WorldWideScience

Sample records for galactic plane ii

  1. THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. II. CATALOG OF THE IMAGE DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosolowsky, Erik; Dunham, Miranda K.; Evans, Neal J.; Harvey, Paul; Ginsburg, Adam; Bally, John; Battersby, Cara; Glenn, Jason; Stringfellow, Guy S.; Bradley, E. Todd; Aguirre, James; Cyganowski, Claudia; Dowell, Darren; Drosback, Meredith; Walawender, Josh; Williams, Jonathan P.

    2010-01-01

    We present a catalog of 8358 sources extracted from images produced by the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS). The BGPS is a survey of the millimeter dust continuum emission from the northern Galactic plane. The catalog sources are extracted using a custom algorithm, Bolocat, which was designed specifically to identify and characterize objects in the large-area maps generated from the Bolocam instrument. The catalog products are designed to facilitate follow-up observations of these relatively unstudied objects. The catalog is 98% complete from 0.4 Jy to 60 Jy over all object sizes for which the survey is sensitive ( -2.4±0.1 and that the mean Galactic latitude for sources is significantly below the midplane: (b) = (-0. 0 095 ± 0. 0 001).

  2. Radioactivity in the galactic plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walraven, G. D.; Haymes, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reports the detection of a large concentration of interstellar radioactivity during balloon-altitude measurements of gamma-ray energy spectra in the band between 0.02 and 12.27 MeV from galactic and extragalactic sources. Enhanced counting rates were observed in three directions towards the plane of the Galaxy; a power-law energy spectrum is computed for one of these directions (designated B 10). A large statistical deviation from the power law in a 1.0-FWHM interval centered near 1.16 MeV is discussed, and the existence of a nuclear gamma-ray line at 1.15 MeV in B 10 is postulated. It is suggested that Ca-44, which emits gamma radiation at 1.156 MeV following the decay of radioactive Sc-44, is a likely candidate for this line, noting that Sc-44 arises from Ti-44 according to explosive models of supernova nucleosynthesis. The 1.16-MeV line flux inferred from the present data is shown to equal the predicted flux for a supernova at a distance of approximately 3 kpc and an age not exceeding about 100 years.

  3. H II REGION DRIVEN GALACTIC BUBBLES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO THE GALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavel, Michael D.; Clemens, D. P., E-mail: pavelmi@bu.edu, E-mail: clemens@bu.edu [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The relative alignments of mid-infrared traced Galactic bubbles are compared to the orientation of the mean Galactic magnetic field in the disk. The orientations of bubbles in the northern Galactic plane were measured and are consistent with random orientations-no preferential alignment with respect to the Galactic disk was found. A subsample of H II region driven Galactic bubbles was identified, and as a single population they show random orientations. When this subsample was further divided into subthermal and suprathermal H II regions, based on hydrogen radio recombination linewidths, the subthermal H II regions showed a marginal deviation from random orientations, but the suprathermal H II regions showed significant alignment with the Galactic plane. The mean orientation of the Galactic disk magnetic field was characterized using new near-infrared starlight polarimetry and the suprathermal H II regions were found to preferentially align with the disk magnetic field. If suprathermal linewidths are associated with younger H II regions, then the evolution of young H II regions is significantly affected by the Galactic magnetic field. As H II regions age, they cease to be strongly linked to the Galactic magnetic field, as surrounding density variations come to dominate their morphological evolution. From the new observations, the ratios of magnetic-to-ram pressures in the expanding ionization fronts were estimated for younger H II regions.

  4. A NEAR-INFRARED SURVEY OF THE INNER GALACTIC PLANE FOR WOLF-RAYET STARS. II. GOING FAINTER: 71 MORE NEW W-R STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shara, Michael M.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Zurek, David [American Museum of Natural History, 79th Street and Central Park West, New York, NY 10024-5192 (United States); Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Doyon, Rene [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128, Succ. C-V, Montreal, QC, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Gerke, Jill [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210-1173 (United States); Artigau, Etienne; Drissen, Laurent, E-mail: mshara@amnh.org, E-mail: jfaherty@amnh.org, E-mail: dzurek@amnh.org, E-mail: moffat@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: doyon@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: gerke@astronomy.ohio-state.edu, E-mail: artigau@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: ldrissen@phy.ulaval.ca [Departement de Physique, Universite Laval, Pavillon Vachon, Quebec City, QC, G1K 7P4 (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    We are continuing a J, K and narrowband imaging survey of 300 deg{sup 2} of the plane of the Galaxy, searching for new Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars. Our survey spans 150 Degree-Sign in Galactic longitude and reaches 1 Degree-Sign above and below the Galactic plane. The survey has a useful limiting magnitude of K = 15 over most of the observed Galactic plane, and K = 14 (due to severe crowding) within a few degrees of the Galactic center. Thousands of emission-line candidates have been detected. In spectrographic follow-ups of 146 relatively bright W-R star candidates, we have re-examined 11 previously known WC and WN stars and discovered 71 new W-R stars, 17 of type WN and 54 of type WC. Our latest image analysis pipeline now picks out W-R stars with a 57% success rate. Star subtype assignments have been confirmed with the K-band spectra and distances approximated using the method of spectroscopic parallax. Some of the new W-R stars are among the most distant known in our Galaxy. The distribution of these new W-R stars is beginning to trace the locations of massive stars along the distant spiral arms of the Milky Way.

  5. A NEAR-INFRARED SURVEY OF THE INNER GALACTIC PLANE FOR WOLF-RAYET STARS. II. GOING FAINTER: 71 MORE NEW W-R STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shara, Michael M.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Zurek, David; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Doyon, René; Gerke, Jill; Artigau, Etienne; Drissen, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    We are continuing a J, K and narrowband imaging survey of 300 deg 2 of the plane of the Galaxy, searching for new Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars. Our survey spans 150° in Galactic longitude and reaches 1° above and below the Galactic plane. The survey has a useful limiting magnitude of K = 15 over most of the observed Galactic plane, and K = 14 (due to severe crowding) within a few degrees of the Galactic center. Thousands of emission-line candidates have been detected. In spectrographic follow-ups of 146 relatively bright W-R star candidates, we have re-examined 11 previously known WC and WN stars and discovered 71 new W-R stars, 17 of type WN and 54 of type WC. Our latest image analysis pipeline now picks out W-R stars with a 57% success rate. Star subtype assignments have been confirmed with the K-band spectra and distances approximated using the method of spectroscopic parallax. Some of the new W-R stars are among the most distant known in our Galaxy. The distribution of these new W-R stars is beginning to trace the locations of massive stars along the distant spiral arms of the Milky Way.

  6. First results from the INTEGRAL galactic plane scans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, C.; Gehrels, N.; Schonfelder, V.

    2003-01-01

    Scans of the Galactic plane performed at regular intervals constitute a key element of the guaranteed time observations of the INTEGRAL observing programme. These scans are done for two reasons: frequent monitoring of the Galactic plane in order to detect transient sources, and time resolved mapp...... mapping of the Galactic plane in continuum and diffuse line emission. This paper describes first results obtained from the Galactic plane scans executed so far during the early phase (Dec. 2002-May 2003) of the nominal mission.......Scans of the Galactic plane performed at regular intervals constitute a key element of the guaranteed time observations of the INTEGRAL observing programme. These scans are done for two reasons: frequent monitoring of the Galactic plane in order to detect transient sources, and time resolved...

  7. Hi-GAL: The Herschel Infrared Galactic Plane Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Molinari, S.; Swinyard, B.; Bally, J.; Barlow, M.; Bernard, J.-P.; Martin, P.; Moore, T.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Plume, R.; Testi, L.; Zavagno, A.; Abergel, A.; Ali, B.; André, P.; Baluteau, J.-P.

    2010-01-01

    Hi-GAL, the Herschel infrared Galactic Plane Survey, is an Open Time Key Project of the Herschel Space Observatory. It will make an unbiased photometric survey of the inner Galactic plane by mapping a 2° wide strip in the longitude range ∣l∣ < 60° in five wavebands between 70 μm and 500 μm. The aim of Hi-GAL is to detect the earliest phases of the formation of molecular clouds and high-mass stars and to use the optimum combination of Herschel wavelength coverage, sensitivity, mapping strategy...

  8. Neutrino fluxes from the Galactic plane and the ANTARES limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Luigi Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of cosmic neutrinos has been reported by the IceCube Collaboration. Though this measurement is consistent with an isotropic neutrino flux, a sub-dominant galactic component coming from extended regions such as the Galactic Plane cannot be excluded. The ANTARES detector, located in the Mediterranean Sea, is currently the largest and longest operated under-water neutrino telescope; its effective area and good exposure to the Southern Sky allow to constrain an enhanced muon neutrino emission from extended sources such as the Galactic Plane. ANTARES data from 2007 to 2013 have been analysed and upper limits on the neutrino production from the central region of our galaxy have been set.

  9. Distribution of Interstellar Reddening Material in the Galactic Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulhee Kim

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available By using the recently determined color excess and distance data of classical cepheids by Kim(1985, the distribution of interstellar reddening material was studied to see the general picture of the average rate of interstellar absorption out to about 7-8kpc in the Galactic plane in various directions from the sun.

  10. The H.E.S.S. Galactic plane survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. E. S. S. Collaboration; Abdalla, H.; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Benkhali, F. Ait; Angüner, E. O.; Arakawa, M.; Arrieta, M.; Aubert, P.; Backes, M.; Balzer, A.; Barnard, M.; Becherini, Y.; Tjus, J. Becker; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Blackwell, R.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Büchele, M.; Bulik, T.; Capasso, M.; Carrigan, S.; Caroff, S.; Carosi, A.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chen, A.; Chevalier, J.; Colafrancesco, S.; Condon, B.; Conrad, J.; Davids, I. D.; Decock, J.; Deil, C.; Devin, J.; deWilt, P.; Dirson, L.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O.'C.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Emery, G.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Eschbach, S.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Funk, S.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Gast, H.; Gaté, F.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glawion, D.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Grondin, M.-H.; Hahn, J.; Haupt, M.; Hawkes, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hoischen, C.; Holch, T. L.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Iwasaki, H.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jamrozy, M.; Jankowsky, D.; Jankowsky, F.; Jingo, M.; Jouvin, L.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katsuragawa, M.; Katz, U.; Kerszberg, D.; Khangulyan, D.; Khélifi, B.; King, J.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Kraus, M.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lau, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Leser, E.; Lohse, T.; Lorentz, M.; Liu, R.; López-Coto, R.; Lypova, I.; Marandon, V.; Malyshev, D.; Marcowith, A.; Mariaud, C.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; Meintjes, P. J.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Mohrmann, L.; Morå, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Nakashima, S.; de Naurois, M.; Ndiyavala, H.; Niederwanger, F.; Niemiec, J.; Oakes, L.; O'Brien, P.; Odaka, H.; Ohm, S.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Padovani, M.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perennes, C.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Piel, Q.; Pita, S.; Poireau, V.; Poon, H.; Prokhorov, D.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Rauth, R.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rinchiuso, L.; Romoli, C.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Safi-Harb, S.; Sahakian, V.; Saito, S.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Sasaki, M.; Schandri, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwemmer, S.; Seglar-Arroyo, M.; Settimo, M.; Seyffert, A. S.; Shafi, N.; Shilon, I.; Shiningayamwe, K.; Simoni, R.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spir-Jacob, M.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Steppa, C.; Sushch, I.; Takahashi, T.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tibaldo, L.; Tiziani, D.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Tsirou, M.; Tsuji, N.; Tuffs, R.; Uchiyama, Y.; van der Walt, D. J.; van Eldik, C.; van Rensburg, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Voisin, F.; Völk, H. J.; Vuillaume, T.; Wadiasingh, Z.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zanin, R.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zefi, F.; Ziegler, A.; Zorn, J.; Żywucka, N.

    2018-04-01

    We present the results of the most comprehensive survey of the Galactic plane in very high-energy (VHE) γ-rays, including a public release of Galactic sky maps, a catalog of VHE sources, and the discovery of 16 new sources of VHE γ-rays. The High Energy Spectroscopic System (H.E.S.S.) Galactic plane survey (HGPS) was a decade-long observation program carried out by the H.E.S.S. I array of Cherenkov telescopes in Namibia from 2004 to 2013. The observations amount to nearly 2700 h of quality-selected data, covering the Galactic plane at longitudes from ℓ = 250° to 65° and latitudes |b|≤ 3°. In addition to the unprecedented spatial coverage, the HGPS also features a relatively high angular resolution (0.08° ≈ 5 arcmin mean point spread function 68% containment radius), sensitivity (≲1.5% Crab flux for point-like sources), and energy range (0.2-100 TeV). We constructed a catalog of VHE γ-ray sources from the HGPS data set with a systematic procedure for both source detection and characterization of morphology and spectrum. We present this likelihood-based method in detail, including the introduction of a model component to account for unresolved, large-scale emission along the Galactic plane. In total, the resulting HGPS catalog contains 78 VHE sources, of which 14 are not reanalyzed here, for example, due to their complex morphology, namely shell-like sources and the Galactic center region. Where possible, we provide a firm identification of the VHE source or plausible associations with sources in other astronomical catalogs. We also studied the characteristics of the VHE sources with source parameter distributions. 16 new sources were previously unknown or unpublished, and we individually discuss their identifications or possible associations. We firmly identified 31 sources as pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe), supernova remnants (SNRs), composite SNRs, or gamma-ray binaries. Among the 47 sources not yet identified, most of them (36) have possible

  11. THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. XI. TEMPERATURES AND SUBSTRUCTURE OF GALACTIC CLUMPS BASED ON 350 μM OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merello, Manuel; Evans II, Neal J. [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Astronomy, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Shirley, Yancy L. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics, 4-181 CCIS, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Ginsburg, Adam [European Southern Observatory, ESO Headquarters, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-95748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Bally, John [CASA, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Battersby, Cara; Dunham, Michael M., E-mail: manuel@astro.as.utexas.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    We present 107 maps of continuum emission at 350 μm from Galactic molecular clumps. Observed sources were mainly selected from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) catalog, with three additional maps covering star-forming regions in the outer Galaxy. The higher resolution of the SHARC-II images (8.″5 beam) compared with the 1.1 mm images from BGPS (33″ beam) allowed us to identify a large population of smaller substructures within the clumps. A catalog is presented for the 1386 sources extracted from the 350 μm maps. The color temperature distribution of clumps based on the two wavelengths has a median of 13.3 K and mean of 16.3 ± 0.4 K, assuming an opacity law index of 1.7. For the structures with good determination of color temperatures, the mean ratio of gas temperature, determined from NH{sub 3} observations, to dust color temperature is 0.88 and the median ratio is 0.76. About half the clumps have more than 2 substructures and 22 clumps have more than 10. The fraction of the mass in dense substructures seen at 350 μm compared to the mass of their parental clump is ∼0.19, and the surface densities of these substructures are, on average, 2.2 times those seen in the clumps identified at 1.1 mm. For a well-characterized sample, 88 structures (31%) exceed a surface density of 0.2 g cm{sup −2}, and 18 (6%) exceed 1.0 g cm{sup −2}, thresholds for massive star formation suggested by theorists.

  12. Prediction of the diffuse far-infrared flux from the galactic plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, G.G.; Stecker, F.W.

    1976-01-01

    A basic model and simple numerical relations useful for future far-infrared studies of the Galaxy are presented. Making use of recent CO and other galactic surveys, we then predict the diffuse far-infrared flux distribution from the galactic plane as a function of galactic longitude l for 4degree< or =l< or =90degree and the far-infrared emissivity as a function of galactocentric distance. Future measurements of the galactic far-infrared flux would yield valuable information on the physical properties and distribution of dust and molecular clouds in the Galaxy, particulary the inner region

  13. Titanium Heat Pipe Thermal Plane, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase II program is to complete the development of the titanium heat pipe thermal plane and establish all necessary steps for production of this...

  14. Newly discovered IRAS QSO close to the Galactic plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, M.A.; Kirhakos, S.D.; Yahil, A.

    1988-01-01

    CCD observations of the IRAS QSO candidate I09149-6206 performed at CTIO during December 1987 are reported, including 564-806-nm spectroscopy obtained with the 1.5-m telescope and direct UVBRI imaging obtained with the 0.91-m telescope. The data are presented in tables and graphs and characterized in detail. It is found that the source is surrounded by a faint fuzz with low surface brightness and strong forbidden O III lines. Parameters determined include redshift z = 0.0571, Galactic latitude -9.2 deg, V magnitude 13.55, Galactic reddening E(B-V) = about 0.23, and absolute V magnitude about -24.87. 33 references

  15. Power spectrum analysis of polarized emission from the Canadian galactic plane survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutz, R. A.; Rosolowsky, E. W. [University of British Columbia Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna BC, V1V 1V7 (Canada); Kothes, R.; Landecker, T. L. [National Research Council Canada, Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, Box 248, Penticton, BC, V2A 6J9 (Canada)

    2014-05-20

    Angular power spectra are calculated and presented for the entirety of the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey polarization data set at 1.4 GHz covering an area of 1060 deg{sup 2}. The data analyzed are a combination of data from the 100 m Effelsberg Telescope, the 26 m Telescope at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, and the Synthesis Telescope at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, allowing all scales to be sampled down to arcminute resolution. The resulting power spectra cover multipoles from ℓ ≈ 60 to ℓ ≈ 10{sup 4} and display both a power-law component at low multipoles and a flattening at high multipoles from point sources. We fit the power spectrum with a model that accounts for these components and instrumental effects. The resulting power-law indices are found to have a mode of 2.3, similar to previous results. However, there are significant regional variations in the index, defying attempts to characterize the emission with a single value. The power-law index is found to increase away from the Galactic plane. A transition from small-scale to large-scale structure is evident at b = 9°, associated with the disk-halo transition in a 15° region around l = 108°. Localized variations in the index are found toward H II regions and supernova remnants, but the interpretation of these variations is inconclusive. The power in the polarized emission is anticorrelated with bright thermal emission (traced by Hα emission) indicating that the thermal emission depolarizes background synchrotron emission.

  16. Evidence for TeV Gamma-Ray Emission from a Region of the Galactic Plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, R.; Gonzalez, M.M.; McEnery, J.E.; Wilson, M.E.; Benbow, W.; Coyne, D.G.; Dorfan, D.E.; Kelley, L.A.; Morales, M.F.; Parkinson, P.M. Saz; Williams, D.A.; Berley, D.; Blaufuss, E.; DeYoung, T.; Goodman, J.A.; Hays, E.; Lansdell, C.P.; Noyes, D.; Smith, A.J.; Sullivan, G.W.

    2005-01-01

    Gamma-ray emission from a narrow band at the galactic equator has previously been detected up to 30 GeV. We report evidence for a TeV gamma-ray signal from a region of the galactic plane by Milagro, a large-field-of-view water Cherenkov detector for extensive air showers. An excess with a significance of 4.5 standard deviations has been observed from the region of galactic longitude l (set-membership sign) (40 deg.,100 deg.) and latitude vertical bar b vertical bar γ (>3.5 TeV)=(6.4±1.4±2.1)x10 -11 cm -2 s -1 sr -1 . This flux is consistent with an extrapolation of the EGRET spectrum between 1 and 30 GeV in this galactic region

  17. THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. VIII. A MID-INFRARED KINEMATIC DISTANCE DISCRIMINATION METHOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellsworth-Bowers, Timothy P.; Glenn, Jason; Battersby, Cara; Ginsburg, Adam; Bally, John [CASA, University of Colorado, UCB 389, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Mairs, Steven [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC V8P 1A1 (Canada); Evans, Neal J. II [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Shirley, Yancy L., E-mail: timothy.ellsworthbowers@colorado.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    We present a new distance estimation method for dust-continuum-identified molecular cloud clumps. Recent (sub-)millimeter Galactic plane surveys have cataloged tens of thousands of these objects, plausible precursors to stellar clusters, but detailed study of their physical properties requires robust distance determinations. We derive Bayesian distance probability density functions (DPDFs) for 770 objects from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey in the Galactic longitude range 7. Degree-Sign 5 {<=} l {<=} 65 Degree-Sign . The DPDF formalism is based on kinematic distances, and uses any number of external data sets to place prior distance probabilities to resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity (KDA) for objects in the inner Galaxy. We present here priors related to the mid-infrared absorption of dust in dense molecular regions and the distribution of molecular gas in the Galactic disk. By assuming a numerical model of Galactic mid-infrared emission and simple radiative transfer, we match the morphology of (sub-)millimeter thermal dust emission with mid-infrared absorption to compute a prior DPDF for distance discrimination. Selecting objects first from (sub-)millimeter source catalogs avoids a bias towards the darkest infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) and extends the range of heliocentric distance probed by mid-infrared extinction and includes lower-contrast sources. We derive well-constrained KDA resolutions for 618 molecular cloud clumps, with approximately 15% placed at or beyond the tangent distance. Objects with mid-infrared contrast sufficient to be cataloged as IRDCs are generally placed at the near kinematic distance. Distance comparisons with Galactic Ring Survey KDA resolutions yield a 92% agreement. A face-on view of the Milky Way using resolved distances reveals sections of the Sagittarius and Scutum-Centaurus Arms. This KDA-resolution method for large catalogs of sources through the combination of (sub-)millimeter and mid-infrared observations of molecular

  18. Planck intermediate results. XIV. Dust emission at millimetre wavelengths in the Galactic plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, Marie-Helene

    2014-01-01

    We use Planck HFI data combined with ancillary radio data to study the emissivity index of the interstellar dust emission in the frequency range 100-353 GHz, or 3-0.8 mm, in the Galactic plane. We analyse the region l = 20 degrees-44 degrees and vertical bar b vertical bar...

  19. THE PUPPIS CLUSTER OF GALAXIES BEHING THE GALACTIC PLANE AND THE ORIGIN OF THE LOCAL ANOMALY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LAHAV, O; YAMADA, T; SCHARF, C; KRAANKORTEWEG, RC

    1993-01-01

    Recent surveys of galaxies behind the Galactic plane have revealed the Puppis cluster, centred at l approximately 240-degrees, b approximately 0-degrees and redshift cz approximately 1000-2000 km s-1. We supplement the recent 2-Jy IRAS redshift survey of Strauss et al. for absolute value of b >

  20. Infrared emission from galactic H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeilik, M. II.

    1975-01-01

    Near-infrared observations are presented of selected galactic HII regions (especially G45.5 + 0.1, G45.1 + 0.1, S88, and W3A) to infer the physical conditions of the dust responsible for the 2 to 25 micron emission. Two-component dust models are developed to match the observed characteristics of the infrared emission from HII regions. The dust, assumed to be bare and well-mixed with the gas in the ionized volume, consists of large (0.1 micron) ''silicate'' grains and small (0.2 micron) graphite grains. The ''silicates'' have their cosmic maximum abundance with respect to hydrogen, but the graphite grains are depleted by factors of 25 to 100 in mass. The Lyman-alpha radiation field predominately heats the ''silicate'' grains, which produce almost all the emission at 20 microns and most of it from 8 to 13 microns. The stellar radiation field predominately heats the graphite grains, which generate most of the emission at 3.5 and 5 microns. Roughly half of the observed 2 to 25 micron luminosity (when corrected for extinction) arises from Lyman-alpha photons and the other half from the Lyman and Balmer continua. The grains are too hot to provide significant emission in the far-infrared; this probably arises from a dust shell around the HII region. This two-component model predicts that HII regions should have smaller sizes at 3.5 and 5 microns than at 10 and 20 microns. The emissivities of fine-structure infrared lines for the regions are calculated. In the one instance where observations of such lines have been published (G29.9 - 0.0), predicted emissivities fall below those observed, especially for the 12.86-micron line of NeII. The discrepancy probably arises from an incorrect modeling of the region's ionization structure, but it might also reflect variations in elemental abundances or deficiencies in model stellar atmospheres for hot stars

  1. ATLASGAL - Ammonia observations towards the southern Galactic plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienen, M.; Wyrowski, F.; Menten, K. M.; Urquhart, J. S.; Walmsley, C. M.; Csengeri, T.; Koribalski, B. S.; Schuller, F.

    2018-02-01

    Context. The initial conditions of molecular clumps in which high-mass stars form are poorly understood. In particular, a more detailed study of the earliest evolutionary phases is needed. The APEX Telescope Large Area Survey of the whole inner Galactic disk at 870 μm, ATLASGAL, has therefore been conducted to discover high-mass star-forming regions at different evolutionary phases. Aims: We derive properties such as velocities, rotational temperatures, column densities, and abundances of a large sample of southern ATLASGAL clumps in the fourth quadrant. Methods: Using the Parkes telescope, we observed the NH3 (1, 1) to (3, 3) inversion transitions towards 354 dust clumps detected by ATLASGAL within a Galactic longitude range between 300° and 359° and a latitude within ± 1.5°. For a subsample of 289 sources, the N2H+ (1-0) line was measured with the Mopra telescope. Results: We measured a median NH3 (1, 1) line width of 2 km s-1, rotational temperatures from 12 to 28 K with a mean of 18 K, and source-averaged NH3 abundances from 1.6 × 10-6 to 10-8. For a subsample with detected NH3 (2, 2) hyperfine components, we found that the commonly used method to compute the (2, 2) optical depth from the (1, 1) optical depth and the (2, 2) to (1, 1) main beam brightness temperature ratio leads to an underestimation of the rotational temperature and column density. A larger median virial parameter of 1 is determined using the broader N2H+ line width than is estimated from the NH3 line width of 0.5 with a general trend of a decreasing virial parameter with increasing gas mass. We obtain a rising NH3 (1, 1)/N2H+ line-width ratio with increasing rotational temperature. Conclusions: A comparison of NH3 line parameters of ATLASGAL clumps to cores in nearby molecular clouds reveals smaller velocity dispersions in low-mass than high-mass star-forming regions and a warmer surrounding of ATLASGAL clumps than the surrounding of low-mass cores. The NH3 (1, 1) inversion transition of

  2. A 1420 MHz Catalog of Compact Sources in the Northern Galactic Plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A. R. [Inter-University Institute for Data Intensive Astronomy, and Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape (South Africa); Leahy, D. A.; Sunstrum, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary (Canada); Tian, W. W. [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Shi (China); Kothes, R.; Landecker, T. L.; Ransom, R. R; Higgs, L. A. [Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Programs in Astronomy and Astrophysics National Research Council of Canada (Canada)

    2017-03-01

    We present a catalog of compact sources of radio emission at 1420 MHz in the northern Galactic plane from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey. The catalog contains 72,758 compact sources with an angular size less than 3′ within the Galactic longitude range 52° <  ℓ  < 192° down to a 5 σ detection level of ∼1.2 mJy. Linear polarization properties are included for 12,368 sources with signals greater than 4 σ{sub QU} in the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (CGPS) Stokes Q and U images at the position of the total intensity peak. We compare CGPS flux densities with cataloged flux densities in the Northern VLA Sky Survey catalog for 10,897 isolated unresolved sources with CGPS flux density greater than 4 mJy to search for sources that show variable flux density on timescales of several years. We identify 146 candidate variables that exhibit high fractional variations between the two surveys. In addition, we identify 13 candidate transient sources that have CGPS flux density above 10 mJy but are not detected in the Northern VLA Sky Survey.

  3. THE ARECIBO METHANOL MASER GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. IV. ACCURATE ASTROMETRY AND SOURCE MORPHOLOGIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandian, J. D.; Momjian, E.; Xu, Y.; Menten, K. M.; Goldsmith, P. F.

    2011-01-01

    We present accurate absolute astrometry of 6.7 GHz methanol masers detected in the Arecibo Methanol Maser Galactic Plane Survey using MERLIN and the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA). We estimate the absolute astrometry to be accurate to better than 15 and 80 mas for the MERLIN and EVLA observations, respectively. We also derive the morphologies of the maser emission distributions for sources stronger than ∼1 Jy. The median spatial extent along the major axis of the regions showing maser emission is ∼775 AU. We find a majority of methanol maser morphologies to be complex with some sources previously determined to have regular morphologies in fact being embedded within larger structures. This suggests that some maser spots do not have a compact core, which leads to them being resolved in high angular resolution observations. This also casts doubt on interpretations of the origin of methanol maser emission solely based on source morphologies. We also investigate the association of methanol masers with mid-infrared emission and find very close correspondence between methanol masers and 24 μm point sources. This adds further credence to theoretical models that predict methanol masers to be pumped by warm dust emission and firmly reinforces the finding that Class II methanol masers are unambiguous tracers of embedded high-mass protostars.

  4. Distribution of Si II in the Galactic center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, P.; Herter, T.; Gull, G. E.; Houck, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    A map of the Galactic center region in the forbidden Si II 34.8-micron line is presented. The line emission arises from within the photodissociation region (PDR) associated with the neutral gas ring surrounding an ionized gas core confined within 2 pc of the Galactic center. Si II is a useful probe of the inner regions of the ring since it is always optically thin. The Si II data, when analyzed in conjunction with O I, C II, and molecular measurements, outlines the transition region between the PDR and the surrounding molecular cloud. The Si II emission is found to extend beyond that of the O II into the neutral gas ring. Although the interpretation is not unique, the data are consistent with a constant gas-phase abundance of silicon within the inner part of the PDR while the gaseous silicon is depleted by molecule formation in the transition region.

  5. PG 0832 + 676 - An apparently normal B1 V star 18 kiloparsecs above the galactic plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.J.F.; Dufton, P.L.; Keenan, F.P.; Boksenberg, A.; King, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    Stellar equivalent widths and line profiles, measured from optical spectra obtained with the 5 m Hale telescope and the 2.5 m Isaac Newton telescope, are used in conjunction with model atmosphere calculations to determine the atmospheric parameters and chemical composition of the faint, blue, high-galactic latitude star PG 0832 + 676. The effective temperature (Teff = 25,000 K), surface gravity (log g = 3.9), and abundances of He, C, N, O, Mg, Al, and Si are similar to those of Population I OB-type stars, from which it is concluded that PG 0832 + 676 is a normal star at a distance from the galactic plane of about 18 kpc. The star's kinematics and evolutionary age suggest that it formed in the halo, possibly from galactic fountain material. 51 refs

  6. CO (3 – 2) HIGH-RESOLUTION SURVEY OF THE GALACTIC PLANE: R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dempsey, J. T.; Thomas, H. S.; Currie, M. J., E-mail: j.dempsey@jach.hawaii.edu, E-mail: h.thomas@jach.hawaii.edu, E-mail: m.currie@jach.hawaii.edu [Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We present the first release (R1) of data from the CO High-Resolution Survey (COHRS), which maps a strip of the inner Galactic plane in {sup 12}CO (J = 3 → 2). The data are taken using the Heterodyne Array Receiver Programme on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) in Hawaii, which has a 14 arcsec angular resolution at this frequency. When complete, this survey will cover |b| ≤ 0.°5 between 10° < l < 65°. This first release covers |b| ≤ 0.°5 between 10.°25 < l < 17.°5 and 50.°25 < l < 55.°25, and |b| ≤ 0.°25 between 17.°5 < l < 50.°25. The data are smoothed to a velocity resolution of 1 km s{sup –1}, a spatial resolution of 16 arcsec and achieve a mean rms of ∼1 K. COHRS data are available to the community online at http://dx.doi.org/10.11570/13.0002. In this paper we describe the data acquisition and reduction techniques used and present integrated intensity images and longitude-velocity maps. We also discuss the noise characteristics of the data. The high resolution is a powerful tool for morphological studies of bubbles and filaments while the velocity information shows the spiral arms and outflows. These data are intended to complement both existing and upcoming surveys, e.g., the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS), ATLASGAL, the Herschel Galactic Plane Survey (Hi-GAL) and the JCMT Galactic Plane Survey with SCUBA-2 (JPS)

  7. A MID-INFRARED CENSUS OF STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY IN BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunham, Miranda K.; Robitaille, Thomas P.; Evans, Neal J. II; Schlingman, Wayne M.; Cyganowski, Claudia J.; Urquhart, James

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a search for mid-infrared signs of star formation activity in the 1.1 mm sources in the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS). We have correlated the BGPS catalog with available mid-IR Galactic plane catalogs based on the Spitzer Space Telescope GLIMPSE legacy survey and the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) Galactic plane survey. We find that 44% (3712 of 8358) of the BGPS sources contain at least one mid-IR source, including 2457 of 5067 (49%) within the area where all surveys overlap (10 deg. s tarlessBGPS sources which were not matched to any mid-IR sources. The mean 1.1 mm flux of each group increases with increasing probability of active star formation. We also find that the 'starless' BGPS sources are the most compact, while the sources with the highest probability of star formation activity are on average more extended with large skirts of emission. A subsample of 280 BGPS sources with known distances demonstrates that mass and mean H 2 column density also increase with probability of star formation activity.

  8. THE ARECIBO METHANOL MASER GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. III. DISTANCES AND LUMINOSITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandian, J. D.; Menten, K. M.; Goldsmith, P. F.

    2009-01-01

    We derive kinematic distances to the 86 6.7 GHz methanol masers discovered in the Arecibo Methanol Maser Galactic Plane Survey. The systemic velocities of the sources were derived from 13 CO (J = 2-1), CS (J = 5-4), and NH 3 observations made with the ARO Submillimeter Telescope, the APEX telescope, and the Effelsberg 100 m telescope, respectively. Kinematic distance ambiguities were resolved using H I self-absorption with H I data from the VLA Galactic Plane Survey. We observe roughly three times as many sources at the far distance compared to the near distance. The vertical distribution of the sources has a scale height of ∼ 30 pc, and is much lower than that of the Galactic thin disk. We use the distances derived in this work to determine the luminosity function of 6.7 GHz maser emission. The luminosity function has a peak at approximately 10 -6 L sun . Assuming that this luminosity function applies, the methanol maser population in the Large Magellanic Cloud and M33 is at least 4 and 14 times smaller, respectively, than in our Galaxy.

  9. Discovery of a GeV Blazar Shining Through the Galactic Plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenbroucke, J.; Buehler, R.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bellini, A.; /Padua U., Astron. Dept. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci.; Bolte, M.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Cheung, C.C.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /NAS, Washington, D.C.; Civano, F.; /Smithsonian Astrophys. Observ.; Donato, D.; /NASA, Goddard; Fuhrmann, L.; /Bonn, Max Planck Inst., Radioastron.; Funk, S.; Healey, S.E.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Hill, A.B.; /Joseph Fourier U.; Knigge, C.; /Southampton U.; Madejski, G.M.; Romani, R.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Santander-Garcia, M.; /IAC, La Laguna /Isaac Newton Group /Laguna U., Tenerife; Shaw, M.S.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Steeghs, D.; /Warwick U.; Torres, M.A.P.; /Smithsonian Astrophys. Observ.; Van Etten, A.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Texas U., Astron. Dept.

    2011-08-11

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) discovered a new gamma-ray source near the Galactic plane, Fermi J0109+6134, when it flared brightly in 2010 February. The low Galactic latitude (b = -1.2{sup o}) indicated that the source could be located within the Galaxy, which motivated rapid multi-wavelength follow-up including radio, optical, and X-ray observations. We report the results of analyzing all 19 months of LAT data for the source, and of X-ray observations with both Swift and the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We determined the source redshift, z = 0.783, using a Keck LRIS observation. Finally, we compiled a broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) from both historical and new observations contemporaneous with the 2010 February flare. The redshift, SED, optical line width, X-ray obsorption, and multi-band variability indicate that this new Gev source is a blazar seen through the Galactic plane. Because several of the optical emission lines have equivalent width > 5 {angstrom}, this blazar belongs in the flat-spectrum radio quasar category.

  10. INTEGRAL SPI Limits on Electron-Positron Annihilation Radiation from the Galactic Plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teegarden, B. J.; Watanabe, K.; Jean, P.

    2005-01-01

    ‐Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) mission, launched in 2002 October, is the detailed study of this radiation. The Spectrometer on INTEGRAL (SPI) is a high‐resolution, coded‐aperture gamma‐ray telescope with an unprecedented combination of sensitivity, angular resolution, and energy resolution. We report results from...... the first 10 months of observation. During this period a significant fraction of the observing time was spent in or near the Galactic plane. No positive annihilation flux was detected outside of the central region () of our Galaxy. In this paper we describe the observations and data analysis methods...

  11. Identification of a Population of X-Ray-Emitting Massive Stars in the Galactic Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    view of this image is too small to overlay the ASCA contours. (c) 2MASS K-band image of AX J144701–5919. (d) 2MASS K-band image of AX J144547–5919...All Sky Survey ( 2MASS ; Skrut- skie et al. 2006) and the Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE; Benjamin et al. 2003) all...four AGPS sources are shown to have clear counterparts at near-infrared and mid-infrared wavelengths. The corresponding 2MASS and GLIMPSE source names

  12. Two chemically similar stellar overdensities on opposite sides of the plane of the Galactic disk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergemann, Maria; Sesar, Branimir; Cohen, Judith G; Serenelli, Aldo M; Sheffield, Allyson; Li, Ting S; Casagrande, Luca; Johnston, Kathryn V; Laporte, Chervin F P; Price-Whelan, Adrian M; Schönrich, Ralph; Gould, Andrew

    2018-03-15

    Our Galaxy is thought to have an active evolutionary history, dominated over the past ten billion years or so by star formation, the accretion of cold gas and, in particular, the merging of clumps of baryonic and dark matter. The stellar halo-the faint, roughly spherical component of the Galaxy-reveals rich 'fossil' evidence of these interactions, in the form of stellar streams, substructures and chemically distinct stellar components. The effects of interactions with dwarf galaxies on the content and morphology of the Galactic disk are still being explored. Recent studies have identified kinematically distinct stellar substructures and moving groups of stars in our Galaxy, which may have extragalactic origins. There is also mounting evidence that stellar overdensities (regions with greater-than-average stellar density) at the interface between the outer disk and the halo could have been caused by the interaction of a dwarf galaxy with the disk. Here we report a spectroscopic analysis of 14 stars from two stellar overdensities, each lying about five kiloparsecs above or below the Galactic plane-locations suggestive of an association with the stellar halo. We find that the chemical compositions of these two groups of stars are almost identical, both within and between these overdensities, and closely match the abundance patterns of stars in the Galactic disk. We conclude that these stars came from the disk, and that the overdensities that they are part of were created by tidal interactions of the disk with passing or merging dwarf galaxies.

  13. FOUR HIGHLY DISPERSED MILLISECOND PULSARS DISCOVERED IN THE ARECIBO PALFA GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Franklin and Marshall College, P.O. Box 3003, Lancaster, PA 17604 (United States); Stovall, K. [Center for Gravitational Wave Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States); Lyne, A. G.; Stappers, B. W. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Nice, D. J. [Department of Physics, Lafayette College, Easton, PA 18042 (United States); Stairs, I. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Lazarus, P. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Hessels, J. W. T. [ASTRON, The Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990-AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Freire, P. C. C.; Champion, D. J.; Desvignes, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Allen, B. [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Bhat, N. D. R.; Camilo, F. [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Bogdanov, S. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Brazier, A.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cognard, I. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l' Environnement et de l' Espace, LPC2E, CNRS et Universite d' Orleans, and Station de radioastronomie de Nancay, Observatoire de Paris, F-18330 Nancay (France); Deneva, J. S., E-mail: fcrawfor@fandm.edu [Arecibo Observatory, HC3 Box 53995, Arecibo, PR 00612 (United States); and others

    2012-09-20

    We present the discovery and phase-coherent timing of four highly dispersed millisecond pulsars (MSPs) from the Arecibo PALFA Galactic plane survey: PSRs J1844+0115, J1850+0124, J1900+0308, and J1944+2236. Three of the four pulsars are in binary systems with low-mass companions, which are most likely white dwarfs, and which have orbital periods on the order of days. The fourth pulsar is isolated. All four pulsars have large dispersion measures (DM >100 pc cm{sup -3}), are distant ({approx}> 3.4 kpc), faint at 1.4 GHz ({approx}< 0.2 mJy), and are fully recycled (with spin periods P between 3.5 and 4.9 ms). The three binaries also have very small orbital eccentricities, as expected for tidally circularized, fully recycled systems with low-mass companions. These four pulsars have DM/P ratios that are among the highest values for field MSPs in the Galaxy. These discoveries bring the total number of confirmed MSPs from the PALFA survey to 15. The discovery of these MSPs illustrates the power of PALFA for finding weak, distant MSPs at low-Galactic latitudes. This is important for accurate estimates of the Galactic MSP population and for the number of MSPs that the Square Kilometer Array can be expected to detect.

  14. Characterization of the VVV Survey RR Lyrae Population across the Southern Galactic Plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minniti, Dante; Palma, Tali; Pullen, Joyce; Tissera, Patricia; Dékány, Istvan; Majaess, Daniel; Rejkuba, Marina; Valenti, Elena; Alonso-García, Javier; Catelan, Marcio; Contreras Ramos, Rodrigo; Zoccali, Manuela; Gonzalez, Oscar A.; Hempel, Maren; Irwin, Mike; Lucas, Philip W.; Saito, Roberto K.

    2017-01-01

    Deep near-IR images from the VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) Survey were used to search for RR Lyrae stars in the Southern Galactic plane. A sizable sample of 404 RR Lyrae of type ab stars was identified across a thin slice of the fourth Galactic quadrant (295° < ℓ < 350°, −2.°24 < b < −1.°05). The sample’s distance distribution exhibits a maximum density that occurs at the bulge tangent point, which implies that this primarily Oosterhoff type I population of RRab stars does not trace the bar delineated by their red clump counterparts. The bulge RR Lyrae population does not extend beyond ℓ  ∼ 340°, and the sample’s spatial distribution presents evidence of density enhancements and substructure that warrants further investigation. Indeed, the sample may be employed to evaluate Galactic evolution models, and is particularly lucrative since half of the discovered RR Lyrae are within reach of Gaia astrometric observations.

  15. Characterization of the VVV Survey RR Lyrae Population across the Southern Galactic Plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minniti, Dante; Palma, Tali; Pullen, Joyce; Tissera, Patricia [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. Fernández Concha 700, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Dékány, Istvan [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Moenchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Majaess, Daniel [Mount Saint Vincent University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Rejkuba, Marina; Valenti, Elena [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarszchild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Alonso-García, Javier; Catelan, Marcio; Contreras Ramos, Rodrigo; Zoccali, Manuela [Instituto Milenio de Astrofísica, Santiago (Chile); Gonzalez, Oscar A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Hempel, Maren [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Instituto de Astrofisica, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile); Irwin, Mike [Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge University, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Lucas, Philip W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Hertfordshire, Hertfordshire (United Kingdom); Saito, Roberto K. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Trindade 88040-900, Florianópolis, SC (Brazil)

    2017-04-01

    Deep near-IR images from the VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) Survey were used to search for RR Lyrae stars in the Southern Galactic plane. A sizable sample of 404 RR Lyrae of type ab stars was identified across a thin slice of the fourth Galactic quadrant (295° < ℓ < 350°, −2.°24 < b < −1.°05). The sample’s distance distribution exhibits a maximum density that occurs at the bulge tangent point, which implies that this primarily Oosterhoff type I population of RRab stars does not trace the bar delineated by their red clump counterparts. The bulge RR Lyrae population does not extend beyond ℓ  ∼ 340°, and the sample’s spatial distribution presents evidence of density enhancements and substructure that warrants further investigation. Indeed, the sample may be employed to evaluate Galactic evolution models, and is particularly lucrative since half of the discovered RR Lyrae are within reach of Gaia astrometric observations.

  16. A high resolution atlas of the galactic plane at 12 microns and 25 microns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stephan D.; Korte, Rose M.; Sample, Rebecca S.; Kennealy, John P.; Gonsalves, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    High resolution images of the 12 micron and 25 micron IRAS survey data from each HCON crossing the Galactic Plane are being created for those regions that the original IRAS processing labeled as confused. This encompasses the area within 100 deg longitude of the Galactic Center and within 3 deg to 10 deg of the Plane. The procedures used to create the images preserve the spatial resolution inherent in the IRAS instrument. The images are separated into diffuse and point source components and candidate sources are extracted from the point source image after non-linear spatial sharpening. Fluxes are estimated by convolving the candidate sources with the point response function and cross-correlating with the original point source image. A source is considered real if it is seen on at least two HCON's with a rather generous flux match but a stringent position criterion. A number of fields spanning a range of source densities from low to high have been examined. Initial analysis indicates that the imaging and extraction works quite well up to a source density of about 100 sources per square degree or down to roughly 0.8 Janskys.

  17. A SOUTHERN SKY AND GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY FOR BRIGHT KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, Scott S.; Udalski, Andrzej; Kubiak, Marcin; Pietrzynski, Grzegorz; Poleski, Radoslaw; Soszynski, Igor; Szymanski, Michal K.; Ulaczyk, Krzysztof; Trujillo, Chadwick

    2011-01-01

    About 2500 deg 2 of sky south of declination -25 0 and/or near the Galactic Plane were surveyed for bright outer solar system objects. This survey is one of the first large-scale southern sky and Galactic Plane surveys to detect dwarf planets and other bright Kuiper Belt Objects in the trans-Neptunian region. The survey was able to obtain a limiting R-band magnitude of 21.6. In all, 18 outer solar system objects were detected, including Pluto which was detected near the Galactic center using optimal image subtraction techniques to remove the high stellar density background. Fourteen of the detections were previously unknown trans-Neptunian objects, demonstrating that the southern sky had not been well searched to date for bright outer solar system objects. Assuming moderate albedos, several of the new discoveries from this survey could be in hydrostatic equilibrium and thus could be considered dwarf planets. Combining this survey with previous surveys from the northern hemisphere suggests that the Kuiper Belt is nearly complete to around 21st magnitude in the R band. All the main dynamical classes in the Kuiper Belt are occupied by at least one dwarf-planet-sized object. The 3:2 Neptune resonance, which is the innermost well-populated Neptune resonance, has several large objects while the main outer Neptune resonances such as the 5:3, 7:4, 2:1, and 5:2 do not appear to have any large objects. This indicates that the outer resonances are either significantly depleted in objects relative to the 3:2 resonance or have a significantly different assortment of objects than the 3:2 resonance. For the largest objects (H < 4.5 mag), the scattered disk population appears to have a few times more objects than the main Kuiper Belt (MKB) population, while the Sedna population could be several times more than that of the MKB.

  18. A derivation of the free-free emission on the Galactic plane between ℓ= 20° and 44°

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Marta I. R.; Davies, Rodney D.; Dickinson, Clive; Calabretta, Mark; Davis, Richard; Staveley-Smith, Lister

    2012-05-01

    We present the derivation of the free-free emission on the Galactic plane between ℓ= 20° and 44° and |b|≤ 4°, using radio recombination line (RRL) data from the H I Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS). Following an upgrade of the RRL data reduction technique, which improves significantly the quality of the final RRL spectra, we have extended the analysis to three times the area covered in Alves et al. The final RRL map has an angular resolution of 14.8 arcmin and a velocity resolution of 20 km s-1. The electron temperature (Te) distribution of the ionized gas in the area under study at 1.4 GHz is derived using the line and continuum data from the present survey. The mean Te on the Galactic plane is 6000 K. The first direct measure of the free-free emission is obtained based on the derived Te distribution. Subtraction of this thermal component from the total continuum leads to the first direct measurement of the synchrotron emission at 1.4 GHz. A narrow component of width 2° is identified in the latitude distribution of the synchrotron emission. We present a list of H II regions and supernova remnants (SNRs) extracted from the present free-free and synchrotron maps, where we confirm the synchrotron nature of the SNRs G42.0-0.1 and G41.5+0.4 proposed by Kaplan et al. and the SNR G35.6-0.4 recently re-identified by Green. The latitude distribution for the RRL-derived free-free emission shows that the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) maximum entropy method is too high by ˜50 per cent, in agreement with other recent results. The extension of this study to the inner Galaxy region ℓ=-50° to 50° will allow a better overall comparison of the RRL result with WMAP.

  19. High resolution far-infrared survey of A section of the galactic plane. I. The nature of the sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, D.T.; Stier, M.T.; Fazio, G.G.

    1982-01-01

    We have surveyed a 7.5 deg 2 portion of the galactic plane between l/sup II/ = 10 0 and l/sup II/ = 16 0 at 70 μm with a 1' beam. We present far-infrared, radio continuum, and 12 CO and 13 CO line observations of the 42 far-infrared sources in the survey region. The sources range in luminosity from 4 x 10 3 to 3 x 10 6 L/sub sun/. Most are associated with 12 CO peaks. More than half of the sources have associated H 2 O maser emission. Half have associated radio continuum emission at a limit of 100 mJy. Eight sources have radio emission at weaker levels. In a number of cases, the far-infrared source is smaller than its associated radio source. This difference can be explained in the context of the ''blister'' picture of H II regions. One group of sources emits many fewer Lyman continuum photons than expected, given the far-infrared luminosities. We examine a number of possible reasons for this and conclude that the most reasonable explanation is that clusters of early type stars rather than single stars excite the far-infrared sources. We examine the energetics in the molecular clouds surrounding the infrared sources and conclude that the sources could supply the energy to explain the observed temperature structure and velocity field in the molecular gas

  20. Massachusetts Stony Brook galactic plane CO survey - disk and spiral arm molecular cloud populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, P.M.; Sanders, D.B.; Rivolo, A.R.; Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory, Pasadena, CA; Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD)

    1985-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of a new high-resolution CO survey of the galactic disk is presented, which can detect and measure essentially all molecular clouds and cloud components in the inner Galaxy with size greater than 10 pc. In the region of l between 20 and 50 deg approximately 2000 emission centers are identified. Two populations which separate according to temperature are found. The disk population of cold molecular cores contains about three-quarters of the total number of cores, is not confined to any large-scale pattern in longitude-velocity space, and must be widespread in the Galaxy both in and out of spiral arms. The spiral arm population of warm molecular cores contains about one-quarter of the population with one-half of the emission and is very closely associated with radio H II regions. Between longitudes 20 and 50 deg their radial distribution shows two peaks at R = 5 and 7.5 kpc. The warm molecular cloud cores have a nonaxisymmetric galactic distribution, occur in clusters, and are confined to restricted regions and patterns in longitude-velocity space and in the galactic disk. 20 references

  1. Producing an Infrared Multiwavelength Galactic Plane Atlas Using Montage, Pegasus, and Amazon Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynge, M.; Juve, G.; Kinney, J.; Good, J.; Berriman, B.; Merrihew, A.; Deelman, E.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we describe how to leverage cloud resources to generate large-scale mosaics of the galactic plane in multiple wavelengths. Our goal is to generate a 16-wavelength infrared Atlas of the Galactic Plane at a common spatial sampling of 1 arcsec, processed so that they appear to have been measured with a single instrument. This will be achieved by using the Montage image mosaic engine process observations from the 2MASS, GLIMPSE, MIPSGAL, MSX and WISE datasets, over a wavelength range of 1 μm to 24 μm, and by using the Pegasus Workflow Management System for managing the workload. When complete, the Atlas will be made available to the community as a data product. We are generating images that cover ±180° in Galactic longitude and ±20° in Galactic latitude, to the extent permitted by the spatial coverage of each dataset. Each image will be 5°x5° in size (including an overlap of 1° with neighboring tiles), resulting in an atlas of 1,001 images. The final size will be about 50 TBs. This paper will focus on the computational challenges, solutions, and lessons learned in producing the Atlas. To manage the computation we are using the Pegasus Workflow Management System, a mature, highly fault-tolerant system now in release 4.2.2 that has found wide applicability across many science disciplines. A scientific workflow describes the dependencies between the tasks and in most cases the workflow is described as a directed acyclic graph, where the nodes are tasks and the edges denote the task dependencies. A defining property for a scientific workflow is that it manages data flow between tasks. Applied to the galactic plane project, each 5 by 5 mosaic is a Pegasus workflow. Pegasus is used to fetch the source images, execute the image mosaicking steps of Montage, and store the final outputs in a storage system. As these workflows are very I/O intensive, care has to be taken when choosing what infrastructure to execute the workflow on. In our setup, we choose

  2. Simulating deep surveys of the Galactic Plane with the Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Stefan; Digel, Seth

    2009-05-01

    The pioneering survey of the Galactic plane by H.E.S.S., together with the northern complement now underway with VERITAS, has shown the inner Milky Way to be rich in TeV-emitting sources; new source classes have been found among the H.E.S.S. detections and unidentified sources remain. In order to explore optimizations of the design of an Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS)-like instrument for survey science, we constructed a model of the flux and size distributions of Galactic TeV sources, normalized to the H.E.S.S. sources but extrapolated to lower flux levels. We investigated potential outcomes from a survey with the order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity and attendant improvement in angular resolution planned for AGIS. Studies of individual sources and populations found with such a sensitivity survey will advance understanding of astrophysical particle acceleration, source populations, and even high-energy cosmic rays via detection of the low-level TeV diffuse emission in regions of high cosmic-ray densitiy.

  3. NO EVIDENCE FOR A DARK MATTER DISK WITHIN 4 kpc FROM THE GALACTIC PLANE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moni Bidin, C.; Carraro, G.; Mendez, R. A.; Van Altena, W. F.

    2010-01-01

    We estimated the dynamical surface mass density (Σ) at the solar Galactocentric distance between 2 and 4 kpc from the Galactic plane, as inferred from the observed kinematics of the thick disk. We find Σ(z = 2 kpc) = 57.6 ± 5.8 M sun pc -2 , and it shows only a tiny increase in the z range considered by our investigation. We compared our results with the expectations for the visible mass, adopting the most recent estimates in the literature for contributions of the Galactic stellar disk and interstellar medium, and proposed models of the dark matter distribution. Our results match the expectation for the visible mass alone, never differing from it by more than 0.8 M sun pc -2 at any z, and thus we find little evidence for any dark component. We assume that the dark halo could be undetectable with our method, but the dark disk, recently proposed as a natural expectation of the ΛCDM models, should be detected. Given the good agreement with the visible mass alone, models including a dark disk are less likely, but within errors its existence cannot be excluded. In any case, these results put constraints on its properties: thinner models (scale height lower than 4 kpc) reconcile better with our results and, for any scale height, the lower-density models are preferred. We believe that successfully predicting the stellar thick disk properties and a dark disk in agreement with our observations could be a challenging theoretical task.

  4. THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. IX. DATA RELEASE 2 AND OUTER GALAXY EXTENSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginsburg, Adam; Glenn, Jason; Ellsworth-Bowers, Timothy P.; Battersby, Cara; Bally, John; Stringfellow, Guy [CASA, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics, 4-181 CCIS, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Dunham, Miranda [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Merello, Manuel; Evans II, Neal J. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400 Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Shirley, Yancy [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Aguirre, James, E-mail: Adam.Ginsburg@colorado.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    We present a re-reduction and expansion of the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS), first presented by Aguirre et al. and Rosolowsky et al. The BGPS is a 1.1 mm survey of dust emission in the Northern galactic plane, covering longitudes –10° < l < 90° and latitudes |b| < 0.°5 with a typical 1σ rms sensitivity of 30-100 mJy in a ∼33'' beam. Version 2 of the survey includes an additional ∼20 deg{sup 2} of coverage in the third and fourth quadrants and ∼2 deg{sup 2} in the first quadrant. The new data release has improved angular recovery, with complete recovery out to ∼80'' and partial recovery to ∼300'', and reduced negative bowls around bright sources resulting from the atmospheric subtraction process. We resolve the factor of 1.5 flux calibration offset between the v1.0 data release and other data sets and determine that there is no offset between v2.0 and other data sets. The v2.0 pointing accuracy is tested against other surveys and is demonstrated to be accurate and an improvement over v1.0. We present simulations and tests of the pipeline and its properties, including measurements of the pipeline's angular transfer function. The Bolocat cataloging tool was used to extract a new catalog, which includes 8594 sources, with 591 in the expanded regions. We have demonstrated that the Bolocat 40'' and 80'' apertures are accurate even in the presence of strong extended background emission. The number of sources is lower than in v1.0, but the amount of flux and area included in identified sources is larger.

  5. Models of the circumstellar medium of evolving, massive runaway stars moving through the Galactic plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, D. M.-A.; Mackey, J.; Langer, N.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Mignone, A.; Izzard, R. G.; Kaper, L.

    2014-11-01

    At least 5 per cent of the massive stars are moving supersonically through the interstellar medium (ISM) and are expected to produce a stellar wind bow shock. We explore how the mass-loss and space velocity of massive runaway stars affect the morphology of their bow shocks. We run two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulations following the evolution of the circumstellar medium of these stars in the Galactic plane from the main sequence to the red supergiant phase. We find that thermal conduction is an important process governing the shape, size and structure of the bow shocks around hot stars, and that they have an optical luminosity mainly produced by forbidden lines, e.g. [O III]. The Hα emission of the bow shocks around hot stars originates from near their contact discontinuity. The Hα emission of bow shocks around cool stars originates from their forward shock, and is too faint to be observed for the bow shocks that we simulate. The emission of optically thin radiation mainly comes from the shocked ISM material. All bow shock models are brighter in the infrared, i.e. the infrared is the most appropriate waveband to search for bow shocks. Our study suggests that the infrared emission comes from near the contact discontinuity for bow shocks of hot stars and from the inner region of shocked wind for bow shocks around cool stars. We predict that, in the Galactic plane, the brightest, i.e. the most easily detectable bow shocks are produced by high-mass stars moving with small space velocities.

  6. Small Galactic H II regions. II. The molecular clouds and star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, D.A.; Thronson, H.A. Jr.; Wilton, C.

    1990-01-01

    CO maps of molecular clouds associated with 11 small Galactic H II regions are presented and compared with IR images obtained by IRAS. The molecular masses of the clouds are computed and compared with the masses of the stellar content. The mapped clouds have masses of 1000-60,000 solar and are typical of the more numerous, smaller Galactic molecular clouds. All of the clouds have recently made massive OB stars, and many have complex spatial and kinematic structures. The coincidence of IRAS sources and CO peaks suggests that many of the clouds have sites of star formation other than the optically visible H II region. Star-formation efficiencies are uncertain, with values for the clouds ranging from 0.02 to 0.6 with an average value of 0.2. There is no trend of the upper stellar mass limit with Galactic radius and with molecular cloud mass. 53 refs

  7. An ancient F-type subdwarf from the halo crossing the Galactic plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, R.-D.; Heber, U.; Heuser, C.; Ziegerer, E.; Geier, S.; Niederhofer, F.

    2015-02-01

    Aims: We selected the bluest object, WISE J0725-2351, from Luhman's new high proper motion (HPM) survey based on observations with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for spectroscopic follow-up observations. Our aim was to unravel the nature of this relatively bright (V ~ 12, J ~ 11) HPM star (μ = 267 mas/yr). Methods: We obtained low- and medium-resolution spectra with the European Southern Observatory (ESO) New Technology Telescope (NTT)/EFOSC2 and Very Large Telescope (VLT)/X-Shooter instruments, investigated the radial velocity and performed a quantitative spectral analysis that allowed us to determine physical parameters. The fit of the spectral energy distribution based on the available photometry to low-metallicity model spectra and the similarity of our target to a metal-poor benchmark star (HD 84937) allowed us to estimate the distance and space velocity. Results: As in the case of HD 84937, we classified WISE J0725-2351 as sdF5: or a metal-poor turnoff star with [ Fe/H ] = -2.0 ± 0.2, Teff = 6250 ± 100 K, log g = 4.0 ± 0.2, and a possible age of about 12 Gyr. At an estimated distance of more than 400 pc, its proper motion translates to a tangential velocity of more than 500 km s-1. Together with its constant (on timescales of hours, days, and months) and large radial velocity (about +240 km s-1), the resulting Galactic restframe velocity is about 460 km s-1, implying a bound retrograde orbit for this extreme halo object that currently crosses the Galactic plane at high speed. Based on observations at the La Silla-Paranal Observatory of the European Southern Observatory for programmes 092.D-0040(A) and 093.D-0127(A).

  8. A Panoramic View of Star Formation in Milky Way: Recent Results from Galactic Plane FIR/Sub-mm Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Davide

    2017-11-01

    The star formation process involves a continuous gas flow from galactic (kpc) down to stellar (AU) scales. While targeted observations of single star forming sources are needed to understand the steps of this process with increasing detail, large unbiased Galactic plane surveys permit to reconstruct the map of star forming sites across the Milky Way, considered as an unique star formation engine. On the one hand, such surveys provide the community with a huge number of candidate targets for future follow-up observations with state-of-the-art telescope facilities, on the other hand they can provide reliable estimates of global parameters, such as Galactic star formation efficiency and rate, through which it is possible to establish comparisons with other galaxies. In this talk I will review the main results of recent FIR/sub-mm continuum emission Galactic surveys, with special attention to the Hi-GAL Herschel project, having the advantage (but also the complication) of being a multi-wavelength survey covering the spectral range in which the cold interstellar dust is expected to emit. The subsequent VIALACTEA project represents an articulate effort to combine Hi-GAL with other continuum and line surveys to refine the census of star forming clumps in the Galactic plane, and to use it to describe the Milky Way as a whole. Interpretation limitations imposed by the loss of detail with increasing distance are also discussed.

  9. 4U 1907+09: an HMXB running away from the Galactic plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Röser, S.; Scholz, R.-D.; Schilbach, E.

    2011-05-01

    We report the discovery of a bow shock around the high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) 4U 1907+09 using the Spitzer Space Telescope 24 μm data (after Vela X-1 the second example of bow shocks associated with HMXBs). The detection of the bow shock implies that 4U 1907+09 is moving through space with a high (supersonic) peculiar velocity. To confirm the runaway nature of 4U 1907+09, we measured its proper motion, which for an adopted distance to the system of 4 kpc corresponds to a peculiar transverse velocity of ≃ 160 ± 115 km s-1, meaning that 4U 1907+09 is indeed a runaway system. This also supports the general belief that most HMXBs possess high space velocities. The direction of motion of 4U 1907+09 inferred from the proper motion measurement is consistent with the orientation of the symmetry axis of the bow shock, and shows that the HMXB is running away from the Galactic plane. We also present the Spitzer images of the bow shock around Vela X-1 (a system similar to 4U 1907+09) and compare it with the bow shock generated by 4U 1907+09.

  10. Stellar populations in the Carina region. The Galactic plane at l = 291°

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Lera, J. A.; Baume, G.; Gamen, R.; Costa, E.; Carraro, G.

    2016-08-01

    Context. Previous studies of the Carina region have revealed its complexity and richness as well as a significant number of early-type stars. However, in many cases, these studies only concentrated on the central region (Trumpler 14/16) or were not homogeneous. This latter aspect, in particular, is crucial because very different ages and distances for key clusters have been claimed in recent years. Aims: The aim of this work is to study in detail an area of the Galactic plane in Carina, eastward η Carina. We analyze the properties of different stellar populations and focus on a sample of open clusters and their population of young stellar objects and highly reddened early stars. We also studied the stellar mass distribution in these clusters and the possible scenario of their formation. Finally, we outline the Galactic spiral structure in this direction. Methods: We obtained deep and homogeneous photometric data (UBVIKC) for six young open clusters: NGC 3752, Trumpler 18, NGC 3590, Hogg 10, 11, and 12, located in Carina at l ~ 291°, and their adjacent stellar fields, which we complemented with spectroscopic observations of a few selected targets. We also culled additional information from the literature, which includes stellar spectral classifications and near-infrared photometry from 2MASS. We finally developed a numerical code that allowed us to perform a homogeneous and systematic analysis of the data. Our results provide more reliable estimates of distances, color excesses, masses, and ages of the stellar populations in this direction. Results: We estimate the basic parameters of the studied clusters and find that they identify two overdensities of young stellar populations located at about 1.8 kpc and 2.8 kpc, with EB - V ~ 0.1 - 0.6. We find evidence of pre-main-sequence populations inside them, with an apparent coeval stellar formation in the most conspicuous clusters. We also discuss apparent age and distance gradients in the direction NW-SE. We study the

  11. HESS J1741-302: a hidden accelerator in the Galactic plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abdalla, H.; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Angüner, E. O.; Arakawa, M.; Armand, C.; Arrieta, M.; Backes, M.; Balzer, A.; Barnard, M.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Blackwell, R.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Büchele, M.; Bulik, T.; Capasso, M.; Caroff, S.; Carosi, A.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chen, A.; Chevalier, J.; Colafrancesco, S.; Condon, B.; Conrad, J.; Davids, I. D.; Decock, J.; Deil, C.; Devin, J.; Dewilt, P.; Dirson, L.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O.'c.; Dyks, J.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Emery, G.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Eschbach, S.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Funk, S.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Gaté, F.; Giavitto, G.; Glawion, D.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Grondin, M.-H.; Hahn, J.; Haupt, M.; Hawkes, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hoischen, C.; Holch, T. L.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Iwasaki, H.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jamrozy, M.; Jankowsky, D.; Jankowsky, F.; Jingo, M.; Jouvin, L.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katsuragawa, M.; Katz, U.; Kerszberg, D.; Khangulyan, D.; Khélifi, B.; King, J.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Kraus, M.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lau, J.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Leser, E.; Lohse, T.; Lorentz, M.; Liu, R.; López-Coto, R.; Lypova, I.; Malyshev, D.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Mariaud, C.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; Meintjes, P. J.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Mohrmann, L.; Morå, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Nakashima, S.; De Naurois, M.; Ndiyavala, H.; Niederwanger, F.; Niemiec, J.; Oakes, L.; O'Brien, P.; Odaka, H.; Ohm, S.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Padovani, M.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perennes, C.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Piel, Q.; Pita, S.; Poireau, V.; Prokhorov, D. A.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Rauth, R.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; De Los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rinchiuso, L.; Romoli, C.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Saito, S.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Sasaki, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwemmer, S.; Seglar-Arroyo, M.; Seyffert, A. S.; Shafi, N.; Shilon, I.; Shiningayamwe, K.; Simoni, R.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spir-Jacob, M.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Steppa, C.; Sushch, I.; Takahashi, T.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tibaldo, L.; Tiziani, D.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Tsirou, M.; Tsuji, N.; Tuffs, R.; Uchiyama, Y.; van der Walt, D. J.; van Eldik, C.; van Rensburg, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Voisin, F.; Völk, H. J.; Vuillaume, T.; Wadiasingh, Z.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zanin, R.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zefi, F.; Ziegler, A.; Zorn, J.; Żywucka, N.; NANTEN Collaboration; Enokiya, R.; Fukui, Y.; Hayakawa, T.; Okuda, T.; Torii, K.; Yamamoto, H.

    2018-04-01

    The H.E.S.S. Collaboration has discovered a new very high energy (VHE, E > 0.1 TeV) γ-ray source, HESS J1741-302, located in the Galactic plane. Despite several attempts to constrain its nature, no plausible counterpart has been found so far at X-ray and MeV/GeV γ-ray energies, and the source remains unidentified. An analysis of 145-h of observations of HESS J1741-302 at VHEs has revealed a steady and relatively weak TeV source ( 1% of the Crab Nebula flux), with a spectral index of Γ = 2.3 ± 0.2stat ± 0.2sys, extending to energies up to 10 TeV without any clear signature of a cut-off. In a hadronic scenario, such a spectrum implies an object with particle acceleration up to energies of several hundred TeV. Contrary to most H.E.S.S. unidentified sources, the angular size of HESS J1741-302 is compatible with the H.E.S.S. point spread function at VHEs, with an extension constrained to be below 0.068° at a 99% confidence level. The γ-ray emission detected by H.E.S.S. can be explained both within a hadronic scenario, due to collisions of protons with energies of hundreds of TeV with dense molecular clouds, and in a leptonic scenario, as a relic pulsar wind nebula, possibly powered by the middle-aged (20 kyr) pulsar PSR B1737-30. A binary scenario, related to the compact radio source 1LC 358.266+0.038 found to be spatially coincident with the best fit position of HESS J1741-302, is also envisaged.

