cools, it condenses into clouds. By using FLASH three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we model and study the dynamical evolution of these gas clouds after they form and begin to fall toward the Galactic plane. In our simulations, we assume that the gas clouds form at a height of z = 5 kpc above the Galactic midplane, then begin to fall from rest. We investigate how the cloud's evolution, dynamics, and interaction with the interstellar medium (ISM) are affected by the initial mass of the cloud. We find that clouds with sufficiently large initial densities (n ≥ 0.1 H atoms cm -3 ) accelerate sufficiently and maintain sufficiently large column densities as to be observed and identified as high-velocity clouds (HVCs) even if the ISM is weakly magnetized (1.3 μG). However, the ISM can provide noticeable resistance to the motion of a low-density cloud (n ≤ 0.01 H atoms cm -3 ) thus making it more probable that a low-density cloud will attain the speed of an intermediate-velocity cloud rather than the speed of an HVC. We also investigate the effects of various possible magnetic field configurations. As expected, the ISM's resistance is greatest when the magnetic field is strong and perpendicular to the motion of the cloud. The trajectory of the cloud is guided by the magnetic field lines in cases where the magnetic field is oriented diagonal to the Galactic plane. The model cloud simulations show that the interactions between the cloud and the ISM can be understood via analogy to the shock tube problem which involves shock and rarefaction waves. We also discuss accelerated ambient gas, streamers of material ablated from the clouds, and the cloud's evolution from a sphere-shaped to a disk- or cigar-shaped object.

  6. PARTIAL ERUPTION OF A FILAMENT WITH TWISTING NON-UNIFORM FIELDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Yi; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan; Xiang, Yongyuan; Cai, Yunfang; Liu, Weiwei

    2015-01-01

    The eruption of a filament in a kinklike fashion is often regarded as a signature of kink instability. However, the kink instability threshold for the filament’s magnetic structure is not widely understood. Using Hα observations from the New Vacuum Solar Telescope, we present a partial eruptive filament. During the eruption, the filament thread appeared to split from its middle and to break out in a kinklike fashion. In this period, the remaining filament material stayed below and erupted without the kinking motion later on. The coronal magnetic field lines associated with the filament are obtained from nonlinear force-free field extrapolations using the twelve-minute-cadence vector magnetograms of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory. We studied the extrapolated field lines passing through the magnetic dips which are in good agreement with the observed filament. The field lines are non-uniformly twisted and appear to be composed of two twisted flux ropes winding around each other. One of them has a higher twist than the other, and the flux rope with the higher twist has its dips aligned with the kinking eruptive thread at the beginning of its eruption. Before the eruption, moreover, the flux rope with the higher twist was found to expand with an approximately constant field twist. In addition, the helicity flux maps deduced from the HMI magnetograms show that some helicity is injected into the overlying magnetic arcade, but no significant helicity is injected into the flux ropes. Accordingly, we suggest that the highly twisted flux rope became kink unstable when the instability threshold declined with the expansion of the flux rope

  7. Transition of Femtosecond-Filament-Solid Interactions from Single to Multiple Filament Regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrodzki, P J; Burger, M; Jovanovic, I

    2017-10-06

    High-peak-power fs-laser filaments offer unique characteristics attractive to remote sensing via techniques such as remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (R-LIBS). The dynamics of several ablation mechanisms following the interaction between a filament and a solid determines the emission strength and reproducibility of target plasma, which is of relevance for R-LIBS applications. We investigate the space- and time-resolved dynamics of ionic and atomic emission from copper as well as the surrounding atmosphere in order to understand limitations of fs-filament-ablation for standoff energy delivery. Furthermore, we probe the shock front produced from filament-target interaction using time-resolved shadowgraphy and infer laser-material coupling efficiencies for both single and multiple filament regimes through analysis of shock expansion with the Sedov model for point detonation. The results provide insight into plasma structure for the range of peak powers up to 30 times the critical power for filamentation P cr . Despite the stochastic nucleation of multiple filaments at peak-powers greater than 16 P cr , emission of ionic and neutral species increases with pump beam intensity, and short-lived nitrogen emission originating from the ambient is consistently observed. Ultimately, results suggest favorable scaling of emission intensity from target species on the laser pump energy, furthering the prospects for use of filament-solid interactions for remote sensing.

  8. Role of multiple filaments in self-accelerating actions of laser filamentation in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuze; Nie, Jinsong; Sun, Ke

    2017-11-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of multiple filaments in self-accelerating actions by using corrected accelerating parabolic beams (CAPBs) are numerically investigated. By increasing the number of main lobes, the curved filaments can be elongated, leading to a longer displacement. The replenished energy originating from curved multiple filaments (MFs) that constructively interfere with the central one plays a crucial role in the phenomenon. At the bifurcation position, a beam pattern in which secondary lobes tightly follow the main lobes is formed, which is beneficial for the accelerating action of MFs. A new curved filament is generated due to the merging of side-curved MFs, and its accelerating strength decreases gradually with further propagation. Moreover, a special spatiotemporal profile that enhances the possibility of acceleration is also formed. The use of the accelerating beam with the appropriate amount of main lobes provides a new approach to elongate curved filaments.

  9. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gipe, P.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a translation of the edition published in the USA under the title of ''wind power: renewable energy for home, farm and business''. In the wake of mass blackouts and energy crises, wind power remains a largely untapped resource of renewable energy. It is a booming worldwide industry whose technology, under the collective wing of aficionados like author Paul Gipe, is coming of age. Wind Power guides us through the emergent, sometimes daunting discourse on wind technology, giving frank explanations of how to use wind technology wisely and sound advice on how to avoid common mistakes. Since the mid-1970's, Paul Gipe has played a part in nearly every aspect of wind energy development from installing small turbines to promoting wind energy worldwide. As an American proponent of renewable energy, Gipe has earned the acclaim and respect of European energy specialists for years, but his arguments have often fallen on deaf ears at home. Today, the topic of wind power is cropping up everywhere from the beaches of Cape Cod to the Oregon-Washington border, and one wind turbine is capable of producing enough electricity per year to run 200 average American households. Now, Paul Gipe is back to shed light on this increasingly important energy source with a revised edition of Wind Power. Over the course of his career, Paul Gipe has been a proponent, participant, observer, and critic of the wind industry. His experience with wind has given rise to two previous books on the subject, Wind Energy Basics and Wind Power for Home and Business, which have sold over 50,000 copies. Wind Power for Home and Business has become a staple for both homeowners and professionals interested in the subject, and now, with energy prices soaring, interest in wind power is hitting an all-time high. With chapters on output and economics, Wind Power discloses how much you can expect from each method of wind technology, both in terms of energy and financial savings. The book updated models

  10. Disk-Wind Connection During the Heartbeats of GRS 1915+105

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoghbi, Abderahmen; Miller, M. C.; King, A. L.

    2016-01-01

    Disk and wind signatures are seen in the soft state of Galactic black holes, while the jet is seen in the hard state. Here we study the disk–wind connection in the ρ class of variability in GRS 1915+105 using a joint NuSTAR–Chandra observation. The source shows 50 s limit cycle oscillations. By i...

  11. Filamentous Influenza Virus Enters Cells via Macropinocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Jeremy S.; Leser, George P.

    2012-01-01

    Influenza virus is pleiomorphic, producing both spherical (100-nm-diameter) and filamentous (100-nm by 20-μm) virions. While the spherical virions are known to enter host cells through exploitation of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, the entry pathway for filamentous virions has not been determined, though the existence of an alternative, non-clathrin-, non-caveolin-mediated entry pathway for influenza virus has been known for many years. In this study, we confirm recent results showing that influenza virus utilizes macropinocytosis as an alternate entry pathway. Furthermore, we find that filamentous influenza viruses use macropinocytosis as the primary entry mechanism. Virions enter cells as intact filaments within macropinosomes and are trafficked to the acidic late-endosomal compartment. Low pH triggers a conformational change in the M2 ion channel protein, altering membrane curvature and leading to a fragmentation of the filamentous virions. This fragmentation may enable more-efficient fusion between the viral and endosomal membranes. PMID:22875971

  12. β-Helical architecture of cytoskeletal bactofilin filaments revealed by solid-state NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasa, Suresh; Lin, Lin; Shi, Chaowei; Habenstein, Birgit; Riedel, Dietmar; Kühn, Juliane; Thanbichler, Martin; Lange, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Bactofilins are a widespread class of bacterial filament-forming proteins, which serve as cytoskeletal scaffolds in various cellular pathways. They are characterized by a conserved architecture, featuring a central conserved domain (DUF583) that is flanked by variable terminal regions. Here, we present a detailed investigation of bactofilin filaments from Caulobacter crescentus by high-resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy. De novo sequential resonance assignments were obtained for residues Ala39 to Phe137, spanning the conserved DUF583 domain. Analysis of the secondary chemical shifts shows that this core region adopts predominantly β-sheet secondary structure. Mutational studies of conserved hydrophobic residues located in the identified β-strand segments suggest that bactofilin folding and polymerization is mediated by an extensive and redundant network of hydrophobic interactions, consistent with the high intrinsic stability of bactofilin polymers. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a propensity of bactofilin to form filament bundles as well as sheet-like, 2D crystalline assemblies, which may represent the supramolecular arrangement of bactofilin in the native context. Based on the diffraction pattern of these 2D crystalline assemblies, scanning transmission electron microscopy measurements of the mass per length of BacA filaments, and the distribution of β-strand segments identified by solid-state NMR, we propose that the DUF583 domain adopts a β-helical architecture, in which 18 β-strand segments are arranged in six consecutive windings of a β-helix. PMID:25550503

  13. Heterologous expression of cellobiohydrolases in filamentous fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoglowek, Marta; Lübeck, Peter S.; Ahring, Birgitte K.

    2015-01-01

    Cellobiohydrolases are among the most important enzymes functioning in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose, significantly contributing to the efficient biorefining of recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels and bio-based products. Filamentous fungi are recognized as both well...... into valuable products. However, due to low cellobiohydrolase activities, certain fungi might be deficient with regard to enzymes of value for cellulose conversion, and improving cellobiohydrolase expression in filamentous fungi has proven to be challenging. In this review, we examine the effects of altering...... promoters, signal peptides, culture conditions and host post-translational modifications. For heterologous cellobiohydrolase production in filamentous fungi to become an industrially feasible process, the construction of site-integrating plasmids, development of protease-deficient strains and glycosylation...

  14. Finite element analyses of continuous filament ties for masonry applications: final report for the Arquin Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinones, Sr., Armando [Arquin Corporation, La Luz, NM (United States); Bibeau, Tiffany A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2006-06-01

    Finite-element analyses were performed to simulate the response of a hypothetical masonry shear wall with and without continuous filament ties to various lateral loads. The loads represented three different scenarios: (1) 100 mph wind, (2) explosive attack, and (3) an earthquake. In addition, a static loading analysis and cost comparison were performed to evaluate optimal materials and designs for the spacers affixed to the filaments. Results showed that polypropylene, ABS, and polyethylene (high density) were suitable materials for the spacers based on performance and cost, and the short T-spacer design was optimal based on its performance and functionality. Results of the shear-wall loading simulations revealed that simulated walls with the continuous filament ties yielded factors of safety that were at least ten times greater than those without the ties. In the explosive attack simulation (100 psi), the simulated wall without the ties failed (minimum factor of safety was less than one), but the simulated wall with the ties yielded a minimum factor of safety greater than one. Simulations of the walls subject to lateral loads caused by 100 mph winds (0.2 psi) and seismic events with a peak ground acceleration of 1 ''g'' (0.66 psi) yielded no failures with or without the ties. Simulations of wall displacement during the seismic scenarios showed that the wall with the ties resulted in a maximum displacement that was 20% less than the wall without the ties.

  15. Heterologous gene expression in filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoyun; Schmitz, George; Zhang, Meiling; Mackie, Roderick I; Cann, Isaac K O

    2012-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are critical to production of many commercial enzymes and organic compounds. Fungal-based systems have several advantages over bacterial-based systems for protein production because high-level secretion of enzymes is a common trait of their decomposer lifestyle. Furthermore, in the large-scale production of recombinant proteins of eukaryotic origin, the filamentous fungi become the vehicle of choice due to critical processes shared in gene expression with other eukaryotic organisms. The complexity and relative dearth of understanding of the physiology of filamentous fungi, compared to bacteria, have hindered rapid development of these organisms as highly efficient factories for the production of heterologous proteins. In this review, we highlight several of the known benefits and challenges in using filamentous fungi (particularly Aspergillus spp., Trichoderma reesei, and Neurospora crassa) for the production of proteins, especially heterologous, nonfungal enzymes. We review various techniques commonly employed in recombinant protein production in the filamentous fungi, including transformation methods, selection of gene regulatory elements such as promoters, protein secretion factors such as the signal peptide, and optimization of coding sequence. We provide insights into current models of host genomic defenses such as repeat-induced point mutation and quelling. Furthermore, we examine the regulatory effects of transcript sequences, including introns and untranslated regions, pre-mRNA (messenger RNA) processing, transcript transport, and mRNA stability. We anticipate that this review will become a resource for researchers who aim at advancing the use of these fascinating organisms as protein production factories, for both academic and industrial purposes, and also for scientists with general interest in the biology of the filamentous fungi. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Galactic Habitable Zone and Astrobiological Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukotic, B.

    2012-12-01

    This is a short thesis description and for the sake of brevity most things are left out. For more details, those interested are further directed to the thesis related papers in this article reference list. Thesis itself is available at the University of Belgrade library "Svetozar Markovic" (Serbian version only). In this thesis we study the astrobiological history of the Galactic habitable zone through the means of numerical modeling. First group of simulations are unidimensional (time-axis) toy models examine the influence of global regulation mechanisms (gamma-ray bursts and supernovae) on temporal evolution of Galactic astrobiological complexity. It is shown that under the assumption of global regulation classical anti SETI arguments can be undermined. Second group of simulations are more complex bidimensional probabilistic cellular automata models of the Galactic thin disk. They confirm the findings of the toy models and give some insights into the spatial clustering of astrobiological complexity. As a new emerging multidisciplinary science the basic concepts of astrobiology are poorly understood and although all the simulations present here do not include some basic physics (such as Galactic kinematics and dynamics), the input parameters are somewhat arbitrary and could use a future refinement (such as the boundaries of the Galactic habitable zone). This is the cause for low weight and high uncertainty in the output results of the simulations. However, the probabilistic cellular automata has shown as a highly adaptable modeling platform that can simulate various class of astrobiological models with great ease.

  17. Structure of Flexible Filamentous Plant Viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendall, Amy; McDonald, Michele; Bian, Wen; Bowles, Timothy; Baumgarten, Sarah C.; Shi, Jian; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Bullitt, Esther; Gore, David; Irving, Thomas C.; Havens, Wendy M.; Ghabrial, Said A.; Wall, Joseph S.; Stubbs, Gerald (IIT); (BU-M); (Vanderbilt); (Kentucky); (BNL)

    2008-10-23

    Flexible filamentous viruses make up a large fraction of the known plant viruses, but in comparison with those of other viruses, very little is known about their structures. We have used fiber diffraction, cryo-electron microscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy to determine the symmetry of a potyvirus, soybean mosaic virus; to confirm the symmetry of a potexvirus, potato virus X; and to determine the low-resolution structures of both viruses. We conclude that these viruses and, by implication, most or all flexible filamentous plant viruses share a common coat protein fold and helical symmetry, with slightly less than 9 subunits per helical turn.

  18. Discovery of X-Ray-Emitting O-Ne-Mg-Rich Ejecta in the Galactic Supernova Remnant Puppis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuda, Satoru; Hwang, Una; Petre, Robert; Park, Sangwook; Mori, Koji; Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    We report on the discovery of X-ray-emitting O-Ne-Mg-rich ejecta in the middle-aged Galactic O-rich supernova remnant Puppis A with Chandra and XMM-Newton. We use line ratios to identify a low-ionization filament running parallel to the northeastern edge of the remnant that requires super-solar abundances, particularly for O, Ne, and Mg, which we interpret to be from O-Ne-Mg-rich ejecta. Abundance ratios of Ne/O, Mg/O, and Fe/O are measured to be [approx]2, [approx]2, and <0.3 times the solar values. Our spatially resolved spectral analysis from the northeastern rim to the western rim otherwise reveals sub-solar abundances consistent with those in the interstellar medium. The filament is coincident with several optically emitting O-rich knots with high velocities. If these are physically related, the filament would be a peculiar fragment of ejecta. On the other hand, the morphology of the filament suggests that it may trace ejecta heated by a shock reflected strongly off the dense ambient clouds near the northeastern rim.

  19. Interaction of Two Filaments in a Long Filament Channel Associated with Twin Coronal Mass Ejections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Ruisheng; Chen, Yao; Wang, Bing; Du, Guohui; Li, Chuanyang [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, and Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, 264209 Weihai (China); Zhang, Qingmin [Key Laboratory for Dark Matter and Space Science, Purple Mountain Observatory, CAS, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yang, Kai, E-mail: ruishengzheng@sdu.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, 210023 Nanjing (China)

    2017-02-20

    Using the high-quality observations of the Solar Dynamics Observatory , we present the interaction of two filaments (F1 and F2) in a long filament channel associated with twin coronal mass ejections (CMEs) on 2016 January 26. Before the eruption, a sequence of rapid cancellation and emergence of the magnetic flux has been observed, which likely triggered the ascending of the west filament (F1). The east footpoints of rising F1 moved toward the east far end of the filament channel, accompanied by post-eruption loops and flare ribbons. This likely indicated a large-scale eruption involving the long filament channel, which resulted from the interaction between F1 and the east filament (F2). Some bright plasma flew over F2, and F2 stayed at rest during the eruption, likely due to the confinement of its overlying lower magnetic field. Interestingly, the impulsive F1 pushed its overlying magnetic arcades to form the first CME, and F1 finally evolved into the second CME after the collision with the nearby coronal hole. We suggest that the interaction of F1 and the overlying magnetic field of F2 led to the merging reconnection that forms a longer eruptive filament loop. Our results also provide a possible picture of the origin of twin CMEs and show that the large-scale magnetic topology of the coronal hole is important for the eventual propagation direction of CMEs.

  20. High-resolution Observations of Sympathetic Filament Eruptions by NVST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shangwei; Su, Yingna; Zhou, Tuanhui; Ji, Haisheng [Key Laboratory for Dark Matter and Space Science, Purple Mountain Observatory, CAS, Nanjing 210008 (China); Van Ballegooijen, Adriaan [5001 Riverwood Avenue, Sarasota, FL 34231 (United States); Sun, Xudong, E-mail: ynsu@pmo.ac.cn [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2017-07-20

    We investigate two sympathetic filament eruptions observed by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope on 2015 October 15. The full picture of the eruptions is obtained from the corresponding Solar Dynamics Observatory ( SDO )/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) observations. The two filaments start from active region NOAA 12434 in the north and end in one large quiescent filament channel in the south. The left filament erupts first, followed by the right filament eruption about 10 minutes later. Clear twist structure and rotating motion are observed in both filaments during the eruption. Both eruptions failed, since the filaments first rise up, then flow toward the south and merge into the southern large quiescent filament. We also observe repeated activations of mini filaments below the right filament after its eruption. Using magnetic field models constructed based on SDO /HMI magnetograms via the flux rope insertion method, we find that the left filament eruption is likely to be triggered by kink instability, while the weakening of overlying magnetic fields due to magnetic reconnection at an X-point between the two filament systems might play an important role in the onset of the right filament eruption.

  1. ARGOS - II. The Galactic bulge survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, K.; Ness, M.; Wylie-de-Boer, E.; Athanassoula, E.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Asplund, M.; Lewis, G.; Yong, D.; Lane, R.; Kiss, L.; Ibata, R.

    2013-02-01

    We describe the motivation, field locations and stellar selection for the Abundances and Radial velocity Galactic Origins Survey (ARGOS) spectroscopic survey of 28 000 stars in the bulge and inner disc of the Milky Way galaxy across latitudes of b = -5° to -10°. The primary goal of this survey is to constrain the formation processes of the bulge and establish whether it is predominantly a merger or instability remnant. From the spectra (R = 11 000), we have measured radial velocities and determined stellar parameters, including metallicities and [α/Fe] ratios. Distances were estimated from the derived stellar parameters and about 14 000 stars are red giants within 3.5 kpc of the Galactic Centre. In this paper, we present the observations and analysis methods. Subsequent papers (III and IV) will discuss the stellar metallicity distribution and kinematics of the Galactic bulge and inner disc, and the implications for the formation of the bulge.

  2. Solar journey: The significance of our galactic environment for the heliosphere and earth

    CERN Document Server

    Frisch, Priscilla C

    2006-01-01

    Humans evolved when the Sun was in the great void of the Local Bubble. The Sun entered the present environment of interstellar clouds only during the late Quaternary. Astronomical data reveal these long and short term changes in our galactic environment. Theoretical models then tell us how these changes affect interplanetary particles, planetary magnetospheres, and the Earth itself. Cosmic rays leave an isotopic signature in the paleoclimate record that helps trace the solar journey through space. "Solar Journey: The Significance of Our Galactic Environment for the Heliosphere and Earth" lays the foundation for an interdisciplinary study of the influence of interstellar material on the solar system and Earth as we travel through the Milky Way Galaxy. The solar wind bubble responds dynamically to interstellar material flowing past the Sun, regulating interstellar gas, dust, and cosmic particle fluxes in the interplanetary medium and the Earth. Cones of interstellar gas and dust focused by solar gravity, the ma...

  3. Ultrafast outflows in radio-loud active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, F.; Tazaki, F.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Ueda, Y.; Cappi, M.; Gofford, J.; Reeves, J. N.; Guainazzi, M.

    2014-09-01

    Recent X-ray observations show absorbing winds with velocities up to mildly relativistic values of the order of ˜0.1c in a limited sample of six broad-line radio galaxies. They are observed as blueshifted Fe XXV-XXVI K-shell absorption lines, similarly to the ultrafast outflows (UFOs) reported in Seyferts and quasars. In this work we extend the search for such Fe K absorption lines to a larger sample of 26 radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) observed with XMM-Newton and Suzaku. The sample is drawn from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope 58-month catalogue and blazars are excluded. X-ray bright Fanaroff-Riley Class II radio galaxies constitute the majority of the sources. Combining the results of this analysis with those in the literature we find that UFOs are detected in >27 per cent of the sources. However, correcting for the number of spectra with insufficient signal-to-noise ratio, we can estimate that the incidence of UFOs is this sample of radio-loud AGN is likely in the range f ≃ (50 ± 20) per cent. A photoionization modelling of the absorption lines with XSTAR allows us to estimate the distribution of their main parameters. The observed outflow velocities are broadly distributed between vout ≲ 1000 km s-1 and vout ≃ 0.4c, with mean and median values of vout ≃ 0.133c and vout ≃ 0.117c, respectively. The material is highly ionized, with an average ionization parameter of logξ ≃ 4.5 erg s-1 cm, and the column densities are larger than NH > 1022 cm-2. Overall, these characteristics are consistent with the presence of complex accretion disc winds in a significant fraction of radio-loud AGN and demonstrate that the presence of relativistic jets does not preclude the existence of winds, in accordance with several theoretical models.

  4. The case for a primordial galactic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulsrud, R.

    1989-01-01

    Two possible theories of the origin of the galactic magnetic field are discussed. It is shown that the first theory, of its generation by a fast magnetic dynamo, is limited by the properties of the interstellar medium which suppress the small scale motions in the turbulence, and thus inhibit the generation of the field from a small seed field. The second theory that the galactic field is a relic of a general cosmic magnetic field existing prior to formation of our galaxy is discussed. It is pointed out that such a field would evolve to a field very similiar to that which we see today. (author). 4 refs

  5. Dynamics of black holes in galactic centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsendorf, M.

    The dynamics of a massive binary system in a galactic nucleus are presented. These are the first results from simulations applying a hybrid "self consistent field" (SCF) and direct Aarseth N-body integrator (NBODY6), which synthesises the advantages of the direct force calculation with the efficiency of the field method. The code is aimed for use on parallel architectures and is therefore applicable for collisional N-body integrations with extraordinarily large particle numbers (>105). It opens the perspective to simulate the dynamics of globular clusters with realistic collisional relaxation, as well as stellar systems surrounding a supermassive black hole in galactic nuclei.

  6. Large-scale Motion of Solar Filaments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Large-scale Motion of Solar Filaments. Pavel Ambrož, Astronomical Institute of the Acad. Sci. of the Czech Republic, CZ-25165. Ondrejov, The Czech Republic. e-mail: pambroz@asu.cas.cz. Alfred Schroll, Kanzelhöehe Solar Observatory of the University of Graz, A-9521 Treffen,. Austria. e-mail: schroll@solobskh.ac.at.

  7. Filamentous bacteria transport electrons over centimetre distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeffer, Christian; Larsen, Steffen; Song, Jie

    2012-01-01

    across centimetre-wide zones. Here we present evidence that the native conductors are long, filamentous bacteria. They abounded in sediment zones with electric currents and along their length they contained strings with distinct properties in accordance with a function as electron transporters. Living...

  8. Modelling the morphology of filamentous microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1996-01-01

    The rapid development in image analysis techniques has made it possible to study the growth kinetics of filamentous microorganisms in more detail than previously, However, owing to the many different processes that influence the morphology it is important to apply mathematical models to extract...

  9. Filament stretching rheometry of polymer melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole; Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2005-01-01

    The Filament Stretching Rheometry (FSR) method developed by Sridhar, McKinley and coworkers for polymer solutions has been extended to be used also for polymer melts. The design of a melt-FSR will be described and differences to conventional melt elongational rheometers will be pointed out. Results...

  10. The exo-metabolome in filamentous fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Ulf; Andersen, Birgitte; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2007-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are a diverse group of eukaryotic microorganisms that have a significant impact on human life as spoilers of food and feed by degradation and toxin production. They are also most useful as a source of bulk and fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals. This chapter focuses on the exo...

  11. Evolution of genetic systems in filamentous ascomycetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    A great variety of genetic systems exist in filamentous ascomycetes. The transmission of genetic material does not only occur by (sexual or asexual) reproduction, but it can also follow vegetative fusion of different strains. In this thesis the evolution of this variability is studied,

  12. Featured Image: A Filament Forms and Erupts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-06-01

    This dynamic image of active region NOAA 12241 was captured by the Solar Dynamics Observatorys Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in December 2014. Observations of this region from a number of observatories and instruments recently presented by Jincheng Wang (University of Chinese Academy of Sciences) and collaborators reveal details about the formation and eruption of a long solar filament. Wang and collaborators show that the right part of the filament formed by magnetic reconnection between two bundles of magnetic field lines, while the left part formed as a result of shearing motion. When these two parts interacted, the filament erupted. You can read more about the teams results in the article linked below. Also, check out this awesome video of the filament formation and eruption, again by SDO/AIA:http://cdn.iopscience.com/images/0004-637X/839/2/128/Full/apjaa6bf3f1_video.mp4CitationJincheng Wang et al 2017 ApJ 839 128. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa6bf3

  13. Unraveling Intermediate Filaments : The super resolution solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahidiazar, L.

    2017-01-01

    Intermediate Filaments (IFs) carry out major functions in cells. Several diseases have been associated with malfunctioning IFs in the cells and among them are certain sub types of cancer. To determine the structure and organization of IFs, we have used Single Molecule Localization Microscopy (SMLM)

  14. Large-scale Motion of Solar Filaments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    The 'seeing' dependent contrast of the Hα pictures is the source of uncertainties during the measurements on ... Results of measurements and conclusions. Heliographic position of the filaments is measured on the full disc Hα pictures taken ... consecutive magnetic synoptic charts. Two arrays of corresponding velocities are ...

  15. Mapping the filaments in NGC 1275

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos, Aracely Susan; Rich, Jeffrey; Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS)

    2018-01-01

    The giant elliptical brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) at the centers of many massive clusters are often surrounded by drawn-out forms of gaseous material. It is believed that this gaseous material is gas condensing from the intracluster medium (ICM) in a “cooling flow,” and it can directly impact the growth of the BCG. The galaxy NGC 1275 is one of the closest giant elliptical BCGs and lies at the center of the Perseus cluster. NGC 1275 has large filaments that are thought to be associated with a cooling flow, but they may also be affected by its AGN. To investigate the relationship between the AGN and the cooling flow we have mapped the filaments around NGC 1275 with the Cosmic Web Imager, an image-slicing integral field spectrograph at Palomar Observatories. We employ standard emission-line ratio diagnostics to determine the source of ionizing radiation. We use our analysis to investigate whether the formation of the extended filaments is a result of gas from the ICM collapsing onto the galaxy as it cools or if it is possible that the filaments are a result of the cluster’s interaction with the outflow driven by the AGN.

  16. On viscoelastic instability in polymeric filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole

    1999-01-01

    The 3D Lagrangian Integral Method is used to simulate the effects of surface tension on the viscoelastic end-plate instability, occuring in the rapid extension of some polymeric filaments between parallel plates. It is shovn that the surface tension delays the onset of the instability. Furthermore...

  17. Hydrodynamic effects of nuclear active galaxy winds on host galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiano, A.V.R.

    1984-01-01

    In order to test the hypothesized existence of a powerful, thermal wind in active galactic nuclei, the hydrodynamic effects of such a wind on a model galactic interstellar medium (ISM) are investigated. The properties of several model ISMs are derived from observations of the Milky Way's ISM and those of nearby spiral and elliptical galaxies. The propagation of the wind into the low density gas component of the ISM is studied using the Kompaneets approximation of a strong explosion in an exponential atmosphere. Flattened gas distributions are shown to experience blow-out of wind gas along the symmetry axis. Next, the interaction of dense, interstellar clouds with the wind is investigated. The stability and mass loss of clouds in the wind are studied and it is proposed that clouds survive the encounter with the wind over large timescales. It is proposed that the narrow emission line regions (NELR) of active galaxies are the result of the interaction of active nuclei photons and a thermal wind on large, interstellar clouds

  18. Harmful impact of filamentous algae (Spirogyra sp.) on juvenile crayfish

    OpenAIRE

    Ulikowski Dariusz; Chybowski Łucjan; Traczuk Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of filamentous algae on the growth and survival of juvenile narrow-clawed crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus (Esch.), in rearing basins. Three stocking variants were used: A - basins with a layer of filamentous algae without imitation mineral substrate; B - basins with a layer of filamentous algae with imitation mineral substrate; C - basins without filamentous algae but with mineral substrate. The crayfish were reared from June 12 to October 10 ...

  19. Standing waves in a counter-rotating vortex filament pair

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Azpeitia, Carlos

    2018-03-01

    The distance among two counter-rotating vortex filaments satisfies a beam-type of equation according to the model derived in [15]. This equation has an explicit solution where two straight filaments travel with constant speed at a constant distance. The boundary condition of the filaments is 2π-periodic. Using the distance of the filaments as bifurcating parameter, an infinite number of branches of periodic standing waves bifurcate from this initial configuration with constant rational frequency along each branch.

  20. Graphene-based filament material for thermal ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewitt, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shick, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Siegfried, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-19

    The use of graphene oxide materials for thermal ionization mass spectrometry analysis of plutonium and uranium has been investigated. Filament made from graphene oxide slurries have been 3-D printed. A method for attaching these filaments to commercial thermal ionization post assemblies has been devised. Resistive heating of the graphene based filaments under high vacuum showed stable operation in excess of 4 hours. Plutonium ion production has been observed in an initial set of filaments spiked with the Pu 128 Certified Reference Material.

  1. First results from the INTEGRAL galactic plane scans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, C.; Gehrels, N.; Schonfelder, V.

    2003-01-01

    Scans of the Galactic plane performed at regular intervals constitute a key element of the guaranteed time observations of the INTEGRAL observing programme. These scans are done for two reasons: frequent monitoring of the Galactic plane in order to detect transient sources, and time resolved...... mapping of the Galactic plane in continuum and diffuse line emission. This paper describes first results obtained from the Galactic plane scans executed so far during the early phase (Dec. 2002-May 2003) of the nominal mission....

