WorldWideScience

Sample records for galactic molecular clouds

  1. Molecular clouds and galactic spiral structure

    Dame, T.M.

    1984-02-01

    Galactic CO line emission at 115 GHz was surveyed in order to study the distribution of molecular clouds in the inner galaxy. Comparison of this survey with similar H1 data reveals a detailed correlation with the most intense 21 cm features. To each of the classical 21 cm H1 spiral arms of the inner galaxy there corresponds a CO molecular arm which is generally more clearly defined and of higher contrast. A simple model is devised for the galactic distribution of molecular clouds. The modeling results suggest that molecular clouds are essentially transient objects, existing for 15 to 40 million years after their formation in a spiral arm, and are largely confined to spiral features about 300 pc wide

  2. Molecular clouds and galactic spiral structure

    Dame, T.M.

    1983-01-01

    Galactic CO line emission at 115 GHz has been surveyed in the region 12 0 less than or equal to l less than or equal to 60 0 and -1 0 less than or equal to b less than or equal to 1 0 in order to study the distribution of molecular clouds in the inner galaxy; an inner strip 0 0 .5 wide has been sampled every beamwidth (0 0 .125), the rest every two beamwidths. Comparison of the survey with similar HI data reveals a detailed correlation with the most intense 21-cm features, implying that the CO and HI trace the same galactic features and have the same large-scale kinematics. To each of the classical 21-cm (HI) spiral arms of the inner galaxy there corresponds a CO molecular arm which is generally more clearly defined and of higher contrast. A simple model is developed in which all of the CO emission from the inner galaxy arises from spiral arms. The modeling results suggest that molecular clouds are essentially transient objects, existing for 15 to 40 million years after their formation in a spiral arm, and are largely confined to spiral features about 300 pc wide. A variety of methods are employed to estimate distances and masses for the largest clouds detected by the inner-galaxy survey and a catalogue is compiled. The catalogued clouds, the largest of which have masses of several 10 6 M/sub sunmass/ and linear dimensions in excess of 100 pc, are found to be excellent spiral-arm tracers. One of the nearest of the clouds, that associated with the supernova remnant W44, is fully mapped in both CO and 13 CO and is discussed in detail

  3. DISCOVERY OF THE PIGTAIL MOLECULAR CLOUD IN THE GALACTIC CENTER

    Matsumura, Shinji; Oka, Tomoharu; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Nagai, Makoto; Kamegai, Kazuhisa; Hasegawa, Tetsuo

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the discovery of a helical molecular cloud in the central molecular zone (CMZ) of our Galaxy. This 'pigtail' molecular cloud appears at (l, b, V LSR ) ≅ (–0. 0 7, + 0. 0 0, – 70 to –30 km s –1 ), with a spatial size of ∼20 × 20 pc 2 and a mass of (2-6) × 10 5 M ☉ . This is the third helical gaseous nebula found in the Galactic center region to date. Line intensity ratios indicate that the pigtail molecular cloud has slightly higher temperature and/or density than the other normal clouds in the CMZ. We also found a high-velocity wing emission near the footpoint of this cloud. We propose a formation model of the pigtail molecular cloud. It might be associated with a magnetic tube that is twisted and coiled because of the interaction between clouds in the innermost x 1 orbit and ones in the outermost x 2 orbit.

  4. Molecular Clouds, Star Formation and Galactic Structure.

    Scoville, Nick; Young, Judith S.

    1984-01-01

    Radio observations show that the gigantic clouds of molecules where stars are born are distributed in various ways in spiral galaxies, perhaps accounting for the variation in their optical appearance. Research studies and findings in this area are reported and discussed. (JN)

  5. Star formation induced by cloud-cloud collisions and galactic giant molecular cloud evolution

    Kobayashi, Masato I. N.; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Fukui, Yasuo

    2018-05-01

    Recent millimeter/submillimeter observations towards nearby galaxies have started to map the whole disk and to identify giant molecular clouds (GMCs) even in the regions between galactic spiral structures. Observed variations of GMC mass functions in different galactic environments indicates that massive GMCs preferentially reside along galactic spiral structures whereas inter-arm regions have many small GMCs. Based on the phase transition dynamics from magnetized warm neutral medium to molecular clouds, Kobayashi et al. (2017, ApJ, 836, 175) proposes a semi-analytical evolutionary description for GMC mass functions including a cloud-cloud collision (CCC) process. Their results show that CCC is less dominant in shaping the mass function of GMCs than the accretion of dense H I gas driven by the propagation of supersonic shock waves. However, their formulation does not take into account the possible enhancement of star formation by CCC. Millimeter/submillimeter observations within the Milky Way indicate the importance of CCC in the formation of star clusters and massive stars. In this article, we reformulate the time-evolution equation largely modified from Kobayashi et al. (2017, ApJ, 836, 175) so that we additionally compute star formation subsequently taking place in CCC clouds. Our results suggest that, although CCC events between smaller clouds are more frequent than the ones between massive GMCs, CCC-driven star formation is mostly driven by massive GMCs ≳ 10^{5.5} M_{⊙} (where M⊙ is the solar mass). The resultant cumulative CCC-driven star formation may amount to a few 10 percent of the total star formation in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies.

  6. Small Galactic H II regions. II. The molecular clouds and star formation

    Hunter, D.A.; Thronson, H.A. Jr.; Wilton, C.

    1990-01-01

    CO maps of molecular clouds associated with 11 small Galactic H II regions are presented and compared with IR images obtained by IRAS. The molecular masses of the clouds are computed and compared with the masses of the stellar content. The mapped clouds have masses of 1000-60,000 solar and are typical of the more numerous, smaller Galactic molecular clouds. All of the clouds have recently made massive OB stars, and many have complex spatial and kinematic structures. The coincidence of IRAS sources and CO peaks suggests that many of the clouds have sites of star formation other than the optically visible H II region. Star-formation efficiencies are uncertain, with values for the clouds ranging from 0.02 to 0.6 with an average value of 0.2. There is no trend of the upper stellar mass limit with Galactic radius and with molecular cloud mass. 53 refs

  7. A general theory for the lifetimes of giant molecular clouds under the influence of galactic dynamics

    Jeffreson, Sarah M. R.; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik

    2018-05-01

    We propose a simple analytic theory for environmentally dependent molecular cloud lifetimes, based on the large-scale (galactic) dynamics of the interstellar medium. Within this theory, the cloud lifetime is set by the time-scales for gravitational collapse, galactic shear, spiral arm interactions, epicyclic perturbations, and cloud-cloud collisions. It is dependent on five observable quantities, accessible through measurements of the galactic rotation curve, the gas and stellar surface densities, and the gas and stellar velocity dispersions of the host galaxy. We determine how the relative importance of each dynamical mechanism varies throughout the space of observable galactic properties, and conclude that gravitational collapse and galactic shear play the greatest role in setting the cloud lifetime for the considered range of galaxy properties, while cloud-cloud collisions exert a much lesser influence. All five environmental mechanisms are nevertheless required to obtain a complete picture of cloud evolution. We apply our theory to the galaxies M31, M51, M83, and the Milky Way, and find a strong dependence of the cloud lifetime upon galactocentric radius in each case, with a typical cloud lifetime between 10 and 50 Myr. Our theory is ideally suited for systematic observational tests with the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre array.

  8. Massachusetts Stony Brook galactic plane CO survey - disk and spiral arm molecular cloud populations

    Solomon, P.M.; Sanders, D.B.; Rivolo, A.R.; Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory, Pasadena, CA; Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD)

    1985-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of a new high-resolution CO survey of the galactic disk is presented, which can detect and measure essentially all molecular clouds and cloud components in the inner Galaxy with size greater than 10 pc. In the region of l between 20 and 50 deg approximately 2000 emission centers are identified. Two populations which separate according to temperature are found. The disk population of cold molecular cores contains about three-quarters of the total number of cores, is not confined to any large-scale pattern in longitude-velocity space, and must be widespread in the Galaxy both in and out of spiral arms. The spiral arm population of warm molecular cores contains about one-quarter of the population with one-half of the emission and is very closely associated with radio H II regions. Between longitudes 20 and 50 deg their radial distribution shows two peaks at R = 5 and 7.5 kpc. The warm molecular cloud cores have a nonaxisymmetric galactic distribution, occur in clusters, and are confined to restricted regions and patterns in longitude-velocity space and in the galactic disk. 20 references

  9. From molecular clouds to active galactic nuclei - The universality of the jet phenomenon

    Konigl, A.

    1986-01-01

    Jets are among the most remarkable astrophysical phenomena explored in recent years. The term ''jets'' was originally coined to describe the narrow, elongated features that had been discovered in radio maps (and, in some cases, also by X-ray and optical observations) of extragalactic sources. Similar features have subsequently been found, however, also in our own galaxy, with the relativistic beams of SS433 being probably the most celebrated example. While the SS433 beams are still unique, there is now mounting evidence that oppositely directed jets are very frequently associated with nascent stars embedded in dense molecular clouds. The purpose of this article is, in essence, to ''bridge the gap'' between these smallest-scale jets and their enormously larger extragalactic counterparts. By concentrating on the similarities between molecular-cloud and extragalactic jets, the author shall try to extract some of the basic dynamical principles that could account for the apparent universality of this phenomenon. Following an observational overview, he considers the general hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) aspects of the production, the collimation, and the propagation of jets in protostellar and in active-galactic-nuclei (AGN) environments

  10. Molecular clouds in the NGC 6334 and NGC 6357 region: Evidence for a 100 pc-scale cloud-cloud collision triggering the Galactic mini-starbursts

    Fukui, Yasuo; Kohno, Mikito; Yokoyama, Keiko; Torii, Kazufumi; Hattori, Yusuke; Sano, Hidetoshi; Nishimura, Atsushi; Ohama, Akio; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Tachihara, Kengo

    2018-05-01

    We carried out new CO (J = 1-0, 2-1, and 3-2) observations with NANTEN2 and ASTE in the region of the twin Galactic mini-starbursts NGC 6334 and NGC 6357. We detected two velocity molecular components of 12 km s-1 velocity separation, which is continuous over 3° along the plane. In NGC 6334 the two components show similar two-peaked intensity distributions toward the young H II regions and are linked by a bridge feature. In NGC 6357 we found spatially complementary distribution between the two velocity components as well as a bridge feature in velocity. Based on these results we hypothesize that the two clouds in the two regions collided with each other in the past few Myr and triggered the formation of the starbursts over ˜ 100 pc. We suggest that the formation of the starbursts happened toward the collisional region of extent ˜ 10 pc with initial high molecular column densities. For NGC 6334 we present a scenario which includes spatial variation of the colliding epoch due to non-uniform cloud separation. The scenario possibly explains the apparent age differences among the young O stars in NGC 6334, which range from 104 yr to 106 yr; the latest collision happened within 105 yr toward the youngest stars in NGC 6334 I(N) and I which exhibit molecular outflows without H II regions. For NGC 6357 the O stars were formed a few Myr ago, and the cloud dispersal by the O stars is significant. We conclude that cloud-cloud collision offers a possible explanation of the mini-starburst over a 100 pc scale.