  12. Radio Recombination Line Surveys of the inner Galactic Plane: SIGGMA and GDIGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Anderson, Loren Dean; Luisi, Matteo; Balser, Dana; Bania, Thomas; Wenger, Trey; Haffner, Lawrence Matthew; Minchin, Robert; Roshi, Anish; Churchwell, Edward; Terzian, Yervant; McIntyre, Travis; Lebron, Mayra; SIGGMA team, GDIGS team

    2018-01-01

    Ionized gas is one of the primary components of the interstellar medium (ISM) and plays a crucial role in star formation and galaxy evolution. Radio recombination lines (RRLs) can directly trace ionized gas in HII regions and warm ionized medium (WIM) without being affected by interstellar extinction. Single-dish telescopes like Arecibo Observatory and the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) are sensitive to low surface brightness emission, and are therefore powerful tools for the study of HII regions and the WIM. We report here on two large surveys of RRL emission: The Survey of Ionized Gas in the Galaxy, Made with the Arecibo telescope (SIGGMA) and the GBT Diffuse Ionized Gas Survey (GDIGS). These are the first large-scale fully-sampled RRL surveys, and together cover nearly the entire first quadrant of the Galactic plane at ~arcmin spatial resolution (l = -5 - 32 deg. for GDIGS and l = 32 - 70 deg. for SIGGMA). SIGGMA is performed with the Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFA) receiver, whose bandpass covers twelve hydrogen alpha lines from H163α to H174α. By stacking the α-lines and smoothing to 4 km/s velocity resolution, the final SIGGMA spectra have a mean rms level of ~0.65 mJy per beam. The GDIGS data were taken with the GBT C-band receiver and the VEGAS backend and include RRLs from H95α to H117α, and when stacked and smoothed to 5 km/s resolution achieve 1 mJy per beam rms. Here, we report on early analysis of the SIGGMA and GDIGS data, and present first scientific results.

  13. Modelling the Galactic bar using OGLE-II red clump giant stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rattenbury, Nicholas J.; Mao, Shude; Sumi, Takahiro; Smith, Martin C.

    2007-01-01

    Red clump giant (RCG) stars can be used as distance indicators to trace the mass distribution of the Galactic bar. We use RCG stars from 44 bulge fields from the OGLE-II microlensing collaboration data base to constrain analytic triaxial models for the Galactic bar. We find the bar major-axis is

  14. A Green Bank Telescope Survey of Large Galactic H II Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L. D.; Armentrout, W. P.; Luisi, Matteo; Bania, T. M.; Balser, Dana S.; Wenger, Trey V.

    2018-02-01

    As part of our ongoing H II Region Discovery Survey (HRDS), we report the Green Bank Telescope detection of 148 new angularly large Galactic H II regions in radio recombination line (RRL) emission. Our targets are located at a declination of δ > -45^\\circ , which corresponds to 266^\\circ > {\\ell }> -20^\\circ at b=0^\\circ . All sources were selected from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer Catalog of Galactic H II Regions, and have infrared angular diameters ≥slant 260\\prime\\prime . The Galactic distribution of these “large” H II regions is similar to that of the previously known sample of Galactic H II regions. The large H II region RRL line width and peak line intensity distributions are skewed toward lower values, compared with that of previous HRDS surveys. We discover seven sources with extremely narrow RRLs 100 {pc}, making them some of the physically largest known H II regions in the Galaxy. This survey completes the HRDS H II region census in the Northern sky, where we have discovered 887 H II regions and more than doubled the size of the previously known census of Galactic H II regions.

  15. An Einstein survey of the 1 keV soft X-ray background in the Galactic plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, John M.; Caillault, Jean-Pierre

    1994-01-01

    We have analyzed 56 Einstein Observatory Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) observations within +/- 3 deg of the Galactic plane in order to determine the low-latitude soft X-ray background flux in the 0.56-1.73 keV band. Any detected X-ray point source which fell within our regions of study was removed from the image, enabling us to present maps of the background flux as a function of Galactic latitude along 18 meridians. These maps reveal considerable structure to the background in the Galactic plane on an angular scale of approximately 1 deg. Our results are compared with those of an earlier study of the 1 keV X-ray background along l = 25 deg by Kahn & Caillault. The double-peaked structure they found is not discernible in our results, possibly because of the presence of solar backscattered flux in their data. A model which takes into account contributions to the background by extragalactic and stellar sources, the distribution of both atomic and molecular absorbing material with the Galaxy, the energy dependence of the cross section for absorption of X-rays, and the energy dependence of the detector has been constructed and fitted to these new data to derive constraints on the scale height, temperature, and volume emissivity of the unaccounted-for X-ray-emitting material. The results of this model along l = 25 deg are roughly similar to those of the model of Kahn & Caillault along the same meridian.

  16. Rotation curve of the neutral-hydrogen subsystem in the galactic plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovskaia, I.V.

    1981-01-01

    Separate rotation curves of the neutral-hydrogen subsystem are obtained for the first and fourth quadrants of galactic longitude on the basis of radio observations in the 21-cm line. A method that uses the entire 21-cm line profile is applied to distances from the galactic center in the range from 0.36 to 1.00 times the distance of the sun. It is found that the motion of the neutral-hydrogen subsystem is not purely circular and that the subsystem rotates more slowly in the fourth quadrant than in the first.

  17. The discovery of an eccentric millisecond pulsar in the Galactic plane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Champion, D.J.; Ransom, S.M.; Lazarus, P.; Camilo, F.; Kaspi, V.M.; Nice, D.J.; Freire, P.C.C.; Cordes, J.M.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Bassa, C.; Lorimer, D.R.; Stairs, I.H.; van Leeuwen, J.; Arzoumnian, Z.; Backer, D.C.; Bhat, N.D.R.; Chatterjee, S.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J.S.; Faucher-Giguère, C.A.; Gaensler, B.M.; Han, J.; Jenet, F.A.; Kasian, L.; Kondratiev, V.I.; Kramer, M.; Lazio, J.; McLaughlin, M.A.; Stappers, B.W.; Venkataraman, A.; Vlemmings, W.

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of binary systems is governed by their orbital properties and the stellar density of the local environment. Studies of neutron stars in binary star systems offer unique insights into both these issues. In an Arecibo survey of the Galactic disk, we have found PSR J1903+0327, a radio

  18. THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. XII. DISTANCE CATALOG EXPANSION USING KINEMATIC ISOLATION OF DENSE MOLECULAR CLOUD STRUCTURES WITH {sup 13}CO(1-0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellsworth-Bowers, Timothy P.; Glenn, Jason [CASA, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics, 4-183 CCIS, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Ginsburg, Adam [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Evans II, Neal J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Battersby, Cara [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Shirley, Yancy L.; Svoboda, Brian, E-mail: timothy.ellsworthbowers@colorado.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2015-01-20

    We present an expanded distance catalog for 1710 molecular cloud structures identified in the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) version 2, representing a nearly threefold increase over the previous BGPS distance catalog. We additionally present a new method for incorporating extant data sets into our Bayesian distance probability density function (DPDF) methodology. To augment the dense-gas tracers (e.g., HCO{sup +}(3-2), NH{sub 3}(1,1)) used to derive line-of-sight velocities for kinematic distances, we utilize the Galactic Ring Survey (GRS) {sup 13}CO(1-0) data to morphologically extract velocities for BGPS sources. The outline of a BGPS source is used to select a region of the GRS {sup 13}CO data, along with a reference region to subtract enveloping diffuse emission, to produce a line profile of {sup 13}CO matched to the BGPS source. For objects with a HCO{sup +}(3-2) velocity, ≈95% of the new {sup 13}CO(1-0) velocities agree with that of the dense gas. A new prior DPDF for kinematic distance ambiguity (KDA) resolution, based on a validated formalism for associating molecular cloud structures with known objects from the literature, is presented. We demonstrate this prior using catalogs of masers with trigonometric parallaxes and H II regions with robust KDA resolutions. The distance catalog presented here contains well-constrained distance estimates for 20% of BGPS V2 sources, with typical distance uncertainties ≲ 0.5 kpc. Approximately 75% of the well-constrained sources lie within 6 kpc of the Sun, concentrated in the Scutum-Centaurus arm. Galactocentric positions of objects additionally trace out portions of the Sagittarius, Perseus, and Outer arms in the first and second Galactic quadrants, and we also find evidence for significant regions of interarm dense gas.

  19. Two chemically similar stellar overdensities on opposite sides of the plane of the Galactic disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergemann, Maria; Sesar, Branimir; Cohen, Judith G.; Serenelli, Aldo M.; Sheffield, Allyson; Li, Ting S.; Casagrande, Luca; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Laporte, Chervin F. P.; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Schönrich, Ralph; Gould, Andrew

    2018-03-01

    Our Galaxy is thought to have an active evolutionary history, dominated over the past ten billion years or so by star formation, the accretion of cold gas and, in particular, the merging of clumps of baryonic and dark matter. The stellar halo—the faint, roughly spherical component of the Galaxy—reveals rich ‘fossil’ evidence of these interactions, in the form of stellar streams, substructures and chemically distinct stellar components. The effects of interactions with dwarf galaxies on the content and morphology of the Galactic disk are still being explored. Recent studies have identified kinematically distinct stellar substructures and moving groups of stars in our Galaxy, which may have extragalactic origins. There is also mounting evidence that stellar overdensities (regions with greater-than-average stellar density) at the interface between the outer disk and the halo could have been caused by the interaction of a dwarf galaxy with the disk. Here we report a spectroscopic analysis of 14 stars from two stellar overdensities, each lying about five kiloparsecs above or below the Galactic plane—locations suggestive of an association with the stellar halo. We find that the chemical compositions of these two groups of stars are almost identical, both within and between these overdensities, and closely match the abundance patterns of stars in the Galactic disk. We conclude that these stars came from the disk, and that the overdensities that they are part of were created by tidal interactions of the disk with passing or merging dwarf galaxies.

  20. A high-frequency survey of the southern Galactic plane for pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Simon; Lyne, A. G.; Manchester, R. N.; Kniffen, D. A.; D'Amico, N.; Lim, J.; Ashworth, M.

    1992-01-01

    Results of an HF survey designed to detect young, distant, and short-period pulsars are presented. The survey detected a total of 100 pulsars, 46 of which were previously unknown. The periods of the newly discovered pulsars range between 47 ms and 2.5 ms. One of the new discoveries, PSR 1259-63, is a member of a long-period binary system. At least three of the pulsars have ages less than 30,000 yr, bringing the total number of such pulsars to 12. The majority of the new discoveries are distant objects with high dispersion measures, which are difficult to detect at low frequencies. This demonstrates that the survey has reduced the severe selection effects of pulse scattering, high Galactic background temperature, and dispersion broadening, which hamper the detection of such pulsars at low radio frequencies. The pulsar distribution in the southern Galaxy is found to extend much further from the Galactic center than that in the north, probably due to two prominent spiral arms in the southern Galaxy.

  1. GOT C+: Galactic Plane Survey of the 1.9 THz [CII] Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William

    2012-01-01

    The ionized carbon [CII] 1.9 THz fine structure line is a major gas coolant in the interstellar medium (ISM) and controls the thermal conditions in diffuse gas clouds and Photodissociation Regions (PDRs). The [CII] line is also an important tracer of the atomic gas and atomic to molecular transition in diffuse clouds throughout the Galaxy. I will review some of the results from the recently completed Galactic Observations of Terahertz C+ (GOT C+) survey. This Herschel Open Time Key Project is a sparse, but uniform volume sample survey of [CII] line emission throughout the Galactic disk using the HIFI heterodyne receiver. HIFI observations, with their high spectral resolution, isolate and locate individual clouds in the Galaxy and provide excitation information on the gas. I will present [CII] position-velocity maps that reveal the distribution and motion of the clouds in the inner Galaxy and discuss results on the physical properties of the gas using spectral observations of [CII] and ancillary HI and 12CO, 13CO, and C18O J=1-0 data. The [CII] emission is also a useful tracer of the "Dark H2 Gas", and I will discuss its distribution in a sample of interstellar clouds. This research was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  2. Discovery of a Nonblazar Gamma-Ray Transient Source Near the Galactic Plane: GRO J1838-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, M.; Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We report the discovery of a remarkable gamma-ray transient source near the Galactic plane, GRO J1838-04. This source was serendipitously discovered by EGRET in 1995 June with a peak intensity of approx. (4 +/- 1) x 10(exp -6) photons/sq cm s (for photon energies larger than 100 MeV) and a 5.9 sigma significance. At that time, GRO J1838-04 was the second brightest gamma-ray source in the sky. A subsequent EGRET pointing in 1995 late September detected the source at a flux smaller than its peak value by a factor of approx. 7. We determine that no radio-loud spectrally flat blazar is within the error box of GRO J1838-04. We discuss the origin of the gamma-ray transient source and show that interpretations in terms of active galactic nuclei or isolated pulsars are highly problematic. GRO J1838-04 provides strong evidence for the existence of a new class of variable gamma-ray sources.

  3. The confocal plane grating spectrometer at BESSY II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Könnecke, R.; Follath, R.; Pontius, N.; Schlappa, J.; Eggenstein, F.; Zeschke, T.; Bischoff, P.; Schmidt, J.-S.; Noll, T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► At the electron storage ring BESSY II a confocal plane grating RIXS endstation with a spot size of 4 μm × 1 μm is presently being installed. ► A resolving power above 10,000 is expected for low energy excitations below 500 eV. ► The sample will be excited with a photon flux up to 10 15 photons/(s 300 mA 0.1%bandwidth). ► Sample environments for solid, gaseous and liquid samples will be provided. ► A fast detecting system is being set up for future pump-probe experiments. -- Abstract: At BESSY II a confocal plane grating spectrometer for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) is currently under commissioning. The new endstation operates with a source size of 4 × 1 μm 2 provided by its dedicated beamline. The RIXS-spectrometer covers an energy range from 50 eV to 1000 eV, providing a resolving power E/ΔE of 5000–15,000. The beamline allows full polarization control and gives a photon flux of up to 7 × 10 14 photons/s/0.1 A/0.1%bandwidth by offering a resolving power E/ΔE of 4000–12,000

  4. Difference Image Analysis of Galactic Microlensing. II. Microlensing Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcock, C.; Allsman, R. A.; Alves, D.; Axelrod, T. S.; Becker, A. C.; Bennett, D. P.; Cook, K. H.; Drake, A. J.; Freeman, K. C.; Griest, K. (and others)

    1999-09-01

    The MACHO collaboration has been carrying out difference image analysis (DIA) since 1996 with the aim of increasing the sensitivity to the detection of gravitational microlensing. This is a preliminary report on the application of DIA to galactic bulge images in one field. We show how the DIA technique significantly increases the number of detected lensing events, by removing the positional dependence of traditional photometry schemes and lowering the microlensing event detection threshold. This technique, unlike PSF photometry, gives the unblended colors and positions of the microlensing source stars. We present a set of criteria for selecting microlensing events from objects discovered with this technique. The 16 pixel and classical microlensing events discovered with the DIA technique are presented. (c) (c) 1999. The American Astronomical Society.

  5. Search for Extended Sources in the Galactic Plane Using Six Years of Fermi -Large Area Telescope Pass 8 Data above 10 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Kinard Lab of Physics, Clemson, SC 29634-0978 (United States); Baldini, L. [Università di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bissaldi, E.; Caragiulo, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Cameron, R. A. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Bonino, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Brandt, T. J.; Castro, D. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bregeon, J. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université Montpellier, CNRS/IN2P3, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Bruel, P. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Caraveo, P. A. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Cavazzuti, E., E-mail: jcohen@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: elizabeth.a.hays@nasa.gov [Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) Science Data Center, I-00133 Roma (Italy); and others

    2017-07-10

    The spatial extension of a γ -ray source is an essential ingredient to determine its spectral properties, as well as its potential multiwavelength counterpart. The capability to spatially resolve γ -ray sources is greatly improved by the newly delivered Fermi -Large Area Telescope (LAT) Pass 8 event-level analysis, which provides a greater acceptance and an improved point-spread function, two crucial factors for the detection of extended sources. Here, we present a complete search for extended sources located within 7° from the Galactic plane, using 6 yr of Fermi -LAT data above 10 GeV. We find 46 extended sources and provide their morphological and spectral characteristics. This constitutes the first catalog of hard Fermi -LAT extended sources, named the Fermi Galactic Extended Source Catalog, which allows a thorough study of the properties of the Galactic plane in the sub-TeV domain.

  6. Search for Extended Sources in the Galactic Plane Using Six Years of Fermi -Large Area Telescope Pass 8 Data above 10 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R.; Ajello, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Caragiulo, M.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Cameron, R. A.; Bonino, R.; Brandt, T. J.; Castro, D.; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, P.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.

    2017-01-01

    The spatial extension of a γ -ray source is an essential ingredient to determine its spectral properties, as well as its potential multiwavelength counterpart. The capability to spatially resolve γ -ray sources is greatly improved by the newly delivered Fermi -Large Area Telescope (LAT) Pass 8 event-level analysis, which provides a greater acceptance and an improved point-spread function, two crucial factors for the detection of extended sources. Here, we present a complete search for extended sources located within 7° from the Galactic plane, using 6 yr of Fermi -LAT data above 10 GeV. We find 46 extended sources and provide their morphological and spectral characteristics. This constitutes the first catalog of hard Fermi -LAT extended sources, named the Fermi Galactic Extended Source Catalog, which allows a thorough study of the properties of the Galactic plane in the sub-TeV domain.

  7. GMRT Galactic Plane Pulsar and Transient Survey and the Discovery of PSR J1838+1523

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surnis, Mayuresh P.; Joshi, Bhal Chandra; McLaughlin, Maura A.; Lorimer, Duncan R.; M A, Krishnakumar; Manoharan, P. K.; Naidu, Arun

    2018-05-01

    We report the results of a blind pulsar survey carried out with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) at 325 MHz. The survey covered about 10% of the region between Galactic longitude 45° pulsars. One of these, PSR J1838+1523, was previously unknown and has a period of 549 ms and a dispersion measure of 68 pc cm-3. We also present the timing solution of this pulsar obtained from multi-frequency timing observations carried out with the GMRT and the Ooty Radio Telescope. The measured flux density of this pulsar is 4.3±1.8 and 1.2±0.7 mJy at 325 and 610 MHz, respectively. This implies a spectral index of -2 ±0.8, thus making the expected flux density at 1.4 GHz to be about 0.2 mJy, which would be just detectable in the high frequency pulsar surveys like the Northern High Time Resolution Universe pulsar survey. This discovery underlines the importance of low frequency pulsar surveys in detecting steep spectrum pulsars, thus providing complementary coverage of the pulsar population.

  8. Galactic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The occurrence of hot, apparently normal, massive stars far from the galactic plane has been a major puzzle in an understanding of galactic structure and evolution. Such stars have been discovered and studied at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) over a number of years. During 1989 further evidence has been obtained indicating that these stars are normal, massive objects. Other studies of galactic structure conducted by the SAAO have included research on: the central bulge region of our galaxy; populations of M giants in the galaxy; a faint blue object survey; a survey of the galactic plane for distant Cepheid variables; interstellar reddening, and K-type dwarfs as tracers for the gravitational force perpendicular to the galactic plane. 1 fig

  9. Spatially Offset Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Triggering in Galaxy Mergers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrows, R. Scott; Comerford, Julia M. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Greene, Jenny E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Pooley, David, E-mail: Robert.Barrows@Colorado.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Trinity University, San Antonio, TX 78212 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Galaxy mergers are likely to play a role in triggering active galactic nuclei (AGNs), but the conditions under which this process occurs are poorly understood. In Paper I, we constructed a sample of spatially offset X-ray AGNs that represent galaxy mergers hosting a single AGN. In this paper, we use our offset AGN sample to constrain the parameters that affect AGN observability in galaxy mergers. We also construct dual-AGN samples with similar selection properties for comparison. We find that the offset AGN fraction shows no evidence for a dependence on AGN luminosity, while the dual-AGN fractions show stronger evidence for a positive dependence, suggesting that the merger events forming dual AGNs are more efficient at instigating accretion onto supermassive black holes than those forming offset AGNs. We also find that the offset and dual-AGN fractions both have a negative dependence on nuclear separation and are similar in value at small physical scales. This dependence may become stronger when restricted to high AGN luminosities, although a larger sample is needed for confirmation. These results indicate that the probability of AGN triggering increases at later merger stages. This study is the first to systematically probe down to nuclear separations of <1 kpc (∼0.8 kpc) and is consistent with predictions from simulations that AGN observability peaks in this regime. We also find that the offset AGNs are not preferentially obscured compared to the parent AGN sample, suggesting that our selection may be targeting galaxy mergers with relatively dust-free nuclear regions.

  10. Spatially Offset Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Triggering in Galaxy Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, R. Scott; Comerford, Julia M.; Greene, Jenny E.; Pooley, David

    2017-04-01

    Galaxy mergers are likely to play a role in triggering active galactic nuclei (AGNs), but the conditions under which this process occurs are poorly understood. In Paper I, we constructed a sample of spatially offset X-ray AGNs that represent galaxy mergers hosting a single AGN. In this paper, we use our offset AGN sample to constrain the parameters that affect AGN observability in galaxy mergers. We also construct dual-AGN samples with similar selection properties for comparison. We find that the offset AGN fraction shows no evidence for a dependence on AGN luminosity, while the dual-AGN fractions show stronger evidence for a positive dependence, suggesting that the merger events forming dual AGNs are more efficient at instigating accretion onto supermassive black holes than those forming offset AGNs. We also find that the offset and dual-AGN fractions both have a negative dependence on nuclear separation and are similar in value at small physical scales. This dependence may become stronger when restricted to high AGN luminosities, although a larger sample is needed for confirmation. These results indicate that the probability of AGN triggering increases at later merger stages. This study is the first to systematically probe down to nuclear separations of <1 kpc (˜0.8 kpc) and is consistent with predictions from simulations that AGN observability peaks in this regime. We also find that the offset AGNs are not preferentially obscured compared to the parent AGN sample, suggesting that our selection may be targeting galaxy mergers with relatively dust-free nuclear regions.

  11. A NEAR-INFRARED SURVEY OF THE INNER GALACTIC PLANE FOR WOLF-RAYET STARS. I. METHODS AND FIRST RESULTS: 41 NEW WR STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shara, Michael M.; Gerke, Jill; Zurek, David; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Doyon, Rene; Villar-Sbaffi, Alfredo; Stanonik, Kathryn; Artigau, Etienne; Drissen, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of new Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars in our Galaxy via large-scale narrowband optical surveys has been severely limited by dust extinction. Recent improvements in infrared technology have made narrowband-broadband imaging surveys viable again. We report a new J, K, and narrowband imaging survey of 300 deg 2 of the plane of the Galaxy, spanning 150 degrees in Galactic longitude and reaching 1 degree above and below the Galactic plane. The survey has a useful limiting magnitude of K = 15 over most of the observed Galactic plane, and K = 14 within a few degrees of the Galactic center. Thousands of emission line candidates have been detected. In spectrographic follow-ups of 173 WR star candidates we have discovered 41 new WR stars, 15 of type WN and 26 of type WC. Star subtype assignments have been confirmed with K-band spectra, and distances approximated using the method of spectroscopic parallax. A few of the new WR stars are among the most distant known in our Galaxy. The distribution of these new WR stars is seen to follow that of previously known WR stars along the spiral arms of the Galaxy. Tentative radial velocities were also measured for most of the new WR stars.

  12. Contributions of type II and Ib/c supernovae to Galactic chemical evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahijpal Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Type II and Ib/c supernovae (SNe II and Ib/c) have made major stellar nucleosynthetic contributions to the inventories of stable nuclides during chemical evolution of the Galaxy. A case study is performed here with the help of recently developed numerical simulations of Galactic chemical evolution in the solar neighborhood to understand the contributions of SNe II and Ib/c by comparing the stellar nucleosynthetic yields obtained by two leading groups in this field. These stellar nucleosynthetic yields differ in terms of their treatment of stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis. The formulation describing Galactic chemical evolution is developed with the recently revised solar metallicity of ∼0.014. Furthermore, the recent nucleosynthetic yields of stellar models based on the revised solar metallicity are also used. The analysis suggests that it could be difficult to explain, in a self-consistent manner, the various features associated with the elemental evolutionary trends over Galactic timescales by any single adopted stellar nucleosynthetic model that incorporates SNe II and Ib/c

  13. The second Herschel-ATLAS Data Release - III. Optical and near-infrared counterparts in the North Galactic Plane field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlanetto, C.; Dye, S.; Bourne, N.; Maddox, S.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S.; Valiante, E.; Smith, M. W.; Smith, D. J. B.; Ivison, R. J.; Ibar, E.

    2018-05-01

    This paper forms part of the second major public data release of the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS). In this work, we describe the identification of optical and near-infrared counterparts to the submillimetre detected sources in the 177 deg2 North Galactic Plane (NGP) field. We used the likelihood ratio method to identify counterparts in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and in the United Kingdom InfraRed Telescope Imaging Deep Sky Survey within a search radius of 10 arcsec of the H-ATLAS sources with a 4σ detection at 250 μm. We obtained reliable (R ≥ 0.8) optical counterparts with r performance of the likelihood ratio method to identify optical and near-infrared counterparts taking into account the depth and area of both input catalogues. Using catalogues with the same surface density of objects in the overlapping ˜25 deg2 area, we obtained that the reliable fraction in the near-infrared (54.8 per cent) is significantly higher than in the optical (36.4 per cent). Finally, using deep radio data which covers a small region of the NGP field, we found that 80-90 per cent of our reliable identifications are correct.

  14. A 24 μm point source catalog of the galactic plane from Spitzer/MIPSGAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutermuth, Robert A.; Heyer, Mark [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    In this contribution, we describe the applied methods to construct a 24 μm based point source catalog derived from the image data of the MIPSGAL 24 μm Galactic Plane Survey and the corresponding data products. The high quality catalog product contains 933,818 sources, with a total of 1,353,228 in the full archive catalog. The source tables include positional and photometric information derived from the 24 μm images, source quality and confusion flags, and counterpart photometry from matched 2MASS, GLIMPSE, and WISE point sources. Completeness decay data cubes are constructed at 1′ angular resolution that describe the varying background levels over the MIPSGAL field and the ability to extract sources of a given magnitude from this background. The completeness decay cubes are included in the set of data products. We present the results of our efforts to verify the astrometric and photometric calibration of the catalog, and present several analyses of minor anomalies in these measurements to justify adopted mitigation strategies.

  15. Near-Infrared [Fe II] and H2 Study of the Galactic Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Hyun; Koo, Bon-Chul; Lee, Jae-Joon; Jaffe, Daniel T.; Burton, Michael G.; Ryder, Stuart D.

    2018-01-01

    We have searched for near-infrared (NIR) [Fe II] (1.644 μm) and H2 1-0 S(1) (2.122 μm) emission features associated with Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) using the narrow-band imaging surveys UWIFE / UWISH2 (UKIRT Widefield Infrared Survey for [Fe II] / H2). Both surveys cover about 180 square degrees of the first Galactic quadrant (7° reversal” phenomenon, i.e., the H2 emission features are detected outside the [Fe II] emission boundary. We carried out high resolution (R~40,000) NIR H- and K-band spectroscopy of the five SNRs showing the [Fe II]-H2 reversal (G11.2-0.3, KES 73, W44, 3C 396, W49B) using IGRINS (Immersion GRating INfrared Spectrograph). Various ro-vibrational H2 lines have been detected, which are used to derive the kinematic distances to the SNRs and to investigate the origin of the H2 emission. The detected H2 lines show broad line width (> 10 km s-1) and line flux ratios of thermal excitation. We discuss the origin of the extended H2 emission features beyond the the [Fe II] emission boundary.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galactic CHaMP. II. Dense gas clumps. (Ma+, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, B.; Tan, J. C.; Barnes, P. J.

    2015-04-01

    A total of 303 dense gas clumps have been detected using the HCO+(1-0) line in the CHaMP survey (Paper I, Barnes et al. 2011, J/ApJS/196/12). In this article we have derived the SED for these clumps using Spitzer, MSX, and IRAS data. The Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) was launched in 1996 April. It conducted a Galactic plane survey (0MSX band wavelengths are centered at 8.28, 12.13, 14.65, and 21.3um. The best image resolution is ~18" in the 8.28um band, with positional accuracy of about 2". Calibrated images of the Galactic plane were obtained from the online MSX image server at the IPAC website. The IRAS performed an all-sky survey at 12, 25, 60, and 100um. The nominal resolution is about 4' at 60um. High Resolution Image Restoration (HIRES) uses the maximum correlation method to produce higher resolution images, better than 1' at 60um. Sources chosen for processing with HIRES were processed at all four IRAS bands with 20 iterations. The Spitzer InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) is a four-channel camera that provides simultaneous 5.2"x5.2" images at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8um with an angular resolution of about 2" at 8um. We searched the Spitzer archive at IPAC. Most of these data are from two large survey programs: PID 189 (Churchwell, E., "The SIRTF Galactic Plane Survey") and PID 40791 (Majewski, S., "Galactic Structure and Star Formation in Vela-Carina"). Hill et al. (2005, J/MNRAS/363/405) carried out a 1.2mm continuum emission survey toward 131 star-forming complexes using the Swedish ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST) IMaging Bolometer Array (SIMBA). Hill et al. list the 1.2mm flux for 404 sources, 15 of which are in our sample. (2 data files).

  17. The High Time Resolution Universe Pulsar Survey - XII. Galactic plane acceleration search and the discovery of 60 pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C.; Champion, D. J.; Bailes, M.; Barr, E. D.; Bates, S. D.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Burgay, M.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Flynn, C. M. L.; Jameson, A.; Johnston, S.; Keith, M. J.; Kramer, M.; Levin, L.; Petroff, E.; Possenti, A.; Stappers, B. W.; van Straten, W.; Tiburzi, C.; Eatough, R. P.; Lyne, A. G.

    2015-07-01

    We present initial results from the low-latitude Galactic plane region of the High Time Resolution Universe pulsar survey conducted at the Parkes 64-m radio telescope. We discuss the computational challenges arising from the processing of the terabyte-sized survey data. Two new radio interference mitigation techniques are introduced, as well as a partially coherent segmented acceleration search algorithm which aims to increase our chances of discovering highly relativistic short-orbit binary systems, covering a parameter space including potential pulsar-black hole binaries. We show that under a constant acceleration approximation, a ratio of data length over orbital period of ≈0.1 results in the highest effectiveness for this search algorithm. From the 50 per cent of data processed thus far, we have redetected 435 previously known pulsars and discovered a further 60 pulsars, two of which are fast-spinning pulsars with periods less than 30 ms. PSR J1101-6424 is a millisecond pulsar whose heavy white dwarf (WD) companion and short spin period of 5.1 ms indicate a rare example of full-recycling via Case A Roche lobe overflow. PSR J1757-27 appears to be an isolated recycled pulsar with a relatively long spin period of 17 ms. In addition, PSR J1244-6359 is a mildly recycled binary system with a heavy WD companion, PSR J1755-25 has a significant orbital eccentricity of 0.09 and PSR J1759-24 is likely to be a long-orbit eclipsing binary with orbital period of the order of tens of years. Comparison of our newly discovered pulsar sample to the known population suggests that they belong to an older population. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our current pulsar detection yield is as expected from population synthesis.

  18. A Near-infrared RR Lyrae Census along the Southern Galactic Plane: The Milky Way’s Stellar Fossil Brought to Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dékány, István; Hajdu, Gergely; Grebel, Eva K.; Catelan, Márcio; Elorrieta, Felipe; Eyheramendy, Susana; Majaess, Daniel; Jordán, Andrés

    2018-04-01

    RR Lyrae stars (RRLs) are tracers of the Milky Way’s fossil record, holding valuable information on its formation and early evolution. Owing to the high interstellar extinction endemic to the Galactic plane, distant RRLs lying at low Galactic latitudes have been elusive. We attained a census of 1892 high-confidence RRLs by exploiting the near-infrared photometric database of the VVV survey’s disk footprint spanning ∼70° of Galactic longitude, using a machine-learned classifier. Novel data-driven methods were employed to accurately characterize their spatial distribution using sparsely sampled multi-band photometry. The RRL metallicity distribution function (MDF) was derived from their K s -band light-curve parameters using machine-learning methods. The MDF shows remarkable structural similarities to both the spectroscopic MDF of red clump giants and the MDF of bulge RRLs. We model the MDF with a multi-component density distribution and find that the number density of stars associated with the different model components systematically changes with both the Galactocentric radius and vertical distance from the Galactic plane, equivalent to weak metallicity gradients. Based on the consistency with results from the ARGOS survey, three MDF modes are attributed to the old disk populations, while the most metal-poor RRLs are probably halo interlopers. We propose that the dominant [Fe/H] component with a mean of ‑1 dex might correspond to the outskirts of an ancient Galactic spheroid or classical bulge component residing in the central Milky Way. The physical origins of the RRLs in this study need to be verified by kinematical information.

  19. THE Fe II EMISSION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: EXCITATION MECHANISMS AND LOCATION OF THE EMITTING REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinello, M.; Rodríguez-Ardila, A.; Garcia-Rissmann, A.; Sigut, T. A. A.; Pradhan, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of Fe ii emission in the near-infrared region (NIR) for 25 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to obtain information about the excitation mechanisms that power it and the location where it is formed. We employ an NIR Fe ii template derived in the literature and find that it successfully reproduces the observed Fe ii spectrum. The Fe ii bump at 9200 Å detected in all objects studied confirms that Lyα fluorescence is always present in AGNs. The correlation found between the flux of the 9200 Å bump, the 1 μm lines, and the optical Fe ii implies that Lyα fluorescence plays an important role in Fe ii production. We determined that at least 18% of the optical Fe ii is due to this process, while collisional excitation dominates the production of the observed Fe ii. The line profiles of Fe ii λ10502, O i λ11287, Ca ii λ8664, and Paβ were compared to gather information about the most likely location where they are emitted. We found that Fe ii, O i and Ca ii have similar widths and are, on average, 30% narrower than Paβ. Assuming that the clouds emitting the lines are virialized, we show that the Fe ii is emitted in a region twice as far from the central source than Paβ. The distance, though, strongly varies: from 8.5 light-days for NGC 4051 to 198.2 light-days for Mrk 509. Our results reinforce the importance of the Fe ii in the NIR to constrain critical parameters that drive its physics and the underlying AGN kinematics, as well as more accurate models aimed at reproducing this complex emission

  20. THE Fe II EMISSION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: EXCITATION MECHANISMS AND LOCATION OF THE EMITTING REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinello, M. [Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Rua Doutor Pereira Cabral 1303, 37500-903, Itajubá, MG (Brazil); Rodríguez-Ardila, A.; Garcia-Rissmann, A. [Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Rua Estados Unidos 154, Itajubá, MG, 37504-364 (Brazil); Sigut, T. A. A. [The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Pradhan, A. K., E-mail: murilo.marinello@gmail.com [McPherson Laboratory, The Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210-1173 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We present a study of Fe ii emission in the near-infrared region (NIR) for 25 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to obtain information about the excitation mechanisms that power it and the location where it is formed. We employ an NIR Fe ii template derived in the literature and find that it successfully reproduces the observed Fe ii spectrum. The Fe ii bump at 9200 Å detected in all objects studied confirms that Lyα fluorescence is always present in AGNs. The correlation found between the flux of the 9200 Å bump, the 1 μm lines, and the optical Fe ii implies that Lyα fluorescence plays an important role in Fe ii production. We determined that at least 18% of the optical Fe ii is due to this process, while collisional excitation dominates the production of the observed Fe ii. The line profiles of Fe ii λ10502, O i λ11287, Ca ii λ8664, and Paβ were compared to gather information about the most likely location where they are emitted. We found that Fe ii, O i and Ca ii have similar widths and are, on average, 30% narrower than Paβ. Assuming that the clouds emitting the lines are virialized, we show that the Fe ii is emitted in a region twice as far from the central source than Paβ. The distance, though, strongly varies: from 8.5 light-days for NGC 4051 to 198.2 light-days for Mrk 509. Our results reinforce the importance of the Fe ii in the NIR to constrain critical parameters that drive its physics and the underlying AGN kinematics, as well as more accurate models aimed at reproducing this complex emission.

  1. The population of TeV pulsar wind nebulae in the H.E.S.S. Galactic Plane Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. E. S. S. Collaboration; Abdalla, H.; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Andersson, T.; Angüner, E. O.; Arrieta, M.; Aubert, P.; Backes, M.; Balzer, A.; Barnard, M.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Blackwell, R.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Bulik, T.; Capasso, M.; Carr, J.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chen, A.; Chevalier, J.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Condon, B.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Devin, J.; deWilt, P.; Dirson, L.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O.'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Eschbach, S.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Funk, S.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Goyal, A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, J.; Haupt, M.; Hawkes, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hoischen, C.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, D.; Jankowsky, F.; Jingo, M.; Jogler, T.; Jouvin, L.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kerszberg, D.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; King, J.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Kraus, M.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lau, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Leser, E.; Lohse, T.; Lorentz, M.; Liu, R.; López-Coto, R.; Lypova, I.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Mariaud, C.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; Meintjes, P. J.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Mohrmann, L.; Morå, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; de Naurois, M.; Niederwanger, F.; Niemiec, J.; Oakes, L.; O'Brien, P.; Odaka, H.; Öttl, S.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Padovani, M.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perennes, C.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Prokhorov, D.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Sasaki, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwemmer, S.; Settimo, M.; Seyffert, A. S.; Shafi, N.; Shilon, I.; Simoni, R.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tibaldo, L.; Tiziani, D.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Tuffs, R.; Uchiyama, Y.; Valerius, K.; van der Walt, D. J.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Voisin, F.; Völk, H. J.; Vuillaume, T.; Wadiasingh, Z.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zefi, F.; Ziegler, A.; Żywucka, N.

    2018-04-01

    The nine-year H.E.S.S. Galactic Plane Survey (HGPS) has yielded the most uniform observation scan of the inner Milky Way in the TeV gamma-ray band to date. The sky maps and source catalogue of the HGPS allow for a systematic study of the population of TeV pulsar wind nebulae found throughout the last decade. To investigate the nature and evolution of pulsar wind nebulae, for the first time we also present several upper limits for regions around pulsars without a detected TeV wind nebula. Our data exhibit a correlation of TeV surface brightness with pulsar spin-down power Ė. This seems to be caused both by an increase of extension with decreasing Ė, and hence with time, compatible with a power law RPWN(Ė) Ė-0.65±0.20, and by a mild decrease of TeV gamma-ray luminosity with decreasing Ė, compatible with L1-10 TeV Ė0.59±0.21. We also find that the offsets of pulsars with respect to the wind nebula centre with ages around 10 kyr are frequently larger than can be plausibly explained by pulsar proper motion and could be due to an asymmetric environment. In the present data, it seems that a large pulsar offset is correlated with a high apparent TeV efficiency L1-10 TeV/Ė. In addition to 14 HGPS sources considered firmly identified pulsar wind nebulae and 5 additional pulsar wind nebulae taken from literature, we find 10 HGPS sources that are likely TeV pulsar wind nebula candidates. Using a model that subsumes the present common understanding of the very high-energy radiative evolution of pulsar wind nebulae, we find that the trends and variations of the TeV observables and limits can be reproduced to a good level, drawing a consistent picture of present-day TeV data and theory.

  2. Hydrogenation of Very Long Wavelength Infrared Focal Plane Arrays Based on Type II Superlattices, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to advance the Ga-free InAs/InAsSb type II superlattice (T2SL) materials technology for very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) by...

  3. TESTING THE GLOBAL STAR FORMATION RELATION: AN HCO+ (3-2) MAPPING STUDY OF RED MSX SOURCES IN THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenck, David E.; Shirley, Yancy L.; Reiter, Megan; Juneau, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the relation between the star formation rate (SFR) and mass of dense gas in Galactic clumps and nearby galaxies. Using the bolometric luminosity as a measure of SFR and the molecular line luminosity of HCO + (3-2) as a measure of dense gas mass, we find that the relation between SFR and M dense is approximately linear. This is similar to published results derived using HCN (1-0) as a dense gas tracer. HCO + (3-2) and HCN (1-0) have similar conditions for excitation. Our work includes 16 Galactic clumps that are in both the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey and the Red MSX Source Survey, 27 water maser sources from the literature, and the aforementioned HCN (1-0) data. Our results agree qualitatively with predictions of recent theoretical models which state that the nature of the relation should depend on how the critical density of the tracer compares with the mean density of the gas.

  4. AN STIS ATLAS OF Ca II TRIPLET ABSORPTION LINE KINEMATICS IN GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batcheldor, D.; Mandalou, J.; Axon, D.; Valluri, M.; Merritt, D.

    2013-01-01

    The relations observed between supermassive black holes and their host galaxies suggest a fundamental link in the processes that cause these two objects to evolve. A more comprehensive understanding of these relations could be gained by increasing the number of supermassive black hole mass (M . ) measurements. This can be achieved, in part, by continuing to model the stellar dynamics at the centers of galactic bulges using data of the highest possible spatial resolution. Consequently, we present here an atlas of galaxies in the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) data archive that may have spectra suitable for new M . estimates. Archived STIS G750M data for all non-barred galactic bulges are co-aligned and combined, where appropriate, and the radial signal-to-noise ratios calculated. The line-of-sight velocity distributions from the Ca II triplet are then determined using a maximum penalized likelihood method. We find 19 out of 42 galaxies may provide useful new M . estimates since they are found to have data that is comparable in quality with data that has been used in the past to estimate M . . However, we find no relation between the signal-to-noise ratio in the previously analyzed spectra and the uncertainties of the black hole masses derived from the spectra. We also find that there is a very limited number of appropriately observed stellar templates in the archive from which to estimate the effects of template mismatching

  5. FROM THE COLOR-MAGNITUDE DIAGRAM OF {omega} CENTAURI AND (SUPER-)ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STELLAR MODELS TO A GALACTIC PLANE PASSAGE GAS PURGING CHEMICAL EVOLUTION SCENARIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herwig, Falk; VandenBerg, Don A.; Navarro, Julio F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Ferguson, Jason [Department of Physics, Wichita State University Wichita, KS 67260 (United States); Paxton, Bill, E-mail: fherwig@uvic.ca, E-mail: vandenbe@uvic.ca, E-mail: jason.ferguson@wichita.edu, E-mail: paxton@kitp.ucsb.edu [KITP/UC Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    We have investigated the color-magnitude diagram of {omega} Centauri and find that the blue main sequence (bMS) can be reproduced only by models that have a helium abundance in the range Y = 0.35-0.40. To explain the faint subgiant branch of the reddest stars ('MS-a/RG-a' sequence), isochrones for the observed metallicity ([Fe/H] Almost-Equal-To -0.7) appear to require both a high age ({approx}13 Gyr) and enhanced CNO abundances ([CNO/Fe] Almost-Equal-To 0.9). Y Almost-Equal-To 0.35 must also be assumed in order to counteract the effects of high CNO on turnoff colors and thereby to obtain a good fit to the relatively blue turnoff of this stellar population. This suggests a short chemical evolution period of time (<1 Gyr) for {omega} Cen. Our intermediate-mass (super-)asymptotic giant branch (AGB) models are able to reproduce the high helium abundances, along with [N/Fe] {approx}2 and substantial O depletions if uncertainties in the treatment of convection are fully taken into account. These abundance features distinguish the bMS stars from the dominant [Fe/H] Almost-Equal-To -1.7 population. The most massive super-AGB stellar models (M{sub ZAMS} {>=} 6.8 M{sub Sun }, M{sub He,core} {>=} 1.245 M{sub Sun }) predict too large N enhancements, which limit their role in contributing to the extreme populations. In order to address the observed central concentration of stars with He-rich abundance, we show here quantitatively that highly He- and N-enriched AGB ejecta have particularly efficient cooling properties. Based on these results and on the reconstruction of the orbit of {omega} Cen with respect to the Milky Way, we propose the Galactic plane passage gas purging scenario for the chemical evolution of this cluster. The bMS population formed shortly after the purging of most of the cluster gas as a result of the passage of {omega} Cen through the Galactic disk (which occurs today every {approx}40 Myr for {omega} Cen) when the initial mass function of the

  6. STELLAR ARCHAEOLOGY IN THE GALACTIC HALO WITH THE ULTRA-FAINT DWARFS. VI. URSA MAJOR II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Ora, M.; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Marconi, Marcella; Musella, Ilaria, E-mail: dallora@na.astro.it, E-mail: ripepi@na.astro.it, E-mail: marcella@na.astro.it, E-mail: ilaria@na.astro.it [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Napoli (Italy); and others

    2012-06-10

    We present a B, V color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of the Milky Way dwarf satellite Ursa Major II (UMa II), spanning the magnitude range from V {approx} 15 to V {approx} 23.5 mag and extending over an 18 Multiplication-Sign 18 arcmin{sup 2} area centered on the Galaxy. Our photometry goes down to about 2 mag below the Galaxy's main-sequence turnoff that we detected at V {approx} 21.5 mag. We have discovered a bona fide RR Lyrae variable star in UMa II, which we use to estimate a conservative dereddened distance modulus for the galaxy of (m - M){sub 0} = 17.70 {+-} 0.04 {+-} 0.12 mag, where the first error accounts for the uncertainties of the calibrated photometry, and the second reflects our lack of information on the metallicity of the star. The corresponding distance to UMa II is 34.7{sup +0.6}{sub -0.7}({sup +2.0}{sub -1.9}) kpc. Our photometry shows evidence of a spread in the Galaxy's subgiant branch, compatible with a spread in metal abundance in the range between Z = 0.0001 and Z = 0.001. Based on our estimate of the distance, a comparison of the fiducial lines of the Galactic globular clusters M68 and M5 ([Fe/H] = -2.27 {+-} 0.04 dex and -1.33 {+-} 0.02 dex, respectively), with the position on the CMD of spectroscopically confirmed Galaxy members, may suggest the existence of stellar populations of different metal abundance/age in the central region of UMa II.

  7. Star Formation Activity in the Galactic H II Region Sh2-297

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, K. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Samal, M. R.; Pandey, A. K.; Bhatt, B. C.; Ghosh, S. K.; Dewangan, L. K.; Tamura, M.

    2012-11-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the Galactic H II region Sh2-297, located in the Canis Major OB1 complex. Optical spectroscopic observations are used to constrain the spectral type of ionizing star HD 53623 as B0V. The classical nature of this H II region is affirmed by the low values of electron density and emission measure, which are calculated to be 756 cm-3 and 9.15 × 105 cm-6 pc using the radio continuum observations at 610 and 1280 MHz, and Very Large Array archival data at 1420 MHz. To understand local star formation, we identified the young stellar object (YSO) candidates in a region of area ~7farcm5 × 7farcm5 centered on Sh2-297 using grism slitless spectroscopy (to identify the Hα emission line stars), and near infrared (NIR) observations. NIR YSO candidates are further classified into various evolutionary stages using color-color and color-magnitude (CM) diagrams, giving 50 red sources (H - K > 0.6) and 26 Class II-like sources. The mass and age range of the YSOs are estimated to be ~0.1-2 M ⊙ and 0.5-2 Myr using optical (V/V-I) and NIR (J/J-H) CM diagrams. The mean age of the YSOs is found to be ~1 Myr, which is of the order of dynamical age of 1.07 Myr of the H II region. Using the estimated range of visual extinction (1.1-25 mag) from literature and NIR data for the region, spectral energy distribution models have been implemented for selected YSOs which show masses and ages to be consistent with estimated values. The spatial distribution of YSOs shows an evolutionary sequence, suggesting triggered star formation in the region. The star formation seems to have propagated from the ionizing star toward the cold dark cloud LDN1657A located west of Sh2-297.

  8. An Observational Study of Blended Young Stellar Clusters in the Galactic Plane - Do Massive Stars form First?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Galarza, Rafael; Protopapas, Pavlos; Smith, Howard A.; Morales, Esteban

    2018-01-01

    From an observational point of view, the early life of massive stars is difficult to understand partly because star formation occurs in crowded clusters where individual stars often appear blended together in the beams of infrared telescopes. This renders the characterization of the physical properties of young embedded clusters via spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting a challenging task. Of particular relevance for the testing of star formation models is the question of whether the claimed universality of the IMF (references) is reflected in an equally universal integrated galactic initial mass function (IGIMF) of stars. In other words, is the set of all stellar masses in the galaxy sampled from a single universal IMF, or does the distribution of masses depend on the environment, making the IGIMF different from the canonical IMF? If the latter is true, how different are the two? We present a infrared SED analysis of ~70 Spitzer-selected, low mass ($facilities.

  9. GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM TWO BLAZARS BEHIND THE GALACTIC PLANE: B2013+370 AND B2023+336

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, E.; Errando, M.; Aliu, E.; Mukherjee, R.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Richards, J. L.; Böttcher, M.; Fortin, P.; Halpern, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    B2013+370 and B2023+336 are two blazars at low-galactic latitude that were previously proposed to be the counterparts for the EGRET unidentified sources 3EG J2016+3657 and 3EG J2027+3429. Gamma-ray emission associated with the EGRET sources has been detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, and the two sources, 1FGL J2015.7+3708 and 1FGL J2027.6+3335, have been classified as unidentified in the 1 year catalog. This analysis of the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data collected during 31 months reveals that the 1FGL sources are spatially compatible with the blazars and are significantly variable, supporting the hypothesis of extragalactic origin for the gamma-ray emission. The gamma-ray light curves are compared with 15 GHz radio light curves from the 40 m telescope at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory. Simultaneous variability is seen in both bands for the two blazar candidates. The study is completed with the X-ray analysis of 1FGL J2015.7+3708 using Swift observations that were triggered in 2010 August by a Fermi-detected flare. The resulting spectral energy distribution shows a two-component structure typical of blazars. We also identify a second source in the field of view of 1FGL J2027.6+3335 with similar characteristics to the known LAT pulsars. This study gives solid evidence favoring blazar counterparts for these two unidentified EGRET and Fermi sources, supporting the hypothesis that a number of unidentified gamma-ray sources at low-galactic latitudes are indeed of extragalactic origin.

  10. STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY IN THE GALACTIC H II REGION Sh2-297

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallick, K. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Dewangan, L. K.; Samal, M. R.; Pandey, A. K.; Bhatt, B. C.; Ghosh, S. K.; Tamura, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the Galactic H II region Sh2-297, located in the Canis Major OB1 complex. Optical spectroscopic observations are used to constrain the spectral type of ionizing star HD 53623 as B0V. The classical nature of this H II region is affirmed by the low values of electron density and emission measure, which are calculated to be 756 cm –3 and 9.15 × 10 5 cm –6 pc using the radio continuum observations at 610 and 1280 MHz, and Very Large Array archival data at 1420 MHz. To understand local star formation, we identified the young stellar object (YSO) candidates in a region of area ∼7.'5 × 7.'5 centered on Sh2-297 using grism slitless spectroscopy (to identify the Hα emission line stars), and near infrared (NIR) observations. NIR YSO candidates are further classified into various evolutionary stages using color-color and color-magnitude (CM) diagrams, giving 50 red sources (H – K > 0.6) and 26 Class II-like sources. The mass and age range of the YSOs are estimated to be ∼0.1-2 M ☉ and 0.5-2 Myr using optical (V/V–I) and NIR (J/J–H) CM diagrams. The mean age of the YSOs is found to be ∼1 Myr, which is of the order of dynamical age of 1.07 Myr of the H II region. Using the estimated range of visual extinction (1.1-25 mag) from literature and NIR data for the region, spectral energy distribution models have been implemented for selected YSOs which show masses and ages to be consistent with estimated values. The spatial distribution of YSOs shows an evolutionary sequence, suggesting triggered star formation in the region. The star formation seems to have propagated from the ionizing star toward the cold dark cloud LDN1657A located west of Sh2-297.

  11. HIP 38939B: A NEW BENCHMARK T DWARF IN THE GALACTIC PLANE DISCOVERED WITH Pan-STARRS1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deacon, Niall R.; Liu, Michael C.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Kaiser, N.; Morgan, J. S.; Sweeney, W. E.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.; Redstone, Joshua; Goldman, Bertrand; Price, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of a wide brown dwarf companion to the mildly metal-poor ([Fe/H] = –0.24), low Galactic latitude (b = 1. 0 88) K4V star HIP 38939. The companion was discovered by its common proper motion with the primary and its red optical (Pan-STARRS1) and blue infrared (Two Micron All Sky Survey) colors. It has a projected separation of 1630 AU and a near-infrared spectral type of T4.5. As such it is one of only three known companions to a main-sequence star which have early/mid T spectral types of (the others being HN Peg B and ε Indi B). Using chromospheric activity we estimate an age for the primary of 900± 1900 600 Myr. This value is also in agreement with the age derived from the star's weak ROSAT detection. Comparison with evolutionary models for this age range indicates that HIP 38939B falls in the mass range 38 ± 20 M Jup with an effective temperature range of 1090 ± 60 K. Fitting our spectrum with atmospheric models gives a best-fitting temperature of 1100 K. We include our object in an analysis of the population of benchmark T dwarfs and find that while older atmospheric models appeared to overpredict the temperature of the coolest objects compared to evolutionary models, more recent atmospheric models provide better agreement.

  12. HIP 38939B: A NEW BENCHMARK T DWARF IN THE GALACTIC PLANE DISCOVERED WITH Pan-STARRS1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deacon, Niall R.; Liu, Michael C.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Kaiser, N.; Morgan, J. S.; Sweeney, W. E.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Redstone, Joshua [Facebook, 1601 S. California Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Goldman, Bertrand [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Price, P. A., E-mail: deacon@mpia.de [Princeton University Observatory, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2012-08-20

    We report the discovery of a wide brown dwarf companion to the mildly metal-poor ([Fe/H] = -0.24), low Galactic latitude (b = 1.{sup 0}88) K4V star HIP 38939. The companion was discovered by its common proper motion with the primary and its red optical (Pan-STARRS1) and blue infrared (Two Micron All Sky Survey) colors. It has a projected separation of 1630 AU and a near-infrared spectral type of T4.5. As such it is one of only three known companions to a main-sequence star which have early/mid T spectral types of (the others being HN Peg B and {epsilon} Indi B). Using chromospheric activity we estimate an age for the primary of 900{+-}{sup 1900}{sub 600} Myr. This value is also in agreement with the age derived from the star's weak ROSAT detection. Comparison with evolutionary models for this age range indicates that HIP 38939B falls in the mass range 38 {+-} 20 M{sub Jup} with an effective temperature range of 1090 {+-} 60 K. Fitting our spectrum with atmospheric models gives a best-fitting temperature of 1100 K. We include our object in an analysis of the population of benchmark T dwarfs and find that while older atmospheric models appeared to overpredict the temperature of the coolest objects compared to evolutionary models, more recent atmospheric models provide better agreement.

  13. Class II malocclusion with accentuated occlusal plane inclination corrected with miniplate: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farret, Marcel Marchiori; Farret, Milton M. Benitez

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: A canted occlusal plane presents an unesthetic element of the smile. The correction of this asymmetry has been typically considered difficult by orthodontists, as it requires complex mechanics and may sometimes even require orthognathic surgery. Objective: This paper outlines the case of a 29-year-old woman with Class II malocclusion, pronounced midline deviation and accentuated occlusal plane inclination caused by mandibular deciduous molar ankylosis. Methods: The patient was treated with a miniplate used to provide anchorage in order to intrude maxillary teeth and extrude mandibular teeth on one side, thus eliminating asymmetry. Class II was corrected on the left side by means of distalization, anchored in the miniplate as well. On the right side, maxillary first premolar was extracted and molar relationship was kept in Class II, while canines were moved to Class I relationship. The patient received implant-prosthetic rehabilitation for maxillary left lateral incisor and mandibular left second premolar. Results: At the end of treatment, Class II was corrected, midlines were matched and the canted occlusal plane was totally corrected, thereby improving smile function and esthetics. PMID:27409658

  14. Class II malocclusion with accentuated occlusal plane inclination corrected with miniplate: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Marchiori Farret

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: A canted occlusal plane presents an unesthetic element of the smile. The correction of this asymmetry has been typically considered difficult by orthodontists, as it requires complex mechanics and may sometimes even require orthognathic surgery. Objective: This paper outlines the case of a 29-year-old woman with Class II malocclusion, pronounced midline deviation and accentuated occlusal plane inclination caused by mandibular deciduous molar ankylosis. Methods: The patient was treated with a miniplate used to provide anchorage in order to intrude maxillary teeth and extrude mandibular teeth on one side, thus eliminating asymmetry. Class II was corrected on the left side by means of distalization, anchored in the miniplate as well. On the right side, maxillary first premolar was extracted and molar relationship was kept in Class II, while canines were moved to Class I relationship. The patient received implant-prosthetic rehabilitation for maxillary left lateral incisor and mandibular left second premolar. Results: At the end of treatment, Class II was corrected, midlines were matched and the canted occlusal plane was totally corrected, thereby improving smile function and esthetics.

  15. The Optical-Mid-infrared Extinction Law of the l = 165° Sightline in the Galactic Plane: Diversity of the Extinction Law in the Diffuse Interstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu; Jiang, B. W.; Zhao, He; Chen, Xiaodian; de Grijs, Richard

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the effects of dust extinction is important to properly interpret observations. The optical total-to-selective extinction ratio, {R}V={A}V/E(B-V), is widely used to describe extinction variations in ultraviolet and optical bands. Since the {R}V=3.1 extinction curve adequately represents the average extinction law of diffuse regions in the Milky Way, it is commonly used to correct observational measurements along sightlines toward diffuse regions in the interstellar medium. However, the {R}V value may vary even along different diffuse interstellar medium sightlines. In this paper, we investigate the optical-mid-infrared (mid-IR) extinction law toward a very diffuse region at l=165^\\circ in the Galactic plane, which was selected based on a CO emission map. Adopting red clump stars as extinction tracers, we determine the optical-mid-IR extinction law for our diffuse region in two APASS bands (B,V), three XSTPS-GAC bands (g,r,I), three 2MASS bands (J,H,{K}s), and two WISE bands (W1,W2). Specifically, 18 red clump stars were selected from the APOGEE-RC catalog based on spectroscopic data in order to explore the diversity of the extinction law. We find that the optical extinction curves exhibit appreciable diversity. The corresponding {R}V ranges from 1.7 to 3.8, while the mean {R}V value of 2.8 is consistent with the widely adopted average value of 3.1 for Galactic diffuse clouds. There is no apparent correlation between {R}V value and color excess E(B-V) in the range of interest, from 0.2 to 0.6 mag, or with specific visual extinction per kiloparsec, {A}V/d.

  16. Carbon Chemistry in Transitional Clouds from the GOT C+ Survey of CII 158 micron Emission in the Galactic Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, W. D.; Velusamy, T.; Pineda, J.; Willacy, K.; Goldsmith, P. F.

    2011-05-01

    In understanding the lifecycle and chemistry of the interstellar gas, the transition from diffuse atomic to molecular gas clouds is a very important stage. The evolution of carbon from C+ to C0 and CO is a fundamental part of this transition, and C+ along with its carbon chemistry is a key diagnostic. Until now our knowledge of interstellar gas has been limited primarily to the diffuse atomic phase traced by HI and the dense molecular H2 phase traced by CO. However, we have generally been missing an important layer in diffuse and transition clouds, which is denoted by the warm "dark gas'', that is mostly H2 and little HI and CO, and is best traced with C+. Here, we discuss the chemistry in the transition from C+ to C0 and CO in these clouds as understood by a survey of the CII 1.9 THz (158 micron) line from a sparse survey of the inner galaxy over about 40 degrees in longitude as part of the Galactic Observations of Terahertz C+ (GOT C+) program, a Herschel Space Observatory Open Time Key Program to study interstellar clouds by sampling ionized carbon. Using the first results from GOT C+ along 11 LOSs, in a sample of 53 transition clouds, Velusamy, Langer et al. (A&A 521, L18, 2010) detected an excess of CII intensities indicative of a thick H2 layer (a significant warm H2, "dark gas'' component) around the 12CO core. Here we present a much larger, statistically significant sample of a few hundred diffuse and transition clouds traced by CII, along with auxiliary HI and CO data in the inner Galaxy between l=-30° and +30°. Our new and more extensive sample of transition clouds is used to elucidate the time dependent physical and carbon chemical evolution of diffuse to transition clouds, and transition layers. We consider the C+ to CO conversion pathways such as H++ O and C+ + H2 chemistry for CO production to constrain the physical parameters such as the FUV intensity and cosmic ray ionization rate that drive the CO chemistry in the diffuse transition clouds.

  17. FOREST Unbiased Galactic plane Imaging survey with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope (FUGIN): Molecular clouds toward W 33; possible evidence for a cloud-cloud collision triggering O star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Mikito; Torii, Kazufumi; Tachihara, Kengo; Umemoto, Tomofumi; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Nishimura, Atsushi; Fujita, Shinji; Matsuo, Mitsuhiro; Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Tsuda, Yuya; Kuriki, Mika; Kuno, Nario; Ohama, Akio; Hattori, Yusuke; Sano, Hidetoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Fukui, Yasuo

    2018-05-01

    We observed molecular clouds in the W 33 high-mass star-forming region associated with compact and extended H II regions using the NANTEN2 telescope as well as the Nobeyama 45 m telescope in the J = 1-0 transitions of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O as part of the FOREST Unbiased Galactic plane Imaging survey with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope (FUGIN) legacy survey. We detected three velocity components at 35 km s-1, 45 km s-1, and 58 km s-1. The 35 km s-1 and 58 km s-1 clouds are likely to be physically associated with W 33 because of the enhanced 12CO J = 3-2 to J = 1-0 intensity ratio as R_3-2/1-0} > 1.0 due to the ultraviolet irradiation by OB stars, and morphological correspondence between the distributions of molecular gas and the infrared and radio continuum emissions excited by high-mass stars. The two clouds show complementary distributions around W 33. The velocity separation is too large to be gravitationally bound, and yet not explained by expanding motion by stellar feedback. Therefore, we discuss whether a cloud-cloud collision scenario likely explains the high-mass star formation in W 33.

  18. Probing the Galactic Structure of the Milky Way with H II Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red, Wesley Alexander; Wenger, Trey V.; Balser, Dana; Anderson, Loren; Bania, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Mapping the structure of the Milky Way is challenging since we reside within the Galactic disk and distances are difficult to determine. Elemental abundances provide important constraints on theories of the formation and evolution of the Milky Way. HII regions are the brightest objects in the Galaxy at radio wavelengths and are detected across the entire Galactic disk. We use the Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) to observe the radio recombination line (RRL) and continuum emission of 120 Galactic HII regions located across the Galactic disk. In thermal equilibrium, metal abundances are expected to set the nebular electron temperature with high abundances producing low temperatures. We derive the metallicity of HII regions using an empirical relation between an HII region's radio recombination line-to-continuum ratio and nebular metallicity. Here we focus on a subset of 20 HII regions from our sample that have been well studied with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to test our data reduction pipeline and analysis methods. Our goal is to expand this study to the Southern skies with the Australia Telescope Compact Array and create a metallicity map of the entire Galactic disk.

  19. THE ARIZONA RADIO OBSERVATORY CO MAPPING SURVEY OF GALACTIC MOLECULAR CLOUDS. II. THE W3 REGION IN CO J = 2-1, 13CO J = 2-1, AND CO J = 3-2 EMISSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieging, John H.; Peters, William L.

    2011-01-01

    We present fully sampled 38'' resolution maps of the CO and 13 CO J = 2-1 lines in the molecular clouds toward the H II region complex W3. The maps cover a 2. 0 0 x 1. 0 67 section of the galactic plane and span -70 to -20 km s -1 (LSR) in velocity with a resolution of ∼1.3 km s -1 . The velocity range of the images includes all the gas in the Perseus spiral arm. We also present maps of CO J = 3-2 emission for a 0. 0 5 x 0. 0 33 area containing the H II regions W3 Main and W3(OH). The J = 3-2 maps have velocity resolution of 0.87 km s -1 and 24'' angular resolution. Color figures display the peak line brightness temperature, the velocity-integrated intensity, and velocity channel maps for all three lines, and also the (CO/ 13 CO) J = 2-1 line intensity ratios as a function of velocity. The line intensity image cubes are made available in standard FITS format as electronically readable files. We compare our molecular line maps with the 1.1 mm continuum image from the BOLOCAM Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS). From our 13 CO image cube, we derive kinematic information for the 65 BGPS sources in the mapped field, in the form of Gaussian component fits.

  20. Supergiants and the Galactic metallicity gradient. II. Spectroscopic abundances for 64 distant F- to M-type supergiants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luck, R.E.; Bond, H.E.

    1989-01-01

    The metallicity gradient in the Galactic disk from in situ stars with visual magnitude ranging from 6 to 10 is analyzed. Atmospheric parameters and detailed chemical abundances for 64 Population I supergiants of spectral types F through M and luminosity classes Ia through II have been determined. The derived Fe/H ratios ranging from -0.5 to + 0.7 show a mean value of +0.13 with an estimated uncertainty of + or - 0.2. A subset of 25 supergiants fainter than 7th magnitude lying in the direction of the Galactic center shows a Fe/H mean of +0.18 + or - 0.04, while a similar sample of 15 faint supergiants lying in the direction of the Galactic anticenter shows a lower Fe/H mean of +0.07 + or - 0.06. For a sample of bright supergiants analyzed by Luck and Lambert (1985), the mean abundance pattern for all 64 stars showed the following: deficient C and O along with enhancement of N, indicating mixing of CNO-cycled material to the stellar surfaces; an apparent Sr enhancement attributed to departures from LTE; and an essentially solar pattern of other chemical elements. 50 refs

  1. Photoionization modelling of planetary nebulae - II. Galactic bulge nebulae, a comparison with literature results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, PAM; Van de Steene, GC

    1999-01-01

    We have constructed photoionization models of five galactic bulge planetary nebulae using our automatic method, which enables a fully self-consistent determination of the physical parameters of a planetary nebula. The models are constrained using the spectrum, the IRAS and radio fluxes and the

  2. THE GALACTIC O-STAR SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY (GOSSS). II. BRIGHT SOUTHERN STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sota, A.; Apellániz, J. Maíz; Alfaro, E. J.; Morrell, N. I.; Barbá, R. H.; Arias, J. I.; Walborn, N. R.; Gamen, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    We present the second installment of GOSSS, a massive spectroscopic survey of Galactic O stars, based on new homogeneous, high signal-to-noise ratio, R ∼ 2500 digital observations from both hemispheres selected from the Galactic O-Star Catalog (GOSC). In this paper we include bright stars and other objects drawn mostly from the first version of GOSC, all of them south of δ = –20°, for a total number of 258 O stars. We also revise the northern sample of Paper I to provide the full list of spectroscopically classified Galactic O stars complete to B = 8, bringing the total number of published GOSSS stars to 448. Extensive sequences of exceptional objects are given, including the early Of/WN, O Iafpe, Ofc, ON/OC, Onfp, Of?p, and Oe types, as well as double/triple-lined spectroscopic binaries. The new spectral subtype O9.2 is also discussed. The magnitude and spatial distributions of the observed sample are analyzed. We also present new results from OWN, a multi-epoch high-resolution spectroscopic survey coordinated with GOSSS that is assembling the largest sample of Galactic spectroscopic massive binaries ever attained. The OWN data combined with additional information on spectroscopic and visual binaries from the literature indicate that only a very small fraction (if any) of the stars with masses above 15-20 M ☉ are born as single systems. In the future we will publish the rest of the GOSSS survey, which is expected to include over 1000 Galactic O stars

  3. Dualband MW/LW Strained Layer Superlattice Focal Plane Arrays for Satellite-Based Wildfire Detection, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) based on Type-II strained layer superlattice (SLS) photodiodes have recently experienced significant advances. In Phase I we...