  2. Fabrication of Polylactide Nanocomposite Filament Using Melt Extrusion and Filament Characterization for 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shrenik Kumar

    Fused deposition modeling (FDM) technology uses thermoplastic filament for layer by layer fabrication of objects. To make functional objects with desired properties, composite filaments are required in the FDM. In this thesis, less expensive mesoporous Nano carbon (NC) and carbon nanotube (CNT) infused in Polylactide (PLA) thermoplastic filaments were fabricated to improve the electrical properties and maintain sufficient strength for 3D printing. Solution blending was used for nanocomposite fabrication and melt extrusion was employed to make cylindrical filaments. Mechanical and electrical properties of 1 to 20 wt% of NC and 1 to 3 wt% of CNT filaments were investigated and significant improvement of conductivity (3.76 S/m) and sufficient yield strength (35MPa) were obtained. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images exhibited uniform dispersion of nanoparticles in polymer matrix and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results showed no significant changes in the glass transition temperature (Tg) for all the compositions. Perspective uses of this filament are for fabrication of electrical wires in 3D printed robots, drones, prosthetics, orthotics and others.

  3. A penny-shaped crack in a filament-reinforced matrix. I - The filament model. II - The crack problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, F.; Pacella, A. H.

    1974-01-01

    The study deals with the elastostatic problem of a penny-shaped crack in an elastic matrix which is reinforced by filaments or fibers perpendicular to the plane of the crack. An elastic filament model is first developed, followed by consideration of the application of the model to the penny-shaped crack problem in which the filaments of finite length are asymmetrically distributed around the crack. Since the primary interest is in the application of the results to studies relating to the fracture of fiber or filament-reinforced composites and reinforced concrete, the main emphasis of the study is on the evaluation of the stress intensity factor along the periphery of the crack, the stresses in the filaments or fibers, and the interface shear between the matrix and the filaments or fibers. Using the filament model developed, the elastostatic interaction problem between a penny-shaped crack and a slender inclusion or filament in an elastic matrix is formulated.

  4. Evolved stars in Galactic Plane surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Kars

    2013-09-01

    For the first time in history the entire Galactic Plane is digitally mapped from La Palma and Chile by the European Galactic Plane surveys EGAPS (UVEX, IPHAS and VPHAS+, see http://www.uvexsurvey.org http://www.iphas.org and http://www.vphasplus.org). The complete Galactic plane (3600 square degrees) is imaged in optical colours (U,g,r,i, H-alpha and HeI 5875) down to 21st magnitude using the INT and VST telescopes. This will eventually result into a multi-colour mosaic and a catalogue with more than a billion of stars. In this thesis the populations of evolved stars (white dwarfs, compact binaries and other UV-excess sources) in the data of the "UV-Excess Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane (UVEX)" are studied. From the first 211 square degrees of UVEX data, the bluest stars are automatically selected as UV-excess sources, spectroscopic follow-up of UV-excess objects is obtained, a DA white dwarfs space number density and birth rate is derived, and UV-excess sources with an infrared-excess are investigated. (see also Verbeek et al., 2012; Verbeek et al., 2013; Groot et al., 2009).

  5. Direct evidence for a massive galactic halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, M.R.S.

    1983-01-01

    The discovery of a very distant galactic RR Lyrae star, R15 is reported. Spectroscopic observations of the object show that it has a high negative radial velocity, implying a lower limit to the mass of the galaxy of 1.4 x 10 12 Msun. (author)

  6. MODIFIED GRAVITY SPINS UP GALACTIC HALOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jounghun [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FPRD, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Zhao, Gong-Bo [National Astronomy Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100012 (China); Li, Baojiu [Institute of Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Koyama, Kazuya, E-mail: jounghun@astro.snu.ac.kr [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-20

    We investigate the effect of modified gravity on the specific angular momentum of galactic halos by analyzing the halo catalogs at z = 0 from high-resolution N-body simulations for a f(R) gravity model that meets the solar-system constraint. It is shown that the galactic halos in the f(R) gravity model tend to acquire significantly higher specific angular momentum than those in the standard {Lambda}CDM model. The largest difference in the specific angular momentum distribution between these two models occurs for the case of isolated galactic halos with mass less than 10{sup 11} h {sup -1} M {sub Sun }, which are likely least shielded by the chameleon screening mechanism. As the specific angular momentum of galactic halos is rather insensitive to other cosmological parameters, it can in principle be an independent discriminator of modified gravity. We speculate a possibility of using the relative abundance of low surface brightness galaxies (LSBGs) as a test of general relativity given that the formation of the LSBGs occurs in fast spinning dark halos.

  7. Star formation inside a galactic outflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiolino, R; Russell, H R; Fabian, A C; Carniani, S; Gallagher, R; Cazzoli, S; Arribas, S; Belfiore, F; Bellocchi, E; Colina, L; Cresci, G; Ishibashi, W; Marconi, A; Mannucci, F; Oliva, E; Sturm, E

    2017-04-13

    Recent observations have revealed massive galactic molecular outflows that may have the physical conditions (high gas densities) required to form stars. Indeed, several recent models predict that such massive outflows may ignite star formation within the outflow itself. This star-formation mode, in which stars form with high radial velocities, could contribute to the morphological evolution of galaxies, to the evolution in size and velocity dispersion of the spheroidal component of galaxies, and would contribute to the population of high-velocity stars, which could even escape the galaxy. Such star formation could provide in situ chemical enrichment of the circumgalactic and intergalactic medium (through supernova explosions of young stars on large orbits), and some models also predict it to contribute substantially to the star-formation rate observed in distant galaxies. Although there exists observational evidence for star formation triggered by outflows or jets into their host galaxy, as a consequence of gas compression, evidence for star formation occurring within galactic outflows is still missing. Here we report spectroscopic observations that unambiguously reveal star formation occurring in a galactic outflow at a redshift of 0.0448. The inferred star-formation rate in the outflow is larger than 15 solar masses per year. Star formation may also be occurring in other galactic outflows, but may have been missed by previous observations owing to the lack of adequate diagnostics.

  8. Scale Length of the Galactic Thin Disk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    the new value of hR. The model fit with data is not, however, completely satisfactory in J-KS, which might be improved by a slight change of SFR history in the model. One expects that the Galactic evolution parameters will be better known after the analysis of the Hipparcos and Tycho catalogues. The Besancon model is in a.

  9. Synthesis and functionalization of coiled carbon filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikita, Muneaki

    Coiled carbon filaments have one of the most attractive three-dimensional forms in carbon materials due to their helical morphologies. Because of their shape and carbon structure, they exhibit excellent mechanical and electrical properties such as superelasticity, low Young's modulus, relatively high electrical conductivity, and good electromagnetic (EM) wave absorption. Therefore, they are good candidates as fillers in composite materials for tactile sensor and electromagnetic interference shielding. In medical areas of interests, coiled carbon filaments can be used as micro and nano heaters or trigger for thermotherapy and biosensors using EM wave exposure because absorbed EM waves by coiled carbon filaments are converted into heat. Although various shapes of coiled carbon filaments have been discovered, optimum synthesis conditions and growth mechanisms of coiled carbon filaments are poorly understood. The study of growth kinetics is significant not only to analyze catalyst activity but also to establish the growth mechanisms of coiled carbon filaments. The establishment of growth mechanisms would be useful for determining optimum synthesis conditions and maximizing the quantity of carbon filaments synthesized for a given application. In the first study, tip grown single helical carbon filaments or carbon nanocoils (CNCs) were synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition method using tin-iron-oxide (Sn-Fe-O) xerogel film catalyst. The Sn-Fe-O catalyst was prepared by a low-cost sol-gel method using stannous acetate and ferric acetate as precursors. The growth kinetics of CNCs were monitored by a thermogravimetric analyzer, and the experimental result was correlated using a one-dimensional kinetic model, corresponding to one-dimensional tip growth. In the second study, bidirectionally grown double helical filaments or carbon microcoils (CMCs) were synthesized using a chemical vapor deposition method. CMCs obtained at two reaction temperatures were compared. CMCs

  10. Wind energy

    CERN Document Server

    Woll, Kris

    2016-01-01

    Across the country, huge open spaces are covered in gently turning wind turbines. In Wind Energy, explore how these machines generate electricity, learn about the history of wind power, and discover the latest advances in the field. Easy-to-read text, vivid images, and helpful back matter give readers a clear look at this subject. Features include a table of contents, infographics, a glossary, additional resources, and an index. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Core Library is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a division of ABDO.

  11. Fabrication of PLA Filaments and its Printable Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjie; Zhou, Jianping; Ma, Yuming; Wang, Jie; Xu, Jie

    2017-12-01

    Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a typical 3D printing technology and preparation of qualified filaments is the basis. In order to prepare polylactic acid (PLA) filaments suitable for personalized FDM 3D printing, this article investigated the effect of factors such as extrusion temperature and screw speed on the diameter, surface roughness and ultimate tensile stress of the obtained PLA filaments. The optimal process parameters for fabrication of qualified filaments were determined. Further, the printable performance of the obtained PLA filaments for 3D objects was preliminarily explored.

  12. Quantitative H and K band spectroscopy of Galactic OB-stars at medium resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Repolust, T.; Puls, J.; Hanson, M. M.; Kudritzki, R. -P.; Mokiem, M. R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we have analyzed 25 Galactic O and early B-stars by means of H and K band spectroscopy, with the primary goal to investigate to what extent a lone near-IR spectroscopy is able to recover stellar and wind parameters derived in the optical. Most of the spectra have been taken with SUBARU IRCS, at a resolution of 12,000, and with a very high S/N (200 or better). In order to synthesize the strategic H/He lines, we have used our recent, line-blanketed version of FASTWIND. First we in...

  13. HaloSat - A CubeSat to Study the Hot Galactic Halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaret, Philip

    2017-08-01

    Observations of the nearby universe fail to locate about half of the normal matter (baryons) observed in the early universe. The missing baryons may be in hot galactic halos. HaloSat is a CubeSat designed to map oxygen line emission (O VII and O VIII) around the Milky Way in order to constrain the mass and spatial distribution of hot gas in the halo. HaloSat has a grasp competitive with current X-ray observatories. Its observing program will be optimized to minimize contributions from solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission that limit the accuracy of current measurements. We describe the current status of HaloSat.

  14. Morphogenesis of filaments growing in flexible confinements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, R.; Wittel, F. K.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2014-07-01

    Space-saving design is a requirement that is encountered in biological systems and the development of modern technological devices alike. Many living organisms dynamically pack their polymer chains, filaments or membranes inside deformable vesicles or soft tissue-like cell walls, chorions and buds. Surprisingly little is known about morphogenesis due to growth in flexible confinements—perhaps owing to the daunting complexity lying in the nonlinear feedback between packed material and expandable cavity. Here we show by experiments and simulations how geometric and material properties lead to a plethora of morphologies when elastic filaments are growing far beyond the equilibrium size of a flexible thin sheet they are confined in. Depending on friction, sheet flexibility and thickness, we identify four distinct morphological phases emerging from bifurcation and present the corresponding phase diagram. Four order parameters quantifying the transitions between these phases are proposed.

  15. SWAYING THREADS OF A SOLAR FILAMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.; Engvold, O.; Langangen, Oe.; Rouppe van der Voort, L. H. M.; Soler, R.; Ballester, J. L.; Oliver, R.

    2009-01-01

    From recent high-resolution observations obtained with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope in La Palma, we detect swaying motions of individual filament threads in the plane of the sky. The oscillatory characters of these motions are comparable with oscillatory Doppler signals obtained from corresponding filament threads. Simultaneous recordings of motions in the line of sight and in the plane of the sky give information about the orientation of the oscillatory plane. These oscillations are interpreted in the context of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. Kink MHD waves supported by the thread body are proposed as an explanation of the observed thread oscillations. On the basis of this interpretation and by means of seismological arguments, we give an estimation of the thread Alfven speed and magnetic field strength by means of seismological arguments.

  16. Helicity and Filament Channels? The Straight Twist!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiochos, Spiro K.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important and most puzzling features of the coronal magnetic field is that it appears to have smooth magnetic structure with little evidence for non-potentiality except at special locations, photospheric polarity inversions lines where the non-potentiality is observed as a filament channel. This characteristic feature of the closed-field corona is highly unexpected given that photospheric motions continuously tangle its magnetic field. Although reconnection can eliminate some of the injected structure, it cannot destroy the helicity, which should build up to produce observable complexity. We propose that an inverse cascade process transports the injected helicity from the interior of closed flux regions to their boundaries, polarity inversion lines, creating filament channels. We describe how the helicity is injected and transported and calculate the relevant rates. We argue that one process, helicity transport, can explain both the observed lack and presence of structure in the coronal magnetic field.

  17. Morgellons disease: a filamentous borrelial dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelveen, Marianne J; Stricker, Raphael B

    2016-01-01

    Morgellons disease (MD) is a dermopathy characterized by multicolored filaments that lie under, are embedded in, or project from skin. Although MD was initially considered to be a delusional disorder, recent studies have demonstrated that the dermopathy is associated with tickborne infection, that the filaments are composed of keratin and collagen, and that they result from proliferation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in epithelial tissue. Culture, histopathological and molecular evidence of spirochetal infection associated with MD has been presented in several published studies using a variety of techniques. Spirochetes genetically identified as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto predominate as the infective agent in most of the Morgellons skin specimens studied so far. Other species of Borrelia including Borrelia garinii , Borrelia miyamotoi , and Borrelia hermsii have also been detected in skin specimens taken from MD patients. The optimal treatment for MD remains to be determined.

  18. Statistical study of solar filaments since 1919

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboudarham, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Science board of Paris Observatory funded the data capture of tables associated with Meudon synoptic maps of Solar activity, which were published for observations ranging from 1919 to 1992. The EU HELIO project developed automatic recognition codes, especially concerning filaments based on observations between 1996 en 2014 (and soon, up to now). We plan to fill the gap between the two catalogues in the short term. But it is already possible to study filaments behavior over quite long periods of time. We present here the first series of results obtained from this analysis which give some clue about the way Solar activity behaves in various parts of the cycle, and about the way if depends on the hemisphere where activity occurs. This information could then be correlated with events catalogues (e.g. flares, CMEs, …) in order to link those phenomena with concrete Solar activity.

  19. Actin organization and dynamics in filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berepiki, Adokiye; Lichius, Alexander; Read, Nick D

    2011-11-02

    Growth and morphogenesis of filamentous fungi is underpinned by dynamic reorganization and polarization of the actin cytoskeleton. Actin has crucial roles in exocytosis, endocytosis, organelle movement and cytokinesis in fungi, and these processes are coupled to the production of distinct higher-order structures (actin patches, cables and rings) that generate forces or serve as tracks for intracellular transport. New approaches for imaging actin in living cells are revealing important similarities and differences in actin architecture and organization within the fungal kingdom, and have yielded key insights into cell polarity, tip growth and long-distance intracellular transport. In this Review, we discuss the contribution that recent live-cell imaging and mutational studies have made to our understanding of the dynamics and regulation of actin in filamentous fungi.

  20. Laser filamentation mathematical methods and models

    CERN Document Server

    Lorin, Emmanuel; Moloney, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    This book is focused on the nonlinear theoretical and mathematical problems associated with ultrafast intense laser pulse propagation in gases and in particular, in air. With the aim of understanding the physics of filamentation in gases, solids, the atmosphere, and even biological tissue, specialists in nonlinear optics and filamentation from both physics and mathematics attempt to rigorously derive and analyze relevant non-perturbative models. Modern laser technology allows the generation of ultrafast (few cycle) laser pulses, with intensities exceeding the internal electric field in atoms and molecules (E=5x109 V/cm or intensity I = 3.5 x 1016 Watts/cm2 ). The interaction of such pulses with atoms and molecules leads to new, highly nonlinear nonperturbative regimes, where new physical phenomena, such as High Harmonic Generation (HHG), occur, and from which the shortest (attosecond - the natural time scale of the electron) pulses have been created. One of the major experimental discoveries in this nonlinear...

  1. Motility patterns of filamentous sulfur bacteria, Beggiatoa spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunker, Rita; Røy, Hans; Kamp, Anja

    2011-01-01

    The large sulfur bacteria, Beggiatoa spp., live on the oxidation of sulfide with oxygen or nitrate, but avoid high concentrations of both sulfide and oxygen. As gliding filaments, they rely on reversals in the gliding direction to find their preferred environment, the oxygen–sulfide interface. We...... observed the chemotactic patterns of single filaments in a transparent agar medium and scored their reversals and the glided distances between reversals. Filaments within the preferred microenvironment glided distances shorter than their own length between reversals that anchored them in their position...... as a microbial mat. Filaments in the oxic region above the mat or in the sulfidic, anoxic region below the mat glided distances longer than the filament length between reversals. This reversal behavior resulted in a diffusion-like spreading of the filaments. A numerical model of such gliding filaments...

  2. World Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — World Wind allows any user to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience...

  3. Laser induced white lighting of tungsten filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strek, W.; Tomala, R.; Lukaszewicz, M.

    2018-04-01

    The sustained bright white light emission of thin tungsten filament was induced under irradiation with focused beam of CW infrared laser diode. The broadband emission centered at 600 nm has demonstrated the threshold behavior on excitation power. Its intensity increased non-linearly with excitation power. The emission occurred only from the spot of focused beam of excitation laser diode. The white lighting was accompanied by efficient photocurrent flow and photoelectron emission which both increased non-linearly with laser irradiation power.

  4. Filamented plasmas in laser ablation of solids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Davies, J.R.; Fajardo, M.; Kozlová, Michaela; Mocek, Tomáš; Polan, Jiří; Rus, Bedřich

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 3 (2009), 035013/1-035013/12 ISSN 0741-3335 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 12843 - TUIXS Grant - others:FCT(PT) POCI/FIS/59563/2004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : magneto-hydrodynamic modelling * perturbation * filaments * x-ray * plasma Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.409, year: 2009

  5. Dust and Molecular Gas in the Winds of Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Alexander N.

    2015-04-01

    Galactic winds provide a fundamental mechanism for galaxy evolution. The outflow of material in winds remains the most likely culprit responsible for a host of galaxy observations, plus mounting evidence for galactic winds at times in the past points to their importance in understanding the history of the universe. Therefore, detailed observations of galactic winds are critical to fleshing out the narrative of galaxy evolution. In particular, the dust and molecular gas of a galaxy's interstellar medium (ISM) play crucial roles in the absorption, scattering, and reemission of starlight, the heating of the ISM, and provide critical materials for star formation. We present results from archival Spitzer Space Telescope ata and exceptionally deep Herschel Space Observatory data of the dust and molecular gas found in and around 20 nearby galaxies known to host galactic-scale winds. Selecting nearby galaxies has allowed us the resolution and sensitivity to differentiate dust and molecular gas outside the galaxies and observe their typically faint emission. These are the most detailed surveys currently available of the faint dust and molecular gas components in galactic winds, and we have utilized them to address the following questions: i) What are the location and morphology of dust and molecular gas, and how do these components compare with better known neutral and ionized gas features? ii) How much do dust and molecular gas contribute to the mass and energy of galactic winds? iii) Do the properties of the dust and molecular gas correlate with the properties of the wind-hosting galaxy? Spitzer archival data has revealed kiloparsec-scale polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) structures in the extraplanar regions of nearly all the wind-hosting galaxies we investigated. We found a nearly linear correlation between the extraplanar PAH emission and the total infrared flux, a proxy for star formation. Our results also suggest a correlation between the height of extraplanar

  6. A first approach to filament dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P E S; De Abreu, F Vistulo; Dias, R G [Department of Physics, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Simoes, R, E-mail: fva@ua.p [I3N-Institute for Nanostructures, Nanomodelling and Nanofabrication (Portugal)

    2010-11-15

    Modelling elastic filament dynamics is a topic of high interest due to the wide range of applications. However, it has reached a high level of complexity in the literature, making it unaccessible to a beginner. In this paper we explain the main steps involved in the computational modelling of the dynamics of an elastic filament. We first derive equations governing the dynamics of an elastic lament suitable for a computer simulation implementation. The derivation starts from the relation between forces and potential energy in conservative systems in order to derive the equation of motion of any bead in the filament. Only two-dimensional movements are considered, but extensions to three dimensions can follow similar lines. Suggestions for computer implementations are provided in Matlab as well as an example of application related to the generation of musical sounds. This example allows a critical analysis of the numerical results obtained using a cross-disciplinary perspective. Since derivations start from basic physics equations, use simple calculus and computational implementations are straightforward, this paper proposes a different approach to introduce simple molecular dynamics simulations or animations of real systems in undergraduate elasticity or computer modelling courses.

  7. The Magnetic Structure of Filament Barbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Jongchul; Moon, Yong-Jae; Park, Young-Deuk

    2005-06-01

    There is a controversy about how features protruding laterally from filaments, called barbs, are magnetically structured. On 2004 August 3, we observed a filament that had well-developed barbs. The observations were performed using the 10 inch refractor of the Big Bear Solar Observatory. A fast camera was employed to capture images at five different wavelengths of the Hα line and successively record them on the basis of frame selection. The terminating points of the barbs were clearly discernable in the Hα images without any ambiguity. The comparison of the Hα images with the magnetograms taken by SOHO MDI revealed that the termination occurred above the minor polarity inversion line dividing the magnetic elements of the major polarity and those of the minor polarity. There is also evidence that the flux cancellation proceeded on the polarity inversion line. Our results together with similar other recent observations support the idea that filament barbs are cool matter suspended in local dips of magnetic field lines, formed by magnetic reconnection in the chromosphere.

  8. Tracer filamentation at an unstable ocean front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yen Chia; Mahadevan, Amala; Thiffeault, Jean-Luc; Yecko, Philip

    2017-11-01

    A front, where two bodies of ocean water with different physical properties meet, can become unstable and lead to a flow with high strain rate and vorticity. Phytoplankton and other oceanic tracers are stirred into filaments by such flow fields, as can often be seen in satellite imagery. The stretching and folding of a tracer by a two-dimensional flow field has been well studied. In the ocean, however, the vertical shear of horizontal velocity is typically two orders of magnitude larger than the horizontal velocity gradient. Theoretical calculations show that vertical shear alters the way in which horizontal strain affects the tracer, resulting in thin, sloping structures in the tracer field. Using a non-hydrostatic ocean model of an unstable ocean front, we simulate tracer filamentation to identify the effect of vertical shear on the deformation of the tracer. In a complementary laboratory experiment, we generate a simple, vertically sheared strain flow and use dye and particle image velocimetry to quantify the filamentary structures in terms of the strain and shear. We identify how vertical shear alters the tracer filaments and infer how the evolution of tracers in the ocean will differ from the idealized two-dimensional paradigm. Support of NSF DMS-1418956 is acknowledged.

  9. A first approach to filament dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, P E S; De Abreu, F Vistulo; Dias, R G; Simoes, R

    2010-01-01

    Modelling elastic filament dynamics is a topic of high interest due to the wide range of applications. However, it has reached a high level of complexity in the literature, making it unaccessible to a beginner. In this paper we explain the main steps involved in the computational modelling of the dynamics of an elastic filament. We first derive equations governing the dynamics of an elastic lament suitable for a computer simulation implementation. The derivation starts from the relation between forces and potential energy in conservative systems in order to derive the equation of motion of any bead in the filament. Only two-dimensional movements are considered, but extensions to three dimensions can follow similar lines. Suggestions for computer implementations are provided in Matlab as well as an example of application related to the generation of musical sounds. This example allows a critical analysis of the numerical results obtained using a cross-disciplinary perspective. Since derivations start from basic physics equations, use simple calculus and computational implementations are straightforward, this paper proposes a different approach to introduce simple molecular dynamics simulations or animations of real systems in undergraduate elasticity or computer modelling courses.

  10. Magnetization Modeling of Twisted Superconducting Filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Satiramatekul, T; Devred, Arnaud; Leroy, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new Finite Element numerical method to analyze the coupling between twisted filaments in a superconducting multifilament composite wire. To avoid the large number of elements required by a 3D code, the proposed method makes use of the energy balance principle in a 2D code. The relationship between superconductor critical current density and local magnetic flux density is implemented in the program for the Bean and modified Kim models. The modeled wire is made up of six filaments twisted together and embedded in a lowresistivity matrix. Computations of magnetization cycle and of the electric field pattern have been performed for various twist pitch values in the case of a pure copper matrix. The results confirm that the maximum magnetization depends on the matrix conductivity, the superconductor critical current density, the applied field frequency, and the filament twist pitch. The simulations also lead to a practical criterion for wire design that can be used to assess whether or not th...

  11. On the fragmentation of filaments in a molecular cloud simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chira, R.-A.; Kainulainen, J.; Ibáñez-Mejía, J. C.; Henning, Th.; Mac Low, M.-M.

    2018-03-01

    Context. The fragmentation of filaments in molecular clouds has attracted a lot of attention recently as there seems to be a close relation between the evolution of filaments and star formation. The study of the fragmentation process has been motivated by simple analytical models. However, only a few comprehensive studies have analysed the evolution of filaments using numerical simulations where the filaments form self-consistently as part of large-scale molecular cloud evolution. Aim. We address the early evolution of parsec-scale filaments that form within individual clouds. In particular, we focus on three questions: How do the line masses of filaments evolve? How and when do the filaments fragment? How does the fragmentation relate to the line masses of the filaments? Methods: We examine three simulated molecular clouds formed in kiloparsec-scale numerical simulations performed with the FLASH adaptive mesh refinement magnetohydrodynamic code. The simulations model a self-gravitating, magnetised, stratified, supernova-driven interstellar medium, including photoelectric heating and radiative cooling. We follow the evolution of the clouds for 6 Myr from the time self-gravity starts to act. We identify filaments using the DisPerSe algorithm, and compare the results to other filament-finding algorithms. We determine the properties of the identified filaments and compare them with the predictions of analytic filament stability models. Results: The average line masses of the identified filaments, as well as the fraction of mass in filamentary structures, increases fairly continuously after the onset of self-gravity. The filaments show fragmentation starting relatively early: the first fragments appear when the line masses lie well below the critical line mass of Ostriker's isolated hydrostatic equilibrium solution ( 16 M⊙ pc-1), commonly used as a fragmentation criterion. The average line masses of filaments identified in three-dimensional volume density cubes

  12. 78 FR 29364 - Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ...-005, QF07-257-004] Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4, LLC, Exelon Wind 5, LLC, Exelon Wind 6, LLC, Exelon Wind 7, LLC, Exelon Wind 8, LLC, Exelon Wind 9, LLC, Exelon Wind 10, LLC, Exelon Wind 11, LLC, High Plains Wind Power, LLC v. Xcel Energy...

  13. Galactic sources of high energy neutrinos: Expectation from gamma-ray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahakyan N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent results from ground based γ-ray detectors (HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS provide a population of TeV galactic γ-ray sources which are potential sources of High Energy (HE neutrinos. Since the γ-rays and ν-s are produced from decays of neutral and charged pions, the flux of TeV γ-rays can be used to estimate the upper limit of ν flux and vice versa; the detectability of ν flux implies a minimum flux of the accompanying γ-rays (assuming the internal and the external absorption of γ-rays is negligible. Using this minimum flux, it is possible to find the sources which can be detected with cubic-kilometer telescopes. I will discuss the possibility to detect HE neutrinos from powerful galactic accelerators, such as Supernova Remnants (SNRs and Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe and show that likely only RX J1713.7-3946, RX J0852.0-4622 and Vela X can be detected by current generation of instruments (IceCube and Km3Net. It will be shown also, that galactic binary systems could be promising sources of HE ν-s. In particular, ν-s and γ-rays from Cygnus X-3 will be discussed during recent gamma-ray activity, showing that in the future such kind of activities could produce detectable flux of HE ν-s.

  14. The galactic X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gursky, H.; Schreier, E.

    1975-01-01

    The current observational evidence on galactic X-ray sources is presented both from an astrophysical and astronomical point of view. The distributional properties of the sources, where they appear in the Galaxy, and certain average characteristics are discussed. In this way, certain properties of the X-ray sources can be deduced which are not apparent in the study of single objects. The properties of individual X-ray sources are then described. The hope is that more can be learnt about neutron stars and black holes, their physical properties, their origin and evolution, and their influence on other galactic phenomena. Thus attention is paid to those elements of data which appear to have the most bearing on these questions. (Auth.)

  15. Does the Galactic Bulge Have Fewer Planets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    The Milky Ways dense central bulge is a very different environment than the surrounding galactic disk in which we live. Do the differences affect the ability of planets to form in the bulge?Exploring Galactic PlanetsSchematic illustrating how gravitational microlensing by an extrasolar planet works. [NASA]Planet formation is a complex process with many aspects that we dont yet understand. Do environmental properties like host star metallicity, the density of nearby stars, or the intensity of the ambient radiation field affect the ability of planets to form? To answer these questions, we will ultimately need to search for planets around stars in a large variety of different environments in our galaxy.One way to detect recently formed, distant planets is by gravitational microlensing. In this process, light from a distant source star is bent by a lens star that is briefly located between us and the source. As the Earth moves, this momentary alignment causes a blip in the sources light curve that we can detect and planets hosted by the lens star can cause an additional observable bump.Artists impression of the Milky Way galaxy. The central bulge is much denserthan the surroundingdisk. [ESO/NASA/JPL-Caltech/M. Kornmesser/R. Hurt]Relative AbundancesMost source stars reside in the galactic bulge, so microlensing events can probe planetary systems at any distance between the Earth and the galactic bulge. This means that planet detections from microlensing could potentially be used to measure the relative abundances of exoplanets in different parts of our galaxy.A team of scientists led by Matthew Penny, a Sagan postdoctoral fellow at Ohio State University, set out to do just that. The group considered a sample of 31 exoplanetary systems detected by microlensing and asked the following question: are the planet abundances in the galactic bulge and the galactic disk the same?A Paucity of PlanetsTo answer this question, Penny and collaborators derived the expected

  16. Galactic signatures of decaying dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Le; Sigl, Guenter

    2009-05-01

    If dark matter decays into electrons and positrons, it can affect Galactic radio emissions and the local cosmic ray fluxes. We propose a new, more general analysis of constraints on dark matter. The constraints can be obtained for any decaying dark matter model by convolving the specific dark matter decay spectrum with a response function. We derive this response function from full-sky radio surveys at 408 MHz, 1.42 GHz and 23 GHz, as well as from the positron flux recently reported by PAMELA. We discuss the influence of astrophysical uncertainties on the response function, such as from propagation and from the profiles of the dark matter and the Galactic magnetic field. As an application, we find that some widely used dark matter decay scenarios can be ruled out under modest assumptions. (orig.)

  17. Stability of BEC galactic dark matter halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzmán, F.S.; Lora-Clavijo, F.D.; González-Avilés, J.J.; Rivera-Paleo, F.J., E-mail: guzman@ifm.umich.mx, E-mail: fadulora@ifm.umich.mx, E-mail: javiles@ifm.umich.mx, E-mail: friverap@ifm.umich.mx [Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Edificio C-3, Cd. Universitaria, 58040 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico)

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we show that spherically symmetric BEC dark matter halos, with the sin r/r density profile, that accurately fit galactic rotation curves and represent a potential solution to the cusp-core problem are unstable. We do this by introducing back the density profiles into the fully time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii-Poisson system of equations. Using numerical methods to track the evolution of the system, we found that these galactic halos lose mass at an approximate rate of half of its mass in a time scale of dozens of Myr. We consider this time scale is enough as to consider these halos are unstable and unlikely to be formed. We provide some arguments to show that this behavior is general and discuss some other drawbacks of the model that restrict its viability.