  11. Confinement and Isotropization of Galactic Cosmic Rays by Molecular-Cloud Magnetic Mirrors When Turbulent Scattering Is Weak

    Chandran, Benjamin D. G.

    2000-01-01

    Theoretical studies of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and observations of solar wind fluctuations suggest that MHD turbulence in the interstellar medium is anisotropic at small scales, with smooth variations along the background magnetic field and sharp variations perpendicular to the background field. Turbulence with this anisotropy is inefficient at scattering cosmic rays, and thus the scattering rate ν may be smaller than has been traditionally assumed in diffusion models of Galactic cosmic-ray propagation, at least for cosmic-ray energies E above 1011-1012 eV at which self-confinement is not possible. In this paper, it is shown that Galactic cosmic rays can be effectively confined through magnetic reflection by molecular clouds, even when turbulent scattering is weak. Elmegreen's quasi-fractal model of molecular-cloud structure is used to argue that a typical magnetic field line passes through a molecular cloud complex once every ∼300 pc. Once inside the complex, the field line will in most cases be focused into one or more dense clumps in which the magnetic field can be much stronger than the average field in the intercloud medium (ICM). Cosmic rays following field lines into cloud complexes are most often magnetically reflected back into the ICM, since strong-field regions act as magnetic mirrors. For a broad range of cosmic-ray energies, a cosmic ray initially following some particular field line separates from that field line sufficiently slowly that the cosmic ray can be trapped between neighboring cloud complexes for long periods of time. The suppression of cosmic-ray diffusion due to magnetic trapping is calculated in this paper with the use of phenomenological arguments, asymptotic analysis, and Monte Carlo particle simulations. Formulas for the coefficient of diffusion perpendicular to the Galactic disk are derived for several different parameter regimes within the E-ν plane. In one of these parameter regimes in which scattering is weak, it

  12. THE TURBULENCE SPECTRUM OF MOLECULAR CLOUDS IN THE GALACTIC RING SURVEY: A DENSITY-DEPENDENT PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS CALIBRATION

    Roman-Duval, Julia; Jackson, James; Federrath, Christoph; Klessen, Ralf S.; Brunt, Christopher; Heyer, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Turbulence plays a major role in the formation and evolution of molecular clouds. Observationally, turbulent velocities are convolved with the density of an observed region. To correct for this convolution, we investigate the relation between the turbulence spectrum of model clouds, and the statistics of their synthetic observations obtained from principal component analysis (PCA). We apply PCA to spectral maps generated from simulated density and velocity fields, obtained from hydrodynamic simulations of supersonic turbulence, and from fractional Brownian motion (fBm) fields with varying velocity, density spectra, and density dispersion. We examine the dependence of the slope of the PCA pseudo-structure function, α PCA , on intermittency, on the turbulence velocity (β v ) and density (β n ) spectral indexes, and on density dispersion. We find that PCA is insensitive to β n and to the log-density dispersion σ s , provided σ s ≤ 2. For σ s > 2, α PCA increases with σ s due to the intermittent sampling of the velocity field by the density field. The PCA calibration also depends on intermittency. We derive a PCA calibration based on fBm structures with σ s ≤ 2 and apply it to 367 13 CO spectral maps of molecular clouds in the Galactic Ring Survey. The average slope of the PCA structure function, (α PCA ) = 0.62 ± 0.2, is consistent with the hydrodynamic simulations and leads to a turbulence velocity exponent of (β v ) = 2.06 ± 0.6 for a non-intermittent, low density dispersion flow. Accounting for intermittency and density dispersion, the coincidence between the PCA slope of the GRS clouds and the hydrodynamic simulations suggests β v ≅ 1.9, consistent with both Burgers and compressible intermittent turbulence.

  13. FOREST Unbiased Galactic plane Imaging survey with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope (FUGIN): Molecular clouds toward W 33; possible evidence for a cloud-cloud collision triggering O star formation

    Kohno, Mikito; Torii, Kazufumi; Tachihara, Kengo; Umemoto, Tomofumi; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Nishimura, Atsushi; Fujita, Shinji; Matsuo, Mitsuhiro; Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Tsuda, Yuya; Kuriki, Mika; Kuno, Nario; Ohama, Akio; Hattori, Yusuke; Sano, Hidetoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Fukui, Yasuo

    2018-05-01

    We observed molecular clouds in the W 33 high-mass star-forming region associated with compact and extended H II regions using the NANTEN2 telescope as well as the Nobeyama 45 m telescope in the J = 1-0 transitions of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O as part of the FOREST Unbiased Galactic plane Imaging survey with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope (FUGIN) legacy survey. We detected three velocity components at 35 km s-1, 45 km s-1, and 58 km s-1. The 35 km s-1 and 58 km s-1 clouds are likely to be physically associated with W 33 because of the enhanced 12CO J = 3-2 to J = 1-0 intensity ratio as R_3-2/1-0} > 1.0 due to the ultraviolet irradiation by OB stars, and morphological correspondence between the distributions of molecular gas and the infrared and radio continuum emissions excited by high-mass stars. The two clouds show complementary distributions around W 33. The velocity separation is too large to be gravitationally bound, and yet not explained by expanding motion by stellar feedback. Therefore, we discuss whether a cloud-cloud collision scenario likely explains the high-mass star formation in W 33.

  14. Influence of galactic arm scale dynamics on the molecular composition of the cold and dense ISM. I. Observed abundance gradients in dense clouds

    Ruaud, M.; Wakelam, V.; Gratier, P.; Bonnell, I. A.

    2018-04-01

    Aim. We study the effect of large scale dynamics on the molecular composition of the dense interstellar medium during the transition between diffuse to dense clouds. Methods: We followed the formation of dense clouds (on sub-parsec scales) through the dynamics of the interstellar medium at galactic scales. We used results from smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations from which we extracted physical parameters that are used as inputs for our full gas-grain chemical model. In these simulations, the evolution of the interstellar matter is followed for 50 Myr. The warm low-density interstellar medium gas flows into spiral arms where orbit crowding produces the shock formation of dense clouds, which are held together temporarily by the external pressure. Results: We show that depending on the physical history of each SPH particle, the molecular composition of the modeled dense clouds presents a high dispersion in the computed abundances even if the local physical properties are similar. We find that carbon chains are the most affected species and show that these differences are directly connected to differences in (1) the electronic fraction, (2) the C/O ratio, and (3) the local physical conditions. We argue that differences in the dynamical evolution of the gas that formed dense clouds could account for the molecular diversity observed between and within these clouds. Conclusions: This study shows the importance of past physical conditions in establishing the chemical composition of the dense medium.

  15. THE CALIFORNIA MOLECULAR CLOUD

    Lada, Charles J.; Lombardi, Marco; Alves, Joao F.

    2009-01-01

    We present an analysis of wide-field infrared extinction maps of a region in Perseus just north of the Taurus-Auriga dark cloud complex. From this analysis we have identified a massive, nearby, but previously unrecognized, giant molecular cloud (GMC). Both a uniform foreground star density and measurements of the cloud's velocity field from CO observations indicate that this cloud is likely a coherent structure at a single distance. From comparison of foreground star counts with Galactic models, we derive a distance of 450 ± 23 pc to the cloud. At this distance the cloud extends over roughly 80 pc and has a mass of ∼ 10 5 M sun , rivaling the Orion (A) molecular cloud as the largest and most massive GMC in the solar neighborhood. Although surprisingly similar in mass and size to the more famous Orion molecular cloud (OMC) the newly recognized cloud displays significantly less star formation activity with more than an order of magnitude fewer young stellar objects than found in the OMC, suggesting that both the level of star formation and perhaps the star formation rate in this cloud are an order of magnitude or more lower than in the OMC. Analysis of extinction maps of both clouds shows that the new cloud contains only 10% the amount of high extinction (A K > 1.0 mag) material as is found in the OMC. This, in turn, suggests that the level of star formation activity and perhaps the star formation rate in these two clouds may be directly proportional to the total amount of high extinction material and presumably high density gas within them and that there might be a density threshold for star formation on the order of n(H 2 ) ∼ a few x 10 4 cm -3 .

  16. THE ARIZONA RADIO OBSERVATORY CO MAPPING SURVEY OF GALACTIC MOLECULAR CLOUDS. I. THE W51 REGION IN CO AND 13CO J = 2-1 EMISSION

    Bieging, John H.; Peters, William L.; Kang, Miju

    2010-01-01

    We present 38'' resolution maps of the CO and 13 CO J = 2-1 lines in the molecular clouds toward the H II region complex W51. The maps cover a 1. 0 25 x 1 0 section of the galactic plane and span +30 to +85 km s -1 (LSR) in velocity. The spectral resolution is ∼1.3 km s -1 . The velocity range of the images includes all the gas in the Sagittarius spiral arm. Color figures display the peak line brightness temperature, the velocity-integrated intensity, and 2 km s -1 channel-averaged maps for both isotopologs, and also the CO/ 13 CO J = 2-1 line intensity ratio as a function of velocity. The CO and 13 CO line intensity image cubes are made available in standard FITS format as electronically readable tables. We compare our molecular line maps with the 1.1 mm continuum image from the BOLOCAM Galactic Plane Survey. From our 13 CO image cube, we derive kinematic information for the 99 BGPS sources in the mapped field in the form of Gaussian component fits. The integrated 13 CO line intensity and the 1.1 mm source flux density show only a modest degree of correlation for the 99 sources, likely due to a range of dust and gas physical conditions within the sources. However, the 1.1 mm continuum surface brightness and the integrated 13 CO line intensity for small regions containing single BGPS sources and molecular clouds show very good correlations in many cases. Differences in the shapes of these correlations from one spatial region to another probably result from different physical conditions or structure in the clouds.