  4. Stellar Population and Star Formation History of the Distant Galactic H II Regions NGC 2282 and Sh2-149

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, S.; Mondal, S.; Jose, J.; Das, R. K.

    2017-06-01

    We present here the recent results on two distant Galactic H II regions, namely NGC 2282 and Sh2-149, obtained with multiwavelength observations. Our optical spectroscopic analysis of the bright sources have been used to identify the massive members, and to derive the fundamental parameters such as age and distance of these regions. Using IR color-color criteria and Hα-emission properties, we have identified and classified the candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) in these regions. The 12CO(1-0) continuum maps along with the K-band extinction maps, and spatial distribution of YSOs are used to investigate the structure and morphology of the molecular cloud associated with these H II regions. Overall analysis of these regions suggests that the star formation occurs at the locations of the denser gas, and we also find possible evidences of the induced star formation due to the feedback from massive stars to its surrounding molecular medium.

  5. A cephalometric analysis of Class II dentate subjects to establish a formula to determine the occlusal plane in Class II edentate subjects: A neo adjunct

    OpenAIRE

    Nikita Sinha; K Mahendranadh Reddy; Nidhi Gupta; Y M Shastry

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Occlusal plane (OP) differs considerably in participants with skeletal Class I and Class II participants. In this study, cephalometrics has been used to help in the determination of orientation of the OP utilizing the nonresorbable bony anatomic landmarks in skeletal Class II participants and an attempt has been made to predict and examine the OP in individuals with skeletal class II jaw relationship. Materials and Methods: One hundred dentulous participants with skeletal Class II...

  6. Spectrophotometry of four H II regions in the Perseus arm and a reassessment of galactic abundance gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talent, D.L.; Dufour, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    The results from deep spectrophotometry of four Perseus arm H II regions (NGC 1624, NGC 2359, NGC 7538, and NGC 7635) obtained with the KPNO IIDS are presented. The observed line strengths are used to derive electron temperatures, densities, and the relative concentrations of H, He, N, O, S, Cl, and Ar in the nebulae. These abundances are combined with similarly derived abundances for seven other well-observed galactic H II regions, and are used to estimate the magnitude of galactic abundance gradients over the 8--14 kpc region of the solar neighborhood.Significant radial gradients for oxygen and nitrogen are found: d log (O/H)/dR=-0.059 +- 0.017 kpc -1 and d log (N/H)/dR= -0.083 +- 0.018 kpc -1 , while only marginal evidence for a helium gradient is found: d log (He/H)/dR=-0.008 +- 0.008 kpc -1 . Little evidence for gradient in S/H is found. From the red [N II] and [S II] lines we found d log (N + /S + )/dR=-0.068 +- 0.024 kpc -1 , which suggests that a radial gradient in S/O exists in the Galaxy. The O/H gradient found in this study is similar to that found from planetary nebulae, while the N/H gradient is significantly smaller. These results suggest that most of the nitrogen in the interstellar medium of the Galaxy was produced by primary nucleosynthesis processes.We also find evidence that the radial O/H and N/H gradients for H II regions in a given spiral arm are 2 to 3 times steeper than the global gradients over the 8--14 kpc interval in galactocentric distance. For four H II regions in the Sagittarius arm we found d log (O/H)/dR=-0.24 kpc -1 and d log (N/H)/dR=-0.16 kpc -1 . For five H II regions in the Perseus arm we found d log (O/H)/dR=-0.18 kpc -1 and d log (N/H)/dR=-0.15 kpc -1 . The larger magnitudes of these gradients are greater than those of the global gradients by amounts which exceed reasonable errors in abundances and/or relative distances

  7. THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. III. CHARACTERIZING PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS IN THE GEMINI OB1 MOLECULAR CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunham, Miranda K.; Evans, Neal J.; Harvey, Paul; Merello, Manuel; Rosolowsky, Erik; Cyganowski, Claudia J.; Aguirre, James; Bally, John; Battersby, Cara; Ginsburg, Adam; Glenn, Jason; Stringfellow, Guy S.; Bradley, Eric Todd; Dowell, Darren; Drosback, Meredith; Schlingman, Wayne; Shirley, Yancy L.; Walawender, Josh; Williams, Jonathan P.

    2010-01-01

    We present the 1.1 mm Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) observations of the Gemini OB1 molecular cloud complex, and targeted NH 3 observations of the BGPS sources. When paired with molecular spectroscopy of a dense gas tracer, millimeter observations yield physical properties such as masses, radii, mean densities, kinetic temperatures, and line widths. We detect 34 distinct BGPS sources above 5σ = 0.37 Jy beam -1 with corresponding 5σ detections in the NH 3 (1,1) transition. Eight of the objects show water maser emission (20%). We find a mean millimeter source FWHM of 1.12 pc and a mean gas kinetic temperature of 20 K for the sample of 34 BGPS sources with detections in the NH 3 (1,1) line. The observed NH 3 line widths are dominated by non-thermal motions, typically found to be a few times the thermal sound speed expected for the derived kinetic temperature. We calculate the mass for each source from the millimeter flux assuming the sources are isothermal and find a mean isothermal mass within a 120'' aperture of 230 ± 180 M sun . We find a total mass of 8400 M sun for all BGPS sources in the Gemini OB1 molecular cloud, representing 6.5% of the cloud mass. By comparing the millimeter isothermal mass to the virial mass calculated from the NH 3 line widths within a radius equal to the millimeter source size, we find a mean virial parameter (M vir /M iso ) of 1.0 ± 0.9 for the sample. We find mean values for the distributions of column densities of 1.0 x 10 22 cm -2 for H 2 , and 3.0 x 10 14 cm -2 for NH 3 , giving a mean NH 3 abundance of 3.0 x 10 -8 relative to H 2 . We find volume-averaged densities on the order of 10 3 -10 4 cm -3 . The sizes and densities suggest that in the Gem OB1 region the BGPS is detecting the clumps from which stellar clusters form, rather than smaller, higher density cores where single stars or small multiple systems form.

  8. Study of II Galactic quadrant of Milky Way Galaxy using open clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Devendra; Ganesh, Shashikiran; Baliyan, Kiran Singh; Yadav, Ramakant Singh; Durgapal, Alok

    2018-04-01

    We have made UBV I CCD observations for the open clusters Teutsch 1, Riddle 4 and Czernik 6 using 1.04-m Sampurnanand telescope located at the ARIES observatory (Manora peak, Nainital, India). We have used 2MASS JHKS data for the clusters Teutsch 126, Teutsch 54 and Czernik 3. For the estimation of fundamental parameters, we have plotted radial density profiles, colour-magnitude and colour-colour diagrams. Using these inputs, we have studied the structure of Milky Way Galaxy in the second Galactic quadrant. We have considered the open clusters that are younger than 1 Gyrs and lay in the longitude range from 90 to 180 deg. Our study shows that up to 3.5 Kpc, the Galactic disc bends towards the southern hemisphere while after 3.5 Kpc it bends towards the northern hemisphere. The distribution of reddening with longitude and age shows a decreasing trend with the longitude and age of the clusters. Our study also indicates that younger clusters have more reddening than older ones.

  9. KINEMATICAL AND CHEMICAL VERTICAL STRUCTURE OF THE GALACTIC THICK DISK. II. A LACK OF DARK MATTER IN THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moni Bidin, C.; Smith, R.; Carraro, G.; Méndez, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    We estimated the dynamical surface mass density Σ at the solar position between Z = 1.5 and 4 kpc from the Galactic plane, as inferred from the kinematics of thick disk stars. The formulation is exact within the limit of validity of a few basic assumptions. The resulting trend of Σ(Z) matches the expectations of visible mass alone, and no dark component is required to account for the observations. We extrapolate a dark matter (DM) density in the solar neighborhood of 0 ± 1 mM ☉ pc –3 , and all the current models of a spherical DM halo are excluded at a confidence level higher than 4σ. A detailed analysis reveals that a small amount of DM is allowed in the volume under study by the change of some input parameter or hypothesis, but not enough to match the expectations of the models, except under an exotic combination of non-standard assumptions. Identical results are obtained when repeating the calculation with kinematical measurements available in the literature. We demonstrate that a DM halo would be detected by our method, and therefore the results have no straightforward interpretation. Only the presence of a highly prolate (flattening q > 2) DM halo can be reconciled with the observations, but this is highly unlikely in ΛCDM models. The results challenge the current understanding of the spatial distribution and nature of the Galactic DM. In particular, our results may indicate that any direct DM detection experiment is doomed to fail if the local density of the target particles is negligible.

  10. KINEMATICAL AND CHEMICAL VERTICAL STRUCTURE OF THE GALACTIC THICK DISK. II. A LACK OF DARK MATTER IN THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moni Bidin, C.; Smith, R. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Carraro, G. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Mendez, R. A., E-mail: cmbidin@astro-udec.cl [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile)

    2012-05-20

    We estimated the dynamical surface mass density {Sigma} at the solar position between Z = 1.5 and 4 kpc from the Galactic plane, as inferred from the kinematics of thick disk stars. The formulation is exact within the limit of validity of a few basic assumptions. The resulting trend of {Sigma}(Z) matches the expectations of visible mass alone, and no dark component is required to account for the observations. We extrapolate a dark matter (DM) density in the solar neighborhood of 0 {+-} 1 mM{sub Sun} pc{sup -3}, and all the current models of a spherical DM halo are excluded at a confidence level higher than 4{sigma}. A detailed analysis reveals that a small amount of DM is allowed in the volume under study by the change of some input parameter or hypothesis, but not enough to match the expectations of the models, except under an exotic combination of non-standard assumptions. Identical results are obtained when repeating the calculation with kinematical measurements available in the literature. We demonstrate that a DM halo would be detected by our method, and therefore the results have no straightforward interpretation. Only the presence of a highly prolate (flattening q > 2) DM halo can be reconciled with the observations, but this is highly unlikely in {Lambda}CDM models. The results challenge the current understanding of the spatial distribution and nature of the Galactic DM. In particular, our results may indicate that any direct DM detection experiment is doomed to fail if the local density of the target particles is negligible.

  11. RADIAL VELOCITIES OF GALACTIC O-TYPE STARS. II. SINGLE-LINED SPECTROSCOPIC BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S. J.; Gies, D. R.; Hillwig, T. C.; McSwain, M. V.; Huang, W.

    2013-01-01

    We report on new radial velocity measurements of massive stars that are either suspected binaries or lacking prior observations. This is part of a survey to identify and characterize spectroscopic binaries among O-type stars with the goal of comparing the binary fraction of field and runaway stars with those in clusters and associations. We present orbits for HDE 308813, HD 152147, HD 164536, BD–16°4826, and HDE 229232, Galactic O-type stars exhibiting single-lined spectroscopic variation. By fitting model spectra to our observed spectra, we obtain estimates for effective temperature, surface gravity, and rotational velocity. We compute orbital periods and velocity semiamplitudes for each system and note the lack of photometric variation for any system. These binaries probably appear single-lined because the companions are faint and because their orbital Doppler shifts are small compared to the width of the rotationally broadened lines of the primary.

  12. Exploring the Dust Content of Galactic Winds with Herschel. II. Nearby Dwarf Galaxies*

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Alexander; Veilleux, Sylvain; Meléndez, Marcio; Martin, Crystal L.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Cecil, Gerald; Heitsch, Fabian; Müller, Thomas; Rupke, David S. N.; Engelbracht, Chad

    2018-03-01

    We present results from analysis of deep Herschel Space Observatory observations of six nearby dwarf galaxies known to host galactic-scale winds. The superior far-infrared sensitivity and angular resolution of Herschel have allowed detection of cold circumgalactic dust features beyond the stellar components of the host galaxies traced by Spitzer 4.5 μm images. Comparisons of these cold dust features with ancillary data reveal an imperfect spatial correlation with the ionized gas and warm dust wind components. We find that typically ˜10-20% of the total dust mass in these galaxies resides outside of their stellar disks, but this fraction reaches ˜60% in the case of NGC 1569. This galaxy also has the largest metallicity (O/H) deficit in our sample for its stellar mass. Overall, the small number of objects in our sample precludes drawing strong conclusions on the origin of the circumgalactic dust. We detect no statistically significant trends with star formation properties of the host galaxies, as might be expected if the dust were lifted above the disk by energy inputs from on-going star formation activity. Although a case for dust entrained in a galactic wind is seen in NGC 1569, in all cases, we cannot rule out the possibility that some of the circumgalactic dust might be associated instead with gas accreted or removed from the disk by recent galaxy interaction events, or that it is part of the outer gas-rich portion of the disk that lies below the sensitivity limit of the Spitzer 4.5 μm data.

  13. Exploring the dust content of galactic winds with Herschel - II. Nearby dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Alexander; Veilleux, Sylvain; Meléndez, Marcio; Martin, Crystal L.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Cecil, Gerald; Heitsch, Fabian; Müller, Thomas; Rupke, David S. N.; Engelbracht, Chad

    2018-06-01

    We present the results from an analysis of deep Herschel Space Observatory observations of six nearby dwarf galaxies known to host galactic-scale winds. The superior far-infrared sensitivity and angular resolution of Herschel have allowed detection of cold circumgalactic dust features beyond the stellar components of the host galaxies traced by Spitzer 4.5 μm images. Comparisons of these cold dust features with ancillary data reveal an imperfect spatial correlation with the ionized gas and warm dust wind components. We find that typically ˜10-20 per cent of the total dust mass in these galaxies resides outside of their stellar discs, but this fraction reaches ˜60 per cent in the case of NGC 1569. This galaxy also has the largest metallicity (O/H) deficit in our sample for its stellar mass. Overall, the small number of objects in our sample precludes drawing strong conclusions on the origin of the circumgalactic dust. We detect no statistically significant trends with star formation properties of the host galaxies, as might be expected if the dust were lifted above the disc by energy inputs from ongoing star formation activity. Although a case for dust entrained in a galactic wind is seen in NGC 1569, in all cases, we cannot rule out the possibility that some of the circumgalactic dust might be associated instead with gas accreted or removed from the disc by recent galaxy interaction events, or that it is part of the outer gas-rich portion of the disc that lies below the sensitivity limit of the Spitzer 4.5 μm data.

  14. Halo histories versus galaxy properties at z = 0 II: large-scale galactic conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Jeremy L.; Hahn, ChangHoon; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Wetzel, Andrew R.; Conroy, Charlie

    2018-06-01

    Using group catalogues from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7, we measure galactic conformity in the local universe. We measure the quenched fraction of neighbour galaxies around isolated primary galaxies, dividing the isolated sample into star-forming and quiescent objects. We restrict our measurements to scales >1 Mpc to probe the correlations between halo formation histories. Over the stellar mass range 109.7 ≤ M*/M⊙ ≤ 1010.9, we find minimal evidence for conformity. We further compare these data to predictions of the halo age-matching model, in which the oldest galaxies are associated with the oldest haloes. For models with strong correlations between halo and stellar age, the conformity is too large to be consistent with the data. Weaker implementations of the age-matching model would not produce a detectable signal in SDSS data. We reproduce the results of Kauffmann et al., in which the star formation rates of neighbour galaxies are reduced around primary galaxies when the primaries are low star formers. However, we find this result is mainly driven by contamination in the isolation criterion; when removing the small fraction of satellite galaxies in the sample, the conformity signal largely goes away. Lastly, we show that small conformity signals, i.e. 2-5 per cent differences in the quenched fractions of neighbour galaxies, can be produced by mechanisms other than halo assembly bias. For example, if passive galaxies occupy more massive haloes than star-forming galaxies of the same stellar mass, a conformity signal that is consistent with recent measurements from PRIMUS (Berti et al.) can be produced.

  15. MAXIMALLY STAR-FORMING GALACTIC DISKS. II. VERTICALLY RESOLVED HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF STARBURST REGULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetty, Rahul [Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Ostriker, Eve C., E-mail: R.Shetty@.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: ostriker@astro.umd.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    We explore the self-regulation of star formation using a large suite of high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations, focusing on molecule-dominated regions (galactic centers and [U]LIRGS) where feedback from star formation drives highly supersonic turbulence. In equilibrium, the total midplane pressure, dominated by turbulence, must balance the vertical weight of the interstellar medium. Under self-regulation, the momentum flux injected by feedback evolves until it matches the vertical weight. We test this flux balance in simulations spanning a wide range of parameters, including surface density {Sigma}, momentum injected per stellar mass formed (p{sub *}/m{sub *}), and angular velocity. The simulations are two-dimensional radial-vertical slices, and include both self-gravity and an external potential that helps to confine gas to the disk midplane. After the simulations reach a steady state in all relevant quantities, including the star formation rate {Sigma}{sub SFR}, there is remarkably good agreement between the vertical weight, the turbulent pressure, and the momentum injection rate from supernovae. Gas velocity dispersions and disk thicknesses increase with p{sub *}/m{sub *}. The efficiency of star formation per free-fall time at the midplane density, {epsilon}{sub ff}(n{sub 0}), is insensitive to the local conditions and to the star formation prescription in very dense gas. We measure {epsilon}{sub ff}(n{sub 0}) {approx} 0.004-0.01, consistent with low and approximately constant efficiencies inferred from observations. For {Sigma} in (100-1000) M{sub Sun} pc{sup -2}, we find {Sigma}{sub SFR} in (0.1-4) M{sub Sun} kpc{sup -2} yr{sup -1}, generally following a {Sigma}{sub SFR} {proportional_to} {Sigma}{sup 2} relationship. The measured relationships agree very well with vertical equilibrium and with turbulent energy replenishment by feedback within a vertical crossing time. These results, along with the observed {Sigma}-{Sigma}{sub SFR} relation in high

  16. TIDAL BREAKUP OF BINARY STARS AT THE GALACTIC CENTER. II. HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonini, Fabio; Merritt, David; Lombardi, James C. Jr

    2011-01-01

    In Paper I, we followed the evolution of binary stars as they orbited near the supermassive black hole (SMBH) at the Galactic center, noting the cases in which the two stars would come close enough together to collide. In this paper, we replace the point-mass stars by fluid realizations, and use a smoothed-particle hydrodynamics code to follow the close interactions. We model the binary components as main-sequence stars with initial masses of 1, 3, and 6 solar masses, and with chemical composition profiles taken from stellar evolution codes. Outcomes of the close interactions include mergers, collisions that leave both stars intact, and ejection of one star at high velocity accompanied by capture of the other star into a tight orbit around the SMBH. For the first time, we follow the evolution of the collision products for many (∼> 100) orbits around the SMBH. Stars that are initially too small to be tidally disrupted by the SMBH can be puffed up by close encounters or collisions, with the result that tidal stripping occurs in subsequent periapse passages. In these cases, mass loss occurs episodically, sometimes for hundreds of orbits before the star is completely disrupted. Repeated tidal flares, of either increasing or decreasing intensity, are a predicted consequence. In collisions involving a low-mass and a high-mass star, the merger product acquires a high core hydrogen abundance from the smaller star, effectively resetting the nuclear evolution 'clock' to a younger age. Elements like Li, Be, and B that can exist only in the outermost envelope of a star are severely depleted due to envelope ejection during collisions and due to tidal forces from the SMBH. Tidal spin-up can occur due to either a collision or tidal torque by the SMBH at periapsis. However, in the absence of collisions, tidal spin-up of stars is only important in a narrow range of periapse distances, r t /2 ∼ per ∼ t , with r t the tidal disruption radius. We discuss the implications of

  17. TANAMI: Tracking Active Galactic Nuclei with Austral Milliarcsecond Interferometry. II. Additional sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C.; Kadler, M.; Ojha, R.; Schulz, R.; Trüstedt, J.; Edwards, P. G.; Ros, E.; Carpenter, B.; Angioni, R.; Blanchard, J.; Böck, M.; Burd, P. R.; Dörr, M.; Dutka, M. S.; Eberl, T.; Gulyaev, S.; Hase, H.; Horiuchi, S.; Katz, U.; Krauß, F.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Natusch, T.; Nesci, R.; Phillips, C.; Plötz, C.; Pursimo, T.; Quick, J. F. H.; Stevens, J.; Thompson, D. J.; Tingay, S. J.; Tzioumis, A. K.; Weston, S.; Wilms, J.; Zensus, J. A.

    2018-02-01

    Context. TANAMI is a multiwavelength program monitoring active galactic nuclei (AGN) south of - 30° declination including high-resolution very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) imaging, radio, optical/UV, X-ray, and γ-ray studies. We have previously published first-epoch8.4 GHz VLBI images of the parsec-scale structure of the initial sample. In this paper, we present images of 39 additional sources. The full sample comprises most of the radio- and γ-ray brightest AGN in the southern quarter of the sky, overlapping with the region from which high-energy (> 100 TeV) neutrino events have been found. Aims: We characterize the parsec-scale radio properties of the jets and compare them with the quasi-simultaneous Fermi/LAT γ-ray data. Furthermore, we study the jet properties of sources which are in positional coincidence with high-energy neutrino events compared to the full sample. We test the positional agreement of high-energy neutrino events with various AGN samples. Methods: TANAMI VLBI observations at 8.4 GHz are made with southern hemisphere radio telescopes located in Australia, Antarctica, Chile, New Zealand, and South Africa. Results: Our observations yield the first images of many jets below - 30° declination at milliarcsecond resolution. We find that γ-ray loud TANAMI sources tend to be more compact on parsec-scales and have higher core brightness temperatures than γ-ray faint jets, indicating higher Doppler factors. No significant structural difference is found between sources in positional coincidence with high-energy neutrino events and other TANAMI jets. The 22 γ-ray brightest AGN in the TANAMI sky show only a weak positional agreement with high-energy neutrinos demonstrating that the > 100 TeV IceCube signal is not simply dominated by a small number of the γ-ray brightest blazars. Instead, a larger number of sources have to contribute to the signal with each individual source having only a small Poisson probability for producing an event in

  18. LOCAL LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. II. ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ACTIVITY FROM SPITZER/INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel [Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Rieke, George H. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Rigopoulou, Dimitra [Astrophysics Department, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-01

    We quantify the active galactic nucleus (AGN) contribution to the mid-infrared (mid-IR) and the total infrared (IR, 8-1000 {mu}m) emission in a complete volume-limited sample of 53 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs, L{sub IR} = 10{sup 11}-10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }). We decompose the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph low-resolution 5-38 {mu}m spectra of the LIRGs into AGN and starburst components using clumpy torus models and star-forming galaxy templates, respectively. We find that 50% (25/50) of local LIRGs have an AGN component detected with this method. There is good agreement between these AGN detections through mid-IR spectral decomposition and other AGN indicators, such as the optical spectral class, mid-IR spectral features, and X-ray properties. Taking all the AGN indicators together, the AGN detection rate in the individual nuclei of LIRGs is {approx}62%. The derived AGN bolometric luminosities are in the range L{sub bol}(AGN) = (0.4-50) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}. The AGN bolometric contribution to the IR luminosities of the galaxies is generally small, with 70% of LIRGs having L{sub bol}[AGN]/L{sub IR} {<=} 0.05. Only {approx_equal} 8% of local LIRGs have a significant AGN bolometric contribution L{sub bol}[AGN]/L{sub IR} > 0.25. From the comparison of our results with literature results of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (L{sub IR} = 10{sup 12}-10{sup 13} L{sub Sun }), we confirm that in the local universe the AGN bolometric contribution to the IR luminosity increases with the IR luminosity of the galaxy/system. If we add up the AGN bolometric luminosities we find that AGNs only account for 5%{sub -3%}{sup +8%} of the total IR luminosity produced by local LIRGs (with and without AGN detections). This proves that the bulk of the IR luminosity of local LIRGs is due to star formation activity. Taking the newly determined IR luminosity density of LIRGs in the local universe, we then estimate an AGN IR luminosity density of {Omega}{sup AGN

  19. A radio/infrared/optical study of candidate supernova remnants from the Clark Lake 30.9 MHz Galactic plane survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorham, P.W.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, it is shown that more than half of the SNR candidates from the first Galactic quadrant in the Clark Lake 30.9 MHz survey show independent evidence of being associated with SNRs. In most cases, these appear to be low surface brightness SNRs which have escaped detection in the past. About a fifth of the candidates should be strongly considered for classification as new SNRs, and a third of these are also probable IR sources, consistent with the detected fraction of known Galactic SNRs seen in a recent IR survey. Two of the confirmed candidates share the characteristic of appearing considerably larger at 30.9 MHz than they do at centimeter or optical wavelengths. This characteristic suggests the possibility of extended, low surface brightness emission that may extend considerably beyond the nominal boundaries of some SNRs. 27 refs

  20. Supermassive Black Holes in Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Calibration of the Black Hole Mass-Velocity Dispersion Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onken, Christopher A.; Ferrarese, Laura; Merritt, David

    2004-01-01

    We calibrate reverberation-based black hole masses in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) by using the correlation between black hole mass, M, and bulge/spheroid stellar velocity dispersion, sigma. We use new measurements of sigma for 6 AGNs and published velocity dispersions for 10 others......, in conjunction with improved reverberation mapping results, to determine the scaling factor required to bring reverberation-based black hole masses into agreement with the quiescent galaxy M-sigma relationship. The scatter in the AGN black hole masses is found to be less than a factor of 3. The current...

  1. Study on initial geometry fluctuations via participant plane correlations in heavy ion collisions: part II

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Jiangyong; Teaney, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Further investigation of the participant plane correlations within a Glauber model framework is presented, focusing on correlations between three or four participant planes of different order. A strong correlation is observed for $\\cos(2\\Phi_{2}^*+3\\Phi_{3}^*-5\\Phi_{5}^*)$ which is a reflection of the elliptic shape of the overlap region. The correlation between the corresponding experimental reaction plane angles can be easily measured. Strong correlations of similar geometric origin are als...

  2. THE H I MASS DENSITY IN GALACTIC HALOS, WINDS, AND COLD ACCRETION AS TRACED BY Mg II ABSORPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kacprzak, Glenn G. [Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Churchill, Christopher W., E-mail: gkacprzak@astro.swin.edu.au, E-mail: cwc@nmsu.edu [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2011-12-20

    It is well established that Mg II absorption lines detected in background quasar spectra arise from gas structures associated with foreground galaxies. The degree to which galaxy evolution is driven by the gas cycling through halos is highly uncertain because their gas mass density is poorly constrained. Fitting the Mg II equivalent width (W) distribution with a Schechter function and applying the N(H I)-W correlation of Menard and Chelouche, we computed {Omega}(H I){sub MgII} {identical_to} {Omega}(H I){sub halo} = 1.41{sup +0.75}{sub -0.44} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} for 0.4 {<=} z {<=} 1.4. We exclude damped Ly{alpha}'s (DLAs) from our calculations so that {Omega}(H I){sub halo} comprises accreting and/or outflowing halo gas not locked up in cold neutral clouds. We deduce that the cosmic H I gas mass density fraction in galactic halos traced by Mg II absorption is {Omega}(H I){sub halo}/{Omega}(H I){sub DLA} {approx_equal} 15% and {Omega}(H I){sub halo}/{Omega}{sub b} {approx_equal} 0.3%. Citing several lines of evidence, we propose that infall/accretion material is sampled by small W whereas outflow/winds are sampled by large W, and find that {Omega}(H I){sub infall} is consistent with {Omega}(H I){sub outflow} for bifurcation at W = 1.23{sup +0.15}{sub -0.28} Angstrom-Sign ; cold accretion would then comprise no more than {approx}7% of the total H I mass density. We discuss evidence that (1) the total H I mass cycling through halos remains fairly constant with cosmic time and that the accretion of H I gas sustains galaxy winds, and (2) evolution in the cosmic star formation rate depends primarily on the rate at which cool H I gas cycles through halos.

  3. The galactic distribution of pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyne, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    The galactic distribution of pulsars follows the general form of many population I objects in galactocentric radius, but has a wide distribution above and below the galactic plane due to high space velocities imparted to the pulsars at birth. The evidence for this model is described and the various factors involved in estimating the total galactic population and the galactic birthrate of pulsars are discussed. The various estimates of the galactic population which cluster around 5 x 10 5 are seen to be critically dependent upon the cut-off at low luminosities and upon the value of the mean electron density within 500 pc of the Earth. Estimates of the lifetimes of pulsars are available from both the characteristic ages and proper motion measurements and both give values of about 5 million years. The implied birthrate of one in every 10 years is barely compatible with most estimates of the galactic supernova rate. (Auth.)

  4. What to expect from dynamical modelling of galactic haloes - II. The spherical Jeans equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenting; Han, Jiaxin; Cole, Shaun; More, Surhud; Frenk, Carlos; Schaller, Matthieu

    2018-06-01

    The spherical Jeans equation (SJE) is widely used in dynamical modelling of the Milky Way (MW) halo potential. We use haloes and galaxies from the cosmological Millennium-II simulation and hydrodynamical APOSTLE (A Project of Simulations of The Local Environment) simulations to investigate the performance of the SJE in recovering the underlying mass profiles of MW mass haloes. The best-fitting halo mass and concentration parameters scatter by 25 per cent and 40 per cent around their input values, respectively, when dark matter particles are used as tracers. This scatter becomes as large as a factor of 3 when using star particles instead. This is significantly larger than the estimated statistical uncertainty associated with the use of the SJE. The existence of correlated phase-space structures that violate the steady-state assumption of the SJE as well as non-spherical geometries is the principal source of the scatter. Binary haloes show larger scatter because they are more aspherical in shape and have a more perturbed dynamical state. Our results confirm that the number of independent phase-space structures sets an intrinsic limiting precision on dynamical inferences based on the steady-state assumption. Modelling with a radius-independent velocity anisotropy, or using tracers within a limited outer radius, result in significantly larger scatter, but the ensemble-averaged measurement over the whole halo sample is approximately unbiased.

  5. Environment of the Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 971214: A Giant H ii Region Surrounded by a Galactic Supershell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn

    2000-02-10

    Among a number of gamma-ray bursts whose host galaxies are known, GRB 971214 stands out for its high redshift (z>/=3) and the Lyalpha emission line having a P Cygni-type profile, which is interpreted to be a direct consequence of the expanding supershell. From a profile-fitting analysis, we estimate the expansion velocity of the supershell (vexp=1500 km s-1) and the neutral column density (NHi=1020 cm -2). The redshift z=3.418 of the host galaxy proposed by Kulkarni et al. in 1998 has been revised to be z=3.425 from our profile analysis. The observed Lyalpha profile is fitted well by a Gaussian curve, which yields the Lyalpha luminosity LLyalpha=&parl0;1.8+/-0.8&parr0;x1042 ergs s-1. Assuming that the photon source is a giant H ii region, we deduce the electron number density in the H ii region ne=&parl0;40+/-10&parr0;&parl0;L/LLyalpha&parr0;0.5&parl0;R/100 pc&parr0;-1.5 cm-3, which corresponds to the illumination by about 104 O5 stars. We estimate the star formation rate to be RSF=7+/-3 M middle dot in circle yr-1 with the internal and the Galactic extinction corrected. The theory on the evolution of supernova remnants is used to propose that the supershell is at the adiabatic phase, with its radius R=18E1&solm0;253 pc, its age t=4.7x103E1&solm0;253 yr, and the density of the ambient medium n1=5.4E-1&solm0;253 cm-3, where E53=E&solm0;1053 ergs; we estimate the kinetic energy of the supershell to be Ek=7.3x1052E53 ergs. These values are consistent with the hypothesis that the supershell is the remnant of a gamma-ray burst. We note similarities between supershells found in nearby galaxies and remote primeval galaxies and propose that the gamma-ray burst may have occurred in a giant H ii region whose environment is similar to that in star-forming galaxies.

  6. Massive stellar content of some Galactic supershells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltcheva, Nadejda; Golev, Valeri

    2015-08-01

    The giant Galactic H II regions provide a unique opportunity to study the OB-star influence on the surrounding interstellar matter. In this contribution, several multi-wavelength surveys (Wisconsin H-α Mapper Northern Sky Survey, Southern H-α Sky Survey Atlas, MSX Mid-IR Galactic Plane Survey, WISE All-Sky Data Release, CO survey of the Milky Way, and the Southern Galactic Plane HI Survey) are combined with available intermediate-band uvbyβ photometry to attempt a precise spatial correlation between the OB-stars and the neutral and ionized material. Our study is focused on the H I supershell GSH 305+01-24 in Centaurus, the Car OB2 supershell, the Cygnus star-forming complex and the GSH 224-01+24 shell toward the GMN 39/Seagull nebula region. We refine the massive stellar content of these star-forming fields and study the energetics of its interaction with the shells’ material.

  7. Optical polarimetric and near-infrared photometric study of the RCW95 Galactic H II region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-González, J.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Santos, F. P.; Franco, G. A. P.; Santos, J. F. C.; Maia, F. F. S.; Sanmartim, D.

    2018-02-01

    We carried out an optical polarimetric study in the direction of the RCW 95 star-forming region in order to probe the sky-projected magnetic field structure by using the distribution of linear polarization segments which seem to be well aligned with the more extended cloud component. A mean polarization angle of θ = 49.8° ± 7.7°7 was derived. Through the spectral dependence analysis of polarization it was possible to obtain the total-to-selective extinction ratio (RV) by fitting the Serkowski function, resulting in a mean value of RV = 2.93 ± 0.47. The foreground polarization component was estimated and is in agreement with previous studies in this direction of the Galaxy. Further, near-infrared (NIR) images from Vista Variables in the Via Láctea (VVV) survey were collected to improve the study of the stellar population associated with the H II region. The Automated Stellar Cluster Analysis algorithm was employed to derive structural parameters for two clusters in the region, and a set of PAdova and TRieste Stellar Evolution Code (PARSEC) isochrones was superimposed on the decontaminated colour-magnitude diagrams to estimate an age of about 3 Myr for both clusters. Finally, from the NIR photometry study combined with spectra obtained with the Ohio State Infrared Imager and Spectrometer mounted at the Southern Astrophysics Research Telescope we derived the spectral classification of the main ionizing sources in the clusters associated with IRAS 15408-5356 and IRAS 15412-5359, both objects classified as O4V stars.

  8. Radio emission of Abell galaxy clusters with red shifts from 0.02 to 0.075 at 102.5 MHz. Observations of clusters southward from the galactic plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubanov, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    The sample of 121 Abell clusters of galaxies with measured red shifts from 0.02 to 0.075, delta= 10 deg - +80 deg and within the completeness galactic-latitude region is presented. The completeness. with respect to the Abell's catalog is 80%. The completeness of the sample in function of distance (the completeness function) was constructed and the mean cluster density of 1.5x10 -6 Mpc -3 was derived. Observations at 102.5 MHz of 39 clusters southward from the galactic plane were carried out with BSA radio telescope. Flux density measurements for radio sources in the directions of the clusters have been made, integrated fluxes of clusters and luminosity estimations for their radio halos are presented. Radio emission of 11 clusters was detected , and for two of these and for other clust rs radio sources detected in the directions to the outskirts of clusters. Radio halos having the luminosity comparable to that of the A1656 (Coma) cluster are not typical for clusters

  9. A search for TeV gamma-ray emission from SNRs, pulsars and unidentified GeV sources in the Galactic plane in the longitude range between -2 deg and 85 deg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonian, F. A.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Beilicke, M.; Bernloehr, K.; Bojahr, H.; Bolz, O.; Boerst, H.; Coarasa, T.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Denninghoff, S.; Fonseca, V.; Girma, M.; Goetting, N.; Heinzelmann, G.; Hermann, G.; Heusler, A.; Hofmann, W.; Horns, D.; Jung, I.; Kankanyan, R.; Kestel, M.; Kettler, J.; Kohnle, A.; Konopelko, A.; Kornmeyer, H.; Kranich, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Lampeitl, H.; Lopez, M.; Lorenz, E.; Lucarelli, F.; Mang, O.; Meyer, H.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Ona, E.; Panter, M.; Plyasheshnikov, A.; Puehlhofer, G.; Rauterberg, G.; Reyes, R.; Rhode, W.; Ripken, J.; Roehring, A.; Rowell, G. P.; Sahakian, V.; Samorski, M.; Schilling, M.; Siems, M.; Sobzynska, D.; Stamm, W.; Tluczykont, M.; Voelk, H. J.; Wiedner, C. A.; Wittek, W.

    2002-12-01

    Using the HEGRA system of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, one quarter of the Galactic plane (-2o < l < 85o) was surveyed for TeV gamma-ray emission from point sources and moderately extended sources (φ <= 0.8o). The region covered includes 86 known pulsars (PSR), 63 known supernova remnants (SNR) and nine GeV sources, representing a significant fraction of the known populations. No evidence for emission of TeV gamma radiation was detected, and upper limits range from 0.15 Crab units up to several Crab units, depending on the observation time and zenith angles covered. The ensemble sums over selected SNR and pulsar subsamples and over the GeV-sources yield no indication of emission from these potential sources. The upper limit for the SNR population is 6.7% of the Crab flux and for the pulsar ensemble is 3.6% of the Crab flux.

  10. Magnetoelastic plane waves in rotating media in thermoelasticity of type II (G-N model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Roychoudhuri

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A study is made of the propagation of time-harmonic plane waves in an infinite, conducting, thermoelastic solid permeated by a uniform primary external magnetic field when the entire medium is rotating with a uniform angular velocity. The thermoelasticity theory of type II (G-N model (1993 is used to study the propagation of waves. A more general dispersion equation is derived to determine the effects of rotation, thermal parameters, characteristic of the medium, and the external magnetic field. If the primary magnetic field has a transverse component, it is observed that the longitudinal and transverse motions are linked together. For low frequency (χ≪1, χ being the ratio of the wave frequency to some standard frequency ω∗, the rotation and the thermal field have no effect on the phase velocity to the first order of χ and then this corresponds to only one slow wave influenced by the electromagnetic field only. But to the second order of χ, the phase velocity, attenuation coefficient, and the specific energy loss are affected by rotation and depend on the thermal parameters cT, cT being the nondimensional thermal wave speed of G-N theory, and the thermoelastic coupling εT, the electromagnetic parameters εH, and the transverse magnetic field RH. Also for large frequency, rotation and thermal field have no effect on the phase velocity, which is independent of primary magnetic field to the first order of (1/χ (χ≫1, and the specific energy loss is a constant, independent of any field parameter. However, to the second order of (1/χ, rotation does exert influence on both the phase velocity and the attenuation factor, and the specific energy loss is affected by rotation and depends on the thermal parameters cT and εT, electromagnetic parameter εH, and the transverse magnetic field RH, whereas the specific energy loss is independent of any field parameters to the first order of (1/χ.

  11. STAR FORMATION IN SELF-GRAVITATING DISKS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. EPISODIC FORMATION OF BROAD-LINE REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WangJianmin; Du Pu; Ge Junqiang; Hu Chen; Baldwin, Jack A.; Ferland, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    This is the second in a series of papers discussing the process and effects of star formation in the self-gravitating disk around the supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We have previously suggested that warm skins are formed above the star-forming (SF) disk through the diffusion of warm gas driven by supernova explosions. Here we study the evolution of the warm skins when they are exposed to the powerful radiation from the inner part of the accretion disk. The skins initially are heated to the Compton temperature, forming a Compton atmosphere (CAS) whose subsequent evolution is divided into four phases. Phase I is the duration of pure accumulation supplied by the SF disk. During phase II clouds begin to form due to line cooling and sink to the SF disk. Phase III is a period of preventing clouds from sinking to the SF disk through dynamic interaction between clouds and the CAS because of the CAS overdensity driven by continuous injection of warm gas from the SF disk. Finally, phase IV is an inevitable collapse of the entire CAS through line cooling. This CAS evolution drives the episodic appearance of broad-line regions (BLRs). We follow the formation of cold clouds through the thermal instability of the CAS during phases II and III, using linear analysis. Since the clouds are produced inside the CAS, the initial spatial distribution of newly formed clouds and angular momentum naturally follow the CAS dynamics, producing a flattened disk of clouds. The number of clouds in phases II and III can be estimated, as well as the filling factor of clouds in the BLR. Since the cooling function depends on the metallicity, the metallicity gradients that originate in the SF disk give rise to different properties of clouds in different radial regions. We find from the instability analysis that clouds have column density N H ∼ 22 cm –2 in the metal-rich regions whereas they have N H ∼> 10 22 cm –2 in the metal-poor regions. The metal-rich clouds

  12. VERITAS Galactic Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Gareth

    2013-06-15

    We report on recent Galactic results and discoveries made by the VERITAS collaboration. The Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) is a ground-based gamma-ray observatory, located in southern Arizona, able to detect gamma rays of energies from 100 GeV up to 30 TeV. VERITAS has been fully operational since 2007 and its current sensitivity enables the detection of a 1% Crab Nebula flux at 5 sigma in under 30 hours. The observatory is well placed to view large parts of the galactic plane including its center, resulting in a strong galactic program. Objects routinely observed include Pulsars, Pulsar Wind Nebula, X-ray binaries and sources with unidentified counterparts in other wavelengths.

  13. The spherical harmonics method, II (application to problems with plane and spherical symmetry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark, C

    1958-12-15

    The application of the spherical harmonic method to problems with plane or spherical symmetry is discussed in detail. The numerical results of some applications already made are included to indicate the degree of convergence obtained. Formulae for dealing with distributions of isotropic sources are developed. Tables useful in applying the method are given in Section 11. (author)

  14. Galactic dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Binney, James

    2008-01-01

    Since it was first published in 1987, Galactic Dynamics has become the most widely used advanced textbook on the structure and dynamics of galaxies and one of the most cited references in astrophysics. Now, in this extensively revised and updated edition, James Binney and Scott Tremaine describe the dramatic recent advances in this subject, making Galactic Dynamics the most authoritative introduction to galactic astrophysics available to advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and researchers. Every part of the book has been thoroughly overhauled, and many section

  15. THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE ELEMENTS IN THE GALACTIC DISK. II. AZIMUTHAL AND RADIAL VARIATION IN ABUNDANCES FROM CEPHEIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Kovtyukh, V. V.; Gieren, W.; Graczyk, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the spectroscopic investigation of 101 Cepheids in the Carina region. These Cepheids extend previous samples by about 35% in number and increase the amount of the Galactic disk coverage especially in the direction of l ∼ 270 0 . The new Cepheids do not add much information to the radial gradient, but provide a substantial increase in azimuthal coverage. We find no azimuthal dependence in abundance over an 80 deg. angle from the Galactic center in an annulus of 1 kpc depth centered on the Sun. A simple linear fit to the Cepheid data yields a gradient d[Fe/H]/dR G = -0.055 ± 0.003 dex kpc -1 which is somewhat shallower than found from our previous, smaller Cepheid sample.

  16. New Wolf-Rayet stars in Galactic open clusters - Sher 1 and the giant H II region core Westerlund 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Shara, Michael M.; Potter, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Two new Galactic Wolf-Rayet stars were found in open clusters: a WN4 star in the O9 cluster Sher 1 and a WN7 star in the O7 cluster Westerlund 2. This confirms a previous trend, namely that fainter, hotter WN stars tend to be older than brighter, cooler WN stars. This may be a consequence of evolution via extreme mass loss.

  17. C II forbidden-line 158 micron mapping in Sagittarius A Rotation curve and mass distribution in the galactic center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugten, J. B.; Genzel, R.; Crawford, M. K.; Townes, C. H.

    1986-01-01

    Based on data obtained with the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory 91.4 cm telescope, the 158-micron fine structure line emission of C(+) is mapped near the galactic center. The strongest emission comes from a 10-pc FWHM diameter disk centered on Sgr A West whose dominant motion is rotation. Extended C(+) emission is also found from the +50 km/s galactic center molecular cloud, and a second cloud at v(LSR) of about -35 km/s. The rotation curve and mass distribution within 10 pc of the galactic center are derived, and the C(+) profiles show a drop-off of rotation velocity between 2 and 10 pc. A mass model is suggested with 2-4 million solar masses in a central point mass, and a M/L ratio of the central stellar cluster of 0.5 solar masses/solar luminosities, suggesting a large abundance of giants and relatively recent star formation in the center.

  18. A cephalometric analysis of Class II dentate subjects to establish a formula to determine the occlusal plane in Class II edentate subjects: A neo adjunct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Nikita; Reddy, K Mahendranadh; Gupta, Nidhi; Shastry, Y M

    2017-01-01

    Occlusal plane (OP) differs considerably in participants with skeletal Class I and Class II participants. In this study, cephalometrics has been used to help in the determination of orientation of the OP utilizing the nonresorbable bony anatomic landmarks in skeletal Class II participants and an attempt has been made to predict and examine the OP in individuals with skeletal class II jaw relationship. One hundred dentulous participants with skeletal Class II malocclusion who came to the hospital for correcting their jaw relationship participated in the study. Their right lateral cephalogram was taken using standardized procedures, and all the tracings were manually done by a single trained examiner. The cephalograms which were taken for the diagnostic purpose were utilized for the study, and the patient was not exposed to any unnecessary radiation. The numerical values obtained from the cephalograms were subjected to statistical analysis. Pearson's correlation of orientation of the OP in Class II edentulous participants. Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear regression analysis were performed, and a high correlation was found between A2 and (A2 + B2)/(B2 + C2) with " r " value of 0.5. A medium correlation was found between D2 and (D2 + E2)/(E2 + F2) with " r " value of 0.42. The formula obtained for posterior reference frame through linear regression equation was y = 0.018* × +0.459 and the formula obtained for anterior reference frame was y1 = 0.011* × 1 + 0.497. It was hypothesized that by substituting these formulae in the cephalogram obtained from the Class II edentate individual, the OP can be obtained and verified. It was concluded that cephalometrics can be useful in examining the orientation of OP in skeletal Class II participants.

  19. Imprint of Galactic dynamics on Earth's climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    A connection between climate and the Solar system's motion perpendicular to the Galactic plane during the last 200 Myr years is studied. An imprint of galactic dynamics is found in a long-term record of the Earth's climate that is consistent with variations in the Solar system oscillation around...

  20. Planck 2013 results. XIII. Galactic CO emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.

    2014-01-01

    Rotational transition lines of CO play a major role in molecular radio astronomy as a mass tracer and in particular in the study of star formation and Galactic structure. Although a wealth of data exists for the Galactic plane and some well-known molecular clouds, there is no available high sensi...

  1. Heating of a thermally conducting stratified medium. II. A simple plane model of an atmosphre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, I.; Low, B.C.

    1980-01-01

    Exact solutions of the following theroretical problem are present: A plane atmosphere is in hydrostatic equilibrium with a uniform gravity. The ideal gas law is assumed. Heat is generated everywhere at a rate proportional to the local density. The atmosphere is maintained in a steady state through cooling by thermal conduction and radiation. This problem is reducible to quadratures for a thermal conductivity which is an arbitrary, but prescribed, function of the temperature, and for a radiative loss which is expressible as the product of the density and an arbitrary, but prescribed, function of the pressure. The analysis is carried out for the case of power law thermal conductivity, and a radiative loss proportional to the square of the density and to the first power of the temperature. The radiative cooling function adopted here has the basic mathematical form for an optically thin medium. The solutions reproduce the macroscopic ordering of a hot ''corona'' separated from a ''photosphere'' by a layer of temperature minimum. The analytic solutions allow direct illustration of the interplay between steady energy transport and the requirements of hydorstatic equilibrium

  2. The Segue K giant survey. II. A catalog of distance determinations for the Segue K giants in the galactic halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Xiang-Xiang; Rix, Hans-Walter; Ma, Zhibo; Morrison, Heather L.; Harding, Paul; Beers, Timothy C.; Ivans, Inese I.; Jacobson, Heather R.; Johnson, Jennifer; Lee, Young Sun; Lucatello, Sara; Rockosi, Constance M.; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Yanny, Brian; Zhao, Gang; Allende Prieto, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    We present an online catalog of distance determinations for 6036 K giants, most of which are members of the Milky Way's stellar halo. Their medium-resolution spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey/Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration are used to derive metallicities and rough gravity estimates, along with radial velocities. Distance moduli are derived from a comparison of each star's apparent magnitude with the absolute magnitude of empirically calibrated color-luminosity fiducials, at the observed (g – r) 0 color and spectroscopic [Fe/H]. We employ a probabilistic approach that makes it straightforward to properly propagate the errors in metallicities, magnitudes, and colors into distance uncertainties. We also fold in prior information about the giant-branch luminosity function and the different metallicity distributions of the SEGUE K-giant targeting sub-categories. We show that the metallicity prior plays a small role in the distance estimates, but that neglecting the luminosity prior could lead to a systematic distance modulus bias of up to 0.25 mag, compared to the case of using the luminosity prior. We find a median distance precision of 16%, with distance estimates most precise for the least metal-poor stars near the tip of the red giant branch. The precision and accuracy of our distance estimates are validated with observations of globular and open clusters. The stars in our catalog are up to 125 kpc from the Galactic center, with 283 stars beyond 50 kpc, forming the largest available spectroscopic sample of distant tracers in the Galactic halo.

  3. Galactic sprinklers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandeusen, W.

    1984-01-01

    It is believed by many astronomers that gravitation is responsible for holding a strong whirlpool of hot, dense material together at the center of the Milky Way galaxy. However, the galactic-sprinkler model suggests that the whirlpool is not being held together, and that the stars, gas and dust within the spirals are being thrown outward. It is also suggested that much of the ejected material eventually returns to the galactic center, as do stars within our stellar neighborhood. The material is believed to be subjected to extreme changes in the gravitational time rate which may cause it to follow an inbound spiral that is basically similar to the outbound spiral. Radio studies also indicate that the galactic arms on either side of the galactic center move at different velocities and in different directions with respect to our location and that the whole group of stars in the vicinity of the solar system may be moving outward from the galactic center at a velocity of about 40 kps. Through the use of velocity data in kps, and distance data in light years, the radial component of the sun's trajectory can be estimated with respect to time by a parabola. The spiral trajectory of the sun can be calculated and plotted on polar coordinates by combining both the radial component and tangential component (230 kps)

  4. Galactic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchler, J.R.; Gottesman, S.T.; Hunter, J.H. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Various papers on galactic models are presented. Individual topics addressed include: observations relating to galactic mass distributions; the structure of the Galaxy; mass distribution in spiral galaxies; rotation curves of spiral galaxies in clusters; grand design, multiple arm, and flocculent spiral galaxies; observations of barred spirals; ringed galaxies; elliptical galaxies; the modal approach to models of galaxies; self-consistent models of spiral galaxies; dynamical models of spiral galaxies; N-body models. Also discussed are: two-component models of galaxies; simulations of cloudy, gaseous galactic disks; numerical experiments on the stability of hot stellar systems; instabilities of slowly rotating galaxies; spiral structure as a recurrent instability; model gas flows in selected barred spiral galaxies; bar shapes and orbital stochasticity; three-dimensional models; polar ring galaxies; dynamical models of polar rings

  5. THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. X. A COMPLETE SPECTROSCOPIC CATALOG OF DENSE MOLECULAR GAS OBSERVED TOWARD 1.1 mm DUST CONTINUUM SOURCES WITH 7.°5 ≤ l ≤ 194°

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, Yancy L.; Svoboda, Brian; Ellsworth-Bowers, Timothy P.; Schlingman, Wayne M.; Ginsburg, Adam; Battersby, Cara; Stringfellow, Guy; Glenn, Jason; Bally, John; Rosolowsky, Erik; Gerner, Thomas; Mairs, Steven; Dunham, Miranda K.

    2013-01-01

    The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) is a 1.1 mm continuum survey of dense clumps of dust throughout the Galaxy covering 170 deg 2 . We present spectroscopic observations using the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope of the dense gas tracers, HCO + and N 2 H + 3-2, for all 6194 sources in the BGPS v1.0.1 catalog between 7.°5 ≤ l ≤ 194°. This is the largest targeted spectroscopic survey of dense molecular gas in the Milky Way to date. We find unique velocities for 3126 (50.5%) of the BGPS v1.0.1 sources observed. Strong N 2 H + 3-2 emission (T mb > 0.5 K) without HCO + 3-2 emission does not occur in this catalog. We characterize the properties of the dense molecular gas emission toward the entire sample. HCO + is very sub-thermally populated and the 3-2 transitions are optically thick toward most BGPS clumps. The median observed line width is 3.3 km s –1 consistent with supersonic turbulence within BGPS clumps. We find strong correlations between dense molecular gas integrated intensities and 1.1 mm peak flux and the gas kinetic temperature derived from previously published NH 3 observations. These intensity correlations are driven by the sensitivity of the 3-2 transitions to excitation conditions rather than by variations in molecular column density or abundance. We identify a subset of 113 sources with stronger N 2 H + than HCO + integrated intensity, but we find no correlations between the N 2 H + /HCO + ratio and 1.1 mm continuum flux density, gas kinetic temperature, or line width. Self-absorbed profiles are rare (1.3%)

  6. THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. X. A COMPLETE SPECTROSCOPIC CATALOG OF DENSE MOLECULAR GAS OBSERVED TOWARD 1.1 mm DUST CONTINUUM SOURCES WITH 7.°5 ≤ l ≤ 194°

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley, Yancy L.; Svoboda, Brian [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ellsworth-Bowers, Timothy P.; Schlingman, Wayne M.; Ginsburg, Adam; Battersby, Cara; Stringfellow, Guy; Glenn, Jason; Bally, John [CASA, University of Colorado, CB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 4-181 CCIS Edmonton AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Gerner, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA), Knigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Mairs, Steven [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Dunham, Miranda K. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) is a 1.1 mm continuum survey of dense clumps of dust throughout the Galaxy covering 170 deg{sup 2}. We present spectroscopic observations using the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope of the dense gas tracers, HCO{sup +} and N{sub 2}H{sup +} 3-2, for all 6194 sources in the BGPS v1.0.1 catalog between 7.°5 ≤ l ≤ 194°. This is the largest targeted spectroscopic survey of dense molecular gas in the Milky Way to date. We find unique velocities for 3126 (50.5%) of the BGPS v1.0.1 sources observed. Strong N{sub 2}H{sup +} 3-2 emission (T {sub mb} > 0.5 K) without HCO{sup +} 3-2 emission does not occur in this catalog. We characterize the properties of the dense molecular gas emission toward the entire sample. HCO{sup +} is very sub-thermally populated and the 3-2 transitions are optically thick toward most BGPS clumps. The median observed line width is 3.3 km s{sup –1} consistent with supersonic turbulence within BGPS clumps. We find strong correlations between dense molecular gas integrated intensities and 1.1 mm peak flux and the gas kinetic temperature derived from previously published NH{sub 3} observations. These intensity correlations are driven by the sensitivity of the 3-2 transitions to excitation conditions rather than by variations in molecular column density or abundance. We identify a subset of 113 sources with stronger N{sub 2}H{sup +} than HCO{sup +} integrated intensity, but we find no correlations between the N{sub 2}H{sup +}/HCO{sup +} ratio and 1.1 mm continuum flux density, gas kinetic temperature, or line width. Self-absorbed profiles are rare (1.3%)

  7. FOREST Unbiased Galactic plane Imaging survey with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope (FUGIN). III. Possible evidence for formation of NGC 6618 cluster in M 17 by cloud-cloud collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Atsushi; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Umemoto, Tomofumi; Fujita, Shinji; Matsuo, Mitsuhiro; Hattori, Yusuke; Kohno, Mikito; Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Tsuda, Yuya; Kuriki, Mika; Kuno, Nario; Torii, Kazufumi; Tsutsumi, Daichi; Okawa, Kazuki; Sano, Hidetoshi; Tachihara, Kengo; Ohama, Akio; Fukui, Yasuo

    2018-05-01

    We present 12CO (J = 1-0), 13CO (J = 1-0), and C18O (J = 1-0) images of the M 17 giant molecular clouds obtained as part of the FUGIN (FOREST Ultra-wide Galactic Plane Survey In Nobeyama) project. The observations cover the entire area of the M 17 SW and M 17 N clouds at the highest angular resolution (˜19″) to date, which corresponds to ˜0.18 pc at the distance of 2.0 kpc. We find that the region consists of four different velocity components: a very low velocity (VLV) clump, a low velocity component (LVC), a main velocity component (MVC), and a high velocity component (HVC). The LVC and the HVC have cavities. Ultraviolet photons radiated from NGC 6618 cluster penetrate into the N cloud up to ˜5 pc through the cavities and interact with molecular gas. This interaction is correlated with the distribution of young stellar objects in the N cloud. The LVC and the HVC are distributed complementarily after the HVC is displaced by 0.8 pc toward the east-southeast direction, suggesting that collision of the LVC and the HVC created the cavities in both clouds. The collision velocity and timescale are estimated to be 9.9 km s-1 and 1.1 × 105 yr, respectively. The high collision velocity can provide a mass accretion rate of up to 10^{-3} M_{⊙}yr-1, and the high column density (4 × 1023 cm-2) might result in massive cluster formation. The scenario of cloud-cloud collision likely explains well the stellar population and the formation history of the NGC 6618 cluster proposed by Hoffmeister et al. (2008, ApJ, 686, 310).

  8. Assessment of the effects of scaling and root planing on blood glucose levels in type II diabetes patients: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Rieyazulhuq Shaikh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of the scaling and root planing of some blood glucose levels in Type II Diabetes patients. Study Population and Methods: The clinical study was conducted in 15 Type II diabetic patients of Dr. D Y Patil Dental College and Hospital, Pimpri, Pune. All the participants underwent a baseline examination for periodontal status using the community periodontal index of treatment needs and also estimation of fasting and post-prandial blood sugar levels. The participants received the intervention of scaling and root planing, as also routine oral hygiene instructions, and were recalled after one month for a final periodontal examination and blood sugar level investigation. The significance of difference between the means of the baseline and the final examination was tested using the paired ′t′ test. Results and Conclusion: There was no significant change in the fasting and post-prandial blood glucose levels in patients treated with scaling and root planing.

  9. The near-infrared broad emission line region of active galactic nuclei - II. The 1-μm continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landt, Hermine; Elvis, Martin; Ward, Martin J.; Bentz, Misty C.; Korista, Kirk T.; Karovska, Margarita

    2011-06-01

    We use quasi-simultaneous near-infrared (near-IR) and optical spectroscopy from four observing runs to study the continuum around 1 μm in 23 well-known broad emission line active galactic nuclei (AGN). We show that, after correcting the optical spectra for host galaxy light, the AGN continuum around this wavelength can be approximated by the sum of mainly two emission components, a hot dust blackbody and an accretion disc. The accretion disc spectrum appears to dominate the flux at ˜ 1 μm, which allows us to derive a relation for estimating AGN black hole masses based on the near-IR virial product. This result also means that a near-IR reverberation programme can determine the AGN state independent of simultaneous optical spectroscopy. On average we derive hot dust blackbody temperatures of ˜1400 K, a value close to the sublimation temperature of silicate dust grains, and relatively low hot dust covering factors of ˜7 per cent. Our preliminary variability studies indicate that in most sources, the hot dust emission responds to changes in the accretion disc flux with the expected time lag; however, a few sources show a behaviour that can be attributed to dust destruction.

  10. Small-pixel long wavelength infrared focal plane arrays based on InAs/GaSb Type-II superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xi; Jiang, Dongwei; Wang, Guowei; Hao, Hongyue; Sun, Yaoyao; Jiang, Zhi; Lv, Yuexi; Guo, Chunyan; Xu, Yingqiang; Niu, Zhichuan

    2018-03-01

    The paper reports a 640 × 512 long wavelength infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) with 15 × 15 μm2 pixels pitch based on the type II InAs/GaSb superlattice. Material grown on a 3 in. GaSb substrate exhibits a 50% cutoff wavelength of 10.2 μm across the entire wafer. The peak quantum efficiency of the detector reaches 28% at 9.1 μm without anti-reflecting coating. Maximal resistance-area products of 8.95 Ω·cm2 at 77 K and 24.4 Ω·cm2 at 45 K are achieved in a single element device indicating that the generation-recombination and tunneling mechanisms dominate the device dark current, respectively. The peak Johnson Detectivity reaches 9.66 × 1011 cm Hz1/2/W at 9.1 μm with the bias voltage of 80 mV. In the whole zone, the operability and non-uniformity for the responsivity are 97.74% and 6.41% respectively. The average noise equivalent temperature difference of 31.9 mK at 77 K is achieved with an integration time of 0.5 ms, a 300 K background and f/2 optics.

  11. Lower extremity energy absorption and biomechanics during landing, part II: frontal-plane energy analyses and interplanar relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, Marc F; Lewek, Michael D; Padua, Darin A; Shultz, Sandra J; Weinhold, Paul S; Blackburn, J Troy

    2013-01-01

    Greater sagittal-plane energy absorption (EA) during the initial impact phase (INI) of landing is consistent with sagittal-plane biomechanics that likely increase anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) loading, but it does not appear to influence frontal-plane biomechanics. We do not know whether frontal-plane INI EA is related to high-risk frontal-plane biomechanics. To compare biomechanics among INI EA groups, determine if women are represented more in the high group, and evaluate interplanar INI EA relationships. Descriptive laboratory study. Research laboratory. Participants included 82 (41 men, 41 women; age = 21.0 ± 2.4 years, height = 1.74 ± 0.10 m, mass = 70.3 ± 16.1 kg) healthy, physically active volunteers. We assessed landing biomechanics with an electromagnetic motion-capture system and force plate. We calculated frontal- and sagittal-plane total, hip, knee, and ankle INI EA. Total frontal-plane INI EA was used to create high, moderate, and low tertiles. Frontal-plane knee and hip kinematics, peak vertical and posterior ground reaction forces, and peak internal knee-varus moment (pKVM) were identified and compared across groups using 1-way analyses of variance. We used a χ (2) analysis to evaluate male and female allocation to INI EA groups. We used simple, bivariate Pearson product moment correlations to assess interplanar INI EA relationships. The high-INI EA group exhibited greater knee valgus at ground contact, hip adduction at pKVM, and peak hip adduction than the low-INI EA group (P .05). Greater frontal-plane INI EA was associated with less favorable frontal-plane biomechanics that likely result in greater ACL loading. Women were more likely than men to use greater frontal-plane INI EA. The magnitudes of sagittal- and frontal-plane INI EA were largely independent.

  12. The galactic distribution of pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyne, A.G.

    1982-01-01

    The galactic distribution of pulsars follows the general form of many population I objects in galactocentric radius, but has a wide distribution above and below the plane due to high space velocities imparted to the pulsars at birth. Statistical studies of the properties of large numbers of pulsars and proper motion measurements demonstrate that the effective magnetic dipole moments decay on a timescale of about 8 million years. This work provides a better knowledge of pulsar evolution and ages and shows that a birthrate of one pulsar every 20 to 50 years is required to sustain the observed galactic population of 300,000. This rate is comparable with most recent estimates of the galactic supernova rate, but requires nearly all supernovae to produce active pulsars. (orig.)

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF A SAMPLE OF INTERMEDIATE-TYPE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. HOST BULGE PROPERTIES AND BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, Erika; Cruz-Gonzalez, Irene; Martinez, Benoni; Jimenez-Bailon, Elena [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-264, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Mendez-Abreu, Jairo; Lopez-Martin, Luis [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Fuentes-Carrera, Isaura [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional (ESFM-IPN), U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Mexico D.F. 07730 (Mexico); Chavushyan, Vahram [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Apdo. Postal 51-216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Leon-Tavares, Jonathan, E-mail: erika@astro.unam.mx [Aalto University Metsaehovi Radio Observatory, Metsaehovintie 114, 02540 Kylmaelae (Finland)

    2013-02-15

    We present a study of the host bulge properties and their relations with the black hole mass for a sample of 10 intermediate-type active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our sample consists mainly of early-type spirals, four of them hosting a bar. For 70{sup +10} {sub -17}% of the galaxies, we have been able to determine the type of the bulge, and find that these objects probably harbor a pseudobulge or a combination of classical bulge/pseudobulge, suggesting that pseudobulges might be frequent in intermediate-type AGNs. In our sample, 50% {+-} 14% of the objects show double-peaked emission lines. Therefore, narrow double-peaked emission lines seem to be frequent in galaxies harboring a pseudobulge or a combination of classical bulge/pseudobulge. Depending on the bulge type, we estimated the black hole mass using the corresponding M {sub BH}-{sigma}* relation and found them within a range of 5.69 {+-} 0.21 < log M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} < 8.09 {+-} 0.24. Comparing these M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} values with masses derived from the FWHM of H{beta} and the continuum luminosity at 5100 A from their SDSS-DR7 spectra (M {sub BH}), we find that 8 out of 10 (80{sup +7} {sub -17}%) galaxies have black hole masses that are compatible within a factor of 3. This result would support that M {sub BH} and M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} are the same for intermediate-type AGNs, as has been found for type 1 AGNs. However, when the type of the bulge is taken into account, only three out of the seven (43{sup +18} {sub -15}%) objects of the sample have their M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} and M {sub BH} compatible within 3{sigma} errors. We also find that estimations based on the M {sub BH}-{sigma}* relation for pseudobulges are not compatible in 50% {+-} 20% of the objects.

  14. INVISIBLE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. RADIO MORPHOLOGIES AND FIVE NEW H i 21 cm ABSORPTION LINE DETECTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Ting; Stocke, John T.; Darling, Jeremy [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, UCB 389, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States); Momjian, Emmanuel [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Sharma, Soniya [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Mt Stromlo Observatory, ACT 2611 (Australia); Kanekar, Nissim [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, TIFR, Post Bag 3, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2016-03-15

    This is the second paper directed toward finding new highly redshifted atomic and molecular absorption lines at radio frequencies. To this end, we selected a sample of 80 candidates for obscured radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and presented their basic optical/near-infrared (NIR) properties in Paper I. In this paper, we present both high-resolution radio continuum images for all of these sources and H i 21 cm absorption spectroscopy for a few selected sources in this sample. A-configuration 4.9 and 8.5 GHz Very Large Array continuum observations find that 52 sources are compact or have substantial compact components with size <0.″5 and flux densities >0.1 Jy at 4.9 GHz. The 36 most compact sources were then observed with the Very Long Baseline Array at 1.4 GHz. One definite and 10 candidate Compact Symmetric Objects (CSOs) are newly identified, which is a detection rate of CSOs ∼three times higher than the detection rate previously found in purely flux-limited samples. Based on possessing compact components with high flux densities, 60 of these sources are good candidates for absorption-line searches. Twenty-seven sources were observed for H i 21 cm absorption at their photometric or spectroscopic redshifts with only six detections (five definite and one tentative). However, five of these were from a small subset of six CSOs with pure galaxy optical/NIR spectra (i.e., any AGN emission is obscured) and for which accurate spectroscopic redshifts place the redshifted 21 cm line in a radio frequency intereference (RFI)-free spectral “window” (i.e., the percentage of H i 21 cm absorption-line detections could be as high as ∼90% in this sample). It is likely that the presence of ubiquitous RFI and the absence of accurate spectroscopic redshifts preclude H i detections in similar sources (only 1 detection out of the remaining 22 sources observed, 13 of which have only photometric redshifts); that is, H i absorption may well be present but is masked by

  15. The first IRAM/PdBI polarimetric millimeter survey of active galactic nuclei. II. Activity and properties of individual sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippe, S.; Neri, R.; Krips, M.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Bremer, M.; Piétu, V.; Winters, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    We present an analysis of the linear polarization of six active galactic nuclei - 0415+379 (3C 111), 0507+179, 0528+134 (OG+134), 0954+658, 1418+546 (OQ+530), and 1637+574 (OS+562). Our targets were monitored from 2007 to 2011 in the observatory-frame frequency range 80-253 GHz, corresponding to a rest-frame frequency range 88-705 GHz. We find average degrees of polarization mL ≈ 2 - 7%; this indicates that the polarization signals are effectively averaged out by the emitter geometries. From a comparison of the fluctuation rates in flux and degree of polarization we conclude that the spatial scales relevant for polarized emission are of the same order of, but probably not smaller than, the spatial scales relevant for the emission of the total flux. We see indication for fairly strong shocks and/or complex, variable emission region geometries in our sources, with compression factors ≲ 0.9 and/or changes in viewing angles by ≳ 10°. An analysis of correlations between source fluxes and polarization parameter points out special cases: the presence of (at least) two distinct emission regions with different levels of polarization (for 0415+379) as well as emission from a single, predominant component (for 0507+179 and 1418+546). Regarding the evolution of flux and polarization, we find good agreement between observations and the signal predicted by "oblique shock in jet" scenarios in one source (1418+546). We attempt to derive rotation measures for all sources, leading to actual measurements for two AGN and upper limits for three sources. We derive values of RM = (-39 ± 1stat ± 13sys) × 103 rad m-2 and RM = (42 ± 1stat ± 11sys) × 104 rad m-2 for 1418+546 and 1637+574, respectively; these are the highest values reported to date for AGN. These values indicate magnetic field strengths of the order ~10-4 G. For 0415+379, 0507+179, and 0954+658 we derive upper limits |RM| < 1.7 × 104 rad m-2. From the relation |RM| ∝ νa we find a = 1.9 ± 0.3 for 1418+546, in

  16. Confirmation of the Galactic Thick Disk Component by the Basle RGU-and UBV-photometric space densities. II. (Synopsis of 25 years Basle Halo Program; II: Plaut I, NGC 6171, SA 158, M 13)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenkart, R.