  18. Brown dwarfs as dark galactic halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.C.; Walker, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that the dark matter in galactic halos can consist of brown dwarf stars is considered. The radiative signature for such halos consisting solely of brown dwarfs is calculated, and the allowed range of brown dwarf masses, the initial mass function (IMF), the stellar properties, and the density distribution of the galactic halo are discussed. The prediction emission from the halo is compared with existing observations. It is found that, for any IMF of brown dwarfs below the deuterium burning limit, brown dwarf halos are consistent with observations. Brown dwarf halos cannot, however, explain the recently observed near-IR background. It is shown that future satellite missions will either detect brown dwarf halos or place tight constraints on the allowed range of the IMF. 30 refs

  19. Gala: A Python package for galactic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.

    2017-10-01

    Gala is an Astropy-affiliated Python package for galactic dynamics. Python enables wrapping low-level languages (e.g., C) for speed without losing flexibility or ease-of-use in the user-interface. The API for Gala was designed to provide a class-based and user-friendly interface to fast (C or Cython-optimized) implementations of common operations such as gravitational potential and force evaluation, orbit integration, dynamical transformations, and chaos indicators for nonlinear dynamics. Gala also relies heavily on and interfaces well with the implementations of physical units and astronomical coordinate systems in the Astropy package (astropy.units and astropy.coordinates). Gala was designed to be used by both astronomical researchers and by students in courses on gravitational dynamics or astronomy. It has already been used in a number of scientific publications and has also been used in graduate courses on Galactic dynamics to, e.g., provide interactive visualizations of textbook material.

  20. Does electromagnetic radiation accelerate galactic cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, D.

    1977-01-01

    The 'reactor' theories of Tsytovich and collaborators (1973) of cosmic-ray acceleration by electromagnetic radiation are examined in the context of galactic cosmic rays. It is shown that any isotropic synchrotron or Compton reactors with reasonable astrophysical parameters can yield particles with a maximum relativistic factor of only about 10,000. If they are to produce particles with higher relativistic factors, the losses due to inverse Compton scattering of the electromagnetic radiation in them outweigh the acceleration, and this violates the assumptions of the theory. This is a critical restriction in the context of galactic cosmic rays, which have a power-law spectrum extending up to a relativistic factor of 1 million.

  1. Galactic signatures of decaying dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Le; Sigl, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Redondo, Javier [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    If dark matter decays into electrons and positrons, it can affect Galactic radio emissions and the local cosmic ray fluxes. We propose a new, more general analysis of constraints on dark matter. The constraints can be obtained for any decaying dark matter model by convolving the specific dark matter decay spectrum with a response function. We derive this response function from full-sky radio surveys at 408 MHz, 1.42 GHz and 23 GHz, as well as from the positron flux recently reported by PAMELA. We discuss the influence of astrophysical uncertainties on the response function, such as from propagation and from the profiles of the dark matter and the Galactic magnetic field. As an application, we find that some widely used dark matter decay scenarios can be ruled out under modest assumptions. (orig.)

  2. Kinematics of HI near the galactic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, R.P.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a survey of 21-cm line emission in the Milky Way Galaxy from 338. 0 5 through 360 0 to 11 0 longitude and from -2 0 to +2 0 latitude are presented. The latitude coverage is complete over this range for a given longitude. Points are observed at an interval of 15 arcmin (0.7 beamwidth). The longitude coverage is complete between 1 = 357 0 and 1 = 3 0 . Outside this range points have been observed at intervals of 0. 0 5 in longitude. The symmetry properties of the distribution of HI in the region around the galactic center have been explored. Inside a radius of 1 kpc the HI appears to be distributed in the shape of an elongated non-circular slowly rotating disk which is inclined to the galactic equator. This disk is separate from the general galactic disk of HI. In the central disk the density of HI decreases steeply as the distance from the center increases. The density of HI in the annular space between the central disk and the general galactic disk is very low. The velocity dispersion of the HI distribution in the central elongated disk is of the order of 100 km/s. The isovelocity contours on the longitude-latitude plane of the HI associated with this elongated central disk have the characteristic shape such that the angle between the minor axis and the zero-Doppler velocity contour is different than zero. Such a phenomenon has been observed in the central regions of elliptical galaxies and has been attributed to the triaxial nature of the mass distribution

  3. Pathway to the galactic distribution of planets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novati, S. Calchi; Gould, A.; Udalski, A.

    2015-01-01

    distance estimates for each lens, with error bars that are small compared to the Sun's Galactocentric distance. The ensemble therefore yields a well-defined cumulative distribution of lens distances. In principle it is possible to compare this distribution against a set of planets detected in the same...... experiment in order to measure the Galactic distribution of planets. Since these Spitzer observations yielded only one planet, this is not yet possible in practice. However, it will become possible as larger samples are accumulated....

  4. Chirality of Intermediate Filaments and Magnetic Helicity of Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eun-Kyung; Chae, J.

    2009-05-01

    Filaments that form either between or around active regions (ARs) are called intermediate filaments. Even though there have been many theoretical studies, the origin of the chirality of filaments is still unknown. We investigated how intermediate filaments are related to their associated ARs, especially from the point of view of magnetic helicity and the orientation of polarity inversion lines (PILs). The chirality of filaments has been determined based on the orientations of barbs observed in the full-disk Hα images taken at Big Bear Solar Observatory during the rising phase of solar cycle 23. The sign of magnetic helicity of ARs has been determined using S/inverse-S shaped sigmoids from Yohkoh SXT images. As a result, we have found a good correlation between the chirality of filaments and the magnetic helicity sign of ARs. Among 45 filaments, 42 filaments have shown the same sign as helicity sign of nearby ARs. It has been also confirmed that the role of both the orientation and the relative direction of PILs to ARs in determining the chirality of filaments is not significant, against a theoretical prediction. These results suggest that the chirality of intermediate filaments may originate from magnetic helicity of their associated ARs.

  5. Tropomyosin - master regulator of actin filament function in the cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, Peter W; Hardeman, Edna C; Lappalainen, Pekka; Mulvihill, Daniel P

    2015-08-15

    Tropomyosin (Tpm) isoforms are the master regulators of the functions of individual actin filaments in fungi and metazoans. Tpms are coiled-coil parallel dimers that form a head-to-tail polymer along the length of actin filaments. Yeast only has two Tpm isoforms, whereas mammals have over 40. Each cytoskeletal actin filament contains a homopolymer of Tpm homodimers, resulting in a filament of uniform Tpm composition along its length. Evidence for this 'master regulator' role is based on four core sets of observation. First, spatially and functionally distinct actin filaments contain different Tpm isoforms, and recent data suggest that members of the formin family of actin filament nucleators can specify which Tpm isoform is added to the growing actin filament. Second, Tpms regulate whole-organism physiology in terms of morphogenesis, cell proliferation, vesicle trafficking, biomechanics, glucose metabolism and organ size in an isoform-specific manner. Third, Tpms achieve these functional outputs by regulating the interaction of actin filaments with myosin motors and actin-binding proteins in an isoform-specific manner. Last, the assembly of complex structures, such as stress fibers and podosomes involves the collaboration of multiple types of actin filament specified by their Tpm composition. This allows the cell to specify actin filament function in time and space by simply specifying their Tpm isoform composition. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Measuring Filament Orientation: A New Quantitative, Local Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, C.-E.; Cunningham, M. R.; Jones, P. A. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 2052 (Australia); Dawson, J. R. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Novak, G. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Fissel, L. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA, 22903 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The relative orientation between filamentary structures in molecular clouds and the ambient magnetic field provides insight into filament formation and stability. To calculate the relative orientation, a measurement of filament orientation is first required. We propose a new method to calculate the orientation of the one-pixel-wide filament skeleton that is output by filament identification algorithms such as filfinder. We derive the local filament orientation from the direction of the intensity gradient in the skeleton image using the Sobel filter and a few simple post-processing steps. We call this the “Sobel-gradient method.” The resulting filament orientation map can be compared quantitatively on a local scale with the magnetic field orientation map to then find the relative orientation of the filament with respect to the magnetic field at each point along the filament. It can also be used for constructing radial profiles for filament width fitting. The proposed method facilitates automation in analyses of filament skeletons, which is imperative in this era of “big data.”.

  7. Patterns of molecular motors that guide and sort filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Beat; Nédélec, François

    2012-11-21

    Molecular motors can be immobilized to transport filaments and loads that are attached to these filaments inside a nano-device. However, if motors are distributed uniformly over a flat surface, the motility is undirected, and the filaments move equally in all directions. For many applications it is important to control the direction in which the filaments move, and two strategies have been explored to achieve this: applying external forces and confining the filaments inside channels. In this article, we discuss a third strategy in which the topography of the sample remains flat, but the motors are distributed non-uniformly over the surface. Systems of filaments and patterned molecular motors were simulated using a stochastic engine that included Brownian motion and filament bending elasticity. Using an evolutionary algorithm, patterns were optimized for their capacity to precisely control the paths of the filaments. We identified patterns of motors that could either direct the filaments in a particular direction, or separate short and long filaments. These functionalities already exceed what has been achieved with confinement. The patterns are composed of one or two types of motors positioned in lines or along arcs and should be easy to manufacture. Finally, these patterns can be easily combined into larger designs, allowing one to precisely control the motion of microscopic objects inside a device.

  8. The Galactic Club or Galactic Cliques? Exploring the limits of interstellar hegemony and the Zoo Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgan, Duncan H.

    2017-10-01

    The Zoo solution to Fermi's Paradox proposes that extraterrestrial intelligences (ETIs) have agreed to not contact the Earth. The strength of this solution depends on the ability for ETIs to come to agreement, and establish/police treaties as part of a so-called `Galactic Club'. These activities are principally limited by the causal connectivity of a civilization to its neighbours at its inception, i.e. whether it comes to prominence being aware of other ETIs and any treaties or agreements in place. If even one civilization is not causally connected to the other members of a treaty, then they are free to operate beyond it and contact the Earth if wished, which makes the Zoo solution `soft'. We should therefore consider how likely this scenario is, as this will give us a sense of the Zoo solution's softness, or general validity. We implement a simple toy model of ETIs arising in a Galactic Habitable Zone, and calculate the properties of the groups of culturally connected civilizations established therein. We show that for most choices of civilization parameters, the number of culturally connected groups is >1, meaning that the Galaxy is composed of multiple Galactic Cliques rather than a single Galactic Club. We find in our models for a single Galactic Club to establish interstellar hegemony, the number of civilizations must be relatively large, the mean civilization lifetime must be several millions of years, and the inter-arrival time between civilizations must be a few million years or less.

  9. Galactic civilizations - Population dynamics and interstellar diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, W. I.; Sagan, C.

    1981-01-01

    A model is developed of the interstellar diffusion of galactic civilizations which takes into account the population dynamics of such civilizations. The problem is formulated in terms of potential theory, with a family of nonlinear partial differential and difference equations specifying population growth and diffusion for an organism with advantageous genes that undergoes random dispersal while increasing in population locally, and a population at zero population growth. In the case of nonlinear diffusion with growth and saturation, it is found that the colonization wavefront from the nearest independently arisen galactic civilization can have reached the earth only if its lifetime exceeds 2.6 million years, or 20 million years if discretization can be neglected. For zero population growth, the corresponding lifetime is 13 billion years. It is concluded that the earth is uncolonized not because interstellar spacefaring civilizations are rare, but because there are too many worlds to be colonized in the plausible colonization lifetime of nearby civilizations, and that there exist no very old galactic civilizations with a consistent policy of the conquest of inhabited worlds.

  10. The galactic population of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napiwotzki, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    The contribution of white dwarfs of the different Galactic populations to the stellar content of our Galaxy is only poorly known. Some authors claim a vast population of halo white dwarfs, which would be in accordance with some investigations of the early phases of Galaxy formation claiming a top-heavy initial- mass- function. Here, I present a model of the population of white dwarfs in the Milky Way based on observations of the local white dwarf sample and a standard model of Galactic structure. This model will be used to estimate the space densities of thin disc, thick disc and halo white dwarfs and their contribution to the baryonic mass budget of the Milky Way. One result of this investigation is that white dwarfs of the halo population contribute a large fraction of the Galactic white dwarf number count, but they are not responsible for the lion's share of stellar mass in the Milky Way. Another important result is the substantial contribution of the - often neglected - population of thick disc white dwarfs. Misclassification of thick disc white dwarfs is responsible for overestimates of the halo population in previous investigations.

  11. WIND TURBINES FOR WIND POWER INSTALLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barladean A.S.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of wind turbine choice for wind power stations is examined in this paper. It is shown by comparison of parameters and characteristics of wind turbines, that for existing modes and speeds of wind in territory of Republic of Moldova it is necessary to use multi-blade small speed rotation wind turbines of fan class.

  12. Wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin C.

    1982-01-01

    A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment.

  13. Magnetized Disk Winds in NGC 3783

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumura, Keigo; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Shrader, Chris; Behar, Ehud; Tombesi, Francesco; Contopoulos, Ioannis

    2018-01-01

    We analyze a 900 ks stacked Chandra/HETG spectrum of NGC 3783 in the context of magnetically driven accretion-disk wind models in an effort to provide tight constraints on the global conditions of the underlying absorbers. Motivated by the earlier measurements of its absorption measure distribution (AMD) indicating X-ray-absorbing ionic columns that decrease slowly with decreasing ionization parameter, we employ 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) disk wind models to describe the global outflow. We compute its photoionization structure along with the wind kinematic properties, allowing us to further calculate in a self-consistent fashion the shapes of the major X-ray absorption lines. With the wind radial density profile determined by the AMD, the profiles of the ensemble of the observed absorption features are determined by the two global parameters of the MHD wind; i.e., disk inclination {θ }{obs} and wind density normalization n o . Considering the most significant absorption features in the ∼1.8–20 Å range, we show that the MHD wind is best described by n{(r)∼ 6.9× {10}11(r/{r}o)}-1.15 cm‑3 and {θ }{obs}=44^\\circ . We argue that winds launched by X-ray heating or radiation pressure, or even MHD winds but with steeper radial density profiles, are strongly disfavored by data. Considering the properties of Fe K-band absorption features (i.e., Fe XXV and Fe XXVI), while typically prominent in the active galactic nucleus X-ray spectra, they appear to be weak in NGC 3783. For the specific parameters of our model obtained by fitting the AMD and the rest of the absorption features, these features are found to be weak, in agreement with observations.

  14. The THMIS-MTR observation of a active region filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, W. G.; Tang, Y. H.; Fang, C.

    We present some THMIS-MTR observations of a active region filament on September 4, 2002. The full stokes parameters of the filament were obtained in Hα, CaII 8542 and FeI 6302. By use of the data with high spatial resolution(0.44" per pixel), we probed the fine structure of the filament and gave out the parameters at the barbs' endpoints, including intensity, velocity and longitudinal magnetic field. Comparing the quiescent filament which we have discussed before, we find that: 1)The velocities of the barbs' endpoints are much bigger in the active region filament, the values are more than one thousand meters per second. 2)The barbs' endpoints terminate at the low logitudinal magnetic field in the active region filament, too.

  15. A filament supported by different magnetic field configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y.; Schmieder, B.; Démoulin, P.; Wiegelmann, T.; Aulanier, G.; Török, T.; Bommier, V.

    2011-08-01

    A nonlinear force-free magnetic field extrapolation of vector magnetogram data obtained by THEMIS/MTR on 2005 May 27 suggests the simultaneous existence of different magnetic configurations within one active region filament: one part of the filament is supported by field line dips within a flux rope, while the other part is located in dips within an arcade structure. Although the axial field chirality (dextral) and the magnetic helicity (negative) are the same along the whole filament, the chiralities of the filament barbs at different sections are opposite, i.e., right-bearing in the flux rope part and left-bearing in the arcade part. This argues against past suggestions that different barb chiralities imply different signs of helicity of the underlying magnetic field. This new finding about the chirality of filaments will be useful to associate eruptive filaments and magnetic cloud using the helicity parameter in the Space Weather Science.

  16. Reduced filamentation in high power semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Peter M. W.; McInerney, John; O'Brien, Peter

    1999-01-01

    High brightness semiconductor lasers have applications in fields ranging from material processing to medicine. The main difficulty associated with high brightness is that high optical power densities cause damage to the laser facet and thus require large apertures. This, in turn, results in spatio......-temporal instabilities such as filamentation which degrades spatial coherence and brightness. We first evaluate performance of existing designs with a “top-hat” shaped transverse current density profile. The unstable nature of highly excited semiconductor material results in a run-away process where small modulations...

  17. The elastic modulus of isolated polytetrafluoroethylene filaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Drawe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We report vibrational Raman spectra of small extended perfluoro-n-alkanes (CnF2n+2 with n = 6, 8–10, 12–14 isolated in supersonic jet expansions and use wavenumbers of longitudinal acoustic vibrations to extrapolate the elastic modulus of cold, isolated polytetrafluoroethylene filaments. The derived value E = 209(10 GPa defines an upper limit for the elastic modulus of the perfectly crystalline, noninteracting polymer at low temperatures and serves as a benchmark for quantum chemical predictions.

  18. Multiple filamentation generated by focusing femtosecond laser with axicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaodong; Gao, Hui; Zeng, Bin; Xu, Shengqi; Liu, Weiwei; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhizhan; Mu, Guoguang

    2012-03-01

    Multiple filamentation has been observed when focusing a femtosecond laser pulse into a methanol solution with an axicon. It is found that multiple long filaments are located on the central spot and ring structures of the quasi-Bessel beam created by the axicon. Since the quasi-Bessel profile is determined by the axicon properties, the axicon has been suggested as a simple optics to control multiple filaments. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  19. Native bare zone assemblage nucleates myosin filament assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederman, R; Peters, L K

    1982-11-15

    Native myosin filaments from rabbit psoas muscle are always 1.5 micrometer long. The regulated assembly of these filaments is generally considered to occur by an initial antiparallel and subsequent parallel aggregation of identical myosin subunits. In this schema myosin filament length is controlled by either a self-assembly or a Vernier process. We present evidence which refines these ideas. Namely, that the intact myosin bare zone assemblage nucleates myosin filament assembly. This suggestion is based on the following experimental evidence. (1) A native bare zone assemblage about 0.3 micrometer long can be formed by dialysis of native myosin filaments to either a pH 8 or a 0.2 M-KCl solution. (2) Upon dialysis back to 0.1 M-KCl, bare zone assemblages and distal myosin molecules recombine to form 1.5 micrometer long bipolar filaments. (3) The bare zone assemblage can be separated from the distal myosin molecules by column chromatography in 0.2 M-KCl. Upon dialysis of the fractionated subsets back to 0.1 M-KCl, the bare zone assemblage retains its length of about 0.3 micrometer. However, the distal molecules reassemble to form filaments about 5 micrometers long. (4) Filaments are formed from mixes of the isolated subsets. The lengths of these filaments vary with the amount of distal myosin present. (5) When native filaments, isolated bare zone assemblages or distal myosin molecules are moved sequentially to 0.6 M-KCl and then to 0.1 M-KCl, the final filament lengths are all about 5 micrometers. The capacity of the bare zone assemblage to nucleate filament assembly may be due to the bare zone myosin molecules, the associated M band components or both.

  20. Dynamic Regulation of Sarcomeric Actin Filaments in Striated Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Ono, Shoichiro

    2010-01-01

    In striated muscle, the actin cytoskeleton is differentiated into myofibrils. Actin and myosin filaments are organized in sarcomeres and specialized for producing contractile forces. Regular arrangement of actin filaments with uniform length and polarity is critical for the contractile function. However, the mechanisms of assembly and maintenance of sarcomeric actin filaments in striated muscle are not completely understood. Live imaging of actin in striated muscle has revealed that actin sub...

  1. Dynamics and evolution of galactic nuclei (princeton series in astrophysics)

    CERN Document Server

    Merritt, David

    2013-01-01

    Deep within galaxies like the Milky Way, astronomers have found a fascinating legacy of Einstein's general theory of relativity: supermassive black holes. Connected to the evolution of the galaxies that contain these black holes, galactic nuclei are the sites of uniquely energetic events, including quasars, stellar tidal disruptions, and the generation of gravitational waves. This textbook is the first comprehensive introduction to dynamical processes occurring in the vicinity of supermassive black holes in their galactic environment. Filling a critical gap, it is an authoritative resource for astrophysics and physics graduate students, and researchers focusing on galactic nuclei, the astrophysics of massive black holes, galactic dynamics, and gravitational wave detection. It is an ideal text for an advanced graduate-level course on galactic nuclei and as supplementary reading in graduate-level courses on high-energy astrophysics and galactic dynamics. David Merritt summarizes the theoretical work of the las...

  2. Extragalactic and galactic sources: New evidence, new challenges, new opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusenko Alexander

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent data bring in sharper focus the issue of relative contributions of galactic and extragalactic sources of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. On the one hand, there is some new evidence, from gamma-ray observations of blazars, that cosmic rays are, indeed, accelerated in AGNs. On the other hand, recent measurements of composition reported by Pierre Auger Observatory can be explained by a contribution of transient galactic sources, such as past GRBs and hypernovae, if nuclei accelerated in such events get trapped in the turbulent galactic magnetic fields. The likely contamination of UHECR data by the nuclei from past galactic stellar explosions creates new challenges for cosmic-ray astronomy. At the same time, it creates new opportunities for reconstructing galactic magnetic fields, understanding the history of transient galactic phenomena, and for using gamma rays to identify astrophysical nuclear accelerators outside Milky Way.

  3. Size Effect on the Mechanical Properties of CF Winding Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yuqing; Yin, Zhongwei

    2017-12-01

    Mechanical properties of filament winding composites are usually tested by NOL ring samples. Few people have studied the size effect of winding composite samples on the testing result of mechanical property. In this research, winding composite thickness, diameter, and geometry of NOL ring samples were prepared to investigate the size effect on the mechanical strength of carbon fiber (CF) winding composite. The CF T700, T1000, M40, and M50 were adopted for the winding composite, while the matrix was epoxy resin. Test results show that the tensile strength and ILSS of composites decreases monotonically with an increase of thickness from 1 mm to 4 mm. The mechanical strength of composite samples increases monotonically with the increase in diameter from 100 mm to 189 mm. The mechanical strength of composite samples with two flat sides are higher than those of cyclic annular samples.

  4. Modeling Vertical Plasma Flows in Solar Filament Barbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinenko, Y.

    2003-12-01

    Speeds of observed flows in quiescent solar filaments are typically much less than the local Alfvén speed. This is why the flows in filament barbs can be modeled by perturbing a local magnetostatic solution describing the balance between the Lorentz force, gravity, and gas pressure in a barb. Similarly, large-scale filament flows can be treated as adiabatically slow deformations of a force-free magnetic equilibrium that describes the global structure of a filament. This approach reconciles current theoretical models with the puzzling observational result that some of the flows appear to be neither aligned with the magnetic field nor controlled by gravity.

  5. Filament shape versus coronal potential magnetic field structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, B.

    2016-01-01

    Solar filament shape in projection on disc depends on the structure of the coronal magnetic field. We calculate the position of polarity inversion lines (PILs) of coronal potential magnetic field at different heights above the photosphere, which compose the magnetic neutral surface, and compare with them the distribution of the filament material in Hα chromospheric images. We found that the most of the filament material is enclosed between two PILs, one at a lower height close to the chromosphere and one at a higher level, which can be considered as a height of the filament spine. Observations of the same filament on the limb by the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft confirm that the height of the spine is really very close to the value obtained from the PIL and filament border matching. Such matching can be used for filament height estimations in on-disc observations. Filament barbs are housed within protruding sections of the low-level PIL. On the base of simple model, we show that the similarity of the neutral surfaces in potential and non-potential fields with the same sub-photospheric sources is the reason for the found tendency for the filament material to gather near the potential-field neutral surface.

  6. Statistical Study of the Magnetic Field Orientation in Solar Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaoka, Yoichiro; Sakurai, Takashi

    2017-12-01

    We have carried out a statistical study of the average orientation of the magnetic field in solar filaments with respect to their axes for more than 400 samples, based on data taken with daily full-Sun, full-Stokes spectropolarimetric observations using the He I 1083.0 nm line. The major part of the samples are the filaments in the quiet areas, but those in the active areas are included as well. The average orientation of the magnetic field in filaments shows a systematic property depending on the hemisphere; the direction of the magnetic field in filaments in the northern (southern) hemisphere mostly deviates clockwise (counterclockwise) from their axes, which run along the magnetic polarity inversion line. The deviation angles of the magnetic field from the axes are concentrated between 10° and 30°. This hemispheric pattern is consistent with that revealed for chirality of filament barbs, filament channels, and for other solar features found to possess chirality. For some filaments, it was confirmed that their magnetic field direction is locally parallel to their structure seen in Hα images. Our results for the first time confirmed this hemispheric pattern with the direct observation of the magnetic field in filaments. Interestingly, the filaments which show the opposite magnetic field deviation to the hemispheric pattern, are in many cases found above the polarity inversion line whose ambient photospheric magnetic field has the polarity alignment being opposite to that of active regions following the Hale–Nicholson law.

  7. Spatial evolution of laser filaments in turbulent air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Tao; Zhu, Shiping; Zhou, Shengling; He, Yan

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the spatial evolution properties of laser filament clusters in turbulent air were evaluated using numerical simulations. Various statistical parameters were calculated, such as the percolation probability, filling factor, and average cluster size. The results indicate that turbulence-induced multi-filamentation can be described as a new phase transition universality class. In addition, during this process, the relationship between the average cluster size and filling factor could be fit by a power function. Our results are valuable for applications involving filamentation that can be influenced by the geometrical features of multiple filaments.

  8. Numerical simulation of laser filamentation in underdense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Lichun; Chen Zhihua; Tu Qinfen

    2000-01-01

    Developing process of filamentation and effect of characteristic parameters in underdense plasma have been studied using numerical simulation method. Production and development of two-dimensional cylinder filamentation instability were presented clearly. The results indicate incidence laser intensity and plasma background density are important factors affecting convergent intensity. At the same time, it was showed that different laser wavelength or different electron background density could affect filamentation process. The results are consistent with theory and experiments of alien reports. It can provide reference for restraining filamentation

  9. MATERIAL SUPPLY AND MAGNETIC CONFIGURATION OF AN ACTIVE REGION FILAMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, P.; Fang, C.; Chen, P. F.; Yang, K.; Hao, Q. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Cao, Wenda, E-mail: fangc@nju.edu.cn [Big Bear Solar Observatory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 40386 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    It is important to study the fine structures of solar filaments with high-resolution observations, since it can help us understand the magnetic and thermal structures of the filaments and their dynamics. In this paper, we study a newly formed filament located inside the active region NOAA 11762, which was observed by the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory from 16:40:19 UT to 17:07:58 UT on 2013 June 5. As revealed by the H α filtergrams, cool material is seen to be injected into the filament spine with a speed of 5–10 km s{sup -1}. At the source of the injection, brightenings are identified in the chromosphere, which are accompanied by magnetic cancellation in the photosphere, implying the importance of magnetic reconnection in replenishing the filament with plasmas from the lower atmosphere. Counter-streamings are detected near one endpoint of the filament, with the plane-of-the-sky speed being 7–9 km s{sup -1} in the H α red-wing filtergrams and 9–25 km s{sup -1} in the blue-wing filtergrams. The observations are indicative that this active region filament is supported by a sheared arcade without magnetic dips, and the counter-streamings are due to unidirectional flows with alternative directions, rather than due to the longitudinal oscillations of filament threads as in many other filaments.

  10. Possible existence of wormholes in the galactic halo region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahaman, Farook [Jadavpur University, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Kuhfittig, P.K.F. [Milwaukee School of Engineering, Department of Mathematics, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Islam, Nasarul [Danga High Madrasah, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)

    2014-02-15

    Two observational results, the density profile from simulations performed in the ΛCDM scenario and the observed flat galactic rotation curves, are taken as input with the aim of showing that the galactic halo possesses some of the characteristics needed to support traversable wormholes. This result should be sufficient to provide an incentive for scientists to seek observational evidence for wormholes in the galactic halo region. (orig.)

  11. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the wind power. It presents the principles, the technology takes off, its applications and technology focus, the global market trends and the outlooks and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  12. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portilla S, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    The wind energy or eolic energy is a consequence of solar energy, the one which is absorbed by the atmosphere and is transformed into energy of movement of large bulks of air. In this process the atmosphere acts as the filter to the solar radiation and demotes the ultraviolet beams that result fatal to life in the Earth. The ionosphere is the most external cap and this is ionized by means of absorption process of ultraviolet radiation arising to the Sun. The atmosphere also acts as a trap to the infrared radiation, it that results from the continual process of energetic degradation. In this way, the interaction between Earth - Atmospheres, is behaved as a great greenhouse, maintaining the constant temperatures, including in the dark nights. Processes as the natural convection (that occur by the thermodynamic phenomenon), equatorial calmness, trade winds and against trade winds and global distribution of the air currents are described. The other hand, techniques as the transformation of the wind into energy and its parameters also are shown

  13. Wind Energy Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsubara, Kazuyo [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    An overview is given of wind energy in Japan: Background; Wind Energy in Japan; Japanese Wind Energy Industry; Government Supports; Useful Links; Major Japanese Companies; Profiles of Major Japanese Companies; Major Wind Energy Projects in Japan.

  14. Electromechanical vortex filaments during cardiac fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, J.; Chebbok, M.; Richter, C.; Schröder-Schetelig, J.; Bittihn, P.; Stein, S.; Uzelac, I.; Fenton, F. H.; Hasenfuß, G.; Gilmour, R. F., Jr.; Luther, S.

    2018-03-01

    The self-organized dynamics of vortex-like rotating waves, which are also known as scroll waves, are the basis of the formation of complex spatiotemporal patterns in many excitable chemical and biological systems. In the heart, filament-like phase singularities that are associated with three-dimensional scroll waves are considered to be the organizing centres of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. The mechanisms that underlie the onset, maintenance and control of electromechanical turbulence in the heart are inherently three-dimensional phenomena. However, it has not previously been possible to visualize the three-dimensional spatiotemporal dynamics of scroll waves inside cardiac tissues. Here we show that three-dimensional mechanical scroll waves and filament-like phase singularities can be observed deep inside the contracting heart wall using high-resolution four-dimensional ultrasound-based strain imaging. We found that mechanical phase singularities co-exist with electrical phase singularities during cardiac fibrillation. We investigated the dynamics of electrical and mechanical phase singularities by simultaneously measuring the membrane potential, intracellular calcium concentration and mechanical contractions of the heart. We show that cardiac fibrillation can be characterized using the three-dimensional spatiotemporal dynamics of mechanical phase singularities, which arise inside the fibrillating contracting ventricular wall. We demonstrate that electrical and mechanical phase singularities show complex interactions and we characterize their dynamics in terms of trajectories, topological charge and lifetime. We anticipate that our findings will provide novel perspectives for non-invasive diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications.

  15. Morgellons disease: a filamentous borrelial dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Middelveen MJ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Marianne J Middelveen, Raphael B Stricker International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USA Abstract: Morgellons disease (MD is a dermopathy characterized by multicolored filaments that lie under, are embedded in, or project from skin. Although MD was initially considered to be a delusional disorder, recent studies have demonstrated that the dermopathy is associated with tickborne infection, that the filaments are composed of keratin and collagen, and that they result from proliferation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in epithelial tissue. Culture, histopathological and molecular evidence of spirochetal infection associated with MD has been presented in several published studies using a variety of techniques. Spirochetes genetically identified as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto predominate as the infective agent in most of the Morgellons skin specimens studied so far. Other species of Borrelia including Borrelia garinii, Borrelia miyamotoi, and Borrelia hermsii have also been detected in skin specimens taken from MD patients. The optimal treatment for MD remains to be determined. Keywords: Morgellons disease, dermatitis, Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, spirochetes

  16. Intermediate filament mechanics in vitro and in the cell: From coiled coils to filaments, fibers and networks

    OpenAIRE

    Köster, Sarah; Weitz, David; Goldman, Robert D.; Aebi, Ueli; Herrmann, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Intermediate filament proteins form filaments, fibers and networks both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of metazoan cells. Their general structural building plan accommodates highly varying amino acid sequences to yield extended dimeric α-helical coiled coils of highly conserved design. These “rod” particles are the basic building blocks of intrinsically flexible, filamentous structures that are able to resist high mechanical stresses, i.e. bending and stretching to a considerable degree, bo...