  17. THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. XII. DISTANCE CATALOG EXPANSION USING KINEMATIC ISOLATION OF DENSE MOLECULAR CLOUD STRUCTURES WITH {sup 13}CO(1-0)

    Ellsworth-Bowers, Timothy P.; Glenn, Jason [CASA, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics, 4-183 CCIS, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Ginsburg, Adam [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Evans II, Neal J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Battersby, Cara [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Shirley, Yancy L.; Svoboda, Brian, E-mail: timothy.ellsworthbowers@colorado.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2015-01-20

    We present an expanded distance catalog for 1710 molecular cloud structures identified in the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) version 2, representing a nearly threefold increase over the previous BGPS distance catalog. We additionally present a new method for incorporating extant data sets into our Bayesian distance probability density function (DPDF) methodology. To augment the dense-gas tracers (e.g., HCO{sup +}(3-2), NH{sub 3}(1,1)) used to derive line-of-sight velocities for kinematic distances, we utilize the Galactic Ring Survey (GRS) {sup 13}CO(1-0) data to morphologically extract velocities for BGPS sources. The outline of a BGPS source is used to select a region of the GRS {sup 13}CO data, along with a reference region to subtract enveloping diffuse emission, to produce a line profile of {sup 13}CO matched to the BGPS source. For objects with a HCO{sup +}(3-2) velocity, ≈95% of the new {sup 13}CO(1-0) velocities agree with that of the dense gas. A new prior DPDF for kinematic distance ambiguity (KDA) resolution, based on a validated formalism for associating molecular cloud structures with known objects from the literature, is presented. We demonstrate this prior using catalogs of masers with trigonometric parallaxes and H II regions with robust KDA resolutions. The distance catalog presented here contains well-constrained distance estimates for 20% of BGPS V2 sources, with typical distance uncertainties ≲ 0.5 kpc. Approximately 75% of the well-constrained sources lie within 6 kpc of the Sun, concentrated in the Scutum-Centaurus arm. Galactocentric positions of objects additionally trace out portions of the Sagittarius, Perseus, and Outer arms in the first and second Galactic quadrants, and we also find evidence for significant regions of interarm dense gas.

  18. Synthetic observations of molecular clouds in a galactic centre environment - I. Studying maps of column density and integrated intensity

    Bertram, Erik; Glover, Simon C. O.; Clark, Paul C.; Ragan, Sarah E.; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2016-02-01

    We run numerical simulations of molecular clouds, adopting properties similar to those found in the central molecular zone (CMZ) of the Milky Way. For this, we employ the moving mesh code AREPO and perform simulations which account for a simplified treatment of time-dependent chemistry and the non-isothermal nature of gas and dust. We perform simulations using an initial density of n0 = 103 cm-3 and a mass of 1.3 × 105 M⊙. Furthermore, we vary the virial parameter, defined as the ratio of kinetic and potential energy, α = Ekin/|Epot|, by adjusting the velocity dispersion. We set it to α = 0.5, 2.0 and 8.0, in order to analyse the impact of the kinetic energy on our results. We account for the extreme conditions in the CMZ and increase both the interstellar radiation field (ISRF) and the cosmic ray flux (CRF) by a factor of 1000 compared to the values found in the solar neighbourhood. We use the radiative transfer code RADMC-3D to compute synthetic images in various diagnostic lines. These are [C II] at 158 μm, [O I] (145 μm), [O I] (63 μm), 12CO (J = 1 → 0) and 13CO (J = 1 → 0) at 2600 and 2720 μm, respectively. When α is large, the turbulence disperses much of the gas in the cloud, reducing its mean density and allowing the ISRF to penetrate more deeply into the cloud's interior. This significantly alters the chemical composition of the cloud, leading to the dissociation of a significant amount of the molecular gas. On the other hand, when α is small, the cloud remains compact, allowing more of the molecular gas to survive. We show that in each case the atomic tracers accurately reflect most of the physical properties of both the H2 and the total gas of the cloud and that they provide a useful alternative to molecular lines when studying the interstellar medium in the CMZ.

  19. The interstellar medium and star formation of galactic disks. I. Interstellar medium and giant molecular cloud properties with diffuse far-ultraviolet and cosmic-ray backgrounds

    Li, Qi; Tan, Jonathan C.; Christie, Duncan; Bisbas, Thomas G.; Wu, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    We present a series of adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamic simulations of flat rotation curve galactic gas disks, with a detailed treatment of the interstellar medium (ISM) physics of the atomic to molecular phase transition under the influence of diffuse far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation fields and cosmic-ray backgrounds. We explore the effects of different FUV intensities, including a model with a radial gradient designed to mimic the Milky Way. The effects of cosmic rays, including radial gradients in their heating and ionization rates, are also explored. The final simulations in this series achieve 4 pc resolution across the ˜20 kpc global disk diameter, with heating and cooling followed down to temperatures of ˜10 K. The disks are evolved for 300 Myr, which is enough time for the ISM to achieve a quasi-statistical equilibrium. In particular, the mass fraction of molecular gas is stabilized by ˜200 Myr. Additional global ISM properties are analyzed. Giant molecular clouds (GMCs) are also identified and the statistical properties of their populations are examined. GMCs are tracked as the disks evolve. GMC collisions, which may be a means of triggering star cluster formation, are counted and their rates are compared with analytic models. Relatively frequent GMC collision rates are seen in these simulations, and their implications for understanding GMC properties, including the driving of internal turbulence, are discussed.

  20. The interstellar medium and star formation of galactic disks. I. Interstellar medium and giant molecular cloud properties with diffuse far-ultraviolet and cosmic-ray backgrounds

    Li, Qi; Tan, Jonathan C.; Christie, Duncan; Bisbas, Thomas G.; Wu, Benjamin

    2018-05-01

    We present a series of adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamic simulations of flat rotation curve galactic gas disks, with a detailed treatment of the interstellar medium (ISM) physics of the atomic to molecular phase transition under the influence of diffuse far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation fields and cosmic-ray backgrounds. We explore the effects of different FUV intensities, including a model with a radial gradient designed to mimic the Milky Way. The effects of cosmic rays, including radial gradients in their heating and ionization rates, are also explored. The final simulations in this series achieve 4 pc resolution across the ˜20 kpc global disk diameter, with heating and cooling followed down to temperatures of ˜10 K. The disks are evolved for 300 Myr, which is enough time for the ISM to achieve a quasi-statistical equilibrium. In particular, the mass fraction of molecular gas is stabilized by ˜200 Myr. Additional global ISM properties are analyzed. Giant molecular clouds (GMCs) are also identified and the statistical properties of their populations are examined. GMCs are tracked as the disks evolve. GMC collisions, which may be a means of triggering star cluster formation, are counted and their rates are compared with analytic models. Relatively frequent GMC collision rates are seen in these simulations, and their implications for understanding GMC properties, including the driving of internal turbulence, are discussed.

  1. The Gas-Grain Chemistry of Galactic Translucent Clouds

    Maffucci, Dominique M.; Herbst, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We employ a combination of traditional and modified rate equation approaches to simulate the time-dependent gas-grain chemistry that pertains to molecular species observed in absorption in Galactic translucent clouds towards Sgr B2(N). We solve the kinetic rate laws over a range of relevant physical conditions (gas and grain temperatures, particle density, visual extinction, cosmic ray ionization rate) characteristic of translucent clouds by implementing a new grid module that allows for parallelization of the astrochemical simulations. Gas-phase and grain-surface synthetic pathways, chemical timescales, and associated physical sensitivities are discussed for selected classes of species including the cyanopolyynes, complex cyanides, and simple aldehydes.

  2. THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. III. CHARACTERIZING PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS IN THE GEMINI OB1 MOLECULAR CLOUD

    Dunham, Miranda K.; Evans, Neal J.; Harvey, Paul; Merello, Manuel; Rosolowsky, Erik; Cyganowski, Claudia J.; Aguirre, James; Bally, John; Battersby, Cara; Ginsburg, Adam; Glenn, Jason; Stringfellow, Guy S.; Bradley, Eric Todd; Dowell, Darren; Drosback, Meredith; Schlingman, Wayne; Shirley, Yancy L.; Walawender, Josh; Williams, Jonathan P.

    2010-01-01

    We present the 1.1 mm Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) observations of the Gemini OB1 molecular cloud complex, and targeted NH 3 observations of the BGPS sources. When paired with molecular spectroscopy of a dense gas tracer, millimeter observations yield physical properties such as masses, radii, mean densities, kinetic temperatures, and line widths. We detect 34 distinct BGPS sources above 5σ = 0.37 Jy beam -1 with corresponding 5σ detections in the NH 3 (1,1) transition. Eight of the objects show water maser emission (20%). We find a mean millimeter source FWHM of 1.12 pc and a mean gas kinetic temperature of 20 K for the sample of 34 BGPS sources with detections in the NH 3 (1,1) line. The observed NH 3 line widths are dominated by non-thermal motions, typically found to be a few times the thermal sound speed expected for the derived kinetic temperature. We calculate the mass for each source from the millimeter flux assuming the sources are isothermal and find a mean isothermal mass within a 120'' aperture of 230 ± 180 M sun . We find a total mass of 8400 M sun for all BGPS sources in the Gemini OB1 molecular cloud, representing 6.5% of the cloud mass. By comparing the millimeter isothermal mass to the virial mass calculated from the NH 3 line widths within a radius equal to the millimeter source size, we find a mean virial parameter (M vir /M iso ) of 1.0 ± 0.9 for the sample. We find mean values for the distributions of column densities of 1.0 x 10 22 cm -2 for H 2 , and 3.0 x 10 14 cm -2 for NH 3 , giving a mean NH 3 abundance of 3.0 x 10 -8 relative to H 2 . We find volume-averaged densities on the order of 10 3 -10 4 cm -3 . The sizes and densities suggest that in the Gem OB1 region the BGPS is detecting the clumps from which stellar clusters form, rather than smaller, higher density cores where single stars or small multiple systems form.

  3. The Galactic fountain as an origin for the Smith Cloud

    Marasco, A.; Fraternali, F.

    The recent discovery of an enriched metallicity for the Smith high-velocity H I Cloud (SC) lends support to a Galactic origin for this system. We use a dynamical model of the galactic fountain to reproduce the observed properties of the SC. In our model, fountain clouds are ejected from the region

  4. STRUCTURED MOLECULAR GAS REVEALS GALACTIC SPIRAL ARMS

    Sawada, Tsuyoshi [Joint ALMA Office, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago 763-0355 (Chile); Hasegawa, Tetsuo [NAOJ Chile Observatory, Joaquin Montero 3000 Oficina 702, Vitacura, Santiago 763-0409 (Chile); Koda, Jin, E-mail: sawada.tsuyoshi@nao.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    We explore the development of structures in molecular gas in the Milky Way by applying the analysis of the brightness distribution function and the brightness distribution index (BDI) in the archival data from the Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory {sup 13}CO J = 1-0 Galactic Ring Survey. The BDI measures the fractional contribution of spatially confined bright molecular emission over faint emission extended over large areas. This relative quantity is largely independent of the amount of molecular gas and of any conventional, pre-conceived structures, such as cores, clumps, or giant molecular clouds. The structured molecular gas traced by higher BDI is located continuously along the spiral arms in the Milky Way in the longitude-velocity diagram. This clearly indicates that molecular gas changes its structure as it flows through the spiral arms. Although the high-BDI gas generally coincides with H II regions, there is also some high-BDI gas with no/little signature of ongoing star formation. These results support a possible evolutionary sequence in which unstructured, diffuse gas transforms itself into a structured state on encountering the spiral arms, followed by star formation and an eventual return to the unstructured state after the spiral arm passage.