    1989-01-01

    This contribution treats four fields, all with directions pointing into the galactic centre hemisphere (270 0 0 ). The purpose of the comparison-phase of the BHP is to homogeneously compare the three-colour photometrically determined space densities for different luminosity groups of the combined (photometric) populations I and II with the gradients predicted for the involved direction by a representative set of current standard multi-component models for the stellar space distribution in the Galaxy and to evaluate a best-fitting model by a simple quantitative procedure. In no case the existence of a Thick Disk component is ruled out by the findings; in the safer directions it is even slightly indicated, though much less compellingly than in all previous investigations of the model-comparison phase

  17. EVOLUTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF MAGNETIC FIELDS FROM ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN GALAXY CLUSTERS. II. THE EFFECTS OF CLUSTER SIZE AND DYNAMICAL STATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hao; Li Hui; Collins, David C.; Li, Shengtai; Norman, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Theory and simulations suggest that magnetic fields from radio jets and lobes powered by their central super massive black holes can be an important source of magnetic fields in the galaxy clusters. This is Paper II in a series of studies where we present self-consistent high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement cosmological magnetohydrodynamic simulations that simultaneously follow the formation of a galaxy cluster and evolution of magnetic fields ejected by an active galactic nucleus. We studied 12 different galaxy clusters with virial masses ranging from 1 x 10 14 to 2 x 10 15 M sun . In this work, we examine the effects of the mass and merger history on the final magnetic properties. We find that the evolution of magnetic fields is qualitatively similar to those of previous studies. In most clusters, the injected magnetic fields can be transported throughout the cluster and be further amplified by the intracluster medium (ICM) turbulence during the cluster formation process with hierarchical mergers, while the amplification history and the magnetic field distribution depend on the cluster formation and magnetism history. This can be very different for different clusters. The total magnetic energies in these clusters are between 4 x 10 57 and 10 61 erg, which is mainly decided by the cluster mass, scaling approximately with the square of the total mass. Dynamically older relaxed clusters usually have more magnetic fields in their ICM. The dynamically very young clusters may be magnetized weakly since there is not enough time for magnetic fields to be amplified.

  18. Galactic Structures from Gravitational Radii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Capozziello

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that the existence of a Noether symmetry in f ( R theories of gravity gives rise to an additional gravitational radius, besides the standard Schwarzschild one, determining the dynamics at galactic scales. By this feature, it is possible to explain the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation and the rotation curve of gas-rich galaxies without the dark matter hypothesis. Furthermore, under the same standard, the Fundamental Plane of elliptical galaxies can be addressed.

  19. The molecular complex associated with the Galactic H II region Sh2-90: a possible site of triggered star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, M. R.; Zavagno, A.; Deharveng, L.; Molinari, S.; Ojha, D. K.; Paradis, D.; Tigé, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Russeil, D.

    2014-06-01

    Aims: We investigate the star formation activity in the molecular complex associated with the Galactic H ii region Sh2-90. Methods: We obtain the distribution of the ionized and cold neutral gas using radio-continuum and Herschel observations. We use near-infrared and Spitzer data to investigate the stellar content of the complex. We discuss the evolutionary status of embedded massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) using their spectral energy distribution. Results: The Sh2-90 region presents a bubble morphology in the mid-infrared. Radio observations suggest it is an evolved H ii region with an electron density ~144 cm-3, emission measure ~ 6.7 × 104 cm-6 pc and an ionized mass ~55 M⊙. From Herschel and CO (J = 3 - 2) observations we found that the H ii region is part of an elongated extended molecular cloud (H2 column density ≥ 3 × 1021 cm-2 and dust temperature 18-27 K) of total mass ≥ 1 × 104 M⊙. We identify the ionizing cluster of Sh2-90, the main exciting star being an O8-O9 V star. Five cold dust clumps, four mid-IR blobs around B stars, and a compact H ii region are found at the edge of the bubble. The velocity information derived from CO data cubes suggest that most of them are associated with the Sh2-90 region. One hundred and twenty-nine low mass (≤3 M⊙) YSOs have been identified, and they are found to be distributed mostly in the regions of high column density. Four candidate Class 0/I MYSOs have been found. We suggest that multi-generation star formation is present in the complex. From evidence of interaction, time scales involved, and evolutionary status of stellar/protostellar sources, we argue that the star formation at the edges of Sh2-90 might have been triggered. However, several young sources in this complex are probably formed by some other processes. Full Table 5 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/566/A122

  20. Infrared detectors and focal plane arrays II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 23, 24, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereniak, Eustace L.; Sampson, Robert E.

    The present conference discusses Schottky-barrier IR image sensors, SWIR and MWIR Schottky-barrier imagers, a 640 x 640 PtSi, models of nonlinearities in focal plane arrays, retinal function relative to IRT focal plane arrays, a solid-state pyroelectric imager, and electrolyte electroreflectance spectroscopies for the ion-implanted HgCdTe with thermal annealing. Also discussed are HgCdTe hybrid focal plane arrays for thermoelectrically cooled applications, a novel IR detector plasma-edge detector, and IR detector circuits using monolithic CMOS amps with InSb detectors. (No individual items are abstracted in this volume)

  1. Dusty cradles in a turbulent nursery: the SGR A east H II region complex at the galactic center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, R. M.; Herter, T. L.; Adams, J. D. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, 202 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Morris, M. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    We present imaging at 19, 25, 31, and 37 μm of the compact H II region complex G-0.02-0.07 located 6 pc in projection from the center of the Galaxy obtained with SOFIA using FORCAST. G-0.02-0.07 contains three compact H II regions (A, B, and C) and one ultra-compact H II region (D). Our observations reveal the presence of two faint, infrared sources located 23'' and 35'' to the east of region C (FIRS 1 and 2) and detect dust emission in two of the three 'ridges' of ionized gas west of region A. The 19/37 color temperature and 37 μm optical depth maps of regions A-C are used to characterize the dust energetics and morphology. Regions A and B exhibit average 19/37 color temperatures of ∼105 K, and regions C and D exhibit color temperatures of ∼115 K and ∼130 K, respectively. Using the DustEM code, we model the SEDs of regions A-D and FIRS 1, all of which require populations of very small, transiently heated grains and large, equilibrium-heated grains. We also require the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in regions A-C in order to fit the 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm fluxes observed by Spitzer/IRAC. The location of the heating source for region A is determined by triangulation from distances and temperatures derived from DustEM models fit to SEDs of three different points around the region, and it is found to be displaced to the northeast of the center of curvature near the color temperature peak. Based on total luminosity, expected 1.90 μm fluxes, and proximity to the mid-IR color temperature peaks, we identify heating source candidates for regions A, B, and C. However, for region D, the observed fluxes at 1.87 and 1.90 μm of the previously proposed ionizing star are a factor of ∼40 times too bright to be the heating source and hence is likely just a star lying along the line of sight toward region D.

  2. Photonic antenna enhanced middle wave and longwave infrared focal plane array with low noise and high operating temperature, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Photodetectors and focal plane arrays (FPAs) covering the middle-wave and longwave infrared (MWIR/LWIR) are of great importance in numerous NASA applications,...

  3. Mechanical Testing of PMCs under Simulated Rapid Heat-Up Propulsion Environments. II; In-Plane Compressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Eric H.; Shin, E. Eugene; Sutter, James K.

    2003-01-01

    Carbon fiber thermoset polymer matrix composites (PMC) with high temperature polyimide based in-situ polymerized monomer reactant (PMR) resin has been used for some time in applications which can see temperatures up to 550 F. Currently, graphite fiber PMR based composites are used in several aircraft engine components including the outer bypass duct for the GE F-404, exit flaps for the P&W F-100-229, and the core cowl for the GE/Snecma CF6-80A3. Newer formulations, including PMR-II-50 are being investigated as potential weight reduction replacements of various metallic components in next generation high performance propulsion rocket engines that can see temperatures which exceed 550 F. Extensive FEM thermal modeling indicates that these components are exposed to rapid heat-up rates (up to -200 F/sec) and to a maximum temperature of around 600 F. Even though the predicted maximum part temperatures were within the capability of PW-II-50, the rapid heat-up causes significant through-thickness thermal gradients in the composite part and even more unstable states when combined with moisture. Designing composite parts for such extreme service environments will require accurate measurement of intrinsic and transient mechanical properties and the hygrothermal performance of these materials under more realistic use conditions. The mechanical properties of polymers degrade when exposed to elevated temperatures even in the absence of gaseous oxygen. Accurate mechanical characterization of the material is necessary in order to reduce system weight while providing sufficient factors of safety. Historically, the testing of PMCs at elevated temperatures has been plagued by the antagonism between two factors. First, moisture has been shown to profoundly affect the mechanical response of these materials at temperatures above their glass transition temperature while concurrently lowering the material's Tg. Moisture phenomena is due to one or a combination of three effects, i

  4. Galactic dust and extinction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyngaa, G.

    1979-01-01

    The ratio R between visual extinction and colour excess, is slightly larger than 3 and does not vary much throughout our part of the Galaxy. The distribution of dust in the galactic plane shows, on the large scale, a gradient with higher colour excesses towards l=50 0 than towards l=230 0 . On the smaller scale, much of the dust responsible for extinction is situated in clouds which tend to group together. The correlation between positions of interstellar dust clouds and positions of spiral tracers seems rather poor in our Galaxy. However, concentrated dark clouds as well as extended regions of dust show an inclined distribution similar to the Gould belt of bright stars. (Auth.)

  5. Nearaffine planes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbrink, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper we develop a theory for nearaffine planes analogous to the theory of ordinary affine translation planes. In a subsequent paper we shall use this theory to give a characterization of a certain class of Minkowski planes.

  6. The Galactic magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jinlin

    2006-01-01

    A good progress has been made on studies of Galactic magnetic fields in last 10 years. I describe what we want to know about the Galactic magnetic fields, and then review we current knowledge about magnetic fields in the Galactic disk, the Galactic halo and the field strengths. I also listed many unsolved problems on this area

  7. Galactic structure and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casse, Michel; Cesarsky, Catherine; Paul Jacques

    1977-01-01

    A model of spiral structure of the Galaxy is outlined from radiosynchrotron and gamma observations. The most interesting observations in the galactic context, obtained by the SAS II American satellite are concerned with the distribution of the γ photoemission at energies higher than 10 8 eV, along the galactic equator. The model proposed is in quantitative agreement with the present ideas on the spiral structure of the Galaxy, the galactic magnetic field, and the confinement of cosmic rays by the magnetic field and of the magnetic field by matter. Following the American era, the European COS-B satellite opens the European phase towards an identification of the discrete gamma radiation sources [fr

  8. Galactic bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Peletier, Reynier; Gadotti, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    This book consists of invited reviews on Galactic Bulges written by experts in the field. A central point of the book is that, while in the standard picture of galaxy formation a significant amount of the baryonic mass is expected to reside in classical bulges, the question what is the fraction of galaxies with no classical bulges in the local Universe has remained open. The most spectacular example of a galaxy with no significant classical bulge is the Milky Way. The reviews of this book attempt to clarify the role of the various types of bulges during the mass build-up of galaxies, based on morphology, kinematics, and stellar populations, and connecting their properties at low and high redshifts. The observed properties are compared with the predictions of the theoretical models, accounting for the many physical processes leading to the central mass concentration and their destruction in galaxies. This book serves as an entry point for PhD students and non-specialists and as a reference work for researchers...

  9. Interpretations of galactic center gamma-ray excess confronting the PandaX-II constraints on dark matter-neutron spin-dependent scatterings in the NMSSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Liangliang; He, Yangle; Lian, Jingwei; Pan, Yusi

    2018-05-01

    The Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) has been one of the most attractive candidates for Dark Matter (DM), and the lightest neutralino (\\widetilde{χ }^0_1) in the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM) is an interesting realization of the WIMP framework. The Galactic Center Excess (GCE) indicated from the analysis of the photon data of the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) in the gamma-ray wavelength ≲ 1 fm, can be explained by WIMP DM annihilations in the sky, as shown in many existing works. In this work we consider an interesting scenario in the Z_3-NMSSM where the singlet S and Singlino \\widetilde{S}^0 components play important roles in the Higgs and DM sector. Guided by our analytical arguments, we perform a sophisticated scan over the NMSSM parameter space by considering various observables such as the Standard Model (SM) Higgs data measured by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and the B-physics observables BR(B_s→ X_sγ ) and BR(B_s→ μ ^+μ ^-). We first collect samples which can explain the GCE well while passing all constraints we consider except for the DM direct detection (DD) bounds from XENON1T and PandaX-II experiments. We analyze the features of these samples suitable for the GCE interpretation and find that \\widetilde{χ }^0_1 DM are mostly Singlino-like and annihilation products are mostly the bottom quark pairs \\bar{b}b through a light singlet-like CP-odd Higgs A_1. Moreover, a good fit to the GCE spectrum generically requires sizable DM annihilation rates 0 in today's Universe. However, the correlation between the coupling C_{A_1 b\\bar{b}} in 0 and the coupling C_{Z \\widetilde{χ }^0_1 \\widetilde{χ }^0_1} in DM-neutron Spin Dependent (SD) scattering rate σ ^{SD}_{\\widetilde{χ }^0_1-N} makes all samples we obtain for GCE explanation get excluded by the PandaX-II results. Although the DM resonant annihilation scenarios may be beyond the reach of our analytical

  10. Is dark matter visible by galactic gamma rays?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The EGRET excess in the diffuse galactic gamma ray data above 1 GeV shows all features expected from dark matter WIMP annihilation: (a) It is present and has the same spectrum in all sky directions, not just in the galactic plane. (b) The intensity of the excess shows the 1/2 profile expected for a flat rotation curve outside ...

  11. Is dark matter visible by galactic gamma rays?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The EGRET excess in the diffuse galactic gamma ray data above 1 GeV shows all features expected from dark matter WIMP annihilation: (a) It is present and has the same spectrum in all sky directions, not just in the galactic plane. (b) The intensity of the excess shows the 1/r2 profile expected for a flat rotation ...

  12. The Southern H ii Region Discovery Survey (SHRDS): Pilot Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.; Dickey, John M.; Jordan, C.; Anderson, L. D.; Armentrout, W. P.; Balser, Dana S.; Wenger, Trey V.; Bania, T. M.; Dawson, J. R.; Mc Clure-Griffiths, N. M.

    2017-01-01

    The Southern H ii Region Discovery Survey is a survey of the third and fourth quadrants of the Galactic plane that will detect radio recombination line (RRL) and continuum emission at cm-wavelengths from several hundred H ii region candidates using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The targets for this survey come from the WISE Catalog of Galactic H ii Regions and were identified based on mid-infrared and radio continuum emission. In this pilot project, two different configurations of the Compact Array Broad Band receiver and spectrometer system were used for short test observations. The pilot surveys detected RRL emission from 36 of 53 H ii region candidates, as well as seven known H ii regions that were included for calibration. These 36 recombination line detections confirm that the candidates are true H ii regions and allow us to estimate their distances.

  13. The Southern H ii Region Discovery Survey (SHRDS): Pilot Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, C.; Dickey, John M. [School of Physical Sciences, Private Bag 37, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, 7001 (Australia); Jordan, C. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Perth, WA, 6845 (Australia); Anderson, L. D.; Armentrout, W. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, P.O. Box 6315, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Balser, Dana S.; Wenger, Trey V. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Bania, T. M. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Dawson, J. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and MQ Research Centre in Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics, Macquarie University, NSW, 2109 (Australia); Mc Clure-Griffiths, N. M. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2017-07-01

    The Southern H ii Region Discovery Survey is a survey of the third and fourth quadrants of the Galactic plane that will detect radio recombination line (RRL) and continuum emission at cm-wavelengths from several hundred H ii region candidates using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The targets for this survey come from the WISE Catalog of Galactic H ii Regions and were identified based on mid-infrared and radio continuum emission. In this pilot project, two different configurations of the Compact Array Broad Band receiver and spectrometer system were used for short test observations. The pilot surveys detected RRL emission from 36 of 53 H ii region candidates, as well as seven known H ii regions that were included for calibration. These 36 recombination line detections confirm that the candidates are true H ii regions and allow us to estimate their distances.

  14. LIFTING THE DUSTY VEIL WITH NEAR- AND MID-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY. II. A LARGE-SCALE STUDY OF THE GALACTIC INFRARED EXTINCTION LAW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zasowski, G.; Majewski, S. R.; Indebetouw, R.

    2009-01-01

    We combine near-infrared (Two Micron All Sky Survey) and mid-infrared (Spitzer-IRAC) photometry to characterize the IR extinction law (1.2-8 μm) over nearly 150 deg. of contiguous Milky Way midplane longitude. The relative extinctions in five passbands across these wavelength and longitude ranges are derived by calculating color excess ratios for G and K giant red clump stars in contiguous midplane regions and deriving the wavelength dependence of extinction in each one. Strong, monotonic variations in the extinction law shape are found as a function of angle from the Galactic center, symmetric on either side of it. These longitudinal variations persist even when dense interstellar regions, known a priori to have a shallower extinction curve, are removed. The increasingly steep extinction curves toward the outer Galaxy indicate a steady decrease in the absolute-to-selective extinction ratio (R V ) and in the mean dust grain size at greater Galactocentric angles. We note an increasing strength of the 8 μm extinction inflection at high Galactocentric angles and, using theoretical dust models, show that this behavior is consistent with the trend in R V . Along several lines of sight where the solution is most feasible, A λ /A K s as a function of Galactic radius (R GC ) is estimated and shown to have a Galactic radial dependence. Our analyses suggest that the observed relationship between extinction curve shape and Galactic longitude is due to an intrinsic dependence of the extinction law on Galactocentric radius.

  15. Central Masses and Broad-Line Region Sizes of Active Galactic Nuclei. II. A Homogeneous Analysis of a Large Reverberation-Mapping Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, B. M.; Ferrarese, L.; Gilbert, K. M.

    2004-01-01

    We present improved black hole masses for 35 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) based on a complete and consistent reanalysis of broad emission-line reverberation-mapping data. From objects with multiple line measurements, we find that the highest precision measure of the virial product is obtained...

  16. The Radius-Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei: The Effect of Host-Galaxy Starlight on Luminosity Measurements. II. The Full Sample of Reverberation-Mapped AGNs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Netzer, Hagai

    2009-01-01

    We present high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope images of all 35 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with optical reverberation-mapping results, which we have modeled to create a nucleus-free image of each AGN host galaxy. From the nucleus-free images, we determine the host-galaxy contribution to gro...

  17. MID-INFRARED SELECTION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER. II. PROPERTIES OF WISE-SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE NDWFS BOÖTES FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assef, R. J.; Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Tsai, C.-W.; Kochanek, C. S.; Blain, A. W.; Brodwin, M.; Brown, M. J. I.; Donoso, E.; Jarrett, T. H.; Yan, L.; Jannuzi, B. T.; Stanford, S. A.; Wu, J.

    2013-01-01

    Stern et al. presented a study of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) selection of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the 2 deg 2 COSMOS field, finding that a simple criterion W1-W2 ≥ 0.8 provides a highly reliable and complete AGN sample for W2 2 NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Boötes field which also has considerably deeper WISE observations than the COSMOS field, and find that this simple color cut significantly loses reliability at fainter fluxes. We define a modified selection criterion combining the W1–W2 color and the W2 magnitude to provide highly reliable or highly complete AGN samples for fainter WISE sources. In particular, we define a color-magnitude cut that finds 130 ± 4 deg –2 AGN candidates for W2 AGN ∼ 3 × 10 44 erg s –1 , 29% ± 7% of AGNs are observed as Type 1, while at ∼4 × 10 45 erg s –1 the fraction is 64% ± 13%. The distribution of obscuration values suggests that dust in the torus is present as both a diffuse medium and in optically thick clouds

  18. Galactic radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Sofue, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    This book is a concise primer on galactic radio astronomy for undergraduate and graduate students, and provides wide coverage of galactic astronomy and astrophysics such as the physics of interstellar matter and the dynamics and structure of the Milky Way Galaxy and galaxies. Radio astronomy and its technological development have led to significant progress in galactic astronomy and contributed to understanding interstellar matter and galactic structures. The book begins with the fundamental physics of radio-wave radiation, i.e., black body radiation, thermal emission, synchrotron radiation, and HI and molecular line emissions. The author then gives overviews of ingredients of galactic physics, including interstellar matter such as the neutral (HI), molecular hydrogen, and ionized gases, as well as magnetic fields in galaxies. In addition, more advanced topics relevant to the Galaxy and galaxies are also contained here: star formation, supernova remnants, the Galactic Center and black holes, galactic dynamics...

  19. DISSECTING THE RED SEQUENCE. II. STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES THROUGHOUT THE FUNDAMENTAL PLANE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, Genevieve J.; Faber, S. M.; Schiavon, Ricardo P.

    2009-01-01

    This analysis uses spectra of ∼16,000 nearby Sloan Digital Sky Survey quiescent galaxies to track variations in galaxy star formation histories (SFHs) along and perpendicular to the fundamental plane (FP). We sort galaxies by their FP properties (σ, R e , and I e ) and construct high signal-to-noise ratio mean galaxy spectra that span the breadth and thickness of the FP. From these spectra, we determine mean luminosity-weighted ages, [Fe/H], [Mg/H], and [Mg/Fe] based on single stellar population models using the method described in Graves and Schiavon. In agreement with previous work, the SFHs of early-type galaxies are found to form a two-parameter family. The major trend is that mean age, [Fe/H], [Mg/H], and [Mg/Fe] all increase with σ. However, no stellar population property shows any dependence on R e at fixed σ, suggesting that σ and not dynamical mass (M dyn ∝ σ 2 R e ) is the better predictor of past SFH. In addition to the main trend with σ, galaxies also show a range of population properties at fixed σ that are strongly correlated with surface brightness residuals from the FP (Δlog I e ), such that higher surface brightness galaxies have younger mean ages, higher [Fe/H], higher [Mg/H], and lower [Mg/Fe] than lower surface brightness galaxies. These latter trends are a major new constraint on SFHs.

  20. Monitoring the Galactic - Search for Hard X-Ray Transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Francis

    Hard X-ray transients with fluxs from ~1 to ~30 mCrab are a common feature of the galactic plane with apparent concentrations in specific regions of the plane. Concentrations in the Scutum and Carina fields probably indicate an enhancement of Be X-ray binaries along the tangent direction of two spiral arms. The frequency of outbursts suggest that at any one time 1 or 2 transients are active in the Scutum field alone. We propose weekly scans of the galactic plane to understand this population of sources. The scans will also monitor about 50 already known sources with better spectral information than available with the ASM.

  1. Surgical excision of the breast giant fibroadenoma under regional anesthesia by Pecs II and internal intercostal plane block: a case report and brief technical description: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungtae; Shim, Junho; Kim, Ikthae

    2017-02-01

    A 22-years-old female patient at 171 cm and 67 kg visited the Department of Breast Surgery of the hospital with a mass accompanied with pain on the left side breast as chief complaints. Since physical examination revealed a suspected huge mass, breast surgeon decided to perform surgical excision and requested anesthesia to our department. Surgery of breast tumor is often under local anesthesia. However, in case of big size tumor, surgery is usually performed under general anesthesia. The patient feared general anesthesia. Unlike abdominal surgery, there is no need to control visceral pain for breast and anterior thoracic wall surgery. Therefore, we decided to perform resection under regional anesthesia. Herein, we report a successful anesthetic and pain management of the patient undergoing excision of a huge breast fibroadenoma under regional anesthesia using Pecs II and internal intercostal plane block.

  2. Imaging Galactic Dark Matter with High-Energy Cosmic Neutrinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüelles, Carlos A; Kheirandish, Ali; Vincent, Aaron C

    2017-11-17

    We show that the high-energy cosmic neutrinos seen by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory can be used to probe interactions between neutrinos and the dark sector that cannot be reached by current cosmological methods. The origin of the observed neutrinos is still unknown, and their arrival directions are compatible with an isotropic distribution. This observation, together with dedicated studies of Galactic plane correlations, suggests a predominantly extragalactic origin. Interactions between this isotropic extragalactic flux and the dense dark matter (DM) bulge of the Milky Way would thus lead to an observable imprint on the distribution, which would be seen by IceCube as (i) slightly suppressed fluxes at energies below a PeV and (ii) a deficit of events in the direction of the Galactic center. We perform an extended unbinned likelihood analysis using the four-year high-energy starting event data set to constrain the strength of DM-neutrino interactions for two model classes. We find that, in spite of low statistics, IceCube can probe regions of the parameter space inaccessible to current cosmological methods.

  3. The distances of the Galactic Novae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdonmez, Aykut; Guver, Tolga; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio; Ak, Tansel

    2016-07-01

    Using location of the RC stars on the CMDs obtained from the UKIDSS, VISTA and 2MASS photometry, we have derived the reddening-distance relations towards each Galactic nova for which at least one independent reddening measurement exists. We were able to determine the distances of 72 Galactic novae and set lower limits on the distances of 45 systems. The reddening curves of the systems are presented. These curves can be also used to estimate reddening or the distance of any source, whose location is close to the position of the nova in our sample. The distance measurement method in our study can be easily applicable to any source, especially for ones that concentrated along the Galactic plane.

  4. Observation of galactic far-infrared ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maihara, Toshinori; Oda, Naoki; Okuda, Haruyuki; Sugiyama, Takuya; Sakai, Kiyomi.

    1978-01-01

    Galactic far-infrared was observed to study the spatial distribution of interstellar dust. Far-infrared is emitted by interstellar dust distributing throughout the galactic plane. The observation of far-infrared is very important to study the overall structure of the galaxy, that is the structure of the galactic arm and gas distribution. The balloon experiment was conducted on May 25, 1978. The detector was a germanium bolometer cooled by liquid helium. The size of the detector is 1.6 mm in diameter. The geometrical factor was 4 x 10 3 cm 2 sr. The result showed that the longitude distribution of far-infrared at 150 μm correlated with H 166 α recombination line. This indicates that the observed far-infrared is emitted by interstellar dust heated by photons of Lyman continuum. (Yoshimori, M.)

  5. Raman Signatures of Broken Inversion Symmetry and In-Plane Anisotropy in Type-II Weyl Semimetal Candidate TaIrTe4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yinan; Gu, Qiangqiang; Peng, Yu; Qi, Shaomian; Zhang, Na; Zhang, Yinong; Ma, Xiumei; Zhu, Rui; Tong, Lianming; Feng, Ji; Liu, Zheng; Chen, Jian-Hao

    2018-05-07

    The layered ternary compound TaIrTe 4 is an important candidate to host the recently predicted type-II Weyl fermions. However, a direct and definitive proof of the absence of inversion symmetry in this material, a prerequisite for the existence of Weyl Fermions, has so far remained evasive. Herein, an unambiguous identification of the broken inversion symmetry in TaIrTe 4 is established using angle-resolved polarized Raman spectroscopy. Combining with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, an efficient and nondestructive recipe to determine the exact crystallographic orientation of TaIrTe 4 crystals is demonstrated. Such technique could be extended to the fast identification and characterization of other type-II Weyl fermions candidates. A surprisingly strong in-plane electrical anisotropy in TaIrTe 4 thin flakes is also revealed, up to 200% at 10 K, which is the strongest known electrical anisotropy for materials with comparable carrier density, notably in such good metals as copper and silver. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. The Galactic stellar disc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feltzing, S; Bensby, T

    2008-01-01

    The study of the Milky Way stellar discs in the context of galaxy formation is discussed. In particular, we explore the properties of the Milky Way disc using a new sample of about 550 dwarf stars for which we have recently obtained elemental abundances and ages based on high-resolution spectroscopy. For all the stars we also have full kinematic information as well as information about their stellar orbits. We confirm results from previous studies that the thin and the thick discs have distinct abundance patterns. But we also explore a larger range of orbital parameters than what has been possible in our previous studies. Several new results are presented. We find that stars that reach high above the Galactic plane and have eccentric orbits show remarkably tight abundance trends. This implies that these stars formed out of well-mixed gas that had been homogenized over large volumes. We find some evidence that suggest that the event that most likely caused the heating of this stellar population happened a few billion years ago. Through a simple, kinematic exploration of stars with super-solar [Fe/H], we show that the solar neighbourhood contains metal-rich, high velocity stars that are very likely associated with the thick disc. Additionally, the HR1614 moving group and the Hercules and Arcturus stellar streams are discussed and it is concluded that, probably, a large fraction of the groups and streams so far identified in the disc are the result of evolution and interactions within the stellar disc rather than being dissolved stellar clusters or engulfed dwarf galaxies.

  7. Formaldehyde in the Galactic Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.J.; Few, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Formaldehyde 6-cm absorption in the direction of the Galactic Centre has been surveyed using the Jodrell Bank MK II radio telescope (beam-width 10 x 9 arcmin). The observations sample the region - 2 0 = 0 and - 0 0 .5 = 0 .5, with a velocity range of 620 km s -1 , a velocity resolution of 2.1 km s -1 and an rms noise level of approximately 0.03 K. The data are presented as contour maps showing line temperature as a function of latitude and velocity (b-V maps) and as a function of longitude and velocity (l-V maps). Similar maps of the line-to-continuum ratio are also presented. The radial distribution of formaldehyde (H 2 CO) in the Galactic Centre region is derived using two different kinematic models which give similar results. Formaldehyde is strongly concentrated in the Galactic Centre in a layer of latitude extent approximately 0 0 .5 and longitude extent approximately 4 0 which contains one quarter of all the H 2 CO in the Galaxy. The distribution is centred on l approximately 1 0 . The individual H 2 CO features are described in detail. (author)

  8. Stellar dynamics and galactic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, G.; Kuijken, K.; Wyse, R.F.G.

    1989-01-01

    Solar neighbourhood observations have the unique capability of providing detailed study of the consequences of the early evolution of the Galaxy. Important examples of this capability include determination of the distribution of luminous and unseen mass in the Galaxy, and deduction of the rate of star formation and chemical evolution in the proto-Galaxy. We describe a new method to determine the distribution of mass in the Galactic disk. We reinvestigate determinations of the local volume mass density (the Oort limit) and show there to be serious internal inconsistencies in the available data. The most likely value for the local volume mass density, based on old stars and with kinematic models consistent with the age structure of the local disk is ∼ 0.1 solar mass pc -3 , though this value is still poorly determined. Thus, there is no significant evidence for any missing mass associated with the Galactic disk. We also reinvestigate observational data on the chemical abundances and kinematics of old stars in the Galaxy. The (Intermediate Population II) thick disk stars are most likely as old as the globular clusters, and kinematically distinct from the old disk. This favours models of thick disk origin involving a discrete disruptive event, such as the accretion of a satellite of the Galaxy early in the evolution of the Galactic disk. (author)

  9. Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium stellar spectroscopy with 1D and 3D models - II. Chemical properties of the Galactic metal-poor disk and the halo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergemann, Maria; Collet, Remo; Schönrich, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    We have analysed high-resolution spectra of 328 stars and derived Mg abundances using non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) spectral line formation calculations and plane-parallel model stellar atmospheres derived from the mean stratification of 3D hydrodynamical surface convection simulations...

  10. OT2_tvelusam_4: Probing Galactic Spiral Arm Tangencies with [CII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velusamy, T.

    2011-09-01

    We propose to use the unique viewing geometry of the Galactic spiral arm tangents , which provide an ideal environment for studying the effects of density waves on spiral structure. We propose a well-sampled map of the[C II] 1.9 THz line emission along a 15-degree longitude region across the Norma-3kpc arm tangential, which includes the edge of the Perseus Arm. The COBE-FIRAS instrument observed the strongest [C II] and [N II] emission along these spiral arm tangencies.. The Herschel Open Time Key Project Galactic Observations of Terahertz C+ (GOT C+), also detects the strongest [CII] emission near these spiral arm tangential directions in its sparsely sampled HIFI survey of [CII] in the Galactic plane survey. The [C II] 158-micron line is the strongest infrared line emitted by the ISM and is an excellent tracer and probe of both the diffuse gases in the cold neutral medium (CNM) and the warm ionized medium (WIM). Furthermore, as demonstrated in the GOTC+ results, [C II] is an efficient tracer of the dark H2 gas in the ISM that is not traced by CO or HI observations. Thus, taking advantage of the long path lengths through the spiral arm across the tangencies, we can use the [C II] emission to trace and characterize the diffuse atomic and ionized gas as well as the diffuse H2 molecular gas in cloud transitions from HI to H2 and C+ to C and CO, throughout the ISM. The main goal of our proposal is to use the well sampled (at arcmin scale) [C II] to study these gas components of the ISM in the spiral-arm, and inter-arm regions, to constrain models of the spiral structure and to understand the influence of spiral density waves on the Galactic gas and the dynamical interaction between the different components. The proposed HIFI observations will consist of OTF 15 degree longitude scans and one 2-degree latitude scan sampled every 40arcsec across the Norma- 3kpc Perseus Spiral tangency.

  11. Photoionization of the diffuse interstellar medium and galactic halo by OB associtations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, James B.; Shull, J. Michael

    1994-01-01

    Assuming smoothly varying H I distributions in te Galactic disk, we have calculated the geometry of diffuse II regions due to OB associations in the Galactic plane. Near the solar circle, OB associations with a Lyman continuum (Lyc) photon luminosity Psi(sub Lyc) = 3.3 x 10(exp 7) cm(exp -2) s(exp -1), produce H II regions that are density bounded in the vertical direction (H II chimneys) allowing Lyc to escape the gaseous disk and penetrate into the Galactic halo. We provide analytic formulae for the Lyc escape fraction as functions of S(sub 0) O-star catalog of Garmany and a new Lyc stellar stellar Lyc stellar flux calibration, we find a production rate of Lyc photons by OB associations within 2.5 kpc of Psi(sub Lyc) = 3.3 x 10(exp 7) cm(exp -2) s(exp -1). Integrating the fraction of Lyc photons that escape the disk over our adopted luminosity function of OB associations, we estimate that approximately 7% of the ionizing photons, or Phi(sub Lyc) = 2.3 x 10(exp 6) cm(exp -2) s(exp -1), escape each side of the H I disk layer and penetrate the diffuse ionized medium ('Reynolds layer'). This flux is sufficient to explain the potoionization of this, although we have not constructed a model for the observed H-alpha emission and pulsar dispersion measures that is fully consistent with the absorption rate of Lyc in the H II layer. Since our quiescent model does not account for the effects of dynamic chimneys and superbubbles, which should enhance Lyc escape, we conclude the O stars are the probable source of ionizing radiation for the Reynolds layer. For a random distribution of OB associations throughout the disk, the Lyc flux is nearly uniform for heights Z is greater than approximately 0.8 kpc above the midplane.

  12. Quasars and galactic evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Woltjer, L

    1978-01-01

    The evolution of quasars is discussed. It is noted that substantial clustering may be present at faint magnitudes. The relationship between quasar evolution and galactic evolution is considered. (4 refs).

  13. THE RADIUS-LUMINOSITY RELATIONSHIP FOR ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: THE EFFECT OF HOST-GALAXY STARLIGHT ON LUMINOSITY MEASUREMENTS. II. THE FULL SAMPLE OF REVERBERATION-MAPPED AGNs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Pogge, Richard W.; Netzer, Hagai; Vestergaard, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    We present high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope images of all 35 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with optical reverberation-mapping results, which we have modeled to create a nucleus-free image of each AGN host galaxy. From the nucleus-free images, we determine the host-galaxy contribution to ground-based spectroscopic luminosity measurements at 5100 A. After correcting the luminosities of the AGNs for the contribution from starlight, we re-examine the Hβ R BLR -L relationship. Our best fit for the relationship gives a power-law slope of 0.52 with a range of 0.45-0.59 allowed by the uncertainties. This is consistent with our previous findings, and thus still consistent with the naive assumption that all AGNs are simply luminosity-scaled versions of each other. We discuss various consistency checks relating to the galaxy modeling and starlight contributions, as well as possible systematic errors in the current set of reverberation measurements from which we determine the form of the R BLR -L relationship.

  14. Where Galactic Snakes Live

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows what astronomers are referring to as a 'snake' (upper left) and its surrounding stormy environment. The sinuous object is actually the core of a thick, sooty cloud large enough to swallow dozens of solar systems. In fact, astronomers say the 'snake's belly' may be harboring beastly stars in the process of forming. The galactic creepy crawler to the right of the snake is another thick cloud core, in which additional burgeoning massive stars might be lurking. The colorful regions below the two cloud cores are less dense cloud material, in which dust has been heated by starlight and glows with infrared light. Yellow and orange dots throughout the image are monstrous developing stars; the red star on the 'belly' of the snake is 20 to 50 times as massive as our sun. The blue dots are foreground stars. The red ball at the bottom left is a 'supernova remnant,' the remains of massive star that died in a fiery blast. Astronomers speculate that radiation and winds from the star before it died, in addition to a shock wave created when it exploded, might have played a role in creating the snake. Spitzer was able to spot the two black cloud cores using its heat-seeking infrared vision. The objects are hiding in the dusty plane of our Milky Way galaxy, invisible to optical telescopes. Because their heat, or infrared light, can sneak through the dust, they first showed up in infrared images from past missions. The cloud cores are so thick with dust that if you were to somehow transport yourself into the middle of them, you would see nothing but black, not even a star in the sky. Now, that's spooky! Spitzer's new view of the region provides the best look yet at the massive embryonic stars hiding inside the snake. Astronomers say these observations will ultimately help them better understand how massive stars form. By studying the clustering and range of masses of the stellar embryos, they hope to determine if the stars

  15. CHANDRA X-RAY AND HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING OF OPTICALLY SELECTED KILOPARSEC-SCALE BINARY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. HOST GALAXY MORPHOLOGY AND AGN ACTIVITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shangguan, Jinyi; Ho, Luis C.; Liu, Xin; Shen, Yue; Peng, Chien Y.; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Binary active galactic nuclei (AGNs) provide clues to how gas-rich mergers trigger and fuel AGNs and how supermassive black hole (SMBH) pairs evolve in a gas-rich environment. While significant effort has been invested in their identification, the detailed properties of binary AGNs and their host galaxies are still poorly constrained. In a companion paper, we examined the nature of ionizing sources in the double nuclei of four kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs with redshifts between 0.1 and 0.2. Here, we present their host galaxy morphology based on F336W ( U -band) and F105W ( Y -band) images taken by the Wide Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope . Our targets have double-peaked narrow emission lines and were confirmed to host binary AGNs with follow-up observations. We find that kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs occur in galaxy mergers with diverse morphological types. There are three major mergers with intermediate morphologies and a minor merger with a dominant disk component. We estimate the masses of the SMBHs from their host bulge stellar masses and obtain Eddington ratios for each AGN. Compared with a representative control sample drawn at the same redshift and stellar mass, the AGN luminosities and Eddington ratios of our binary AGNs are similar to those of single AGNs. The U − Y color maps indicate that clumpy star-forming regions could significantly affect the X-ray detection of binary AGNs, e.g., the hardness ratio. Considering the weak X-ray emission in AGNs triggered in merger systems, we suggest that samples of X-ray-selected AGNs may be biased against gas-rich mergers.

  16. Radiometric characterization of type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice (t2sl) midwave infrared photodetectors and focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Jean; Giard, E.; Delmas, M.; Rodriguez, J. B.; Christol, P.; Caes, M.; Martijn, H.; Costard, E.; Ribet-Mohamed, I.

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice (T2SL) has emerged as a new material technology suitable for high performance infrared (IR) detectors operating from Near InfraRed (NIR, 2-3μm) to Very Long Wavelength InfraRed (LWIR, λ > 15μm) wavelength domains. To compare their performances with well-established IR technologies such as MCT, InSb or QWIP cooled detectors, specific electrical and radiometric characterizations are needed: dark current, spectral response, quantum efficiency, temporal and spatial noises, stability… In this paper, we first present quantum efficiency measurements performed on T2SL MWIR (3-5μm) photodiodes and on one focal plane array (320x256 pixels with 30μm pitch, realized in the scope of a french collaboration ). Different T2SL structures (InAs-rich versus GaSb-rich) with the same cutoff wavelength (λc= 5μm at 80K) were studied. Results are analysed in term of carrier diffusion length in order to define the optimum thickness and type of doping of the absorbing zone. We then focus on the stability over time of a commercial T2SL FPA (320x256 pixels with 30μm pitch), measuring the commonly used residual fixed pattern noise (RFPN) figure of merit. Results are excellent, with a very stable behaviour over more than 3 weeks, and less than 10 flickering pixels, possibly giving access to long-term stability of IR absolute calibration.

  17. Spitzer Digs Up Galactic Fossil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2 This false-color image taken by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows a globular cluster previously hidden in the dusty plane of our Milky Way galaxy. Globular clusters are compact bundles of old stars that date back to the birth of our galaxy, 13 or so billion years ago. Astronomers use these galactic 'fossils' as tools for studying the age and formation of the Milky Way. Most clusters orbit around the center of the galaxy well above its dust-enshrouded disc, or plane, while making brief, repeated passes through the plane that each last about a million years. Spitzer, with infrared eyes that can see into the dusty galactic plane, first spotted the newfound cluster during its current pass. A visible-light image (inset of Figure 1) shows only a dark patch of sky. The red streak behind the core of the cluster is a dust cloud, which may indicate the cluster's interaction with the Milky Way. Alternatively, this cloud may lie coincidentally along Spitzer's line of sight. Follow-up observations with the University of Wyoming Infrared Observatory helped set the distance of the new cluster at about 9,000 light-years from Earth - closer than most clusters - and set the mass at the equivalent of 300,000 Suns. The cluster's apparent size, as viewed from Earth, is comparable to a grain of rice held at arm's length. It is located in the constellation Aquila. Astronomers believe that this cluster may be one of the last in our galaxy to be uncovered. This image composite was taken on April 21, 2004, by Spitzer's infrared array camera. It is composed of images obtained at four wavelengths: 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange) and 8 microns (red). Galactic Fossil Found Behind Curtain of Dust In Figure 2, the image mosaic shows the same patch of sky in various wavelengths of light. While the visible-light image (left) shows a dark sky speckled

  18. A SYSTEMATIC SEARCH FOR COROTATING INTERACTION REGIONS IN APPARENTLY SINGLE GALACTIC WOLF-RAYET STARS. II. A GLOBAL VIEW OF THE WIND VARIABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chene, A.-N.; St-Louis, N.

    2011-01-01

    This study is the second part of a survey searching for large-scale spectroscopic variability in apparently single Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars. In a previous paper (Paper I), we described and characterized the spectroscopic variability level of 25 WR stars observable from the northern hemisphere and found 3 new candidates presenting large-scale wind variability, potentially originating from large-scale structures named corotating interaction regions (CIRs). In this second paper, we discuss an additional 39 stars observable from the southern hemisphere. For each star in our sample, we obtained 4-5 high-resolution spectra with a signal-to-noise ratio of ∼100 and determined its variability level using the approach described in Paper I. In total, 10 new stars are found to show large-scale spectral variability of which 7 present CIR-type changes (WR 8, WR 44, WR55, WR 58, WR 61, WR 63, WR 100). Of the remaining stars, 20 were found to show small-amplitude changes and 9 were found to show no spectral variability as far as can be concluded from the data on hand. Also, we discuss the spectroscopic variability level of all single galactic WR stars that are brighter than v ∼ 12.5, and some WR stars with 12.5 < v ≤ 13.5, i.e., all the stars presented in our two papers and four more stars for which spectra have already been published in the literature. We find that 23/68 stars (33.8%) present large-scale variability, but only 12/54 stars (∼22.1%) are potentially of CIR type. Also, we find that 31/68 stars (45.6%) only show small-scale variability, most likely due to clumping in the wind. Finally, no spectral variability is detected based on the data on hand for 14/68 (20.6%) stars. Interestingly, the variability with the highest amplitude also has the widest mean velocity dispersion.

  19. EVIDENCE FOR ULTRA-FAST OUTFLOWS IN RADIO-QUIET ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. DETAILED PHOTOIONIZATION MODELING OF Fe K-SHELL ABSORPTION LINES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombesi, F.; Cappi, M.; Dadina, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Palumbo, G. G. C.; Braito, V.

    2011-01-01

    X-ray absorption line spectroscopy has recently shown evidence for previously unknown Ultra-fast Outflows (UFOs) in radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs). These have been detected essentially through blueshifted Fe XXV/XXVI K-shell transitions. In the previous paper of this series we defined UFOs as those highly ionized absorbers with an outflow velocity higher than 10,000 km s –1 and assessed the statistical significance of the associated blueshifted absorption lines in a large sample of 42 local radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton. The present paper is an extension of that work. First, we report a detailed curve of growth analysis of the main Fe XXV/XXVI transitions in photoionized plasmas. Then, we estimate an average spectral energy distribution for the sample sources and directly model the Fe K absorbers in the XMM-Newton spectra with the detailed Xstar photoionization code. We confirm that the frequency of sources in the radio-quiet sample showing UFOs is >35% and that the majority of the Fe K absorbers are indeed associated with UFOs. The outflow velocity distribution spans from ∼10,000 km s –1 (∼0.03c) up to ∼100,000 km s –1 (∼0.3c), with a peak and mean value of ∼42,000 km s –1 (∼0.14c). The ionization parameter is very high and in the range log ξ ∼ 3-6 erg s –1 cm, with a mean value of log ξ ∼ 4.2 erg s –1 cm. The associated column densities are also large, in the range N H ∼ 10 22 -10 24 cm –2 , with a mean value of N H ∼ 10 23 cm –2 . We discuss and estimate how selection effects, such as those related to the limited instrumental sensitivity at energies above 7 keV, may hamper the detection of even higher velocities and higher ionization absorbers. We argue that, overall, these results point to the presence of extremely ionized and possibly almost Compton-thick outflowing material in the innermost regions of AGNs. This also suggests that UFOs may potentially play a significant role in the expected

  20. Open Cluster Dynamics via Fundamental Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Cheng; Pang, Xiao-Ying

    2018-04-01

    Open clusters (OCs) are important objects for stellar dynamics studies. The short survival timescale of OCs makes them closely related to the formation of Galactic field stars. We motivate to investigate the dynamical evolution of OCs on the aspect of internal effect and the external influence. Firstly, we make use of the known OC catalog to obtain OCs masses, effective radii. Additionally, we estimate OCs kinematics properties by OC members cross-matched with radial velocity and metallicity from SDSSIV/APOGEE2. We then establish the fundamental plane of OCs based on the radial velocity dispersion, the effective radius, and average surface brightness. The deviation of the fundamental plane from the Virial Plane, so called the tilt, and the r.m.s. dispersion of OCs around the average plane are used to indicate the dynamical status of OCs. Parameters of the fitted plane will vary with cluster age and distance.

  1. Far infrared observations of the galactic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatley, I.

    1977-01-01

    Maps of a region 10' in diameter around the galactic center made simultaneously in three wavelength bands at 30 μm, 50 μm, and 100 μm with approximately 1' resolution are presented, and the distribution of far infrared luminosity and color temperature across this region is derived. The position of highest far infrared surface brightness coincides with the peak of the late-type stellar distribution and with the H II region Sgr A West. The high spatial and temperature resolution of the data is used to identify features of the far infrared maps with known sources of near infrared, radio continuum, and molecular emission. The emission mechanism and energy sources for the far infrared radiation are anslyzed qualitatively, and it is concluded that all of the observed far infrared radiation from the galactic center region can be attributed to thermal emission from dust heated both by the late-type stars and by the ultraviolet sources which ionize the H II regions. A self-consistent model for the far infrared emission from the galactic center region is presented. It is found that the visual extinction across the central 10 pc of the galaxy is only about 3 magnitudes, and that the dust density is fairly uniform in this region. An upper limit of 10 7 L/sub mass/ is set on the luminosity of any presently unidentified source of 0.1 to 1 μm radiation at the galactic center. Additional maps in the vicinity of the source Sgr B2 and observations of Sgr C bring the total number of H II regions within 1 0 of the galactic center studied by the present experiment to nine. The far infrared luminosity, color temperature and optical depth of these regions and the ratio of infrared flux to radio continuum flux lie in the range characteristic of spiral arm H II regions. The far infrared results are therefore consistent with the data that the galactic center H II regions are ionized by luminous, early type stars

  2. IPHAS: Surveying the North Galactic Plane in H-alpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drew, J.E.; Groot, P.J.; Morales-Rueda, L.; Roelofs, G.H.A.

    2005-01-01

    H-alpha emission is ubiquitous in our Galaxy. It traces ionised gas of assorted nebulae such as HII regions, planetary nebulae, Wolf-Rayet nebulae, and supernova remnants. It is a strong signature of active stars, interacting binaries, very massive stars (especially supergiants, Luminous Blue

  3. The large scale infrared emission in the galactic plane - observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, H.

    1981-01-01

    Infrared radiation is deeply involved in a variety of matters and processes in the galaxy. Near infrared radiation is predominantly emitted by late type stars which include the major part of the mass in the Galaxy and hence govern its dynamics. Short wavelength radiation (UV and visible) emitted from early type stars is easily absorbed by dust around the stars themselves or by interstellar dust, and reemitted in middle or far infrared regions. A variety of emission lines, fine structure lines of neutral and ionized heavy elements, as well as many molecular lines are also clustered in the middle and far infrared regions. Since their line intensities are generally very weak, and, moreover, spectroscopic observations demand relatively difficult techniques in their detection, the surveys so far done have been limited mostly to continuum emission. This article compiles them and discusses briefly their implications to the structure of the Galaxy in its inner region. (Auth.)

  4. A possible explanation for the origin of the magnetic fields in the galactic spiral arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagge, E.

    1975-04-01

    A theory for the movement of the interstellar gas under the influence of the gravitational field in the neighbourhood of the galactic arms is developped. If this gas bears electric charges of one sign (ωsub(e) approximately 3,000 electrons/gramm) a system of electric currents is produced by the relative velocity of the galactic gas and the spiral arms for which the streamlines are concentrated a little more to the galactic plane than above and below of it. By this way a large spaced magnetic field along the galactic arms is generated with opposite directions of the magnetic field vectors on the two sides of the galactic plane. (orig.) [de

  5. Is there dust in galactic haloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, J.M.; Ferrini, F.; Pisa Univ.; Barsella, B.; Aiello, S.

    1987-01-01

    The ubiquitous presence of dust within the disks of spiral galaxies is well established. The authors predict that the presence of dust in these regions may be revealed in bright edge-on galaxies, especially by using the polarization of the scattered light from the symmetric lanes. The detection of scattered light above the galactic plane may be an indicator that the parent galaxy has not suffered close encounters with other galaxies at least within the timescale required to establish the dust layers. (author)

  6. Imprints to the terrestrial environment at galactic arm crossings of the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahr, H. J.; Fichtner, H.; Scherer, K.; Stawicki, O.

    At its itinerary through our milky way galaxy the solar system moves through highly variable interstellar environments. Due to its orbital revolution around the galactic center, the solar system also crosses periodically the spiral arms of our galactic plane and thereby expe riences pronounced enviromental changes. Gas densities, magnetic fields and galactic cosmic ray intensities are substantially higher there compared to interarm conditions. Here we present theoretical calculations describing the SN-averaged galactic cosmic ray spectrum for regions inside and outside of galactic arms which then allow to predict how periodic passages of the solar system through galactic arms should be reflected by enhanced particle irradiations of the earth`s atmosphere and by correlated terrestrial Be-10 production rates.

  7. THE INNER GALACTIC BULGE: EVIDENCE FOR A NUCLEAR BAR?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhard, Ortwin; Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma

    2012-01-01

    Recent data from the VVV survey have strengthened evidence for a structural change in the Galactic bulge inward of |l| ≤ 4°. Here we show with an N-body barred galaxy simulation that a boxy bulge formed through the bar and buckling instabilities effortlessly matches measured bulge longitude profiles for red clump stars. The same simulation snapshot was earlier used to clarify the apparent boxy bulge—long bar dichotomy, for the same orientation and scaling. The change in the slope of the model longitude profiles in the inner few degrees is caused by a transition from highly elongated to more nearly axisymmetric isodensity contours in the inner boxy bulge. This transition is confined to a few degrees from the Galactic plane; thus the change of slope is predicted to disappear at higher Galactic latitudes. We also show that the nuclear star count map derived from this simulation snapshot displays a longitudinal asymmetry similar to that observed in the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) data, but is less flattened to the Galactic plane than the 2MASS map. These results support the interpretation that the Galactic bulge originated from disk evolution and question the evidence advanced from star count data for the existence of a secondary nuclear bar in the Milky Way.

  8. Detection of extended galactic sources with an underwater neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leisos, A.; Tsirigotis, A. G.; Tzamarias, S. E.; Lenis, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigate the discovery capability of a Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescope to Galactic extended sources. We focus on the brightest HESS gamma rays sources which are considered also as very high energy neutrino emitters. We use the unbinned method taking into account both the spatial and the energy distribution of high energy neutrinos and we investigate parts of the Galactic plane where nearby potential neutrino emitters form neutrino source clusters. Neutrino source clusters as well as isolated neutrino sources are combined to estimate the observation period for 5 sigma discovery of neutrino signals from these objects

  9. Galactic supernova remnants: radio evolution and population characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caswell, J.L.; Lerche, I.

    1979-01-01

    Shell SNRs show a systematic gradient of radio surface brightness normal to the galactic plane, and a measured scale height for this effect has been obtained. The progenitor distribution and birth rate are significantly modified when allowance is made for the effect. The galactic height dependence of radio surface brightness satisfactorily accounts for the otherwise anomalous high-latitude SNR AD1006. It also provides a crucial clue to the origin of the radio emission, suggesting that the interstellar magnetic field is dominant over internally generated fields in shell SNRs. The same conclusion is reached from a consideration of the cumulative number count of shell SNRs

  10. Modeling galactic extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Cecchi-Pestellini, C.; Mulas, G.; Casu, S.; Iatì, M. A.; Saija, R.; Cacciola, A.; Borghese, F.; Denti, P.

    2011-01-01

    We present a model for interstellar extinction dust, in which we assume a bimodal distribution of extinction carriers, a dispersion of core-mantle grains, supplemented by a collection of PAHs in free molecular form. We use state-of-the-art methods to calculate the extinction due to macroscopic dust particles, and the absorption cross-sections of PAHs in four different charge states. While successfull for most of observed Galactic extinction curves, in few cases the model cannot provide reliab...

  11. Wolf-Rayet stars and galactic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenholm, B.

    1975-01-01

    A 15 0 wide strip along the galactic equator between longitudes 250 0 and 360 0 has been searched for Wolf-Rayet stars. Six new WR stars and four new planetary nebulae have been found. Seven stars earlier listed as WR stars have been rejected as such. The new WR stars in the 'Luminous Stars in the Southern Milky Way' are discussed. A sample of 154 WR stars has been treated statistically. For the distribution in longitude, comparisons are made with OB stars and classical cepheids. The differences in distribution are thought to be an age effect. An effort to explain the empty interval towards the anticentre is made. The distribution in latitude is compared with young clusters and long-period cepheids. The physical plane formed by these objects is tilted about one degree to the galactic plane and the tilt is upwards in the Cygnus direction. This result is also received by a least squares solution of the objects when given in rectangular coordinates. The WR star sample is regarded as fairly complete up to a distance of 5 kpc. (orig.) [de

  12. Kinematics of HI near the galactic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, R.P.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a survey of 21-cm line emission in the Milky Way Galaxy from 338. 0 5 through 360 0 to 11 0 longitude and from -2 0 to +2 0 latitude are presented. The latitude coverage is complete over this range for a given longitude. Points are observed at an interval of 15 arcmin (0.7 beamwidth). The longitude coverage is complete between 1 = 357 0 and 1 = 3 0 . Outside this range points have been observed at intervals of 0. 0 5 in longitude. The symmetry properties of the distribution of HI in the region around the galactic center have been explored. Inside a radius of 1 kpc the HI appears to be distributed in the shape of an elongated non-circular slowly rotating disk which is inclined to the galactic equator. This disk is separate from the general galactic disk of HI. In the central disk the density of HI decreases steeply as the distance from the center increases. The density of HI in the annular space between the central disk and the general galactic disk is very low. The velocity dispersion of the HI distribution in the central elongated disk is of the order of 100 km/s. The isovelocity contours on the longitude-latitude plane of the HI associated with this elongated central disk have the characteristic shape such that the angle between the minor axis and the zero-Doppler velocity contour is different than zero. Such a phenomenon has been observed in the central regions of elliptical galaxies and has been attributed to the triaxial nature of the mass distribution

  13. Relations between the galactic evolution and the stellar evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouze, J.

    1984-01-01

    After a quick definition of the galactic evolution and a summary of the basic ingredients (namely the abundances of the chemical elements observed in different astrophysical sites), the parameters directly related to the stellar evolution which govern the galactic evolution are outlined. They are the rates of star formation, the initial mass functions and the various nucleosynthetic yields. The 'classical' models of chemical evolution of galaxies are then briefly recalled. Finally, attention is drawn to three recent contributions concerning both the galactic evolution and the stellar evolution. They are (i) some prediction of the rate of star formation for low mass stars made from the planetary nebula abundance distribution (ii) the chemical evolution of C, O and Fe and (iii) the chemical evolution of the galactic interstellar medium. (Auth.)

  14. Transition from galactic to extra-galactic cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloisio, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we review the main features of the observed Cosmic Rays spectrum in the energy range 10 17 eV to 10 20 eV. We present a theoretical model that explains the main observed features of the spectrum, namely the second Knee and Dip, and implies a transition from Galactic to Extra-Galactic cosmic rays at energy E ≅ 10 18 eV, with a proton dominated Extra-Galactic spectrum

  15. Identification of Hard X-ray Sources in Galactic Globular Clusters: Simbol-X Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servillat, M.

    2009-05-01

    Globular clusters harbour an excess of X-ray sources compared to the number of X-ray sources in the Galactic plane. It has been proposed that many of these X-ray sources are cataclysmic variables that have an intermediate magnetic field, i.e. intermediate polars, which remains to be confirmed and understood. We present here several methods to identify intermediate polars in globular clusters from multiwavelength analysis. First, we report on XMM-Newton, Chandra and HST observations of the very dense Galactic globular cluster NGC 2808. By comparing UV and X-ray properties of the cataclysmic variable candidates, the fraction of intermediate polars in this cluster can be estimated. We also present the optical spectra of two cataclysmic variables in the globular cluster M 22. The HeII (4868 Å) emission line in these spectra could be related to the presence of a magnetic field in these objects. Simulations of Simbol-X observations indicate that the angular resolution is sufficient to study X-ray sources in the core of close, less dense globular clusters, such as M 22. The sensitivity of Simbol-X in an extended energy band up to 80 keV will allow us to discriminate between hard X-ray sources (such as magnetic cataclysmic variables) and soft X-ray sources (such as chromospherically active binaries).

  16. Finding evolved stars in the inner Galactic disk with Gaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga-Nuñez, L. H.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Pihlström, Y. M.; Sjouwerman, L. O.; Brown, A. G. A.

    2018-04-01

    The Bulge Asymmetries and Dynamical Evolution (BAaDE) survey will provide positions and line-of-sight velocities of ~20, 000 evolved, maser bearing stars in the Galactic plane. Although this Galactic region is affected by optical extinction, BAaDE targets may have Gaia cross-matches, eventually providing additional stellar information. In an initial attempt to cross-match BAaDE targets with Gaia, we have found more than 5,000 candidates. Of these, we may expect half to show SiO emission, which will allow us to obtain velocity information. The cross-match is being refined to avoid false positives using different criteria based on distance analysis, flux variability, and color assessment in the mid- and near-IR. Once the cross-matches can be confirmed, we will have a unique sample to characterize the stellar population of evolved stars in the Galactic bulge, which can be considered fossils of the Milky Way formation.

  17. COBE diffuse infrared background experiment observations of the galactic bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, J. L.; Arendt, R. G.; Berriman, G. B.; Dwek, E.; Freudenreich, H. T.; Hauser, M. G.; Kelsall, T.; Lisse, C. M.; Mitra, M.; Moseley, S. H.

    1994-01-01

    Low angular resolution maps of the Galactic bulge at 1.25, 2.2, 3.5, and 4.9 micrometers obtained by the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) onboard NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) are presented. After correction for extinction and subtraction of an empirical model for the Galactic disk, the surface brightness distribution of the bulge resembles a flattened ellipse with a minor-to-major axis ratio of approximately 0.6. The bulge minor axis scale height is found to be 2.1 deg +/- 0.2 deg for all four near-infrared wavelengths. Asymmetries in the longitudinal distribution of bulge brightness contours are qualitatively consistent with those expected for a triaxial bar with its near end in the first Galactic quadrant (0 deg less than l less than 90 deg). There is no evidence for an out-of-plane tilt of such a bar.

  18. Active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Blandford, RD; Woltjer, L

    1990-01-01

    Starting with this volume, the Lecture Notes of the renowned Advanced Courses of the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy will be published annually. In each course, three extensive lectures given by leading experts in their respective fields cover different and essential aspects of the subject. The 20th course, held at Les Diablerets in April 1990, dealt with current research on active galactic nuclei; it represents the most up-to-date views on the subject, presented with particular regard for clarity. The previous courses considered a wide variety of subjects, beginning with ""Theory

  19. Galactic origin of cosmic rays II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    The CR acceleration due to shocks in the ISM depends upon multiple crossings approx. = c/3 v/sub Alfven/ approx. = 10 4 per e-fold energy gain. The up-stream scattering required to produce this barrier is Alfven wave turbulence. When the ratio (CR pressure)/(B 2 /8π) identical = β > 1, the streaming velocity theoretically and observationally becomes >> v/sub Alfven/ and, hence, no effective up-stream barrier is likely to exist. If all ISM shock acceleration is limited to β approx. 10 13 to 10 14 eV. It is usually assumed that the energy dependent escape from the Galaxy E approx. > 10 15 eV produces a steeper spectrum from 10 15 to 10 18 eV. Above this energy SN's in all galaxies fill the meta galaxy with CR's with a flatter slope. Conversely, an external source that attempts to fill the Galaxy from the outside must have a still steeper spectrum ΔGAMMA approx. = -.75 to penetrate the diffusive barrier of our galaxy yet maintain the observed slope. This is unlikely since the energy density at 10 15 eV in the meta galaxy would be between 10 -1 to 10 -2 of CR's in this galaxy or of the order of 10 3 of the energy density of particles and fields in the IGM

  20. Sagittarius A* High-energy X-Ray Flare Properties during NuStar Monitoring of the Galactic Center from 2012 to 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuo; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Ponti, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the origin of the flaring activity from the Galactic center supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* is a major scientific goal of the NuSTAR Galactic plane survey campaign. We report on the data obtained between 2012 July and 2015 April, including 27 observations on Sgr A*, with a to......Understanding the origin of the flaring activity from the Galactic center supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* is a major scientific goal of the NuSTAR Galactic plane survey campaign. We report on the data obtained between 2012 July and 2015 April, including 27 observations on Sgr A...

  1. Some observational aspects of compact galactic X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heise, J.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis contains the following observations of compact galactic X-ray sources: i) the X-ray experiments onboard the Astronomical Netherlands Satellite ANS, ii) a rocket-borne ultra soft X-ray experiment and iii) the Objective Grating Spectrometer onboard the EINSTEIN observatory. In Chapter I the various types of compact galactic X-ray sources are reviewed and put into the perspective of earlier and following observations. In Chapter II the author presents some of the observations of high luminosity X-ray sources, made with ANS, including the detection of soft X-rays from the compact X-ray binary Hercules X-1 and the ''return to the high state'' of the black hole candidate Cygnus X-1. Chapter III deals with transient X-ray phenomena. Results on low luminosity galactic X-ray sources are collected in Chapter IV. (Auth.)

  2. Elusive active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiolino, R.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Nagar, N. M.; Bianchi, S.; Böker, T.; Colbert, E.; Krabbe, A.; Marconi, A.; Matt, G.; Salvati, M.

    2003-10-01

    A fraction of active galactic nuclei do not show the classical Seyfert-type signatures in their optical spectra, i.e. they are optically `elusive'. X-ray observations are an optimal tool to identify this class of objects. We combine new Chandra observations with archival X-ray data in order to obtain a first estimate of the fraction of elusive active galactic nuclei (AGN) in local galaxies and to constrain their nature. Our results suggest that elusive AGN have a local density comparable to or even higher than optically classified Seyfert nuclei. Most elusive AGN are heavily absorbed in the X-rays, with gas column densities exceeding 1024 cm-2, suggesting that their peculiar nature is associated with obscuration. It is likely that in elusive AGN the nuclear UV source is completely embedded and the ionizing photons cannot escape, which prevents the formation of a classical narrow-line region. Elusive AGN may contribute significantly to the 30-keV bump of the X-ray background.

  3. Refining the fundamental plane of accreting black holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Körding, E.; Falcke, H.D.E.; Corbel, S.; K�rding, E.

    2006-01-01

    Context: .The idea of a unified description of supermassive and stellar black holes has been supported by the extension of the empirical radio/X-ray correlation from X-ray binaries to active galactic nuclei through the inclusion of a mass term. This has lead to the so-called fundamental plane of

  4. Galactic chemical evolution: perspectives and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimble, V.

    1987-01-01

    The first modern, quantitative models of galactic chemical evolution appeared exactly 20 years ago in the PhD dissertation of the late Beatrice M. Tinsley. Such models represent a synthesis of the behavior of the 10 11 or more stars that form over the 10 10 year age of a galaxy like their Milky Way and are vital both for understanding how and why galaxies have the luminosities, colors, and chemical compositions they see now and for interpreting observations of distant galaxies to answer cosmological questions about the size, age, density, inhomogeneities, and geometry of the universe. Since my last status report on the subject, some issues have become much clearer (the distinctness of nucleosynthesis in Type I, low mass, supernovae, from that in Type II's that make pulsars; the importance of galaxy mergers and interactions in triggering bursts of star formation), while others have remained puzzling (the sites of the r and p processes) or newly-surfaced (the nucleosynthetic contributions of pre-galactic massive objects; the nature and roll of dark matter in galaxies). The talk will touch briefly on the past, present, and future of galactic evolution studies

  5. A new non-thermal galactic radio source with a possible binary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuerst, E.; Reich, W.; Reich, P.; Sofue, Y.; Handa, T.