  17. Unusual Metals in Galactic Center Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Kerry

    2018-03-01

    Far from the galactic suburbs where the Sun resides, a cluster of stars in the nucleus of the Milky Way orbits a supermassive black hole. Can chemical abundance measurements help us understand the formation history of the galactic center nuclear star cluster?Studying Stellar PopulationsMetallicity distributions for stars in the inner two degrees of the Milky Way (blue) and the central parsec (orange). [Do et al. 2018]While many galaxies host nuclear star clusters, most are too distant for us to study in detail; only in the Milky Way can we resolve individual stars within one parsec of a supermassive black hole. The nucleus of our galaxy is an exotic and dangerous place, and its not yet clear how these stars came to be where they are were they siphoned off from other parts of the galaxy, or did they form in place, in an environment rocked by tidal forces?Studying the chemical abundances of stars provides a way to separate distinct stellar populations and discern when and where these stars formed. Previous studies using medium-resolution spectroscopy have revealed that many stars within the central parsec of our galaxy have very high metallicities possibly higher than any other region of the Milky Way. Can high-resolution spectroscopy tell us more about this unusual population of stars?Spectral Lines on DisplayTuan Do (University of California, Los Angeles, Galactic Center Group) and collaborators performed high-resolution spectroscopic observations of two late-type giant starslocated half a parsec from the Milky Ways supermassive black hole.Comparison of the observed spectra of the two galactic center stars (black) with synthetic spectra with low (blue) and high (orange) [Sc/Fe] values. Click to enlarge. [Do et al. 2018]In order to constrain the metallicities of these stars, Do and collaborators compared the observed spectra to a grid of synthetic spectra and used a spectral synthesis technique to determine the abundances of individual elements. They found that

  18. Millisecond Pulsars and the Galactic Center Excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonthier, Peter L.; Koh, Yew-Meng; Kust Harding, Alice; Ferrara, Elizabeth C.

    2017-08-01

    Various groups including the Fermi team have confirmed the spectrum of the gamma- ray excess in the Galactic Center (GCE). While some authors interpret the GCE as evidence for the annihilation of dark matter (DM), others have pointed out that the GCE spectrum is nearly identical to the average spectrum of Fermi millisecond pul- sars (MSP). Assuming the Galactic Center (GC) is populated by a yet unobserved source of MSPs that has similar properties to that of MSPs in the Galactic Disk (GD), we present results of a population synthesis of MSPs from the GC. We establish parameters of various models implemented in the simulation code by matching characteristics of 54 detected Fermi MSPs in the first point source catalog and 92 detected radio MSPs in a select group of thirteen radio surveys and targeting a birth rate of 45 MSPs per mega-year. As a check of our simulation, we find excellent agreement with the estimated numbers of MSPs in eight globular clusters. In order to reproduce the gamma-ray spectrum of the GCE, we need to populate the GC with 10,000 MSPs having a Navarro-Frenk-White distribution suggested by the halo density of DM. It may be possible for Fermi to detect some of these MSPs in the near future; the simulation also predicts that many GC MSPs have radio fluxes S1400above 10 �μJy observable by future pointed radio observations. We express our gratitude for the generous support of the National Science Foundation (RUI: AST-1009731), Fermi Guest Investigator Program and the NASA Astrophysics Theory and Fundamental Program (NNX09AQ71G).

  19. X-ray induced stellar mass loss near active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voit, G.M.; Shull, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of UV and X-ray radiation on stars in active galactic nuclei (AGN) are critically evaluated. Mass loss rates in X-ray-induced winds are evaluated for realistic red giant models, and the effects of the ablation of stellar envelopes by radiation pressure are considered. The importance of X-ray-induced mass loss in the standard quasar model is evaluated and whether it can provide a source of accretion fuel or emission-line clouds is discussed. It is concluded that thermal winds driven by X-ray heating are a minor total supply of mass to AGN, but that thermal plus line-driven winds and stellar ablation may increase the mass loss and improve the chances for supplying a fraction of the necessary mass supply to the central object. It is speculated that when steady winds are inefficient, complex time-dependent processes due to X-ray energy injection deep into a stellar atmosphere could still release significant mass from stars. 49 references

  20. Study of galactic light, extragalactic light, and galactic structure using pioneer 10 observations of background starlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toller, G.N.

    1981-01-01

    An observational and theoretical study of the diffuse astronomical background sky brightness (background starlight) is carried out. The brightness is determined over 95% of the sky using Pioneer 10 photometric measurements in sky regions where the zodiacal light is negligible (heliocentric distances approx. greater than or equal to 3. A.U.). Brightness levels are presented at blue (3950 to 4850 A) and red (5900 to 6800 A) wavelengths. The B-R color index distribution is established over the celestial sphere. Pioneer 10 results are compared with previous star count and ground based photometric studies to separate background starlight into its constituent parts: integrated starlight, diffuse galactic light (DGL), and cosmic light. Significant errors are found in published star count results at low galactic latitudes. The galactic latitude (b'') and longitude (1'') dependences of integrated starlight and the variation of DGL with b'' are determined. An upper limit of 3.9 S 10 (V)/sub G2V/ at the 90% confidence level is deduced for the cosmic light brightness at blue wavelengths near the galactic poles. The integrated light from discrete galaxies adequately explains this component of the background starlight

  1. Galactic ring nebulae associated with Wolf-Rayet stars. VI - NGC 3199, anon /MR 26/, RCW 58, and RCW 104

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Y.-H.

    1982-03-01

    Narrow-band interference filter photographs and high resolution Fabry-Perot spectra have been obtained for four galactic ring nebulae associated with Wolf-Rayet stars - NGC 3199, anon (MR 26), RCW 58, and RCW 104. All of these four nebulae show interaction between the stellar wind and the ambient interstellar medium. NGC 3199, anon (MR 26), and RCW 104 are classified as W-type nebulae. RCW 58, having a prominent ring of stellar ejecta, is classified as an E-type nebula. For most W-type nebulae, the kinetic energy in the shell is only about 1 percent of the total mechanical energy input from the stellar wind, while the ratio of the shell momentum to the total momentum injected by the stellar wind is about 0.5 and apparently increases with the nebular age.

  2. Wind Loads on Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Wind loads have to be taken into account when designing civil engineering structures. The wind load on structures can be systematised by means of the wind load chain: wind climate (global), terrain (wind at low height), aerodynamic response (wind load to pressure), mechanical response (wind...... pressure to structural response) and design criteria. Starting with an introduction of the wind load chain, the book moves on to meteorological considerations, atmospheric boundary layer, static wind load, dynamic wind load and scaling laws used in wind-tunnel tests. The dynamic wind load covers vibrations...... induced by wind turbulence, vortex shedding, flutter and galloping. The book gives a comprehensive treatment of wind effects on structures and it will be useful for consulting engineers designing wind-sensitive structures. It will also be valuable for students of civil engineering as textbook...

  3. Galactic orbital motions of star clusters: static versus semicosmological time-dependent Galactic potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghi, Hosein; Zonoozi, Akram Hasani; Taghavi, Saeed

    2015-07-01

    In order to understand the orbital history of Galactic halo objects, such as globular clusters, authors usually assume a static potential for our Galaxy with parameters that appear at the present day. According to the standard paradigm of galaxy formation, galaxies grow through a continuous accretion of fresh gas and a hierarchical merging with smaller galaxies from high redshift to the present day. This implies that the mass and size of disc, bulge, and halo change with time. We investigate the effect of assuming a live Galactic potential on the orbital history of halo objects and its consequences on their internal evolution. We numerically integrate backwards the equations of motion of different test objects located in different Galactocentric distances in both static and time-dependent Galactic potentials in order to see if it is possible to discriminate between them. We show that in a live potential, the birth of the objects, 13 Gyr ago, would have occurred at significantly larger Galactocentric distances, compared to the objects orbiting in a static potential. Based on the direct N-body calculations of star clusters carried out with collisional N-body code, NBODY6, we also discuss the consequences of the time-dependence of a Galactic potential on the early- and long-term evolution of star clusters in a simple way, by comparing the evolution of two star clusters embedded in galactic models, which represent the galaxy at present and 12 Gyr ago, respectively. We show that assuming a static potential over a Hubble time for our Galaxy as it is often done, leads to an enhancement of mass-loss, an overestimation of the dissolution rates of globular clusters, an underestimation of the final size of star clusters, and a shallower stellar mass function.

  4. Stellar winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weymann, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    It is known that a steady outflow of material at comparable rates of mass loss but vastly different speeds is now known to be ubiquitous phenomenon among both the luminous hot stars and the luminous but cool red giants. The flows are probably massive enough in both cases to give rise to significant effects on stellar evolution and the mass balance between stars and the interstellar medium. The possible mechanisms for these phenomena as well as the methods of observation used are described. In particular, the mass-loss processes in stars other than the sun that also involve a steady flow of matter are considered. The evidence for their existence is described, and then the question of whether the process thought to produce the solar wind is also responsible for producing these stellar winds is explored

  5. A catalytic oligomeric motor that walks along a filament track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mu-Jie; Kapral, Raymond

    2015-06-01

    Most biological motors in the cell execute chemically powered conformational changes as they walk on biopolymer filaments in order to carry out directed transport functions. Synthetic motors that operate in a similar manner are being studied since they have the potential to perform similar tasks in a variety of applications. In this paper, a synthetic nanomotor that moves along a filament track, without invoking motor conformational changes, is constructed and its properties are studied in detail. The motor is an oligomer comprising three linked beads with specific binding properties. The filament track is a stiff polymer chain, also described by a linear chain of linked coarse-grained molecular groups modeled as beads. Reactions on the filament that are catalyzed by a motor bead and use fuel in the environment, in conjunction within the binding affinities of the motor beads to the filament beads, lead to directed motion. The system operates out of equilibrium due to the state of the filament and supply of fuel. The motor, filament, and surrounding medium are all described at microscopic level that permits a full analysis of the motor motion. A stochastic model that captures the main trends seen in the simulations is also presented. The results of this study point to some of the key features that could be used to construct nanomotors that undergo biased walks powered by chemical reactions on filaments.

  6. Physical principles of filamentous protein self-assembly kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaels, Thomas C T; Liu, Lucie X; Meisl, Georg; Knowles, Tuomas P J

    2017-01-01

    The polymerization of proteins and peptides into filamentous supramolecular structures is an elementary form of self-organization of key importance to the functioning biological systems, as in the case of actin biofilaments that compose the cellular cytoskeleton. Aberrant filamentous protein self-assembly, however, is associated with undesired effects and severe clinical disorders, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, which, at the molecular level, are associated with the formation of certain forms of filamentous protein aggregates known as amyloids. Moreover, due to their unique physicochemical properties, protein filaments are finding extensive applications as biomaterials for nanotechnology. With all these different factors at play, the field of filamentous protein self-assembly has experienced tremendous activity in recent years. A key question in this area has been to elucidate the microscopic mechanisms through which filamentous aggregates emerge from dispersed proteins with the goal of uncovering the underlying physical principles. With the latest developments in the mathematical modeling of protein aggregation kinetics as well as the improvement of the available experimental techniques it is now possible to tackle many of these complex systems and carry out detailed analyses of the underlying microscopic steps involved in protein filament formation. In this paper, we review some classical and modern kinetic theories of protein filament formation, highlighting their use as a general strategy for quantifying the molecular-level mechanisms and transition states involved in these processes. (topical review)

  7. Application of digital holography to filament size analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semin, N.V.; Poelma, C.; Drost, S.; Westerweel, J.

    2010-01-01

    The potential of in-line digital holography to locate and measure the size and position of filaments, i.e. thin wire-like objects, distributed throughout a thick volume has been investigated. In this paper two approaches are introduced to study filaments of varying diameter. (1) It is shown

  8. Fully filamentized HTS coated conductor via striation and selective electroplating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesgin, Ibrahim; Majkic, Goran [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Selvamanickam, Venkat, E-mail: selva@uh.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Fully-filamentized coated conductor with 13-fold reduction in ac losses. ► Selective electroplating for filamentization of thick copper stabilizer. ► A twofold decrease in ac loss by filamentization of copper stabilizer. ► Absence of appreciable coupling loss contribution from electroplating. -- Abstract: A simple, cost-effective method involving top-down mechanical scribing, oxidation and bottom-up electroplating has been successfully developed to fabricate fully filamentized HTS coated conductors. The copper stabilizer layer is selectively electroplated on the superconducting filaments while the striations remain copper-free due to the formation of a resistive oxide layer in between filaments by oxidation of the striated grooves at elevated temperature in oxygen atmosphere. Magnetization AC loss measurements, performed in a frequency range of 45–500 Hz at 77 K, confirmed the expected N-fold reduction in AC loss of the filamentized tapes with no significant degradation in critical current beyond that due to the material removal from the striations (N – number of filaments). A considerable reduction in coupling AC loss was observed after high temperature annealing/oxidation of the striated tapes. Furthermore, a significant reduction in eddy current loss was achieved with selective copper electroplating, as evidenced by analyzing the field and frequency dependence of magnetization AC loss, as well as by comparing the AC loss performance of striated samples to that of non-striated samples after electroplating of copper stabilizer.

  9. Fully filamentized HTS coated conductor via striation and selective electroplating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesgin, Ibrahim; Majkic, Goran; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fully-filamentized coated conductor with 13-fold reduction in ac losses. ► Selective electroplating for filamentization of thick copper stabilizer. ► A twofold decrease in ac loss by filamentization of copper stabilizer. ► Absence of appreciable coupling loss contribution from electroplating. -- Abstract: A simple, cost-effective method involving top-down mechanical scribing, oxidation and bottom-up electroplating has been successfully developed to fabricate fully filamentized HTS coated conductors. The copper stabilizer layer is selectively electroplated on the superconducting filaments while the striations remain copper-free due to the formation of a resistive oxide layer in between filaments by oxidation of the striated grooves at elevated temperature in oxygen atmosphere. Magnetization AC loss measurements, performed in a frequency range of 45–500 Hz at 77 K, confirmed the expected N-fold reduction in AC loss of the filamentized tapes with no significant degradation in critical current beyond that due to the material removal from the striations (N – number of filaments). A considerable reduction in coupling AC loss was observed after high temperature annealing/oxidation of the striated tapes. Furthermore, a significant reduction in eddy current loss was achieved with selective copper electroplating, as evidenced by analyzing the field and frequency dependence of magnetization AC loss, as well as by comparing the AC loss performance of striated samples to that of non-striated samples after electroplating of copper stabilizer

  10. Fossil evidence for spin alignment of SDSS galaxies in filaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Bernard J.T.; Weygaert, Rien van de; Arag´on-Calvo, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    We search for and find fossil evidence that the distribution of the spin axes of galaxies in cosmic web filaments relative to their host filaments are not randomly distributed. This would indicate that the action of large scale tidal torques effected the alignments of galaxies located in cosmic

  11. Method for simultaneously coating a plurality of filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P.A.; Pochan, P.D.; Siegal, M.P.; Dominguez, F.

    1995-07-11

    Methods and apparatuses are disclosed for coating materials, and the products and compositions produced thereby. Substances, such as diamond or diamond-like carbon, are deposited onto materials, such as a filament or a plurality of filaments simultaneously, using one or more cylindrical, inductively coupled, resonator plasma reactors. 3 figs.

  12. Cellulase activity of filamentous fungi induced by rice husk | Oliveros ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cellulase activity of filamentous fungi induced by rice husk. DF Oliveros, N Guarnizo, EM Perea, WM Arango. Abstract. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of different filamentous fungi to degrade cellulose in rice husk pre-treated with steam explosion or alkaline hydrolysis. A preliminary test performed ...

  13. Calibration and Temperature Profile of a Tungsten Filament Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Izarra, Charles; Gitton, Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this work proposed for undergraduate students and teachers is the calibration of a tungsten filament lamp from electric measurements that are both simple and precise, allowing to determine the temperature of tungsten filament as a function of the current intensity. This calibration procedure was first applied to a conventional filament…

  14. Design and Optimization of Filament Wound Composite Pressure Vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zu, L.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important issues for the design of filament-wound pressure vessels reflects on the determination of the most efficient meridian profiles and related fiber architectures, leading to optimal structural performance. To better understand the design and optimization of filament-wound

  15. THE APPARATUS FOR ALIGNMENT OF THE PHOTOMETRIC LAMP FILAMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Dlugunovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During photometric measurements involving the use of photometric lamps it is necessary that the filament of lamp takes a strictly predetermined position with respect to the photodetector and the optical axis of the photometric setup. The errors in positioning of alignment filament with respect to the optical axis of the measuring system lead to increase the uncertainty of measurement of the photometric characteristics of the light sources. A typical method for alignment of filament of photometric lamps is based on the use a diopter tubes (telescopes. Using this method, the mounting of filament to the required position is carried out by successive approximations, which requires special concentration and a lot of time. The aim of this work is to develop an apparatus for alignment which allows simultaneous alignment of the filament of lamps in two mutually perpendicular planes. The method and apparatus for alignment of the photometric lamp filament during measurements of the photometric characteristics of light sources based on two digital video cameras is described in this paper. The apparatus allows to simultaneously displaying the image of lamps filament on the computer screen in two mutually perpendicular planes. The apparatus eliminates a large number of functional units requiring elementwise alignment and reduces the time required to carry out the alignment. The apparatus also provides the imaging of lamps filament with opaque coated on the bulb. The apparatus is used at the National standard of light intensity and illuminance units of the Republic of Belarus. 

  16. Planck 2013 results. XIII. Galactic CO emission

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Alves, M.I.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J. -P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J. -F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R. -R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L. -Y; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J. -M.; Dempsey, J.T.; Desert, F. -X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enblin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Fukui, Y.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Handa, T.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hily-Blant, P.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J. -M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M. -A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Moore, T.J.T.; Morgante, G.; Morino, J.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Nakajima, T.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Okuda, T.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Preezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J. -L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J. -L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Sygnet, J. -F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Thomas, H.S.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Torii, K.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yoda, H. Yamamoto T.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-10-29

    Rotational transition lines of CO play a major role in molecular radio astronomy and in particular in the study of star formation and the Galactic structure. Although a wealth of data exists in the Galactic plane and some well-known molecular clouds, there is no available CO high sensitivity all-sky survey to date. Such all-sky surveys can be constructed using the \\Planck\\ HFI data because the three lowest CO rotational transition lines at 115, 230 and 345 GHz significantly contribute to the signal of the 100, 217 and 353 GHz HFI channels respectively. Two different component separation methods are used to extract the CO maps from Planck HFI data. The maps obtained are then compared to one another and to existing external CO surveys. From these quality checks the best CO maps in terms of signal to noise and/or residual foreground contamination are selected. Three sets of velocity-integrated CO emission maps are produced: Type 1 maps of the CO (1-0), (2-1), and (3-2) rotational transitions with low foreground ...

  17. STELLAR TRANSITS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Béky, Bence; Kocsis, Bence

    2013-01-01

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are typically surrounded by a dense stellar population in galactic nuclei. Stars crossing the line of site in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) produce a characteristic transit light curve, just like extrasolar planets do when they transit their host star. We examine the possibility of finding such AGN transits in deep optical, UV, and X-ray surveys. We calculate transit light curves using the Novikov-Thorne thin accretion disk model, including general relativistic effects. Based on the expected properties of stellar cusps, we find that around 10 6 solar mass SMBHs, transits of red giants are most common for stars on close orbits with transit durations of a few weeks and orbital periods of a few years. We find that detecting AGN transits requires repeated observations of thousands of low-mass AGNs to 1% photometric accuracy in optical, or ∼10% in UV bands or soft X-ray. It may be possible to identify stellar transits in the Pan-STARRS and LSST optical and the eROSITA X-ray surveys. Such observations could be used to constrain black hole mass, spin, inclination, and accretion rate. Transit rates and durations could give valuable information on the circumnuclear stellar clusters as well. Transit light curves could be used to image accretion disks with unprecedented resolution, allowing us to resolve the SMBH silhouette in distant AGNs.

  18. Wolf-Rayet stars and galactic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenholm, B.

    1975-01-01

    A 15 0 wide strip along the galactic equator between longitudes 250 0 and 360 0 has been searched for Wolf-Rayet stars. Six new WR stars and four new planetary nebulae have been found. Seven stars earlier listed as WR stars have been rejected as such. The new WR stars in the 'Luminous Stars in the Southern Milky Way' are discussed. A sample of 154 WR stars has been treated statistically. For the distribution in longitude, comparisons are made with OB stars and classical cepheids. The differences in distribution are thought to be an age effect. An effort to explain the empty interval towards the anticentre is made. The distribution in latitude is compared with young clusters and long-period cepheids. The physical plane formed by these objects is tilted about one degree to the galactic plane and the tilt is upwards in the Cygnus direction. This result is also received by a least squares solution of the objects when given in rectangular coordinates. The WR star sample is regarded as fairly complete up to a distance of 5 kpc. (orig.) [de

  19. 360-degree video and X-ray modeling of the Galactic center's inner parsec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Christopher Michael Post; Wang, Daniel; Cuadra, Jorge

    2017-08-01

    360-degree videos, which render an image over all 4pi steradian, provide a unique and immersive way to visualize astrophysical simulations. Video sharing sites such as YouTube allow these videos to be shared with the masses; they can be viewed in their 360° nature on computer screens, with smartphones, or, best of all, in virtual-reality (VR) goggles. We present the first such 360° video of an astrophysical simulation: a hydrodynamics calculation of the Wolf-Rayet stars and their ejected winds in the inner parsec of the Galactic center. Viewed from the perspective of the super-massive black hole (SMBH), the most striking aspect of the video, which renders column density, is the inspiraling and stretching of clumps of WR-wind material as they makes their way towards the SMBH. We will brielfy describe how to make 360° videos and how to publish them online in their desired 360° format. Additionally we discuss computing the thermal X-ray emission from a suite of Galactic-center hydrodynamic simulations that have various SMBH feedback mechanisms, which are compared to Chandra X-ray Visionary Program observations of the region. Over a 2-5” ring centered on Sgr A*, the spectral shape is well matched, indicating that the WR winds are the dominant source of the thermal X-ray emission. Furthermore, the X-ray flux depends on the SMBH feedback due to the feedback's ability to clear out material from the central parsec. A moderate outburst is necessary to explain the current thermal X-ray flux, even though the outburst ended ˜100 yr ago.

  20. Wind conditions for wind turbine design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maribo Pedersen, B.

    1999-04-01

    Delegates from Europe and USA attended the meeting and discussed general aspects of wind conditions for wind turbine design. The subjects and the presented papers covered a very broad range of aspects of wind conditions and related influence on the wind turbine. (EHS)

  1. Automated image analysis for quantification of filamentous bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredborg, M.; Rosenvinge, F. S.; Spillum, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Antibiotics of the beta-lactam group are able to alter the shape of the bacterial cell wall, e.g. filamentation or a spheroplast formation. Early determination of antimicrobial susceptibility may be complicated by filamentation of bacteria as this can be falsely interpreted as growth...... displaying different resistant profiles and differences in filamentation kinetics were used to study a novel image analysis algorithm to quantify length of bacteria and bacterial filamentation. A total of 12 beta-lactam antibiotics or beta-lactam-beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations were analyzed...... in systems relying on colorimetry or turbidometry (such as Vitek-2, Phoenix, MicroScan WalkAway). The objective was to examine an automated image analysis algorithm for quantification of filamentous bacteria using the 3D digital microscopy imaging system, oCelloScope. Results: Three E. coli strains...

  2. Spontaneous excitations of low amplitude hole filaments, acoustic vortices, and rogue wave events in weakly disordered dust acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ya-Yi; Chang, Mei-Chu; Tsai, Jun-Yi; I, Lin

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we briefly review our recent experimental studies on the observations and waveform dynamics of spontaneous excitations of low and high amplitude singular objects: low amplitude hole filaments coinciding with the wiggling trajectories of topological defects surrounded by acoustic vortices with helical waveforms, and uncertain rogue wave events, in self-excited weakly disordered dust acoustic waves. The changes of waveform topology, caused by kinking, rupturing and reconnection of sequential wave crests surfaces, and the reversed process, are responsible for the chaotic creation, propagation, and annihilation of acoustic vortex pairs with opposite helicities winding around low amplitude hole filaments. The observed rogue wave events are preceded by a higher probability of surrounding defects. Particle focusing by the transverse electric forces from ruptured and tilted wave crests nearby defects are identified as the major cause for rogue wave generation.

  3. Bursting of filaments in the plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratton, F.T.L.

    1976-01-01

    Photographs of the current sheath of (low energy) plasma focus show a disruption of the filaments. This phenomenon is interpreted as a vortex breakdown. Physical parameters which support this hypothesis are obtained from measurements, from the theoretical thickness of the current sheath given by Nardi and from some models of the plasma flow. The widening of a vortex due to axial velocity increase is analyzed by means of magnetohydrodynamic collinear models. The main results are: (1) the existence of a limit separating supercritical from subcritical regimes (their character changes with the ratio between kinetic and magnetic energy); (2) the existence of flow regimes where the vortex radius remains approximately constant for moderate increments of the external velocity; (3) the structure of the vortex may change substantially for a sufficiently large increment of the external velocity, even in subcritical states; (4) the possibility that a burst of the vortex may occur when the external velocity suffers a slowdown

  4. Methods for genetic transformation of filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dandan; Tang, Yu; Lin, Jun; Cai, Weiwen

    2017-10-03

    Filamentous fungi have been of great interest because of their excellent ability as cell factories to manufacture useful products for human beings. The development of genetic transformation techniques is a precondition that enables scientists to target and modify genes efficiently and may reveal the function of target genes. The method to deliver foreign nucleic acid into cells is the sticking point for fungal genome modification. Up to date, there are some general methods of genetic transformation for fungi, including protoplast-mediated transformation, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, electroporation, biolistic method and shock-wave-mediated transformation. This article reviews basic protocols and principles of these transformation methods, as well as their advantages and disadvantages.

  5. Engineering of filamentous bacteriophage for protein sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasino, Michael

    Methods of high throughput, sensitive and cost effective quantification of proteins enables personalized medicine by allowing healthcare professionals to better monitor patient condition and response to treatment. My doctoral research has attempted to advance these methods through the use of filamentous bacteriophage (phage). These bacterial viruses are particularly amenable to both genetic and chemical engineering and can be produced efficiently in large amounts. Here, I discuss several strategies for modifying phage for use in protein sensing assays. These include the expression of bio-orthogonal conjugation handles on the phage coat, the incorporation of specific recognition sequences within the phage genome, and the creation of antibody-phage conjugates via a photo-crosslinking non-canonical amino acid. The physical and chemical characterization of these engineered phage and the results of their use in modified protein sensing assays will be presented.

  6. Filament wound data base development, revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, R. Scott; Braddock, William F.

    1985-01-01

    The objective was to update the present Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) baseline reentry aerodynamic data base and to develop a new reentry data base for the filament wound case SRB along with individual protuberance increments. Lockheed's procedures for performing these tasks are discussed. Free fall of the SRBs after separation from the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle is completely uncontrolled. However, the SRBs must decelerate to a velocity and attitude that is suitable for parachute deployment. To determine the SRB reentry trajectory parameters, including the rate of deceleration and attitude history during free-fall, engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center are using a six-degree-of-freedom computer program to predict dynamic behavior. Static stability aerodynamic coefficients are part of the information required for input into this computer program. Lockheed analyzed the existing reentry aerodynamic data tape (Data Tape 5) for the current steel case SRB. This analysis resulted in the development of Data Tape 7.

  7. Is dark matter visible by galactic gamma rays?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The EGRET excess in the diffuse galactic gamma ray data above 1 GeV shows all features expected from dark matter WIMP annihilation: (a) It is present and has the same spectrum in all sky directions, not just in the galactic plane. (b) The intensity of the excess shows the 1/r2 profile expected for a flat rotation ...

  8. Is dark matter visible by galactic gamma rays?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The EGRET excess in the diffuse galactic gamma ray data above 1 GeV shows all features expected from dark matter WIMP annihilation: (a) It is present and has the same spectrum in all sky directions, not just in the galactic plane. (b) The intensity of the excess shows the 1/2 profile expected for a flat rotation curve outside ...

  9. Very High Energy γ- rays from Galactic Sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. The field of Very High Energy (VHE) gamma ray astron- omy using the Atmospheric Cerenkov Technique has entered an interesting phase with detection of various galactic and extragalactic sources. Among galactic sources, only the Crab nebula has been established as a standard candle. Most observations on ...

  10. HIERARCHICAL FRAGMENTATION OF THE ORION MOLECULAR FILAMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Satoko; Ho, Paul T. P.; Su, Yu-Nung; Teixeira, Paula S.; Zapata, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a high angular resolution map of the 850 μm continuum emission of the Orion Molecular Cloud-3 (OMC 3) obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA); the map is a mosaic of 85 pointings covering an approximate area of 6.'5 × 2.'0 (0.88 × 0.27 pc). We detect 12 spatially resolved continuum sources, each with an H 2 mass between 0.3-5.7 M ☉ and a projected source size between 1400-8200 AU. All the detected sources are on the filamentary main ridge (n H 2 ≥10 6 cm –3 ), and analysis based on the Jeans theorem suggests that they are most likely gravitationally unstable. Comparison of multi-wavelength data sets indicates that of the continuum sources, 6/12 (50%) are associated with molecular outflows, 8/12 (67%) are associated with infrared sources, and 3/12 (25%) are associated with ionized jets. The evolutionary status of these sources ranges from prestellar cores to protostar phase, confirming that OMC-3 is an active region with ongoing embedded star formation. We detect quasi-periodical separations between the OMC-3 sources of ≈17''/0.035 pc. This spatial distribution is part of a large hierarchical structure that also includes fragmentation scales of giant molecular cloud (≈35 pc), large-scale clumps (≈1.3 pc), and small-scale clumps (≈0.3 pc), suggesting that hierarchical fragmentation operates within the Orion A molecular cloud. The fragmentation spacings are roughly consistent with the thermal fragmentation length in large-scale clumps, while for small-scale cores it is smaller than the local fragmentation length. These smaller spacings observed with the SMA can be explained by either a helical magnetic field, cloud rotation, or/and global filament collapse. Finally, possible evidence for sequential fragmentation is suggested in the northern part of the OMC-3 filament.

  11. Bundling of elastic filaments induced by hydrodynamic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Yi; Page, William; Poole, Robert J.; Lauga, Eric

    2017-12-01

    Peritrichous bacteria swim in viscous fluids by rotating multiple helical flagellar filaments. As the bacterium swims forward, all its flagella rotate in synchrony behind the cell in a tight helical bundle. When the bacterium changes its direction, the flagellar filaments unbundle and randomly reorient the cell for a short period of time before returning to their bundled state and resuming swimming. This rapid bundling and unbundling is, at its heart, a mechanical process whereby hydrodynamic interactions balance with elasticity to determine the time-varying deformation of the filaments. Inspired by this biophysical problem, we present in this paper what is perhaps the simplest model of bundling whereby two or more straight elastic filaments immersed in a viscous fluid rotate about their centerline, inducing rotational flows which tend to bend the filaments around each other. We derive an integrodifferential equation governing the shape of the filaments resulting from mechanical balance in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds number. We show that such equation may be evaluated asymptotically analytically in the long-wavelength limit, leading to a local partial differential equation governed by a single dimensionless bundling number. A numerical study of the dynamics predicted by the model reveals the presence of two configuration instabilities with increasing bundling numbers: first to a crossing state where filaments touch at one point and then to a bundled state where filaments wrap along each other in a helical fashion. We also consider the case of multiple filaments and the unbundling dynamics. We next provide an intuitive physical model for the crossing instability and show that it may be used to predict analytically its threshold and adapted to address the transition to a bundling state. We then use a macroscale experimental implementation of the two-filament configuration in order to validate our theoretical predictions and obtain excellent agreement. This long

  12. Empirical sigma - d relations and main galactic radio loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urošević Dejan V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a review of the empirical Galactic and extragalactic sigma - D relations (relations between the surface brightness sigma and the diameter D for supernova remnants (SNRs, with checking the connection of the main Galactic radio loops (Loop I, II, III and IV with these relations. We present results which suggest, in another way, that the radio loops may have an SNR origin. The updated relations have been measured to have slopes beta = 2 in log-log space. The best sigma - D relations for M31 and M33 galaxies were derived and these relations are shown to be flatter (beta < 2 than those for Galactic SNRs alone. This result confirms that selection effects play an important role in data-sets made up of Galactic SNRs. A sigma - D relation with 157 reliable calibrators (both Galactic and extragalactic is derived. This relation also has a slope beta = 2.07 ± 13.