  5. Spatial and mass distributions of molecular clouds and spiral structure

    Kwan, J.; Valdes, F.; National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ)

    1987-01-01

    The growth of molecular clouds resulting from cloud-cloud collisions and coalescence in the Galactic ring between 4 and 8 kpc are modeled, taking into account the presence of a spiral potential and the mutual cloud-cloud gravitational attraction. The mean lifetime of molecular clouds is determined to be about 200 million years. The clouds are present in both spiral arm and interarm regions, but a spiral pattern in their spatial distribution is clearly discernible, with the more massive clouds showing a stronger correlation with the spiral arms. As viewed from within the Galactic disk, however, it is very difficult to ascertain that the molecular cloud distribution in longitude-velocity space has a spiral pattern. 19 references

  6. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS REVEAL ANOMALOUS MOLECULAR ABUNDANCES TOWARD THE GALACTIC CENTER

    Sonnentrucker, P. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Neufeld, D. A.; Indriolo, N. [Physics and Astronomy Department, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gerin, M.; De Luca, M. [LERMA-LRA, UMR 8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, Ecole Normale Superieure, UPMC and UCP, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Lis, D. C. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Goicoechea, J. R., E-mail: sonnentr@stsci.edu [Centro de Astrobiologia, CSIC/INTA, E-28850, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-01-20

    We report the Herschel detections of hydrogen fluoride (HF) and para-water (p-H{sub 2}O) in gas intercepting the sight lines to two well-studied molecular clouds in the vicinity of the Sgr A complex: G-0.02-0.07 (the {sup +}50 km s{sup -1} cloud{sup )} and G-0.13-0.08 (the {sup +}20 km s{sup -1} cloud{sup )}. Toward both sight lines, HF and water absorption components are detected over a wide range of velocities covering {approx}250 km s{sup -1}. For all velocity components with V{sub LSR} > -85 km s{sup -1}, we find that the HF and water abundances are consistent with those measured toward other sight lines probing the Galactic disk gas. The velocity components with V{sub LSR} {<=} -85 km s{sup -1}, which are known to trace gas residing within {approx}200 pc of the Galactic center, however, exhibit water vapor abundances with respect to HF at least a factor three higher than those found in the Galactic disk gas. Comparison with CH data indicates that our observations are consistent with a picture where HF and a fraction of the H{sub 2}O absorption arise in diffuse molecular clouds showing Galactic disk-like abundances while the bulk of the water absorption arises in warmer (T {>=} 400 K) diffuse molecular gas for V{sub LSR} {<=} -85 km s{sup -1}. This diffuse Interstellar Medium (ISM) phase has also been recently revealed through observations of CO, HF, H{sup +}{sub 3}, and H{sub 3}O{sup +} absorption toward other sight lines probing the Galactic center inner region.

  7. Formation of giant molecular clouds in global spiral structures: the role of orbital dynamics and cloud-cloud collisions

    Roberts, W.W. Jr.; Stewart, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    The different roles played by orbital dynamics and dissipative cloud-cloud collisions in the formation of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in a global spiral structure are investigated. The interstellar medium (ISM) is simulated by a system of particles, representing clouds, which orbit in a spiral-perturbed, galactic gravitational field. The overall magnitude and width of the global cloud density distribution in spiral arms is very similar in the collisional and collisionless simulations. The results suggest that the assumed number density and size distribution of clouds and the details of individual cloud-cloud collisions have relatively little effect on these features. Dissipative cloud-cloud collisions play an important steadying role for the cloud system's global spiral structure. Dissipative cloud-cloud collisions also damp the relative velocity dispersion of clouds in massive associations and thereby aid in the effective assembling of GMC-like complexes

  8. Cloud-particle galactic gas dynamics and star formation

    Roberts, W.W. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Galactic gas dynamics, spiral structure, and star formation are discussed in the context of N-body computational studies based on a cloud-particle model of the interstellar medium. On the small scale, the interstellar medium appears to be cloud-dominated and supernova-perturbed. The cloud-particle model simulates cloud-cloud collisions, the formation of stellar associations, and supernova explosions as dominant local processes. On the large scale in response to a spiral galactic gravitational field, global density waves and galactic shocks develop with large-scale characteristics similar to those found in continuum gas dynamical studies. Both the system of gas clouds and the system of young stellar associations forming from the clouds share in the global spiral structure. However, with the attributes of neither assuming a continuum of gas (as in continuum gas dynamical studies) nor requiring a prescribed equation of state such as the isothermal condition so often employed, the cloud-particle picture retains much of the detail lost in earlier work: namely, the small-scale features and structures so important in understanding the local, turbulent state of the interstellar medium as well as the degree of raggedness often observed superposed on global spiral structure. (Auth.)

  9. Molecular clouds in Orion and Monoceros

    Maddalena, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    About one-eighth of a well-sampled 850 deg 2 region of Orion and Monoceros, extending from the Taurus dark cloud complex to the CMa OB 1 association, shows emission at the frequency of the J = 1 → 0 transition of CO coming from either local clouds (d 8 from the galactic plane or from more distant objects located within a few degrees of the plane and well outside the solar circle. Local giant molecular clouds associated with Orion A and B have enhanced temperatures and densities near their western edges possibly due to compression of molecular gas by a high pressure region created by the cumulative effects of ∼10 supernovae that occurred in the Orion OB association. Another giant molecular cloud found to be associated with Mon R2 may be related to the Orion clouds. Two filamentary clouds (one possible 200 pc long but only 3-10 pc wide) were found that may represent a new class of object; magnetic fields probably play a role in confining these filaments. An expanding ring of clouds concentric with the H II region S 264 and its ionizing 08 star λ Ori was also investigated, and a possible evolutionary sequence for the ring is given in detail: the clouds probably constitute fragments of the original cloud from which λ Ori formed, the gas pressure of the H II region and the rocket effect having disrupted the cloud and accelerated the fragments to their present velocities

  10. The Galactic fountain as an origin for the Smith Cloud

    Marasco, A.; Fraternali, F.

    2017-01-01

    The recent discovery of an enriched metallicity for the Smith high-velocity H I Cloud (SC) lends support to a Galactic origin for this system. We use a dynamical model of the galactic fountain to reproduce the observed properties of the SC. In our model, fountain clouds are ejected from the region of the disc spiral arms and move through the halo interacting with a pre-existing hot corona. We find that a simple model where cold gas outflows vertically from the Perseus spiral arm reproduces th...

  11. THE ARIZONA RADIO OBSERVATORY CO MAPPING SURVEY OF GALACTIC MOLECULAR CLOUDS. II. THE W3 REGION IN CO J = 2-1, 13CO J = 2-1, AND CO J = 3-2 EMISSION

    Bieging, John H.; Peters, William L.

    2011-01-01

    We present fully sampled 38'' resolution maps of the CO and 13 CO J = 2-1 lines in the molecular clouds toward the H II region complex W3. The maps cover a 2. 0 0 x 1. 0 67 section of the galactic plane and span -70 to -20 km s -1 (LSR) in velocity with a resolution of ∼1.3 km s -1 . The velocity range of the images includes all the gas in the Perseus spiral arm. We also present maps of CO J = 3-2 emission for a 0. 0 5 x 0. 0 33 area containing the H II regions W3 Main and W3(OH). The J = 3-2 maps have velocity resolution of 0.87 km s -1 and 24'' angular resolution. Color figures display the peak line brightness temperature, the velocity-integrated intensity, and velocity channel maps for all three lines, and also the (CO/ 13 CO) J = 2-1 line intensity ratios as a function of velocity. The line intensity image cubes are made available in standard FITS format as electronically readable files. We compare our molecular line maps with the 1.1 mm continuum image from the BOLOCAM Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS). From our 13 CO image cube, we derive kinematic information for the 65 BGPS sources in the mapped field, in the form of Gaussian component fits.

  12. Molecular clouds near supernova remnants

    Wootten, H.A.

    1978-01-01

    The physical properties of molecular clouds near supernova remnants were investigated. Various properties of the structure and kinematics of these clouds are used to establish their physical association with well-known remmnants. An infrared survey of the most massive clouds revealed embedded objects, probably stars whose formation was induced by the supernova blast wave. In order to understand the relationship between these and other molecular clouds, a control group of clouds was also observed. Excitation models for dense regions of all the clouds are constructed to evaluate molecular abundances in these regions. Those clouds that have embedded stars have lower molecular abundances than the clouds that do not. A cloud near the W28 supernova remnant also has low abundances. Molecular abundances are used to measure an important parameter, the electron density, which is not directly observable. In some clouds extensive deuterium fractionation is observed which confirms electron density measurements in those clouds. Where large deuterium fractionation is observed, the ionization rate in the cloud interior can also be measured. The electron density and ionization rate in the cloud near W28 are higher than in most clouds. The molecular abundances and electron densities are functions of the chemical and dynamical state of evolution of the cloud. Those clouds with lowest abundances are probably the youngest clouds. As low-abundance clouds, some clouds near supernova remnants may have been recently swept from the local interstellar material. Supernova remnants provide sites for star formation in ambient clouds by compressing them, and they sweep new clouds from more diffuse local matter

  13. The Galactic fountain as an origin for the Smith Cloud

    Marasco, A.; Fraternali, F.

    2017-01-01

    The recent discovery of an enriched metallicity for the Smith high-velocity H I Cloud (SC) lends support to a Galactic origin for this system. We use a dynamical model of the galactic fountain to reproduce the observed properties of the SC. In our model, fountain clouds are ejected from the region of the disc spiral arms and move through the halo interacting with a pre-existing hot corona. We find that a simple model where cold gas outflows vertically from the Perseus spiral arm reproduces the kinematics and the distance of the SC, but is in disagreement with the cloud's cometary morphology, if this is produced by ram-pressure stripping by the ambient gas. To explain the cloud morphology, we explore two scenarios: (I) the outflow is inclined with respect to the vertical direction and (II) the cloud is entrained by a fast wind that escapes an underlying superbubble. Solutions in agreement with all observational constraints can be found for both cases, the former requires outflow angles >40° while the latter requires ≳1000 km s-1 winds. All scenarios predict that the SC is in the ascending phase of its trajectory and has large - but not implausible - energy requirements.