    1985-01-01

    A galactic object [G18.95-1.1], detected recently in a galactic plane survey, may belong to a new class of non-thermal radio sources that originate in accreting binary systems. The data on integrated flux density spectral index and the polarization, proves the non-thermal nature of the source. The morphology defies any classification as a supernova remnant. The authors suggest that the object is a binary system containing a compact component. (U.K.)

  6. Investigation of in-plane biaxial low cycle fatigued austenitic stainless steel AISI 321. II. Neutron diffraction stress analysis at the IBR-2 pulsed nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taran, Yu.V.; Balagurov, A.M.; Sheverev, S.G.; ); Schreiber, J.; Bomas, H.; Korsunsky, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The in-plane biaxial low cycle fatigued sample of the cruciform geometry from austenitic stainless steel AISI 321 was investigated on the time-of-flight neutron Fourier stress-diffractometer. The lattice parameters in the austenite matrix and the martensite inclusions created during the fatigue cycling as well as the martensite volume fraction were measured along two mutually perpendicular planar axes of the sample of the cruciform geometry by using the strain neutron scanner. The phase total residual strain components were calculated using the stress equilibrium relations. The separation of the residual stresses into macro- and microstresses was performed using the mixture rule. The measurements of the applied load-phase elastic strain responses were carried out on a uniaxial load machine. The strong difference between the phase elastic moduli was found out

  7. Limits for an inverse bremsstrahlung origin of the diffuse Galactic soft gamma-ray emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohl, M.

    1998-01-01

    origin of the soft Galactic gamma-ray continuum through inverse bremsstrahlung. A flux of low-energy cosmic rays strong enough to produce the observed spectrum of gamma-rays implies substantial gamma-ray emission at a few MeV through nuclear de-excitation. It is shown that the existing limits on excess 3......-7 MeV emission from the Galactic plane, in concert with the constraints from pi(0)-decay gamma-ray emission at higher energies, are in serious conflict with an inverse bremsstrahlung origin of the Galactic soft gamma-ray emission for any physically plausible low-energy cosmic ray spectrum. While...

  8. Galactic population of pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyne, A.G.; Manchester, R.N.

    1985-01-01

    In order to draw statistical conclusions about the overall population of pulsars in the Galaxy, a sample of 316 pulsars detected in surveys carried out at Jodrell Bank, Arecibo, Molonglo, and Green Bank has been analysed. The important selection effects of each survey are quantified and a statistically reliable pulsar distance scale based on a model for the large-scale distribution of free electrons in the Galaxy is described. These results allow the spatial and luminosity distribution functions of galactic pulsars to be computed. It is concluded that the Galaxy contains approximately 70 000 potentially observable pulsars with luminosities above 0.3 mJy kpc 2 . The period and luminosity evolution of pulsars, is also considered. (author)

  9. La Gestión de la colección en las bibliotecas universitarias españolas. Planes y normativas (II: la adquisición

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera-Morillas, Jose Luis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the second part of an investigative work dedicated to study collection management in Spanish university libraries through an analysis of the plans and regulations elaborated by these libraries. The first part was entitled: Collection management in Spanish university libraries. Plans and regulations (I: selection. In the present work thirty texts are studied which regulate the acquisition of information resources at Spanish university libraries. These documents describe acquisitions as part of collection management and special attention is focused on their structure and contents, as well as on their concept and objectives. Secondly the study delves into the acquisitions procedure. It appears differentiated from selection, but at the same time, related to it. It is structured and standardized, and includes donations. Although principally linked to print publications, the results nonetheless are presented within the context of a hybrid library.Este artículo recoge la segunda parte del trabajo de investigación dedicado al estudio de la gestión de la colección en las bibliotecas universitarias españolas a partir del análisis de los planes y normativas elaborados por estas bibliotecas. La primera parte se tituló: La gestión de la colección en las bibliotecas universitarias españolas. Planes y normativas (I: la selección. Ahora se estudian treinta textos que regulan la adquisición de recursos de información en las bibliotecas universitarias españolas. Se describe la adquisición como parte de la gestión de la colección según se recoge en los documentos; prestando especial atención a la estructura y contenidos de los documentos, a su concepto y objetivos. En segundo lugar, se profundiza en cómo se plantea el procedimiento de la adquisición: aparece como un proceso diferenciado y a la vez relacionado con el de la selección, estructurado y normalizado, que presta atención a las donaciones y notablemente

  10. Planck 2013 results. XIII. Galactic CO emission

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Alves, M.I.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J. -P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J. -F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R. -R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L. -Y; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J. -M.; Dempsey, J.T.; Desert, F. -X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enblin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Fukui, Y.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Handa, T.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hily-Blant, P.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J. -M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M. -A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Moore, T.J.T.; Morgante, G.; Morino, J.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Nakajima, T.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Okuda, T.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Preezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J. -L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J. -L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Sygnet, J. -F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Thomas, H.S.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Torii, K.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yoda, H. Yamamoto T.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-10-29

    Rotational transition lines of CO play a major role in molecular radio astronomy and in particular in the study of star formation and the Galactic structure. Although a wealth of data exists in the Galactic plane and some well-known molecular clouds, there is no available CO high sensitivity all-sky survey to date. Such all-sky surveys can be constructed using the \\Planck\\ HFI data because the three lowest CO rotational transition lines at 115, 230 and 345 GHz significantly contribute to the signal of the 100, 217 and 353 GHz HFI channels respectively. Two different component separation methods are used to extract the CO maps from Planck HFI data. The maps obtained are then compared to one another and to existing external CO surveys. From these quality checks the best CO maps in terms of signal to noise and/or residual foreground contamination are selected. Three sets of velocity-integrated CO emission maps are produced: Type 1 maps of the CO (1-0), (2-1), and (3-2) rotational transitions with low foreground ...

  11. Nanostructured carbon films with oriented graphitic planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teo, E. H. T.; Kalish, R.; Kulik, J.; Kauffmann, Y.; Lifshitz, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Nanostructured carbon films with oriented graphitic planes can be deposited by applying energetic carbon bombardment. The present work shows the possibility of structuring graphitic planes perpendicular to the substrate in following two distinct ways: (i) applying sufficiently large carbon energies for deposition at room temperature (E>10 keV), (ii) utilizing much lower energies for deposition at elevated substrate temperatures (T>200 deg. C). High resolution transmission electron microscopy is used to probe the graphitic planes. The alignment achieved at elevated temperatures does not depend on the deposition angle. The data provides insight into the mechanisms leading to the growth of oriented graphitic planes under different conditions.

  12. A polarized fast radio burst at low Galactic latitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroff, E.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Keane, E. F.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Miller, R.; Andreoni, I.; Bailes, M.; Barr, E. D.; Bernard, S. R.; Bhandari, S.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Burgay, M.; Caleb, M.; Champion, D.; Chandra, P.; Cooke, J.; Dhillon, V. S.; Farnes, J. S.; Hardy, L. K.; Jaroenjittichai, P.; Johnston, S.; Kasliwal, M.; Kramer, M.; Littlefair, S. P.; Macquart, J. P.; Mickaliger, M.; Possenti, A.; Pritchard, T.; Ravi, V.; Rest, A.; Rowlinson, A.; Sawangwit, U.; Stappers, B.; Sullivan, M.; Tiburzi, C.; van Straten, W.; ANTARES Collaboration; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Deschamps, A.; de Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; di Palma, I.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Glotin, H.; Grégoire, T.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Mathieu, A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Pǎvǎlaş, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Roensch, K.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schnabel, J.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; van Elewyck, V.; Vivolo, D.; Vizzoca, A.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abdalla, H.; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Andersson, T.; Angüner, E. O.; Arrieta, M.; Aubert, P.; Backes, M.; Balzer, A.; Barnard, M.; Becherini, Y.; Tjus, J. Becker; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Blackwell, R.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Bulik, T.; Capasso, M.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chen, A.; Chevalier, J.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Condon, B.; Conrad, J.; Cui, Y.; Davids, I. D.; Decock, J.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Devin, J.; Dewilt, P.; Dirson, L.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O'c.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Eschbach, S.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Funk, S.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Goyal, A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, J.; Haupt, M.; Hawkes, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hoischen, C.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, D.; Jankowsky, F.; Jingo, M.; Jogler, T.; Jouvin, L.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Kerszberg, D.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; King, J.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Kraus, M.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lau, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Leser, E.; Lohse, T.; Lorentz, M.; Liu, R.; López-Coto, R.; Lypova, I.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Mariaud, C.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; Meintjes, P. J.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Mohrmann, L.; Morâ, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; de Naurois, M.; Niederwanger, F.; Niemiec, J.; Oakes, L.; O'Brien, P.; Odaka, H.; Öttl, S.; Ohm, S.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Padovani, M.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perennes, C.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Piel, Q.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Prokhorov, D.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; Reyes, R. De Los; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Sasaki, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schulz, A.; Schüssler, F.; Schwanke, U.; Schwemmer, S.; Settimo, M.; Seyffert, A. S.; Shafi, N.; Shilon, I.; Simoni, R.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tibaldo, L.; Tiziani, D.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Tuffs, R.; Uchiyama, Y.; Walt, D. J. Van Der; van Eldik, C.; van Rensburg, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Voisin, F.; Völk, H. J.; Vuillaume, T.; Wadiasingh, Z.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zanin, R.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zefi, F.; Ziegler, A.; Żywucka, N.

    2017-08-01

    We report on the discovery of a new fast radio burst (FRB), FRB 150215, with the Parkes radio telescope on 2015 February 15. The burst was detected in real time with a dispersion measure (DM) of 1105.6 ± 0.8 pc cm-3, a pulse duration of 2.8^{+1.2}_{-0.5} ms, and a measured peak flux density assuming that the burst was at beam centre of 0.7^{+0.2}_{-0.1} Jy. The FRB originated at a Galactic longitude and latitude of 24.66°, 5.28° and 25° away from the Galactic Center. The burst was found to be 43 ± 5 per cent linearly polarized with a rotation measure (RM) in the range -9 < RM < 12 rad m-2 (95 per cent confidence level), consistent with zero. The burst was followed up with 11 telescopes to search for radio, optical, X-ray, γ-ray and neutrino emission. Neither transient nor variable emission was found to be associated with the burst and no repeat pulses have been observed in 17.25 h of observing. The sightline to the burst is close to the Galactic plane and the observed physical properties of FRB 150215 demonstrate the existence of sight lines of anomalously low RM for a given electron column density. The Galactic RM foreground may approach a null value due to magnetic field reversals along the line of sight, a decreased total electron column density from the Milky Way, or some combination of these effects. A lower Galactic DM contribution might explain why this burst was detectable whereas previous searches at low latitude have had lower detection rates than those out of the plane.

  13. THE DEMOGRAPHICS OF BROAD-LINE QUASARS IN THE MASS-LUMINOSITY PLANE. II. BLACK HOLE MASS AND EDDINGTON RATIO FUNCTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Brandon C. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93107 (United States); Shen, Yue [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-02-10

    We employ a flexible Bayesian technique to estimate the black hole (BH) mass and Eddington ratio functions for Type 1 (i.e., broad line) quasars from a uniformly selected data set of {approx}58, 000 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7. We find that the SDSS becomes significantly incomplete at M {sub BH} {approx}< 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M {sub Sun} or L/L {sub Edd} {approx}< 0.07, and that the number densities of Type 1 quasars continue to increase down to these limits. Both the mass and Eddington ratio functions show evidence of downsizing, with the most massive and highest Eddington ratio BHs experiencing Type 1 quasar phases first, although the Eddington ratio number densities are flat at z < 2. We estimate the maximum Eddington ratio of Type 1 quasars in the observable universe to be L/L {sub Edd} {approx} 3. Consistent with our results in Shen and Kelly, we do not find statistical evidence for a so-called sub-Eddington boundary in the mass-luminosity plane of broad-line quasars, and demonstrate that such an apparent boundary in the observed distribution can be caused by selection effect and errors in virial BH mass estimates. Based on the typical Eddington ratio in a given mass bin, we estimate growth times for the BHs in Type 1 quasars and find that they are comparable to or longer than the age of the universe, implying an earlier phase of accelerated (i.e., with higher Eddington ratios) and possibly obscured growth. The large masses probed by our sample imply that most of our BHs reside in what are locally early-type galaxies, and we interpret our results within the context of models of self-regulated BH growth.

  14. Probing the Outflowing Multiphase Gas ∼1 kpc below the Galactic Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, Blair D.; Kim, Tae-Sun; Wakker, Bart P. [Department of astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Fox, Andrew J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21218 (United States); Massa, Derck [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Bordoloi, Rongmon [MIT-Kavli Center for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Jenkins, Edward B. [Princeton University Observatory, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Lehner, Nicolas [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Bland-Hawthorn, Joss [Institute of Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Lockman, Felix J. [Green Bank Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); Hernandez, Svea [Department of Astrophysics, Radboud University, Nijmegen, PO Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2017-10-01

    Comparison of interstellar medium (ISM) absorption in the UV spectrum of LS 4825, a B1 Ib−II star d  = 21 ± 5 kpc from the Sun toward l  = 1.°67 and b  = −6.°63, with ISM absorption toward an aligned foreground star at d  < 7.0 ± 1.7 kpc, allows us to isolate and study gas associated with the Milky Way nuclear wind. Spectra from the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph show low-ionization absorption out to d  < 7 kpc (e.g., O i, C ii, Mg ii, Si ii, Fe ii, S ii) only between 0 and 40 km s{sup −1}, while absorption at d  > 7 kpc, ∼1 kpc below the Galactic plane, is complex and spans −290 to +94 km s{sup −1}. The intermediate and high ions Si iii, C iv, Si iv, and N v show extremely strong absorption with multiple components from −283 to 107 km s{sup −1}, implying that the ISM ∼1 kpc below the Galactic center has a substantial reservoir of plasma and more gas containing C iv and N v than in the Carina OB1 association at z  = 0 kpc. Abundances and physical conditions are presented for many absorption components. The high ion absorption traces cooling transition temperature plasma probably driven by the outflowing hot gas, while the extraordinarily large thermal pressure, p / k  ∼ 10{sup 5} cm{sup −3} K{sup −1}, in an absorption component at −114 km s{sup −1} probably arises from the ram pressure of the outflowing hot gas. The observations are consistent with a flow whose ionization structure in the high ions can be understood through a combination of nonequilibrium radiative cooling and turbulent mixing.

  15. New High Proper Motion Stars from the Digitized Sky Survey. II. Northern Stars with 0.5" yr-1 < μ < 2.0" yr-1 at High Galactic Latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépine, Sébastien; Shara, Michael M.; Rich, R. Michael

    2003-08-01

    In a continuation of our systematic search for high proper motion stars in the Digitized Sky Survey, we have completed the analysis of northern sky fields at Galactic latitudes above 25°. With the help of our SUPERBLINK software, a powerful automated blink comparator developed by us, we have identified 1146 stars in the magnitude range 8data mining of the Digitized Sky Survey, developed and operated by the Catalogs and Surveys Branch of the Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore.

  16. Characterization of DECam focal plane detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, H.Thomas; Angstadt, Robert; Campa, Julia; Cease, Herman; Derylo, Greg; Emes, John H.; Estrada, Juan; Kibik, Donna; Flaugher, Brenna L.; Holland, Steve E.; Jonas, Michelle; /Fermilab /Madrid, CIEMAT /LBL, Berkeley /Argonne /Pennsylvania U.

    2008-06-01

    DECam is a 520 Mpix, 3 square-deg FOV imager being built for the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO. This facility instrument will be used for the 'Dark Energy Survey' of the southern galactic cap. DECam has chosen 250 ?m thick CCDs, developed at LBNL, with good QE in the near IR for the focal plane. In this work we present the characterization of these detectors done by the DES team, and compare it to the DECam technical requirements. The results demonstrate that the detectors satisfy the needs for instrument.

  17. Positrons annihilation and the Galactic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallyn, Pierre

    1992-01-01

    The Galactic center has been observed in gamma rays, many times since more than two decades and we do not still have a full comprehensive picture of this region. It is fairly well established that the 511 keV annihilation line has two origins: a steady diffuse emission, which follows more or less the type I supernovae distribution along the Galactic plane and a variable emission coming from the positrons emitted by (at least) one compact object and annihilating in a nearby cold molecular cloud. We present here an analysis of the profiles and intensifies of the 511 keV annihilation line observed in the direction of the Galactic center. We find that a warm medium (temperature of 8000 K) can describe the annihilation of positrons from the diffuse component of the line. The high state observations of the 511 keV line can be explained if the time-variable component is coming from the annihilation of the positrons in a cold medium (temperature around 80 K). This constraint on the annihilation medium temperature supports the association with the molecular cloud G-0.86-0.08 in the direction of 1E1740.7-2942. On may 22, 1989, HEXAGONE detected a narrow 511 keV line and also a broad emission around 170 keV in the direction of the Galactic center. Two weeks before, EXITE observed in the same direction a new transient source EXS 1737.9-2952 which showed a bump around 102 keV. We propose a simple semi-quantitative model which can mimic the bumps as well as its time variations and emphasize the strong similarities between EXS1737.9-2952 and Nova Muscae. We study the behaviour of positron annihilation by charge exchange in the cold phase of the interstellar medium. We calculate formula for the slowing-down time before thermalization of positrons of a given initial energy, for different medium densities. Our scenario explains the lack of detection of the recombination lines from positronium and gives new constraints on their possible observation. (author) [fr

  18. Book Review: Galactic Encounters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasis, Georgios, E-mail: gbalasis@noa.gr [Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2016-05-23

    Galactic Encounters” by Sheehan and Conselice provides a view of galaxies telling the story of how astronomers have pieced together what is known about the modern view of the Universe. The book helps the reader to understand “why” we know what we do, not simply “what,” starting with the development of the telescope that coincides with the modern picture of the Universe. William Sheehan is a noted historian of astronomy but also a Doctor of Medicine, specializing in psychiatry. In this perspective, he has a unique insight into the personalities of the pioneering figures of the history of science. Christopher Conselice is a Professor of Astrophysics at the University of Nottingham, who studies the formation of galaxies, addressing the issue of “how” rather than “when” galaxies form. Reading the book, amateur astronomers would have been able to feel what actually drives them: “it is the desire to participate in this vast universe, in their own small way,…and not let the experts do everything for them.” I have to admit that I have also quite enjoyed the author's remark pertinent to the history and philosophy of science about the distinction, nowadays, between “polymaths” and “monomaths.”.

  19. Book Review: Galactic Encounters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Galactic Encounters” by Sheehan and Conselice provides a view of galaxies telling the story of how astronomers have pieced together what is known about the modern view of the Universe. The book helps the reader to understand “why” we know what we do, not simply “what,” starting with the development of the telescope that coincides with the modern picture of the Universe. William Sheehan is a noted historian of astronomy but also a Doctor of Medicine, specializing in psychiatry. In this perspective, he has a unique insight into the personalities of the pioneering figures of the history of science. Christopher Conselice is a Professor of Astrophysics at the University of Nottingham, who studies the formation of galaxies, addressing the issue of “how” rather than “when” galaxies form. Reading the book, amateur astronomers would have been able to feel what actually drives them: “it is the desire to participate in this vast universe, in their own small way,…and not let the experts do everything for them.” I have to admit that I have also quite enjoyed the author's remark pertinent to the history and philosophy of science about the distinction, nowadays, between “polymaths” and “monomaths.”

  20. Galactic warps and the shape of heavy halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparke, L.S.

    1984-01-01

    The outer disks of many spiral galaxies are bent away from the plane of the inner disk; the abundance of these warps suggests that they are long-lived. Isolated galactic disks have long been thought to have no discrete modes of vertical oscillation under their own gravity, and so to be incapable of sustaining persistent warps. However, the visible disk contains only a fraction of the galactic mass; an invisible galactic halo makes up the rest. This paper presents an investigation of vertical warping modes in self-gravitating disks, in the imposed potential due to an axisymmetric unseen massive halo. If the halo matter is distributed so that the free precession rate of a test particle decreases with radius near the edge of the disk, then the disk has a discrete mode of vibration; oblate halos which become rapidly more flattened at large radii, and uniformly prolate halos, satisfy this requirement. Otherwise, the disk has no discrete modes and so cannot maintain a long-lived warp, unless the edge is sharply truncated. Computed mode shapes which resemble the observed warps can be found for halo masses consistent with those inferred from galactic rotation curves

  1. Gauging the Galactic thick disk with RR Lyrae stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz G.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we present results from the QUEST RR Lyrae Survey of the thick disk. The survey spans ~480 sq. deg. at low latitude |b| < 30°, with multi-epoch VRI observations, obtained with the QUEST-I camera at the 1m Jürgen Stock Schmidt telescope located at the National Astronomical Observatory of Venezuela. This constitutes the first deep RR Lyrae survey of the Galactic thick disk conducted at low galactic latitudes, covering simultaneously a large range in radial (8Galactic Plane. The spatial coverage of the survey together with the multi-band multi-epoch photometry allowed for the derivation of the thick disk structural parameters from in situ RR Lyrae stars having accurate distances (errors <7% and individual reddenings derived from each star’s color curve at minimum light. Moreover, the use of RR Lyrae stars as tracers ensures negligible contamination from the Galactic thin disk. We find a thick disk mean scale height hZ = 0.94 ± 0.11kpc and scale length hR = 3.2 ± 0.4kpc, derived from the vertical and radial mean density profiles of RR Lyrae stars. We also find evidence of thick disk flaring and results that may suggest the thick disk radial density profile shows signs of antitruncation. We discuss our findings in the context of recent thick disk formation models.

  2. NEW CONSTRAINTS ON THE GALACTIC HALO MAGNETIC FIELD USING ROTATION MEASURES OF EXTRAGALACTIC SOURCES TOWARD THE OUTER GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, S. A.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Gaensler, B. M.; Brown, J. C.; Van Eck, C. L.; Stil, J. M.; Taylor, A. R.; Haverkorn, M.; Kronberg, P. P.; Shukurov, A.

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of the Milky Way disk and halo magnetic field, determined from observations of Faraday rotation measure (RM) toward 641 polarized extragalactic radio sources in the Galactic longitude range 100°-117°, within 30° of the Galactic plane. For |b| –2 and –62 ± 5 rad m –2 in the northern and southern Galactic hemispheres, respectively. If the RM distribution is a signature of the large-scale field parallel to the Galactic plane, then this suggests that the halo magnetic field toward the outer Galaxy does not reverse direction across the mid-plane. The variation of RM as a function of Galactic latitude in this longitude range is such that RMs become more negative at larger |b|. This is consistent with an azimuthal magnetic field of strength 2 μG (7 μG) at a height 0.8-2 kpc above (below) the Galactic plane between the local and the Perseus spiral arm. We propose that the Milky Way could possess spiral-like halo magnetic fields similar to those observed in M51.

  3. A Disturbed Galactic Duo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    The galaxies in this cosmic pairing, captured by the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile, display some curious features, demonstrating that each member of the duo is close enough to feel the distorting gravitational influence of the other. The gravitational tug of war has warped the spiral shape of one galaxy, NGC 3169, and fragmented the dust lanes in its companion NGC 3166. Meanwhile, a third, smaller galaxy to the lower right, NGC 3165, has a front-row seat to the gravitational twisting and pulling of its bigger neighbours. This galactic grouping, found about 70 million light-years away in the constellation Sextans (The Sextant), was discovered by the English astronomer William Herschel in 1783. Modern astronomers have gauged the distance between NGC 3169 (left) and NGC 3166 (right) as a mere 50 000 light-years, a separation that is only about half the diameter of the Milky Way galaxy. In such tight quarters, gravity can start to play havoc with galactic structure. Spiral galaxies like NGC 3169 and NGC 3166 tend to have orderly swirls of stars and dust pinwheeling about their glowing centres. Close encounters with other massive objects can jumble this classic configuration, often serving as a disfiguring prelude to the merging of galaxies into one larger galaxy. So far, the interactions of NGC 3169 and NGC 3166 have just lent a bit of character. NGC 3169's arms, shining bright with big, young, blue stars, have been teased apart, and lots of luminous gas has been drawn out from its disc. In NGC 3166's case, the dust lanes that also usually outline spiral arms are in disarray. Unlike its bluer counterpart, NGC 3166 is not forming many new stars. NGC 3169 has another distinction: the faint yellow dot beaming through a veil of dark dust just to the left of and close to the galaxy's centre [1]. This flash is the leftover of a supernova detected in 2003 and known accordingly as SN 2003cg. A supernova of this

  4. HI Clouds Near the Galactic Center: Possible Tracers of the Nuclear Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockman, Felix J.; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi; DiTeodoro, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    We have used the Green Bank Telescope to discover more than one hundred neutral hydrogen clouds that appear to be embedded in the Fermi Bubble -- the Milky Way’s nuclear wind. With the other members of this population that were previously found with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we now have a sample of about 200 such clouds. They are identified by their peculiar velocities. The cloud kinematics show no trace of Galactic rotation or association with the Galactic bar. Near longitude zero the clouds can have values of VLSR = +-200 km/s. No clouds have been detected with |VLSR| > 350 km/s. The clouds are concentrated toward the Galactic plane, but some are still found to |b|=10 degrees, or z > 1 kpc at the Galactic Center, where the current surveys end. These clouds are important tracers of conditions in the nuclear wind of the Milky Way.

  5. IMPROVING GALACTIC CENTER ASTROMETRY BY REDUCING THE EFFECTS OF GEOMETRIC DISTORTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelda, S.; Ghez, A. M.; Clarkson, W.; Lu, J. R.; Matthews, K.; Anderson, J.; Do, T.

    2010-01-01

    We present significantly improved proper motion measurements of the Milky Way's central stellar cluster. These improvements are made possible by refining our astrometric reference frame with a new geometric optical distortion model for the W. M. Keck II 10 m telescope's adaptive optics camera (NIRC2) in its narrow field mode. For the first time, this distortion model is constructed from on-sky measurements and is made available to the public in the form of FITS files. When applied to widely dithered images, it produces residuals in the separations of stars that are a factor of ∼3 smaller compared with the outcome using previous models. By applying this new model, along with corrections for differential atmospheric refraction, to widely dithered images of SiO masers at the Galactic center (GC), we improve our ability to tie into the precisely measured radio Sgr A*-rest frame. The resulting infrared reference frame is ∼2-3 times more accurate and stable than earlier published efforts. In this reference frame, Sgr A* is localized to within a position of 0.6 mas and a velocity of 0.09 mas yr -1 , or ∼3.4 km s -1 at 8 kpc (1σ). Also, proper motions for members of the central stellar cluster are more accurate, although less precise, due to the limited number of these wide field measurements. These proper motion measurements show that, with respect to Sgr A*, the central stellar cluster has no rotation in the plane of the sky to within 0.3 mas yr -1 arcsec -1 , has no net translational motion with respect to Sgr A* to within 0.1 mas yr -1 , and has net rotation perpendicular to the plane of the sky along the Galactic plane, as has previously been observed. While earlier proper motion studies defined a reference frame by assuming no net motion of the stellar cluster, this approach is fundamentally limited by the cluster's intrinsic dispersion and therefore will not improve with time. We define a reference frame with SiO masers and this reference frame's stability

  6. A low-latitude southern atlas of galactic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeppel, W G.L. [Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomia, Villa Elisa, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Olano, C A [Rio Grande do Sul, Universidade Federal, Porto Alegre, Brazil

    1979-01-01

    An atlas of 21 cm line profiles is described, which was made using a 30 m radio telescope with angular resolution of 0.5 deg, to study the properties of the low latitude H I gas excluding the complexity of the galactic plane. The results of the atlas itself are presented in two sets of diagrams: average profiles for each point, and contour maps. Analyses of the data have centered on an anomalous velocity cloud near galactic longitude (1) equals 349 deg, and latitude (b) equals plus 3 deg, strong kinematic asymmetries of the interstellar gas in the region of 1 between 348 and 12 deg and b between plus 3 and plus 17 deg, with positive radial velocities predominant, caused by a very intense source seemingly identical to Lindblad's (1967) feature A, and a comparative study of optical and radioastronomical data of the section of Gould's belt from 1 equals 300 to 12 deg.

  7. The Galactic 511 keV line: analysis and interpretation of Integral observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonjou, V.

    2005-09-01

    Ever since the discovery of the 511 keV annihilation line emission from the galactic center region in the late seventies, the origin of galactic positrons has been the topic of a vivid scientific debate. It is also one of the prime scientific objectives of the imaging spectrometer SPI on board ESA's INTEGRAL observatory. In this thesis first a description of the most important SPI sub-system is given - the detector plane. Procedures for detector energy calibration and detector degradation analysis are developed. The determination of instrumental background models, a crucial aspect of data analysis, is elaborated. These background models are then applied to deriving sky maps and spectra of unprecedented quality of the Galactic positron annihilation radiation. The emission is centered on the galactic center with a spatial resolution of 8 degrees (FWHM), a second spatial component appears clearly: the galactic disc. The ray energy has been measured with unprecedented accuracy: 511.0 ± 0.03 keV for a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 2.07 ± 0.1 keV. The total galactic flux ranges from 1.09 to 2.43 10 -3 ph.cm -2 .s -1 including uncertainties on spatial distribution. Finally, the implications of these observations for the production of positrons by various Galactic populations are discussed

  8. Planck intermediate results. XIX. An overview of the polarized thermal emission from Galactic dust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, J. F.; Delabrouille, J.; Ganga, K.

    2015-01-01

    measurements toward extragalactic sources. These components bear resemblance along the Galactic plane and in some regions such as the Fan and North Polar Spur regions. The poor match observed in other regions shows, however, that dust, cosmic-ray electrons, and thermal electrons generally sample different...

  9. Unusual Metals in Galactic Center Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Kerry

    2018-03-01

    while one star is only slightly above solar metallicity, the other is likely more than four times as metal-rich as the Sun.The features in the observed and synthetic spectra generally matched well, but the absorption lines of scandium, vanadium, and yttrium were consistently stronger in the observed spectra than in the synthetic spectra. This led the authors to conclude that these galactic center stars are unusually rich in these metals trace elements that could reveal the formation history of the galactic nucleus.Old Stars, New Trends?Scandium to iron ratio versusiron abundance for stars in the disk of the Milky Way (blue) and the stars in this sample (orange). The value reported for this sample is a 95% lower limit. [Do et al. 2018]For stars in the disk of the Milky Way, the abundance of scandium relative to iron tends to decrease as the overall metallicity increases, but the stars investigated in this study are both iron-rich and anomalously high in scandium. This hints that the nuclear star cluster might represent a distinct stellar population with different metallicity trends.However, its not yet clear what could cause the elevated abundances of scandium, vanadium, and yttrium relative to other metals. Each of these elements is linked to a different source; scandium and vanadium are mainly produced in Type II and Type Ia supernovae, respectively, while yttrium is likely synthesized in asymptotic giant branch stars. Future observations of stars near the center of the Milky Way may help answer this question and further constrain the origin of our galaxys nuclear star cluster.CitationTuan Do et al 2018 ApJL 855 L5. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aaaec3

  10. COBE AND THE GALACTIC INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM: GEOMETRY OF THE SPIRAL ARMS FROM FIR COOLING LINES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiman-Cameron, Thomas Y.; Wolfire, Mark; Hollenbach, David

    2010-01-01

    We present a new model for the spiral structure of the Milky Way based upon the essentially all-sky intensity maps of the [C II] 158 μm and [N II] 205 μm lines of the interstellar medium (ISM) obtained by the FIRAS instrument of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), with ancillary data from the Balloon-borne Infrared Carbon Explorer, and Infrared Space Observatory. These lines are important coolants of the ISM and strong tracers of the spiral structure. The model provides the volume emissivity of these species as a function of position within the Galaxy. Two-, three-, and four-arm models are examined, using a number of spiral functional forms. Two-arm models are found to be inconsistent with the COBE/FIRAS data. A three-arm model can be constructed that reproduces the [C II] and [N II] intensity profiles along the Galactic plane. This model, however, is discounted by historical observations of the Perseus and Cygnus ( O uter ) arms. A four-arm model, with arms defined by logarithmic spiral forms, reproduce the observations extremely well. Models of the Milky Way's spiral geometry proposed from ∼1980 to the present are examined in light of the COBE data and compared with the model presented herein. The preponderance of the evidence supports the existence of four well-defined logarithmic spiral arms in the gaseous component of the ISM. We note that essentially all two-arm models proposed since the mid-1980s are based upon observations of older evolved stars. We address the question of why studies based upon observations of stellar densities yield two-arm models while models based upon observations of more traditional tracers of spiral arms, i.e., enhanced gas and dust densities, star formation, and young stellar populations, yield four-arm models.

  11. Existence of Projective Planes

    OpenAIRE

    Perrott, Xander

    2016-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the history of finite projective planes and their properties before going on to outline the proof that no projective plane of order 10 exists. The report also investigates the search carried out by MacWilliams, Sloane and Thompson in 1970 [12] and confirms their result by providing independent verification that there is no vector of weight 15 in the code generated by the projective plane of order 10.

  12. Angular Spectra of Polarized Galactic Foregrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Jung; Lazarian, A.

    2003-01-01

    It is believed that magnetic field lines are twisted and bend by turbulent motions in the Galaxy. Therefore, both Galactic synchrotron emission and thermal emission from dust reflects statistics of Galactic turbulence. Our simple model of Galactic turbulence, motivated by results of our simulations, predicts that Galactic disk and halo exhibit different angular power spectra. We show that observed angular spectra of synchrotron emission are compatible with our model. We also show that our mod...

  13. Utrecht and Galactic Radio Astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woerden, H.

    Important roles in early Dutch Galactic radio astronomy were played by several Utrecht astronomers: Van de Hulst, Minnaert and Houtgast. The poster announcing the conference contained a number of pictures referring to scientific achievements of the Astronomical Institute Utrecht. One of these

  14. Abundances in the Galactic bulge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbuy, B; Alves-Brito, A [Universidade de Sao Paulo, IAG, Rua do Matao 1226, Sao Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil); Ortolani, S; Zoccali, M [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 2, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Hill, V; Gomez, A [Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 92195 Meudon Cedex (France); Melendez, J [Centro de AstrofIsica da Universidade de Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Asplund, M [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Postfach 1317, 85741 Garching (Germany); Bica, E [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, CP 15051, Porto Alegre 91501-970 (Brazil); Renzini, A [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Minniti, D [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)], E-mail: barbuy@astro.iag.usp.br

    2008-12-15

    The metallicity distribution and abundance ratios of the Galactic bulge are reviewed. Issues raised by recent work of different groups, in particular the high metallicity end, the overabundance of {alpha}-elements in the bulge relative to the thick disc and the measurement of giants versus dwarfs, are discussed. Abundances in the old moderately metal-poor bulge globular clusters are described.

  15. Observation of galactic gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, J.A.

    1982-09-01

    A complete and deep survey of the galactic high-energy gamma radiation is now available, thanks to the gamma-ray telescopes on board of the SAS-2 and COS-B spacecrafts. A comparison of the COS-B gamma-ray survey with a fully sampled CO survey together with an Hsub(I) survey is used to show that a simple model, in which uniformly distributed cosmic rays interact with the interstellar gas, can account for almost all the gamma-ray emission observed in the first galactic quadrant. At medium galactic latitudes, it is shown that a relationship exists between the gamma radiation and the interstellar absorption derived from galaxy counts. Therefore gamma rays from the local galactic environment can be used as a valuable probe of the content and structure of the local interstellar medium. The large scale features of the local interstellar gas are revealed, in particular wide concentrations of nearby molecular hydrogen. On a smaller scale, the detection of numerous localized gamma-ray sources focuses the attention on some particular phases of clusters of young and massive stars where diffuse processes of gamma-ray emission may also be at work

  16. PIPER and Polarized Galactic Foregrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, David

    2009-01-01

    In addition to probing inflationary cosmology, PIPER will measure the polarized dust emission from the Galaxy. PIPER will be capable of full (I,0,U,V) measurement over four frequency bands ' These measurements will provide insight into the physics of dust grains and a probe of the Galactic magnetic field on large and intermediate scales.

  17. Nature of 'unseen' galactic envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrea, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, it is suggested that unseen matter in a galactic envelope or in a group of galaxies may consist of substellar bodies originating as the first permanent 'stars' in the formation of a very massive galaxy according to a model for galaxy-formation on the basis of simple big-bang cosmology. (Auth.)

  18. Magnetic braking in galactic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparke, L.S.

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear fireworks of active galaxies are believed to derive their power from the kinetic energy of gas falling onto a massive central objects; mass shed from evolving galactic stars is an obvious source of fuel for this process. But this ejected material shares the galactic rotation, and a centrifugal barrier will prevent it from reaching the nucleus, if its angular momentum is not removed. This paper shows that, if the large-scale galactic magnetic field has a strong enough radial component, magnetic torques can act to spin down the infalling matter. Rotation of the interstellar gas induces a toroidal magnetic field, and Maxwell stresses remove angular momentum from the flow; gas can then fall inward to the galactic center. In this way, the monster in the nucleus can be fed on gas from a galaxy's own stars. The magnetic fields in M87 and NGC 1275, giant elliptical galaxies which are accreting from an intracluster medium, appear to be strong enough to allow magnetic braking

  19. Plane waves in linear homogeneous media. II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de J.; Broer, L.J.F.

    1972-01-01

    In this second paper the program outlined in the introduction of the first paper is carried out for the first order propagation equation. We discuss successively a representation of the solution of the initial value problem, mode decomposition, quadratic conservation laws and their classification,

  20. Interstellar scattering, the North Polar Spur, and a possible new class of compact galactic radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, J.J.; Cronyn, W.M.

    1979-01-01

    A reanalysis of the Cambridge interplanetary scintillation (IPS) catalog of angular sizes of radio sources reveals that there is no statistically significant evidence for increased interstellar angular broadening in the galactic plane, in conflict with previous studies. There is a significant contribution to the decrease in the ratios of scintillators/nonscintillators and strong/weak scintillators near the plane from galactic supernova remnants which were included in previous studies of source counts. Using the catalog angular sizes, we show there is no lack of small sources of any size in the plane. However, we do find a 500 deg 2 region near the North Polar Spur (NPS) radio feature, a suspected supernova remnant, where there seems to be a true deficit of small sources. This deficit may be caused by enhanced broadening associated with the NPS. Our conclusion about the apparent absence of angular broadening in the plane conflicts with estimates of broadening based upon the geometrical relationship between time delay and angular size applied to pulsar coherence bandwidths and pulse decay times. To explain this discrepancy, we suggest two alternatives: (1) Large angular broadening of extragalactic sources in the plane may indeed exist so that sources exhibiting IPS (i.e., of small angular diameter) must be galactic in nature. Properties of this possible new class of sources--called scintars--are discussed, and 42 scintar candidates are identified. (2) There is little angular broadening of extragalactic sources, and the pulsar data are being misinterpreted

  1. A new photometric model of the Galactic bar using red clump giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liang; Mao, Shude; Nataf, David; Rattenbury, Nicholas J.; Gould, Andrew

    2013-09-01

    We present a study of the luminosity density distribution of the Galactic bar using number counts of red clump giants from the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) III survey. The data were recently published by Nataf et al. for 9019 fields towards the bulge and have 2.94 × 106 RC stars over a viewing area of 90.25 deg^2. The data include the number counts, mean distance modulus (μ), dispersion in μ and full error matrix, from which we fit the data with several triaxial parametric models. We use the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to explore the parameter space and find that the best-fitting model is the E3 model, with the distance to the GC 8.13 kpc, the ratio of semimajor and semiminor bar axis scalelengths in the Galactic plane x0, y0 and vertical bar scalelength z0 x0: y0: z0 ≈ 1.00: 0.43: 0.40 (close to being prolate). The scalelength of the stellar density profile along the bar's major axis is ˜0.67 kpc and has an angle of 29.4°, slightly larger than the value obtained from a similar study based on OGLE-II data. The number of estimated RC stars within the field of view is 2.78 × 106, which is systematically lower than the observed value. We subtract the smooth parametric model from the observed counts and find that the residuals are consistent with the presence of an X-shaped structure in the Galactic Centre, the excess to the estimated mass content is ˜5.8 per cent. We estimate that the total mass of the bar is ˜1.8 × 1010 M⊙. Our results can be used as a key ingredient to construct new density models of the Milky Way and will have implications on the predictions of the optical depth to gravitational microlensing and the patterns of hydrodynamical gas flow in the Milky Way.

  2. Milky Way Tomography with K and M Dwarf Stars: The Vertical Structure of the Galactic Disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, Deborah; Gardner, Susan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States); Yanny, Brian [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

    2017-07-10

    We use the number density distributions of K and M dwarf stars with vertical height from the Galactic disk, determined using observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, to probe the structure of the Milky Way disk across the survey’s footprint. Using photometric parallax as a distance estimator we analyze a sample of several million disk stars in matching footprints above and below the Galactic plane, and we determine the location and extent of vertical asymmetries in the number counts in a variety of thin- and thick-disk subsamples in regions of some 200 square degrees within 2 kpc in vertical distance from the Galactic disk. These disk asymmetries present wave-like features as previously observed on other scales and at other distances from the Sun. We additionally explore the scale height of the disk and the implied offset of the Sun from the Galactic plane at different locations, noting that the scale height of the disk can differ significantly when measured using stars only above or only below the plane. Moreover, we compare the shape of the number density distribution in the north for different latitude ranges with a fixed range in longitude and find the shape to be sensitive to the selected latitude window. We explain why this may be indicative of a change in stellar populations in the latitude regions compared, possibly allowing access to the systematic metallicity difference between thin- and thick-disk populations through photometry.

  3. Cross plane scattering correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, L.; Karp, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    Most previous scattering correction techniques for PET are based on assumptions made for a single transaxial plane and are independent of axial variations. These techniques will incorrectly estimate the scattering fraction for volumetric PET imaging systems since they do not take the cross-plane scattering into account. In this paper, the authors propose a new point source scattering deconvolution method (2-D). The cross-plane scattering is incorporated into the algorithm by modeling a scattering point source function. In the model, the scattering dependence both on axial and transaxial directions is reflected in the exponential fitting parameters and these parameters are directly estimated from a limited number of measured point response functions. The authors' results comparing the standard in-plane point source deconvolution to the authors' cross-plane source deconvolution show that for a small source, the former technique overestimates the scatter fraction in the plane of the source and underestimate the scatter fraction in adjacent planes. In addition, the authors also propose a simple approximation technique for deconvolution

  4. Origin of the Local Group satellite planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Indranil; O'Ryan, David; Zhao, Hongsheng

    2018-04-01

    We attempt to understand the planes of satellite galaxies orbiting the Milky Way (MW) and M31 in the context of Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), which implies a close MW-M31 flyby occurred ≈8 Gyr ago. Using the timing argument, we obtain MW-M31 trajectories consistent with cosmological initial conditions and present observations. We adjust the present M31 proper motion within its uncertainty in order to simulate a range of orbital geometries and closest approach distances. Treating the MW and M31 as point masses, we follow the trajectories of surrounding test particle disks, thereby mapping out the tidal debris distribution. Around each galaxy, the resulting tidal debris tends to cluster around a particular orbital pole. We find some models in which these preferred spin vectors align fairly well with those of the corresponding observed satellite planes. The radial distributions of material in the simulated satellite planes are similar to what we observe. Around the MW, our best-fitting model yields a significant fraction (0.22) of counter-rotating material, perhaps explaining why Sculptor counter-rotates within the MW satellite plane. In contrast, our model yields no counter-rotating material around M31. This is testable with proper motions of M31 satellites. In our best model, the MW disk is thickened by the flyby 7.65 Gyr ago to a root mean square height of 0.75 kpc. This is similar to the observed age and thickness of the Galactic thick disk. Thus, the MW thick disk may have formed together with the MW and M31 satellite planes during a past MW-M31 flyby.

  5. Fourier plane imaging microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.dominguez@ttu.edu; Peralta, Luis Grave de [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Nano Tech Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Alharbi, Nouf; Alhusain, Mdhaoui [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Bernussi, Ayrton A. [Nano Tech Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)

    2014-09-14

    We show how the image of an unresolved photonic crystal can be reconstructed using a single Fourier plane (FP) image obtained with a second camera that was added to a traditional compound microscope. We discuss how Fourier plane imaging microscopy is an application of a remarkable property of the obtained FP images: they contain more information about the photonic crystals than the images recorded by the camera commonly placed at the real plane of the microscope. We argue that the experimental results support the hypothesis that surface waves, contributing to enhanced resolution abilities, were optically excited in the studied photonic crystals.

  6. Single-shot pectoral plane (PECs I and PECs II) blocks versus continuous local anaesthetic infusion analgesia or both after non-ambulatory breast-cancer surgery: a prospective, randomised, double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Scanaill, P; Keane, S; Wall, V; Flood, G; Buggy, D J

    2018-04-01

    Pectoral plane blocks (PECs) are increasingly used in analgesia for patients undergoing breast surgery, and were recently found to be at least equivalent to single-shot paravertebral anaesthesia. However, there are no data comparing PECs with the popular practice of continuous local anaesthetic wound infusion (LA infusion) analgesia for breast surgery. Therefore, we compared the efficacy and safety of PECs blocks with LA infusion, or a combination of both in patients undergoing non-ambulatory breast-cancer surgery. This single-centre, prospective, randomised, double-blind trial analysed 45 women to receive either PECs blocks [levobupivacaine 0.25%, 10 ml PECs I and levobupivacaine 0.25%, 20 ml PECs II (PECs group); LA infusion catheter (levobupivacaine 0.1% at 10 ml h -1 for 24 h (LA infusion group); or both (PECs and LA infusion)]. The primary outcome measure was area under the curve of the pain verbal rating score whilst moving vs time (AUC) over 24 h. Secondary outcomes included total opioid consumption at 24 h. AUC moving was mean (SD) 71 (34) mm h -1 vs 58 (41) vs 23 (20) in PECs, LA infusion, and both, respectively; P=0.002. AUC at rest was also significantly lower in patients receiving both. The total 24 h opioid consumption [median (25-75%)] was 14 mg (9-26) vs 11 (8-24) vs 9 (5-11); P=0.4. No adverse events were observed. The combination of both pre-incisional PECs blocks and postoperative LA infusion provides better analgesia over 24 h than either technique alone after non-ambulatory breast-cancer surgery. NCT 03024697. Copyright © 2018 British Journal of Anaesthesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Kinematics of galactic planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiosa, M.I.; Khromov, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    The classical method of determining the components of the solar motion relative to the centroid of the system of planetary nebulae with known radial velocities is investigated. It is shown that this method is insensitive to random errors in the radial velocities and that low accuracy in determining the coordinates of the solar apex and motion results from the insufficient number of planetaries with measured radial velocities. The planetary nebulae are found not to satisfy well the law of differential galactic rotation with circular orbits. This is attributed to the elongation of their galactic orbits. A method for obtaining the statistical parallax of planetary nebulae is considered, and the parallax calculated from the tau components of their proper motion is shown to be the most reliable

  8. Are baryonic galactic halos possible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, K.A.; Hegyi, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    There is little doubt from the rotation curves of spiral galaxies that galactic halos must contain large amounts of dark matter. In this contribution, the authors review arguments which indicate that it is very unlikely that galactic halos contain substantial amounts of baryonic matter. While the authors would like to be able to present a single argument which would rule out baryonic matter, at the present time they are only able to present a collection of arguments each of which argues against one form of baryonic matter. These include: 1) snowballs; 2) gas; 3) low mass stars and Jupiters; 4) high mass stars; and 5) high metalicity objects such as rooks or dust. Black holes, which do not have a well defined baryon number, are also a possible candidate for halo matter. They briefly discuss black holes

  9. Instabilities of Kirkendall planes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dal, van M.J.H.; Gusak, A.M.; Cserhati, C.; Kodentsov, A.; Loo, van F.J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Reconsideration of the Kirkendall effect is presented. It is demonstrated (experimentally as well as theoretically) that Kirkendall planes can be multiple, stable or unstable within a single-phase reaction zone. A general criterion of instabilty is given.

  10. How supernovae launch galactic winds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Drummond; Quataert, Eliot; Martizzi, Davide; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André

    2017-09-01

    We use idealized three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of global galactic discs to study the launching of galactic winds by supernovae (SNe). The simulations resolve the cooling radii of the majority of supernova remnants (SNRs) and thus self-consistently capture how SNe drive galactic winds. We find that SNe launch highly supersonic winds with properties that agree reasonably well with expectations from analytic models. The energy loading (η _E= \\dot{E}_wind/ \\dot{E}_SN) of the winds in our simulations are well converged with spatial resolution while the wind mass loading (η _M= \\dot{M}_wind/\\dot{M}_\\star) decreases with resolution at the resolutions we achieve. We present a simple analytic model based on the concept that SNRs with cooling radii greater than the local scaleheight break out of the disc and power the wind. This model successfully explains the dependence (or lack thereof) of ηE (and by extension ηM) on the gas surface density, star formation efficiency, disc radius and the clustering of SNe. The winds our simulations are weaker than expected in reality, likely due to the fact that we seed SNe preferentially at density peaks. Clustering SNe in time and space substantially increases the wind power.

  11. Evolution of hot galactic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loewenstein, M.; Mathews, W.G.

    1987-01-01

    The time-dependent equations describing galactic flows, including detailed models for the evolving source terms, are integrated over a Hubble time for two elliptical galaxies with total masses of 3.1 x 10 to the 12th and 8.3 x 10 to the 12th solar masses, 90 percent of which resides in extended, nonluminous halos. The standard supernova rate of Tammann and a rate 4 times smaller are considered for each galaxy model. The combination of the extended gravitational potential of the dark halo and the time-dependent source terms generally lead to the development of massive, quasi-hydrostatic, nearly isothermal distributions of gas at about 10 to the 7th K with cooling inflows inside their galactic cores. For the less massive galaxy with the higher supernova rate, however, a low-luminosity supersonic galactic wind develops. The effects of a lowered metal abundance, thermal conduction, and the absence of a massive halo are explored separately for one of the present models. The X-ray luminosities of the hot gas in the models with dark halos and the lower supernova rate are in good agreement with Einstein observations of early-type galaxies. 42 references

  12. Algebraic Structures on MOD Planes

    OpenAIRE

    Kandasamy, Vasantha; Ilanthenral, K.; Smarandache, Florentin

    2015-01-01

    Study of MOD planes happens to a very recent one. In this book, systematically algebraic structures on MOD planes like, MOD semigroups, MOD groups and MOD rings of different types are defined and studied. Such study is innovative for a large four quadrant planes are made into a small MOD planes. Several distinct features enjoyed by these MOD planes are defined, developed and described.

  13. Galactic cycles and their relationship to life on earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, A.P.

    1984-05-01

    This paper draws attention to episodic events in the geologic time scale of the evolution of life on earth, and discusses potentially cyclic behavior relative to galactic structure. The question is a simple one: Do galactic processes affect the solar system. It is known that the sun is moving at about 220 +- 15 km/sec at a distance of about 8.5 +- 0.5 kpc from the galactic center. This motion, if circular and unperturbed, implies an orbital period of 237 +- 21 My for the solar system around the galaxy. The Milky Way also evidences structure typically interpreted as spiral arms, in the distribution of gas clouds in its central plane. The relative motion of the spiral arms, known as the pattern speed, is about 2/3 that of the sun. Consequently the solar system gains upon and passes through all the structure in its orbital plane once in three rotations or approx.700 My. If this structure is persistent over times longer than 700 My, it is clear that the interaction (if any) can be called cyclic. Furthermore, if there is any sub-structure or inner pattern to the 700 My cycle, it may show up as higher harmonics. Age estimates for the Milky Way are 12-15 By, or approx.17 to 22 structure cycles of 0.70 By. It seems not unreasonable to expect some persistence of a pattern over a few structure cycles. It must be noted that the pattern speed is quite uncertain. Perhaps geophysical evidence can be used to improve on the nominally 700 My structure cycle which is assumed in this paper. 16 references, 8 figures

  14. Near-infrared variability study of the central 2.3 × 2.3 arcmin2 of the Galactic Centre - II. Identification of RR Lyrae stars in the Milky Way nuclear star cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hui; Schödel, Rainer; Williams, Benjamin F.; Nogueras-Lara, Francisco; Gallego-Cano, Eulalia; Gallego-Calvente, Teresa; Wang, Q. Daniel; Rich, R. Michael; Morris, Mark R.; Do, Tuan; Ghez, Andrea

    2017-11-01

    Because of strong and spatially highly variable interstellar extinction and extreme source crowding, the faint (K ≥ 15) stellar population in the Milky Way's nuclear star cluster is still poorly studied. RR Lyrae stars provide us with a tool to estimate the mass of the oldest, relative dim stellar population. Recently, we analysed HST/WFC3/IR observations of the central 2.3 × 2.3 arcmin2 of the Milky Way and found 21 variable stars with periods between 0.2 and 1 d. Here, we present a further comprehensive analysis of these stars. The period-luminosity relationship of RR Lyrae is used to derive their extinctions and distances. Using multiple approaches, we classify our sample as 4 RRc stars, 4 RRab stars, 3 RRab candidates and 10 binaries. Especially, the four RRab stars show sawtooth light curves and fall exactly on to the Oosterhoff I division in the Bailey diagram. Compared to the RRab stars reported by Minniti et al., our new RRab stars have higher extinction (AK > 1.8) and should be closer to the Galactic Centre. The extinction and distance of one RRab stars match those for the Milky Way's nuclear star cluster given in previous works. We perform simulations and find that after correcting for incompleteness, there could be not more than 40 RRab stars within the Milky Way's nuclear star cluster and in our field of view. Through comparing with the known globular clusters of the Milky Way, we estimate that if there exists an old, metal-poor (-1.5 < [Fe/H] < -1) stellar population in the Milky Way nuclear star cluster on a scale of 5 × 5 pc, then it contributes at most 4.7 × 105 M⊙, I.e. ˜18 per cent of the stellar mass.

  15. Local stellar kinematics from RAVE data—VIII. Effects of the Galactic disc perturbations on stellar orbits of red clump stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önal Taş, Ö.; Bilir, S.; Plevne, O.

    2018-02-01

    We aim to probe the dynamic structure of the extended Solar neighborhood by calculating the radial metallicity gradients from orbit properties, which are obtained for axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric potential models, of red clump (RC) stars selected from the RAdial Velocity Experiment's Fourth Data Release. Distances are obtained by assuming a single absolute magnitude value in near-infrared, i.e. M_{Ks}=-1.54±0.04 mag, for each RC star. Stellar orbit parameters are calculated by using the potential functions: (i) for the MWPotential2014 potential, (ii) for the same potential with perturbation functions of the Galactic bar and transient spiral arms. The stellar age is calculated with a method based on Bayesian statistics. The radial metallicity gradients are evaluated based on the maximum vertical distance (z_{max}) from the Galactic plane and the planar eccentricity (ep) of RC stars for both of the potential models. The largest radial metallicity gradient in the 01 kpc, the radial metallicity gradients have zero or positive values and they do not depend on ep subsamples. There is a large radial metallicity gradient for thin disc, but no radial gradient found for thick disc. Moreover, the largest radial metallicity gradients are obtained where the outer Lindblad resonance region is effective. We claim that this apparent change in radial metallicity gradients in the thin disc is a result of orbital perturbation originating from the existing resonance regions.

  16. Structure and content of the galaxy and galactic gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    The conference included papers on ..gamma..-ray pulsars, galactic diffuse flux and surveys, radio surveys of external galaxies, galactic distribution of pulsars, and galactic gamma emission. Galactic structure drawing on all branches of galactic astronomy is discussed. New and unpublished material is included. (JFP)

  17. Structure and content of the galaxy and galactic gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The conference included papers on γ-ray pulsars, galactic diffuse flux and surveys, radio surveys of external galaxies, galactic distribution of pulsars, and galactic gamma emission. Galactic structure drawing on all branches of galactic astronomy is discussed. New and unpublished material is included

  18. ATOMIC HYDROGEN IN A GALACTIC CENTER OUTFLOW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Green, J. A.; Hill, A. S. [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Marsfield, NSW 2122 (Australia); Lockman, F. J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); Dickey, J. M. [School of Physics and Mathematics, University of Tasmania, TAS 7001 (Australia); Gaensler, B. M.; Green, A. J., E-mail: naomi.mcclure-griffiths@csiro.au [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2013-06-10

    We describe a population of small, high-velocity, atomic hydrogen clouds, loops, and filaments found above and below the disk near the Galactic center. The objects have a mean radius of 15 pc, velocity widths of {approx}14 km s{sup -1}, and are observed at |z| heights up to 700 pc. The velocity distribution of the clouds shows no signature of Galactic rotation. We propose a scenario where the clouds are associated with an outflow from a central star-forming region at the Galactic center. We discuss the clouds as entrained material traveling at {approx}200 km s{sup -1} in a Galactic wind.

  19. ATOMIC HYDROGEN IN A GALACTIC CENTER OUTFLOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Green, J. A.; Hill, A. S.; Lockman, F. J.; Dickey, J. M.; Gaensler, B. M.; Green, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a population of small, high-velocity, atomic hydrogen clouds, loops, and filaments found above and below the disk near the Galactic center. The objects have a mean radius of 15 pc, velocity widths of ∼14 km s –1 , and are observed at |z| heights up to 700 pc. The velocity distribution of the clouds shows no signature of Galactic rotation. We propose a scenario where the clouds are associated with an outflow from a central star-forming region at the Galactic center. We discuss the clouds as entrained material traveling at ∼200 km s –1 in a Galactic wind.

  20. Transformational plane geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Umble, Ronald N

    2014-01-01

    Axioms of Euclidean Plane Geometry The Existence and Incidence Postulates The Distance and Ruler Postulates The Plane Separation Postulate The Protractor Postulate The Side-Angle-Side Postulate and the Euclidean Parallel Postulate Theorems of Euclidean Plane Geometry The Exterior Angle Theorem Triangle Congruence Theorems The Alternate Interior Angles Theorem and the Angle Sum Theorem Similar Triangles Introduction to Transformations, Isometries, and Similarities Transformations Isometries and SimilaritiesAppendix: Proof of Surjectivity Translations, Rotations, and Reflections Translations Rotations Reflections Appendix: Geometer's Sketchpad Commands Required by Exploratory Activities Compositions of Translations, Rotations, and Reflections The Three Points Theorem Rotations as Compositions of Two Reflections Translations as Compositions of Two Halfturns or Two Reflections The Angle Addition Theorem Glide Reflections Classification of Isometries The Fundamental Theorem and Congruence Classification of Isometr...

  1. Fast Plane Wave Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas

    This PhD project investigates and further develops methods for ultrasound plane wave imaging and blood flow estimation with the objective of overcoming some of the major limitations in conventional ultrasound systems, which are related to low frame rates and only estimation of velocities along...... the ultrasound beam. The first part of the contribution investigates the compromise between frame rate and plane wave image quality including the influence of grating lobes from a λ-pitch transducer. A method for optimizing the image quality is suggested, and it is shown that the frame rate can be increased...... healthy volunteers. Complex flow patterns were measured in an anthropomorphic flow phantom and showed good agreement with the velocity field simulated using computational fluid dynamics. The last part of the contribution investigates two clinical applications. Plane wave imaging was used for slow velocity...

  2. DC Polarographic and Plane Polarographic investigation of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    D.C., A.C. and Complex Plane Polarographic behavior of copper (II) in monoethanolamine /sodium ... The Cd of supporting electrolyte can be directly measured. Theoretical phase sensitive ..... The mass and drop time of mercury are provided ...

  3. THE EVOLUTION OF GAS CLOUDS FALLING IN THE MAGNETIZED GALACTIC HALO: HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUDS (HVCs) ORIGINATED IN THE GALACTIC FOUNTAIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Kyujin; Shelton, Robin L.; Raley, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    In the Galactic fountain scenario, supernovae and/or stellar winds propel material into the Galactic halo. As the material cools, it condenses into clouds. By using FLASH three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we model and study the dynamical evolution of these gas clouds after they form and begin to fall toward the Galactic plane. In our simulations, we assume that the gas clouds form at a height of z = 5 kpc above the Galactic midplane, then begin to fall from rest. We investigate how the cloud's evolution, dynamics, and interaction with the interstellar medium (ISM) are affected by the initial mass of the cloud. We find that clouds with sufficiently large initial densities (n ≥ 0.1 H atoms cm -3 ) accelerate sufficiently and maintain sufficiently large column densities as to be observed and identified as high-velocity clouds (HVCs) even if the ISM is weakly magnetized (1.3 μG). However, the ISM can provide noticeable resistance to the motion of a low-density cloud (n ≤ 0.01 H atoms cm -3 ) thus making it more probable that a low-density cloud will attain the speed of an intermediate-velocity cloud rather than the speed of an HVC. We also investigate the effects of various possible magnetic field configurations. As expected, the ISM's resistance is greatest when the magnetic field is strong and perpendicular to the motion of the cloud. The trajectory of the cloud is guided by the magnetic field lines in cases where the magnetic field is oriented diagonal to the Galactic plane. The model cloud simulations show that the interactions between the cloud and the ISM can be understood via analogy to the shock tube problem which involves shock and rarefaction waves. We also discuss accelerated ambient gas, streamers of material ablated from the clouds, and the cloud's evolution from a sphere-shaped to a disk- or cigar-shaped object.

  4. TEV GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE GALACTIC CENTER RIDGE BY VERITAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Bird, R.; Collins-Hughes, E. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Buchovecky, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Byrum, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Cardenzana, J. V; Eisch, J. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Chen, X. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Falcone, A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Fleischhack, H. [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Flinders, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Fortson, L., E-mail: asmith44@umd.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); and others

    2016-04-20

    The Galactic Center ridge has been observed extensively in the past by both GeV and TeV gamma-ray instruments revealing a wealth of structure, including a diffuse component and the point sources G0.9+0.1 (a composite supernova remnant) and Sgr A* (believed to be associated with the supermassive black hole located at the center of our Galaxy). Previous very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray observations with the H.E.S.S. experiment have also detected an extended TeV gamma-ray component along the Galactic plane in the >300 GeV gamma-ray regime. Here we report on observations of the Galactic Center ridge from 2010 to 2014 by the VERITAS telescope array in the >2 TeV energy range. From these observations we (1) provide improved measurements of the differential energy spectrum for Sgr A* in the >2 TeV gamma-ray regime, (2) provide a detection in the >2 TeV gamma-ray emission from the composite SNR G0.9+0.1 and an improved determination of its multi-TeV gamma-ray energy spectrum, and (3) report on the detection of VER J1746-289, a localized enhancement of >2 TeV gamma-ray emission along the Galactic plane.

  5. Comparison of the distribution of galactic γ-radiation and radio synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haslam, C.G.T.; Stoffel, H.; Kearsey, S.; Osborne, J.L.; Phillipps, S.

    1981-01-01

    The new all-sky survey of continuum radio emission at 408 MHz of Haslam et al. (1981) is used to compare the distribution of radio emission in a band along the galactic equator for b 0 , but a longer tail than a Gaussian, for the combined data from 70 MeV-5 GeV. This has been used to convolve the 408 MHz data, and to produce a contour map and the cuts and averages corresponding to those given by Mayer-Hasselwander. The average intensities along the galactic plane for b 0 are given. The latitude profiles show that in three dimensions the gamma-ray and synchrotron emissivities are not proportional. However, in the Galactic plane the two emissivities can be in approximately constant ratio although there seems to be more structure in the gamma-ray emission. This implies that the square of the galactic magnetic field, B 2 is proportional to gas density under the right conditions. If the emission were dominated by discrete sources their number density would have to follow closely the product of cosmic ray density and B 2 . (U.K.)

  6. The OBS control plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manolova, Anna Vasileva; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2010-01-01

    . The applicability analysis carried out here focuses on the actual feasibility of the integration and the potential trade-offs which appear when two contradicting principles are combined. Taking advantage of the flexibility of the GMPLS control plane does not seem to be as easy and as straightforward as expected...

  7. Millimeter Wavelength Observations of Galactic Sources with the Mobile Anisotropy Telescope (MAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, K. L.; Caldwell, R.; Devlin, M. J.; Dorwart, W. B.; Herbig, T.; Miller, A. D.; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L. A.; Puchalla, J. L.; Torbet, E.; Tran, H. T.

    1999-12-01

    The Mobile Anisotropy Telescope (MAT) has completed two observing seasons (1997 and 1998) in Chile from the Cerro Toco site. Although the primary goal of MAT was to measure anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation, the chosen observation scheme also allowed daily viewing of the Galactic Plane. We present filtered maps at 30, 40 and 144 GHz of a region of the Galactic Plane which contains several millimeter-bright regions including the Carinae nebula and IRAS 11097-6102. We report the best fit brightness temperatures as well as the total flux densities in the MAT beams (0.9, 0.6 and 0.2 degrees FWHM) . The data are calibrated with respect to Jupiter whose flux is known to better than 8% in all frequency bands. This work was funded by the National Science Foundation and the Packard Foundation.

  8. Exact axially symmetric galactic dynamos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, R. N.; Woodfinden, A.; Irwin, J. A.

    2018-05-01

    We give a selection of exact dynamos in axial symmetry on a galactic scale. These include some steady examples, at least one of which is wholly analytic in terms of simple functions and has been discussed elsewhere. Most solutions are found in terms of special functions, such as associated Lagrange or hypergeometric functions. They may be considered exact in the sense that they are known to any desired accuracy in principle. The new aspect developed here is to present scale-invariant solutions with zero resistivity that are self-similar in time. The time dependence is either a power law or an exponential factor, but since the geometry of the solution is self-similar in time we do not need to fix a time to study it. Several examples are discussed. Our results demonstrate (without the need to invoke any other mechanisms) X-shaped magnetic fields and (axially symmetric) magnetic spiral arms (both of which are well observed and documented) and predict reversing rotation measures in galaxy haloes (now observed in the CHANG-ES sample) as well as the fact that planar magnetic spirals are lifted into the galactic halo.

  9. Planck 2015 results. XXVIII. The Planck Catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Pelkonen, V.-M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present the Planck Catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCC), an all-sky catalogue of Galactic cold clump candidates detected by Planck. This catalogue is the full version of the Early Cold Core (ECC) catalogue, which was made available in 2011 with the Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and contained 915 high S/N sources. It is based on the Planck 48 months mission data that are currently being released to the astronomical community. The PGCC catalogue is an observational catalogue consisting exclusively of Galactic cold sources. The three highest Planck bands (857, 545, 353 GHz) have been combined with IRAS data at 3 THz to perform a multi-frequency detection of sources colder than their local environment. After rejection of possible extragalactic contaminants, the PGCC catalogue contains 13188 Galactic sources spread across the whole sky, i.e., from the Galactic plane to high latitudes, following the spatial distribution of the main molecular cloud complexes. The median temperature of PGCC so...

  10. A synoptic view of galactic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1981-01-01

    The power of using synoptic galactic surveys in many wavelength bands in order to obtain a more complete picture and a better understanding of the dynamics of the interstellar medium and to study galactic structure and evolution on a large scale is discussed. The implications of the picture presented by mm wave CO, far infrared and X ray surveys of the Galaxy are emphasized.

  11. STRUCTURED MOLECULAR GAS REVEALS GALACTIC SPIRAL ARMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Tsuyoshi [Joint ALMA Office, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago 763-0355 (Chile); Hasegawa, Tetsuo [NAOJ Chile Observatory, Joaquin Montero 3000 Oficina 702, Vitacura, Santiago 763-0409 (Chile); Koda, Jin, E-mail: sawada.tsuyoshi@nao.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    We explore the development of structures in molecular gas in the Milky Way by applying the analysis of the brightness distribution function and the brightness distribution index (BDI) in the archival data from the Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory {sup 13}CO J = 1-0 Galactic Ring Survey. The BDI measures the fractional contribution of spatially confined bright molecular emission over faint emission extended over large areas. This relative quantity is largely independent of the amount of molecular gas and of any conventional, pre-conceived structures, such as cores, clumps, or giant molecular clouds. The structured molecular gas traced by higher BDI is located continuously along the spiral arms in the Milky Way in the longitude-velocity diagram. This clearly indicates that molecular gas changes its structure as it flows through the spiral arms. Although the high-BDI gas generally coincides with H II regions, there is also some high-BDI gas with no/little signature of ongoing star formation. These results support a possible evolutionary sequence in which unstructured, diffuse gas transforms itself into a structured state on encountering the spiral arms, followed by star formation and an eventual return to the unstructured state after the spiral arm passage.