  13. Constraints on Galactic populations from the unidentified EGRET sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M.; Pavlidou, Vasiliki; Brown, Carolyn; Olinto, Angela V.; Fields, Brian D.

    2007-01-01

    A significant fraction of the sources in the third EGRET catalog have not yet been identified with a low-energy counterpart. We evaluate the plausibility of a Galactic population accounting for some or all of the unidentified EGRET sources by making the simple assumption that galaxies similar to the Milky Way host comparable populations of gamma-ray emitters. Rather than focusing on the properties of a specific candidate emitter, we constrain the abundance and spatial distribution of proposed Galactic populations. We find that it is highly improbable that the unidentified EGRET sources contain more than a handful of members of a Galactic halo population, but that current observations are consistent with all of these sources being Galactic objects if they reside entirely in the disk and bulge. We discuss the additional constraints and new insights into the nature of Galactic gamma-ray emitting populations that GLAST is expected to provide

  14. Positron annihilation radiation from the Galactic center region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    Observations show that there are two components of positron annihilation radiation from the region of the Galactic center: a variable component resulting from one or just a few compact sources at or near the Galactic center and a steady, diffuse component resulting from positron annihilation in the Galactic disk. The diffuse component is modeled using the observed longitude distributions of 70-150 MeV gamma rays, CO, and hot plasma revealed by Fe line emission. Recent results on positron annihilation in the interstellar medium are reviewed and the implications of the annihilation processes on the fraction of positrons annihilating via positronium and on the shape of the 511 keV annihilation line are discussed. The sources of diffuse Galactic positrons are also reviewed and the nature of the compact source of annihilation radiation near the Galactic center is discussed.

  15. Constraining MHD Disk-Winds with X-ray Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumura, Keigo; Tombesi, F.; Shrader, C. R.; Kazanas, D.; Contopoulos, J.; Behar, E.

    2014-01-01

    From the state-of-the-art spectroscopic observations of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) the robust features of absorption lines (e.g. most notably by H/He-like ions), called warm absorbers (WAs), have been often detected in soft X-rays (UFOs) whose physical condition is much more extreme compared with the WAs. Motivated by these recent X-ray data we show that the magnetically- driven accretion-disk wind model is a plausible scenario to explain the characteristic property of these X-ray absorbers. As a preliminary case study we demonstrate that the wind model parameters (e.g. viewing angle and wind density) can be constrained by data from PG 1211+143 at a statistically significant level with chi-squared spectral analysis. Our wind models can thus be implemented into the standard analysis package, XSPEC, as a table spectrum model for general analysis of X-ray absorbers.

  16. Wind Technologies & Evolving Opportunities (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.

    2014-07-01

    This presentation covers opportunities for wind technology; wind energy market trends; an overview of the National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado; wind energy price and cost trends; wind turbine technology improvements; and wind resource characterization improvements.

  17. Surveys Of The Galactic Plane For Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, S. D.

    2011-03-01

    Since their discovery in 1968, the known population of radio pulsars has grown to ~2000, and comprises several different groups which display markedly different behaviour from one another. Despite the large number of known sources, there are several scientific justifications for new wide-area searches for pulsars. These are outlined in this work, but include population studies, the evolutionary history of pulsars, and the possible detection of gravitational waves through high-precision timing.Previous pulsar surveys have been limited by (a) the hardware used to record the survey data; and, (b) the computational power that has been available to process this data. This has resulted in an observational bias which made the discovery of distant, highly dispersed pulsars, very difficult. Particularly affected by this are the most rapidly-rotating pulsars --- the millisecond pulsars --- which are known to rotate with spin periods as short as 1.4 ms. Since these are also some of the most interesting sources, with the greatest potential for high-precision timing, it is important to perform searches both deep into the Galactic plane and covering the whole sky, with sufficient time resolution to discover more millisecond pulsars. This thesis describes two such pulsar surveys, in which several discoveries have been made.The first is a survey of the Galactic plane at an observing frequency of 6.5 GHz, motivated by the need to discover pulsars at the Galactic centre. This survey resulted in the discovery of three pulsars, all of which are at distances > 9.5 kpc.The second is the ongoing High Time Resolution Universe pulsar survey using the 64-metre telescope at Parkes. This survey will make observations of the whole of the Southern sky using extremely high time resolution and narrow frequency channels. Preliminary results from the survey are presented here, including the discovery of 5 millisecond pulsars at relatively large distances, including one for which regular eclipses

  18. Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Landberg, Lars

    Wind power meteorology has evolved as an applied science, firmly founded on boundary-layer meteorology, but with strong links to climatology and geography. It concerns itself with three main areas: siting of wind turbines, regional wind resource assessment, and short-term prediction of the wind...... resource. The history, status and perspectives of wind power meteorology are presented, with emphasis on physical considerations and on its practical application. Following a global view of the wind resource, the elements of boundary layer meteorology which are most important for wind energy are reviewed......: wind profiles and shear, turbulence and gust, and extreme winds. The data used in wind power meteorology stem mainly from three sources: onsite wind measurements, the synoptic networks, and the re-analysis projects. Wind climate analysis, wind resource estimation and siting further require a detailed...

  19. Kinematics of the Galactic Supernova Remnant G109.1-1.0 (CTB 109)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Cruces, M.; Rosado, M.; Fuentes-Carrera, I.; Ambrocio-Cruz, P.

    2018-01-01

    We present direct images in the H α and [S II] λλ6717,6731 Å lines of the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G109.1-1.0 (CTB 109). We confirm that the filaments detected are the optical counterpart of the X-ray and radio SNR due to their high [S II]/H α line ratios. We study for the first time the kinematics of the optical counterpart of SNR CTB 109 using the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer PUMA. We estimate a systemic velocity of VLSR = -50 ± 6 km s-1 for this remnant and an expansion velocity of Vexp = 230 ± 5 km s-1. From this velocity and taking into account previous studies of the kinematics of objects at that Galactic longitude, we derive a distance to SNR CTB 109 of 3.1 ± 0.2 kpc, locating it in the Perseus arm. Using the [S II] λ6717/[S II] λ6731 line ratio, we find an electronic density value around ne = 580 cm-3. Considering that this remnant is evolving in a low-density medium with higher-density cloudlets responsible for the optical emission, we determine the age and energy deposited in the ISM by the supernova explosion (E0) in both the Sedov-Taylor phase and the radiative phase. For both cases, the age is thousands of years and E0 is rather typical of SNRs containing simple pulsars, so that the energy released to the ISM cannot be used to distinguish between SNRs hosting typical pulsars from those hosting powerful magnetars, like CTB 109.

  20. Dark matter superfluidity and galactic dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasha Berezhiani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We propose a unified framework that reconciles the stunning success of MOND on galactic scales with the triumph of the ΛCDM model on cosmological scales. This is achieved through the physics of superfluidity. Dark matter consists of self-interacting axion-like particles that thermalize and condense to form a superfluid in galaxies, with ∼mK critical temperature. The superfluid phonons mediate a MOND acceleration on baryonic matter. Our framework naturally distinguishes between galaxies (where MOND is successful and galaxy clusters (where MOND is not: dark matter has a higher temperature in clusters, and hence is in a mixture of superfluid and normal phase. The rich and well-studied physics of superfluidity leads to a number of striking observational signatures.

  1. SYNCHROTRON EMISSION FROM THE GALACTIC HI LAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggi Kim

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the Galactic magnetic field strength and the gas density has been revisited. A synchrotron continuum emission data at 408 MHz and HI column density provide a good data for such study. But it is difficult to separate the synchrotron emission from the observed 408MHz radio emission, because the 408MHz radio emission has the component from the HI layer, as well as many components from other origins. We have tried to substract the component which is probably not related with HI layer, and present the results. We show that the method presented here is a more refined method than that of Brown & Chang (1983, hearafter BC83 to find the above mentioned relationship, and discuss the existence of such relationship in our Galaxy.

  2. The propagation of galactic cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, A.N.

    1981-01-01

    Large scale (approximately 15 pc) turbulence in the interstellar medium (ISM) causes the firehose and mirror instabilities to occur. These produce small scale (approximately 10 -7 pc) magnetic irregularities, which scatter cosmic rays. We use pulsar scintillation data, and a model of the origin of these scintillations, to construct a slab model of the turbulent ISM. Then we find the amplitudes and wavelengths of the magnetic irregularities that arise, and we calculate the coefficients for the diffusion of cosmic rays along the interstellar magnetic fields. We incorporate this diffusion into our model of the turbulent ISM, and show that it can account naturally for both the lifetime of low energy cosmic rays, and the variation of their mean pathlength with energy. Our model has no galactic halo, and contains no scattering by Alfven waves. (author)

  3. Galactic TeV observations with HAWC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Chiumun Michelle

    2014-08-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is a gamma-ray and cosmic-ray detector currently under construction at the Sierra Negra volcano in the state of Puebla, Mexico. The full array will consist of 300 water Cherenkov detectors, which contain 1200 photomultiplier tubes and cover an area of 22,000m^2. It has an instantaneous field of view of 2sr, a duty cycle >90%, and is sensitive to energies between 100 GeV and 100 TeV. Data taking began in Summer 2013 with a partial array. I will present the results of HAWC observations of the Galactic plane, which include the complex Cygnus region, and other extended TeV objects with unidentified source associations.

  4. Optical Variability of Active Galactic Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozłowski, Szymon, E-mail: simkoz@astrouw.edu.pl [Astronomical Observatory, University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-09-21

    Variability studies of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) typically use either power spectral density (PSD) and structure function (SF) analyses or direct modeling of light curves with the damped random walk (DRW) and the continuous autoregressive moving average (CARMA) models. A fair fraction of research publications on the subject are flawed, and simply report incorrect results, because they lack a deep understanding of where these methods originate from and what their limitations are. For example, SF analyses typically lack or use a wrong noise subtraction procedure, leading to flat SFs. DRW, on the other hand, can only be used if the experiment length is sufficient, at least ten times the signal decorrelation time scale τ, and if the data show the power-law SF slope of γ ≡ 0.5.

  5. Galactic civilizations: Population dynamics and interstellar diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, W. I.; Sagan, C.

    1978-01-01

    The interstellar diffusion of galactic civilizations is reexamined by potential theory; both numerical and analytical solutions are derived for the nonlinear partial differential equations which specify a range of relevant models, drawn from blast wave physics, soil science, and, especially, population biology. An essential feature of these models is that, for all civilizations, population growth must be limited by the carrying capacity of the environment. Dispersal is fundamentally a diffusion process; a density-dependent diffusivity describes interstellar emigration. Two models are considered: the first describing zero population growth (ZPG), and the second which also includes local growth and saturation of a planetary population, and for which an asymptotic traveling wave solution is found.

  6. Primary nucleosynthesis in the galactic disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twarog, B.A.; Wheeler, J.C.

    1982-10-15

    New data on the history of production of C, O, Mg, and Fe are used to reexamine the production of heavy elements in the galactic disk. A standard infall model is used to show that a constant rate of production of heavy elements is consistent with the data and to derive net absolute amounts for several elements. Various models for nucleosynthesis by massive stars are considered. Current models are inconsistent with the simplest picture in which all stars above some limit approx.12 M/sub sun/ explode. Adopting a finite upper or lower mass cutoff to the massive stars which contribute to nucleosynthesis provides a better agreement. Any conclusions that massive stars in a particular mass range explode seem premature, especially when consideration is given to potentially significant contributions to C, O, and Fe production from Type I supernovae.

  7. SHARC II Observations of the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staguhn, J. G.; Benford, D. J.; Dowell, C. D.

    2003-05-01

    We present the first images of the Galactic Center region obtained with the new Caltech Submillimeter Observatory facility camera SHARC II. Most of the observations show the 350μ m dust continuum emission from this region. The observing mode we used is similar to fast scanning. This mode does not require on- and off-source observations, since the emission from the sky and detector noise can be derived from the on source observations alone. This is possible because the fast scanning on the sky provides spatial correlations between bolometer pixels due to atmospheric emission and temporal correlations between pixels due to celestial emission. This difference of correlations permits the separation of the atmosphere from the celestial source. The observations therefore do not suffer from possible contamination from emission in an off position used for sky subtraction.

  8. HE neutrino sensitivity to galactic sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sestayo, Yolanda; Gross, Andreas; Resconi, Elisa; Schulz, Olaf [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Predictions on a possible emission of high energy neutrinos from galactic sources can be extracted from the measurements of VHE gamma-rays under the assumption that proton-proton is the dominant interaction channel in such astrophysical environments. We report in this talk the conditions required to produce the observed gamma-ray flux through pp interactions as well as an estimation of the expected neutrino spectrum for sources transparent and non transparent to gamma-rays. The IceCube sensitivity to such predictions for the current configuration of IceCube (22 strings and AMANDA) and for the complete IceCube with its 80 strings is presented as well as the time required for IceCube to observe the predicted neutrino flux from each of the selected sources.

  9. A galactic microquasar mimicking winged radio galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Josep; Luque-Escamilla, Pedro L; Bosch-Ramon, Valentí; Paredes, Josep M

    2017-11-24

    A subclass of extragalactic radio sources known as winged radio galaxies has puzzled astronomers for many years. The wing features are detected at radio wavelengths as low-surface-brightness radio lobes that are clearly misaligned with respect to the main lobe axis. Different models compete to account for these peculiar structures. Here, we report observational evidence that the parsec-scale radio jets in the Galactic microquasar GRS 1758-258 give rise to a Z-shaped radio emission strongly reminiscent of the X and Z-shaped morphologies found in winged radio galaxies. This is the first time that such extended emission features are observed in a microquasar, providing a new analogy for its extragalactic relatives. From our observations, we can clearly favour the hydrodynamic backflow interpretation against other possible wing formation scenarios. Assuming that physical processes are similar, we can extrapolate this conclusion and suggest that this mechanism could also be at work in many extragalactic cases.

  10. Particle Acceleration in Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James A.

    1997-01-01

    The high efficiency of energy generation inferred from radio observations of quasars and X-ray observations of Seyfert active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is apparently achieved only by the gravitational conversion of the rest mass energy of accreting matter onto supermassive black holes. Evidence for the acceleration of particles to high energies by a central engine is also inferred from observations of apparent superluminal motion in flat spectrum, core-dominated radio sources. This phenomenon is widely attributed to the ejection of relativistic bulk plasma from the nuclei of active galaxies, and accounts for the existence of large scale radio jets and lobes at large distances from the central regions of radio galaxies. Reports of radio jets and superluminal motion from galactic black hole candidate X-ray sources indicate that similar processes are operating in these sources. Observations of luminous, rapidly variable high-energy radiation from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory show directly that particles are accelerated to high energies in a compact environment. The mechanisms which transform the gravitational potential energy of the infalling matter into nonthermal particle energy in galactic black hole candidates and AGNs are not conclusively identified, although several have been proposed. These include direct acceleration by static electric fields (resulting from, for example, magnetic reconnection), shock acceleration, and energy extraction from the rotational energy of Kerr black holes. The dominant acceleration mechanism(s) operating in the black hole environment can only be determined, of course, by a comparison of model predictions with observations. The purpose of the work proposed for this grant was to investigate stochastic particle acceleration through resonant interactions with plasma waves that populate the magnetosphere surrounding an accreting black hole. Stochastic acceleration has been successfully applied to the

  11. Monitoring and Mapping the Galactic Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwardt, Craig

    Both neutron star and black hole binary transients are providing some of the most exciting RXTE science, and fortunately many are concentrated in the galactic bulge region. We propose to continue our twice weekly PCA scans of the region, which cover about 500 sq deg. The observations will be sensitive to new sources at the ~1 mCrab level (a factor of 10-60 more sensitive than the ASM in the region). We have had success finding new sources and new types of variability, including three millisecond pulsars, and new increased solid angle will improve the chances of finding more in the final RXTE years. We will continue efforts to search for variability in new and known sources. Companion follow-up proposals would be triggered by the results.

  12. Prospecting for Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapp, Andy; Schreuders, Paul; Reeve, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Many people use wind to help meet their needs. Over the years, people have been able to harness or capture the wind in many different ways. More recently, people have seen the rebirth of electricity-generating wind turbines. Thus, the age-old argument about technology being either good or bad can also be applied to the wind. The wind can be a…

  13. Careers in Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Drew; Hamilton, James

    2011-01-01

    As a common form of renewable energy, wind power is generating more than just electricity. It is increasingly generating jobs for workers in many different occupations. Many workers are employed on wind farms: areas where groups of wind turbines produce electricity from wind power. Wind farms are frequently located in the midwestern, western, and…

  14. Harmful impact of filamentous algae (Spirogyra sp. on juvenile crayfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulikowski Dariusz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the impact of filamentous algae on the growth and survival of juvenile narrow-clawed crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus (Esch., in rearing basins. Three stocking variants were used: A - basins with a layer of filamentous algae without imitation mineral substrate; B - basins with a layer of filamentous algae with imitation mineral substrate; C - basins without filamentous algae but with mineral substrate. The crayfish were reared from June 12 to October 10 under natural thermal conditions and fed a commercial feed. The results indicated that the presence of the filamentous algae did not have a statistically significant impact on the growth of the juvenile crayfish (P > 0.05. The presence of the filamentous algae had a strong negative impact on juvenile crayfish survival and stock biomass (P < 0.05. The layer of gravel and small stones that imitated the mineral substrate of natural aquatic basins somewhat neutralized the disadvantageous impact the filamentous algae had on the crayfish.

  15. Footpoint detection and mass-motion in chromospheric filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    V, Aparna; Hardersen, P. S.; Martin, S. F.

    2013-07-01

    A quiescent region on the Sun containing three filaments is used to study the properties of mass motion. This study determines if the footpoints or end-points of the filaments are the locations from where mass gets injected into the filaments. Several hypotheses have been put forth in the past to determine how a filament acquires mass. Trapping of coronal mass in the filament channel due to condensation (Martin, 1996) and injection of mass into the filaments during magnetic reconnection (Priest, et al., 1995) are some of the speculations. This study looks for indications for injection of mass via chromospheric footpoints. The data consists of blue (Hα-0.5 Å) and red (Hα+0.5 Å) wing high resolution Hα images of the W29N37 region of the Sun taken on Oct 30, 2010, from 1200 - 1600 UT. The Dutch Open Telescope was used to obtain the data. The images are aligned and animated to see Doppler motion in the fibrils. Smaller fibrils merge to form longer ones; barbs appear and disappear in one of the long filaments and is seen moving along the length of the filament. A region with no typical filament-like absorption feature is observed to be continuously receiving mass. Fibrils appear to be converging from opposite sides along what appears to be a neutral line; mass motion is seen in these fibrils as well. An eruption occurs in a region of fibrils lumped together at the end of the first hour (1300 UT) followed by plage brightening at 1430 UT near one of the filament regions. Helioviewer (Panasenco, et al., 2011) is used for aligning the images; GIMP is used for precision alignment and animation. Each frame in the sequence is studied carefully to note changes in the filament regions. The footpoints of the filaments are determined by the changes observed in the position of the filament ‘legs’ in each frame. Variations in the magnetic polarity corresponding to changes observed in the chromosphere are analyzed using HMI magnetograms. Bright and dark points on the

  16. Microwave structure of quiescent solar filaments at high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    High resolution very low altitude maps of a quiescent filament at three frequencies are presented. The spatial resolution (approx. 15'' at 1.45 GHz, approx. 6'' at 4.9 GHz, and approx. 2'' at 15 GHz) is several times better than previously attained. At each frequency, the filament appears as a depression in the quiet Sun background. The depression is measurably wider and longer in extent than the corresponding H alpha filament at 1.45 GHz and 4.9 GHz, indicating that the depression is due in large part to a deficit in coronal density associated with the filament channel. In contrast, the shape of the radio depression at 15 CHz closely matches that of the H alpha filament. In addition, the 15 GHz map shows enhanced emission along both sides of the radio depression. A similar enhancement is seen in an observation of a second filament 4 days later, which suggests that the enhancement is a general feature of filaments. Possible causes of the enhanced emission are explored

  17. The evolution of compositionally and functionally distinct actin filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, Peter W; Ghoshdastider, Umesh; Whitaker, Shane; Popp, David; Robinson, Robert C

    2015-06-01

    The actin filament is astonishingly well conserved across a diverse set of eukaryotic species. It has essentially remained unchanged in the billion years that separate yeast, Arabidopsis and man. In contrast, bacterial actin-like proteins have diverged to the extreme, and many of them are not readily identified from sequence-based homology searches. Here, we present phylogenetic analyses that point to an evolutionary drive to diversify actin filament composition across kingdoms. Bacteria use a one-filament-one-function system to create distinct filament systems within a single cell. In contrast, eukaryotic actin is a universal force provider in a wide range of processes. In plants, there has been an expansion of the number of closely related actin genes, whereas in fungi and metazoa diversification in tropomyosins has increased the compositional variety in actin filament systems. Both mechanisms dictate the subset of actin-binding proteins that interact with each filament type, leading to specialization in function. In this Hypothesis, we thus propose that different mechanisms were selected in bacteria, plants and metazoa, which achieved actin filament compositional variation leading to the expansion of their functional diversity. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Galactic distribution and evolution of pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.H.; Manchester, R.N.

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of pulsars with respect to period, z-distance, luminosity, and galactocentric radius has been investigated using data from three extensive pulsar surveys. It is shown that selection effects only slightly modify the observed period and z-distributions but strongly affect the observed luminosity function and galactic distribution. These latter two distributions are computed from the Jodrell Bank and Arecibo data, using an iterative procedure. The largest uncertainties in our results are the result of uncertainty in the adopted distance scale. Therefore, where relevant, separate calculations have been made for two values of the average interstellar electron density, , 0.02 cm -3 and 0.03 cm -3 .The derived luminosity function is closely represented by a power law with index (for logarithmic luminosity intervals) close to -1. For =0.03 cm -3 , the density of potentially observable pulsars is about 90 kpc -2 in the local region and increases with decreasing galactocentric radius. These distributions imply that the total number of pulsars in the Galaxy is about 10 5 . If only a fraction of all pulsars are observable because of beaming effects, then the total number in the Galaxy is correspondingly greater.Recent observations of pulsar proper motions show that pulsars are generally high-velocity objects. The observed z-distribution of pulsars implies that the mean age of observable pulsars does not exceed 2 x 10 6 years. With this mean age the pulsar birthrate required to maintain the observed galactic distribution is 10 -4 yr -1 kpc -2 in the local region and one pulsar birth every 6 years in the Galaxy as a whole. For =0.02 cm -3 , the corresponding rate is one birth every 40 years. These rates exceed most estimates of supernova occurrence rates and may require that all stars with mass greater than approx.2.5 Msun form pulsars at the end of their evolutionary life

  19. galpy: A python LIBRARY FOR GALACTIC DYNAMICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovy, Jo

    2015-01-01

    I describe the design, implementation, and usage of galpy, a python package for galactic-dynamics calculations. At its core, galpy consists of a general framework for representing galactic potentials both in python and in C (for accelerated computations); galpy functions, objects, and methods can generally take arbitrary combinations of these as arguments. Numerical orbit integration is supported with a variety of Runge-Kutta-type and symplectic integrators. For planar orbits, integration of the phase-space volume is also possible. galpy supports the calculation of action-angle coordinates and orbital frequencies for a given phase-space point for general spherical potentials, using state-of-the-art numerical approximations for axisymmetric potentials, and making use of a recent general approximation for any static potential. A number of different distribution functions (DFs) are also included in the current release; currently, these consist of two-dimensional axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric disk DFs, a three-dimensional disk DF, and a DF framework for tidal streams. I provide several examples to illustrate the use of the code. I present a simple model for the Milky Way's gravitational potential consistent with the latest observations. I also numerically calculate the Oort functions for different tracer populations of stars and compare them to a new analytical approximation. Additionally, I characterize the response of a kinematically warm disk to an elliptical m = 2 perturbation in detail. Overall, galpy consists of about 54,000 lines, including 23,000 lines of code in the module, 11,000 lines of test code, and about 20,000 lines of documentation. The test suite covers 99.6% of the code. galpy is available at http://github.com/jobovy/galpy with extensive documentation available at http://galpy.readthedocs.org/en/latest

  20. Galactic Building Blocks Seen Swarming Around Andromeda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    Green Bank, WV - A team of astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) has made the first conclusive detection of what appear to be the leftover building blocks of galaxy formation -- neutral hydrogen clouds -- swarming around the Andromeda Galaxy, the nearest large spiral galaxy to the Milky Way. This discovery may help scientists understand the structure and evolution of the Milky Way and all spiral galaxies. It also may help explain why certain young stars in mature galaxies are surprisingly bereft of the heavy elements that their contemporaries contain. Andromeda Galaxy This image depicts several long-sought galactic "building blocks" in orbit of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31). The newfound hydrogen clouds are depicted in a shade of orange (GBT), while gas that comprises the massive hydrogen disk of Andromeda is shown at high-resolution in blue (Westerbork Sythesis Radio Telescope). CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF, WSRT (Click on Image for Larger Version) "Giant galaxies, like Andromeda and our own Milky Way, are thought to form through repeated mergers with smaller galaxies and through the accretion of vast numbers of even lower mass 'clouds' -- dark objects that lack stars and even are too small to call galaxies," said David A. Thilker of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. "Theoretical studies predict that this process of galactic growth continues today, but astronomers have been unable to detect the expected low mass 'building blocks' falling into nearby galaxies, until now." Thilker's research is published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. Other contributors include: Robert Braun of the Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy; Rene A.M. Walterbos of New Mexico State University; Edvige Corbelli of the Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri in Italy; Felix J. Lockman and Ronald Maddalena of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virginia; and Edward Murphy of the

  1. A study of short wave instability on vortex filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong Yun [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    The numerical stability and accuracy of the vortex method are studied. The effect of the ordinary differential equations (ODE) solver and of the time step on the numerical stability is analyzed. Various ODE solvers are compared and a best performer is chosen. A new constraint on the time step based on numerical stability is proposed and verified in numerical simulations. It is shown through numerical examples that empirical rules for selecting the spatial discretization obtained in simple test problems may not be extended to more general problems. The thin tube vortex filament method is applied to the problem of Widnall's instability on vortex rings. Numerical results different from previous calculations are presented and the source of the discrepancies is explained. The long time behavior of the unstable mode on thin vortex rings is simulated and analyzed. The short wave instability on vortex filaments is investigated both theoretically and numerically. It is shown that the short wave instability always occurs on co-rotating vortex filaments of fixed core structure. Furthermore when they are close to each other, vortex filaments produce short wave unstable modes which lead to wild stretching and folding. However, when the inter-filament distance is large in comparison with the core size of the filaments, unstable modes are bounded by a small fraction of the core size and the vortex filaments do not create hairpins nor wild stretching. These findings may explain the smooth behavior of the superfluid vortices. The formation of hairpin structures on numerical vortex filaments is investigated. It is shown that the formation of hairpin structures is independent of the ODE solver, of the time step and of other numerical parameters. The hairpin structures are primarily caused by short wave instability on co-rotating vortex filaments.

  2. Galactic Outflows, Star Formation Histories, and Timescales in Starburst Dwarf Galaxies from STARBIRDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Heilman, Taryn N.; Mitchell, Noah P.; Kelley, Tyler

    2018-03-01

    Winds are predicted to be ubiquitous in low-mass, actively star-forming galaxies. Observationally, winds have been detected in relatively few local dwarf galaxies, with even fewer constraints placed on their timescales. Here, we compare galactic outflows traced by diffuse, soft X-ray emission from Chandra Space Telescope archival observations to the star formation histories derived from Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the resolved stellar populations in six starburst dwarfs. We constrain the longevity of a wind to have an upper limit of 25 Myr based on galaxies whose starburst activity has already declined, although a larger sample is needed to confirm this result. We find an average 16% efficiency for converting the mechanical energy of stellar feedback to thermal, soft X-ray emission on the 25 Myr timescale, somewhat higher than simulations predict. The outflows have likely been sustained for timescales comparable to the duration of the starbursts (i.e., 100's Myr), after taking into account the time for the development and cessation of the wind. The wind timescales imply that material is driven to larger distances in the circumgalactic medium than estimated by assuming short, 5-10 Myr starburst durations, and that less material is recycled back to the host galaxy on short timescales. In the detected outflows, the expelled hot gas shows various morphologies which are not consistent with a simple biconical outflow structure. The sample and analysis are part of a larger program, the STARBurst IRregular Dwarf Survey (STARBIRDS), aimed at understanding the lifecycle and impact of starburst activity in low-mass systems.

  3. HIERARCHICAL FRAGMENTATION OF THE ORION MOLECULAR FILAMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Satoko; Ho, Paul T. P.; Su, Yu-Nung [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Teixeira, Paula S. [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Universitaet Wien, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180, Wien (Austria); Zapata, Luis A., E-mail: satoko_t@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelia, Michoacan 58090 (Mexico)

    2013-01-20

    We present a high angular resolution map of the 850 {mu}m continuum emission of the Orion Molecular Cloud-3 (OMC 3) obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA); the map is a mosaic of 85 pointings covering an approximate area of 6.'5 Multiplication-Sign 2.'0 (0.88 Multiplication-Sign 0.27 pc). We detect 12 spatially resolved continuum sources, each with an H{sub 2} mass between 0.3-5.7 M {sub Sun} and a projected source size between 1400-8200 AU. All the detected sources are on the filamentary main ridge (n{sub H{sub 2}}{>=}10{sup 6} cm{sup -3}), and analysis based on the Jeans theorem suggests that they are most likely gravitationally unstable. Comparison of multi-wavelength data sets indicates that of the continuum sources, 6/12 (50%) are associated with molecular outflows, 8/12 (67%) are associated with infrared sources, and 3/12 (25%) are associated with ionized jets. The evolutionary status of these sources ranges from prestellar cores to protostar phase, confirming that OMC-3 is an active region with ongoing embedded star formation. We detect quasi-periodical separations between the OMC-3 sources of Almost-Equal-To 17''/0.035 pc. This spatial distribution is part of a large hierarchical structure that also includes fragmentation scales of giant molecular cloud ( Almost-Equal-To 35 pc), large-scale clumps ( Almost-Equal-To 1.3 pc), and small-scale clumps ( Almost-Equal-To 0.3 pc), suggesting that hierarchical fragmentation operates within the Orion A molecular cloud. The fragmentation spacings are roughly consistent with the thermal fragmentation length in large-scale clumps, while for small-scale cores it is smaller than the local fragmentation length. These smaller spacings observed with the SMA can be explained by either a helical magnetic field, cloud rotation, or/and global filament collapse. Finally, possible evidence for sequential fragmentation is suggested in the northern part of the OMC-3 filament.

  4. Failure and nonfailure of fluid filaments in extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole; Kolte, Mette Irene; Renardy, Michael

    1998-01-01

    The phenomenon of ductile failure of Newtonian and viscoelastic fluid filaments without surface tension is studied by a 2D finite element method and by ID non-linear analysis. The viscoelastic fluids are described by single integral constitutive equations. The main conclusions are: (1) Newtonian...... fluid filaments do not exhibit ductile failure without surface tension; (2) some viscoelastic fluids form stable filaments while other fluids exhibit ductile failure as a result of an elastic instability; (3) for large Deborah numbers, the Considere condition may be used to predict the Hencky strain...

  5. Hybrid vortex simulations of wind turbines using a three-dimensional viscous-inviscid panel method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos García, Néstor; Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2017-01-01

    of the influence of the time-integration scheme used forevolving the wake in time, aeroelastic simulations of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5 MW wind turbine andan analysis of the central processing unit time showing the gains of using the hybrid filament-mesh method....

  6. Influence of wind loading

    OpenAIRE

    MAVLONOV RAVSHANBEK ABDUJABBOROVICH; VAKKASOV KHAYRULLO SAYFULLAHANOVICH

    2015-01-01

    Each wind load is determined by a probabilistic-statistical method based on the concept of “equivalent static wind load”, on the assumption that structural frames and components/cladding behave elastically in strong wind.