  14. Bubbles, jets, and clouds in active galactic nuclei

    Smith, M.D.; Smarr, L.; Norman, M.L.; Wilson, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The Blandford and Reese 1974 fluid twin-exhaust model for jet formation is thoroughly investigated. We perform detailed analytic calculations of all aspects of the cavity-nozzle structures for the nonrelativistic case: the preshock flow, the central shock, cavity flow, and the nozzle. Our analytic results are in excellent agreement with recent sophisticated numerical calculations. We find that for a given central confining gas cloud, only a finite range of jet powers is possible. The sound speed ratio between cavity and cloud must be less than 30. Central masses of approx.10 9 M/sub sun/ within 1 pc are necessary for high-powered (10 46 ergs s -1 ) extragalactic jets. For a fixed confining cloud sound speed C 0 , there are three regimes determined by the central engine's luminosity. For low luminosity, a stream of bubbles emerges; for a middle range of luminosities, a jet forms; for too high a luminosity, large clouds are emitted. In the jet regime we find that L/sub j/approx.C 0 5 . The critical dependence of jet power on confining cloud sound speed enables a schematic picture for active galactic nuclei to be proposed. Seyfert galaxies and quasars are placed in the bubble regime. Variable compact radio sources reach the cloud regime. Evolutionary paths are suggested and may provide an indirect test for this picture

  15. A Catalog of Molecular Clouds in the Milky Way Galaxy

    Wahl, Matthew; Koda, J.

    2010-01-01

    We have created a complete catalog of molecular clouds in the Milky Way Galaxy. This is an extension of our previous study (Koda et al. 2006) which used a preliminary data set from The Boston University Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Ring Survey (BUFCRAO GRS). This work is of the complete data set from this GRS. The data covers the inner part of the northern Galactic disk between galactic longitudes 15 to 56 degrees, galactic latitudes -1.1 to 1.1 degrees, and the entire Galactic velocities. We used the standard cloud identification method. This method searches the data cube for a peak in temperature above a specified value, and then searches around that peak in all directions until the extents of the cloud are found. This method is iterated until all clouds are found. We prefer this method over other methods, because of its simplicity. The properties of our molecular clouds are very similar to those based on a more evolved method (Rathborne et al. 2009).

  16. The Arizona Radio Observatory CO Mapping Survey of Galactic Molecular Clouds. V. The Sh2-235 Cloud in CO J=2-1, 13CO J=2-1, and CO J=3-2

    Bieging, John H.; Patel, Saahil; Peters, William L.; Toth, L. Viktor; Marton, Gábor; Zahorecz, Sarolta

    2016-09-01

    We present the results of a program to map the Sh2-235 molecular cloud complex in the CO and 13CO J = 2 - 1 transitions using the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope. The map resolution is 38″ (FWHM), with an rms noise of 0.12 K brightness temperature, for a velocity resolution of 0.34 km s-1. With the same telescope, we also mapped the CO J = 3 - 2 line at a frequency of 345 GHz, using a 64 beam focal plane array of heterodyne mixers, achieving a typical rms noise of 0.5 K brightness temperature with a velocity resolution of 0.23 km s-1. The three spectral line data cubes are available for download. Much of the cloud appears to be slightly sub-thermally excited in the J = 3 level, except for in the vicinity of the warmest and highest column density areas, which are currently forming stars. Using the CO and 13CO J = 2 - 1 lines, we employ an LTE model to derive the gas column density over the entire mapped region. Examining a 125 pc2 region centered on the most active star formation in the vicinity of Sh2-235, we find that the young stellar object surface density scales as approximately the 1.6-power of the gas column density. The area distribution function of the gas is a steeply declining exponential function of gas column density. Comparison of the morphology of ionized and molecular gas suggests that the cloud is being substantially disrupted by expansion of the H II regions, which may be triggering current star formation.

  17. THE EVOLUTION OF GAS CLOUDS FALLING IN THE MAGNETIZED GALACTIC HALO: HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUDS (HVCs) ORIGINATED IN THE GALACTIC FOUNTAIN

    Kwak, Kyujin; Shelton, Robin L.; Raley, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    In the Galactic fountain scenario, supernovae and/or stellar winds propel material into the Galactic halo. As the material cools, it condenses into clouds. By using FLASH three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we model and study the dynamical evolution of these gas clouds after they form and begin to fall toward the Galactic plane. In our simulations, we assume that the gas clouds form at a height of z = 5 kpc above the Galactic midplane, then begin to fall from rest. We investigate how the cloud's evolution, dynamics, and interaction with the interstellar medium (ISM) are affected by the initial mass of the cloud. We find that clouds with sufficiently large initial densities (n ≥ 0.1 H atoms cm -3 ) accelerate sufficiently and maintain sufficiently large column densities as to be observed and identified as high-velocity clouds (HVCs) even if the ISM is weakly magnetized (1.3 μG). However, the ISM can provide noticeable resistance to the motion of a low-density cloud (n ≤ 0.01 H atoms cm -3 ) thus making it more probable that a low-density cloud will attain the speed of an intermediate-velocity cloud rather than the speed of an HVC. We also investigate the effects of various possible magnetic field configurations. As expected, the ISM's resistance is greatest when the magnetic field is strong and perpendicular to the motion of the cloud. The trajectory of the cloud is guided by the magnetic field lines in cases where the magnetic field is oriented diagonal to the Galactic plane. The model cloud simulations show that the interactions between the cloud and the ISM can be understood via analogy to the shock tube problem which involves shock and rarefaction waves. We also discuss accelerated ambient gas, streamers of material ablated from the clouds, and the cloud's evolution from a sphere-shaped to a disk- or cigar-shaped object.

  18. THE GALACTIC CENTER CLOUD G0.253+0.016: A MASSIVE DENSE CLOUD WITH LOW STAR FORMATION POTENTIAL

    Kauffmann, Jens; Pillai, Thushara [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Zhang Qizhou, E-mail: jens.kauffmann@astro.caltech.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street MS78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    We present the first interferometric molecular line and dust emission maps for the Galactic Center (GC) cloud G0.253+0.016, observed using CARMA and the SMA. This cloud is very dense, and concentrates a mass exceeding the Orion Molecular Cloud Complex (2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun }) into a radius of only 3 pc, but it is essentially starless. G0.253+0.016 therefore violates ''star formation laws'' presently used to explain trends in galactic and extragalactic star formation by a factor {approx}45. Our observations show a lack of dense cores of significant mass and density, thus explaining the low star formation activity. Instead, cores with low densities and line widths {approx}< 1 km s{sup -1}-probably the narrowest lines reported for the GC region to date-are found. Evolution over several 10{sup 5} yr is needed before more massive cores, and possibly an Arches-like stellar cluster, could form. Given the disruptive dynamics of the GC region, and the potentially unbound nature of G0.253+0.016, it is not clear that this evolution will happen.

  19. A New View of Molecular Gas in the Galactic Center

    Mills, Elisabeth A.; Morris, M.; Güsten, R.; Requena Torres, M.; Lang, C. C.; Butterfield, N.; Ott, J.

    2013-01-01

    On average, the molecular gas in the center of our Galaxy is significantly hotter (T = 50-300 K), denser (n > 10^4 cm^-3), and more turbulent than gas in the rest of the disk. I will present results from a recent series of observations that indicate that our understanding of the Galactic center (GC) molecular gas is incomplete, and that conditions in some clouds are even more extreme than previously thought. Using the Green Bank telescope, we have measured a very hot molecular gas component (T = 400-500 K ) in three largely quiescent GC giant molecular clouds using metastable inversion lines of ammonia from (8,8) to (15,15) . We further detect the (9,9) line in seven other GC clouds, indicating that this hot gas component may be a common feature of GC clouds, potentially yielding insight into the heating source of the molecular gas in this region. In addition, I will present new density constraints for the circumnuclear disk (CND), a reservoir of gas and dust 1.5 parsecs in radius from the central supermassive black hole, Sgr A*. Recent estimates of the CND density vary by four orders of magnitude, which makes its future evolution uncertain: gas in the CND could either accrete onto the black hole, dissipate, or, if the density is higher than 10^7 cm^-3, exist in gravitationally-stable clumps capable of forming stars. However, our APEX measurements of highly excited lines of HCN and HCO+ indicate that although the CND gas is denser than most other GC clouds, it is not likely to be tidally stable and thus is unlikely to host star formation. Finally, I will present early results from a new Very Large Array study of gas on sub-parsec scales in a sample of GC clouds, all of which exhibit unexpectedly abundant Class I methanol maser emission. The widespread distribution of these masers suggests shocks play an important role in driving cloud evolution throughout this unique region of our Galaxy.

  20. New Hsub(α) emission stars in galactic dark clouds

    Kun, M.

    1982-01-01

    The Hsub(α) emission stars have been searched in galactic dark clouds. 110 Hsub(α) emission objects not published previously were detected with the 60/90/180 cm Schmidt telescope of Konkoly Observatory in two fields containing several dark clouds. The centres of these fields have the coordinates of at αsb(1950)=2sup(n)04sup(m, deltasub(1950)=+75 deg, and αsub(1950)=22sup(h)35sup(m), deltasub(1950)=+75 deg. Most of the emission stars appears to be located near the edges of the dark regions. Their appar red magnitudes are between 11sup(m) and 16sup(m)

  1. GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUD FORMATION IN DISK GALAXIES: CHARACTERIZING SIMULATED VERSUS OBSERVED CLOUD CATALOGS

    Benincasa, Samantha M.; Pudritz, Ralph E.; Wadsley, James [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Tasker, Elizabeth J. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)

    2013-10-10

    We present the results of a study of simulated giant molecular clouds (GMCs) formed in a Milky Way-type galactic disk with a flat rotation curve. This simulation, which does not include star formation or feedback, produces clouds with masses ranging between 10{sup 4} M{sub ☉} and 10{sup 7} M{sub ☉}. We compare our simulated cloud population to two observational surveys: the Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Ring Survey and the BIMA All-Disk Survey of M33. An analysis of the global cloud properties as well as a comparison of Larson's scaling relations is carried out. We find that simulated cloud properties agree well with the observed cloud properties, with the closest agreement occurring between the clouds at comparable resolution in M33. Our clouds are highly filamentary—a property that derives both from their formation due to gravitational instability in the sheared galactic environment, as well as to cloud-cloud gravitational encounters. We also find that the rate at which potentially star-forming gas accumulates within dense regions—wherein n{sub thresh} ≥ 10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}—is 3% per 10 Myr, in clouds of roughly 10{sup 6} M{sub ☉}. This suggests that star formation rates in observed clouds are related to the rates at which gas can be accumulated into dense subregions within GMCs via filamentary flows. The most internally well-resolved clouds are chosen for listing in a catalog of simulated GMCs—the first of its kind. The cataloged clouds are available as an extracted data set from the global simulation.