  12. TESTING TESTS ON ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI MICROVARIABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Diego, Jose A.

    2010-01-01

    Literature on optical and infrared microvariability in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) reflects a diversity of statistical tests and strategies to detect tiny variations in the light curves of these sources. Comparison between the results obtained using different methodologies is difficult, and the pros and cons of each statistical method are often badly understood or even ignored. Even worse, improperly tested methodologies are becoming more and more common, and biased results may be misleading with regard to the origin of the AGN microvariability. This paper intends to point future research on AGN microvariability toward the use of powerful and well-tested statistical methodologies, providing a reference for choosing the best strategy to obtain unbiased results. Light curves monitoring has been simulated for quasars and for reference and comparison stars. Changes for the quasar light curves include both Gaussian fluctuations and linear variations. Simulated light curves have been analyzed using χ 2 tests, F tests for variances, one-way analyses of variance and C-statistics. Statistical Type I and Type II errors, which indicate the robustness and the power of the tests, have been obtained in each case. One-way analyses of variance and χ 2 prove to be powerful and robust estimators for microvariations, while the C-statistic is not a reliable methodology and its use should be avoided.

  13. On the theory of twinning plane superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishonov, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    The thermodynamic potential of the superconducting layer in the twinning plane (TP) vicinity for the type I superconductors is found. The corrections to the surface tension in powers of the Ginsburg-Landau parameter κ are obtained. The corresponding states law for the supercooling field for the type I twinning plane superconductivity (TPS) is obtained, as well as the critical field law for the type II TPS. A review of experimental and theoretical works on TPS and some similar systems is given. The conditions for the Berezinski-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition for the proximity effect are discussed, as well as the possible mechanisms for the conducting phase transition TPS in Nb and the pinning forces close to the twinning plane. The obtained order parameter distribution can be used for description of the superlattices from normal and superconducting metals as well. 6 figs., 44 refs

  14. THE ARIZONA RADIO OBSERVATORY CO MAPPING SURVEY OF GALACTIC MOLECULAR CLOUDS. I. THE W51 REGION IN CO AND 13CO J = 2-1 EMISSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieging, John H.; Peters, William L.; Kang, Miju

    2010-01-01

    We present 38'' resolution maps of the CO and 13 CO J = 2-1 lines in the molecular clouds toward the H II region complex W51. The maps cover a 1. 0 25 x 1 0 section of the galactic plane and span +30 to +85 km s -1 (LSR) in velocity. The spectral resolution is ∼1.3 km s -1 . The velocity range of the images includes all the gas in the Sagittarius spiral arm. Color figures display the peak line brightness temperature, the velocity-integrated intensity, and 2 km s -1 channel-averaged maps for both isotopologs, and also the CO/ 13 CO J = 2-1 line intensity ratio as a function of velocity. The CO and 13 CO line intensity image cubes are made available in standard FITS format as electronically readable tables. We compare our molecular line maps with the 1.1 mm continuum image from the BOLOCAM Galactic Plane Survey. From our 13 CO image cube, we derive kinematic information for the 99 BGPS sources in the mapped field in the form of Gaussian component fits. The integrated 13 CO line intensity and the 1.1 mm source flux density show only a modest degree of correlation for the 99 sources, likely due to a range of dust and gas physical conditions within the sources. However, the 1.1 mm continuum surface brightness and the integrated 13 CO line intensity for small regions containing single BGPS sources and molecular clouds show very good correlations in many cases. Differences in the shapes of these correlations from one spatial region to another probably result from different physical conditions or structure in the clouds.

  15. The Split Red Clump of the Galactic Bulge from OGLE-III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataf, D. M.; Udalski, A.; Gould, A.; Fouqué, P.; Stanek, K. Z.

    2010-09-01

    The red clump (RC) is found to be split into two components along several sightlines toward the Galactic bulge. This split is detected with high significance toward the areas (-3.5 plane. The fainter (hereafter "main") component is the one that more closely follows the distance-longitude relation of the bulge RC. The main component is ~0.5 mag fainter than the secondary component and with an overall approximately equal population. For sightlines further from the plane, the difference in brightness increases, and more stars are found in the secondary component than in the main component. The two components have very nearly equal (V - I) color.

  16. Thermal-nonthermal relationships in active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waard, G.J. de.

    1986-01-01

    This dissertation reports on optical and radio observations of active galactic nuclei, selected on the basis of the presence of dominant narrow (narrow line radio galaxies, Seyfert II galaxies, QSOs) and/or broad (broad line radio galaxies, Seyfert I galaxies, QSOs) optical emission lines in their spectra. Special attention is drawn to possible relationships and physical links between the two regimes responsible for the optical (thermal) and radio (non-thermal) emission. Several projects, each studying such relationships on different angular (and thus linear) scales and at different observational frequencies were conceived with a variety of detection devices. (Auth.)

  17. DISCOVERY OF A PAIR OF CLASSICAL CEPHEIDS IN AN INVISIBLE CLUSTER BEYOND THE GALACTIC BULGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dékány, I.; Palma, T. [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, Santiago (Chile); Minniti, D. [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello, República 220, Santiago (Chile); Hajdu, G.; Alonso-García, J.; Hempel, M.; Catelan, M. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile); Gieren, W. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160 C, Concepción (Chile); Majaess, D. [Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary’s University, Halifax, NS B3H 3C3 (Canada)

    2015-01-20

    We report the discovery of a pair of extremely reddened classical Cepheid variable stars located in the Galactic plane behind the bulge, using near-infrared (NIR) time-series photometry from the VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea Survey. This is the first time that such objects have ever been found in the opposite side of the Galactic plane. The Cepheids have almost identical periods, apparent brightnesses, and colors. From the NIR Leavitt law, we determine their distances with ∼1.5% precision and ∼8% accuracy. We find that they have a same total extinction of A(V)≃32 mag, and are located at the same heliocentric distance of 〈d〉=11.4±0.9 kpc, and less than 1 pc from the true Galactic plane. Their similar periods indicate that the Cepheids are also coeval, with an age of ∼48±3 Myr, according to theoretical models. They are separated by an angular distance of only 18.″3, corresponding to a projected separation of ∼1 pc. Their position coincides with the expected location of the Far 3 kpc Arm behind the bulge. Such a tight pair of similar classical Cepheids indicates the presence of an underlying young open cluster that is both hidden behind heavy extinction and disguised by the dense stellar field of the bulge. All our attempts to directly detect this “invisible cluster” have failed, and deeper observations are needed. (letters)

  18. BKP plane partitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, Omar; Wheeler, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Using BKP neutral fermions, we derive a product expression for the generating function of volume-weighted plane partitions that satisfy two conditions. If we call a set of adjacent equal height-h columns, h > 0, an h-path, then 1. Every h-path can assume one of two possible colours. 2. There is a unique way to move along an h-path from any column to another

  19. BKP plane partitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, Omar; Wheeler, Michael [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2007-01-15

    Using BKP neutral fermions, we derive a product expression for the generating function of volume-weighted plane partitions that satisfy two conditions. If we call a set of adjacent equal height-h columns, h > 0, an h-path, then 1. Every h-path can assume one of two possible colours. 2. There is a unique way to move along an h-path from any column to another.

  20. Carbon nanotube plane fastener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Hirahara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a feature of carbon nanotubes (CNTs that arises when the surfaces of two vertically-aligned CNT brushes are pressed together. Adhesion between the CNTs creates a plane fastener-like device. Observations from scanning electron microscopy and measurements of adhesion properties indicate a device-dependence on CNT density and shape near the tip region. Among other applications, such fasteners have the potential to attach small components onto micron-sized electronic devices.

  1. Conquest of the Plane

    OpenAIRE

    Colignatus, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    CONQUEST OF THE PLANE provides: an integrated course for geometry and analysis a didactic build-up that avoids traditional clutter use of only the essentials for good understanding proper place for vectors, complex numbers, linear algebra and trigonometry an original and elegant development of trigonometry an original and elegant foundation for calculus examples from physics, economics and statistics integration within the dynamic environment of Mathematica ...

  2. An Algorithm for constructing Hjelmslev planes

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Joanne L.; Rao, Asha

    2013-01-01

    Projective Hjelmslev planes and Affine Hjelmselv planes are generalisations of projective planes and affine planes. We present an algorithm for constructing a projective Hjelmslev planes and affine Hjelsmelv planes using projective planes, affine planes and orthogonal arrays. We show that all 2-uniform projective Hjelmslev planes, and all 2-uniform affine Hjelsmelv planes can be constructed in this way. As a corollary it is shown that all 2-uniform Affine Hjelmselv planes are sub-geometries o...

  3. Simultaneous orthogonal plane imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickevicius, Nikolai J; Paulson, Eric S

    2017-11-01

    Intrafraction motion can result in a smearing of planned external beam radiation therapy dose distributions, resulting in an uncertainty in dose actually deposited in tissue. The purpose of this paper is to present a pulse sequence that is capable of imaging a moving target at a high frame rate in two orthogonal planes simultaneously for MR-guided radiotherapy. By balancing the zero gradient moment on all axes, slices in two orthogonal planes may be spatially encoded simultaneously. The orthogonal slice groups may be acquired with equal or nonequal echo times. A Cartesian spoiled gradient echo simultaneous orthogonal plane imaging (SOPI) sequence was tested in phantom and in vivo. Multiplexed SOPI acquisitions were performed in which two parallel slices were imaged along two orthogonal axes simultaneously. An autocalibrating phase-constrained 2D-SENSE-GRAPPA (generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition) algorithm was implemented to reconstruct the multiplexed data. SOPI images without intraslice motion artifacts were reconstructed at a maximum frame rate of 8.16 Hz. The 2D-SENSE-GRAPPA reconstruction separated the parallel slices aliased along each orthogonal axis. The high spatiotemporal resolution provided by SOPI has the potential to be beneficial for intrafraction motion management during MR-guided radiation therapy or other MRI-guided interventions. Magn Reson Med 78:1700-1710, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  4. H.E.S.S.-II - Gamma ray astronomy from 20 GeV to hundreds of TeV’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Naurois Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights of these observations with H.E.S.S.-II have been presented and discussed at the conference. Moreover, after ten years of H.E.S.S. phase I observations, we are currently preparing a Legacy Release of the H.E.S.S. Galactic Plane Survey. A special edition of Astronomy & Astrophysics is currently under preparation, and will contain many important legacy results from H.E.S.S.-I. Major results from this very deep scan of the MilkyWay performed with H.E.S.S.-I, including among others spectacular findings from the Large Magellanic Cloud, have been presented.

  5. Galactic Sources Detected in the NuSTAR Serendipitous Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomsick, John A.; Clavel, Maïca; Chiu, Jeng-Lun [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Lansbury, George B.; Aird, James [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Rahoui, Farid [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Fornasini, Francesca M.; Hong, JaeSub; Grindlay, Jonathan E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Alexander, David M. [Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Bodaghee, Arash [Georgia College and State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061 (United States); Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Harrison, Fiona A. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Krivonos, Roman A. [Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya Str. 84/32, 117997, Moscow (Russian Federation); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) provides an improvement in sensitivity at energies above 10 keV by two orders of magnitude over non-focusing satellites, making it possible to probe deeper into the Galaxy and universe. Lansbury and collaborators recently completed a catalog of 497 sources serendipitously detected in the 3–24 keV band using 13 deg{sup 2} of NuSTAR coverage. Here, we report on an optical and X-ray study of 16 Galactic sources in the catalog. We identify 8 of them as stars (but some or all could have binary companions), and use information from Gaia to report distances and X-ray luminosities for 3 of them. There are 4 CVs or CV candidates, and we argue that NuSTAR J233426–2343.9 is a relatively strong CV candidate based partly on an X-ray spectrum from XMM-Newton . NuSTAR J092418–3142.2, which is the brightest serendipitous source in the Lansbury catalog, and NuSTAR J073959–3147.8 are low-mass X-ray binary candidates, but it is also possible that these 2 sources are CVs. One of the sources is a known high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB), and NuSTAR J105008–5958.8 is a new HMXB candidate that has strong Balmer emission lines in its optical spectrum and a hard X-ray spectrum. We discuss the implications of finding these HMXBs for the surface density (log N –log S ) and luminosity function of Galactic HMXBs. We conclude that with the large fraction of unclassified sources in the Galactic plane detected by NuSTAR in the 8–24 keV band, there could be a significant population of low-luminosity HMXBs.

  6. Galactic Astronomy in the Ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastorguev, A. S.; Sachkov, M. E.; Zabolotskikh, M. V.

    2017-12-01

    We propose a number of prospective observational programs for the ultraviolet space observatory WSO-UV, which seem to be of great importance to modern galactic astronomy. The programs include the search for binary Cepheids; the search and detailed photometric study and the analysis of radial distribution of UV-bright stars in globular clusters ("blue stragglers", blue horizontal-branch stars, RR Lyrae variables, white dwarfs, and stars with UV excesses); the investigation of stellar content and kinematics of young open clusters and associations; the study of spectral energy distribution in hot stars, including calculation of the extinction curves in the UV, optical and NIR; and accurate definition of the relations between the UV-colors and effective temperature. The high angular resolution of the observatory allows accurate astrometric measurements of stellar proper motions and their kinematic analysis.

  7. Galactic cosmic ray iron composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherzer, R.; Enge, W.; Beaujean, R.

    1980-11-01

    We have studied the isotopic compostition of galactic cosmic ray iron in the energy interval 500-750 MeV/nucleon with a visual track detector system consisting of nuclear emulsion and cellulose-nitrate platic. Stopping iron nuclei were identified from ionization - range measurements in the two detector parts. Cone lengths were measured in the plastic sheets and the residual ranges of the particles were measured in plastic and in emulsion. We have determined the mass of 17 iron nuclei with an uncertainty of about 0.3 amu. The isotopic composition at the detector level was found to be 52 Fe: 53 Fe: 54 Fe: 55 Fe: 56 Fe: 57 Fe: 58 Fe = 0:1: 4:3:8:1:0. These numbers are not in conflict with the assumption that the isotopic composition of cosmic ray iron at the source is similar to the solar system composition. (author)

  8. Toward Measuring Galactic Dense Molecular Gas Properties and 3D Distribution with Hi-GAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetterlund, Erika; Glenn, Jason; Maloney, Phil

    2016-01-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory's submillimeter dust continuum survey Hi-GAL provides a powerful new dataset for characterizing the structure of the dense interstellar medium of the Milky Way. Hi-GAL observed a 2° wide strip covering the entire 360° of the Galactic plane in broad bands centered at 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm, with angular resolution ranging from 10 to 40 arcseconds. We are adapting a molecular cloud clump-finding algorithm and a distance probability density function distance-determination method developed for the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) to the Hi-GAL data. Using these methods we expect to generate a database of 105 cloud clumps, derive distance information for roughly half the clumps, and derive precise distances for approximately 20% of them. With five-color photometry and distances, we will measure the cloud clump properties, such as luminosities, physical sizes, and masses, and construct a three-dimensional map of the Milky Way's dense molecular gas distribution.The cloud clump properties and the dense gas distribution will provide critical ground truths for comparison to theoretical models of molecular cloud structure formation and galaxy evolution models that seek to emulate spiral galaxies. For example, such models cannot resolve star formation and use prescriptive recipes, such as converting a fixed fraction of interstellar gas to stars at a specified interstellar medium density threshold. The models should be compared to observed dense molecular gas properties and galactic distributions.As a pilot survey to refine the clump-finding and distance measurement algorithms developed for BGPS, we have identified molecular cloud clumps in six 2° × 2° patches of the Galactic plane, including one in the inner Galaxy along the line of sight through the Molecular Ring and the termination of the Galactic bar and one toward the outer Galaxy. Distances have been derived for the inner Galaxy clumps and compared to Bolocam Galactic Plane

  9. PREFACE: Galactic Center Workshop 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schödel, Rainer; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Muno, Michael P.; Nayakshin, Sergei; Ott, Thomas

    2006-12-01

    We are pleased to present the proceedings from the Galactic Center Workshop 2006—From the Center of the Milky Way to Nearby Low-Luminosity Galactic Nuclei. The conference took place in the Physikzentrum, Bad Honnef, Germany, on 18 to 22 April 2006. It is the third workshop of this kind, following the Galactic Center Workshops held 1998 in Tucson, Arizona, and 2002 in Kona, Hawaii. The center of the Milky Way is the only galactic nucleus of a fairly common spiral galaxy that can be observed in great detail. With a distance of roughly 8 kpc, the resolution that can currently be achieved is of the order 40 mpc/8000 AU in the X-ray domain, 2 mpc/400 AU in the near-infrared, and 0.01 mpc/1 AU with VLBI in the millimeter domain. This is two to three orders of magnitude better than for any comparable nearby galaxy, making thus the center of the Milky Way thetemplate object for the general physical interpretation of the phenomena that can be observed in galactic nuclei. We recommend the summary article News from the year 2006 Galactic Centre workshopby Mark Morris and Sergei Nayakshin—who also gave the summary talk of the conference—to the reader in order to obtain a first, concise overview of the results presented at the workshop and some of the currently most exciting—and debated—developments in recent GC research. While the workshops held in 1998 and 2002 were dedicated solely to the center of the Milky Way, the field of view was widened in Bad Honnef to include nearby low-luminosity nuclei. This new feature followed the realization that not only the GC serves as a template for understanding extragalactic nuclei, but that the latter can also provide the context and broader statistical base for understanding the center of our Milky Way. This concerns especially the accretion and emission processes related to the Sagittarius A*, the manifestation of the super massive black hole in the GC, but also the surprising observation of great numbers of massive, young

  10. The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS): Galactic Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digel, Seth William; Funk, S.; Kaaret, P. E.; Tajima, H.; AGIS Collaboration

    2010-03-01

    The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS), a concept for a next-generation atmospheric Cherenkov telescope array, would provide unprecedented sensitivity and resolution in the energy range >50 GeV, allowing great advances in the understanding of the populations and physics of sources of high-energy gamma rays in the Milky Way. Extrapolation based on the known source classes and the performance parameters for AGIS indicates that a survey of the Galactic plane with AGIS will reveal hundreds of TeV sources in exquisite detail, for population studies of a variety of source classes, and detailed studies of individual sources. AGIS will be able to study propagation effects on the cosmic rays produced by Galactic sources by detecting the diffuse glow from their interactions in dense interstellar gas. AGIS will complement and extend results now being obtained in the GeV range with the Fermi mission, by providing superior angular resolution and sensitivity to variability on short time scales, and of course by probing energies that Fermi cannot reach.

  11. AN OUTER ARM IN THE SECOND GALACTIC QUADRANT: STRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Xinyu; Xu, Ye; Yang, Ji; Sun, Yan; Li, Facheng; Zhang, Shaobo; Zhou, Xin, E-mail: xydu@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: xuye@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2016-05-01

    The lack of arm tracers, especially remote tracers, is one of the most difficult problems preventing us from studying the structure of the Milky Way. Fortunately, with its high-sensitivity CO survey, the Milky Way Imaging Scroll Painting (MWISP) project offers such an opportunity. Since completing about one-third of its mission, an area of l = [100, 150]°, b = [−3, 5]° has nearly been covered. The Outer arm of the Milky Way first clearly revealed its shape in the second galactic quadrant in the form of molecular gas—this is the first time that the Outer arm has been reported in such a large-scale mapping of molecular gas. Using the 115 GHz {sup 12}CO(1–0) data of MWISP at the LSR velocity ≃[−100, −60] km s{sup −1} and in the area mentioned above, we have detected 481 molecular clouds in total, and among them 332 (about 69%) are newly detected and 457 probably belong to the Outer arm. The total mass of the detected Outer arm clouds is ∼3.1 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ⊙}. Assuming that the spiral arm is a logarithmic spiral, the pitch angle is fitted as ∼13.°1. Besides combining both the CO data from MWISP and the 21 cm H i data from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (CGPS), the gas distribution, warp, and thickness of the Outer arm are also studied.

  12. Planck 2015 results. XXV. Diffuse low-frequency Galactic foregrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Alves, M.I.R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Orlando, E.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Peel, M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Strong, A.W.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vidal, M.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I.K.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-01-01

    (abridged) We discuss the Galactic foreground emission between 20 and 100GHz based on observations by Planck/WMAP. The Commander component-separation tool has been used to separate the various astrophysical processes in total intensity. Comparison with RRL templates verifies the recovery of the free-free emission along the Galactic plane. Comparison of the high-latitude Halpha emission with our free-free map shows residuals that correlate with dust optical depth, consistent with a fraction (~30%) of Halpha having been scattered by high-latitude dust. We highlight a number of diffuse spinning dust morphological features at high latitude. There is substantial spatial variation in the spinning dust spectrum, with the emission peak ranging from below 20GHz to more than 50GHz. There is a strong tendency for the spinning dust component near many prominent HII regions to have a higher peak frequency, suggesting that this increase in peak frequency is associated with dust in the photodissociation regions around the n...

  13. The Revival of Galactic Cosmic-Ray Nucleosynthesis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, B.D.; Olive, K.A.

    1999-01-01

    Because of the roughly linear correlation between Be/H and Fe/H in low-metallicity halo stars, it has been argued that a open-quotes primaryclose quotes component in the nucleosynthesis of Be must be present in addition to the open-quotes secondaryclose quotes component from standard Galactic cosmic-ray nucleosynthesis. In this paper we critically reevaluate the evidence for the primary versus secondary character of Li, Be, and B (LiBeB) evolution, analyzing both the observations and Galactic chemical evolution models. Although it appears that [Be/H] versus [Fe/H] has a logarithmic slope near 1, it is rather the Be-O trend that directly arises from the physics of spallation production. Using new abundances for oxygen in halo stars based on UV OH lines, we find that in Population II stars for which O has been measured, the Be-O slope has a large uncertainty due to systematic effects. Namely, the Be-O logarithmic slope lies in the range 1.3 endash 1.8, rendering it difficult to distinguish from the data between the secondary slope of 2 and the primary slope of 1. The possible difference between the Be-Fe and Be-O slopes is a consequence of the variation in O/Fe versus Fe: recent data suggest that the best-fit O/Fe-Fe slope for Population II is in the range -0.5 to -0.2, rather than zero (i.e., Fe∝O) as is often assumed. In addition to this phenomenological analysis of Be and B evolution, we have also examined the predicted LiBeB, O, and Fe trends in Galactic chemical evolution models that include outflow. Based on our results, it is possible that a good fit to the LiBeB evolution requires only the traditional Galactic cosmic-ray spallation and the (primary) neutrino-process contribution to 11 B. We thus suggest that these two processes might be sufficient to explain 6 Li, Be, and B evolution in the Galaxy, without the need for an additional primary source of Be and B. However, the uncertainties in the data at this time prevent one from reaching a definitive

  14. Interpretation of the galactic radio-continuum and gamma-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuermann, K.P.

    1974-01-01

    An analysis is performed of the nonthermal radio-continuum and gamma-ray emission of the galactic disc, using a spiral-arm model of the Galaxy. The results for the 408 MHz brightness temperature and the >100 MeV gamma-ray line intensity as a function of galactic longitude at bsup(II)=0 deg are presented. The observational implications, as well as the uncertainties in the calculations, are briefly discussed. An estimate of the possible range of the inverse Compton contribution to the observed gamma-ray flux is made

  15. Plane partition vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rensburg, E J Janse van; Ma, J

    2006-01-01

    We examine partitions and their natural three-dimensional generalizations, plane partitions, as models of vesicles undergoing an inflation-deflation transition. The phase diagrams of these models include a critical point corresponding to an inflation-deflation transition, and exhibits multicritical scaling in the vicinity of a multicritical point located elsewhere on the critical curve. We determine the locations of the multicritical points by analysing the generating functions using analytic and numerical means. In addition, we determine the numerical values of the multicritical scaling exponents associated with the multicritical scaling regimes in these models

  16. Galactic bulge preferred over dark matter for the Galactic centre gamma-ray excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Oscar; Gordon, Chris; Crocker, Roland M.; Coleman, Brendan; Paterson, Dylan; Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Pohl, Martin

    2018-05-01

    An anomalous gamma-ray excess emission has been found in the Fermi Large Area Telescope data1 covering the centre of the Galaxy2,3. Several theories have been proposed for this `Galactic centre excess'. They include self-annihilation of dark-matter particles4, an unresolved population of millisecond pulsars5, an unresolved population of young pulsars6, or a series of burst events7. Here, we report on an analysis that exploits hydrodynamical modelling to register the position of interstellar gas associated with diffuse Galactic gamma-ray emission. We find evidence that the Galactic centre excess gamma rays are statistically better described by the stellar over-density in the Galactic bulge and the nuclear stellar bulge, rather than a spherical excess. Given its non-spherical nature, we argue that the Galactic centre excess is not a dark-matter phenomenon but rather associated with the stellar population of the Galactic bulge and the nuclear bulge.

  17. X-Ray Processing of ChaMPlane Fields: Methods and Initial Results for Selected Anti-Galactic Center Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, JaeSub; van den Berg, Maureen; Schlegel, Eric M.; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Koenig, Xavier; Laycock, Silas; Zhao, Ping

    2005-12-01

    We describe the X-ray analysis procedure of the ongoing Chandra Multiwavelength Plane (ChaMPlane) Survey and report the initial results from the analysis of 15 selected anti-Galactic center observations (90degusing custom-developed analysis tools appropriate for Galactic sources but also of general use: optimum photometry in crowded fields using advanced techniques for overlapping sources, rigorous astrometry and 95% error circles for combining X-ray images or matching to optical/IR images, and application of quantile analysis for spectral analysis of faint sources. We apply these techniques to 15 anti-Galactic center observations (of 14 distinct fields), in which we have detected 921 X-ray point sources. We present logN-logS distributions and quantile analysis to show that in the hard band (2-8 keV) active galactic nuclei dominate the sources. Complete analysis of all ChaMPlane anti-Galactic center fields will be given in a subsequent paper, followed by papers on sources in the Galactic center and bulge regions.

  18. G25.5 + 0.2: a very young supernova remnant or a galactic planetary nebula?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.L.; Becker, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    G25.5 + 0.2, a radio source suggested by previous authors to be a very young galactic supernova remnant, is more likely to be a planetary nebula. Its IRAS colours and fluxes and its radio spectrum and morphology are all consistent with the properties of planetary nebulae; its radio flux and distance imply a large mass of ionized gas, which is expected from a Type I planetary nebula lying in the galactic plane. We suggest some definitive observations which should be able to determine whether this interesting object is a planetary nebula or a supernova remnant. (author)

  19. Blowing in the Milky Way Wind: Neutral Hydrogen Clouds Tracing the Galactic Nuclear Outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Teodoro, Enrico M.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Lockman, Felix J.; Denbo, Sara R.; Endsley, Ryan; Ford, H. Alyson; Harrington, Kevin

    2018-03-01

    We present the results of a new sensitive survey of neutral hydrogen above and below the Galactic Center with the Green Bank Telescope. The observations extend up to Galactic latitude | b| resolution of 9.‧5 and an average rms brightness temperature noise of 40 mK in a 1 {km} {{{s}}}-1 channel. The survey reveals the existence of a population of anomalous high-velocity clouds extending up to heights of about 1.5 kpc from the Galactic plane and showing no signature of Galactic rotation. These clouds have local standard of rest velocities | {V}LSR}| ≲ 360 {km} {{{s}}}-1, and assuming a Galactic Center origin, they have sizes of a few tens of parsec and neutral hydrogen masses spanning 10{--}{10}5 {M}ȯ . Accounting for selection effects, the cloud population is symmetric in longitude, latitude, and V LSR. We model the cloud kinematics in terms of an outflow expanding from the Galactic Center and find the population consistent with being material moving with radial velocity {V}{{w}}≃ 330 {km} {{{s}}}-1 distributed throughout a bicone with opening angle α > 140^\\circ . This simple model implies an outflow luminosity {L}{{w}}> 3× {10}40 erg s‑1 over the past 10 Myr, consistent with star formation feedback in the inner region of the Milky Way, with a cold gas mass-loss rate ≲ 0.1 {{M}ȯ {yr}}-1. These clouds may represent the cold gas component accelerated in the nuclear wind driven by our Galaxy, although some of the derived properties challenge current theoretical models of the entrainment process.

  20. Searching for dual active galactic nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. Rubinur

    2018-02-09

    Feb 9, 2018 ... Abstract. Binary or dual active galactic nuclei (DAGN) are expected from galaxy formation theories. How- ... cuss results from the multi-frequency Expanded Very .... mid-IR color using WISE observations where they have.

  1. Galactic Dark Matter and Terrestrial Periodicities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clube, S

    1998-01-01

    .... The Earth may thus be regarded as a probe of the disc environment; and to account for the periodicity, the Galactic disc is required to have a substantial dark matter component ( approx .15 molar mass/cu pc...

  2. Galactic searches for dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strigari, Louis E.

    2013-01-01

    For nearly a century, more mass has been measured in galaxies than is contained in the luminous stars and gas. Through continual advances in observations and theory, it has become clear that the dark matter in galaxies is not comprised of known astronomical objects or baryonic matter, and that identification of it is certain to reveal a profound connection between astrophysics, cosmology, and fundamental physics. The best explanation for dark matter is that it is in the form of a yet undiscovered particle of nature, with experiments now gaining sensitivity to the most well-motivated particle dark matter candidates. In this article, I review measurements of dark matter in the Milky Way and its satellite galaxies and the status of Galactic searches for particle dark matter using a combination of terrestrial and space-based astroparticle detectors, and large scale astronomical surveys. I review the limits on the dark matter annihilation and scattering cross sections that can be extracted from both astroparticle experiments and astronomical observations, and explore the theoretical implications of these limits. I discuss methods to measure the properties of particle dark matter using future experiments, and conclude by highlighting the exciting potential for dark matter searches during the next decade, and beyond

  3. Duality and noncommutative planes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jøndrup, Søren

    2015-01-01

    We study extensions of simple modules over an associative ring A   and we prove that for twosided ideals mm and nn with artinian factors the condition ExtA1(A/m,A/n)≠0 holds for the left A  -modules A/mA/m and A/nA/n if and only if it holds for the right modules A/nA/n and A/mA/m. The methods pro...... proving this are applied to show that noncommutative models of the plane, i.e. algebras of the form k〈x,y〉/(f)k〈x,y〉/(f), where f∈([x,y])f∈([x,y]) are noetherian only in case (f)=([x,y])...

  4. Multiple fracture planes in deuteron irradiated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, W.R.; Johnson, P.B.

    1987-01-01

    Evidence has been found of multiple fracture planes in the blistering and flaking of metals observed at room temperature following irradiation at 120 K with 200 keV deuterons. In particular, two fracture planes are identified in copper, gold and stainless steel and three in aluminium. In nickel only one fracture plane is found. Qualitative models are proposed which explain the different fracture planes that are observed. In these models it is proposed that several mechanisms are important. (i) High levels of compressional stress in the implanted layer inhibits bubble nucleation and bubble growth in the depth region near the maxima in the damage and gas deposition profiles. (ii) The lateral stress varies from compression in the implant region to tension in the material below. In the region of tension bubble growth is enhanced. The vertical gradient in the lateral stress may also assist gas to move deeper into the target to further enhance bubble growth in this region. (iii) Shear resulting from differential expansion due to a combination of radiation induced swelling and localised heating is an important mechanism leading to fracture. (orig.)

  5. First-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Galactic Signal Contamination from Sidelobe Pickup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, C.; Hill, R. S.; Hinshaw, G.; Page, L.; Bennett, C. L.; Halpern, M.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wollack, E.; Wright, E. L.

    2003-09-01

    Since the Galactic center is ~1000 times brighter than fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), CMB experiments must carefully account for stray Galactic pickup. We present the level of contamination due to sidelobes for the first-year CMB maps produced by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) observatory. For each radiometer, full 4π sr antenna gain patterns are determined from a combination of numerical prediction and ground-based and space-based measurements. These patterns are convolved with the WMAP first-year sky maps and observatory scan pattern to generate the expected sidelobe signal contamination, for both intensity and polarized microwave sky maps. When the main beams are outside of the Galactic plane, we find rms values for the expected sidelobe pickup of 15, 2.1, 2.0, 0.3, and 0.5 μK for the K, Ka, Q, V, and W bands, respectively. Except for at the K band, the rms polarized contamination is the Galactic pickup are presented. WMAP is the result of a partnership between Princeton University and the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Scientific guidance is provided by the WMAP Science Team.

  6. ASGARD: A LARGE SURVEY FOR SLOW GALACTIC RADIO TRANSIENTS. I. OVERVIEW AND FIRST RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Peter K. G.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Croft, Steve; Keating, Garrett K.; Law, Casey J.; Wright, Melvyn C. H., E-mail: pwilliams@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, B-20 Hearst Field Annex 3411, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2013-01-10

    Searches for slow radio transients and variables have generally focused on extragalactic populations, and the basic parameters of Galactic populations remain poorly characterized. We present a large 3 GHz survey performed with the Allen Telescope Array (ATA) that aims to improve this situation: ASGARD, the ATA Survey of Galactic Radio Dynamism. ASGARD observations spanned two years with weekly visits to 23 deg{sup 2} in two fields in the Galactic plane, totaling 900 hr of integration time on science fields and making it significantly larger than previous efforts. The typical blind unresolved source detection limit was 10 mJy. We describe the observations and data analysis techniques in detail, demonstrating our ability to create accurate wide-field images while effectively modeling and subtracting large-scale radio emission, allowing standard transient-and-variability analysis techniques to be used. We present early results from the analysis of two pointings: one centered on the microquasar Cygnus X-3 and one overlapping the Kepler field of view (l = 76 Degree-Sign , b = +13. Degree-Sign 5). Our results include images, catalog statistics, completeness functions, variability measurements, and a transient search. Out of 134 sources detected in these pointings, the only compellingly variable one is Cygnus X-3, and no transients are detected. We estimate number counts for potential Galactic radio transients and compare our current limits to previous work and our projection for the fully analyzed ASGARD data set.

  7. The Large Scale Structure of the Galactic Magnetic Field and High Energy Cosmic Ray Anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Muniz, Jaime [Department de Fisica de PartIculas, University de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago, SPAIN (Spain); Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

    2006-10-15

    Measurements of the magnetic field in our Galaxy are complex and usually difficult to interpret. A spiral regular field in the disk is favored by observations, however the number of field reversals is still under debate. Measurements of the parity of the field across the Galactic plane are also very difficult due to the presence of the disk field itself. In this work we demonstrate that cosmic ray protons in the energy range 10{sup 18} to 10{sup 19}eV, if accelerated near the center of the Galaxy, are sensitive to the large scale structure of the Galactic Magnetic Field (GMF). In particular if the field is of even parity, and the spiral field is bi-symmetric (BSS), ultra high energy protons will predominantly come from the Southern Galactic hemisphere, and predominantly from the Northern Galactic hemisphere if the field is of even parity and axi-symmetric (ASS). There is no sensitivity to the BSS or ASS configurations if the field is of odd parity.

  8. OGLE-III MICROLENSING EVENTS AND THE STRUCTURE OF THE GALACTIC BULGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrzykowski, Łukasz; Rynkiewicz, Alicja E.; Skowron, Jan; Kozłowski, Szymon; Udalski, Andrzej; Szymański, Michał K.; Kubiak, Marcin; Soszyński, Igor; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Poleski, Radosław; Pietrukowicz, Paweł; Pawlak, Michał, E-mail: lw@astrouw.edu.pl [Warsaw University Astronomical Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland)

    2015-01-01

    We present and study the largest and most comprehensive catalog of microlensing events ever constructed. The sample of standard microlensing events comprises 3718 unique events from 2001-2009 with 1409 events that had not been detected before in real-time by the Early Warning System of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment. The search pipeline uses machine learning algorithms to help find rare phenomena among 150 million objects and to derive the detection efficiency. Applications of the catalog can be numerous, from analyzing individual events to large statistical studies of the Galactic mass, kinematics distributions, and planetary abundances. We derive maps of the mean Einstein ring crossing time of events spanning 31 deg{sup 2} toward the Galactic center and compare the observed distributions with the most recent models. We find good agreement within the observed region and we see the signature of the tilt of the bar in the microlensing data. However, the asymmetry of the mean timescales seems to rise more steeply than predicted, indicating either a somewhat different orientation of the bar or a larger bar width. The map of events with sources in the Galactic bulge shows a dependence of the mean timescale on the Galactic latitude, signaling an increasing contribution from disk lenses closer to the plane relative to the height of the disk. Our data present a perfect set for comparing and enhancing new models of the central parts of the Milky Way and creating a three-dimensional picture of the Galaxy.

  9. Origins of galactic spiral structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piddington, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Theories of galactic structure are reviewed briefly before comparing them with recent observations. Also reviewed is the evidence for an intergalactic magnetic field and its possible effects on gas concentrations and patterns of star creation, including spiral arms. It is then shown that normal spiral galaxies may be divided into the M51-type and others. The rare M51-type have H I gas arms coincident with unusually filamentary and luminous optical arms; they also have a companion galaxy. The remaining great majority of spirals have no well-defined gas arms and their optical arms are irregular, broader and less luminous; they have no companion galaxy. It appears that without exception the half-dozen or so galaxies whose structures appear to support the density-wave theory show one or more of the characteristics of the rare type of spiral, and that 'the three principal confirmations of the spiral-wave idea' (M51, M81, M101) have companions which may account for their arms. Toomre has rejected this idea on the grounds that his models do not agree with the observed structures. It is shown that these models are inadequate in two major respects, and when replaced by magneto-tidal models using non-uniform gas disks one might expect agreement. The original hydromagnetic model of spiral arms is now reserved for non-interacting galaxies, of which M33 might be taken as a prototype. The model predicts broad or 'massive' optical arms and no corresponding arms of neutral hydrogen, as observed. (Auth.)

  10. Analysis of Magnetic Anisotropy and the Role of Magnetic Dilution in Triggering Single-Molecule Magnet (SMM) Behavior in a Family of CoII YIII Dinuclear Complexes with Easy-Plane Anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, María A; Nehrkorn, Joscha; Suturina, Elizaveta A; Ruiz, Eliseo; Gómez-Coca, Silvia; Holldack, Karsten; Schnegg, Alexander; Krzystek, Jurek; Moreno, José M; Colacio, Enrique

    2017-08-25

    Three new closely related Co II Y III complexes of general formula [Co(μ-L)(μ-X)Y(NO 3 ) 2 ] (X - =NO 3 - 1, benzoate 2, or 9-anthracenecarboxylato 3) have been prepared with the compartmental ligand N,N',N''-trimethyl-N,N''-bis(2-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-methylbenzyl)diethylenetriamine (H 2 L). In these complexes, Co II and Y III are triply bridged by two phenoxide groups belonging to the di-deprotonated ligand (L 2- ) and one ancillary anion X - . The change of the ancillary bridging group connecting Co II and Y III ions induces small differences in the trigonally distorted CoN 3 O 3 coordination sphere with a concomitant tuning of the magnetic anisotropy and intermolecular interactions. Direct current magnetic, high-frequency and -field EPR (HFEPR), frequency domain Fourier transform THz electron paramagnetic resonance (FD-FT THz-EPR) measurements, and ab initio theoretical calculations demonstrate that Co II ions in compounds 1-3 have large and positive D values (≈50 cm -1 ), which decrease with increasing the distortion of the pseudo-octahedral Co II coordination sphere. Dynamic ac magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that compound 1 exhibits field-induced single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior, whereas compounds 2 and 3 only display this behavior when they are magnetically diluted with diamagnetic Zn II (Zn/Co=10:1). In view of this, it is always advisable to use magnetically diluted complexes, in which intermolecular interactions and quantum tunneling of magnetism (QTM) would be at least partly suppressed, so that "hidden single-ion magnet (SIM)" behavior could emerge. Field- and temperature-dependence of the relaxation times indicate the prevalence of the Raman process in all these complexes above approximately 3 K. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Planck early results. XXI. Properties of the interstellar medium in the Galactic plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, A.; Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.

    2011-01-01

    , is included as an additional template, the first time such a component has been used in this way. These templates are then correlated with each of the Planck frequency bands, as well as with higher frequency data from IRAS and DIRBE along with radio data at 1.4 GHz. The emission per column density of the gas...

  12. Models of the circumstellar medium of evolving, massive runaway stars moving through the Galactic plane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, D.M.-A.; Mackey, J.; Langer, N.; Gvaramadze, V.V.; Mignone, A.; Izzard, R.G.; Kaper, L.

    2014-01-01

    At least 5 per cent of the massive stars are moving supersonically through the interstellar medium (ISM) and are expected to produce a stellar wind bow shock. We explore how the mass-loss and space velocity of massive runaway stars affect the morphology of their bow shocks. We run two-dimensional

  13. Prompt Follow Up of Flaring/Transient Fermi LAT Galactic Plane Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-20

    resulting in the discovery of a large number of millisecond pulsars , and novae as an entirely new class of gamma-ray emitter. Many gamma-ray sources...resulting in t he discovery of a large number of millisecond pulsars , and novae as an entirely new class of 1-ray emitter. Many 1-ray sources in...in this region are still unidentified , and the probability of new discoveries is high. We were awarded 8 hours of VLA observing time. Several

  14. Semantic Versus Syntactic Cutting Planes

    OpenAIRE

    Filmus, Yuval; Hrubeš, Pavel; Lauria, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we compare the strength of the semantic and syntactic version of the cutting planes proof system. First, we show that the lower bound technique of Pudlák applies also to semantic cutting planes: the proof system has feasible interpolation via monotone real circuits, which gives an exponential lower bound on lengths of semantic cutting planes refutations. Second, we show that semantic refutations are stronger than syntactic ones. In particular, we give a formula for whic...

  15. The inner 300 parsecs of the Milky Way seen by H.E.S.S.: a Pevatron in the Galactic Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulin Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Galactic Centre region has been observed by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S. array of ground-based Cherenkov telescopes since 2004 leading to the detection of the very-high-energy γ-ray source HESS J1745-290 spatially coincident with the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A*. Diffuse TeV gamma-ray emission has been detected along the Galactic plane, most likely due to hadronic cosmic-ray interactions with the dense gas of the Central Molecular Zone. The rich 2004-2013 dataset permits detailed spectral and morphological studies of the diffuse emission in the inner 300 pc of the Galactic Centre region. The new results provide an important statement regarding the location and origin of the accelerator of PeV protons. The H.E.S.S. observations of the Pevatron are discussed in the context of the origin of Galactic cosmic rays.

  16. Galactic Habitable Zone and Astrobiological Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukotic, B.

    2012-12-01

    This is a short thesis description and for the sake of brevity most things are left out. For more details, those interested are further directed to the thesis related papers in this article reference list. Thesis itself is available at the University of Belgrade library "Svetozar Markovic" (Serbian version only). In this thesis we study the astrobiological history of the Galactic habitable zone through the means of numerical modeling. First group of simulations are unidimensional (time-axis) toy models examine the influence of global regulation mechanisms (gamma-ray bursts and supernovae) on temporal evolution of Galactic astrobiological complexity. It is shown that under the assumption of global regulation classical anti SETI arguments can be undermined. Second group of simulations are more complex bidimensional probabilistic cellular automata models of the Galactic thin disk. They confirm the findings of the toy models and give some insights into the spatial clustering of astrobiological complexity. As a new emerging multidisciplinary science the basic concepts of astrobiology are poorly understood and although all the simulations present here do not include some basic physics (such as Galactic kinematics and dynamics), the input parameters are somewhat arbitrary and could use a future refinement (such as the boundaries of the Galactic habitable zone). This is the cause for low weight and high uncertainty in the output results of the simulations. However, the probabilistic cellular automata has shown as a highly adaptable modeling platform that can simulate various class of astrobiological models with great ease.

  17. A Search for New Galactic Magnetars in Archival Chandra and XMM-Newton Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muno, M. P.; Gaensler, B. M.; Nechita, A.; Miller, J. M.; Slane, P. O.

    2008-06-01

    We present constraints on the number of Galactic magnetars, which we have established by searching for sources with periodic variability in 506 archival Chandra observations and 441 archival XMM-Newton observations of the Galactic plane (| b| fall within our survey, then there are 59+ 92-32 in the Galaxy. Barely detectable magnetars (LX = 3 × 1033 ergs s-1 and Arms = 15% ) could have been identified throughout ≈0.4% of the spiral arms. The lack of new examples implies that birth rate of magnetars is between 0.003 and 0.06 yr-1. Therefore, the birth rate of magnetars is at least 10% of that for normal radio pulsars, and could exceed that value, unless transient magnetars are active for gtrsim105 yr.

  18. The Galactic 511 keV line: analysis and interpretation of Integral observations; L'annihilation des positrons galactiques: analyse et interpretation des donnees INTEGRAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lonjou, V

    2005-09-15

    Ever since the discovery of the 511 keV annihilation line emission from the galactic center region in the late seventies, the origin of galactic positrons has been the topic of a vivid scientific debate. It is also one of the prime scientific objectives of the imaging spectrometer SPI on board ESA's INTEGRAL observatory. In this thesis first a description of the most important SPI sub-system is given - the detector plane. Procedures for detector energy calibration and detector degradation analysis are developed. The determination of instrumental background models, a crucial aspect of data analysis, is elaborated. These background models are then applied to deriving sky maps and spectra of unprecedented quality of the Galactic positron annihilation radiation. The emission is centered on the galactic center with a spatial resolution of 8 degrees (FWHM), a second spatial component appears clearly: the galactic disc. The ray energy has been measured with unprecedented accuracy: 511.0 {+-} 0.03 keV for a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 2.07 {+-} 0.1 keV. The total galactic flux ranges from 1.09 to 2.43 10{sup -3} ph.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} including uncertainties on spatial distribution. Finally, the implications of these observations for the production of positrons by various Galactic populations are discussed.

  19. The Galactic fountain as an origin for the Smith Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, A.; Fraternali, F.

    2017-01-01

    The recent discovery of an enriched metallicity for the Smith high-velocity H I Cloud (SC) lends support to a Galactic origin for this system. We use a dynamical model of the galactic fountain to reproduce the observed properties of the SC. In our model, fountain clouds are ejected from the region of the disc spiral arms and move through the halo interacting with a pre-existing hot corona. We find that a simple model where cold gas outflows vertically from the Perseus spiral arm reproduces the kinematics and the distance of the SC, but is in disagreement with the cloud's cometary morphology, if this is produced by ram-pressure stripping by the ambient gas. To explain the cloud morphology, we explore two scenarios: (I) the outflow is inclined with respect to the vertical direction and (II) the cloud is entrained by a fast wind that escapes an underlying superbubble. Solutions in agreement with all observational constraints can be found for both cases, the former requires outflow angles >40° while the latter requires ≳1000 km s-1 winds. All scenarios predict that the SC is in the ascending phase of its trajectory and has large - but not implausible - energy requirements.

  20. Circum-Galactic Medium in the Halo of Quasars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Ottolina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The properties of circum-galactic gas in the halo of quasar host galaxies are investigated analyzing Mg II 2800 and C IV 1540 absorption-line systems along the line of sight close to quasars. We used optical spectroscopy of closely aligned pairs of quasars (projected distance ≤ 200 kpc, but at very different redshift obtained at the VLT and Gran Telescopio Canarias to investigate the distribution of the absorbing gas for a sample of quasars at z ~1. Absorption systems of EW ≥0.3 associated with the foreground quasars are revealed up to 200 kpc from the centre of the host galaxy, showing that the structure of the absorbing gas is patchy with a covering fraction quickly decreasing beyond 100 kpc. In this contribution we use optical and near-IR images obtained at VLT to investigate the relations between the properties of the circum-galactic medium of the host galaxies and of the large scale galaxy environments of the foreground quasars.

  1. Gravitational Couplings for Gop-Planes and y-Op-Planes

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo, Juan Fernando Ospina

    2000-01-01

    The Wess-Zumino actions for generalized orientifold planes (GOp-planes) and y-deformed orientifold planes (yOp-planes) are presented and two series power expantions are realized from whiches processes that involves GOp-planes,yOp-planes, RR-forms, gravitons and gaugeons, are obtained. Finally non-standard GOp-planes and y-Op-planes are showed.

  2. THE EFFICIENCY AND WAVELENGTH DEPENDENCE OF NEAR-INFRARED INTERSTELLAR POLARIZATION TOWARD THE GALACTIC CENTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, Hirofumi; Kurita, Mikio; Kanai, Saori; Sato, Shuji [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Nishiyama, Shogo; Nakajima, Yasushi; Tamura, Motohide; Kandori, Ryo [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8858 (Japan); Nagata, Tetsuya; Yoshikawa, Tatsuhito [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kato, Daisuke [Department of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Sato, Yaeko; Suenaga, Takuya, E-mail: hattan@z.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: shogo.nishiyama@nao.ac.jp [Department of Astronomical Sciences, Graduate University for Advanced Studies (Sokendai), Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8858 (Japan)

    2013-04-15

    Near-infrared polarimetric imaging observations toward the Galactic center (GC) have been carried out to examine the efficiency and wavelength dependence of interstellar polarization. A total area of about 5.7 deg{sup 2} is covered in the J, H, and K{sub S} bands. We examined the polarization efficiency, defined as the ratio of the degree of polarization to color excess. The interstellar medium between the GC and us shows a polarization efficiency lower than that in the Galactic disk by a factor of three. Moreover we investigated the spatial variation of the polarization efficiency by comparing it with that of the color excess, degree of polarization, and position angle. The spatial variations of color excess and degree of polarization depend on the Galactic latitude, while the polarization efficiency varies independently of the Galactic structure. Position angles are nearly parallel to the Galactic plane, indicating a longitudinal magnetic field configuration between the GC and us. The polarization efficiency anticorrelates with dispersions of position angles. The low polarization efficiency and its spatial variation can be explained by the differences in the magnetic field directions along the line of sight. From the lower polarization efficiency, we suggest a higher strength of a random component relative to a uniform component of the magnetic field between the GC and us. We also derived the ratios of degree of polarization p{sub H} /p{sub J} = 0.581 {+-} 0.004 and p{sub K{sub S}}/p{sub H} = 0.620 {+-} 0.002. The power-law indices of the wavelength dependence of polarization are {beta}{sub JH} = 2.08 {+-} 0.02 and {beta}{sub HK{sub S}} = 1.76 {+-} 0.01. Therefore, the wavelength dependence of interstellar polarization exhibits flattening toward longer wavelengths in the range of 1.25-2.14 {mu}m. The flattening would be caused by aligned large-size dust grains.

  3. DETECTION OF THE VELOCITY SHEAR EFFECT ON THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF THE GALACTIC SATELLITES IN ISOLATED SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jounghun; Choi, Yun-Young

    2015-01-01

    We report a detection of the effect of the large-scale velocity shear on the spatial distributions of the galactic satellites around the isolated hosts. Identifying the isolated galactic systems, each of which consists of a single host galaxy and its satellites, from the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and reconstructing linearly the velocity shear field in the local universe, we measure the alignments between the relative positions of the satellites from their isolated hosts and the principal axes of the local velocity shear tensors projected onto the plane of sky. We find a clear signal that the galactic satellites in isolated systems are located preferentially along the directions of the minor principal axes of the large-scale velocity shear field. Those galactic satellites that are spirals, are brighter, are located at distances larger than the projected virial radii of the hosts, and belong to the spiral hosts yield stronger alignment signals, which implies that the alignment strength depends on the formation and accretion epochs of the galactic satellites. It is also shown that the alignment strength is quite insensitive to the cosmic web environment, as well as the size and luminosity of the isolated hosts. Although this result is consistent with the numerical finding of Libeskind et al. based on an N-body experiment, owing to the very low significance of the observed signals, it remains inconclusive whether or not the velocity shear effect on the satellite distribution is truly universal

  4. Detection of the Velocity Shear Effect on the Spatial Distributions of the Galactic Satellites in Isolated Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jounghun; Choi, Yun-Young

    2015-02-01

    We report a detection of the effect of the large-scale velocity shear on the spatial distributions of the galactic satellites around the isolated hosts. Identifying the isolated galactic systems, each of which consists of a single host galaxy and its satellites, from the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and reconstructing linearly the velocity shear field in the local universe, we measure the alignments between the relative positions of the satellites from their isolated hosts and the principal axes of the local velocity shear tensors projected onto the plane of sky. We find a clear signal that the galactic satellites in isolated systems are located preferentially along the directions of the minor principal axes of the large-scale velocity shear field. Those galactic satellites that are spirals, are brighter, are located at distances larger than the projected virial radii of the hosts, and belong to the spiral hosts yield stronger alignment signals, which implies that the alignment strength depends on the formation and accretion epochs of the galactic satellites. It is also shown that the alignment strength is quite insensitive to the cosmic web environment, as well as the size and luminosity of the isolated hosts. Although this result is consistent with the numerical finding of Libeskind et al. based on an N-body experiment, owing to the very low significance of the observed signals, it remains inconclusive whether or not the velocity shear effect on the satellite distribution is truly universal.

  5. Conceptual Design of Wave Plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Trewers, Andrew; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    The Wave Plane is a patented Wave Energy device of the overtopping type, designed to capture potential as well as kinetic energy. This is as such different to other overtopping devices, who usually only focus on potential energy. If Wave Plane A/S can deliver the turbine technology to utilize both...

  6. Galactic binaries with eLISA

    OpenAIRE

    Nelemans, G.

    2013-01-01

    I review what eLISA will see from Galactic binaries -- double stars with orbital periods less than a few hours and white dwarf (or neutron star/black hole) components. I discuss the currently known binaries that are guaranteed (or verification) sources and explain why the expected total number of eLISA Galactic binaries is several thousand, even though there are large uncertainties in our knowledge of this population, in particular that of the interacting AM CVn systems. I very briefly sketch...

  7. Avaliação das alterações do plano oclusal em telerradiografias em norma lateral no tratamento de más oclusões de Classe II, 1ª divisão, com Bionator de Balters, em pacientes retrovertidos, neutrovertidos e provertidos Evaluation of occlusal plane changes in retroverted, neutroverted and proverted patients, with Class II, division 1, malocclusion treated with Balters' Bionator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Madeira de Barros Nunes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este trabalho objetiva verificar as alterações do plano oclusal funcional de Ricketts, utilizando as variáveis que orientam este plano nas análises cefalométricas de Ricketts e Schawrz-Faltin, em pacientes portadores de má oclusão de Classe II de Angle, 1ª divisão, associada ao retrognatismo mandibular, cuja terapêutica indicada tenha sido a Bionatorterapia. METODOLOGIA: a amostra coletada neste estudo retrospectivo consta de 128 telerradiografias em norma lateral de 64 indivíduos retrovertidos, neutrovertidos e provertidos, de ambos os gêneros, no estágio de desenvolvimento da oclusão em fase mista ou permanente jovem. A faixa etária dos indivíduos selecionados para o estudo variou entre 7 anos e 1 mês a 13 anos e 2 meses no momento T1, sendo a média inicial de 10 anos de idade. A média de duração do tratamento foi de 19,7 meses. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: os resultados mostraram comportamentos distintos do plano oclusal, conforme o tipo facial retrovertido, neutrovertido ou provertido. O controle do plano oclusal na Bionatorterapia, pelo manejo do Bionator conforme o tipo facial de cada paciente, por meio de desgastes seletivos no acrílico e conseqüente erupção diferenciada dos dentes, pode influenciar favoravelmente o crescimento geral da face em cada tipo facial.AIM: This work aims to verify the changes of Ricketts functional occlusal plane making use of variables which guide this same plane in the cephalometric analysis of Ricketts and Schwarz-Faltin among patients with Class II, division 1 malocclusion, associated to mandible retrognathism, whose therapy indicated has been Bionatortherapy. METHODS: The sample collected in this retrospective survey has 128 lateral cephalograms of 64 retroverted, neutroverted and proverted individuals, of both genders, at the stage of developing occlusion, either in mixed phase or permanent young. The age scale of individuals selected by the survey goes from 7 years and 1

  8. Nebular excitation in z ∼ 2 star-forming galaxies from the SINS and LUCI surveys: The influence of shocks and active galactic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Sarah F.; Genzel, Reinhard [Department of Astronomy, Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Buschkamp, Peter; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Kurk, Jaron; Rosario, David; Davies, Ric; Eisenhauer, Frank; Lutz, Dieter [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstr. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Sternberg, Amiel [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Gnat, Orly [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Mancini, Chiara; Renzini, Alvio [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Lilly, Simon J.; Carollo, C. Marcella [Institute of Astronomy, Department of Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, ETH, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Burkert, Andreas [Universitäts-Sternwarte Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (USM), Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München (Germany); Cresci, Giovanni [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica Osservatorio di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Genel, Shy [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Shapiro Griffin, Kristen [Space Sciences Research Group, Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States); Hicks, Erin K. S., E-mail: sfnewman@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, U.W., Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); and others

    2014-01-20

    Based on high-resolution, spatially resolved data of 10 z ∼ 2 star-forming galaxies from the SINS/zC-SINF survey and LUCI data for 12 additional galaxies, we probe the excitation properties of high-z galaxies and the impact of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), shocks, and photoionization. We explore how these spatially resolved line ratios can inform our interpretation of integrated emission line ratios obtained at high redshift. Many of our galaxies fall in the 'composite' region of the z ∼ 0 [N II]/Hα versus [O III]/Hβ diagnostic (BPT) diagram, between star-forming galaxies and those with AGNs. Based on our resolved measurements, we find that some of these galaxies likely host an AGN, while others appear to be affected by the presence of shocks possibly caused by an outflow or from an enhanced ionization parameter as compared with H II regions in normal, local star-forming galaxies. We find that the Mass-Excitation (MEx) diagnostic, which separates purely star-forming and AGN hosting local galaxies in the [O III]/Hβ versus stellar mass plane, does not properly separate z ∼ 2 galaxies classified according to the BPT diagram. However, if we shift the galaxies based on the offset between the local and z ∼ 2 mass-metallicity relation (i.e., to the mass they would have at z ∼ 0 with the same metallicity), we find better agreement between the MEx and BPT diagnostics. Finally, we find that metallicity calibrations based on [N II]/Hα are more biased by shocks and AGNs at high-z than the [O III]/Hβ/[N II]/Hα calibration.

  9. THE OPTX PROJECT. V. IDENTIFYING DISTANT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trouille, L.; Barger, A. J.; Tremonti, C.

    2011-01-01

    The Baldwin, Phillips, and Terlevich emission-line ratio diagnostic ([O III]/Hβ versus [N II]/Hα, hereafter BPT diagram) efficiently separates galaxies whose signal is dominated by star formation (BPT-SF) from those dominated by active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity (BPT-AGN). Yet this BPT diagram is limited to z eff ) = 1.0 +0.4 –0.4 ) and has a high X-ray luminosity to total infrared luminosity ratio. This suggests that, on average, the X-ray signal in BPT-comp is dominated by obscured or low accretion rate AGN activity rather than by star formation, supporting their inclusion in the TBT-AGN regime.

  10. Spherical subsystem of galactic radiosources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorshkov, A G; Popov, M V [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Gosudarstvennyj Astronomicheskij Inst. ' ' GAISh' '

    1975-05-01

    The concentration of statistically complete sampling radiosources of the Ohiof scanning with plane spectra towards the Galaxy centre has been discovered. Quantitative calculations have showed that the sources form a spheric subsystem, which is close in parameters to such old formations in the Galaxy as globular clusters and the RRLsub(YR) type stars. The luminosity of the galaxy spheric subsystem object equals 10/sup 33/ erg/sec, the total number of objects being 7000. The existence of such a subsystem explains s the anomalously by low incline of statistics lgN-lgS in HF scanning PKS (..gamma..-2700Mgz) and the Michigan University scanning (..gamma..=8000Mgz) because the sources of galaxy spheric subsystem make up a considerable share in the total number of sources, especially at high frequencies (50% of sources with a flux greater than a unit of flux per 8000Mgz). It is very probable that the given subsystem consists of the representatives of one of the following class of objects: a) heat sources - the H2H regions with T=10/sup 40/K, Nsub(e)=10/sup 3/, l=1 ps b) supermass black holes with mass M/Mo approximately 10/sup 5/.

  11. Avaliação da alteração do plano oclusal em cirurgias ortognáticas combinadas com utilização de fixação interna rígida em pacientes com padrão facial de Classe II Evaluation of occlusal plane alteration in Orthognathic Surgeries combined with rigid internal fixation in Class II skeletal facial standard patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Eiras Dela Coleta Pizzol

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a estabilidade de cirurgias bimaxilares com fixação interna rígida, na qual promoveu-se uma rotação anti-horária da mandíbula e conseqüente redução do ângulo do plano oclusal. METODOLOGIA: foram estudados 15 pacientes com padrão facial de Classe II e deficiência mandibular. Os movimentos cirúrgicos foram avaliados por meio de medidas lineares e angulares realizadas no programa CefX, obtidas de telerradiografias cefalométricas em norma lateral em três diferentes tempos: (T0 pré-operatório, (T1 pós-operatório imediato e (T2 pós-operatório de no mínimo 6 meses. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: os resultados demonstraram que a cirurgia bimaxilar promove mudanças faciais significativas e, principalmente, que a rotação anti-horária da mandíbula com redução do ângulo do plano oclusal mostrou-se estatisticamente estável, sendo uma opção confiável em cirurgias de pacientes com padrão facial de Classe II com deficiência mandibular.AIM: to access the surgical stability combined with rigid internal fixation, where the counter-clockwise jaw rotation was carried out, and consequently the occlusal plane reduction. METHODS: fifteen Class II skeletal facial standard patients were studied. The surgical movements were assessed by linear measures and angles accomplished at the CefX program, collected from cephalometric teleradiography lateral norms in three different moments: (T0 presurgical, (T1 instantaneous postsurgical and (T2 postsurgical at least six months. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: the results showed that the bimaxillary surgery causes meaningful facial changes and mainly, the counter-clockwise mandible rotation and consequently the occlusal plane angle reduction showed statistically stable, suggesting a reliable opinion in Class II standard facial surgeries with defective mandibular.

  12. Annual modulation of the galactic binary confusion noise background and LISA data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seto, Naoki

    2004-01-01

    We study the anisotropies of the galactic confusion noise background and its effects on LISA data analysis. LISA has two data streams of gravitational wave signals relevant for the low frequency regime. Because of the anisotropies of the background, the matrix for their confusion noises has off-diagonal components and depends strongly on the orientation of the detector plane. We find that the sky-averaged confusion noise level √(S(f)) could change by a factor of 2 in 3 months and would be minimum when the orbital position of LISA is around either the spring or autumn equinox

  13. Constraints on the Galactic bar with RAVE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoja, T.; Helmi, A.; Helmi, [Unknown

    We derive the pattern speed of the Galactic bar from the analysis of the kinematics of the Hercules stream at different Galactocentric radii with RAVE, assuming that Hercules is caused by the bar. We find a well constrained pattern speed of Ωb=1.98+0.04 -0.08 Ωo, where Ω0 is the local circular

  14. Numerical experiments on galactic halo formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, P.J.; Salmon, J.K.; Zurek, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    We have used a hybrid N-body-FFT approach to solving Poisson's equation in a cosmological setting. Using this method, we have explored the connection between the form of the initial Gaussian density perturbations that by today have grown into galaxies and the internal properties of the individual galactic halos that are formed. 19 refs., 4 figs

  15. MODIFIED GRAVITY SPINS UP GALACTIC HALOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jounghun [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FPRD, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Zhao, Gong-Bo [National Astronomy Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100012 (China); Li, Baojiu [Institute of Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Koyama, Kazuya, E-mail: jounghun@astro.snu.ac.kr [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-20

    We investigate the effect of modified gravity on the specific angular momentum of galactic halos by analyzing the halo catalogs at z = 0 from high-resolution N-body simulations for a f(R) gravity model that meets the solar-system constraint. It is shown that the galactic halos in the f(R) gravity model tend to acquire significantly higher specific angular momentum than those in the standard {Lambda}CDM model. The largest difference in the specific angular momentum distribution between these two models occurs for the case of isolated galactic halos with mass less than 10{sup 11} h {sup -1} M {sub Sun }, which are likely least shielded by the chameleon screening mechanism. As the specific angular momentum of galactic halos is rather insensitive to other cosmological parameters, it can in principle be an independent discriminator of modified gravity. We speculate a possibility of using the relative abundance of low surface brightness galaxies (LSBGs) as a test of general relativity given that the formation of the LSBGs occurs in fast spinning dark halos.

  16. THE EDGE OF THE YOUNG GALACTIC DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carraro, Giovanni; Vazquez, Ruben A.; Costa, Edgardo; Perren, Gabriel; Moitinho, Andre

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we report and discuss the detection of two distant diffuse stellar groups in the third Galactic quadrant. They are composed of young stars, with spectral types ranging from late O to late B, and lie at galactocentric distances between 15 and 20 kpc. These groups are located in the area of two cataloged open clusters (VdB-Hagen 04 and Ruprecht 30), projected toward the Vela-Puppis constellations, and within the core of the Canis Major overdensity. Their reddening and distances have been estimated by analyzing their color-color and color-magnitude diagrams, derived from deep UBV photometry. The existence of young star aggregates at such extreme distances from the Galactic center challenges the commonly accepted scenario in which the Galactic disk has a sharp cutoff at about 14 kpc from the Galactic center and indicates that it extends to much greater distances (as also supported by the recent detection of CO molecular complexes well beyond this distance). While the groups we find in the area of Ruprecht 30 are compatible with the Orion and Norma-Cygnus spiral arms, respectively, the distant group we identify in the region of VdB-Hagen 04 lies in the external regions of the Norma-Cygnus arm, at a galactocentric distance (∼20 kpc) where no young stars have been detected so far in the optical.

  17. Direct evidence for a massive galactic halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, M.R.S.

    1983-01-01

    The discovery of a very distant galactic RR Lyrae star, R15 is reported. Spectroscopic observations of the object show that it has a high negative radial velocity, implying a lower limit to the mass of the galaxy of 1.4 x 10 12 Msun. (author)

  18. Galactic winds and the hubble sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregman, J.N.

    1978-01-01

    The conditions for maintenance of supernova-driven galactic winds have been investigated to assess their role in the morphology of disk-bulge galaxies. A fluid mechanical model with gas and stars which includes galactic rotation has been used to investigate several classes of winds. It is found that many galaxies, once their initial gas is depleted, can maintain a wind throughout the entire galaxy, a conditon most easily satisfied by systems with a small bulge-to-disk ratio. If the ratio of supernova heating to total mass loss falls below a critical value that depends on galaxy type and mass, only a partial wind exterior to a critical surface can exist, with infall occurring at interior points. Galaxies in which only the bulge was depleted of gas may support a bulge wind that does not interact with the colder and denser gas in the disk.These results indicate that if SO galaxies are a transition class between elliptical and spiral galaxies, it is probably because early galactic winds, which may initially deplete a galaxy of gas, are more prevalent in SO than in spiral galaxies. However, if SO's form a parallel sequence with spirals, the initial gas-depletion mechanism must be independent of bulge-to-disk ratio. These results are not strongly influenced by altering the galactic mass model, including electron conduction in the flow equations, or adding massive halos

  19. 2MASS Identifications for Galactic OB Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2007-01-01

    Cross-identifications for 14,574 intrinsically luminous galactic stars (mostly OB stars) to objects in the 2MASS survey have been determined using a search box of +/-0.0015 degrees (+/- 5.4 arcsec) in both RA and Dec. Instructions on obtaining the relevant files can be obtained at othello.alma.edu/~reed/OB-2MASS.doc.