  7. Tower Winds - Cape Kennedy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digitized data taken from Wind Gust Charts. Record contains hourly wind directions and speed with a peak wind recorded at the end of each day. Sorted by: station,...

  8. Wind energy program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This overview emphasizes the amount of electric power that could be provided by wind power rather than traditional fossil fuels. New wind power markets, advances in technology, technology transfer, and wind resources are some topics covered in this publication

  9. Variable Winds in Early-B Hypergiants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Bernhard; Rivinius, Thomas

    Early-B hypergiants belong to the most luminous stars in the Universe. They are characterized by high mass-loss rates (dot M≈ 10-5 M⊙yr-1) and low terminal wind velocities (v ∞≈400 km s-1) implying very dense winds. They represent a short-lived evolutionary phase and are of particular interest for evolutionary theories of massive stars with mass loss. Due to their high luminosity they play a key role in connection with the "wind momentum — luminosity relation". Among the main interesting characteristics of early-B hypergiants are the various kinds of photometric and spectroscopic variations. In several recent campaigns our group has performed extensive high dispersion spectroscopy of galactic early-B hypergiants with our fiber-fed echelle spectrograph Flash/Heros at the ESO-50 cm telescope. The main outcome was that their dense winds behave hydrodynamically differently to the less luminous supergiants of comparable spectral type. Outwardly accelerated propagating discrete absorption components of the P Cyg-type lines are the typical features rather than rotationally modulated line profile variations. These discrete absorptions could be traced in different spectral lines from photospheric velocities up to 75% of the terminal velocity. The stellar absorption lines show a pulsation-like radial velocity variability pattern lasting up to two weeks as the typical time scale. The radius variations connected with this pulsation-like motions are correlated with the emission height of the P Cyg-type profiles.

  10. Finite element analyses of continuous filament ties for masonry applications : final report for the Arquin Corporation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinones, Armando, Sr. (Arquin Corporation, La Luz, NM); Bibeau, Tiffany A.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2008-08-01

    Finite-element analyses were performed to simulate the response of a hypothetical vertical masonry wall subject to different lateral loads with and without continuous horizontal filament ties laid between rows of concrete blocks. A static loading analysis and cost comparison were also performed to evaluate optimal materials and designs for the spacers affixed to the filaments. Results showed that polypropylene, ABS, and polyethylene (high density) were suitable materials for the spacers based on performance and cost, and the short T-spacer design was optimal based on its performance and functionality. Simulations of vertical walls subject to static loads representing 100 mph winds (0.2 psi) and a seismic event (0.66 psi) showed that the simulated walls performed similarly and adequately when subject to these loads with and without the ties. Additional simulations and tests are required to assess the performance of actual walls with and without the ties under greater loads and more realistic conditions (e.g., cracks, non-linear response).

  11. Linear viscoelastic characterization from filament stretching rheometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Sara Lindeblad; Alvarez, Nicolas J.; Hassager, Ole

    Traditionally, linear viscoelasticity is measured using small amplitude oscillatory shear flow. Due to experimental difficulties, shear flows are predominately confined to the linear and mildly nonlinear regime. On the other hand, extensional flows have proven more practical in measuring viscoela......Traditionally, linear viscoelasticity is measured using small amplitude oscillatory shear flow. Due to experimental difficulties, shear flows are predominately confined to the linear and mildly nonlinear regime. On the other hand, extensional flows have proven more practical in measuring...... viscoelasticity well into the nonlinear regime. Therefore at present, complete rheological characterization of a material requires two apparatuses: a shear and an extensional rheometer. This work is focused on developing a linear viscoelastic protocol for the filament stretching rheometer (FSR) in order...... to measure both linear and nonlinear dynamics on a single apparatus. With a software modification to the FSR motor control, we show that linear viscoelasticity can be measured via small amplitude squeeze flow (SASF). Squeeze flow is a combination of both shear and extensional flow applied by axially...

  12. The Apis mellifera Filamentous Virus Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Gauthier

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A complete reference genome of the Apis mellifera Filamentous virus (AmFV was determined using Illumina Hiseq sequencing. The AmFV genome is a double stranded DNA molecule of approximately 498,500 nucleotides with a GC content of 50.8%. It encompasses 247 non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs, equally distributed on both strands, which cover 65% of the genome. While most of the ORFs lacked threshold sequence alignments to reference protein databases, twenty-eight were found to display significant homologies with proteins present in other large double stranded DNA viruses. Remarkably, 13 ORFs had strong similarity with typical baculovirus domains such as PIFs (per os infectivity factor genes: pif-1, pif-2, pif-3 and p74 and BRO (Baculovirus Repeated Open Reading Frame. The putative AmFV DNA polymerase is of type B, but is only distantly related to those of the baculoviruses. The ORFs encoding proteins involved in nucleotide metabolism had the highest percent identity to viral proteins in GenBank. Other notable features include the presence of several collagen-like, chitin-binding, kinesin and pacifastin domains. Due to the large size of the AmFV genome and the inconsistent affiliation with other large double stranded DNA virus families infecting invertebrates, AmFV may belong to a new virus family.

  13. Active galactic nuclei, neutrinos, and interacting cosmic rays in NGC 253 and NGC 1068

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoast-Hull, Tova M.; Zweibel, Ellen G. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Gallagher III, J. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Everett, John E., E-mail: yoasthull@wisc.edu [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics, Northwestern University, IL 60208 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    The galaxies M82, NGC 253, NGC 1068, and NGC 4945 have been detected in γ-rays by Fermi. Previously, we developed and tested a model for cosmic-ray interactions in the starburst galaxy M82. Now, we aim to explore the differences between starburst and active galactic nucleus (AGN) environments by applying our self-consistent model to the starburst galaxy NGC 253 and the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068. Assuming a constant cosmic-ray acceleration efficiency by supernova remnants with Milky Way parameters, we calculate the cosmic-ray proton and primary and secondary electron/positron populations, predict the radio and γ-ray spectra, and compare with published measurements. We find that our models easily fit the observed γ-ray spectrum for NGC 253 while constraining the cosmic-ray source spectral index and acceleration efficiency. However, we encountered difficultly modeling the observed radio data and constraining the speed of the galactic wind and the magnetic field strength, unless the gas mass is less than currently preferred values. Additionally, our starburst model consistently underestimates the observed γ-ray flux and overestimates the radio flux for NGC 1068; these issues would be resolved if the AGN is the primary source of γ-rays. We discuss the implications of these results and make predictions for the neutrino fluxes for both galaxies.

  14. Infalling young clusters in the Galactic Centre: implications for IMBHs and young stellar populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petts, J. A.; Gualandris, A.

    2017-06-01

    The central parsec of the Milky Way hosts two puzzlingly young stellar populations, a tight isotropic distribution of B stars around SgrA* (the S-stars) and a disc of OB stars extending to ˜0.5 pc. Using a modified version of Sverre Aarseth's direct summation code nbody6, we explore the scenario in which a young star cluster migrates to the Galactic Centre within the lifetime of the OB disc population via dynamical friction. We find that star clusters massive and dense enough to reach the central parsec form a very massive star via physical collisions on a mass segregation time-scale. We follow the evolution of the merger product using the most up to date, yet conservative, mass-loss recipes for very massive stars. Over a large range of initial conditions, we find that the very massive star expels most of its mass via a strong stellar wind, eventually collapsing to form a black hole of mass ˜ 20-400 M⊙, incapable of bringing massive stars to the Galactic Centre. No massive intermediate mass black hole can form in this scenario. The presence of a star cluster in the central ˜10 pc within the last 15 Myr would also leave an ˜2 pc ring of massive stars, which is not currently observed. Thus, we conclude that the star cluster migration model is highly unlikely to be the origin of either young population, and in situ formation models or binary disruptions are favoured.

  15. Modelling Wind for Wind Farm Layout Optimization Using Joint Distribution of Wind Speed and Wind Direction

    OpenAIRE

    Ju Feng; Wen Zhong Shen

    2015-01-01

    Reliable wind modelling is of crucial importance for wind farm development. The common practice of using sector-wise Weibull distributions has been found inappropriate for wind farm layout optimization. In this study, we propose a simple and easily implementable method to construct joint distributions of wind speed and wind direction, which is based on the parameters of sector-wise Weibull distributions and interpolations between direction sectors. It is applied to the wind measurement data a...

  16. Denmark Wind Energy Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a summary of some ongoing wind energy projects in Denmark is given. The research topics comprise computational model development, wind turbine design, low noise airfoil and blade design, control device development, wake modelling, and wind farm layout optimization.......In this paper, a summary of some ongoing wind energy projects in Denmark is given. The research topics comprise computational model development, wind turbine design, low noise airfoil and blade design, control device development, wake modelling, and wind farm layout optimization....

  17. Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Yunying Pan; Danhzen Gu

    2016-01-01

    Wind energy is well known as a renewable energy because its clean and less polluted characteristic, which is the foundation of development modern wind electricity. To find more efficient wind turbine is the focus of scientists around the world. Compared from conventional wind turbines, superconducting wind turbine generators have advantages at zero resistance, smaller size and lighter weight. Superconducting wind turbine will inevitably become the main trends in this area. This paper intends ...

  18. Process study of polycyanate resin for wet-filament wound high-strength composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frame, B.J.

    1997-12-31

    Polycyanate (or cyanate ester) resins offer advantages as composite matrices because of their high thermal stability, low outgassing, low water absorption and radiation resistance. This report describes the results of a processing study to develop high-strength hoop-wound composite by the wet-filament winding method using Toray T1000G carbon fiber and YLA RS-14 polycyanate resin as the constituent materials. T1000G/RS-14 composite cylinders were wet-wound and cured using different process schedules and then evaluated for hoop tensile strength and modulus, transverse flexural strength and short beam shear strength. The results of material characterization tests performed on the T1000G carbon fiber and RS-14 resin constituents used in this study are also presented.

  19. Wind turbines, is it just wind?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteux, M.

    2012-01-01

    The author first outlines that wind energy is not only random, but almost absent in extreme situations when it would be needed (for example and notably, very cold weather without wind). He suggests the association of a gas turbine to each wind turbine, so that the gas turbine will replace non operating wind turbines. He notices that wind turbines are not proximity energy as they were said to be, and that profitability in fact requires tens of grouped giant wind turbines. He also outlines the high cost of construction of grids for the connection of these wind turbines. Thus, he states that wind energy is far from being profitable in the present conditions of electricity tariffs in France

  20. Advanced structural wind engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kareem, Ahsan

    2013-01-01

    This book serves as a textbook for advanced courses as it introduces state-of-the-art information and the latest research results on diverse problems in the structural wind engineering field. The topics include wind climates, design wind speed estimation, bluff body aerodynamics and applications, wind-induced building responses, wind, gust factor approach, wind loads on components and cladding, debris impacts, wind loading codes and standards, computational tools and computational fluid dynamics techniques, habitability to building vibrations, damping in buildings, and suppression of wind-induced vibrations. Graduate students and expert engineers will find the book especially interesting and relevant to their research and work.

  1. Wind for Schools (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2010-05-01

    As the United States dramatically expands wind energy deployment, the industry is challenged with developing a skilled workforce and addressing public resistance. Wind Powering America's Wind for Schools project addresses these issues by developing Wind Application Centers (WACs) at universities; WAC students assist in implementing school wind turbines and participate in wind courses, by installing small wind turbines at community "host" schools, by implementing teacher training with interactive curricula at each host school. This poster provides an overview of the first two years of the Wind for Schools project, primarily supporting activities in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, Montana, and Idaho.

  2. Origin of the hot gas and radio blobs at the Galactic Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, Mark; Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad

    1992-01-01

    Radio continuum observations have shown a chain of blobs of emission leading from SgrA* to a small cavity which is located in one of the ionized gas streamers (the Bar) that orbit SgrA* and which is associated with hot gas. Further high-resolution radio images are presented here which show that the blobs are connected to SgrA* by a ridge of emission. It is suggested that the blobs are formed by the interaction of stellar winds from the IRS16 cluster with the gravitational potential of SgrA*. The hot gas then results from the dissipation of the kinetic energy of the blobs as they collide with the orbiting ionized streamer. These collisions are of dynamical significance for the motion of the Bar around the Galactic Center, and there should be detectable variability in the structure on a timescale of 10 yrs.

  3. HaloSat - A CubeSat to Study the Hot Galactic Halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaret, Philip; Jahoda, Keith; Dingwall, Brenda

    2014-08-01

    Observations fail to locate about half of the baryons required in cosmology. One possible reservoir of missing baryons associated with our Milky Way galaxy is an extended halo of X-ray emitting gas at temperatures of several million degrees. We describe a CubeSat capable of measuring the oxygen line emission from the hot, Galactic halo. HaloSat will provide an unprecedented, all sky map of the emission lines of O VII and O VIII. This will improve our understanding of the quantity and distribution of hot gas in the Milky Way and also of solar wind charge exchange interactions within the solar system. The mission can be accomplished at modest cost.

  4. Biofilms from a Brazilian water distribution system include filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, V M; Oliveira, H M B; Santos, C; Paterson, R R M; Gusmão, N B; Lima, N

    2013-03-01

    Filamentous fungi in drinking water can block water pipes, can cause organoleptic biodeterioration, and are a source of pathogens. There are increasing reports of the involvement of the organisms in biofilms. This present study describes a sampling device that can be inserted directly into pipes within water distribution systems, allowing biofilm formation in situ. Calcofluor White M2R staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization with morphological analyses using epifluorescent microscopy were used to analyse biofilms for filamentous fungi, permitting direct observation of the fungi. DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) was applied to detect bacteria. Filamentous fungi were detected in biofilms after 6 months on coupons exposed to raw water, decanted water and at the entrance of the water distribution system. Algae, yeast, and bacteria were also observed. The role of filamentous fungi requires further investigations.

  5. Health Risks Associated with Exposure to Filamentous Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbuta, Mary Augustina; Mwanza, Mulunda

    2017-01-01

    Filamentous fungi occur widely in the environment, contaminating soil, air, food and other substrates. Due to their wide distribution, they have medical and economic implications. Regardless of their use as a source of antibiotics, vitamins and raw materials for various industrially important chemicals, most fungi and filamentous fungi produce metabolites associated with a range of health risks, both in humans and in animals. The association of filamentous fungi and their metabolites to different negative health conditions in humans and animals, has contributed to the importance of investigating different health risks induced by this family of heterotrophs. This review aims to discuss health risks associated with commonly occurring filamentous fungal species which belong to genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium, as well as evaluating their pathogenicity and mycotoxic properties. PMID:28677641

  6. Biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal by filamentous bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: activated sludge, denitrification, glycogen accumulating organisms, filamentous bacteria, phosphorus removal. Introduction. Biological nutrient removal (BNR) has gained attention over chemical nutrient removal because of the high cost of the chemi- cal process and the large sludge volumes produced.

  7. Positrusion Filament Recycling System for ISS, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Positrusion ISS Recycler enables recycling of scrap and waste plastics into high-quality filament for 3D printers to enable sustainable in-situ manufacturing on...

  8. Radio Telescopes Reveal Unseen Galactic Cannibalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Radio-telescope images have revealed previously-unseen galactic cannibalism -- a triggering event that leads to feeding frenzies by gigantic black holes at the cores of galaxies. Astronomers have long suspected that the extra-bright cores of spiral galaxies called Seyfert galaxies are powered by supermassive black holes consuming material. However, they could not see how the material is started on its journey toward the black hole. Optical/Radio Comparison Visible-light (left) and radio (right) image of galaxy pair: Radio image shows gas streaming between galaxies. CREDIT: Kuo et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for more graphics. One leading theory said that Seyfert galaxies have been disturbed by close encounters with neighboring galaxies, thus stirring up their gas and bringing more of it within the gravitational reach of the black hole. However, when astronomers looked at Seyferts with visible-light telescopes, only a small fraction showed any evidence of such an encounter. Now, new images of hydrogen gas in Seyferts made using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope show the majority of them are, in fact, disturbed by ongoing encounters with neighbor galaxies. "The VLA lifted the veil on what's really happening with these galaxies," said Cheng-Yu Kuo, a graduate student at the University of Virginia. "Looking at the gas in these galaxies clearly showed that they are snacking on their neighbors. This is a dramatic contrast with their appearance in visible starlight," he added. The effect of the galactic encounters is to send gas and dust toward the black hole and produce energy as the material ultimately is consumed. Black holes, concentrations of matter so dense that not even light can escape their gravitational pull, reside at the cores of many galaxies. Depending on how rapidly the black hole is eating, the galaxy can show a wide range of energetic activity. Seyfert galaxies have the mildest version of this activity, while

  9. UHECR acceleration in dark matter filaments of cosmological structure formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkov, M. A.; Sagdeev, R. Z.; Diamond, P. H.

    2011-04-01

    A mechanism for proton acceleration to ~ 1021 eV is suggested. It may operate in accretion flows onto thin dark matter filaments of cosmic structure formation. The flow compresses the ambient magnetic field to strongly increase and align it with the filament. Particles begin the acceleration by E × B drift with the accretion flow. The energy gain in the drift regime is limited by the conservation of the adiabatic invariant p⊥2/B(r). Upon approaching the filament, the drift turns into the gyro-motion around the filament so that the particle moves parallel to the azimuthal electric field. In this `betatron' regime the acceleration speeds up to rapidly reach the electrodynamic limit cpmax = eBR for an accelerator with magnetic field B and the orbit radius R (Larmor radius). The periodic orbit becomes unstable and the particle slings out of the filament to the region of a weak (uncompressed) magnetic field, which terminates the acceleration. To escape the filament, accelerated particles must have gyro-radii comparable with the filament radius. Therefore, the mechanism requires pre-acceleration that is likely to occur in large scale shocks upstream or nearby the filament accretion flow. Previous studies identify such shocks as efficient proton accelerators, with a firm upper limit ~ 1019.5 eV placed by the catastrophic photo-pion losses. The present mechanism combines explosive energy gain in its final (betatron) phase with prompt particle release from the region of strong magnetic field. It is this combination that allows protons to overcome both the photo-pion and the synchrotron-Compton losses and therefore attain energy ~ 1021 eV. A customary requirement on accelerator power to reach a given Emax, which is placed by the accelerator energy dissipation proptoEmax2/Z0 due to the finite vacuum impedance Z0, is circumvented by the cyclic operation of the accelerator.

  10. Impact of Submesoscale Processes on Dynamics of Phytoplankton Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-12

    RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 29-04-2015 Journal Article Impact of submesoscale processes on dynamics of phytoplankton ...in contrast to the earlier summer time, when the ASC mixes phytoplankton much deeper to the area below of the euphotic depth, and chlorophyll a...filaments are 3 -4 times weaker. coastal processes; upwelling, submesoscale processes, phytoplankton filaments Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified UU 13 Igor Shulman (228) 688-5646 Reset

  11. The architecture and fine structure of gill filaments in the brown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Special attention was paid to filament architecture, ennervation of filaments, number and type of cells populating filament epithelia and variations in epithelial cell morphology and cilia ultrastructure. Filament shape was maintained by thickened chi-tln and strategically placed smooth myocytes. The epithelium was populated ...

  12. The MopraCO Galactic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Domenico; Burton, Michael; Braiding, Catherine; Molinari, Sergio; Ashley, Michael

    2017-11-01

    The MopraCO project (see also Burton et al., 2013, Braiding et al., 2015, Rebolledo et al., 2016) is a CO J=1-0 line survey across the 4th Quadrant of the Milky Way, performed using the 22 m diameter single dish Mopra telescope in Australia. It includes the three main CO molecule isotopologues (12CO , 13CO and C18O) and more than 100 square degrees have been surveyed, spanning from l=265deg to +10deg and b= ± 0.5deg, covering also the Carina complex and the Central Molecular Zone, and extending beyond b= ± 0.5o in several regions. The final plan is to cover from l=265deg to +10deg and b= ± 1deg. The use of the 8 GHz-wide UNSW-MOPS spectrometer and the fast mode of on-the-fly mapping, developed for the Mopra telescope, permits us to reduce the cycle time to 1/4 of a second. Compared with the previous Dame et al. 2001 CO survey of the Southern Galactic plane the MopraCO spectral and angular resolution of 0.1 km/s and 0.6' are an order of magnitude better. This permits us to improve the model of our Galaxy, showing the spirals structures with unprecedented details, in particular in the inner regions where the tracers of spiral arm tangents show an offset from the mid-arms that is matched by maser data, while the real structure of the innermost region remains difficult to define. Furthermore, the 12CO/13CO line ratios are found to be higher in the diffuse gas outside the GMC complexes than inside them, opening new hypothesis on the Xco factor used to estimate the masses of the molecular clouds. Providing a detailed large scale third dimension, across the Southern Galaxy in the wide range of velocity (-500 to 450 km/s), the combination of this survey with the other ones will help to investigate the "dark" gas fraction not traced by the CO, better characterise the evolution of the molecular clouds and of the dense core inside them, giving more insights on the early stages of massive star formation. In particular, in the direction toward the galactic longitude 332 at a

  13. Manganese abundances in Galactic bulge red giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbuy, B.; Hill, V.; Zoccali, M.; Minniti, D.; Renzini, A.; Ortolani, S.; Gómez, A.; Trevisan, M.; Dutra, N.

    2013-11-01

    Context. Manganese is mainly produced in type II SNe during explosive silicon burning, in incomplete Si-burning regions, and depends on several nucleosynthesis environment conditions, such as mass cut between the matter ejected and falling back onto the remnant, electron and neutron excesses, mixing fallback, and explosion energy. Manganese is also produced in type Ia SNe. Aims: The aim of this work is the study of abundances of the iron-peak element Mn in 56 bulge giants, among which 13 are red clump stars. Four bulge fields along the minor axis are inspected. The study of abundances of Mn-over-Fe as a function of metallicity in the Galactic bulge may shed light on its production mechanisms. Methods: High-resolution spectra were obtained using the FLAMES+UVES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope. The spectra were obtained within a program to observe 800 stars using the GIRAFFE spectrograph, together with the present UVES spectra. Results: We aim at identifying the chemical evolution of manganese, as a function of metallicity, in the Galactic bulge. We find [Mn/Fe] ~ -0.7 at [Fe/H] ~ -1.3, increasing to a solar value at metallicities close to solar, and showing a spread around - 0.7 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ -0.2, in good agreement with other work on Mn in bulge stars. There is also good agreement with chemical evolution models. We find no clear difference in the behaviour of the four bulge fields. Whereas [Mn/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] could be identified with the behaviour of the thick disc stars, [Mn/O] vs. [O/H] has a behaviour running parallel, at higher metallicities, compared to thick disc stars, indicating that the bulge enrichment might have proceeded differently from that of the thick disc. Observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO programmes 71.B-0617A, 73.B0074A, and GTO 71.B-0196).Tables 1-6 and Figs. 1-6 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  14. Environmental properties related to active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzer, Lianne H.

    There continues to be significant controversy regarding the mechanisms responsible for the initiation of activity in galactic nuclei. It is well understood that the non-thermal energy produced by an AGN is due to accretion onto a supermassive black hole. It has not yet been determined, however, what leads particular galaxies to become active. An accurate exploration into what triggers an AGN demands an analysis of a large sample of galaxies across a diverse set of environments. In this work, we investigate possible environmental influences by carrying out a statistical investigation of galaxy groups. Using the catalogue of Yang et al. (2007), in which groups of galaxies containing between 2 and 20 members with redshifts between 0.01 -- 0.20 were taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we investigate the fraction of active galactic nuclei (AGN) within these groups and compare it to the sample of isolated galaxies also obtained from Yang et al. (2007). After correcting our spectroscopic data for extinction and underlying stellar absorption, we classify the galaxy sample using relevant emission-line ratios. We propose an alternate method for classifying emission-line galaxies, including AGN, which builds upon standard diagnostic utilities used for optical classification and includes uncertainties. Such classification probabilities offer a more robust and consistent method of investigating the effect of group environments with galaxy type. We find our sample to be a fair representation of the local universe by comparing the luminosity function of our entire data set to that of Blanton et al. (2001), Blanton et al. (2003b), and Montero-Dorta & Prada (2009). The evidence also suggests that the luminosity function of galaxies differs between isolated galaxies and galaxies in groups. We find a significant increase in the fraction of AGNs identified in grouped environments. On the other hand, we find a higher fraction of starforming galaxies within isolated systems. We

  15. The dynamics of dense galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Man Hoi

    In this thesis, two topics on the dynamics of dense galactic nuclei are studied. They are relevant to the formation of massive black holes and the observations of several nearby galactic nuclei. An overview of the observations is given in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2, the dynamical evolution of dense clusters of compact stars is studied. The formation of binaries and their subsequent merging by gravitational radiation emission is important to the evolution of such clusters. Aarseth's NBODY5 N-body simulation code, which is modified to include these processes, is used to simulate small N clusters with different initial velocity dispersions. The initial evolution is similar to previous results from Fokker-Planck simulations and shows orderly formation of heavy objects. However, the late evolution shows runaway growth for the most massive object in the cluster. We present arguments to show that merger by gravitational radiation (and possibly hydrodynamic merger of normal stars) is expected to be unstable to runaway growth. These results suggest that a seed massive black hole can be formed by runaway growth in a dense cluster of compact stars. In Chapter 3, the effects of stellar encounters on rotating stellar systems with central massive black holes are studied. For axisymmetric stellar systems with distribution functions that depend only on the energy E and the angular momentum about one axis Jx, the steady-state stellar distribution is found by directly integrating the Fokker-Planck equation in E, J subx) space. Two sets of models with simple assumptions about the loss cone in phase space (due to loss of stars to the central black hole) are presented: the loss cone in the Jx direction is either ignored or completely empty. We find that the depletion of stars due to an empty loss cone is significant. Density and kinematic profiles are also presented. The ratio of rotation velocity to velocity dispersion, V/sigma at small radii is higher than that of the background

  16. Unconventional actin conformations localize on intermediate filaments in mitosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, Thomas; Vandekerckhove, Joel; Gettemans, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Unconventional actin conformations colocalize with vimentin on a cage-like structure in metaphase HEK 293T cells. → These conformations are detected with the anti-actin antibodies 1C7 ('lower dimer') and 2G2 ('nuclear actin'), but not C4 (monomeric actin). → Mitotic unconventional actin cables are independent of filamentous actin or microtubules. → Unconventional actin colocalizes with vimentin on a nocodazole-induced perinuclear dense mass of cables. -- Abstract: Different structural conformations of actin have been identified in cells and shown to reside in distinct subcellular locations of cells. In this report, we describe the localization of actin on a cage-like structure in metaphase HEK 293T cells. Actin was detected with the anti-actin antibodies 1C7 and 2G2, but not with the anti-actin antibody C4. Actin contained in this structure is independent of microtubules and actin filaments, and colocalizes with vimentin. Taking advantage of intermediate filament collapse into a perinuclear dense mass of cables when microtubules are depolymerized, we were able to relocalize actin to such structures. We hypothesize that phosphorylation of intermediate filaments at mitosis entry triggers the recruitment of different actin conformations to mitotic intermediate filaments. Storage and partition of the nuclear actin and antiparallel 'lower dimer' actin conformations between daughter cells possibly contribute to gene transcription and transient actin filament dynamics at G1 entry.

  17. Treadmilling of actin filaments via Brownian dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kunkun; Shillcock, Julian; Lipowsky, Reinhard

    2010-10-01

    Actin polymerization is coupled to the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi). Therefore, each protomer within an actin filament can attain three different nucleotide states corresponding to bound ATP, ADP/Pi, and ADP. These protomer states form spatial patterns on the growing (or shrinking) filaments. Using Brownian dynamics simulations, the growth behavior of long filaments is studied, together with the associated protomer patterns, as a function of ATP-actin monomer concentration, CT, within the surrounding solution. For concentrations close to the critical concentration CT=CT,cr, the filaments undergo treadmilling, i.e., they grow at the barbed and shrink at the pointed end, which leads to directed translational motion of the whole filament. The corresponding nonequilibrium states are characterized by several global fluxes and by spatial density and flux profiles along the filaments. We focus on a certain set of transition rates as deduced from in vitro experiments and find that the associated treadmilling (or turnover) rate is about 0.08 monomers per second.

  18. The Weak Lensing Masses of Filaments between Luminous Red Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Seth D.; Hudson, Michael J.

    2017-07-01

    In the standard model of non-linear structure formation, a cosmic web of dark-matter-dominated filaments connects dark matter haloes. In this paper, we stack the weak lensing signal of an ensemble of filaments between groups and clusters of galaxies. Specifically, we detect the weak lensing signal, using CFHTLenS galaxy ellipticities, from stacked filaments between Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-III/Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey luminous red galaxies (LRGs). As a control, we compare the physical LRG pairs with projected LRG pairs that are more widely separated in redshift space. We detect the excess filament mass density in the projected pairs at the 5σ level, finding a mass of (1.6 ± 0.3) × 1013 M⊙ for a stacked filament region 7.1 h-1 Mpc long and 2.5 h-1 Mpc wide. This filament signal is compared with a model based on the three-point galaxy-galaxy-convergence correlation function, as developed in Clampitt et al., yielding reasonable agreement.

  19. The electric toothbrush: analysis of filaments under stereomicroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checchi, L; Farina, E; Felice, P; Montevecchi, M

    2004-08-01

    The use of manual and electric toothbrushes has a fundamental role in primary prevention in oral hygiene. However, aggressive use of the toothbrush, especially those with non-rounded filaments, can result in lesions in both soft and hard oral tissue. Without doubt, the electric toothbrush is a useful aid for the patient, and it is therefore interesting to evaluate not only its effectiveness in plaque removal, but also the relationship between morphology of filaments and incidence of muco-gingival pathologies. The aim of this research was to evaluate various forms of bristles of electric toothbrushes under a stereomicroscope vision. Brushes tested included two samples of toothbrushes from six different types. Tufts from the same position on the toothbrush head were removed and examined under stereomicroscope. In this study the percentage of rounded filaments that is considered acceptable and non-traumatic was evaluated according to the Silverstone and Featherstone classification. Morphological analysis of electric toothbrush filaments revealed a low percentage of rounded filaments. In only four of 12 electric toothbrushes tested there were more than 50% of the filaments rounded in appearance.

  20. Effect of Filament Fineness on Composite Yarn Residual Torque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarıoğlu Esin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Yarn residual torque or twist liveliness occurs when the twist is imparted to spin the fibers during yarn formation. It causes yarn snarling, which is an undesirable property and can lead the problems for further processes such as weaving and knitting. It affects the spirality of knitted fabrics and skewness of woven fabrics. Generally, yarn residual torque depends on yarn twist, yarn linear density, and fiber properties used. Composite yarns are widely produced to exploit two yarns with different properties such on optimum way at the same time and these yarns can be produced by wrapping sheath fibers around filament core fiber with a certain twist. In this study, the effect of filament fineness used as core component of composite yarn on residual torque was analyzed. Thus, the false twist textured polyester filament yarns with different filament fineness were used to produce composite yarns with different yarn count. The variance analysis was performed to determine the significance of twist liveliness of filament yarns and yarn count on yarn twist liveliness. Results showed that there is a statistically significant differences at significance level of α=0.05 between filament fineness and yarn residual torque of composite yarns.

  1. Optical and electrical properties of a spiral LED filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liping; Zou, Jun; Yang, Bobo; Li, Wenbo; Li, Yang; Shi, Mingming; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Canyun; Wang, Fengchao; Lin, Yujie

    2018-02-01

    This paper introduces a new type of spiral white light-emitting diodes (WLED) filament with high luminous efficiency and uniform optical performance. The optical and thermal properties of the flexible filament were investigated at different stretching heights, namely 0, 1, 2, and 3 cm. The results indicated that the filament showed the best optical characteristics at the stretching height of 2 cm, because of good heat dissipation. In addition, the radiation temperature of the filament was inversely proportional to the output luminous flux. The reliability of the filament at a stretching height of 2 cm was also evaluated after 1000 h of use. The result demonstrated that the luminous flux decay of the bulb was only 0.85%. The flexible spiral WLED filament exhibiting high luminous flux and good reliability could be adapted to promote industrial development in the near future. Project supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (No. 51302171), the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (CN) (No. 14500503300), the Shanghai Municipal Alliance Program (No. Lm201547), the Shanghai Cooperative Project (No. ShanghaiCXY-2013-61), and the Jiashan County Technology Program (No. 20141316).