  2. HI Clouds Near the Galactic Center: Possible Tracers of the Nuclear Wind

    Lockman, Felix J.; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi; DiTeodoro, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    We have used the Green Bank Telescope to discover more than one hundred neutral hydrogen clouds that appear to be embedded in the Fermi Bubble -- the Milky Way’s nuclear wind. With the other members of this population that were previously found with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we now have a sample of about 200 such clouds. They are identified by their peculiar velocities. The cloud kinematics show no trace of Galactic rotation or association with the Galactic bar. Near longitude zero the clouds can have values of VLSR = +-200 km/s. No clouds have been detected with |VLSR| > 350 km/s. The clouds are concentrated toward the Galactic plane, but some are still found to |b|=10 degrees, or z > 1 kpc at the Galactic Center, where the current surveys end. These clouds are important tracers of conditions in the nuclear wind of the Milky Way.

  3. Hard x-ray Morphological and Spectral Studies of the Galactic Center Molecular Cloud SGR B2: Constraining Past SGR A* Flaring Activity

    Zhang, Shuo; Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, NuSTAR observed the Sgr B2 region and for the first time resolved its hard X-ray emission on subarcminute scales. Two prominent features are detected above 10 keV:. a newly emerging cloud, G0.66-0.13, and the central 90 '' radius region containing two compact cores, Sgr B2(M) and Sgr B2(N......), surrounded by diffuse emission. It is inconclusive whether the remaining level of Sgr. B2 emission is still decreasing or has reached a constant background level. A decreasing X-ray emission can be best explained by the X-ray reflection nebula scenario, where the cloud reprocesses a past giant outburst from...... Sgr A*. In the X-ray reflection nebula (XRN) scenario, the 3-79 keV Sgr. B2 spectrum allows us to self-consistently test the XRN model using both the Fe K alpha line and the continuum emission. The peak luminosity of the past Sgr A* outburst is constrained to L3-79keV∼5 x 1038 ergs s-1. A newly...

  4. Molecular Gas Feeding the Circumnuclear Disk of the Galactic Center

    Hsieh, Pei-Ying; Koch, Patrick M.; Ho, Paul T. P.; Tang, Ya-Wen [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Kim, Woong-Tae [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Hsiang-Hsu [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China); Yen, Hsi-Wei [European Southern Observatory (ESO), Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hwang, Chorng-Yuan, E-mail: pyhsieh@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, No.300, Jhongda Road, Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32001, Taiwan (China)

    2017-09-20

    The interaction between a supermassive black hole (SMBH) and the surrounding material is of primary importance in modern astrophysics. The detection of the molecular 2 pc circumnuclear disk (CND) immediately around the Milky Way SMBH, SgrA*, provides a unique opportunity to study SMBH accretion at subparsec scales. Our new wide-field CS( J = 2 − 1) map toward the Galactic center (GC) reveals multiple dense molecular streamers that originated from the ambient clouds 20 pc further out, and that are connected to the central 2 pc of the CND. These dense gas streamers appear to carry gas directly toward the nuclear region and might be captured by the central potential. Our phase-plot analysis indicates that these streamers show a signature of rotation and inward radial motion with progressively higher velocities as the gas approaches the CND and finally ends up corotating with the CND. Our results might suggest a possible mechanism of gas feeding the CND from 20 pc around 2 pc in the GC. In this paper, we discuss the morphology and the kinematics of these streamers. As the nearest observable Galactic nucleus, this feeding process may have implications for understanding the processes in extragalactic nuclei.

  5. Molecular clouds without detectable CO

    Blitz, L.; Bazell, D.; Desert, F.X.

    1990-01-01

    The clouds identified by Desert, Bazell, and Boulanger (DBB clouds) in their search for high-latitude molecular clouds were observed in the CO (J = 1-0) line, but only 13 percent of the sample was detected. The remaining 87 percent are diffuse molecular clouds with CO abundances of about 10 to the -6th, a typical value for diffuse clouds. This hypothesis is shown to be consistent with Copernicus data. The DBB clouds are shown to be an essentially complete catalog of diffuse molecular clouds in the solar vicinity. The total molecular surface density in the vicinity of the sun is then only about 20 percent greater than the 1.3 solar masses/sq pc determined by Dame et al. (1987). Analysis of the CO detections indicates that there is a sharp threshold in extinction of 0.25 mag before CO is detectable and is derived from the IRAS I(100) micron threshold of 4 MJy/sr. This threshold is presumably where the CO abundance exhibits a sharp increase 18 refs

  6. ANGULAR MOMENTUM IN GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUDS. I. THE MILKY WAY

    Imara, Nia; Blitz, Leo

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis comparing the velocity fields in molecular clouds and the atomic gas that surrounds them in order to address the origin of the gradients. To that end, we present first-moment intensity-weighted velocity maps of the molecular clouds and surrounding atomic gas. The maps are made from high-resolution 13 CO observations and 21 cm observations from the Leiden/Argentine/Bonn Galactic H I Survey. We find that (1) the atomic gas associated with each molecular cloud has a substantial velocity gradient-ranging from 0.02 to 0.07 km s -1 pc -1 -whether or not the molecular cloud itself has a substantial linear gradient. (2) If the gradients in the molecular and atomic gas were due to rotation, this would imply that the molecular clouds have less specific angular momentum than the surrounding H I by a factor of 1-6. (3) Most importantly, the velocity gradient position angles in the molecular and atomic gas are generally widely separated-by as much as 130 deg. in the case of the Rosette molecular cloud. This result argues against the hypothesis that molecular clouds formed by simple top-down collapse from atomic gas.

  7. PROPERTIES OF GALACTIC CIRRUS CLOUDS OBSERVED BY BOOMERANG

    Veneziani, M.; De Bernardis, P.; Masi, S.; Ade, P. A. R.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Bock, J. J.; Crill, B. P.; Lange, A. E.; Boscaleri, A.; De Gasperis, G.; De Troia, G.; Natoli, P.; De Oliveira-Costa, A.; Stefano, G. Di; Ganga, K. M.; Jones, W. C.; Kisner, T. S.; Montroy, T. E.; MacTavish, C. J.; Netterfield, C. B.

    2010-01-01

    The physical properties of galactic cirrus emission are not well characterized. BOOMERANG is a balloon-borne experiment designed to study the cosmic microwave background at high angular resolution in the millimeter range. The BOOMERANG 245 and 345 GHz channels are sensitive to interstellar signals, in a spectral range intermediate between FIR and microwave frequencies. We look for physical characteristics of cirrus structures in a region at high galactic latitudes (b ∼ -40 deg.) where BOOMERANG performed its deepest integration, combining the BOOMERANG data with other available data sets at different wavelengths. We have detected eight emission patches in the 345 GHz map, consistent with cirrus dust in the Infrared Astronomical Satellite maps. The analysis technique we have developed allows us to identify the location and the shape of cirrus clouds, and to extract the flux from observations with different instruments at different wavelengths and angular resolutions. We study the integrated flux emitted from these cirrus clouds using data from Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), DIRBE, BOOMERANG and Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe in the frequency range 23-3000 GHz (13 mm-100 μm wavelength). We fit the measured spectral energy distributions with a combination of a gray body and a power-law spectra considering two models for the thermal emission. The temperature of the thermal dust component varies in the 7-20 K range and its emissivity spectral index is in the 1-5 range. We identified a physical relation between temperature and spectral index as had been proposed in previous works. This technique can be proficiently used for the forthcoming Planck and Herschel missions data.

  8. Molecular clouds in M31 and M33

    Blitz, L.

    1985-01-01

    In order to determine the properties of the molecular clouds in nearby spiral galaxies, 49 H II regions in M31 and 6 H II regions in M33 were observed using the J = 1→0 transition of CO. Of these, 17 were detected in M31 and two in M33. For the CO detection in M31, = 0.14 K, = 12.5 km s -1 , and = 2.1 K km s -1 . The two detections in M33, which are toward the giant H II regions NGC 604 and NGC 595, are somewhat weaker than the mean values for clouds in M31, neither T(/sub R/ nor ΔV shows any gradient with galactic radius, but is a decreasing function of radius. The mean values of and are considerably larger than the values that would be obtained by extrapolating local giant molecular clouds to the distance of M31. It is suggested that most of the CO emission is from small clouds in the beam which overwhelm the emission from the giant molecular clouds. Some observational tests of this suggestion are proposed. Like the molecular clouds in the Milky Way, the giant molecular clouds in M31 appear to be tidally limited. In M33 the larger inclination angle would make the observed contribution from small molecular clouds less significant, which is consistent with the observations

  9. Photoionization-regulated star formation and the structure of molecular clouds

    Mckee, Christopher F.

    1989-01-01

    A model for the rate of low-mass star formation in Galactic molecular clouds and for the influence of this star formation on the structure and evolution of the clouds is presented. The rate of energy injection by newly formed stars is estimated, and the effect of this energy injection on the size of the cloud is determined. It is shown that the observed rate of star formation appears adequate to support the observed clouds against gravitational collapse. The rate of photoionization-regulated star formation is estimated and it is shown to be in agreement with estimates of the observed rate of star formation if the observed molecular cloud parameters are used. The mean cloud extinction and the Galactic star formation rate per unit mass of molecular gas are predicted theoretically from the condition that photionization-regulated star formation be in equilibrium. A simple model for the evolution of isolated molecular clouds is developed.

  10. Large, cold, and unusual molecular cloud in Monoceros

    Maddalena, R.J.; Thaddeus, P.; and Columbia University)

    1985-01-01

    Observations of the J = 1 → 0 rotational transition of CO near the galactic plane in Monoceros (lroughly-equal216 0 ) reveal a molecular cloud with unusually low peak CO temperatures (T/sub R/ -1 ) typical of much warmer clouds. At the assumed distance of 3 kpc, the cloud is large (250 x 100 pc), has a mass of 7-11 x 10 5 M/sub sun/, and is well removed from the galactic midplane (130 pc). Except for a possible H II region, all the signs of star formation usually shown by clouds of comparable mass are missing. The cloud, unlike cloud complexes of similar size, is a single, continuous object that apparently has not been torn apart by star formation. Clouds with such properties are rare in the Galaxy; only one or two similar objects have been found. We discuss the possibility that the cloud is young and not yet forming stars but will evolve into a typical cloud complex once star formation begins