  20. Kinematic structures in galactic disc simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roca-F� brega, S.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Figueras, F.; Antoja Castelltort, Teresa; Valenzuela, O.; Henney, W.J.; Torres-Peimbert, S.

    2011-01-01

    N-body and test particle simulations have been used to characterize the stellar streams in the galactic discs of Milky Way type galaxies. Tools such as the second and third order moments of the velocity ellipsoid and clustering methods -EM-WEKA and FoF- allow characterizing these kinematic

  1. Quasars, Seyfert galaxies and active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterbrock, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter is devoted to the spectroscopic methods for analyzing the observed plasma in the nuclei of quasars, Seyfert galazies, and active galactic nuclei. Both the narrow-line region and the broad-line region are discussed. Physical models are presented

  2. Einstein Observations of Galactic supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, Frederick D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper summarizes the observations of Galactic supernova remnants with the imaging detectors of the Einstein Observatory. X-ray surface brightness contours of 47 remnants are shown together with gray-scale pictures. Count rates for these remnants have been derived and are listed for the HRI, IPC, and MPC detectors.

  3. Star formation and galactic evolution. I. General expressions and applications to our galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, M.

    1979-01-01

    The study of galactic evolution involves three mechanisms for triggering star formation in interstellar clouds: (i) star formation triggered by a galactic spiral density wave, (ii) star formation triggered by shock waves from supernovae, and (iii) star formation triggered by an expanding H II region. Useful analytic approximations to the birthrate per unit mass are obtained by treating the efficiencies of these various mechanisms as time independent. In situations where shock waves from high-mass stars (either expanding H II regions or supernova explosions) are the only important star-forming mechanisms, the birthrate is exponential in time. This case is appropriate for the past evolution of an elliptical galaxy, nuclear bulge, or galactic halo. In the disk of a spiral galaxy where all three mechanisms operate, the birthrate consists of an exponential term plus a time-independent term. In both situations, the value of the time constant T in the exponential term is directly related to the efficiency of the shock waves from massive stars in initiating star formation.For our Galaxy, this simplified model is used to compute the radial distributions of young objects and low-mass stars in the disk, and the past and present birthrates in the solar-neighborhood shell

  4. Study of X-ray and gamma ray sources observed by the SIGNE (Prognoz 6 Satellite) experiment in the regions of the galactic center and anticenter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Violes, F.

    1981-12-01

    Characteristics of the SIGNE II MP 6 experiment are reported and procedures to obtain the fluxes detected from all the sources are described. We next present deconvolution method used to isolate the galactic center sources. In the last chapter we present and discuss the photon spectra of the sources observed by the SIGNE II MP 6 experiment [fr

  5. FLUORINE ABUNDANCES OF GALACTIC LOW-METALLICITY GIANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H. N.; Zhao, G. [Key Lab of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, A20 Datun Road, Chaoyang, Beijing 100012 (China); Ludwig, H.-G.; Caffau, E.; Christlieb, N., E-mail: lhn@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: gzhao@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: hludwig@lsw.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: ecaffau@lsw.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: N.Christlieb@lsw.uni-heidelberg.de [Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Koenigstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    With abundances and 2{sigma} upper limits of fluorine (F) in seven metal-poor field giants, nucleosynthesis of stellar F at low metallicity is discussed. The measurements are derived from the HF(1-0) R9 line at 23358 A using near-infrared K-band high-resolution spectra obtained with CRIRES at the Very Large Telescope. The sample reaches lower metallicities than previous studies on F of field giants, ranging from [Fe/H] = -1.56 down to -2.13. Effects of three-dimensional model atmospheres on the derived F and O abundances are quantitatively estimated and shown to be insignificant for the program stars. The observed F yield in the form of [F/O] is compared with two sets of Galactic chemical evolution models, which quantitatively demonstrate the contribution of Type II supernova (SN II) {nu}-process and asymptotic giant branch/Wolf-Rayet stars. It is found that at this low-metallicity region, models cannot well predict the observed distribution of [F/O], while the observations are better fit by models considering an SN II {nu}-process with a neutrino energy of E {sub {nu}} = 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 53} erg. Our sample contains HD 110281, a retrograde orbiting low-{alpha} halo star, showing a similar F evolution as globular clusters. This supports the theory that such halo stars are possibly accreted from dwarf galaxy progenitors of globular clusters in the halo.

  6. Generating asymptotically plane wave spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund

    2003-01-01

    In an attempt to study asymptotically plane wave spacetimes which admit an event horizon, we find solutions to vacuum Einstein's equations in arbitrary dimension which have a globally null Killing field and rotational symmetry. We show that while such solutions can be deformed to include ones which are asymptotically plane wave, they do not posses a regular event horizon. If we allow for additional matter, such as in supergravity theories, we show that it is possible to have extremal solutions with globally null Killing field, a regular horizon, and which, in addition, are asymptotically plane wave. In particular, we deform the extremal M2-brane solution in 11-dimensional supergravity so that it behaves asymptotically as a 10-dimensional vacuum plane wave times a real line. (author)

  7. Two-transitive MInkowski planes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbrink, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper we determine all finite Minkowski planes with an automorphism group which satisfies the following transitivity property: any ordered pair of nonparallel points can be mapped onto any other ordered pair of nonparallel points.

  8. The position of the occlusal plane in natural and artificial dentitions as related to other craniofacial planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Quran, Firas A M; Hazza'a, Abdalla; Al Nahass, Nabeel

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed at determining the most reliable ala-tragus line as a guide for the orientation of the occlusal plane in complete denture patients by use of cephalometric landmarks on dentate volunteers. Analysis was made for prosthodontically related craniofacial reference lines and angles of lateral cephalometric radiographs taken for 47 dentate adults. Variables were determined and data were analyzed using SPSS (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL). Occlusal plane angle formed between the occlusal plane and Camper's plane had the lowest mean value in the angle formed with Camper's I, which represents the measure taken from the superior border of the tragus of the ear with a score of 2.1°. The highest was measured in the angle formed with Camper's III with a score of 6.1°, while the angle formed with Camper's II was 3.2°. The differences between the three planes in relation to the occlusal plane was significant (p < 0.001). The superior border of the tragus with the inferior border of the ala of the nose was most accurate in orienting the occlusal plane. © 2010 by The American College of Prosthodontists.

  9. Dissipative dark matter and the Andromeda plane of satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, Lisa; Scholtz, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    We show that dissipative dark matter can potentially explain the large observed mass to light ratio of the dwarf satellite galaxies that have been observed in the recently identified planar structure around Andromeda, which are thought to result from tidal forces during a galaxy merger. Whereas dwarf galaxies created from ordinary disks would be dark matter poor, dark matter inside the galactic plane not only provides a source of dark matter, but one that is more readily bound due to the dark matter's lower velocity. This initial N-body study shows that with a thin disk of dark matter inside the baryonic disk, mass-to-light ratios as high as O(90) can be generated when tidal forces pull out patches of sizes similar to the scales of Toomre instabilities of the dark disk. A full simulation will be needed to confirm this result

  10. THE SPLIT RED CLUMP OF THE GALACTIC BULGE FROM OGLE-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nataf, D. M.; Gould, A.; Stanek, K. Z.; Udalski, A.; Fouque, P.

    2010-01-01

    The red clump (RC) is found to be split into two components along several sightlines toward the Galactic bulge. This split is detected with high significance toward the areas (-3.5 < l < 1, b < -5) and (l, b) = (0, + 5.2), i.e., along the bulge minor axis and at least 5 deg off the plane. The fainter (hereafter 'main') component is the one that more closely follows the distance-longitude relation of the bulge RC. The main component is ∼0.5 mag fainter than the secondary component and with an overall approximately equal population. For sightlines further from the plane, the difference in brightness increases, and more stars are found in the secondary component than in the main component. The two components have very nearly equal (V - I) color.

  11. A magnetic torsional wave near the Galactic Centre traced by a 'double helix' nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Mark; Uchida, Keven; Do, Tuan

    2006-03-16

    The magnetic field in the central few hundred parsecs of the Milky Way has a dipolar geometry and is substantially stronger than elsewhere in the Galaxy, with estimates ranging up to a milligauss (refs 1-6). Characterization of the magnetic field at the Galactic Centre is important because it can affect the orbits of molecular clouds by exerting a drag on them, inhibit star formation, and could guide a wind of hot gas or cosmic rays away from the central region. Here we report observations of an infrared nebula having the morphology of an intertwined double helix about 100 parsecs from the Galaxy's dynamical centre, with its axis oriented perpendicular to the Galactic plane. The observed segment is about 25 parsecs in length, and contains about 1.25 full turns of each of the two continuous, helically wound strands. We interpret this feature as a torsional Alfvén wave propagating vertically away from the Galactic disk, driven by rotation of the magnetized circumnuclear gas disk. The direct connection between the circumnuclear disk and the double helix is ambiguous, but the images show a possible meandering channel that warrants further investigation.

  12. Applications of machine-learning algorithms for infrared colour selection of Galactic Wolf-Rayet stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Giuseppe; Morris, P. W.; Van Dyk, S. D.; Marston, A. P.; Mauerhan, J. C.

    2018-01-01

    We have investigated and applied machine-learning algorithms for infrared colour selection of Galactic Wolf-Rayet (WR) candidates. Objects taken from the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Midplane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE) catalogue of the infrared objects in the Galactic plane can be classified into different stellar populations based on the colours inferred from their broad-band photometric magnitudes [J, H and Ks from 2 Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), and the four Spitzer/IRAC bands]. The algorithms tested in this pilot study are variants of the k-nearest neighbours approach, which is ideal for exploratory studies of classification problems where interrelations between variables and classes are complicated. The aims of this study are (1) to provide an automated tool to select reliable WR candidates and potentially other classes of objects, (2) to measure the efficiency of infrared colour selection at performing these tasks and (3) to lay the groundwork for statistically inferring the total number of WR stars in our Galaxy. We report the performance results obtained over a set of known objects and selected candidates for which we have carried out follow-up spectroscopic observations, and confirm the discovery of four new WR stars.

  13. Scattered-Light Echoes from the Historical Galactic Supernovae Cassiopeia A and Tycho (SN 1572)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rest, A; Welch, D L; Suntzeff, N B; Oaster, L; Lanning, H; Olsen, K; Smith, R C; Becker, A C; Bergmann, M; Challis, P; Clocchiatti, A; Cook, K H; Damke, G; Garg, A; Huber, M E; Matheson, T; Minniti, D; Prieto, J L; Wood-Vasey, W M

    2008-05-06

    We report the discovery of an extensive system of scattered light echo arclets associated with the recent supernovae in the local neighborhood of the Milky Way: Tycho (SN 1572) and Cassiopeia A. Existing work suggests that the Tycho SN was a thermonuclear explosion while the Cas A supernova was a core collapse explosion. Precise classifications according to modern nomenclature require spectra of the outburst light. In the case of ancient SNe, this can only be done with spectroscopy of their light echo, where the discovery of the light echoes from the outburst light is the first step. Adjacent light echo positions suggest that Cas A and Tycho may share common scattering dust structures. If so, it is possible to measure precise distances between historical Galactic supernovae. On-going surveys that alert on the development of bright scattered-light echo features have the potential to reveal detailed spectroscopic information for many recent Galactic supernovae, both directly visible and obscured by dust in the Galactic plane.

  14. Scattered-Light Echoes from the Historical Galactic Supernovae Cassiopeia A and Tycho (SN 1572)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rest, A.; Welch, D.L.; Suntzeff, N.B.; Oaster, L.; Lanning, H.; Olsen, K.; Smith, R.C.; Becker, A.C.; Bergmann, M.; Challis, P.; Clocchiatti, A.; Cook, K.H.; Damke, G.; Garg, A.; Huber, M.E.; Matheson, T.; Minniti, D.; Prieto, J.L.; Wood-Vasey, W.M.

    2008-01-01

    We report the discovery of an extensive system of scattered light echo arclets associated with the recent supernovae in the local neighborhood of the Milky Way: Tycho (SN 1572) and Cassiopeia A. Existing work suggests that the Tycho SN was a thermonuclear explosion while the Cas A supernova was a core collapse explosion. Precise classifications according to modern nomenclature require spectra of the outburst light. In the case of ancient SNe, this can only be done with spectroscopy of their light echo, where the discovery of the light echoes from the outburst light is the first step. Adjacent light echo positions suggest that Cas A and Tycho may share common scattering dust structures. If so, it is possible to measure precise distances between historical Galactic supernovae. On-going surveys that alert on the development of bright scattered-light echo features have the potential to reveal detailed spectroscopic information for many recent Galactic supernovae, both directly visible and obscured by dust in the Galactic plane

  15. Figuring Out Gas and Galaxies in Enzo (FOGGIE): Simulating effects of feedback on galactic outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Melissa Elizabeth; Corlies, Lauren; Peeples, Molly; Tumlinson, Jason; O'Shea, Brian; Smith, Britton

    2018-01-01

    The circumgalactic medium (CGM) is the region beyond the galactic disk in which gas is accreted through pristine inflows from the intergalactic medium and expelled from the galaxy by stellar feedback in large outflows that can then be recycled back onto the disk. These gas cycles connect the galactic disk with its cosmic environment, making the CGM a vital component of galaxy evolution. However, the CGM is primarily observed in absorption, which can be difficult to interpret. In this study, we use high resolution cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of a Milky Way mass halo evolved with the code Enzo to aid the interpretation of these observations. In our simulations, we vary feedback strength and observe the effect it has on galactic outflows and the evolution of the galaxy’s CGM. We compare the star formation rate of the galaxy with the velocity flux and mass outflow rate as a function of height above the plane of the galaxy in order to measure the strength of the outflows and how far they extend outside of the galaxy.This work was supported by The Space Astronomy Summer Program at STScI and NSF grant AST-1517908.

  16. DENSITY OF WARM IONIZED GAS NEAR THE GALACTIC CENTER: LOW RADIO FREQUENCY OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Subhashis

    2013-01-01

    We have observed the Galactic center (GC) region at 0.154 and 0.255 GHz with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. A total of 62 compact likely extragalactic (EG) sources are detected. Their scattering sizes decrease linearly with increasing angular distance from the GC up to about 1°. The apparent scattering sizes of the sources are more than an order of magnitude less than predicted earlier by the NE2001 model of Galactic electron distribution within 359.°5 e is ∼10 cm –3 , which matches the NE2001 model. This model predicts the EG sources to be resolved out from 1.4 GHz interferometric surveys. However, out of 10 EG sources expected in the region, 8 likely EG are present in the 1.4 GHz catalog. Ionized interfaces of dense molecular clouds to the ambient medium are most likely responsible for strong scattering and low radio frequency absorption. However, dense GC clouds traced by CS J = 1-0 emission are found to have a narrow distribution of ∼0.°2 across the Galactic plane. Angular distribution of most EG sources seen through the so-called Hyperstrong Scattering Region are random in b, and typically ∼7 out of 10 sources will not be seen through the dense molecular clouds, which explains why most of them are not scatter broadened at 1.4 GHz

  17. The effect of radial migration on galactic disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera-Ciro, Carlos; D'Onghia, Elena; Navarro, Julio; Abadi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    We study the radial migration of stars driven by recurring multi-arm spiral features in an exponential disk embedded in a dark matter halo. The spiral perturbations redistribute angular momentum within the disk and lead to substantial radial displacements of individual stars, in a manner that largely preserves the circularity of their orbits and that results, after 5 Gyr (∼40 full rotations at the disk scale length), in little radial heating and no appreciable changes to the vertical or radial structure of the disk. Our results clarify a number of issues related to the spatial distribution and kinematics of migrators. In particular, we find that migrators are a heavily biased subset of stars with preferentially low vertical velocity dispersions. This 'provenance bias' for migrators is not surprising in hindsight, for stars with small vertical excursions spend more time near the disk plane, and thus respond more readily to non-axisymmetric perturbations. We also find that the vertical velocity dispersion of outward migrators always decreases, whereas the opposite holds for inward migrators. To first order, newly arrived migrators simply replace stars that have migrated off to other radii, thus inheriting the vertical bias of the latter. Extreme migrators might therefore be recognized, if present, by the unexpectedly small amplitude of their vertical excursions. Our results show that migration, understood as changes in angular momentum that preserve circularity, can strongly affect the thin disk, but cast doubts on models that envision the Galactic thick disk as a relic of radial migration.

  18. Structure in galactic soft X-ray features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davelaar, J.

    1979-01-01

    Observations are described of the soft X-ray background in a part of the northern hemisphere in the energy range 0.06 - 3.0 keV. The X-ray instruments, placed onboard a sounding rocket, are a one-dimensional focusing collector with multi-cell proportional counters in the focal plane and eight large area counters on deployable panels. A description of the instruments and their preflight calibration is given. Precautions were taken to prevent UV sensitivity of the X-ray instruments. The observation program, which consisted of a number of pre-programmed slow scans, is outlined. The spectral date on the soft X-ray background in these and previous observations showed that at least two components of different temperature are present. A low temperature component of approximately (3-10)x10 5 is found all over the sky. Components of higher temperature approximately 3x10 6 K are found in regions of soft X-ray enhancement; The North Polar Spur has been observed in two scans at the galactic latitude b=25 0 and b=75 0 . The X-ray ridge structure is found to be strongly energy dependent. The low energy data ( 0 reveals two separate emission features on the ridge, both probably of finite extensions (approximately equal to 0 0 .5). A wider X-ray ridge (approximately equal to 10 0 ) is observed above 0.4 keV. (Auth.)

  19. Updated radio Σ−D relation for galactic supernova remnants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović M.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the updated empirical radio surface-brightness-to-diameter (Σ − D relation for supernova remnants (SNRs in our Galaxy. Our original calibration sample of Galactic SNRs with independently determined distances (Pavlović et al. 2013, hereafter Paper I is reconsidered and updated with data which became available in the past two years. The orthogonal fitting procedure and probability-density-function-based (PDF method are applied to the calibration sample in the logΣ − logD plane. Non-standard orthogonal regression keeps the Σ−D and D−Σ relations invariant within estimated uncertainties. Our previous Monte Carlo simulations verified that the slopes of the empirical Σ−D relation should be determined by using the orthogonal regression, because of its good performances for data sets with severe scatter. The updated calibration sample contains 65 shell SNRs. 6 new Galactic SNRs are added to the sample from Paper I, one is omitted and distances are changed for 10 SNRs. The slope derived is here slightly steeper (β ≈ 5.2 than the Σ−D slope in Paper I (β ≈ 4.8. The PDF method relies on data points density maps which can provide more reliable calibrations that preserve more information contained in the calibration sample. We estimate distances to five new faint Galactic SNRs discovered for the first time by Canadian Galactic Plane Survey, and obtained distances of 2.3, 4.0, 1.3, 2.9 and 4.7 kiloparsecs for G108.5+11.0, G128.5+2.6, G149.5+3.2, G150.8+3.8 and G160.1−1.1, respectively. The updated empirical relation is used to estimate distances of 160 shell Galactic SNRs and new results change their distance scales up to 15 per cent, compared to the results from Paper I. The PDF calculation can provide even few times higher or lower values in comparison with the orthogonal fit, as it uses a totally different approach. However, on average, this difference is 32, 24 and 18 per cent for mode, median and mean distances

  20. Does electromagnetic radiation accelerate galactic cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, D.

    1977-01-01

    The 'reactor' theories of Tsytovich and collaborators (1973) of cosmic-ray acceleration by electromagnetic radiation are examined in the context of galactic cosmic rays. It is shown that any isotropic synchrotron or Compton reactors with reasonable astrophysical parameters can yield particles with a maximum relativistic factor of only about 10,000. If they are to produce particles with higher relativistic factors, the losses due to inverse Compton scattering of the electromagnetic radiation in them outweigh the acceleration, and this violates the assumptions of the theory. This is a critical restriction in the context of galactic cosmic rays, which have a power-law spectrum extending up to a relativistic factor of 1 million.

  1. Gala: A Python package for galactic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.

    2017-10-01

    Gala is an Astropy-affiliated Python package for galactic dynamics. Python enables wrapping low-level languages (e.g., C) for speed without losing flexibility or ease-of-use in the user-interface. The API for Gala was designed to provide a class-based and user-friendly interface to fast (C or Cython-optimized) implementations of common operations such as gravitational potential and force evaluation, orbit integration, dynamical transformations, and chaos indicators for nonlinear dynamics. Gala also relies heavily on and interfaces well with the implementations of physical units and astronomical coordinate systems in the Astropy package (astropy.units and astropy.coordinates). Gala was designed to be used by both astronomical researchers and by students in courses on gravitational dynamics or astronomy. It has already been used in a number of scientific publications and has also been used in graduate courses on Galactic dynamics to, e.g., provide interactive visualizations of textbook material.

  2. Galactic signatures of decaying dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Le; Sigl, Guenter

    2009-05-01

    If dark matter decays into electrons and positrons, it can affect Galactic radio emissions and the local cosmic ray fluxes. We propose a new, more general analysis of constraints on dark matter. The constraints can be obtained for any decaying dark matter model by convolving the specific dark matter decay spectrum with a response function. We derive this response function from full-sky radio surveys at 408 MHz, 1.42 GHz and 23 GHz, as well as from the positron flux recently reported by PAMELA. We discuss the influence of astrophysical uncertainties on the response function, such as from propagation and from the profiles of the dark matter and the Galactic magnetic field. As an application, we find that some widely used dark matter decay scenarios can be ruled out under modest assumptions. (orig.)

  3. The galactic X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gursky, H.; Schreier, E.

    1975-01-01

    The current observational evidence on galactic X-ray sources is presented both from an astrophysical and astronomical point of view. The distributional properties of the sources, where they appear in the Galaxy, and certain average characteristics are discussed. In this way, certain properties of the X-ray sources can be deduced which are not apparent in the study of single objects. The properties of individual X-ray sources are then described. The hope is that more can be learnt about neutron stars and black holes, their physical properties, their origin and evolution, and their influence on other galactic phenomena. Thus attention is paid to those elements of data which appear to have the most bearing on these questions. (Auth.)

  4. Stability of BEC galactic dark matter halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzmán, F.S.; Lora-Clavijo, F.D.; González-Avilés, J.J.; Rivera-Paleo, F.J., E-mail: guzman@ifm.umich.mx, E-mail: fadulora@ifm.umich.mx, E-mail: javiles@ifm.umich.mx, E-mail: friverap@ifm.umich.mx [Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Edificio C-3, Cd. Universitaria, 58040 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico)

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we show that spherically symmetric BEC dark matter halos, with the sin r/r density profile, that accurately fit galactic rotation curves and represent a potential solution to the cusp-core problem are unstable. We do this by introducing back the density profiles into the fully time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii-Poisson system of equations. Using numerical methods to track the evolution of the system, we found that these galactic halos lose mass at an approximate rate of half of its mass in a time scale of dozens of Myr. We consider this time scale is enough as to consider these halos are unstable and unlikely to be formed. We provide some arguments to show that this behavior is general and discuss some other drawbacks of the model that restrict its viability.

  5. Brown dwarfs as dark galactic halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.C.; Walker, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that the dark matter in galactic halos can consist of brown dwarf stars is considered. The radiative signature for such halos consisting solely of brown dwarfs is calculated, and the allowed range of brown dwarf masses, the initial mass function (IMF), the stellar properties, and the density distribution of the galactic halo are discussed. The prediction emission from the halo is compared with existing observations. It is found that, for any IMF of brown dwarfs below the deuterium burning limit, brown dwarf halos are consistent with observations. Brown dwarf halos cannot, however, explain the recently observed near-IR background. It is shown that future satellite missions will either detect brown dwarf halos or place tight constraints on the allowed range of the IMF. 30 refs

  6. Molecular clouds and galactic spiral structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dame, T.M.

    1984-02-01

    Galactic CO line emission at 115 GHz was surveyed in order to study the distribution of molecular clouds in the inner galaxy. Comparison of this survey with similar H1 data reveals a detailed correlation with the most intense 21 cm features. To each of the classical 21 cm H1 spiral arms of the inner galaxy there corresponds a CO molecular arm which is generally more clearly defined and of higher contrast. A simple model is devised for the galactic distribution of molecular clouds. The modeling results suggest that molecular clouds are essentially transient objects, existing for 15 to 40 million years after their formation in a spiral arm, and are largely confined to spiral features about 300 pc wide

  7. Galactic signatures of decaying dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Le; Sigl, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Redondo, Javier [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    If dark matter decays into electrons and positrons, it can affect Galactic radio emissions and the local cosmic ray fluxes. We propose a new, more general analysis of constraints on dark matter. The constraints can be obtained for any decaying dark matter model by convolving the specific dark matter decay spectrum with a response function. We derive this response function from full-sky radio surveys at 408 MHz, 1.42 GHz and 23 GHz, as well as from the positron flux recently reported by PAMELA. We discuss the influence of astrophysical uncertainties on the response function, such as from propagation and from the profiles of the dark matter and the Galactic magnetic field. As an application, we find that some widely used dark matter decay scenarios can be ruled out under modest assumptions. (orig.)

  8. Accretion disks in active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) have taunted astrophysicists for a quarter century. How do these objects produce huge luminosities---in some cases, far outshining our galaxy---from a region perhaps no larger than the solar system? Accretion onto supermassive black holes has been widely considered the best buy in theories of AGN. Much work has gone into accretion disk theory, searches for black holes in galactic nuclei, and observational tests. These efforts have not proved the disk model, but there is progress. Evidence for black holes in the nuclei of nearby galaxies is provided by observations of stellar velocities, and radiation from the disk's hot surface may be observed in the ultraviolet (UV) and neighboring spectral bands. In the review, the author describe some of the recent work on accretion disks in AGN, with an emphasis on points of contact between theory and observation

  9. Does the Galactic Bulge Have Fewer Planets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    The Milky Ways dense central bulge is a very different environment than the surrounding galactic disk in which we live. Do the differences affect the ability of planets to form in the bulge?Exploring Galactic PlanetsSchematic illustrating how gravitational microlensing by an extrasolar planet works. [NASA]Planet formation is a complex process with many aspects that we dont yet understand. Do environmental properties like host star metallicity, the density of nearby stars, or the intensity of the ambient radiation field affect the ability of planets to form? To answer these questions, we will ultimately need to search for planets around stars in a large variety of different environments in our galaxy.One way to detect recently formed, distant planets is by gravitational microlensing. In this process, light from a distant source star is bent by a lens star that is briefly located between us and the source. As the Earth moves, this momentary alignment causes a blip in the sources light curve that we can detect and planets hosted by the lens star can cause an additional observable bump.Artists impression of the Milky Way galaxy. The central bulge is much denserthan the surroundingdisk. [ESO/NASA/JPL-Caltech/M. Kornmesser/R. Hurt]Relative AbundancesMost source stars reside in the galactic bulge, so microlensing events can probe planetary systems at any distance between the Earth and the galactic bulge. This means that planet detections from microlensing could potentially be used to measure the relative abundances of exoplanets in different parts of our galaxy.A team of scientists led by Matthew Penny, a Sagan postdoctoral fellow at Ohio State University, set out to do just that. The group considered a sample of 31 exoplanetary systems detected by microlensing and asked the following question: are the planet abundances in the galactic bulge and the galactic disk the same?A Paucity of PlanetsTo answer this question, Penny and collaborators derived the expected

  10. Resonant Tidal Disruption in Galactic Nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Rauch, Kevin P.; Ingalls, Brian

    1997-01-01

    It has recently been shown that the rate of angular momentum relaxation in nearly-Keplerian star clusters is greatly increased by a process termed resonant relaxation (Rauch & Tremaine 1996), who also argued that tidal disruption of stars in galactic nuclei containing massive black holes could be noticeably enhanced by this process. We describe here the results of numerical simulations of resonant tidal disruption which quantitatively test the predictions made by Rauch & Tremaine. The simulat...

  11. Pathway to the galactic distribution of planets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novati, S. Calchi; Gould, A.; Udalski, A.

    2015-01-01

    distance estimates for each lens, with error bars that are small compared to the Sun's Galactocentric distance. The ensemble therefore yields a well-defined cumulative distribution of lens distances. In principle it is possible to compare this distribution against a set of planets detected in the same...... experiment in order to measure the Galactic distribution of planets. Since these Spitzer observations yielded only one planet, this is not yet possible in practice. However, it will become possible as larger samples are accumulated....

  12. Polarization of stellar, nebular, and galactic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shulov, O.S.

    1981-01-01

    The history of polarimetric investigations at the Astronomical Observatory of Leningrad State University is reviewed. Instruments, facilities, and methods used are described, and various studies of lasting importance are summarized. Some results are presented for observations and studies of interstellar polarization and of polarization in close binaries, high-luminosity red and ir stars, several nebulae in the Galaxy, galaxies, galactic nuclei, quasars, N galaxies, and BL Lac objects.

  13. Local galactic kinematics: an isothermal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, J.

    1983-01-01

    The kinematical parameters of galactic rotation in the solar neighborhood and the corrections to the precession have been calculated. For this purpose, an isothermal model for the solar neighborhood has been used together with the high order momenta of the local stellar velocity distribution and the Ogorodnikov-Milne model. Both have been calculated using some samples of the ''512 Distant FK4/FK4 Sup. Stars'' of Fricke (1977) and of Gliese's Gatalogue. (author)

  14. The age of the galactic disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandage, A.

    1988-07-01

    The galactic disk is a dissipative structure and must, therefore be younger than the halo if galaxy formation generally proceeds by collapse. Just how much younger the oldest stars in the galactic disk are than the oldest halo stars remains an open question. A fast collapse (on a time scale no longer than the rotation period of the extended protogalaxy) permits an age gap of the order of approximately 10 to the 9th power years. A slow collapse, governed by the cooling rate of the partially pressure supported falling gas that formed into what is now the thick stellar disk, permits a longer age gap, claimed by some to be as long as 6 Gyr. Early methods of age dating the oldest components of the disk contain implicit assumptions concerning the details of the age-metallicity relation for stars in the solar neighborhood. The discovery that this relation for open clusters outside the solar circle is different that in the solar neighborhood (Geisler 1987), complicates the earlier arguments. The oldest stars in the galactic disk are at least as old as NGC 188. The new data by Janes on NGC 6791, shown first at this conference, suggest a disk age of at least 12.5 Gyr, as do data near the main sequence termination point of metal rich, high proper motion stars of low orbital eccentricity. Hence, a case can still be made that the oldest part of the galactic thick disk is similar in age to the halo globular clusters, if their ages are the same as 47 Tuc

  15. Towards a physical model of dust tori in Active Galactic Nuclei. Radiative transfer calculations for a hydrostatic torus model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schartmann, M.; Meisenheimer, K.; Camenzind, M.; Wolf, S.; Henning, Th.

    2005-07-01

    We explore physically self-consistent models of dusty molecular tori in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) with the goal of interpreting VLTI observations and fitting high resolution mid-IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs). The input dust distribution is analytically calculated by assuming hydrostatic equilibrium between pressure forces - due to the turbulent motion of the gas clouds - and gravitational and centrifugal forces as a result of the contribution of the nuclear stellar distribution and the central black hole. For a fully three-dimensional treatment of the radiative transfer problem through the tori we employ the Monte Carlo code MC3D. We find that in homogeneous dust distributions the observed mid-infrared emission is dominated by the inner funnel of the torus, even when observing along the equatorial plane. Therefore, the stratification of the distribution of dust grains - both in terms of size and composition - cannot be neglected. In the current study we only include the effect of different sublimation radii which significantly alters the SED in comparison to models that assume an average dust grain property with a common sublimation radius, and suppresses the silicate emission feature at 9.7~μm. In this way we are able to fit the mean SED of both type I and type II AGN very well. Our fit of special objects for which high angular resolution observations (≤0.3´´) are available indicates that the hottest dust in NGC 1068 reaches the sublimation temperature while the maximum dust temperature in the low-luminosity AGN Circinus falls short of 1000 K.

  16. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Lithium enrichment histories of the Galactic thick and thin disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X.; Romano, D.; Bragaglia, A.; Mucciarelli, A.; Lind, K.; Delgado Mena, E.; Sousa, S. G.; Randich, S.; Bressan, A.; Sbordone, L.; Martell, S.; Korn, A. J.; Abia, C.; Smiljanic, R.; Jofré, P.; Pancino, E.; Tautvaišienė, G.; Tang, B.; Magrini, L.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Carraro, G.; Bensby, T.; Damiani, F.; Alfaro, E. J.; Flaccomio, E.; Morbidelli, L.; Zaggia, S.; Lardo, C.; Monaco, L.; Frasca, A.; Donati, P.; Drazdauskas, A.; Chorniy, Y.; Bayo, A.; Kordopatis, G.

    2018-02-01

    Lithium abundance in most of the warm metal-poor main sequence stars shows a constarnt plateau (A(Li) 2.2 dex) and then the upper envelope of the lithium vs. metallicity distribution increases as we approach solar metallicity. Meteorites, which carry information about the chemical composition of the interstellar medium (ISM) at the solar system formation time, show a lithium abundance A(Li) 3.26 dex. This pattern reflects the Li enrichment history of the ISM during the Galaxy lifetime. After the initial Li production in big bang nucleosynthesis, the sources of the enrichment include asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, low-mass red giants, novae, type II supernovae, and Galactic cosmic rays. The total amount of enriched Li is sensitive to the relative contribution of these sources. Thus different Li enrichment histories are expected in the Galactic thick and thin disc. We investigate the main sequence stars observed with UVES in Gaia-ESO Survey iDR4 catalogue and find a Li-anticorrelation independent of [Fe/H], Teff, and log(g). Since in stellar evolution different α enhancements at the same metallicity do not lead to a measurable Li abundance change, the anticorrelation indicates that more Li is produced during the Galactic thin disc phase than during the Galactic thick disc phase. We also find a correlation between the abundance of Li and s-process elements Ba and Y, and they both decrease above the solar metallicity, which can be explained in the framework of the adopted Galactic chemical evolution models. The full Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/610/A38

  17. The Galactic Club or Galactic Cliques? Exploring the limits of interstellar hegemony and the Zoo Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgan, Duncan H.

    2017-10-01

    The Zoo solution to Fermi's Paradox proposes that extraterrestrial intelligences (ETIs) have agreed to not contact the Earth. The strength of this solution depends on the ability for ETIs to come to agreement, and establish/police treaties as part of a so-called `Galactic Club'. These activities are principally limited by the causal connectivity of a civilization to its neighbours at its inception, i.e. whether it comes to prominence being aware of other ETIs and any treaties or agreements in place. If even one civilization is not causally connected to the other members of a treaty, then they are free to operate beyond it and contact the Earth if wished, which makes the Zoo solution `soft'. We should therefore consider how likely this scenario is, as this will give us a sense of the Zoo solution's softness, or general validity. We implement a simple toy model of ETIs arising in a Galactic Habitable Zone, and calculate the properties of the groups of culturally connected civilizations established therein. We show that for most choices of civilization parameters, the number of culturally connected groups is >1, meaning that the Galaxy is composed of multiple Galactic Cliques rather than a single Galactic Club. We find in our models for a single Galactic Club to establish interstellar hegemony, the number of civilizations must be relatively large, the mean civilization lifetime must be several millions of years, and the inter-arrival time between civilizations must be a few million years or less.

  18. The galactic population of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napiwotzki, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    The contribution of white dwarfs of the different Galactic populations to the stellar content of our Galaxy is only poorly known. Some authors claim a vast population of halo white dwarfs, which would be in accordance with some investigations of the early phases of Galaxy formation claiming a top-heavy initial- mass- function. Here, I present a model of the population of white dwarfs in the Milky Way based on observations of the local white dwarf sample and a standard model of Galactic structure. This model will be used to estimate the space densities of thin disc, thick disc and halo white dwarfs and their contribution to the baryonic mass budget of the Milky Way. One result of this investigation is that white dwarfs of the halo population contribute a large fraction of the Galactic white dwarf number count, but they are not responsible for the lion's share of stellar mass in the Milky Way. Another important result is the substantial contribution of the - often neglected - population of thick disc white dwarfs. Misclassification of thick disc white dwarfs is responsible for overestimates of the halo population in previous investigations.

  19. On the physical origin of galactic conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearin, Andrew P.; Behroozi, Peter S.; van den Bosch, Frank C.

    2016-09-01

    Correlations between the star formation rates (SFRs) of nearby galaxies (so-called galactic conformity) have been observed for projected separations up to 4 Mpc, an effect not predicted by current semi-analytic models. We investigate correlations between the mass accretion rates (dMvir/dt) of nearby haloes as a potential physical origin for this effect. We find that pairs of host haloes `know about' each others' assembly histories even when their present-day separation is greater than thirty times the virial radius of either halo. These distances are far too large for direct interaction between the haloes to explain the correlation in their dMvir/dt. Instead, halo pairs at these distances reside in the same large-scale tidal environment, which regulates dMvir/dt for both haloes. Larger haloes are less affected by external forces, which naturally gives rise to a mass dependence of the halo conformity signal. SDSS measurements of galactic conformity exhibit a qualitatively similar dependence on stellar mass, including how the signal varies with distance. Based on the expectation that halo accretion and galaxy SFR are correlated, we predict the scale-, mass- and redshift-dependence of large-scale galactic conformity, finding that the signal should drop to undetectable levels by z ≳ 1. These predictions are testable with current surveys to z ˜ 1; confirmation would establish a strong correlation between dark matter halo accretion rate and central galaxy SFR.

  20. Oscillating neutrinos from the Galactic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocker, R.M.; Volkas, R.R.; Melia, F.

    1999-11-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that the γ-ray emission spectrum of the EGRET-identified, central Galactic source 2EG J1746-2852 can be well fitted by positing that these photons are generated by the decay of π 0, s produced in p-p scattering at or near an energizing shock. Such scattering also produces charged pions which decay leptonically. The ratio of γ-rays to neutrinos generated by the central Galactic source may be accurately determined and a well-defined and potentially-measurable high energy neutrino flux at Earth is unavoidable. An opportunity, therefore, to detect neutrino oscillations over an unprecedented scale is offered by this source. In this paper we assess the prospects for such an observation with the generation of neutrino Cerenkov telescopes now in the planning stage. We determine that the next generation of detectors may find an oscillation signature in the Galactic Center (GC) signal, but that such an observation will probably not further constrain the oscillation parameter space mapped out by current atmospheric, solar, reactor and accelerator neutrino oscillation experiments

  1. Active galactic nucleus outflows in galaxy discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Tilman; Volonteri, Marta; Dashyan, Gohar

    2018-05-01

    Galactic outflows, driven by active galactic nuclei (AGNs), play a crucial role in galaxy formation and in the self-regulated growth of supermassive black holes (BHs). AGN feedback couples to and affects gas, rather than stars, and in many, if not most, gas-rich galaxies cold gas is rotationally supported and settles in a disc. We present a 2D analytical model for AGN-driven outflows in a gaseous disc and demonstrate the main improvements, compared to existing 1D solutions. We find significant differences for the outflow dynamics and wind efficiency. The outflow is energy-driven due to inefficient cooling up to a certain AGN luminosity (˜1043 erg s-1 in our fiducial model), above which the outflow remains momentum-driven in the disc up to galactic scales. We reproduce results of 3D simulations that gas is preferentially ejected perpendicular to the disc and find that the fraction of ejected interstellar medium is lower than in 1D models. The recovery time of gas in the disc, defined as the free-fall time from the radius to which the AGN pushes the ISM at most, is remarkably short, of the order 1 Myr. This indicates that AGN-driven winds cannot suppress BH growth for long. Without the inclusion of supernova feedback, we find a scaling of the BH mass with the halo velocity dispersion of MBH ∝ σ4.8.

  2. A NEW PERSPECTIVE OF THE RADIO BRIGHT ZONE AT THE GALACTIC CENTER: FEEDBACK FROM NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jun-Hui [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Morris, Mark R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Goss, W. M., E-mail: jzhao@cfa.harvard.edu [NRAO, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    New observations of Sgr A have been carried out with the Jansky VLA in the B and C arrays using the broadband (2 GHz) continuum mode at 5.5 GHz. The field of view covers the central 13′ (30 pc) region of the radio-bright zone at the Galactic center. Using the multi-scale and multi-frequency-synthesis (MS-MFS) algorithms in CASA, we have imaged Sgr A with a resolution of 1″, achieving an rms noise of 8 μJy beam{sup −1}, and a dynamic range of 100,000:1. Both previously known and newly identified radio features in this region are revealed, including numerous filamentary sources. The radio continuum image is compared with Chandra X-ray images, with a CN emission-line image obtained with the Submillimeter Array and with detailed Paschen-α images obtained with Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS. We discuss several prominent features in the radio image. The “Sgr A west Wings” extend 2′ (5 pc) from the NW and SE tips of the Sgr A west H ii region (the “Mini-spiral”) to positions located 2.9 and 2.4 arcmin to the northwest and southeast of Sgr A*, respectively. The NW wing, along with several other prominent features, including the previously identified “NW Streamers,” form an elongated radio lobe (NW lobe), oriented nearly perpendicular to the Galactic plane. This radio lobe, with a size of 6.′3 × 3.′2 (14.4 pc × 7.3 pc), has a known X-ray counterpart. In the outer region of the NW lobe, a row of three thermally emitting rings is observed. A field containing numerous amorphous radio blobs extends for a distance of ∼2 arcmin beyond the tip of the SE wing; these newly recognized features coincide with the SE X-ray lobe. Most of the amorphous radio blobs in the NW and SE lobes have Paschen-α counterparts. We propose that they have been produced by shock interaction of ambient gas concentrations with a collimated nuclear wind or an outflow that originated from within the circumnuclear disk (CND). We also discuss the possibility that the ionized

  3. Feedback by AGN Jets and Wide-angle Winds on a Galactic Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugan, Zachary; Silk, Joseph [The Johns Hopkins University Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bloomberg Center for Physics and Astronomy, Room 366, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gaibler, Volker [Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-07-20

    To investigate the differences in mechanical feedback from radio-loud and radio-quiet active galactic nuclei on the host galaxy, we perform 3D AMR hydrodynamic simulations of wide-angle, radio-quiet winds with different inclinations on a single, massive, gas-rich disk galaxy at a redshift of 2–3. We compare our results to hydrodynamic simulations of the same galaxy but with a jet. The jet has an inclination of 0° (perpendicular to the galactic plane), and the winds have inclinations of 0°, 45°, and 90°. We analyze the impact on the host’s gas, star formation, and circumgalactic medium. We find that jet feedback is energy-driven and wind feedback is momentum-driven. In all the simulations, the jet or wind creates a cavity mostly devoid of dense gas in the nuclear region where star formation is then quenched, but we find strong positive feedback in all the simulations at radii greater than 3 kpc. All four simulations have similar SFRs and stellar velocities with large radial and vertical components. However, the wind at an inclination of 90° creates the highest density regions through ram pressure and generates the highest rates of star formation due to its ongoing strong interaction with the dense gas of the galactic plane. With increased wind inclination, we find greater asymmetry in gas distribution and resulting star formation. Our model generates an expanding ring of triggered star formation with typical velocities of the order of 1/3 of the circular velocity, superimposed on the older stellar population. This should result in a potentially detectable blue asymmetry in stellar absorption features at kiloparsec scales.

  4. Lithium abundances for 185 main-sequence stars: Galactic evolution and stellar depletion of lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. Q.; Nissen, P. E.; Benoni, T.; Zhao, G.

    2001-06-01

    We present a survey of lithium abundances in 185 main-sequence field stars with 5600 interesting result from this study is the presence of a large gap in the log varepsilon (Li) - Teff plane, which distinguishes ``Li-dip'' stars like those first identified in the Hyades cluster by Boesgaard & Tripicco (\\cite{Boesgaard86}) from other stars with a much higher Li abundance. The Li-dip stars concentrate on a certain mass, which decreases with metallicity from about 1.4 Msun at solar metallicity to 1.1 Msun at [Fe/H] =~ -1.0. Excluding the Li-dip stars and a small group of lower mass stars with Teff rate of angular momentum loss. It cannot be excluded, however, that a cosmic scatter of the Li abundance in the Galaxy at a given metallicity contributes to the dispersion in Li abundance. These problems make it difficult to determine the Galactic evolution of Li from the data, but a comparison of the upper envelope of the distribution of stars in the log varepsilon (Li) - [Fe/H] plane with recent Galactic evolutionary models by Romano et al. (\\cite{Romano99}) suggests that novae are a major source for the Li production in the Galactic disk; their occurrence seems to be the explanation for the steep increase of Li abundance at [Fe/H] =~ -0.4. Based on observations carried out at Beijing Astronomical Observatory (Xinglong, PR China) and European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/371/943 and at http://www.edpsciences.org

  5. Error Analysis on Plane-to-Plane Linear Approximate Coordinate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, the error analysis has been done for the linear approximate transformation between two tangent planes in celestial sphere in a simple case. The results demonstrate that the error from the linear transformation does not meet the requirement of high-precision astrometry under some conditions, so the ...

  6. Testing of focal plane arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merriam, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Problems associated with the testing of focal plane arrays are briefly examined with reference to the instrumentation and measurement procedures. In particular, the approach and instrumentation used as the Naval Ocean Systems Center is presented. Most of the measurements are made with flooded illumination on the focal plane array. The array is treated as an ensemble of individual pixels, data being taken on each pixel and array averages and standard deviations computed for the entire array. Data maps are generated, showing the pixel data in the proper spatial position on the array and the array statistics

  7. PROBING THE ROLE OF CARBON IN ULTRAVIOLET EXTINCTION ALONG GALACTIC SIGHT LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvathi, V. S.; Babu, B. R. S. [Department of Physics, University of Calicut, Kerala 673635 (India); Sofia, U. J. [Department of Physics, American University, 4400 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20016 (United States); Murthy, J., E-mail: veena.makesh@gmail.com, E-mail: brsbabu@gmail.com, E-mail: sofia@american.edu, E-mail: jmurthy@yahoo.com [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, II Block, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India)

    2012-11-20

    We report previously undetermined interstellar gas and dust-phase carbon abundances along 15 Galactic sight lines based on archival data of the strong 1334.5323 A transition observed with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. These are combined with previously reported carbon measurements along six sight lines to produce a complete sample of interstellar C II measurements determined with the 1334 A transition. Our data set includes a variety of Galactic disk environments characterized by different extinctions and samples paths ranging over three orders of magnitude in average density of hydrogen ((n(H))). Our data support the idea that dust, specifically carbon-based grains, are processed in the neutral interstellar medium. We, however, do not find that the abundance of carbon in dust or the grain-size distribution is related to the strength of the 2175 A bump. This is surprising, given that many current models have polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as the bump-producing dust.

  8. X-ray bursters and the X-ray sources of the galactic bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, W. H. G.; Joss, P. C.

    An attempt is made to distill from observational and theoretical information on the galactic bulge X-ray sources in general, and on the X-ray burst sources in particular, those aspects which seem to have the greatest relevance to the understanding of these sources. Galactic bulge sources appear to be collapsed objects of roughly solar mass, in most cases neutron stars, which are accreting matter from low-mass stellar companions. Type I bursts seem to result from thermonuclear flashes in the surface layers of some of these neutron stars, while the type II bursts from the Rapid Burster are almost certainly due to an instability in the accretion flow onto a neutron star. It is concluded that the studies cited offer a new and powerful observational handle on the fundamental properties of neutron stars and of the interacting binary systems in which they are often contained.

  9. Wobbling The Galactic Disk with Bombardment of Satellite Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onghia, Elena

    We propose to assess the effect of impacts of large visible satellite galaxies on a disk, as well as the relevance of the continuing bombardment of the Galactic disk by dark matter clumps as predicted by the current cosmological framework that can wobble the disk, heating it and eventually exciting ragged spiral structures. In particular, we make detailed predictions for observable features such as spiral arms, rings and their associated stars in galactic disks and relate them to the physical processes that drive their formation and evolution in our Milky Way galaxy and nearby spirals. To do this, we will combine analytic methods and numerical simulations that allow us to calculate observables, which we will compare to present and forthcoming observations. Our methodology utilizes a combination of state of the art hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy evolution and multi- wavelength radiative transfer simulations. Our primary goals are: (1) To identify the physical processes that are responsible for spiral structure formation observed in our Milky Way and nearby disk galaxies, from the flocculent to grand- designed spiral galaxies and to provide observable signatures to be compared with data on nearby galaxies combining maps of 24 micron emission (Spitzer) and cold gas, CO (Heracles) and HI (THINGS). (2) To explore different morphologies of spiral galaxies: from the multi-armed galaxies to the Milky Way sized galaxies with few arms. (3) For a Milky Way disk we will assess the effect of impacts of substructures passing through the disk to origin the asymmetry in the number density of stars recently discovered from SDSS and SEGUE data and confirmed from RAVE data. We will also investigate the disk heating in the vertical plane due to the formation of vertical oscillations that are produced by the impact and migration of stars in the disk as consequence of the heating as compared to the classical stellar migration mechanism. (4) We will measure the spiral pattern speed

  10. Galactic Winds and the Role Played by Massive Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Timothy M.; Thompson, Todd A.

    Galactic winds from star-forming galaxies play at key role in the evolution of galaxies and the intergalactic medium. They transport metals out of galaxies, chemically enriching the intergalactic medium and modifying the chemical evolution of galaxies. They affect the surrounding interstellar and circumgalactic media, thereby influencing the growth of galaxies though gas accretion and star formation. In this contribution we first summarize the physical mechanisms by which the momentum and energy output from a population of massive stars and associated supernovae can drive galactic winds. We use the prototypical example of M 82 to illustrate the multiphase nature of galactic winds. We then describe how the basic properties of galactic winds are derived from the data, and summarize how the properties of galactic winds vary systematically with the properties of the galaxies that launch them. We conclude with a brief discussion of the broad implications of galactic winds.

  11. Dynamics and evolution of galactic nuclei (princeton series in astrophysics)

    CERN Document Server

    Merritt, David

    2013-01-01

    Deep within galaxies like the Milky Way, astronomers have found a fascinating legacy of Einstein's general theory of relativity: supermassive black holes. Connected to the evolution of the galaxies that contain these black holes, galactic nuclei are the sites of uniquely energetic events, including quasars, stellar tidal disruptions, and the generation of gravitational waves. This textbook is the first comprehensive introduction to dynamical processes occurring in the vicinity of supermassive black holes in their galactic environment. Filling a critical gap, it is an authoritative resource for astrophysics and physics graduate students, and researchers focusing on galactic nuclei, the astrophysics of massive black holes, galactic dynamics, and gravitational wave detection. It is an ideal text for an advanced graduate-level course on galactic nuclei and as supplementary reading in graduate-level courses on high-energy astrophysics and galactic dynamics. David Merritt summarizes the theoretical work of the las...

  12. Cosmic ray acceleration by large scale galactic shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarsky, C.J.; Lagage, P.O.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism of diffusive shock acceleration may account for the existence of galactic cosmic rays detailed application to stellar wind shocks and especially to supernova shocks have been developed. Existing models can usually deal with the energetics or the spectral slope, but the observed energy range of cosmic rays is not explained. Therefore it seems worthwhile to examine the effect that large scale, long-lived galactic shocks may have on galactic cosmic rays, in the frame of the diffusive shock acceleration mechanism. Large scale fast shocks can only be expected to exist in the galactic halo. We consider three situations where they may arise: expansion of a supernova shock in the halo, galactic wind, galactic infall; and discuss the possible existence of these shocks and their role in accelerating cosmic rays

  13. PLANETARY NEBULAE DETECTED IN THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE GLIMPSE II LEGACY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Sun Kwok

    2009-01-01

    We report the result of a search for the infrared counterparts of 37 planetary nebulae (PNs) and PN candidates in the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire II (GLIMPSE II) survey. The photometry and images of these PNs at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 μm, taken through the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS), are presented. Most of these nebulae are very red and compact in the IRAC bands, and are found to be bright and extended in the 24 μm band. The infrared morphology of these objects are compared with Hα images of the Macquarie-AAO-Strasbourg (MASH) and MASH II PNs. The implications for morphological difference in different wavelengths are discussed. The IRAC data allow us to differentiate between PNs and H II regions and be able to reject non-PNs from the optical catalog (e.g., PNG 352.1 - 00.0). Spectral energy distributions are constructed by combing the IRAC and MIPS data with existing near-, mid-, and far-IR photometry measurements. The anomalous colors of some objects allow us to infer the presence of aromatic emission bands. These multi-wavelength data provide useful insights into the nature of different nebular components contributing to the infrared emission of PNs.

  14. Interaction of gravitational plane waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, V.

    1988-01-01

    The mathematical theory of colliding, infinite-fronted, plane gravitational waves is presented. The process of focusing, the creation of singularities and horizons, due to the interaction, and the lens effect due to a beam-like gravitational wave are discussed

  15. Force Lines in Plane Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathkjen, Arne

    A state of plane stress is illustrated by means of two families of curves, each family representing constant values of a derivative of Airy's stress function. The two families of curves form a map giving in the first place an overall picture of regions of high and low stress, and in the second...

  16. Blocking sets in Desarguesian planes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, A.; Miklós, D.; Sós, V.T.; Szönyi, T.

    1996-01-01

    We survey recent results concerning the size of blocking sets in desarguesian projective and affine planes, and implications of these results and the technique to prove them, to related problemis, such as the size of maximal partial spreads, small complete arcs, small strong representative systems

  17. Possible existence of wormholes in the galactic halo region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahaman, Farook [Jadavpur University, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Kuhfittig, P.K.F. [Milwaukee School of Engineering, Department of Mathematics, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Islam, Nasarul [Danga High Madrasah, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)

    2014-02-15

    Two observational results, the density profile from simulations performed in the ΛCDM scenario and the observed flat galactic rotation curves, are taken as input with the aim of showing that the galactic halo possesses some of the characteristics needed to support traversable wormholes. This result should be sufficient to provide an incentive for scientists to seek observational evidence for wormholes in the galactic halo region. (orig.)

  18. Gravitational Couplings for y-Gop-Planes

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo, Juan Fernando Ospina

    2000-01-01

    The Wess-Zumino action for y deformed and generalized orientifold planes (yGOp-planes) is presented and one power expantion is realized from which processes that involves yGOp-planes, RR-forms, gravitons and gaugeons, are obtained. Finally non-standard yGOp-planes are showed.

  19. Gravitational Couplings for Generalized Orientifold Planes

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo, Juan Fernando Ospina

    2000-01-01

    The Wess-Zumino action for generalized orientifold planes (GOp-planes) is presented and a series power expantion is realized from which processes that involves GOp-planes, RR-forms, gravitons and gaugeons, are obtained. Finally non-standard GOp-planes are showed.

  20. Optical-NIR dust extinction towards Galactic O stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maíz Apellániz, J.; Barbá, R. H.

    2018-05-01

    Context. O stars are excellent tracers of the intervening ISM because of their high luminosity, blue intrinsic SED, and relatively featureless spectra. We are currently conducting the Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS), which is generating a large sample of O stars with accurate spectral types within several kpc of the Sun. Aims: We aim to obtain a global picture of the properties of dust extinction in the solar neighborhood based on optical-NIR photometry of O stars with accurate spectral types. Methods: We have processed a carefully selected photometric set with the CHORIZOS code to measure the amount [E(4405 - 5495)] and type [R5495] of extinction towards 562 O-type stellar systems. We have tested three different families of extinction laws and analyzed our results with the help of additional archival data. Results: The Maíz Apellániz et al. (2014, A&A, 564, A63) family of extinction laws provides a better description of Galactic dust that either the Cardelli et al. (1989, ApJ, 345, 245) or Fitzpatrick (1999, PASP, 111, 63) families, so it should be preferentially used when analysing samples similar to the one in this paper. In many cases O stars and late-type stars experience similar amounts of extinction at similar distances but some O stars are located close to the molecular clouds left over from their births and have larger extinctions than the average for nearby late-type populations. In qualitative terms, O stars experience a more diverse extinction than late-type stars, as some are affected by the small-grain-size, low-R5495 effect of molecular clouds and others by the large-grain-size, high-R5495 effect of H II regions. Late-type stars experience a narrower range of grain sizes or R5495, as their extinction is predominantly caused by the average, diffuse ISM. We propose that the reason for the existence of large-grain-size, high-R5495 regions in the ISM in the form of H II regions and hot-gas bubbles is the selective destruction of small dust

  1. Possible galactic origin of. gamma. -ray bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manchanda, R K; Ramsden, D [Southampton Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics

    1977-03-31

    It is stated that extragalactic models for the origin of non-solar ..gamma..-ray bursts include supernova bursts in remote galaxies, and the collapse of the cores of active stars, whilst galactic models are based on flare stars, thermonuclear explosions in neutron stars and the sudden accretion of cometary gas on to neutron stars. The acceptability of any of these models may be tested by the observed size spectrum of the ..gamma..-ray bursts. The extragalactic models predict a power law spectrum with number index -1.5, whilst for the galactic models the number index will be -1. Experimental data on ..gamma..-ray bursts is, however, still meagre, and so far only 44 confirmed events have been recorded by satellite-borne instruments. The number spectrum of the observed ..gamma..-ray bursts indicates that the observed distribution for events with an energy < 10/sup -4/ erg/cm/sup 2/ is flat; this makes the choice of any model completely arbitrary. An analysis of the observed ..gamma..-ray events is here presented that suggests very interesting possibilities for their origin. There appears to be a preferred mean energy for ..gamma..-ray bursts; some 90% of the recorded events show a mean energy between 5 x 10/sup -5/ and 5 x 10/sup -4/ erg/cm/sup 2/, contrary to the predicted characteristics of the number spectrum of various models. A remarkable similarity is found between the distribution of ..gamma..-ray bursts and that of supernova remnants, suggesting a genetic relationship between the two and the galactic origin of the ..gamma..-ray bursts, and the burst source could be identified with completely run down neutron stars, formed during supernova explosions.

  2. Millisecond Pulsars and the Galactic Center Excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonthier, Peter L.; Koh, Yew-Meng; Kust Harding, Alice; Ferrara, Elizabeth C.

    2017-08-01

    Various groups including the Fermi team have confirmed the spectrum of the gamma- ray excess in the Galactic Center (GCE). While some authors interpret the GCE as evidence for the annihilation of dark matter (DM), others have pointed out that the GCE spectrum is nearly identical to the average spectrum of Fermi millisecond pul- sars (MSP). Assuming the Galactic Center (GC) is populated by a yet unobserved source of MSPs that has similar properties to that of MSPs in the Galactic Disk (GD), we present results of a population synthesis of MSPs from the GC. We establish parameters of various models implemented in the simulation code by matching characteristics of 54 detected Fermi MSPs in the first point source catalog and 92 detected radio MSPs in a select group of thirteen radio surveys and targeting a birth rate of 45 MSPs per mega-year. As a check of our simulation, we find excellent agreement with the estimated numbers of MSPs in eight globular clusters. In order to reproduce the gamma-ray spectrum of the GCE, we need to populate the GC with 10,000 MSPs having a Navarro-Frenk-White distribution suggested by the halo density of DM. It may be possible for Fermi to detect some of these MSPs in the near future; the simulation also predicts that many GC MSPs have radio fluxes S1400above 10 �μJy observable by future pointed radio observations. We express our gratitude for the generous support of the National Science Foundation (RUI: AST-1009731), Fermi Guest Investigator Program and the NASA Astrophysics Theory and Fundamental Program (NNX09AQ71G).

  3. Exponential expansion: galactic destiny or technological hubris?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, B. R.

    Is it our destiny to expand exponentially to populate the galaxy, or is such a vision but an extreme example of technological hubris? The overall record of human evolution and dispersion over the Earth can be cited to support the view that we are a uniquely expansionary and technological animal bound for the stars, yet an examination of the fate of individual migrations and exploratory initiatives raises doubts. Although it may be in keeping with our hubristic nature to predict ultimate galactic expansion, there is no way to specify how far expansionary urges may drive our spacefaring descendants.

  4. Gravitational physics of stellar and galactic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saslaw, W.C.

    1985-01-01

    The book concerns the gravitational interactions and evolution of astronomical systems on all scales, and is aimed at the graduate student of physics and astronomy. The text is divided into four parts, and each describes areas of the subject in order of decreasing symmetry. The four parts include: idealized homogeneous systems-basic ideas and gentle relaxation; infinite inhomogeneous systems and galaxy clustering; finite spherical systems including clusters of galaxies; galactic nuclei and globular clusters; and finite flattened systems and galaxies. (U.K.)

  5. Molecular clouds in the NGC 6334 and NGC 6357 region: Evidence for a 100 pc-scale cloud-cloud collision triggering the Galactic mini-starbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Yasuo; Kohno, Mikito; Yokoyama, Keiko; Torii, Kazufumi; Hattori, Yusuke; Sano, Hidetoshi; Nishimura, Atsushi; Ohama, Akio; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Tachihara, Kengo

    2018-05-01

    We carried out new CO (J = 1-0, 2-1, and 3-2) observations with NANTEN2 and ASTE in the region of the twin Galactic mini-starbursts NGC 6334 and NGC 6357. We detected two velocity molecular components of 12 km s-1 velocity separation, which is continuous over 3° along the plane. In NGC 6334 the two components show similar two-peaked intensity distributions toward the young H II regions and are linked by a bridge feature. In NGC 6357 we found spatially complementary distribution between the two velocity components as well as a bridge feature in velocity. Based on these results we hypothesize that the two clouds in the two regions collided with each other in the past few Myr and triggered the formation of the starbursts over ˜ 100 pc. We suggest that the formation of the starbursts happened toward the collisional region of extent ˜ 10 pc with initial high molecular column densities. For NGC 6334 we present a scenario which includes spatial variation of the colliding epoch due to non-uniform cloud separation. The scenario possibly explains the apparent age differences among the young O stars in NGC 6334, which range from 104 yr to 106 yr; the latest collision happened within 105 yr toward the youngest stars in NGC 6334 I(N) and I which exhibit molecular outflows without H II regions. For NGC 6357 the O stars were formed a few Myr ago, and the cloud dispersal by the O stars is significant. We conclude that cloud-cloud collision offers a possible explanation of the mini-starburst over a 100 pc scale.

  6. Hydrodynamics of planing monohull watercraft

    CERN Document Server

    Vorus, William S

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses the principles involved in the design and engineering of planing monohull power boats, with an emphasis on the theoretical fundamentals that readers need in order to be fully functional in marine design and engineering. Author William Vorus focuses on three topics: boat resistance, seaway response, and propulsion and explains the physical principles, mathematical details, and theoretical details that support physical understanding. In particular, he explains the approximations and simplifications in mathematics that lead to success in the applications of planing craft design engineering, and begins with the simplest configuration that embodies the basic physics. He leads readers, step-by-step, through the physical complications that occur, leading to a useful working knowledge of marine design and engineering. Included in the book are a wealth of examples that exemplify some of the most important naval architecture and marine engineering problems that challenge many of today’s engineers.

  7. Plane waves with weak singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Justin R.

    2003-03-01

    We study a class of time dependent solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations which are plane waves with weak null singularities. This singularity is weak in the sense that though the tidal forces diverge at the singularity, the rate of divergence is such that the distortion suffered by a freely falling observer remains finite. Among such weak singular plane waves there is a sub-class which does not exhibit large back reaction in the presence of test scalar probes. String propagation in these backgrounds is smooth and there is a natural way to continue the metric beyond the singularity. This continued metric admits string propagation without the string becoming infinitely excited. We construct a one parameter family of smooth metrics which are at a finite distance in the space of metrics from the extended metric and a well defined operator in the string sigma model which resolves the singularity. (author)

  8. Functional Aesthetic Occlusal Plane (FAOP)

    OpenAIRE

    Câmara, Carlos Alexandre; Martins, Renato Parsekian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: A reasonable exposure of incisors and gingival tissues is generally considered more attractive than excess or lack of exposure. A reasonable gingival exposure is considered to be around 0 to 2 mm when smiling and 2-4 mm exposure of the maxillary incisor edge when the lips are at rest. Objective: The aim of this paper is to present the Functional Aesthetic Occlusal Plane (FAOP), which aims to help in the diagnosis of the relationships established among molars, incisors...

  9. Plane waves and spacelike infinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marolf, Donald; Ross, Simon F

    2003-01-01

    In an earlier paper, we showed that the causal boundary of any homogeneous plane wave satisfying the null convergence condition consists of a single null curve. In Einstein-Hilbert gravity, this would include any homogeneous plane wave satisfying the weak null energy condition. For conformally flat plane waves such as the Penrose limit of AdS 5 x S 5 , all spacelike curves that reach infinity also end on this boundary and the completion is Hausdorff. However, the more generic case (including, e.g., the Penrose limits of AdS 4 x S 7 and AdS 7 x S 4 ) is more complicated. In one natural topology, not all spacelike curves have limit points in the causal completion, indicating the need to introduce additional points at 'spacelike infinity' - the endpoints of spacelike curves. We classify the distinct ways in which spacelike curves can approach infinity, finding a two-dimensional set of distinct limits. The dimensionality of the set of points at spacelike infinity is not, however, fixed from this argument. In an alternative topology, the causal completion is already compact, but the completion is non-Hausdorff

  10. STELLAR TRANSITS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Béky, Bence; Kocsis, Bence

    2013-01-01

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are typically surrounded by a dense stellar population in galactic nuclei. Stars crossing the line of site in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) produce a characteristic transit light curve, just like extrasolar planets do when they transit their host star. We examine the possibility of finding such AGN transits in deep optical, UV, and X-ray surveys. We calculate transit light curves using the Novikov-Thorne thin accretion disk model, including general relativistic effects. Based on the expected properties of stellar cusps, we find that around 10 6 solar mass SMBHs, transits of red giants are most common for stars on close orbits with transit durations of a few weeks and orbital periods of a few years. We find that detecting AGN transits requires repeated observations of thousands of low-mass AGNs to 1% photometric accuracy in optical, or ∼10% in UV bands or soft X-ray. It may be possible to identify stellar transits in the Pan-STARRS and LSST optical and the eROSITA X-ray surveys. Such observations could be used to constrain black hole mass, spin, inclination, and accretion rate. Transit rates and durations could give valuable information on the circumnuclear stellar clusters as well. Transit light curves could be used to image accretion disks with unprecedented resolution, allowing us to resolve the SMBH silhouette in distant AGNs.

  11. MAPPING THE GALACTIC HALO. VIII. QUANTIFYING SUBSTRUCTURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starkenburg, Else; Helmi, Amina; Van Woerden, Hugo; Morrison, Heather L.; Harding, Paul; Frey, Lucy; Oravetz, Dan; Mateo, Mario; Dohm-Palmer, R. C.; Olszewski, Edward W.; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Norris, John E.; Freeman, Kenneth C.; Shectman, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    We have measured the amount of kinematic substructure in the Galactic halo using the final data set from the Spaghetti project, a pencil-beam high-latitude sky survey. Our sample contains 101 photometrically selected and spectroscopically confirmed giants with accurate distance, radial velocity, and metallicity information. We have developed a new clustering estimator: the '4distance' measure, which when applied to our data set leads to the identification of one group and seven pairs of clumped stars. The group, with six members, can confidently be matched to tidal debris of the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy. Two pairs match the properties of known Virgo structures. Using models of the disruption of Sagittarius in Galactic potentials with different degrees of dark halo flattening, we show that this favors a spherical or prolate halo shape, as demonstrated by Newberg et al. using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. One additional pair can be linked to older Sagittarius debris. We find that 20% of the stars in the Spaghetti data set are in substructures. From comparison with random data sets, we derive a very conservative lower limit of 10% to the amount of substructure in the halo. However, comparison to numerical simulations shows that our results are also consistent with a halo entirely built up from disrupted satellites, provided that the dominating features are relatively broad due to early merging or relatively heavy progenitor satellites.