  2. Interplay between Dark Matter and Galactic Structure in Disk and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    ) of an axially symmetric time-independent galactic model with a spherical central nucleus, and a flat biaxial oblate dark matter halo component. In particular, we try to reveal the influence of the fractional portion of dark matter ...

  3. Relations between the galactic evolution and the stellar evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouze, J.

    1984-01-01

    After a quick definition of the galactic evolution and a summary of the basic ingredients (namely the abundances of the chemical elements observed in different astrophysical sites), the parameters directly related to the stellar evolution which govern the galactic evolution are outlined. They are the rates of star formation, the initial mass functions and the various nucleosynthetic yields. The 'classical' models of chemical evolution of galaxies are then briefly recalled. Finally, attention is drawn to three recent contributions concerning both the galactic evolution and the stellar evolution. They are (i) some prediction of the rate of star formation for low mass stars made from the planetary nebula abundance distribution (ii) the chemical evolution of C, O and Fe and (iii) the chemical evolution of the galactic interstellar medium. (Auth.)

  4. Galactic Black Hole Binaries: High-Energy Radiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grove, J. E; Grindlay, J. E; Harmon, B. A; Hua, X. -M; Kazanas, D; McConnell, M

    1997-01-01

    Observations of galactic black hole candidates made by the instruments aboard the Compton GRO in the hard X-ray and gamma-ray bands have significantly enhanced our knowledge of the emission properties of these objects...

  5. Experimental study of infrared filaments under different initial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirell, Daniel Joseph

    In 1964, four years after the first working laser was constructed, long skinny damage tracks and fluorescence trails were seen inside of certain transparent media that were excited by intense light pulses [1]. What was so remarkable about these features was the narrowness of the spatial profile and their long propagation length in the beam in concert with the very high intensity of the light that would be necessary to produce them. A purely linear model of light propagation through such media was insufficient to explain the results of these experiments and hence a new area of nonlinear optics, latex coined filamentation (to describe the length, slimness, and intensity of the light field), was born. Filament studies begin with a medium that has a nonlinear index of refraction, n¯2, that interacts with an intense beam of light so as to cause it to self-focus. The n¯2 of liquid and solid transparent media is much higher than the n¯ 2 of gases and therefore a much higher intensity of laser source would need to be invented to begin the study of filaments in air. With the advent of the Ti-Sapphire Kerr-lens modelocked laser [2], working in combination with the development of the chirped pulse amplifier system in the mid-1990's, light intensities sufficient to produce filaments in air was realized. Since that time much experimental and theoretical work has been done to better understand some of the additional complexities that arise specifically in the filamentation of light in air using several different wavelengths (UV to IR) and pulsewidths (femto- to pico-seconds). Many theoretical models exist each with a different emphasis on the various physical mechanisms that may produce the features experimentally observed in filaments. The experimental work has sought to give the theoretician better data on some of the properties of filaments such as the: (a) spatial and temporal structure of the beam and of the produced plasma (that arises due to the high intensity light

  6. The Dusty Galactic Center as Seen by SCUBA-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, H.; Dempsey, J. T.; Thomas, H. S.; Berry, D.; Currie, M. J.; Friberg, P.; Wouterloot, J. G. A.; Chrysostomou, A.; Graves, S.; Tilanus, R. P. J.; Bell, G. S.; Rawlings, M. G.

    2018-02-01

    We present new JCMT SCUBA-2 observations of the Galactic Center region from 355^\\circ column density, mass, and concentration. No trends were seen in the data despite the recognition of three contributors to CO contamination: opacity, shocks, and temperature, which would be expected to relate to physical conditions. These SCUBA-2 Galactic Center data and catalog are available via https://doi.org/10.11570/17.0009.

  7. Astrophysics of gaseous nebulae and active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterbrock, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    A graduate-level text and reference book on gaseous nebulae and the emission regions in Seyfert galaxies, quasars, and other types of active galactic nuclei (AGN) is presented. The topics discussed include: photoionization equilibrium, thermal equilibrium, calculation of emitted spectrum, comparison of theory with observations, internal dynamics of gaseous nebulae, interstellar dust, regions in the galactic context, planetary nebulae, nova and supernova remnants, diagnostics and physics of AGN, observational results on AGN

  8. GALACTIC AND EXTRAGALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANTS AS SITES OF PARTICLE ACCELERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manami Sasaki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Supernova remnants, owing to their strong shock waves, are likely sources of Galactic cosmic rays. Studies of supernova remnants in X-rays and gamma rays provide us with new insights into the acceleration of particles to high energies. This paper reviews the basic physics of supernova remnant shocks and associated particle acceleration and radiation processes. In addition, the study of supernova remnant populations in nearby galaxies and the implications for Galactic cosmic ray distribution are discussed.

  9. Filamented plasmas in laser ablation of solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J. R.; Fajardo, M.; Kozlová, M.; Mocek, T.; Polan, J.; Rus, B.

    2009-03-01

    We report results from laser-solid experiments at PALS using an x-ray laser probe with a pulse length of 0.1 ns and a wavelength of 21.2 nm. A laser with a pulse length of 0.3 ns, a peak intensity of up to 5 × 1013 W cm-2 and a wavelength of 1.3 µm was focused to a 0.15 mm wide line on 3 mm long zinc and 1 mm long iron targets and the probe was passed along the length of the plasma formed. The results show plasma 'hairs', or filaments, appearing only below the critical density, 0.1 ns before the peak of the laser pulse. The plasma around the critical density was clearly imaged and remained uniform. Magneto-hydrodynamic modelling indicates that this is caused by a magnetic field that diffuses from the critical surface, where it is generated, leading to a magnetic pressure comparable to the plasma pressure below the critical density. A dispersion relation is derived for density perturbations perpendicular to a temperature gradient in the presence of an existing magnetic field, which shows that such perturbations always grow, with the growth rate being the greatest for small wavelength perturbations and at low densities. These results indicate that the hair-like structures should be a typical feature of laser ablated plasmas below the critical density following significant plasma expansion, in agreement with numerous experimental results. The implications for x-ray lasers and fast ignition inertial confinement fusion are discussed.

  10. Self-assembly of designed supramolecular magnetic filaments of different shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, E.V. [Ural Federal University, Lenin Av. 51, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Rozhkov, D.A., E-mail: d.a.rozhkov@gmail.com [Ural Federal University, Lenin Av. 51, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Sanchez, P.A. [University of Vienna, Sensengasse 8, Vienna (Austria); Kantorovich, S.S. [Ural Federal University, Lenin Av. 51, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); University of Vienna, Sensengasse 8, Vienna (Austria)

    2017-06-01

    In the present work we study via molecular dynamics simulations filaments of ring and linear shape. Filaments are made of magnetic nanoparticles, possessing a point dipole in their centres. Particles in filaments are crosslinked in a particular way, so that the deviation of the neighbouring dipoles from the head-to-tail orientation is penalised by the bond. We show how the conformation of a single chain and ring filament changes on cooling for different lengths. We also study filament pairs, by fixing filaments at a certain distance and analysing the impact of inter-filament interaction on the equilibrium configurations. Our study opens a perspective to investigate the dispersions of filaments, both theoretically and numerically, by using effective potentials. - Highlights: • Single filament study. • Magnetic particles crosslinked in chains and rings. • Magnetic filament interactions.

  11. Modelling the Peak Elongation of Nylon6 and Fe Powder Based Composite Wire for FDM Feedstock Filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Harish Kumar; Singh, Rupinder

    2017-10-01

    In the present work, to increase the application domain of fused deposition modelling (FDM) process, Nylon6-Fe powder based composite wire has been prepared as feed stock filament. Further for smooth functioning of feed stock filament without any change in the hardware and software of the commercial FDM setup, the mechanical properties of the newly prepared composite wire must be comparable/at par to the existing material i.e. ABS, P-430. So, keeping this in consideration; an effort has been made to model the peak elongation of in house developed feedstock filament comprising of Nylon6 and Fe powder (prepared on single screw extrusion process) for commercial FDM setup. The input parameters of single screw extruder (namely: barrel temperature, temperature of the die, speed of the screw, speed of the winding machine) and rheological property of material (melt flow index) has been modelled with peak elongation as the output by using response surface methodology. For validation of model the result of peak elongation obtained from the model equation the comparison was made with the results of actual experimentation which shows the variation of ±1 % only.

  12. Galactic-scale Feedback Observed in the 3C 298 Quasar Host Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayner, Andrey; Wright, Shelley A.; Murray, Norman; Armus, Lee; Larkin, James E.; Mieda, Etsuko

    2017-12-01

    We present high angular resolution multiwavelength data of the 3C 298 radio-loud quasar host galaxy (z = 1.439) taken using the W.M. Keck Observatory OSIRIS integral field spectrograph (IFS) with adaptive optics, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFC3, and the Very Large Array (VLA). Extended emission is detected in the rest-frame optical nebular emission lines Hβ, [O III], Hα, [N II], and [S II], as well as in the molecular lines CO (J = 3‑2) and (J = 5‑4). Along the path of the relativistic jets of 3C 298, we detect conical outflows in ionized gas emission with velocities of up to 1700 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and an outflow rate of 450–1500 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1 extended over 12 kpc. Near the spatial center of the conical outflow, CO (J = 3‑2) emission shows a molecular gas disk with a rotational velocity of ±150 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and total molecular mass ({M}{{{H}}2}) of 6.6+/- 0.36× {10}9 {M}ȯ . On the blueshifted side of the molecular disk, we observe broad extended emission that is due to a molecular outflow with a rate of 2300 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1 and depletion timescale of 3 Myr. We detect no narrow Hα emission in the outflow regions, suggesting a limit on star formation of 0.3 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1 {{kpc}}-2. Quasar-driven winds are evacuating the molecular gas reservoir, thereby directly impacting star formation in the host galaxy. The observed mass of the supermassive black hole is {10}9.37{--9.56} {M}ȯ , and we determine a dynamical bulge mass of {M}{bulge}=1{--}1.7× {10}10\\tfrac{R}{1.6 {kpc}} {M}ȯ . The bulge mass of 3C 298 lies 2–2.5 orders of magnitude below the expected value from the local galactic bulge—supermassive black hole mass ({M}{bulge}{--}{M}{BH}) relationship. A second galactic disk observed in nebular emission is offset from the quasar by 9 kpc, suggesting that the system is an intermediate-stage merger. These results show that galactic-scale negative feedback is occurring early in the merger

  13. Broadband properties of active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelson, Richard Allen

    The broadband radio-infrared-optical-ultraviolet properties of active galactic nuclei are used to investigate the nature of the central engine and the surrounding environment. Optically selected quasars and Seyfert 1 galaxies tend to have relatively flat infrared spectra and low reddenings, while most Seyfert 2 galaxies and other dusty objects have steep infrared spectra and larger reddenings. The infrared spectra of most luminous radio-quiet active galaxies turn over near approx. 80 micron. It appears that the infrared spectra of most quasars and luminous Seyfert 1 galaxies are dominated by unreprocessed radiation from a synchrotron self-absorbed source of order a light day across, about the size of the hypothesized accretion disk. Seyfert 2 galaxies and other reddened objects have infrared spectra which appear to be dominated by thermal emission from warm dust, probably in the disk of the underlying galaxy. A broad emission feature, centered near 5 micron, is present in many luminous quasars and Seyfert 1 galaxies. Highly polarized objects (blazars) can be strongly variable at far infrared wavelengths over time scales of months. Seyfert galaxies tend to have steep radio spectra.

  14. TESTING TESTS ON ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI MICROVARIABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Diego, Jose A.

    2010-01-01

    Literature on optical and infrared microvariability in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) reflects a diversity of statistical tests and strategies to detect tiny variations in the light curves of these sources. Comparison between the results obtained using different methodologies is difficult, and the pros and cons of each statistical method are often badly understood or even ignored. Even worse, improperly tested methodologies are becoming more and more common, and biased results may be misleading with regard to the origin of the AGN microvariability. This paper intends to point future research on AGN microvariability toward the use of powerful and well-tested statistical methodologies, providing a reference for choosing the best strategy to obtain unbiased results. Light curves monitoring has been simulated for quasars and for reference and comparison stars. Changes for the quasar light curves include both Gaussian fluctuations and linear variations. Simulated light curves have been analyzed using χ 2 tests, F tests for variances, one-way analyses of variance and C-statistics. Statistical Type I and Type II errors, which indicate the robustness and the power of the tests, have been obtained in each case. One-way analyses of variance and χ 2 prove to be powerful and robust estimators for microvariations, while the C-statistic is not a reliable methodology and its use should be avoided.

  15. Dissecting the large-scale galactic conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seongu

    2018-01-01

    Galactic conformity is an observed phenomenon that galaxies located in the same region have similar properties such as star formation rate, color, gas fraction, and so on. The conformity was first observed among galaxies within in the same halos (“one-halo conformity”). The one-halo conformity can be readily explained by mutual interactions among galaxies within a halo. Recent observations however further witnessed a puzzling connection among galaxies with no direct interaction. In particular, galaxies located within a sphere of ~5 Mpc radius tend to show similarities, even though the galaxies do not share common halos with each other ("two-halo conformity" or “large-scale conformity”). Using a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation, Illustris, we investigate the physical origin of the two-halo conformity and put forward two scenarios. First, back-splash galaxies are likely responsible for the large-scale conformity. They have evolved into red galaxies due to ram-pressure stripping in a given galaxy cluster and happen to reside now within a ~5 Mpc sphere. Second, galaxies in strong tidal field induced by large-scale structure also seem to give rise to the large-scale conformity. The strong tides suppress star formation in the galaxies. We discuss the importance of the large-scale conformity in the context of galaxy evolution.

  16. ULTRAVIOLET EXTINCTION AT HIGH GALACTIC LATITUDES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, J. E. G.; Schiminovich, David, E-mail: jegpeek@gmail.com [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In order to study the properties and effects of high Galactic latitude dust, we present an analysis of 373,303 galaxies selected from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer All-Sky Survey and Wide-field Infrared Explorer All-Sky Data Release. By examining the variation in aggregate ultraviolet colors and number density of these galaxies, we measure the extinction curve at high latitude. We additionally consider a population of spectroscopically selected galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to measure extinction in the optical. We find that dust at high latitude is neither quantitatively nor qualitatively consistent with standard reddening laws. Extinction in the FUV and NUV is {approx}10% and {approx}35% higher than expected, with significant variation across the sky. We find that no single R{sub V} parameter fits both the optical and ultraviolet extinction at high latitude, and that while both show detectable variation across the sky, these variations are not related. We propose that the overall trends we detect likely stem from an increase in very small silicate grains in the interstellar medium.

  17. ULTRAVIOLET EXTINCTION AT HIGH GALACTIC LATITUDES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peek, J. E. G.; Schiminovich, David

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the properties and effects of high Galactic latitude dust, we present an analysis of 373,303 galaxies selected from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer All-Sky Survey and Wide-field Infrared Explorer All-Sky Data Release. By examining the variation in aggregate ultraviolet colors and number density of these galaxies, we measure the extinction curve at high latitude. We additionally consider a population of spectroscopically selected galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to measure extinction in the optical. We find that dust at high latitude is neither quantitatively nor qualitatively consistent with standard reddening laws. Extinction in the FUV and NUV is ∼10% and ∼35% higher than expected, with significant variation across the sky. We find that no single R V parameter fits both the optical and ultraviolet extinction at high latitude, and that while both show detectable variation across the sky, these variations are not related. We propose that the overall trends we detect likely stem from an increase in very small silicate grains in the interstellar medium.

  18. Detecting pulsars in the Galactic Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajwade, K. M.; Lorimer, D. R.; Anderson, L. D.

    2017-10-01

    Although high-sensitivity surveys have revealed a number of highly dispersed pulsars in the inner Galaxy, none have so far been found in the Galactic Centre (GC) region, which we define to be within a projected distance of 1 pc from Sgr A*. This null result is surprising given that several independent lines of evidence predict a sizable population of neutron stars in the region. Here, we present a detailed analysis of both the canonical and millisecond pulsar populations in the GC and consider free-free absorption and multipath scattering to be the two main sources of flux density mitigation. We demonstrate that the sensitivity limits of previous surveys are not sufficient to detect GC pulsar population, and investigate the optimum observing frequency for future surveys. Depending on the degree of scattering and free-free absorption in the GC, current surveys constrain the size of the potentially observable population (I.e. those beaming towards us) to be up to 52 canonical pulsars and 10 000 millisecond pulsars. We find that the optimum frequency for future surveys is in the range of 9-13 GHz. We also predict that future deeper surveys with the Square Kilometre array will probe a significant portion of the existing radio pulsar population in the GC.

  19. Dual Active Galactic Nuclei in Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mousumi; Rubinur, Khatun; Karb, Preeti; Varghese, Ashlin; Novakkuni, Navyasree; James, Atul

    2018-04-01

    Galaxy mergers play a crucial role in the formation of massive galaxies and the buildup of their bulges. An important aspect of the merging process is the in-spiral of the supermassive black-holes (SMBHs) to the centre of the merger remnant and the eventual formation of a SMBH binary. If both the SMBHs are accreting they will form a dual or binary active galactic nucleus (DAGN). The final merger remnant is usually very bright and shows enhanced star formation. In this paper we summarise the current sample of DAGN from previous studies and describe methods that can be used to identify strong DAGN candidates from optical and spectroscopic surveys. These methods depend on the Doppler separation of the double peaked AGN emission lines, the nuclear velocity dispersion of the galaxies and their optical/UV colours. We describe two high resolution, radio observations of DAGN candidates that have been selected based on their double peaked optical emission lines (DPAGN). We also examine whether DAGN host galaxies have higher star formation rates (SFRs) compared to merging galaxies that do not appear to have DAGN. We find that the SFR is not higher for DAGN host galaxies. This suggests that the SFRs in DAGN host galaxies is due to the merging process itself and not related to the presence of two AGN in the system.

  20. Unrecognized Astrometric Confusion in the Galactic Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plewa, P. M.; Sari, R.

    2018-02-01

    The Galactic Centre is a highly crowded stellar field and frequent unrecognized events of source confusion, which involve undetected faint stars, are expected to introduce astrometric noise on a sub-mas level. This confusion noise is the main non-instrumental effect limiting the astrometric accuracy and precision of current near-infrared imaging observations and the long-term monitoring of individual stellar orbits in the vicinity of the central supermassive black hole. We self-consistently simulate the motions of the known and the yet unidentified stars to characterize this noise component and show that a likely consequence of source confusion is a bias in estimates of the stellar orbital elements, as well as the inferred mass and distance of the black hole, in particular if stars are being observed at small projected separations from it, such as the star S2 during pericentre passage. Furthermore, we investigate modeling the effect of source confusion as an additional noise component that is time-correlated, demonstrating a need for improved noise models to obtain trustworthy estimates of the parameters of interest (and their uncertainties) in future astrometric studies.

  1. Searching for dual active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinur, K.; Das, M.; Kharb, P.

    2018-02-01

    Binary or dual active galactic nuclei (DAGN) are expected from galaxy formation theories. However, confirmed DAGN are rare and finding these systems has proved to be challenging. Recent systematic searches for DAGN using double-peaked emission lines have yielded several new detections, as have the studies of samples of merging galaxies. In this paper, we present an updated list of DAGN compiled from published data. We also present preliminary results from our ongoing Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) radio study of eight double-peaked emission-line AGN (DPAGN). One of the sample galaxy shows an S-shaped radio jet. Using new and archival data, we have successfully fitted a precessing jet model to this radio source. We find that the jet precession could be due to a binary AGN with a super-massive black-hole (SMBH) separation of ˜ 0.02 pc or a single AGN with a tilted accretion disk. We have found that another sample galaxy, which is undergoing a merger, has two radio cores with a projected separation of 5.6 kpc. We discuss the preliminary results from our radio study.

  2. Virgin galactic the first ten years

    CERN Document Server

    Seedhouse, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Thirty years ago when Sir Richard Branson called up Boeing and asked if they had a spare 747, few would have predicted the brash entrepreneur would so radically transform the placid business of air travel. But today, Branson flies airlines on six continents, employs hundreds of jets and, in 2014, was predicting that his spaceship company – Virgin Galactic – would soon open the space frontier to commercial astronauts, payload specialists, scientists and space tourists. With more than 600 seats sold at $250,000 each, what started off as a dream to send people just for the excitement to look back and marvel at Earth, was on the cusp of finally being turned into a business. Then, on October 21, 2014, tragedy struck. SpaceShipTwo was on its most ambitious test flight to date. Seconds after firing its engine, Virgin Galactic’s spaceship was breaking through the sound barrier. In just the three seconds that it took for the vehicle to climb from Mach 0.94 to Mach 1.02, co-pilot Mike Alsbury made what many close...

  3. Giant quiescent solar filament observed with high-resolution spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuckein, C.; Verma, M.; Denker, C.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: An extremely large filament was studied in various layers of the solar atmosphere. The inferred physical parameters and the morphological aspects are compared with smaller quiescent filaments. Methods: A giant quiet-Sun filament was observed with the high-resolution Echelle spectrograph at the Vacuum Tower Telescope at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain, on 2011 November 15. A mosaic of spectra (ten maps of 100″ × 182″) was recorded simultaneously in the chromospheric absorption lines Hα and Na I D2. Physical parameters of the filament plasma were derived using cloud model (CM) inversions and line core fits. The spectra were complemented with full-disk filtergrams (He I λ10830 Å, Hα, and Ca II K) of the Chromospheric Telescope (ChroTel) and full-disk magnetograms of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). Results: The filament had extremely large linear dimensions (~817 arcsec), which corresponds to about 658 Mm along a great circle on the solar surface. A total amount of 175119 Hα contrast profiles were inverted using the CM approach. The inferred mean line-of-sight (LOS) velocity, Doppler width, and source function were similar to previous works of smaller quiescent filaments. However, the derived optical thickness was higher. LOS velocity trends inferred from the Hα line core fits were in accord but weaker than those obtained with CM inversions. Signatures of counter-streaming flows were detected in the filament. The largest brightening conglomerates in the line core of Na I D2 coincided well with small-scale magnetic fields as seen by HMI. Mixed magnetic polarities were detected close to the ends of barbs. The computation of photospheric horizontal flows based on HMI magnetograms revealed flow kernels with a size of 5-8 Mm and velocities of 0.30-0.45 km s-1 at the ends of the filament. Conclusions: The physical properties of extremely large filaments are similar to their smaller counterparts, except for the optical thickness, which in

  4. NuSTAR Hard X-ray Survey of the Galactic Center Region. I. Hard X-ray Morphology and Spectroscopy of the Diffuse Emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Kaya; Hailey, Charles J.; Krivonos, Roman

    2015-01-01

    self-consistently determined their intrinsic column density (similar to 10(23) cm(-2)), primary X-ray spectra (power-laws with Gamma similar to 2) and set a lower limit of the X-ray luminosity of Sgr A* flare illuminating the Sgr A clouds to L-X >= 10(38) erg s(-1). Above similar to 20 keV, hard X......We present the first sub-arcminute images of the Galactic Center above 10 keV, obtained with NuSTAR. NuSTAR resolves the hard X-ray source IGR J17456-2901 into non-thermal X-ray filaments, molecular clouds, point sources, and a previously unknown central component of hard X-ray emission (CHXE). Nu......STAR detects four non-thermal X-ray filaments, extending the detection of their power-law spectra with Gamma similar to 1.3-2.3 up to similar to 50 keV. A morphological and spectral study of the filaments suggests that their origin may be heterogeneous, where previous studies suggested a common origin in young...

  5. A far-infrared polarized view of active galactic nuclei with SOFIA/HAWC+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Rodriguez, Enrique; HAWC+ Science Team

    2018-01-01

    Near- to mid-infrared (NIR, MIR; 1-13 μm) total and polarized flux observations from the ground have been key to advance our understanding about the dust distribution and emission in the central few parsecs of the active galactic nucleus (AGN), i.e. jets and dusty torus, as well as in their central few hundred parsecs, i.e. narrow line regions. Our previous studies provided insights about 1) a potential cut-off wavelength at > 40 μm of the synchrotron emission from the pc-scale jet close to the core of Cygnus A, 2) the peak emission of the dusty torus occurs at wavelengths > 32 μm in a sample of nearby and bright AGN, and 3) thermal emission from magnetic galactic winds in M82. However, the atmosphere is opaque to the far-IR (FIR) range and observations are impossible from ground-based telescopes and also polarimetric capabilities have been very limited in this wavelength range, which it makes difficult to observationally constraint our previous findings. HAWC+ has open a new window to explore AGN and starburst galaxies, providing the best angular resolution and the solely polarimetric capability within the 50-220 μm range of the current suite of instruments.We here present preliminary results of AGN and starburst galaxies observed with the FIR polarimeter HAWC+ onboard the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). Specifically, our total flux observations of NGC 1068 at 53 μm have shown for the first time the turn-over emission of the dusty torus in the range of 30-40 μm, which it allows us to put tight constraints on the clumpy torus model parameters such as the torus size, ˜6 pc, number and distribution of clouds. Our polarized flux observations of M82, in combination with previously published NIR polarimetric observations, have shown evidences of a galactic magnetic wind at scales of few hundred parsecs.

  6. Wind engineering in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, J.A.; Stigter, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    The International Association for Wind Engineering (IAWE) has very few contacts in Africa, the second-largest continent. This paper reviews important wind-related African issues. They all require data on wind climate, which are very sparse in Africa. Wind engineering in Africa can assist in

  7. Wind energy; Energie eolienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vachey, C.

    2000-05-01

    This public information paper presents the wind energy resource in the Languedoc Roussillon region, explains how a wind turbine works, the different types of utilization and the cost of the wind energy. The environmental impacts of the wind energy, on the noise and the landscape, are also discussed. (A.L.B.)

  8. Dynamical instabilities in magnetohydrodynamic wind-cloud interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda-Barragan, Wladimir Eduardo; Parkin, Elliot Ross; Crocker, Roland M.; Federrath, Christoph; Bicknell, Geoffrey Vincent

    2015-08-01

    We report the results from a comprehensive numerical study that investigates the role of dynamical instabilities in magnetohydrodynamic interactions between winds and spherical clouds in the interstellar medium. The growth of Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities at interfaces between wind and cloud material is responsible for the disruption of clouds and the formation of filamentary tails. We show how different strengths and orientations of the initial magnetic field affect the development of unstable modes and the ultimate morphology of these filaments. In the weak field limit, for example, KH instabilities developing at the flanks of clouds are dominant, whilst they are suppressed when stronger fields are considered. On the other hand, perturbations that originate RT instabilities at the leading edge of clouds are enhanced when fields are locally stronger. The orientation of the field lines also plays an important role in the structure of filaments. Magnetic ropes are key features of systems in which fields are aligned with the wind velocity, whilst current sheets are favoured when the initial field is preferentially transverse to the wind velocity. We compare our findings with analytical predictions obtained from the linear theory of hydromagnetic stability and provide a classification of filamentary tails based on their morphology.

  9. Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Courtney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The technology behind constructing wind farms offshore began to develop in 1991 when the Vindeby wind farm was installed off the Danish coast (11 Bonus 450 kW turbines). Resource assessment, grid connection, and wind farm operation are significant challenges for offshore wind power just...... concern are the problems associated with locating the turbines close together in a wind farm and the problems of placing several large wind farms in a confined area. The environmental impacts of offshore wind farms are also treated, but not the supply chain, that is, the harbors, the installation vessels...

  10. The galactic disk surface mass density and the Galactic force K(z) at z = 1.1 kiloparsecs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuijken, K.; Gilmore, G.

    1991-01-01

    A set of distance and velocity data previously obtained and analyzed is rediscussed to determine the surface mass density of the Galactic disk. These data reliably determine the integral surface mass density of all (disk + halo) Galactic components within 1.1 kpc from the Galactic plane near the sun to be 71 + or 6 solar masses/sq pc, independent of the disk/halo ratio. Determination of the fraction of this total mass which is distributed in the Galactic disk and the fraction which is associated with an extended halo remains highly model-dependent. The best available estimate of the relative contributions of disk mass and halo mass to the local integral surface density, obtained from modeling of the Galactic rotation curve, yields a surface mass density of 48 + or - 9 solar masses/sq pc for mass associated with the Galactic disk near the sun. The corresponding mass of identified disk matter is 48 + or - 8 solar masses/sq pc. 7 refs

  11. Large-amplitude Longitudinal Oscillations in a Solar Filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q. M.; Li, T.; Zheng, R. S.; Su, Y. N.; Ji, H. S.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we report our multiwavelength observations of the large-amplitude longitudinal oscillations of a filament observed on 2015 May 3. Located next to active region 12335, the sigmoidal filament was observed by the ground-based Hα telescopes from the Global Oscillation Network Group and by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The filament oscillations were most probably triggered by the magnetic reconnection in the filament channel, which is characterized by the bidirectional flows, brightenings in EUV and soft X-ray, and magnetic cancellation in the photosphere. The directions of oscillations have angles of 4°-36° with respect to the filament axis. The whole filament did not oscillate in phase as a rigid body. Meanwhile, the oscillation periods (3100-4400 s) have a spatial dependence, implying that the curvature radii (R) of the magnetic dips are different at different positions. The values of R are estimated to be 69.4-133.9 Mm, and the minimum transverse magnetic field of the dips is estimated to be 15 G. The amplitudes of S5-S8 grew with time, while the amplitudes of S9-S14 damped with time. The oscillation amplitudes range from a few to ten Mm, and the maximum velocity can reach 30 km s-1. Interestingly, the filament experienced mass drainage southward at a speed of ˜27 km s-1. The oscillations continued after the mass drainage and lasted for more than 11 hr. After the mass drainage, the oscillation phases did not change much. The periods of S5-S8 decreased, while the periods of S9-S14 increased. The amplitudes of S5-S8 damped with time, while the amplitudes of S9-S14 grew. Most of the damping (growing) ratios are between -9 and 14. We offer a schematic cartoon to explain the complex behaviors of oscillations by introducing thread-thread interaction.

  12. Attractive interactions among intermediate filaments determine network mechanics in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Pawelzyk

    Full Text Available Mechanical and structural properties of K8/K18 and vimentin intermediate filament (IF networks have been investigated using bulk mechanical rheometry and optical microrheology including diffusing wave spectroscopy and multiple particle tracking. A high elastic modulus G0 at low protein concentration c, a weak concentration dependency of G0 (G0 ∼ c(0.5 ± 0.1 and pronounced strain stiffening are found for these systems even without external crossbridgers. Strong attractive interactions among filaments are required to maintain these characteristic mechanical features, which have also been reported for various other IF networks. Filament assembly, the persistence length of the filaments and the network mesh size remain essentially unaffected when a nonionic surfactant is added, but strain stiffening is completely suppressed, G0 drops by orders of magnitude and exhibits a scaling G0 ∼ c(1.9 ± 0.2 in agreement with microrheological measurements and as expected for entangled networks of semi-flexible polymers. Tailless K8Δ/K18ΔT and various other tailless filament networks do not exhibit strain stiffening, but still show high G0 values. Therefore, two binding sites are proposed to exist in IF networks. A weaker one mediated by hydrophobic amino acid clusters in the central rod prevents stretched filaments between adjacent cross-links from thermal equilibration and thus provides the high G0 values. Another strong one facilitating strain stiffening is located in the tail domain with its high fraction of hydrophobic amino acid sequences. Strain stiffening is less pronounced for vimentin than for K8/K18 due to electrostatic repulsion forces partly compensating the strong attraction at filament contact points.