  11. Toward Measuring Galactic Dense Molecular Gas Properties and 3D Distribution with Hi-GAL

    Zetterlund, Erika; Glenn, Jason; Maloney, Phil

    2016-01-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory's submillimeter dust continuum survey Hi-GAL provides a powerful new dataset for characterizing the structure of the dense interstellar medium of the Milky Way. Hi-GAL observed a 2° wide strip covering the entire 360° of the Galactic plane in broad bands centered at 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm, with angular resolution ranging from 10 to 40 arcseconds. We are adapting a molecular cloud clump-finding algorithm and a distance probability density function distance-determination method developed for the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) to the Hi-GAL data. Using these methods we expect to generate a database of 105 cloud clumps, derive distance information for roughly half the clumps, and derive precise distances for approximately 20% of them. With five-color photometry and distances, we will measure the cloud clump properties, such as luminosities, physical sizes, and masses, and construct a three-dimensional map of the Milky Way's dense molecular gas distribution.The cloud clump properties and the dense gas distribution will provide critical ground truths for comparison to theoretical models of molecular cloud structure formation and galaxy evolution models that seek to emulate spiral galaxies. For example, such models cannot resolve star formation and use prescriptive recipes, such as converting a fixed fraction of interstellar gas to stars at a specified interstellar medium density threshold. The models should be compared to observed dense molecular gas properties and galactic distributions.As a pilot survey to refine the clump-finding and distance measurement algorithms developed for BGPS, we have identified molecular cloud clumps in six 2° × 2° patches of the Galactic plane, including one in the inner Galaxy along the line of sight through the Molecular Ring and the termination of the Galactic bar and one toward the outer Galaxy. Distances have been derived for the inner Galaxy clumps and compared to Bolocam Galactic Plane

  12. The simulation of molecular clouds formation in the Milky Way

    Khoperskov, S. A.; Vasiliev, E. O.; Sobolev, A. M.; Khoperskov, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    Using 3D hydrodynamic calculations we simulate formation of molecular clouds in the Galaxy. The simulations take into account molecular hydrogen chemical kinetics, cooling and heating processes. Comprehensive gravitational potential accounts for contributions from the stellar bulge, two- and four-armed spiral structure, stellar disc, dark halo and takes into account self-gravitation of the gaseous component. Gas clouds in our model form in the spiral arms due to shear and wiggle instabilities and turn into molecular clouds after t ≳ 100 Myr. At the times t ˜ 100-300 Myr the clouds form hierarchical structures and agglomerations with the sizes of 100 pc and greater. We analyse physical properties of the simulated clouds and find that synthetic statistical distributions like mass spectrum, `mass-size' relation and velocity dispersion are close to those observed in the Galaxy. The synthetic l-v (galactic longitude-radial velocity) diagram of the simulated molecular gas distribution resembles observed one and displays a structure with appearance similar to molecular ring of the Galaxy. Existence of this structure in our modelling can be explained by superposition of emission from the galactic bar and the spiral arms at ˜3-4 kpc.

  13. Polarization of seven MBM clouds at high Galactic latitude

    Neha, S.; Maheswar, G.; Soam, A.; Lee, C. W.

    2018-06-01

    We made R-band polarization measurements of 234 stars towards the direction of the MBM 33-39 cloud complex. The distance of the MBM 33-39 complex was determined as 120 ± 10 pc using polarization results and near-infrared photometry from the 2MASS survey. The magnetic field geometry of the individual clouds inferred from our polarimetric results reveals that the field lines are in general consistent with the global magnetic field geometry of the region obtained from previous studies. This implies that the clouds in the complex are permeated by the interstellar magnetic field. Multi-wavelength polarization measurements of a few stars projected on to the complex suggest that the size of the dust grains in these clouds is similar to those found in the normal interstellar medium of the Milky Way. We studied a possible formation scenario of the MBM 33-39 complex by combining the polarization results from our study with those from the literature and by identifying the distribution of ionized, atomic and molecular (dust) components of material in the region.

  14. A cloud/particle model of the interstellar medium - Galactic spiral structure

    Levinson, F. H.; Roberts, W. W., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A cloud/particle model for gas flow in galaxies is developed that incorporates cloud-cloud collisions and supernovae as dominant local processes. Cloud-cloud collisions are the main means of dissipation. To counter this dissipation and maintain local dispersion, supernova explosions in the medium administer radial snowplow pushes to all nearby clouds. The causal link between these processes is that cloud-cloud collisions will form stars and that these stars will rapidly become supernovae. The cloud/particle model is tested and used to investigate the gas dynamics and spiral structures in galaxies where these assumptions may be reasonable. Particular attention is given to whether large-scale galactic shock waves, which are thought to underlie the regular well-delineated spiral structure in some galaxies, form and persist in a cloud-supernova dominated interstellar medium; this question is answered in the affirmative.

  15. ON THE STAR FORMATION RATES IN MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    Lada, Charles J.; Lombardi, Marco; Alves, Joao F.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the level of star formation activity within nearby molecular clouds. We employ a uniform set of infrared extinction maps to provide accurate assessments of cloud mass and structure and compare these with inventories of young stellar objects within the clouds. We present evidence indicating that both the yield and rate of star formation can vary considerably in local clouds, independent of their mass and size. We find that the surface density structure of such clouds appears to be important in controlling both these factors. In particular, we find that the star formation rate (SFR) in molecular clouds is linearly proportional to the cloud mass (M 0.8 ) above an extinction threshold of A K ∼ 0.8 mag, corresponding to a gas surface density threshold of Σ gas ∼ 116 M sun pc 2 . We argue that this surface density threshold corresponds to a gas volume density threshold which we estimate to be n(H 2 ) ∼ 10 4 cm -3 . Specifically, we find SFR (M sun yr -1 ) = 4.6 ± 2.6 x 10 -8 M 0.8 (M sun ) for the clouds in our sample. This relation between the rate of star formation and the amount of dense gas in molecular clouds appears to be in excellent agreement with previous observations of both galactic and extragalactic star-forming activity. It is likely the underlying physical relationship or empirical law that most directly connects star formation activity with interstellar gas over many spatial scales within and between individual galaxies. These results suggest that the key to obtaining a predictive understanding of the SFRs in molecular clouds and galaxies is to understand those physical factors which give rise to the dense components of these clouds.

  16. OH+ IN DIFFUSE MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    Porras, A. J.; Federman, S. R.; Welty, D. E.; Ritchey, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Near ultraviolet observations of OH + and OH in diffuse molecular clouds reveal a preference for different environments. The dominant absorption feature in OH + arises from a main component seen in CH + (that with the highest CH + /CH column density ratio), while OH follows CN absorption. This distinction provides new constraints on OH chemistry in these clouds. Since CH + detections favor low-density gas with small fractions of molecular hydrogen, this must be true for OH + as well, confirming OH + and H 2 O + observations with the Herschel Space Telescope. Our observed correspondence indicates that the cosmic ray ionization rate derived from these measurements pertains to mainly atomic gas. The association of OH absorption with gas rich in CN is attributed to the need for a high enough density and molecular fraction before detectable amounts are seen. Thus, while OH + leads to OH production, chemical arguments suggest that their abundances are controlled by different sets of conditions and that they coexist with different sets of observed species. Of particular note is that non-thermal chemistry appears to play a limited role in the synthesis of OH in diffuse molecular clouds

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic shocks in molecular clouds

    Chernoff, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    Part one develops the mathematical and physical theory of one-dimensional, time-independent subalfvenic flow in partially ionized gas with magnetic fields, for application to shocks in molecular clouds. Unlike normal gas-dynamic shocks, the neutral flow may be continuous and cool if the gas radiates efficiently and does not self-ionize. Analytic solutions are given in the limit that the neutral gas is either adiabatic or isothermal (cold). Numerical techniques are developed and applied to find the neutral flow under general circumstances. Part two extends the theory and results of part one in three ways: (1) to faster, superalfvenic flow, (2) to complex gases containing heavy charged particles (grains) in addition to ions, containing heavy charged particles (grains) in addition to ions, electrons and neutrals, and (3) to the entire range in (Omega tau), the ratio of charged particle damping time to gyroperiod, expected in gas flows in molecular clouds

  18. AceCloud: Molecular Dynamics Simulations in the Cloud.

    Harvey, M J; De Fabritiis, G

    2015-05-26

    We present AceCloud, an on-demand service for molecular dynamics simulations. AceCloud is designed to facilitate the secure execution of large ensembles of simulations on an external cloud computing service (currently Amazon Web Services). The AceCloud client, integrated into the ACEMD molecular dynamics package, provides an easy-to-use interface that abstracts all aspects of interaction with the cloud services. This gives the user the experience that all simulations are running on their local machine, minimizing the learning curve typically associated with the transition to using high performance computing services.

  19. Formation of Massive Molecular Cloud Cores by Cloud-cloud Collision

    Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Fukui, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations of molecular clouds around rich massive star clusters including NGC3603, Westerlund 2, and M20 revealed that the formation of massive stars could be triggered by a cloud-cloud collision. By using three-dimensional, isothermal, magnetohydrodynamics simulations with the effect of self-gravity, we demonstrate that massive, gravitationally unstable, molecular cloud cores are formed behind the strong shock waves induced by the cloud-cloud collision. We find that the massive mol...

  20. Cloud fluid compression and softening in spiral arms and the formation of giant molecular cloud complexes

    Cowie, L.L.

    1981-01-01

    In this, the second paper of a series on the galactodynamics of the cloudy interstellar medium, we consider the response of such a gas to a forcing potential in the tight-winding density wave theory. The cloud fluid is treated in the hydrodynamic limit with an equation of state which softens at high densities. It is shown that in the inner regions of the galaxy, cooling of the cloud fluid in the arms can result in gravitational instability and the formation of large bound complexes of clouds which we identify with the giant molecular clouds (GMCs). Masses dimensions, distributions, and scale heights of the GMCs are predicted by the theory. It is suggested that the interstellar gas density in the disk is regulated by the gravitational instability mechanism in the arms which siphons material into star formation. Implications for the evolution of individual GMCs and for galactic morphology are discussed

  1. SUPERGIANT SHELLS AND MOLECULAR CLOUD FORMATION IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Dawson, J. R.; Dickey, John M. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Sandy Bay Campus, Churchill Avenue, Sandy Bay, TAS 7005 (Australia); McClure-Griffiths, N. M. [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Marsfield NSW 2122 (Australia); Wong, T. [Astronomy Department, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Hughes, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Fukui, Y. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya (Japan); Kawamura, A., E-mail: joanne.dawson@utas.edu.au [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2013-01-20

    We investigate the influence of large-scale stellar feedback on the formation of molecular clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Examining the relationship between H I and {sup 12}CO(J = 1-0) in supergiant shells (SGSs), we find that the molecular fraction in the total volume occupied by SGSs is not enhanced with respect to the rest of the LMC disk. However, the majority of objects ({approx}70% by mass) are more molecular than their local surroundings, implying that the presence of a supergiant shell does on average have a positive effect on the molecular gas fraction. Averaged over the full SGS sample, our results suggest that {approx}12%-25% of the molecular mass in supergiant shell systems was formed as a direct result of the stellar feedback that created the shells. This corresponds to {approx}4%-11% of the total molecular mass of the galaxy. These figures are an approximate lower limit to the total contribution of stellar feedback to molecular cloud formation in the LMC, and constitute one of the first quantitative measurements of feedback-triggered molecular cloud formation in a galactic system.