  12. Galactic cosmic rays and tropical ozone asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilifarska, Natalya; Bakhmutov, Volodymyr; Melnyk, Galyna

    2017-01-01

    Lower stratospheric ozone O_3 is of special interest to climatic studies due to its direct influence on the tropopause temperature, and correspondingly on Earth’s radiation balance. By reason of the suppressed dissociation of molecular oxygen by solar UV radiation and the long life span of the lower stratospheric O_3 , its temporal variability is usually attributed to atmospheric circulation. Here we report about latitudinal-longitudinal differences in a centennial evolution of the tropical O_3 at 70 hPa. These asymmetries are hardly explicable within the concept of the ozone’s dynamical control alone. Analysis of ozone, energetic particles and the geomagnetic records from the last 111 years has revealed that they all evolve synchronously with time. This coherence motivates us to propose a mechanism explaining the geomagnetic and galactic cosmic ray influence on the near tropopause O_3 , allowing for an understanding of its spatial-temporal variability during the past century. Key words: galactic cosmic rays, asymmetries of tropical ozone distribution, geomagnetic filed

  13. AN ABSENCE OF FAST RADIO BURSTS AT INTERMEDIATE GALACTIC LATITUDES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroff, E.; Van Straten, W.; Bailes, M.; Barr, E. D.; Coster, P.; Flynn, C.; Keane, E. F. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Johnston, S. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Bates, S. D.; Keith, M. J.; Kramer, M.; Stappers, B. W. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Alan Turing Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Bhat, N. D. R. [ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), 44 Rosehill Street, Redfern, NSW 2016 (Australia); Burgay, M.; Possenti, A.; Tiburzi, C. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, Via della Scienza, I-09047 Selargius (Italy); Burke-Spolaor, S. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91104 (United States); Champion, D.; Ng, C. [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Levin, L., E-mail: epetroff@astro.swin.edu.au [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); and others

    2014-07-10

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are an emerging class of bright, highly dispersed radio pulses. Recent work by Thornton et al. has revealed a population of FRBs in the High Time Resolution Universe (HTRU) survey at high Galactic latitudes. A variety of progenitors have been proposed, including cataclysmic events at cosmological distances, Galactic flare stars, and terrestrial radio frequency interference. Here we report on a search for FRBs at intermediate Galactic latitudes (–15° Galactic models—must be included to ease the discrepancy between the detection rates at high and low Galactic latitudes. A revised rate estimate or another strong and heretofore unknown selection effect in Galactic latitude would provide closer agreement between the surveys' detection rates. The dearth of detections at low Galactic latitude disfavors a Galactic origin for these bursts.

  14. The Galactic fountain as an origin for the Smith Cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasco, A.; Fraternali, F.

    The recent discovery of an enriched metallicity for the Smith high-velocity H I Cloud (SC) lends support to a Galactic origin for this system. We use a dynamical model of the galactic fountain to reproduce the observed properties of the SC. In our model, fountain clouds are ejected from the region

  15. AN ABSENCE OF FAST RADIO BURSTS AT INTERMEDIATE GALACTIC LATITUDES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroff, E.; Van Straten, W.; Bailes, M.; Barr, E. D.; Coster, P.; Flynn, C.; Keane, E. F.; Johnston, S.; Bates, S. D.; Keith, M. J.; Kramer, M.; Stappers, B. W.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Burgay, M.; Possenti, A.; Tiburzi, C.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Champion, D.; Ng, C.; Levin, L.

    2014-01-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are an emerging class of bright, highly dispersed radio pulses. Recent work by Thornton et al. has revealed a population of FRBs in the High Time Resolution Universe (HTRU) survey at high Galactic latitudes. A variety of progenitors have been proposed, including cataclysmic events at cosmological distances, Galactic flare stars, and terrestrial radio frequency interference. Here we report on a search for FRBs at intermediate Galactic latitudes (–15° Galactic models—must be included to ease the discrepancy between the detection rates at high and low Galactic latitudes. A revised rate estimate or another strong and heretofore unknown selection effect in Galactic latitude would provide closer agreement between the surveys' detection rates. The dearth of detections at low Galactic latitude disfavors a Galactic origin for these bursts

  16. Radiation hydrodynamical instabilities in cosmological and galactic ionization fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Daniel J.; Norman, Michael L.

    2011-11-01

    Ionization fronts, the sharp radiation fronts behind which H/He ionizing photons from massive stars and galaxies propagate through space, were ubiquitous in the universe from its earliest times. The cosmic dark ages ended with the formation of the first primeval stars and galaxies a few hundred Myr after the Big Bang. Numerical simulations suggest that stars in this era were very massive, 25-500 solar masses, with H(II) regions of up to 30,000 light-years in diameter. We present three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamical calculations that reveal that the I-fronts of the first stars and galaxies were prone to violent instabilities, enhancing the escape of UV photons into the early intergalactic medium (IGM) and forming clumpy media in which supernovae later exploded. The enrichment of such clumps with metals by the first supernovae may have led to the prompt formation of a second generation of low-mass stars, profoundly transforming the nature of the first protogalaxies. Cosmological radiation hydrodynamics is unique because ionizing photons coupled strongly to both gas flows and primordial chemistry at early epochs, introducing a hierarchy of disparate characteristic timescales whose relative magnitudes can vary greatly throughout a given calculation. We describe the adaptive multistep integration scheme we have developed for the self-consistent transport of both cosmological and galactic ionization fronts.

  17. MERGERS IN DOUBLE-PEAKED [O III] ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Hai; Djorgovski, S. G.; Myers, Adam D.; Yan Lin

    2011-01-01

    As a natural consequence of galaxy mergers, binary active galactic nuclei (AGNs) should be commonplace. Nevertheless, observational confirmations are rare, especially for binaries with separations less than 10 kpc. Such a system may show two sets of narrow emission lines in a single spectrum owing to the orbital motion of the binary. We have obtained high-resolution near-infrared images of 50 double-peaked [O III]λ5007 AGNs with the Keck II laser guide star adaptive optics system. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey sample is compiled from the literature and consists of 17 type-1 AGNs between 0.18 BH -σ * relation because of overestimated stellar velocity dispersions, illustrating the importance of removing mergers from the samples defining the M BH -σ * relations. Finally, we find that the emission-line properties are indistinguishable for spatially resolved and unresolved sources, emphasizing that scenarios involving a single AGN can produce the same double-peaked line profiles and they account for at least 70% of the double-peaked [O III] AGNs.

  18. VARIABILITY OF OPTICAL COUNTERPARTS IN THE CHANDRA GALACTIC BULGE SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, C. T.; Hynes, R. I.; Johnson, C. B.; Baldwin, A.; Collazzi, A.; Gossen, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Jonker, P. G.; Torres, M. A. P. [SRON, Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Nelemans, G. [Department of Astrophysics, IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Maccarone, T. [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Box 41051, Science Building, Lubbock, TX 79409-1051 (United States); Steeghs, D.; Greiss, S. [Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Heinke, C. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, CCIS 4-183, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Bassa, C. G. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Villar, A. [Department of Physics, Massachussettes Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Gabb, M. [Department of Physics, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431-0991 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We present optical light curves of variable stars consistent with the positions of X-ray sources identified with the Chandra X-ray Observatory for the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS). Using data from the Mosaic-II instrument on the Blanco 4 m Telescope at CTIO, we gathered time-resolved photometric data on timescales from ∼2 hr to 8 days over the 3/4 of the X-ray survey containing sources from the initial GBS catalog. Among the light curve morphologies we identify are flickering in interacting binaries, eclipsing sources, dwarf nova outbursts, ellipsoidal variations, long period variables, spotted stars, and flare stars. Eighty-seven percent of X-ray sources have at least one potential optical counterpart. Twenty-seven percent of these candidate counterparts are detectably variable; a much greater fraction than expected for randomly selected field stars, which suggests that most of these variables are real counterparts. We discuss individual sources of interest, provide variability information on candidate counterparts, and discuss the characteristics of the variable population.

  19. Constraints on Galactic populations from the unidentified EGRET sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M.; Pavlidou, Vasiliki; Brown, Carolyn; Olinto, Angela V.; Fields, Brian D.

    2007-01-01

    A significant fraction of the sources in the third EGRET catalog have not yet been identified with a low-energy counterpart. We evaluate the plausibility of a Galactic population accounting for some or all of the unidentified EGRET sources by making the simple assumption that galaxies similar to the Milky Way host comparable populations of gamma-ray emitters. Rather than focusing on the properties of a specific candidate emitter, we constrain the abundance and spatial distribution of proposed Galactic populations. We find that it is highly improbable that the unidentified EGRET sources contain more than a handful of members of a Galactic halo population, but that current observations are consistent with all of these sources being Galactic objects if they reside entirely in the disk and bulge. We discuss the additional constraints and new insights into the nature of Galactic gamma-ray emitting populations that GLAST is expected to provide

  20. Competition between invariant habit plane and compatible junction plane in TiNb-based shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamura, T.; Kim, H.Y.; Hosoda, H.; Miyazaki, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Kinematic compatibility (KC) among martensite variants in Ti-Nb-Al is evaluated. ► Rotation Q is necessary to keep KC at any junction plane (JP). ► The rotation Q is equivalent to the rotation to form the exact twin-relationship. ► The JP preferentially observed in experiment is the JP with the smaller Q. ► We propose two preferential JPs with {1 1 1} type I and 〈2 1 1〉 type II twin in Ti-Nb-Al. -- Abstract: The invariant plane (IP) condition at a habit plane (HP) and the kinematic compatibility (KC) condition at a junction plane (JP) are quantitatively evaluated by the geometrically nonlinear theory of martensite and the origin of the twin orientation relationship (OR) at a JP is revealed in a β titanium shape memory alloy. Exact twin OR at a JP is impossible among the habit plane variants (HPVs). A nonzero rotation is necessary to maintain the compatibility at a JP between the HPVs. The fully compatible HPV cluster in which IP at a HP and KC at a JP are maintained simultaneously is impossible in this alloy. However, it was found that twin OR and KC can be maintained simultaneously. The preferentially observed HPV clusters in transmission electron microscopy are the clusters with a smaller rotation to maintain KC at a JP

  1. The HST-pNFL program: Mapping the Fluorescent Emission of Galactic Outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Timothy

    2017-08-01

    Galactic outflows associated with star formation are believed to play a crucial role in the evolution of galaxies and the IGM. Most of our knowledge about outflows has come from down-the-barrel UV absorption spectroscopy of star-forming galaxies. However, absorption-line data alone provide only indirect information about the radial structure of the gas flows, which introduces large systematic uncertainties in some of the most important quantities, such as the outflow rate, the mass loading factor, and the momentum, metal, and energy fluxes. Recent spectroscopic observations of star-forming galaxies with large (projected physical) apertures have revealed non-resonant (fluorescent) emission in the UV, e.g., FeII* and SiII*, that can be naturally produced by spatially extended emission from the same outflowing material traced in absorption. Encouraged by the most recent observations of FeII* emission by the SDSS-IV/eBOSS survey (Zhu et al. 2015), we propose a pilot program to use narrow-band filter UVIS F280N images to map the extended FeII* 2626 and 2613 fluorescent emission in a carefully-chosen sample of 4 starburst galaxies at z=0.065, and COS G130M to obtain down-the- barrel spectra for SiII absorption and SiII* emission. This HST pilot program can provide unique information about the spatial structure of galactic outflows and can potentially lead to a revolution in our understanding of outflow physics and its impact on galaxies and the IGM.

  2. Some Considerations Regarding Plane to Plane Parallelism Error Effects in Robotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Alaci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that by imposing the parallelism constraint between the measured plane and the reference plane, the position of the current plane is not univocal specified and is impossible to specify the way to attain the parallelism errors imposed by accuracy constrains. The parameters involved in the calculus of plane to plane parallelism error can be used to set univocal the relative position between the two planes.

  3. UNCERTAINTIES IN GALACTIC CHEMICAL EVOLUTION MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Côté, Benoit; Ritter, Christian; Herwig, Falk; O’Shea, Brian W.; Pignatari, Marco; Jones, Samuel; Fryer, Chris L.

    2016-01-01

    We use a simple one-zone galactic chemical evolution model to quantify the uncertainties generated by the input parameters in numerical predictions for a galaxy with properties similar to those of the Milky Way. We compiled several studies from the literature to gather the current constraints for our simulations regarding the typical value and uncertainty of the following seven basic parameters: the lower and upper mass limits of the stellar initial mass function (IMF), the slope of the high-mass end of the stellar IMF, the slope of the delay-time distribution function of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), the number of SNe Ia per M ⊙ formed, the total stellar mass formed, and the final mass of gas. We derived a probability distribution function to express the range of likely values for every parameter, which were then included in a Monte Carlo code to run several hundred simulations with randomly selected input parameters. This approach enables us to analyze the predicted chemical evolution of 16 elements in a statistical manner by identifying the most probable solutions, along with their 68% and 95% confidence levels. Our results show that the overall uncertainties are shaped by several input parameters that individually contribute at different metallicities, and thus at different galactic ages. The level of uncertainty then depends on the metallicity and is different from one element to another. Among the seven input parameters considered in this work, the slope of the IMF and the number of SNe Ia are currently the two main sources of uncertainty. The thicknesses of the uncertainty bands bounded by the 68% and 95% confidence levels are generally within 0.3 and 0.6 dex, respectively. When looking at the evolution of individual elements as a function of galactic age instead of metallicity, those same thicknesses range from 0.1 to 0.6 dex for the 68% confidence levels and from 0.3 to 1.0 dex for the 95% confidence levels. The uncertainty in our chemical evolution model

  4. Work Planing Automation at Mechanical Subdivision

    OpenAIRE

    Dzindzelėta, Vytautas

    2005-01-01

    Work planing automation, installation possibilities and future outlook at mechanical subdivision. To study how the work planing has changed before and after automation process and to analyse automation process methodology.

  5. Combinatorial geometry in the plane

    CERN Document Server

    Hadwiger, Hugo; Klee, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Geared toward advanced undergraduates familiar with analysis and college geometry, this concise book discusses theorems on topics restricted to the plane such as convexity, coverings, and graphs. In addition to helping students cultivate rigorous thought, the text encourages the development of mathematical intuition and clarifies the nature of mathematical research.The two-part treatment begins with specific topics including integral distances, covering problems, point set geometry and convexity, simple paradoxes involving point sets, and pure combinatorics, among other subjects. The second pa

  6. SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bebek, C.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Bergstrom, L.; Berstein, G.P.; Bester, M.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmett, W.; Eriksson, M.; Fouchez, D.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Johnson, W.; Kadel, R.; Karcher, A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureaux, J.; Lampton, M.; Lefevre, O.; Levi, M.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Roe, N.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz, D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Smadja, G.; Smith, R.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle, G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.

    2003-01-01

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R and D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics

  7. Fermi and Swift as supernova alarms: Alert, localization, and diagnosis of future Galactic Type Ia explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xilu; Fields, Brian D.; Lien, Amy Y.

    2017-01-01

    A Galactic SNIa event could go entirely unnoticed due to the large optical and near-IR extinction in the Milky Way plane, low radio and X-ray luminosities, and a weak neutrino signal. But the recent SN2014J confirms that Type Ia supernovae emit nuclear γ- ray lines, from the 56Ni → 56Co → 56Fe radioactive decay. The energy released in these decays powers the SNIa UVOIR light curve at times after ~1 week, leading to an exponential decline. Importantly for Swift and Fermi, these decays are accompanied by γ-ray line emission, with distinct series of lines for both the 56Ni and 56Co decays, spanning 158 keV to 2.6 MeV. These lines are squarely within the Fermi/GBM energy range, and the 56Ni 158 keV line is detectable by Swift/BAT. The Galaxy is optically thin to γ-rays, so the supernova line flux will suffer negligible extinction. Both GBM and BAT have continuous and nearly all-sky coverage. Thus GBM and BAT are ideal Galactic SNIa monitors and early warning systems. We will illustrate expected GBM and BAT light curves and spectra, based on our model for SNIa γ-ray emission and transfer. We show that the supernova signal emerges as distinct from the GBM background within days after the explosion in the SN2014J shell model. Therefore, if a Galactic SNIa were to explode, there are two possibilities of confirming and sounding the alert: 1) Swift/BAT discovers the SNIa first and localizes it within arcminutes; 2) Fermi/GBM finds the SNIa first and localizes it to within ~1 degree, using the Earth occultation technique, followed up by BAT to localize it within arcminutes. After the alert of either BAT or GBM, Swift localizes it to take spectra in optical, UV, soft and hard X-rays simultaneously with both XRT and UVOT instruments.

  8. White-dwarf-white-dwarf galactic background in the LISA data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edlund, Jeffrey A.; Tinto, Massimo; Krolak, Andrzej; Nelemans, Gijs

    2005-01-01

    LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) is a proposed space mission, which will use coherent laser beams exchanged between three remote spacecraft to detect and study low-frequency cosmic gravitational radiation. In the low part of its frequency band, the LISA strain sensitivity will be dominated by the incoherent superposition of hundreds of millions of gravitational wave signals radiated by inspiraling white-dwarf binaries present in our own Galaxy. In order to estimate the magnitude of the LISA response to this background, we have simulated a synthesized population that recently appeared in the literature. Our approach relies on entirely analytic expressions of the LISA time-delay interferometric responses to the gravitational radiation emitted by such systems, which allows us to implement a computationally efficient and accurate simulation of the background in the LISA data. We find the amplitude of the galactic white-dwarf binary background in the LISA data to be modulated in time, reaching a minimum equal to about twice that of the LISA noise for a period of about two months around the time when the Sun-LISA direction is roughly oriented towards the Autumn equinox. This suggests that, during this time period, LISA could search for other gravitational wave signals incoming from directions that are away from the galactic plane. Since the galactic white-dwarf background will be observed by LISA not as a stationary but rather as a cyclostationary random process with a period of 1 yr, we summarize the theory of cyclostationary random processes, present the corresponding generalized spectral method needed to characterize such process, and make a comparison between our analytic results and those obtained by applying our method to the simulated data. We find that, by measuring the generalized spectral components of the white-dwarf background, LISA will be able to infer properties of the distribution of the white-dwarf binary systems present in our Galaxy

  9. Determining the nature of faint X-ray sources from the ASCA Galactic center survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutovinov, A. A.; Revnivtsev, M. G.; Karasev, D. I.; Shimansky, V. V.; Burenin, R. A.; Bikmaev, I. F.; Vorob'ev, V. S.; Tsygankov, S. S.; Pavlinsky, M. N.

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of the the identification of six objects from the ASCA Galactic center and Galactic plane surveys: AX J173548-3207, AX J173628-3141, AX J1739.5-2910, AX J1740.4-2856, AX J1740.5-2937, and AX J1743.9-2846. Chandra, XMM-Newton, and XRT/Swift X-ray data have been used to improve the positions of the optical counterparts to these sources. Thereafter, we have carried out a series of spectroscopic observations of the established optical counterparts at the RTT-150 telescope. Analysis of X-ray and optical spectra as well as photometric measurements in a wide wavelength range based on optical and infrared catalogs has allowed the nature of the program sources to be determined. Two X-ray objects have been detected in the error circle of AX J173628-3141: one is a coronally active G star and the other may be a symbiotic star, a red giant with an accreting white dwarf. Three sources (AX J1739.5-2910, AX J1740.5-2937, AX J1743.9-2846) have turned out to be active G-K stars, presumably RS CVn objects, one (AX J1740.4-2856) is an M dwarf, and another one (AX J173548-3207) most likely a low-mass X-ray binary in its low state. The distances and corresponding luminosities of the sources in the soft X-ray band (0.5-10 keV) have been estimated; analysis of deep INTEGRAL Galactic center observations has not revealed a statistically significant flux at energies >20 keV from any of them.

  10. Dark matter superfluidity and galactic dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasha Berezhiani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We propose a unified framework that reconciles the stunning success of MOND on galactic scales with the triumph of the ΛCDM model on cosmological scales. This is achieved through the physics of superfluidity. Dark matter consists of self-interacting axion-like particles that thermalize and condense to form a superfluid in galaxies, with ∼mK critical temperature. The superfluid phonons mediate a MOND acceleration on baryonic matter. Our framework naturally distinguishes between galaxies (where MOND is successful and galaxy clusters (where MOND is not: dark matter has a higher temperature in clusters, and hence is in a mixture of superfluid and normal phase. The rich and well-studied physics of superfluidity leads to a number of striking observational signatures.

  11. The propagation of galactic cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, A.N.

    1981-01-01

    Large scale (approximately 15 pc) turbulence in the interstellar medium (ISM) causes the firehose and mirror instabilities to occur. These produce small scale (approximately 10 -7 pc) magnetic irregularities, which scatter cosmic rays. We use pulsar scintillation data, and a model of the origin of these scintillations, to construct a slab model of the turbulent ISM. Then we find the amplitudes and wavelengths of the magnetic irregularities that arise, and we calculate the coefficients for the diffusion of cosmic rays along the interstellar magnetic fields. We incorporate this diffusion into our model of the turbulent ISM, and show that it can account naturally for both the lifetime of low energy cosmic rays, and the variation of their mean pathlength with energy. Our model has no galactic halo, and contains no scattering by Alfven waves. (author)

  12. Gamma-Rays from Galactic Compact Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaret, Philip

    2007-04-01

    Recent discoveries have revealed many sources of TeV photons in our Mikly Way galaxy powered by compact objects, either neutron stars or black holes. These objects must be powerful particle accelerators, some with peak energies of at least 100 TeV, and may be neutrino, as well as photon, sources. Future TeV observations will enable us to address key questions concerning particle acceleration by compact objects including the fraction of energy which accreting black holes channel into relativstic jet production, whether the compact object jets are leptonic or hadronic, and the mechanism by which pulsar winds accelerate relativistic particles. We report on work done related to compact Galactic objects in preparation of a White Paper on the status and future of ground-based gamma-ray astronomy requested by the Division of Astrophysics of the American Physical Society.

  13. Chemical evolution of the galactic disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyse, R.F.G.; Gilmore, G.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of enriched material in the stars and gas of their Galaxy contains information pertaining to the chemical evolution of the Milky Way from its formation epoch to the present day, and provides general constraints on theories of galaxy formation. The separate stellar components of the Galaxy cannot readily be understood if treated in isolation, but a reasonably self-consistent model for Galactic chemical evolution may be found if one considers together the chemical properties of the extreme spheroid, thick disk and thin disk populations of the Galaxy. The three major stellar components of the Galaxy are characterized by their distinct spatial distributions, metallicity structure, and kinematics, with the newly-identified thick disk being approximately three times more massive than the classical metal-poor, non-rotating extreme spheroid. Stellar evolution in the thick disk straightforwardly provides the desired pre-enrichment for resolution of the thin disk G dwarf problem

  14. Rotation of gas above the galactic disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gvaramadze, V.V.; Lominadze, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    The galactic disk is modeled by an oblate spheroid with confocal spherodial isodensity surfaces. An explicit analytic expression is found for the angular velocity of the gas outside the disk. The parameters of a three-component model of a spiral galaxy (oblate spheroid with central hole, bulge, and massive corona) are chosen in such a way as to obtain in the disk a two-hump rotation curve (as in the Galaxy, M 31, and M 81). It is shown that at heights absolute value z ≤ 2 kpc the gas rotates in the same manner as the disk. However, at greater heights the rotation curve ceases to have two humps. Allowance for the pressure gradient of the gas slightly changes the rotation curve directly above the disk (r r/sub disk/)

  15. Optical Variability of Active Galactic Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozłowski, Szymon, E-mail: simkoz@astrouw.edu.pl [Astronomical Observatory, University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-09-21

    Variability studies of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) typically use either power spectral density (PSD) and structure function (SF) analyses or direct modeling of light curves with the damped random walk (DRW) and the continuous autoregressive moving average (CARMA) models. A fair fraction of research publications on the subject are flawed, and simply report incorrect results, because they lack a deep understanding of where these methods originate from and what their limitations are. For example, SF analyses typically lack or use a wrong noise subtraction procedure, leading to flat SFs. DRW, on the other hand, can only be used if the experiment length is sufficient, at least ten times the signal decorrelation time scale τ, and if the data show the power-law SF slope of γ ≡ 0.5.

  16. Accretion disks in active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begelman, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    The innermost regions of the central engines in active galactic nuclei are examined, and it is shown how different modes of accretion with angular momentum may account for the diverse manifestations of activity in the nuclei of galaxies. These modes are subsequently compared with the observed properties of quasars, Type I Seyferts, and radio galaxies. It was found that the qualitative features of an accretion flow orbiting a massive black hole depend principally on the ratio of the actual accretion rate to the Eddington accretion rate. For a value of this ratio much less than one, the flow may become an ion torus supported by gas pressure; for a value much greater than one, the flow traps its radiative output and becomes an inefficient radiation torus. At intermediate values, the flow may settle into a thin accretion disk. 62 references

  17. The galactic extinction towards Maffei 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buta, R.J.; McCall, M.L.; McDonald Observatory, Austin, TX; Australian National Univ., Canberra. Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories)

    1983-01-01

    The extinction of Maffei 1 has been measured by two new techniques. First, BV aperture photometry has been performed to obtain the colour excess from standard aperture-colour relations for early-type galaxies. Secondly, millimetre and radio observations of galactic CO and HI have been used to calculate the total hydrogen column density along the line-of-sight, and thereby estimate the colour excess from the local dust-to-gas ratio. After consideration of all extinction measurements to date, it is concluded that Asub(v)=5.1+-0.2 mag. The isophotal diameter and the corrected apparent visual magnitude are estimated to be approx. 15 arcmin and approx. 6.3 respectively (assuming type E), making Maffei 1 one of the biggest and brightest galaxies in the sky. (author)

  18. Monitoring and Mapping the Galactic Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwardt, Craig

    Both neutron star and black hole binary transients are providing some of the most exciting RXTE science, and fortunately many are concentrated in the galactic bulge region. We propose to continue our twice weekly PCA scans of the region, which cover about 500 sq deg. The observations will be sensitive to new sources at the ~1 mCrab level (a factor of 10-60 more sensitive than the ASM in the region). We have had success finding new sources and new types of variability, including three millisecond pulsars, and new increased solid angle will improve the chances of finding more in the final RXTE years. We will continue efforts to search for variability in new and known sources. Companion follow-up proposals would be triggered by the results.

  19. Molecular clouds and galactic spiral structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dame, T.M.

    1983-01-01

    Galactic CO line emission at 115 GHz has been surveyed in the region 12 0 less than or equal to l less than or equal to 60 0 and -1 0 less than or equal to b less than or equal to 1 0 in order to study the distribution of molecular clouds in the inner galaxy; an inner strip 0 0 .5 wide has been sampled every beamwidth (0 0 .125), the rest every two beamwidths. Comparison of the survey with similar HI data reveals a detailed correlation with the most intense 21-cm features, implying that the CO and HI trace the same galactic features and have the same large-scale kinematics. To each of the classical 21-cm (HI) spiral arms of the inner galaxy there corresponds a CO molecular arm which is generally more clearly defined and of higher contrast. A simple model is developed in which all of the CO emission from the inner galaxy arises from spiral arms. The modeling results suggest that molecular clouds are essentially transient objects, existing for 15 to 40 million years after their formation in a spiral arm, and are largely confined to spiral features about 300 pc wide. A variety of methods are employed to estimate distances and masses for the largest clouds detected by the inner-galaxy survey and a catalogue is compiled. The catalogued clouds, the largest of which have masses of several 10 6 M/sub sunmass/ and linear dimensions in excess of 100 pc, are found to be excellent spiral-arm tracers. One of the nearest of the clouds, that associated with the supernova remnant W44, is fully mapped in both CO and 13 CO and is discussed in detail

  20. Galactic distribution and evolution of pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.H.; Manchester, R.N.

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of pulsars with respect to period, z-distance, luminosity, and galactocentric radius has been investigated using data from three extensive pulsar surveys. It is shown that selection effects only slightly modify the observed period and z-distributions but strongly affect the observed luminosity function and galactic distribution. These latter two distributions are computed from the Jodrell Bank and Arecibo data, using an iterative procedure. The largest uncertainties in our results are the result of uncertainty in the adopted distance scale. Therefore, where relevant, separate calculations have been made for two values of the average interstellar electron density, , 0.02 cm -3 and 0.03 cm -3 .The derived luminosity function is closely represented by a power law with index (for logarithmic luminosity intervals) close to -1. For =0.03 cm -3 , the density of potentially observable pulsars is about 90 kpc -2 in the local region and increases with decreasing galactocentric radius. These distributions imply that the total number of pulsars in the Galaxy is about 10 5 . If only a fraction of all pulsars are observable because of beaming effects, then the total number in the Galaxy is correspondingly greater.Recent observations of pulsar proper motions show that pulsars are generally high-velocity objects. The observed z-distribution of pulsars implies that the mean age of observable pulsars does not exceed 2 x 10 6 years. With this mean age the pulsar birthrate required to maintain the observed galactic distribution is 10 -4 yr -1 kpc -2 in the local region and one pulsar birth every 6 years in the Galaxy as a whole. For =0.02 cm -3 , the corresponding rate is one birth every 40 years. These rates exceed most estimates of supernova occurrence rates and may require that all stars with mass greater than approx.2.5 Msun form pulsars at the end of their evolutionary life

  1. galpy: A python LIBRARY FOR GALACTIC DYNAMICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovy, Jo

    2015-01-01

    I describe the design, implementation, and usage of galpy, a python package for galactic-dynamics calculations. At its core, galpy consists of a general framework for representing galactic potentials both in python and in C (for accelerated computations); galpy functions, objects, and methods can generally take arbitrary combinations of these as arguments. Numerical orbit integration is supported with a variety of Runge-Kutta-type and symplectic integrators. For planar orbits, integration of the phase-space volume is also possible. galpy supports the calculation of action-angle coordinates and orbital frequencies for a given phase-space point for general spherical potentials, using state-of-the-art numerical approximations for axisymmetric potentials, and making use of a recent general approximation for any static potential. A number of different distribution functions (DFs) are also included in the current release; currently, these consist of two-dimensional axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric disk DFs, a three-dimensional disk DF, and a DF framework for tidal streams. I provide several examples to illustrate the use of the code. I present a simple model for the Milky Way's gravitational potential consistent with the latest observations. I also numerically calculate the Oort functions for different tracer populations of stars and compare them to a new analytical approximation. Additionally, I characterize the response of a kinematically warm disk to an elliptical m = 2 perturbation in detail. Overall, galpy consists of about 54,000 lines, including 23,000 lines of code in the module, 11,000 lines of test code, and about 20,000 lines of documentation. The test suite covers 99.6% of the code. galpy is available at http://github.com/jobovy/galpy with extensive documentation available at http://galpy.readthedocs.org/en/latest

  2. Fourier plane modeling of the jet in the galaxy M81

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramessur, Arvind; Bietenholz, Michael F.; Leeuw, Lerothodi L.; Bartel, Norbert

    2015-03-01

    The nearby spiral galaxy M81 has a low-luminosity Active Galactic Nucleus in its center with a core and a one-sided curved jet, dubbed M81*, that is barely resolved with VLBI. To derive basic parameters such as the length of the jet, its orientation and curvature, the usual method of model-fitting with point sources and elliptical Gaussians may not always be the most appropriate one. We are developing Fourier-plane models for such sources, in particular an asymmetric triangle model to fit the extensive set of VLBI data of M81* in the u-v plane. This method may have an advantage over conventional ones in extracting information close to the resolution limit to provide us with a more comprehensive picture of the structure and evolution of the jet. We report on preliminary results.

  3. Magnetic activity in the Galactic Centre region - fast downflows along rising magnetic loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakiuchi, Kensuke; Suzuki, Takeru K.; Fukui, Yasuo; Torii, Kazufumi; Enokiya, Rei; Machida, Mami; Matsumoto, Ryoji

    2018-06-01

    We studied roles of the magnetic field on the gas dynamics in the Galactic bulge by a three-dimensional global magnetohydrodynamical simulation data, particularly focusing on vertical flows that are ubiquitously excited by magnetic activity. In local regions where the magnetic field is stronger, it is frequently seen that fast downflows slide along inclined magnetic field lines that are associated with buoyantly rising magnetic loops. The vertical velocity of these downflows reaches ˜100 km s-1 near the footpoint of the loops by the gravitational acceleration towards the Galactic plane. The two footpoints of rising magnetic loops are generally located at different radial locations and the field lines are deformed by the differential rotation. The angular momentum is transported along the field lines, and the radial force balance breaks down. As a result, a fast downflow is often observed only at the one footpoint located at the inner radial position. The fast downflow compresses the gas to form a dense region near the footpoint, which will be important in star formation afterwards. Furthermore, the horizontal components of the velocity are also fast near the footpoint because the downflow is accelerated along the magnetic sliding slope. As a result, the high-velocity flow creates various characteristic features in a simulated position-velocity diagram, depending on the viewing angle.

  4. The Fermi Galactic Center GeV Excess and Implications for Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Kinard Lab of Physics, Clemson, SC 29634-0978 (United States); Albert, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Atwood, W. B. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Baldini, L. [Università di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bissaldi, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Bonino, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Brandt, T. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bregeon, J. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université Montpellier, CNRS/IN2P3, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Bruel, P. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Collaboration: (The Fermi LAT Collaboration); and others

    2017-05-01

    The region around the Galactic Center (GC) is now well established to be brighter at energies of a few GeV than what is expected from conventional models of diffuse gamma-ray emission and catalogs of known gamma-ray sources. We study the GeV excess using 6.5 yr of data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We characterize the uncertainty of the GC excess spectrum and morphology due to uncertainties in cosmic-ray source distributions and propagation, uncertainties in the distribution of interstellar gas in the Milky Way, and uncertainties due to a potential contribution from the Fermi bubbles. We also evaluate uncertainties in the excess properties due to resolved point sources of gamma rays. The GC is of particular interest, as it would be expected to have the brightest signal from annihilation of weakly interacting massive dark matter (DM) particles. However, control regions along the Galactic plane, where a DM signal is not expected, show excesses of similar amplitude relative to the local background. Based on the magnitude of the systematic uncertainties, we conservatively report upper limits for the annihilation cross-section as a function of particle mass and annihilation channel.

  5. The modulation of galactic cosmic rays as described by a three-dimensional drift model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potgieter, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    An outline of the present state of knowledge about the effect of drift on the modulation of galactic cosmic rays is given. Various observations related to the reversal of the solar magnetic field polarity are discussed. Comprehensive numerical solutions of the steady-state cosmic-ray transport equation in an axially-symmetric three-dimensional heliosphere, including drift are presented. This is an extention of the continuing effort of the past six years to understand the effect and importance of drift on the transport of galactic cosmic rays in the heliosphere. A flat neutral sheet which coincides with the equatorial plane is assumed. A general method of calculating the drift velocity in the neutral sheet including that used previously by other authors is presented. The effect of changing various modulation parameters on the drift solutions are illustrated in detail. The real significance of drift is illustrated by using Gaussian input spectra on the modulation boundary. A carefully selected set of modulation parameters is used to illustrate to what extent a drift model can explain prominent observational features. It is concluded that drift is important in in the process of cosmic-ray transport and must as such be considered in all modulation studies, but that it is not overwhelmingly dominant as previously anticipated

  6. Spherical harmonics analysis of Fermi gamma-ray data and the Galactic dark matter halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyshev, Dmitry; Bovy, Jo; Cholis, Ilias

    2011-01-01

    We argue that the decomposition of gamma-ray maps in spherical harmonics is a sensitive tool to study dark matter (DM) annihilation or decay in the main Galactic halo of the Milky Way. Using the spherical harmonic decomposition in a window excluding the Galactic plane, we show for 1 yr of Fermi data that adding a spherical template (such as a line-of-sight DM annihilation profile) to an astrophysical background significantly reduces χ 2 of the fit to the data. In some energy bins the significance of this DM fraction is above three sigma. This can be viewed as a hint of a DM annihilation signal, although astrophysical sources cannot be ruled out at this moment. We use the derived DM fraction as a conservative upper limit on the DM annihilation signal. In the case of bb annihilation channel the limits are about a factor of 2 less constraining than the limits from dwarf galaxies. The uncertainty of our method is dominated by systematics related to modeling the astrophysical background. We show that with 1 yr of Fermi data the statistical sensitivity would be sufficient to detect DM annihilation with thermal freeze-out cross section for masses below 100 GeV.

  7. CCD observations of the spatial structure of the hydrogen Balmer-alpha (Hα) diffuse galactic background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkmann, J.V.

    1987-01-01

    Images of hydrogen Balmer alpha emission were obtained in the galactic plane at the Orion arm rest velocity at longitudes of 66, 96, and 114 0 and at the Perseus arm velocity at 114 0 . These directions were chosen because of their lack of birth nebular emission and their high [Sll]6731/Hα ratio, a characteristic of the faint galactic emission-line background. The narrow band (0.26A) images were obtained during June and August 1985, and June 1986, with a newly-constructed RCA SID501DX CCD camera used with the existing 15-cm Fabry-Perot spectrometer at the Physical Sciences Laboratory of the University of Wisconsin, Madison. The field of view was 0. 0 75, with each binned pixel covering about two arc minutes. All images show a significant variation in detected Hα emission at the third-of-half-degree scale. The emission intensity varies by a factor of two over each field of view. Comparison of Orion arm and Perseus arm results indicates extinction is the most-likely cause of the observed spatial structure but star counts taken from the blue plate of Palomar Sky Survey show little spatial correlation with the α emission. This dilemma may be resolved by further investigations using IRAS images, which were not available in time for inclusion in this thesis

  8. Deformation of the Galactic Centre stellar cusp due to the gravity of a growing gas disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Karamveer; Sridhar, S.

    2018-06-01

    The nuclear star cluster surrounding the massive black hole at the Galactic Centre consists of young and old stars, with most of the stellar mass in an extended, cuspy distribution of old stars. The compact cluster of young stars was probably born in situ in a massive accretion disc around the black hole. We investigate the effect of the growing gravity of the disc on the orbits of the old stars, using an integrable model of the deformation of a spherical star cluster with anisotropic velocity dispersions. A formula for the perturbed phase-space distribution function is derived using linear theory, and new density and surface density profiles are computed. The cusp undergoes a spheroidal deformation with the flattening increasing strongly at smaller distances from the black hole; the intrinsic axis ratio ˜0.8 at ˜0.15 pc. Stellar orbits are deformed such that they spend more time near the disc plane and sample the dense inner parts of the disc; this could result in enhanced stripping of the envelopes of red giant stars. Linear theory accounts only for orbits whose apsides circulate. The non-linear theory of adiabatic capture into resonance is needed to understand orbits whose apsides librate. The mechanism is a generic dynamical process, and it may be common in galactic nuclei.

  9. NO EVIDENCE FOR CLASSICAL CEPHEIDS AND A NEW DWARF GALAXY BEHIND THE GALACTIC DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrukowicz, P.; Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Soszyński, I.; Pietrzyński, G.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Poleski, R.; Ulaczyk, K.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Pawlak, M.; Kozłowski, S. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland)

    2015-11-10

    Based on data from the ongoing OGLE Galaxy Variability Survey (OGLE GVS), we have verified observed properties of stars detected by the near-infrared VVV survey in a direction near the Galactic plane at longitude l ≈ −27° and recently tentatively classified as classical Cepheids belonging to, hence claimed, a dwarf galaxy at a distance of about 90 kpc from the Galactic Center. Three of four stars are detected in the OGLE GVS I-band images. We show that two of the objects are not variable at all, and the third one with a period of 5.695 days and a nearly sinusoidal light curve of an amplitude of 0.5 mag cannot be a classical Cepheid and is very likely a spotted object. These results together with a very unusual shape of the K{sub s}-band light curve of the fourth star indicate that it is very likely that none of them is a Cepheid and, thus there is no evidence for a background dwarf galaxy. Our observations show that great care must be taken when classifying objects by their low-amplitude close-to-sinusoidal near-infrared light curves, especially with a small number of measurements. We also provide a sample of high-amplitude spotted stars with periods of a few days that can mimic pulsations and even eclipses.

  10. Analysis Of Ultra Compact Ionized Hydrogen Regions Within The Northern Half Of The Galactic Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, John

    2011-01-01

    From a catalog of 199 candidate ultra compact (UC) HII regions 123 sources included in the the intersection of the GLIMPSE (8 μm),Cornish (6 cm), and Bolocam ( 1.1 mm) galactic plane surveys (BGPS) were analyzed. The sources were sorted based on 6 cm morphology and coincidence with 8 μm bubbles. The 1.1 mm flux attributes were measured and calculations were performed to determine the ionized hydrogen contributions to the 1.1 mm flux. The category averages and frequencies were obtained as well. Significant differences in HII percentages were present among the morphology groups but ranged widely, without apparent distinction, between the bubble forming and triggered source categories.

  11. Extinction of H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israel, F.P.; Kennicutt, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    Visual extinction of H II regions in nine nearby galaxies as derived from the ratio of the radio continuum emission to H-alpha emission is systematically larger than visual extinction deduced from the Balmer lines alone, if one assumes a value Av/E(B-V) 3. An optically-limited sample of about 30 extragalactic H II regions has a mean extinction of 1.7 m in the visual while about 1.2 m is not seen in the reddening of the Balmer lines. Both reddening and extinction decreases with increasing galactic radius, at least for M33 and M101

  12. An introduction to finite projective planes

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, Abraham Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Geared toward both beginning and advanced undergraduate and graduate students, this self-contained treatment offers an elementary approach to finite projective planes. Following a review of the basics of projective geometry, the text examines finite planes, field planes, and coordinates in an arbitrary plane. Additional topics include central collineations and the little Desargues' property, the fundamental theorem, and examples of finite non-Desarguesian planes.Virtually no knowledge or sophistication on the part of the student is assumed, and every algebraic system that arises is defined and

  13. Systems considerations in mosaic focal planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. P., III

    1983-08-01

    Two key reasons for pursuing the development of mosaic focal planes are reviewed and it is shown that rapid frame repetition rate is the only requirement that can be solved no other way than through mosaic focal planes. With the view that spaceborne mosaic focal plane sensors are necessarily 'smart sensors' requiring a lot of onboard processing just to function, it is pointed out that various artificial intelligence techniques may be the most appropriate to incorporate in the data processing. Finally, a novel mosaic focal plane design is proposed, termed a virtual mosaic focal plane, in response to other system constraints.

  14. The Power Spectrum of the Milky Way: Velocity Fluctuations in the Galactic Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovy, Jo; Bird, Jonathan C.; García Pérez, Ana E.; Majewski, Steven R.; Nidever, David L.; Zasowski, Gail

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the kinematics of stars in the mid-plane of the Milky Way (MW) on scales between 25 pc and 10 kpc with data from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE), and the Geneva-Copenhagen survey (GCS). Using red-clump (RC) stars in APOGEE, we determine the large-scale line-of-sight velocity field out to 5 kpc from the Sun in (0.75 kpc)2 bins. The solar motion V ⊙ - c with respect to the circular velocity Vc is the largest contribution to the power on large scales after subtracting an axisymmetric rotation field; we determine the solar motion by minimizing the large-scale power to be V ⊙ - c = 24 ± 1 (ran.) ± 2 (syst. [Vc ]) ± 5 (syst.[large-scale]) km s-1, where the systematic uncertainty is due to (1) a conservative 20 km s-1 uncertainty in Vc and (2) the estimated power on unobserved larger scales. Combining the APOGEE peculiar-velocity field with RC stars in RAVE out to 2 kpc from the Sun and with local GCS stars, we determine the power spectrum of residual velocity fluctuations in the MW's disk on scales between 0.2 kpc-1 plane of the Galactic disk near the Sun. Streaming motions ≈10 km s-1 on >~ 3 kpc scales in the MW are in good agreement with observations of external galaxies and directly explain why local determinations of the solar motion are inconsistent with global measurements.

  15. On the metallicity gradients of the Galactic disk as revealed by LSS-GAC red clump stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yang; Liu, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Hua-Wei; Yuan, Hai-Bo; Xiang, Mao-Sheng; Chen, Bing-Qiu; Ren, Juan-Juan; Sun, Ning-Chen; Wang, Chun; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yong-Hui; Wang, Yue-Fei; Yang, Ming

    2015-08-01

    Using a sample of over 70 000 red clump (RC) stars with 5%-10% distance accuracy selected from the LAMOST Spectroscopic Survey of the Galactic Anti-center (LSS-GAC), we study the radial and vertical gradients of the Galactic disk(s) mainly in the anti-center direction, covering a significant volume of the disk in the range of projected Galactocentric radius 7 ≤ RGC ≤ 14 kpc and height from the Galactic midplane 0 ≤ |Z| ≤ 3 kpc. Our analysis shows that both the radial and vertical metallicity gradients are negative across much of the volume of the disk that is probed, and they exhibit significant spatial variations. Near the solar circle (7 ≤ RGC ≤ 115 kpc), the radial gradient has a moderately steep, negative slope of -0.08 dex kpc-1 near the midplane (|Z| plane, suggesting that the outer disk may have experienced an evolutionary path different from that of the inner disk. The vertical gradients are found to flatten largely with increasing RGC. However, the vertical gradient of the lower disk (0 ≤ |Z| ≤ 1 kpc) is found to flatten with RGC quicker than that of the upper disk (1 < |Z| ≤ 3 kpc). Our results should provide strong constraints on the theory of disk formation and evolution, as well as the underlying physical processes that shape the disk (e.g. gas flows, radial migration, and internal and external perturbations).

  16. Imbalance in the Local Galactic halo?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croswell, K.; Latham, D.W.; Carney, B.W.; North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill)

    1987-01-01

    In a kinematically biased sample of 119 single halo stars, 65 percent of the stars are traveling away from the plane of the Galaxy. Halo spectroscopic binaries do not show this imbalance. Other kinematically biased halo surveys exhibit the same effect. Combining these samples with those of the authors' results in 223 halo stars, 63 percent of which are heading away from the plane of the Galaxy. The probability that the first result could be obtained from a symmetric w velocity distribution is 0.2 percent; the probability that the second result could be so obtained is 0.02 percent. Single halo stars traveling away from the disk appear to have a larger w velocity dispersion than those traveling toward it. Selection effects are analyzed and rejected as the cause of the observed asymmetry. Possible mechanisms for producing the imbalance are discussed, but each has serious difficulties accounting for the observations. 28 references

  17. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF IN-PLANE LOADED CLT BEAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Jeleč

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross laminated timber (CLT is a versatile engineered timber product that is increasingly well-known and of global interest in several applications such as full size plane or linear timber elements. The aim of this study involves investigating the performance of CLT beams loaded in-plane by considering bending and shear stress analysis with a special emphasis on the in-plane shear behavior including the complex internal structure of CLT. Numerical analysis based on 3D-FE models was used and compared with two existing analytical approaches, namely representative volume sub element (method I and composite beam theory (method II. The separate verification of bending and shear stresses including tree different shear failure modes was performed, and a good agreement was obtained. The main difference between the results relates to shear failure mode in the crossing areas between the orthogonally bonded lamellas in which the distribution of shear stresses τzx over the crossing areas per height of the CLT beam is not in accordance with the analytical assumptions. The presented analyses constitute the first attempt to contribute to the on-going review process of Eurocode 5 with respect to CLT beams loaded-in plane. Currently, regulations on designing these types of beams do not exist, and thus experimental and numerical investigations are planned in the future.

  18. Radio Telescopes Reveal Unseen Galactic Cannibalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Radio-telescope images have revealed previously-unseen galactic cannibalism -- a triggering event that leads to feeding frenzies by gigantic black holes at the cores of galaxies. Astronomers have long suspected that the extra-bright cores of spiral galaxies called Seyfert galaxies are powered by supermassive black holes consuming material. However, they could not see how the material is started on its journey toward the black hole. Optical/Radio Comparison Visible-light (left) and radio (right) image of galaxy pair: Radio image shows gas streaming between galaxies. CREDIT: Kuo et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for more graphics. One leading theory said that Seyfert galaxies have been disturbed by close encounters with neighboring galaxies, thus stirring up their gas and bringing more of it within the gravitational reach of the black hole. However, when astronomers looked at Seyferts with visible-light telescopes, only a small fraction showed any evidence of such an encounter. Now, new images of hydrogen gas in Seyferts made using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope show the majority of them are, in fact, disturbed by ongoing encounters with neighbor galaxies. "The VLA lifted the veil on what's really happening with these galaxies," said Cheng-Yu Kuo, a graduate student at the University of Virginia. "Looking at the gas in these galaxies clearly showed that they are snacking on their neighbors. This is a dramatic contrast with their appearance in visible starlight," he added. The effect of the galactic encounters is to send gas and dust toward the black hole and produce energy as the material ultimately is consumed. Black holes, concentrations of matter so dense that not even light can escape their gravitational pull, reside at the cores of many galaxies. Depending on how rapidly the black hole is eating, the galaxy can show a wide range of energetic activity. Seyfert galaxies have the mildest version of this activity, while

  19. Environmental properties related to active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzer, Lianne H.

    There continues to be significant controversy regarding the mechanisms responsible for the initiation of activity in galactic nuclei. It is well understood that the non-thermal energy produced by an AGN is due to accretion onto a supermassive black hole. It has not yet been determined, however, what leads particular galaxies to become active. An accurate exploration into what triggers an AGN demands an analysis of a large sample of galaxies across a diverse set of environments. In this work, we investigate possible environmental influences by carrying out a statistical investigation of galaxy groups. Using the catalogue of Yang et al. (2007), in which groups of galaxies containing between 2 and 20 members with redshifts between 0.01 -- 0.20 were taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we investigate the fraction of active galactic nuclei (AGN) within these groups and compare it to the sample of isolated galaxies also obtained from Yang et al. (2007). After correcting our spectroscopic data for extinction and underlying stellar absorption, we classify the galaxy sample using relevant emission-line ratios. We propose an alternate method for classifying emission-line galaxies, including AGN, which builds upon standard diagnostic utilities used for optical classification and includes uncertainties. Such classification probabilities offer a more robust and consistent method of investigating the effect of group environments with galaxy type. We find our sample to be a fair representation of the local universe by comparing the luminosity function of our entire data set to that of Blanton et al. (2001), Blanton et al. (2003b), and Montero-Dorta & Prada (2009). The evidence also suggests that the luminosity function of galaxies differs between isolated galaxies and galaxies in groups. We find a significant increase in the fraction of AGNs identified in grouped environments. On the other hand, we find a higher fraction of starforming galaxies within isolated systems. We

  20. The galactic distribution of Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidayat, B.; Supelli, K.; Hucht, K.A. van der

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of the most recent compilation of narrow-band photometry and absolute visual magnitudes of Wolf-Rayet stars, and adopting a normal interstellar extinction law in all directions, the galactic distribution of 132 of the 159 known galactic WR stars is presented and discussed. The spiral structure is found to be more clearly pronounced than in earlier studies. Furthermore the authors find an indication of two spiral arms at r=4 and 6 kpc. There appears to be an asymmetry of the z-distribution of single stars with respect to galactic longitude. The location of the WC8.5 and WC9 stars between 4.5 and 9 kpc from the galactic center is discussed in the context of Maeder's red supergiant to WR star scenario. (Auth.)

  1. A climatological study of the relations among solar activity, galactic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    activity, galactic cosmic ray and precipitation on various regions .... mate variations to cosmic rays and the physical- chemical .... For the wavelet spectrum, significance level for each ..... monthly climate for Europe and the globe: The observed.

  2. Galactic synchrotron emission from WIMPs at radio frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Università di Torino, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Lineros, Roberto A.; Taoso, Marco, E-mail: fornengo@to.infn.it, E-mail: rlineros@ific.uv.es, E-mail: regis@to.infn.it, E-mail: taoso@ific.uv.es [IFIC, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Ed. Institutos, Apdo. Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2012-01-01

    Dark matter annihilations in the Galactic halo inject relativistic electrons and positrons which in turn generate a synchrotron radiation when interacting with the galactic magnetic field. We calculate the synchrotron flux for various dark matter annihilation channels, masses, and astrophysical assumptions in the low-frequency range and compare our results with radio surveys from 22 MHz to 1420 MHz. We find that current observations are able to constrain particle dark matter with ''thermal'' annihilation cross-sections, i.e. (σv) = 3 × 10{sup −26} cm{sup 3} s{sup −1}, and masses M{sub DM}∼<10 GeV. We discuss the dependence of these bounds on the astrophysical assumptions, namely galactic dark matter distribution, cosmic rays propagation parameters, and structure of the galactic magnetic field. Prospects for detection in future radio surveys are outlined.

  3. Galactic synchrotron emission from WIMPs at radio frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco; Lineros, Roberto A.; Taoso, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Dark matter annihilations in the Galactic halo inject relativistic electrons and positrons which in turn generate a synchrotron radiation when interacting with the galactic magnetic field. We calculate the synchrotron flux for various dark matter annihilation channels, masses, and astrophysical assumptions in the low-frequency range and compare our results with radio surveys from 22 MHz to 1420 MHz. We find that current observations are able to constrain particle dark matter with ''thermal'' annihilation cross-sections, i.e. (σv) = 3 × 10 −26 cm 3 s −1 , and masses M DM ∼<10 GeV. We discuss the dependence of these bounds on the astrophysical assumptions, namely galactic dark matter distribution, cosmic rays propagation parameters, and structure of the galactic magnetic field. Prospects for detection in future radio surveys are outlined

  4. Heavy Ion Testing at the Galactic Cosmic Ray Energy Peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.; Xapsos, M. A.; LaBel, K. A.; Marshall, P. W.; Heidel, D. F.; Rodbell, K. P.; Hakey, M. C.; Dodd, P. E.; Shaneyfelt, M. R.; Schwank, J. R.; hide

    2009-01-01

    A 1 GeV/u Fe-56 Ion beam allows for true 90 deg. tilt irradiations of various microelectronic components and reveals relevant upset trends for an abundant element at the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) flux-energy peak.

  5. assessment of slope stability around gilgel gibe-ii hydroelectric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferred customer

    1 Gilgel-Gibe II Hydroelectric Project, Fofa Town, Ethiopia ... Key words/phrases: Factor of safety, plane failure, slope design, slope .... condition of potential unstable slopes along the road between Fofa town and Gilgel-Gibe Hydro- power II.

  6. Dualband MW/LW Strained Layer Superlattice Focal Plane Arrays For Satellite-Based Wildfire Detection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Dualband focal plane arrays (FPAs) based on gallium-free Type-II strained layer superlattice (SLS) photodiodes have recently experienced significant advances. We...

  7. Astrophysics of gaseous nebulae and active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterbrock, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    A graduate-level text and reference book on gaseous nebulae and the emission regions in Seyfert galaxies, quasars, and other types of active galactic nuclei (AGN) is presented. The topics discussed include: photoionization equilibrium, thermal equilibrium, calculation of emitted spectrum, comparison of theory with observations, internal dynamics of gaseous nebulae, interstellar dust, regions in the galactic context, planetary nebulae, nova and supernova remnants, diagnostics and physics of AGN, observational results on AGN

  8. GALACTIC AND EXTRAGALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANTS AS SITES OF PARTICLE ACCELERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manami Sasaki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Supernova remnants, owing to their strong shock waves, are likely sources of Galactic cosmic rays. Studies of supernova remnants in X-rays and gamma rays provide us with new insights into the acceleration of particles to high energies. This paper reviews the basic physics of supernova remnant shocks and associated particle acceleration and radiation processes. In addition, the study of supernova remnant populations in nearby galaxies and the implications for Galactic cosmic ray distribution are discussed.

  9. Dark matter from cosmic defects on galactic scales?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreiro, N.; Carvalho, J. P. M. de; Avelino, P. P.; Martins, C. J. A. P.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the possible dynamical role of extended cosmic defects on galactic scales, specifically focusing on the possibility that they may provide the dark matter suggested by the classical problem of galactic rotation curves. We emphasize that the more standard defects (such as Goto-Nambu strings) are unsuitable for this task but show that more general models (such as transonic wiggly strings) could in principle have a better chance. In any case, we show that observational data severely restricts any such scenarios.

  10. Dynamical or static radio halo - Is there a galactic wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, I.; Schlickeiser, R.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of a galactic wind on a radio halo can be best observed at frequencies smaller than about 1 GHz. At higher frequencies static halo models predict the same features as dynamical halo models. External galaxies, which exhibit a break by 0.5 in their high frequency nonthermal integral flux spectrum, are the best candidates for studying the influence of galactic winds on the formation of relativistic electron haloes around these systems. Several such cases are presented

  11. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Department of Chemistry Bayero University, P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria. E-mail: hnuhu2000@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and .... water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in acetone. The molar conductance measurement [Table 3] of the complex compounds in.

  12. Galactic nuclei evolution with spinning black holes: method and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiacconi, Davide; Sijacki, Debora; Pringle, J. E.

    2018-04-01

    Supermassive black holes at the centre of galactic nuclei mostly grow in mass through gas accretion over cosmic time. This process also modifies the angular momentum (or spin) of black holes, both in magnitude and in orientation. Despite being often neglected in galaxy formation simulations, spin plays a crucial role in modulating accretion power, driving jet feedback, and determining recoil velocity of coalescing black hole binaries. We present a new accretion model for the moving-mesh code AREPO that incorporates (i) mass accretion through a thin α-disc, and (ii) spin evolution through the Bardeen-Petterson effect. We use a diverse suite of idealised simulations to explore the physical connection between spin evolution and larger scale environment. We find that black holes with mass ≲ 107 M⊙ experience quick alignment with the accretion disc. This favours prolonged phases of spin-up, and the spin direction evolves according to the gas inflow on timescales as short as ≲ 100 Myr, which might explain the observed jet direction distribution in Seyfert galaxies. Heavier black holes (≳ 108 M⊙) are instead more sensitive to the local gas kinematic. Here we find a wider distribution in spin magnitudes: spin-ups are favoured if gas inflow maintains a preferential direction, and spin-downs occur for nearly isotropic infall, while the spin direction does not change much over short timescales ˜100 Myr. We therefore conclude that supermassive black holes with masses ≳ 5 × 108 M⊙ may be the ideal testbed to determine the main mode of black hole fuelling over cosmic time.

  13. DISTANCE SCALE ZERO POINTS FROM GALACTIC RR LYRAE STAR PARALLAXES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, G. Fritz; McArthur, Barbara E.; Barnes, Thomas G. [McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Feast, Michael W. [Centre for Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravitation, Astronomy Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Harrison, Thomas E. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Bean, Jacob L.; Kolenberg, Katrien [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Menzies, John W.; Laney, C. D. [South African Astronomical Observatory, Observatory 7935 (South Africa); Chaboyer, Brian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Fossati, Luca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Nesvacil, Nicole [Institute of Astronomy, University of Vienna, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Smith, Horace A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Kochukhov, Oleg [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Nelan, Edmund P.; Taylor, Denise [STScI, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Shulyak, D. V. [Institute of Astrophysics, Georg-August-University, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Freedman, Wendy L. [The Observatories, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    We present new absolute trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions for seven Population II variable stars-five RR Lyr variables: RZ Cep, XZ Cyg, SU Dra, RR Lyr, and UV Oct; and two type 2 Cepheids: VY Pyx and {kappa} Pav. We obtained these results with astrometric data from Fine Guidance Sensors, white-light interferometers on Hubble Space Telescope. We find absolute parallaxes in milliseconds of arc: RZ Cep, 2.12 {+-} 0.16 mas; XZ Cyg, 1.67 {+-} 0.17 mas; SU Dra, 1.42 {+-} 0.16 mas; RR Lyr, 3.77 {+-} 0.13 mas; UV Oct, 1.71 {+-} 0.10 mas; VY Pyx, 6.44 {+-} 0.23 mas; and {kappa} Pav, 5.57 {+-} 0.28 mas; an average {sigma}{sub {pi}}/{pi} = 5.4%. With these parallaxes, we compute absolute magnitudes in V and K bandpasses corrected for interstellar extinction and Lutz-Kelker-Hanson bias. Using these RR Lyrae variable star absolute magnitudes, we then derive zero points for M{sub V} -[Fe/H] and M{sub K} -[Fe/H]-log P relations. The technique of reduced parallaxes corroborates these results. We employ our new results to determine distances and ages of several Galactic globular clusters and the distance of the Large Magellanic Cloud. The latter is close to that previously derived from Classical Cepheids uncorrected for any metallicity effect, indicating that any such effect is small. We also discuss the somewhat puzzling results obtained for our two type 2 Cepheids.

  14. LOW-MASS AGNs AND THEIR RELATION TO THE FUNDAMENTAL PLANE OF BLACK HOLE ACCRETION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gültekin, Kayhan; King, Ashley L.; Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Cackett, Edward M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, 666 West Hancock Street, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Pinkney, Jason, E-mail: kayhan@umich.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio Northern University, 525 S. Main St., Ada, OH 45810 (United States)

    2014-06-20

    We put active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with low-mass black holes on the fundamental plane of black hole accretion—the plane that relates X-ray emission, radio emission, and mass of an accreting black hole—to test whether or not the relation is universal for both stellar-mass and supermassive black holes. We use new Chandra X-ray and Very Large Array radio observations of a sample of black holes with masses less than 10{sup 6.3} M {sub ☉}, which have the best leverage for determining whether supermassive black holes and stellar-mass black holes belong on the same plane. Our results suggest that the two different classes of black holes both belong on the same relation. These results allow us to conclude that the fundamental plane is suitable for use in estimating supermassive black hole masses smaller than ∼10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}, in testing for intermediate-mass black holes, and in estimating masses at high accretion rates.

  15. ULTRAVIOLET EXTINCTION AT HIGH GALACTIC LATITUDES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, J. E. G.; Schiminovich, David, E-mail: jegpeek@gmail.com [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In order to study the properties and effects of high Galactic latitude dust, we present an analysis of 373,303 galaxies selected from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer All-Sky Survey and Wide-field Infrared Explorer All-Sky Data Release. By examining the variation in aggregate ultraviolet colors and number density of these galaxies, we measure the extinction curve at high latitude. We additionally consider a population of spectroscopically selected galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to measure extinction in the optical. We find that dust at high latitude is neither quantitatively nor qualitatively consistent with standard reddening laws. Extinction in the FUV and NUV is {approx}10% and {approx}35% higher than expected, with significant variation across the sky. We find that no single R{sub V} parameter fits both the optical and ultraviolet extinction at high latitude, and that while both show detectable variation across the sky, these variations are not related. We propose that the overall trends we detect likely stem from an increase in very small silicate grains in the interstellar medium.

  16. ULTRAVIOLET EXTINCTION AT HIGH GALACTIC LATITUDES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peek, J. E. G.; Schiminovich, David

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the properties and effects of high Galactic latitude dust, we present an analysis of 373,303 galaxies selected from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer All-Sky Survey and Wide-field Infrared Explorer All-Sky Data Release. By examining the variation in aggregate ultraviolet colors and number density of these galaxies, we measure the extinction curve at high latitude. We additionally consider a population of spectroscopically selected galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to measure extinction in the optical. We find that dust at high latitude is neither quantitatively nor qualitatively consistent with standard reddening laws. Extinction in the FUV and NUV is ∼10% and ∼35% higher than expected, with significant variation across the sky. We find that no single R V parameter fits both the optical and ultraviolet extinction at high latitude, and that while both show detectable variation across the sky, these variations are not related. We propose that the overall trends we detect likely stem from an increase in very small silicate grains in the interstellar medium.

  17. Detecting pulsars in the Galactic Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajwade, K. M.; Lorimer, D. R.; Anderson, L. D.

    2017-10-01

    Although high-sensitivity surveys have revealed a number of highly dispersed pulsars in the inner Galaxy, none have so far been found in the Galactic Centre (GC) region, which we define to be within a projected distance of 1 pc from Sgr A*. This null result is surprising given that several independent lines of evidence predict a sizable population of neutron stars in the region. Here, we present a detailed analysis of both the canonical and millisecond pulsar populations in the GC and consider free-free absorption and multipath scattering to be the two main sources of flux density mitigation. We demonstrate that the sensitivity limits of previous surveys are not sufficient to detect GC pulsar population, and investigate the optimum observing frequency for future surveys. Depending on the degree of scattering and free-free absorption in the GC, current surveys constrain the size of the potentially observable population (I.e. those beaming towards us) to be up to 52 canonical pulsars and 10 000 millisecond pulsars. We find that the optimum frequency for future surveys is in the range of 9-13 GHz. We also predict that future deeper surveys with the Square Kilometre array will probe a significant portion of the existing radio pulsar population in the GC.

  18. Virgin galactic the first ten years

    CERN Document Server

    Seedhouse, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Thirty years ago when Sir Richard Branson called up Boeing and asked if they had a spare 747, few would have predicted the brash entrepreneur would so radically transform the placid business of air travel. But today, Branson flies airlines on six continents, employs hundreds of jets and, in 2014, was predicting that his spaceship company – Virgin Galactic – would soon open the space frontier to commercial astronauts, payload specialists, scientists and space tourists. With more than 600 seats sold at $250,000 each, what started off as a dream to send people just for the excitement to look back and marvel at Earth, was on the cusp of finally being turned into a business. Then, on October 21, 2014, tragedy struck. SpaceShipTwo was on its most ambitious test flight to date. Seconds after firing its engine, Virgin Galactic’s spaceship was breaking through the sound barrier. In just the three seconds that it took for the vehicle to climb from Mach 0.94 to Mach 1.02, co-pilot Mike Alsbury made what many close...

  19. Dual Active Galactic Nuclei in Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mousumi; Rubinur, Khatun; Karb, Preeti; Varghese, Ashlin; Novakkuni, Navyasree; James, Atul

    2018-04-01

    Galaxy mergers play a crucial role in the formation of massive galaxies and the buildup of their bulges. An important aspect of the merging process is the in-spiral of the supermassive black-holes (SMBHs) to the centre of the merger remnant and the eventual formation of a SMBH binary. If both the SMBHs are accreting they will form a dual or binary active galactic nucleus (DAGN). The final merger remnant is usually very bright and shows enhanced star formation. In this paper we summarise the current sample of DAGN from previous studies and describe methods that can be used to identify strong DAGN candidates from optical and spectroscopic surveys. These methods depend on the Doppler separation of the double peaked AGN emission lines, the nuclear velocity dispersion of the galaxies and their optical/UV colours. We describe two high resolution, radio observations of DAGN candidates that have been selected based on their double peaked optical emission lines (DPAGN). We also examine whether DAGN host galaxies have higher star formation rates (SFRs) compared to merging galaxies that do not appear to have DAGN. We find that the SFR is not higher for DAGN host galaxies. This suggests that the SFRs in DAGN host galaxies is due to the merging process itself and not related to the presence of two AGN in the system.

  20. Metal-enhanced galactic winds. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vader, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    Supernova-driven gas loss during the early evolution of elliptical galaxies is considered as a possible explanation for the correlations among the observed chemical and structural properties of these systems. Mass loss from systems with a chemically homogeneous interstellar medium does not work. It is pointed out that supernova-driven winds are in fact metal-enhanced with respect to the star-forming gas because the metal production of any supernova that drives the wind is directly flushed out of the galaxy. The fraction of the total metal production lost in the wind is thus at least as large as the fraction epsilon(z) of supernovae that power the wind, independent of the total mass loss. As a corollary, the yield of heavy elements that are recycled in the galaxy is reduced by a factor 1 - epsilon(z). Metal-enhanced galactic winds, which can carry away a large fraction of the metal production in spite of a moderate total mass loss, offer a promising explanation for the low metallicities of dwarf elliptical galaxies. 62 references