  13. Closely spaced fine filament multifilamentary NbTi strands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, E.; Liu, H.; Seuntjens, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    A series of papers showing the advantages of close spacing and matrix alloying for the development of high J c , fine filament, NbTi materials which have low electrical coupling have appeared in the last seven years. In order to achieve the highest J c 's, it has been shown that close spacing has many advantages. This, however, leads to proximity coupling which has to be overcome by the addition of alloying elements to the matrix between the filaments. Of the three alloying materials normally used for this purpose, Ni, Si, and Mn, the most effective is Mn, which operates by a spin flip scattering mechanism whereas Ni and Si produce decoupling by less effective resistive scattering. Ni and Si, however, harden the matrix more than does the small amount of Mn, [0.5wt%], which has been used in most of the past work on the reduction of proximity coupling. This hardening allows the filaments to be separated to a greater extent than is possible in the case of a pure copper matrix without a significant increase in filament sausaging and a resultant J c decrease. Silicon also has one additional advantage over the other alloying elements in that it reduces the formation of compounds on the surface of the filaments, thus it may obviate the necessity for a Nb barrier layer and thus allow an even greater increase in J c . In this paper the authors explore further some of the effects of the addition of manganese and/or silicon to the matrix between the filaments in an effort to optimize properties at the smaller filament sizes

  14. Galactic Data Viewer, Version 2.08 (by Galactic Industries Corporation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Jack G.

    1998-09-01

    Salem, NH, 1997. Free via download from www.galactic.com. The modern practice of chemistry depends heavily upon instrumentation and the interpretation of the data it provides. At a time when chemical instrumentation is increasing in power, complexity, and cost, the instrumentation budgets of most institutions do not provide the resources necessary to take advantage of any new and improved capability. The result is that discussion of instrumentation not already on hand becomes more an exercise in the abstract and less a chance for students to get direct experience with the data these other methods and techniques provide. Confining lectures, dry-labs, and homework assignments to spectra or chromatograms photocopied from textbooks and journal articles will go only so far when trying to convey a sense of what can be gained from other instrumental methods and what it is to have access to "real" data. Even when instrumentation is available, time constraints may prevent access or utilization for educationally meaningful applications, leaving students in a position to simply accept generalizations as true. A freeware product from Galactic Industries Corp. (Salem, NH), however, provides a means to share actual data from a wide variety of instruments among interested parties, increase student involvement with data, and help overcome the limitations mentioned earlier.

  15. Wind power. [electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  16. Unsteady aerodynamic analysis for offshore floating wind turbines under different wind conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, B F; Wang, T G; Yuan, Y; Cao, J F

    2015-02-28

    A free-vortex wake (FVW) model is developed in this paper to analyse the unsteady aerodynamic performance of offshore floating wind turbines. A time-marching algorithm of third-order accuracy is applied in the FVW model. Owing to the complex floating platform motions, the blade inflow conditions and the positions of initial points of vortex filaments, which are different from the fixed wind turbine, are modified in the implemented model. A three-dimensional rotational effect model and a dynamic stall model are coupled into the FVW model to improve the aerodynamic performance prediction in the unsteady conditions. The effects of floating platform motions in the simulation model are validated by comparison between calculation and experiment for a small-scale rigid test wind turbine coupled with a floating tension leg platform (TLP). The dynamic inflow effect carried by the FVW method itself is confirmed and the results agree well with the experimental data of a pitching transient on another test turbine. Also, the flapping moment at the blade root in yaw on the same test turbine is calculated and compares well with the experimental data. Then, the aerodynamic performance is simulated in a yawed condition of steady wind and in an unyawed condition of turbulent wind, respectively, for a large-scale wind turbine coupled with the floating TLP motions, demonstrating obvious differences in rotor performance and blade loading from the fixed wind turbine. The non-dimensional magnitudes of loading changes due to the floating platform motions decrease from the blade root to the blade tip. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. RESONANT CLUMPING AND SUBSTRUCTURE IN GALACTIC DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, Matthew; Smith, Martin C.; Shen, Juntai; Evans, N. Wyn

    2015-01-01

    We describe a method to extract resonant orbits from N-body simulations, exploiting the fact that they close in frames rotating with a constant pattern speed. Our method is applied to the N-body simulation of the Milky Way by Shen et al. This simulation hosts a massive bar, which drives strong resonances and persistent angular momentum exchange. Resonant orbits are found throughout the disk, both close to the bar and out to the very edges of the disk. Using Fourier spectrograms, we demonstrate that the bar is driving kinematic substructure even in the very outer parts of the disk. We identify two major orbit families in the outskirts of the disk, one of which makes significant contributions to the kinematic landscape, namely, the m:l = 3:−2 family, resonating with the bar. A mechanism is described that produces bimodal distributions of Galactocentric radial velocities at selected azimuths in the outer disk. It occurs as a result of the temporal coherence of particles on the 3:−2 resonant orbits, which causes them to arrive simultaneously at pericenter or apocenter. This resonant clumping, due to the in-phase motion of the particles through their epicycle, leads to both inward and outward moving groups that belong to the same orbital family and consequently produce bimodal radial velocity distributions. This is a possible explanation of the bimodal velocity distributions observed toward the Galactic anticenter by Liu et al. Another consequence is that transient overdensities appear and dissipate (in a symmetric fashion), resulting in a periodic pulsing of the disk’s surface density

  18. Assessment of galactic cosmic ray models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrigakshi, Alankrita Isha; Matthiä, Daniel; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Günther; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.

    2012-08-01

    Among several factors involved in the development of a manned space mission concept, the astronauts' health is a major concern that needs to be considered carefully. Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), which mainly consist of high-energetic nuclei ranging from hydrogen to iron and beyond, pose a major radiation health risk in long-term space missions. It is therefore required to assess the radiation exposure of astronauts in order to estimate their radiation risks. This can be done either by performing direct measurements or by making computer based simulations from which the dose can be derived. A necessary prerequisite for an accurate estimation of the exposure using simulations is a reliable description of the GCR spectra. The aim of this work is to compare GCR models and to test their applicability for the exposure assessment of astronauts. To achieve this, commonly used models capable of describing both light and heavy GCR particle spectra were evaluated by investigating the model spectra for various particles over several decades. The updated Badhwar-O'Neill model published in the year 2010, CREME2009 which uses the International Standard model for GCR, CREME96 and the Burger-Usoskin model were examined. Hydrogen, helium, oxygen and iron nuclei spectra calculated by the different models are compared with measurements from various high-altitude balloon and space-borne experiments. During certain epochs in the last decade, there are large discrepancies between the GCR energy spectra described by the models and the measurements. All the models exhibit weaknesses in describing the increased GCR flux that was observed in 2009-2010.

  19. FROM GALACTIC TO EXTRAGALACTIC JETS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Beall

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the data that have recently become available from observing campaigns, including VLA, VLBA, and satellite instruments, shows some remarkable similarities and significant differences in the data from some epochs of galactic microquasars, including GRS 1915+105, the concurrent radio and X-ray data [3] on Centaurus A (NGC 5128, 3C120 [35], and 3C454.3 as reported by Bonning et al. [16], which showed the first results from the Fermi Space Telescope for the concurrent variability at optical, UV, IR, and g-ray variability of that source. In combination with observations from microquasars and quasars from the MOJAVE Collaboration [32], these data provide time-dependent evolutions of radio data at mas (i.e., parsec for AGNs, and Astronomical Unit scales for microquasars. These sources all show a remarkable richness of patterns of variability for astrophysical jets across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. It is likely that these patterns of variability arise from the complex structures through which the jets propagate, but it is also possible that the jets constitution, initial energy, and collimation have significant observational consequences. On the other hand, Ulrich et al. [42] suggest that this picture is complicated for radio-quiet AGN by the presence of significant emission from accretion disks in those sources. Consistent with the jet-ambient-medium hypothesis, the observed concurrent radio and X-ray variability of Centaurus A [3] could have been caused by the launch of a jet element from Cen A’s central source and that jet’s interaction with the interstellar medium in the core region of that galaxy.

  20. ON THE FORMATION OF GALACTIC THICK DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minchev, I.; Streich, D.; Scannapieco, C.; De Jong, R. S.; Steinmetz, M. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Martig, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Recent spectroscopic observations in the Milky Way suggest that the chemically defined thick disk (stars that have high [α/Fe] ratios and are thus old) has a significantly smaller scale-length than the thin disk. This is in apparent contradiction with observations of external edge-on galaxies, where the thin and thick components have comparable scale-lengths. Moreover, while observed disks do not flare (scale-height does not increase with radius), numerical simulations suggest that disk flaring is unavoidable, resulting from both environmental effects and secular evolution. Here we address these problems by studying two different suites of simulated galactic disks formed in the cosmological context. We show that the scale-heights of coeval populations always increase with radius. However, the total population can be decomposed morphologically into thin and thick disks, which do not flare. We relate this to the disk inside-out formation, where younger populations have increasingly larger scale-lengths and flare at progressively larger radii. In this new picture, thick disks are composed of the imbedded flares of mono-age stellar populations. Assuming that disks form inside out, we predict that morphologically defined thick disks must show a decrease in age (or [α/Fe] ratios) with radius and that coeval populations should always flare. This also explains the observed inversion in the metallicity and [α/Fe] gradients for stars away from the disk midplane in the Milky Way. The results of this work are directly linked to, and can be seen as evidence of, inside-out disk growth.

  1. Deciphering Galactic Hydrogen with 21-SPONGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Claire; Stanimirovic, Snezana; Goss, Miller; Heiles, Carl E.; Miller Dickey, John; Lindner, Robert; Babler, Brian L.

    2017-01-01

    Neutral hydrogen (HI) in the interstellar medium (ISM) is crucial to the life cycles of galaxies. The balance between disparate phases of HI -- including the cold neutral (CNM) and warm neutral (WNM) medium -- governs the formation of dense, star-forming material, and reflects the nature of feedback in galaxies. To probe the multi-phase structure of HI, we present results from 21-SPONGE: the largest and most sensitive survey for Galactic HI absorption ever at the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). Complemented by HI emission from the Arecibo Observatory, 21-SPONGE is uniquely sensitive to CNM and WNM temperatures from 10-104 K and column densities from 1018-1022 cm-2. Despite our unprecedented sensitivity, the maximum temperature we detect for individual spectral lines is Ts~1500 K, although stacking analysis of 21-SPONGE absorption lines indicates the presence of pervasive, high-Ts WNM population with Ts~7000 K. To understand the physics underlying these results, we developed Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), a Python-based tool for efficiently and objectively analyzing spectral lines. By applying AGD to 21-SPONGE and 1000s of synthetic HI spectra from 3D numerical simulations, we correct our measurements for completeness and observational biases. We further prove that we can successfully recover the temperatures and densities of real clouds along simulated lines of sight. In addition, we show that absorption line shapes are sensitive to the strength and topology of the Lyman alpha radiation field and its role in HI excitation, which are poorly-constrained yet important for understanding the energy balance of the ISM. Our results are among the first to statistically quantify the success of observational methods at reproducing true HI properties, and represent crucial steps towards understanding the role of HI in star formation.

  2. Dark Matter Annihilation at the Galactic Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linden, Timothy Ryan [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Observations by the WMAP and PLANCK satellites have provided extraordinarily accurate observations on the densities of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy in the universe. These observations indicate that our universe is composed of approximately ve times as much dark matter as baryonic matter. However, e orts to detect a particle responsible for the energy density of dark matter have been unsuccessful. Theoretical models have indicated that a leading candidate for the dark matter is the lightest supersymmetric particle, which may be stable due to a conserved R-parity. This dark matter particle would still be capable of interacting with baryons via weak-force interactions in the early universe, a process which was found to naturally explain the observed relic abundance of dark matter today. These residual annihilations can persist, albeit at a much lower rate, in the present universe, providing a detectable signal from dark matter annihilation events which occur throughout the universe. Simulations calculating the distribution of dark matter in our galaxy almost universally predict the galactic center of the Milky Way Galaxy (GC) to provide the brightest signal from dark matter annihilation due to its relative proximity and large simulated dark matter density. Recent advances in telescope technology have allowed for the rst multiwavelength analysis of the GC, with suitable e ective exposure, angular resolution, and energy resolution in order to detect dark matter particles with properties similar to those predicted by the WIMP miracle. In this work, I describe ongoing e orts which have successfully detected an excess in -ray emission from the region immediately surrounding the GC, which is di cult to describe in terms of standard di use emission predicted in the GC region. While the jury is still out on any dark matter interpretation of this excess, I describe several related observations which may indicate a dark matter origin. Finally, I discuss the

  3. Evolution of the Oort Cloud under Galactic Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, A.; Kokubo, E.; Mukai, T.

    2005-08-01

    The Oort cloud is a spherical comet reservoir surrounding the solar system. There is general agreement that the Oort cloud comets are the residual planetesimals of planet formation. The standard scenario of the Oort cloud formation consists of two dynamical stages: (1) giant planets raise the aphelia of planetesimals to the outer region of the solar system and (2) the galactic tide, passing stars, and giant molecular clouds pull up their perihelia out of the planetary region and randomize their inclinations. Here we show the orbital evolution of planetesimals due to the galactic tide. Planetesimals with large aphelion distances change their perihelion distances toward the outside of the planetary region by the galactic tide and become members of the Oort cloud. We consider only the vertical component of the galactic tide because it is dominant compared to other components. Then, under such an axi-symmetric assumption, some planetesimals may show the librations around ω (argument of perihelion)=π /2 or 3π /2 (the Kozai mechanism). The alternate increases of eccentricity and inclination of the Kozai mechanism are effective to form the Oort cloud. Using the secular perturbation theory, we can understand the motion of the planetesimals analytically. We applied the Kozai mechanism to the galactic tide and found that the galactic tide raise perihelia and randomize inclinations of planetesimals with semimajor axes larger than ˜ 103 AU in 5Gyr. We take into account time evolution of the local galactic density, which is thought to be denser in the early stage of the sun than the current one. This work was supported by the 21st Century COE Program Origin and Evolution of Planetary Systems of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology, Japan, and JSPS Research Fellowship for Young Scientists.

  4. Simulated Galactic methanol maser distribution to constrain Milky Way parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga-Nuñez, L. H.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Reid, M. J.; Green, J. A.

    2017-08-01

    Context. Using trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions of masers associated with massive young stars, the Bar and Spiral Structure Legacy (BeSSeL) survey has reported the most accurate values of the Galactic parameters so far. The determination of these parameters with high accuracy has a widespread impact on Galactic and extragalactic measurements. Aims: This research is aimed at establishing the confidence with which such parameters can be determined. This is relevant for the data published in the context of the BeSSeL survey collaboration, but also for future observations, in particular from the southern hemisphere. In addition, some astrophysical properties of the masers can be constrained, notably the luminosity function. Methods: We have simulated the population of maser-bearing young stars associated with Galactic spiral structure, generating several samples and comparing them with the observed samples used in the BeSSeL survey. Consequently, we checked the determination of Galactic parameters for observational biases introduced by the sample selection. Results: Galactic parameters obtained by the BeSSeL survey do not seem to be biased by the sample selection used. In fact, the published error estimates appear to be conservative for most of the parameters. We show that future BeSSeL data and future observations with southern arrays will improve the Galactic parameters estimates and smoothly reduce their mutual correlation. Moreover, by modeling future parallax data with larger distance values and, thus, greater relative uncertainties for a larger numbers of sources, we found that parallax-distance biasing is an important issue. Hence, using fractional parallax uncertainty in the weighting of the motion data is imperative. Finally, the luminosity function for 6.7 GHz methanol masers was determined, allowing us to estimate the number of Galactic methanol masers.

  5. OSSE observations of galactic 511 keV annihilation radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, W. R.; Grabelsky, D. A.; Johnson, W. N.; Jung, G. V.; Kinzer, R. L.; Kurfess, J. D.; Strickman, M. S.; Ulmer, M. P.

    1992-01-01

    The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory has performed several observations of the galactic plane and galactic center region to measure the distribution of galactic 511 keV positron annihilation radiation. Preliminary analysis of data collected during the observation of the galactic center region over the period 13-24 Jun. 1991, indicates the presence of a 511 keV line and positronium continuum superimposed on a power-law continuum. The line of flux was found to be (2.7 +/- 0.5) x 10(exp -4) gamma/sq cm sec, with a positronium fraction of (0.9 +/- 0.2). The 3(sigma) upper limit to daily variations in the 511 keV line flux from the mean during the observation interval is 3 x 10(exp -4) gamma/sq cm sec. If all of the observed annihilation radiation is assumed to originate from the x-ray source 1E 1740.7-2942, the corresponding 511 keV line flux would be (3.0 +/- 0.6) x 10(exp -4) gamma/sq cm sec. The 3(sigma) upper limit for 511 keV line emission from the x-ray binary GX1+4 is 6 x 10(exp -4) gamma/sq cm sec. Results from the galactic plane observations at galactic longitudes of 25 degrees (16-21 Aug. 1991) and 339 degrees (6-11 Sep. 1991) suggest that the emission is concentrated near the galactic center. The observations and the preliminary results are described.

  6. Magnetic Fields in the Massive Dense Cores of the DR21 Filament: Weakly Magnetized Cores in a Strongly Magnetized Filament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ching, Tao-Chung; Lai, Shih-Ping [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Zhang, Qizhou; Girart, Josep M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge MA 02138 (United States); Qiu, Keping [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing 210023 (China); Liu, Hauyu B., E-mail: chingtaochung@gmail.com [European Southern Observatory (ESO), Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-04-01

    We present Submillimeter Array 880 μ m dust polarization observations of six massive dense cores in the DR21 filament. The dust polarization shows complex magnetic field structures in the massive dense cores with sizes of 0.1 pc, in contrast to the ordered magnetic fields of the parsec-scale filament. The major axes of the massive dense cores appear to be aligned either parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic fields of the filament, indicating that the parsec-scale magnetic fields play an important role in the formation of the massive dense cores. However, the correlation between the major axes of the cores and the magnetic fields of the cores is less significant, suggesting that during the core formation, the magnetic fields below 0.1 pc scales become less important than the magnetic fields above 0.1 pc scales in supporting a core against gravity. Our analysis of the angular dispersion functions of the observed polarization segments yields a plane-of-sky magnetic field strength of 0.4–1.7 mG for the massive dense cores. We estimate the kinematic, magnetic, and gravitational virial parameters of the filament and the cores. The virial parameters show that the gravitational energy in the filament dominates magnetic and kinematic energies, while the kinematic energy dominates in the cores. Our work suggests that although magnetic fields may play an important role in a collapsing filament, the kinematics arising from gravitational collapse must become more important than magnetic fields during the evolution from filaments to massive dense cores.

  7. A comparison study of a solar active-region eruptive filament and a neighboring non-eruptive filament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Chao-Wei; Feng, Xue-Shang; Wu, Shi-Tsan; Hu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Solar active region (AR) 11283 is a very magnetically complex region and it has produced many eruptions. However, there exists a non-eruptive filament in the plage region just next to an eruptive one in the AR, which gives us an opportunity to perform a comparison analysis of these two filaments. The coronal magnetic field extrapolated using our CESE–MHD–NLFFF code reveals that two magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) exist in the same extrapolation box supporting these two filaments, respectively. Analysis of the magnetic field shows that the eruptive MFR contains a bald-patch separatrix surface (BPSS) cospatial very well with a pre-eruptive EUV sigmoid, which is consistent with the BPSS model for coronal sigmoids. The magnetic dips of the non-eruptive MFRs match Hα observation of the non-eruptive filament strikingly well, which strongly supports the MFR-dip model for filaments. Compared with the non-eruptive MFR/filament (with a length of about 200 Mm), the eruptive MFR/filament is much smaller (with a length of about 20 Mm), but it contains most of the magnetic free energy in the extrapolation box and holds a much higher free energy density than the non-eruptive one. Both the MFRs are weakly twisted and cannot trigger kink instability. The AR eruptive MFR is unstable because its axis reaches above a critical height for torus instability, at which the overlying closed arcades can no longer confine the MFR stably. On the contrary, the quiescent MFR is very firmly held by its overlying field, as its axis apex is far below the torus-instability threshold height. Overall, this comparison investigation supports that an MFR can exist prior to eruption and the ideal MHD instability can trigger an MFR eruption. (paper)

  8. A comparison study of a solar active-region eruptive filament and a neighboring non-eruptive filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao-Wei; Wu, Shi-Tsan; Feng, Xue-Shang; Hu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Solar active region (AR) 11283 is a very magnetically complex region and it has produced many eruptions. However, there exists a non-eruptive filament in the plage region just next to an eruptive one in the AR, which gives us an opportunity to perform a comparison analysis of these two filaments. The coronal magnetic field extrapolated using our CESE-MHD-NLFFF code reveals that two magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) exist in the same extrapolation box supporting these two filaments, respectively. Analysis of the magnetic field shows that the eruptive MFR contains a bald-patch separatrix surface (BPSS) cospatial very well with a pre-eruptive EUV sigmoid, which is consistent with the BPSS model for coronal sigmoids. The magnetic dips of the non-eruptive MFRs match Hα observation of the non-eruptive filament strikingly well, which strongly supports the MFR-dip model for filaments. Compared with the non-eruptive MFR/filament (with a length of about 200 Mm), the eruptive MFR/filament is much smaller (with a length of about 20 Mm), but it contains most of the magnetic free energy in the extrapolation box and holds a much higher free energy density than the non-eruptive one. Both the MFRs are weakly twisted and cannot trigger kink instability. The AR eruptive MFR is unstable because its axis reaches above a critical height for torus instability, at which the overlying closed arcades can no longer confine the MFR stably. On the contrary, the quiescent MFR is very firmly held by its overlying field, as its axis apex is far below the torus-instability threshold height. Overall, this comparison investigation supports that an MFR can exist prior to eruption and the ideal MHD instability can trigger an MFR eruption.

  9. Rapid Formation and Disappearance of a Filament Barb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anand D.; Srivastava, Nandita; Mathew, Shibu K.; Martin, Sara F.

    2013-11-01

    We present observations of an activated quiescent filament obtained in Hα from the high-resolution Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on 20 August 2010. The filament developed a barb in 10 min, which disappeared within the next 35 min. A data set from the DOT spanning 2 h was used to analyse this event. Line-of-sight velocity maps were constructed from the Doppler images, which reveal flows in filament spine during this period. Photospheric magnetograms were used from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to determine the changes in magnetic flux in the region surrounding the barb location. The analysis shows flows in the filament spine towards the barb location preceding its formation, and flows in the barb towards the spine during its disappearance. Magnetograms reveal patches of minority polarity flux close to the end of the barb at its greatest elongation. The flows in the spine and barbs are along numerous threads that compose these typical filament structures. The flows are consistent with field-aligned threads and demonstrate that the replacement time of the mass in barbs, and by inference, in the spine is very rapid.

  10. High-Resolution Observations of a Filament showing Activated Barb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anand; Martin, Sara F.; Mathew, Shibu; Srivastava, Nandita

    2012-07-01

    Analysis of a filament showing an activated barb using observations from the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on 2010 August 20 are presented. The DOT takes Doppler images in Hα, among other wavelengths, in a region about 110 × 110 arcsec^{2} in area, at a cadence of 30~seconds. The offline image restoration technique of speckle reconstruction is applied to obtain diffraction limited images. The filament developed a new barb in 10~minutes, which disappeared within the next 35~minutes. Such a rapid formation and disappearance of a filament barb is unusual, and has not been reported earlier. Line-of-sight velocity maps were constructed from the Doppler images of the target filament. We observe flows in the filament spine towards the barb location prior to its formation, and flows in the barb towards the spine during its disappearance. Photospheric magnetograms from Heliospheric Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, at a cadence of 45~seconds, were used to determine the changes in magnetic flux in the region surrounding the barb location. The variation of magnetic flux in this duration supports the view that barbs are rooted in minor magnetic polarity. Our analysis shows that barbs can be short-lived and formation and disappearance of the barb was associated with cancellation of magnetic flux.

  11. Morphological indictors of the chirality of solar filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, B. P.

    2017-10-01

    There is no doubt that the structural features of filaments reflect properties of their magnetic fields, such as chirality and helicity. However, the interpretation of some morphological features can lead to incorrect conclusions when the observing time is limited and the spatial resolution is insufficiently high. In spite of the relative constancy of their overall shapes, filaments are dynamical formations with inhomogeneities moving along the threads making them up. Therefore, it is possible to observe material concentrated not only in magnetic traps, but also along curved arcs. Difficulties often arise in determining the chirality of filaments with anomalous "barbs"; i.e., those whose jagged side is located on the opposite side of the axis compared to most ("normal") filaments. A simple model is used to show that anomalous barbs can exist in an ordinary magnetic flux rope, with the threads of its fine structure oriented nearly perpendicular to its length. A careful analysis of images with the maximum available spatial resolution and with information about temporal dynamics, together with comparisons with observations in various spectral lines, can enable a correct determination of the chirality of filaments.

  12. Ack kinase regulates CTP synthase filaments during Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strochlic, Todd I; Stavrides, Kevin P; Thomas, Sam V; Nicolas, Emmanuelle; O'Reilly, Alana M; Peterson, Jeffrey R

    2014-11-01

    The enzyme CTP synthase (CTPS) dynamically assembles into macromolecular filaments in bacteria, yeast, Drosophila, and mammalian cells, but the role of this morphological reorganization in regulating CTPS activity is controversial. During Drosophila oogenesis, CTPS filaments are transiently apparent in ovarian germline cells during a period of intense genomic endoreplication and stockpiling of ribosomal RNA. Here, we demonstrate that CTPS filaments are catalytically active and that their assembly is regulated by the non-receptor tyrosine kinase DAck, the Drosophila homologue of mammalian Ack1 (activated cdc42-associated kinase 1), which we find also localizes to CTPS filaments. Egg chambers from flies deficient in DAck or lacking DAck catalytic activity exhibit disrupted CTPS filament architecture and morphological defects that correlate with reduced fertility. Furthermore, ovaries from these flies exhibit reduced levels of total RNA, suggesting that DAck may regulate CTP synthase activity. These findings highlight an unexpected function for DAck and provide insight into a novel pathway for the developmental control of an essential metabolic pathway governing nucleotide biosynthesis. © 2014 The Authors.

  13. Studies of the laser filament instability in a semicollisional plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, P.; Labaune, C.; Weber, S.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.; Bonnaud, G.; Riazuelo, G.; Walraet, F.

    2003-01-01

    The stability and nonlinear evolution of a laser filament in an underdense, semicollisional plasma are studied with a simulation code accounting for the ponderomotive and thermal effects together with the nonlocal electron transport. It is found that the filament is stable at low intensities, where the trapped laser power is below the self-focusing threshold. For larger powers, the filament is unstable with respect to bending. This instability, though predicted in theory (the m=1 mode), has not been seen so far in monospeckle modelling probably because of simulation symmetry. In our simulations an artificial noise source has been implemented in order to make nonsymmetric features appear. The instability leads to a complete breakup of the filament which reconstructs itself after some time and the process then repeats itself. Due to the filament instability the plasma sets in a regime of self-supported oscillations and results in temporal modulation and angular spreading of transmitted light. The numerical simulations are compared with theoretical predictions and experimental observations of speckle dynamics in the interaction of a randomized laser beam with preformed plasmas

  14. Climatic wind tunnel for wind engineering tasks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuznetsov, Sergeii; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Král, Radomil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, 2-B (2015), s. 303-316 ISSN 1897-628X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12892S Keywords : climatic tunnel * wind tunnel * atmospheric boundary layer * flow resistance * wind tunnel contraction Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering https://suw.biblos.pk.edu.pl/resources/i5/i6/i6/i7/i6/r56676/KuznetsovS_ClimaticWind.pdf

  15. 74 MHz nonthermal emission from molecular clouds: evidence for a cosmic ray dominated region at the galactic center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F; Wardle, M; Lis, D; Viti, S; Brogan, C; Chambers, E; Pound, M; Rickert, M

    2013-10-03

    We present 74 MHz radio continuum observations of the Galactic center region. These measurements show nonthermal radio emission arising from molecular clouds that is unaffected by free–free absorption along the line of sight. We focus on one cloud, G0.13-0.13, representative of the population of molecular clouds that are spatially correlated with steep spectrum (α(327MHz)(74MHz) = 1.3 ± 0.3) nonthermal emission from the Galactic center region. This cloud lies adjacent to the nonthermal radio filaments of the Arc near l 0.2° and is a strong source of 74 MHz continuum, SiO (2-1), and Fe I Kα 6.4 keV line emission. This three-way correlation provides the most compelling evidence yet that relativistic electrons, here traced by 74 MHz emission, are physically associated with the G0.13-0.13 molecular cloud and that low-energy cosmic ray electrons are responsible for the Fe I Kα line emission. The high cosmic ray ionization rate 10(–1)3 s(–1) H(–1) is responsible for heating the molecular gas to high temperatures and allows the disturbed gas to maintain a high-velocity dispersion. Large velocity gradient (LVG) modeling of multitransition SiO observations of this cloud implies H2 densities 10(4–5) cm(–3) and high temperatures. The lower limit to the temperature of G0.13-0.13 is 100 K, whereas the upper limit is as high as 1000 K. Lastly, we used a time-dependent chemical model in which cosmic rays drive the chemistry of the gas to investigate for molecular line diagnostics of cosmic ray heating. When the cloud reaches chemical equilibrium, the abundance ratios of HCN/HNC and N2H+/HCO+ are consistent with measured values. In addition, significant abundance of SiO is predicted in the cosmic ray dominated region of the Galactic center. We discuss different possibilities to account for the origin of widespread SiO emission detected from Galactic center molecular clouds.

  16. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama; Badger, Jake

    2006-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  17. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  18. Filamentous hydrous ferric oxide biosignatures in a pipeline carrying acid mine drainage at Iron Mountain Mine, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amy J.; Alpers, Charles N.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Campbell, Kate M.

    2017-01-01

    A pipeline carrying acidic mine effluent at Iron Mountain, CA, developed Fe(III)-rich precipitate caused by oxidation of Fe(II)aq. The native microbial community in the pipe included filamentous microbes. The pipe scale consisted of microbial filaments, and schwertmannite (ferric oxyhydroxysulfate, FOHS) mineral spheres and filaments. FOHS filaments contained central lumina with diameters similar to those of microbial filaments. FOHS filament geometry, the geochemical environment, and the presence of filamentous microbes suggest that FOHS filaments are mineralized microbial filaments. This formation of textural biosignatures provides the basis for a conceptual model for the development and preservation of biosignatures in other environments.

  19. 360-degree videos: a new visualization technique for astrophysical simulations, applied to the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    360-degree videos are a new type of movie that renders over all 4π steradian. Video sharing sites such as YouTube now allow this unique content to be shared via virtual reality (VR) goggles, hand-held smartphones/tablets, and computers. Creating 360-degree videos from astrophysical simulations not only provide a new way to view these simulations due to their immersive nature, but also yield engaging content for outreach to the public. We present our 360-degree video of an astrophysical simulation of the Galactic center: a hydrodynamics calculation of the colliding and accreting winds of the 30 Wolf-Rayet stars orbiting within the central parsec. Viewing the movie, which renders column density, from the location of the supermassive black hole gives a unique and immersive perspective of the shocked wind material inspiraling and tidally stretching as it plummets toward the black hole. We also describe how to create such movies, discuss what type of content does and does not look appealing in 360-degree format, and briefly comment on what new science can be extracted from astrophysical simulations using 360-degree videos.

  20. Extreme wind estimate for Hornsea wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo

    The purpose of this study is to provide estimation of the 50-year winds of 10 min and 1-s gust value at hub height of 100 m, as well as the design parameter shear exponent for the Hornsea offshore wind farm. The turbulence intensity required for estimating the gust value is estimated using two ap....... The greatest sector-wise extreme winds are from west to northwest. Different data, different periods and different methods have provided a range of values of the 50-year wind and accordingly the gust values, as summarized in Table 15.......The purpose of this study is to provide estimation of the 50-year winds of 10 min and 1-s gust value at hub height of 100 m, as well as the design parameter shear exponent for the Hornsea offshore wind farm. The turbulence intensity required for estimating the gust value is estimated using two...... approaches. One is through the measurements from the wind Doppler lidar, WindCube, which implies serious uncertainty, and the other one is through similarity theory for the atmospheric surface layer where the hub height is likely to belong to during strong storms. The turbulence intensity for storm wind...