  2. Giant molecular cloud scaling relations: the role of the cloud definition

    Khoperskov, S. A.; Vasiliev, E. O.; Ladeyschikov, D. A.; Sobolev, A. M.; Khoperskov, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the physical properties of molecular clouds in disc galaxies with different morphologies: a galaxy without prominent structure, a spiral barred galaxy and a galaxy with flocculent structure. Our N-body/hydrodynamical simulations take into account non-equilibrium H2 and CO chemical kinetics, self-gravity, star formation and feedback processes. For the simulated galaxies, the scaling relations of giant molecular clouds, or so-called Larson's relations, are studied for two types of cloud definition (or extraction method): the first is based on total column density position-position (PP) data sets and the second is indicated by the CO (1-0) line emission used in position-position-velocity (PPV) data. We find that the cloud populations obtained using both cloud extraction methods generally have similar physical parameters, except that for the CO data the mass spectrum of clouds has a tail with low-mass objects M ˜ 103-104 M⊙. Owing toa varying column density threshold, the power-law indices in the scaling relations are significantly changed. In contrast, the relations are invariant to the CO brightness temperature threshold. Finally, we find that the mass spectra of clouds for PPV data are almost insensitive to the galactic morphology, whereas the spectra for PP data demonstrate significant variation.

  3. TURBULENCE DECAY AND CLOUD CORE RELAXATION IN MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    Gao, Yang; Law, Chung K.; Xu, Haitao

    2015-01-01

    The turbulent motion within molecular clouds is a key factor controlling star formation. Turbulence supports molecular cloud cores from evolving to gravitational collapse and hence sets a lower bound on the size of molecular cloud cores in which star formation can occur. On the other hand, without a continuous external energy source maintaining the turbulence, such as in molecular clouds, the turbulence decays with an energy dissipation time comparable to the dynamic timescale of clouds, which could change the size limits obtained from Jean's criterion by assuming constant turbulence intensities. Here we adopt scaling relations of physical variables in decaying turbulence to analyze its specific effects on the formation of stars. We find that the decay of turbulence provides an additional approach for Jeans' criterion to be achieved, after which gravitational infall governs the motion of the cloud core. This epoch of turbulence decay is defined as cloud core relaxation. The existence of cloud core relaxation provides a more complete understanding of the effect of the competition between turbulence and gravity on the dynamics of molecular cloud cores and star formation

  4. High-energy radiation from collisions of high-velocity clouds and the Galactic disc

    del Valle, Maria V.; Müller, A. L.; Romero, G. E.

    2018-04-01

    High-velocity clouds (HVCs) are interstellar clouds of atomic hydrogen that do not follow normal Galactic rotation and have velocities of a several hundred kilometres per second. A considerable number of these clouds are falling down towards the Galactic disc. HVCs form large and massive complexes, so if they collide with the disc a great amount of energy would be released into the interstellar medium. The cloud-disc interaction produces two shocks: one propagates through the cloud and the other through the disc. The properties of these shocks depend mainly on the cloud velocity and the disc-cloud density ratio. In this work, we study the conditions necessary for these shocks to accelerate particles by diffusive shock acceleration and we study the non-thermal radiation that is produced. We analyse particle acceleration in both the cloud and disc shocks. Solving a time-dependent two-dimensional transport equation for both relativistic electrons and protons, we obtain particle distributions and non-thermal spectral energy distributions. In a shocked cloud, significant synchrotron radio emission is produced along with soft gamma rays. In the case of acceleration in the shocked disc, the non-thermal radiation is stronger; the gamma rays, of leptonic origin, might be detectable with current instruments. A large number of protons are injected into the Galactic interstellar medium, and locally exceed the cosmic ray background. We conclude that under adequate conditions the contribution from HVC-disc collisions to the galactic population of relativistic particles and the associated extended non-thermal radiation might be important.

  5. H I Clouds in the Lower Halo. I. The Galactic All-Sky Survey Pilot Region

    Ford, H. Alyson; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Calabretta, M. R.; Lockman, Felix J.; Pisano, D. J.; Bailin, J.; Kalberla, P. M. W.; Murphy, T.

    2008-01-01

    We have detected over 400 H I clouds in the lower halo of the Galaxy within the pilot region of the Galactic All-Sky Survey (GASS), a region of the fourth quadrant that spans 18 deg. in longitude, 40 deg. in latitude, and is centered on the Galactic equator. These clouds have a median peak brightness temperature of 0.6 K, a median velocity width of 12.8 km s -1 , and angular sizes ∼ -1 . A sample of clouds likely to be near tangent points was analyzed in detail. These clouds have radii on the order of 30 pc and a median H I mass of 630 M sun . The population has a vertical scale height of 400 pc and is concentrated in Galactocentric radius, peaking at R = 3.8 kpc. This confined structure suggests that the clouds are linked to spiral features, while morphological evidence that many clouds are aligned with loops and filaments is suggestive of a relationship with star formation. The clouds might result from supernovae and stellar winds in the form of fragmenting shells and gas that has been pushed into the halo rather than from a galactic fountain.

  6. Blowing in the Milky Way Wind: Neutral Hydrogen Clouds Tracing the Galactic Nuclear Outflow

    Di Teodoro, Enrico M.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Lockman, Felix J.; Denbo, Sara R.; Endsley, Ryan; Ford, H. Alyson; Harrington, Kevin

    2018-03-01

    We present the results of a new sensitive survey of neutral hydrogen above and below the Galactic Center with the Green Bank Telescope. The observations extend up to Galactic latitude | b| resolution of 9.‧5 and an average rms brightness temperature noise of 40 mK in a 1 {km} {{{s}}}-1 channel. The survey reveals the existence of a population of anomalous high-velocity clouds extending up to heights of about 1.5 kpc from the Galactic plane and showing no signature of Galactic rotation. These clouds have local standard of rest velocities | {V}LSR}| ≲ 360 {km} {{{s}}}-1, and assuming a Galactic Center origin, they have sizes of a few tens of parsec and neutral hydrogen masses spanning 10{--}{10}5 {M}ȯ . Accounting for selection effects, the cloud population is symmetric in longitude, latitude, and V LSR. We model the cloud kinematics in terms of an outflow expanding from the Galactic Center and find the population consistent with being material moving with radial velocity {V}{{w}}≃ 330 {km} {{{s}}}-1 distributed throughout a bicone with opening angle α > 140^\\circ . This simple model implies an outflow luminosity {L}{{w}}> 3× {10}40 erg s‑1 over the past 10 Myr, consistent with star formation feedback in the inner region of the Milky Way, with a cold gas mass-loss rate ≲ 0.1 {{M}ȯ {yr}}-1. These clouds may represent the cold gas component accelerated in the nuclear wind driven by our Galaxy, although some of the derived properties challenge current theoretical models of the entrainment process.

  7. High-latitude molecular clouds and infrared cirrus

    Vries, H.W. de.

    1988-01-01

    The high-latitude infrared cirrus detected by IRAS is identified with atomic and molecular clouds. These clouds are small (usually less than 1 sq. deg.) and show weak CO emission. On the basis of a distance of 100 pc they are characterized by a mass of a few solar masses and a radius of about 1 pc. Thermal radiation by dust as a results of heating by the diffuse interstellar radiation field is the most-plausible origin of the cirrus emission at far-infrared wavelengths. On the basis of plausible assumptions regarding the uniformity of both the gas-to-dust ratio and the heating and cooling of the dust, the flux density at 100 μm from regions with low visual extinction should be a good tracer of the gas column density. Indeed, the data show an approximately linear proportionality between N(HI), obtained from 21-cm observations, and I 100 (HI), the flux density from dust associated with HI. If the ratio of column density to flux density in high-latitude molecular clouds is equal to the corresponding relation in atomic ones, a value for the ratio of H 2 column density to CO velocity-integrated radiation temperature may be obtained. Although low-mass clouds may be large in number, the fraction of the Galactic molecular mass in the form of these clouds is probably no more than 1%

  8. Molecular diagnostics of Galactic star-formation regions

    Loenen, Edo; Baan, Willem; Spaans, Marco

    2007-10-01

    We propose a sensitive spectral survey of Galactic star-formation regions. Using the broadband correlator at two different frequencies, we expect to detect the (1-0) transition of CO, CN, HNC, HCN, HCO+, and HCO and various of their isotopes lines, as well as the (12-11) and (10-9) transitions of HC3N. The purpose of these observations is to create a consistent (public) database of molecular emission from galactic star-formation regions. The data will be interpreted using extensive physical and chemical modeling of the whole ensemble of lines, in order to get an accurate description of the molecular environment of these regions. In particular, this diagnostic approach will describe the optical depths, the densities, and the radiation fields in the medium and will allow the establishment of dominant temperature gradients. These observations are part of a program to study molecular emission on all scales, going from individual Galactic star-formation regions, through resolved nearby galaxies, to unresolved extra-galactic emission.

  9. Interaction between the SNR Sagittarius A East and the 50-km s-1 Molecular Cloud

    Tsuboi, Masato; Okumura, Sachiko K; Miyazaki, Atsushi

    2006-01-01

    We performed high-resolution observations of the Galactic Center 50-km s -1 molecular cloud in the CS J = 1 - 0 line using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array. The 50-km s -1 molecular cloud corresponds to a break in the Sagittarius (Sgr) A east shell. A very broad and negative velocity wing feature is detected at an apparent contact spot between the molecular cloud and the Sgr A east shell. The velocity width of the wing feature is over 50-km s -1 . The width is three times wider than those of typical Galactic Center clouds. This strongly suggests that the shell is interacting physically with the molecular cloud. The asymmetric velocity profile of the wing feature indicates that the Sgr A east shell expands and crashes into the far side of the molecular cloud. About 50 clumps are identified in the cloud using CLUMPFIND. The velocity width-size relation and the mass spectrum of clumps in the cloud are similar to those in Central Molecular Zone (CMZ)

  10. Galactic hail: the origin of the high-velocity cloud complex C

    Fraternali, F.; Marasco, A.; Armillotta, L.; Marinacci, F.

    High-velocity clouds consist of cold gas that appears to be raining down from the halo to the disc of the Milky Way. Over the past 50 years, two competing scenarios have attributed their origin either to gas accretion from outside the Galaxy or to circulation of gas from the Galactic disc powered by

  11. Orion infrared nebula/molecular cloud

    Zuckerman, B.; Palmer, P.

    1975-01-01

    Observational and theoretical studies of the Orion Nebula and the associated molecular clouds have greatly increased our understanding of this and other regions in which star formation is taking place. Fundamental questions remain unanswered; and in this Letter we address three of them: (1) the chemical composition of the molecular cloud, (2) its internal motions, and (3) the role of magnetic fields in its evolution. We show that the gas phase chemistry and internal motions in one part of the cloud are distinctly different from those in the rest of the cloud, and two recent estimates of the magnetic field strengths are very uncertain. (auth)

  12. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR CARBON AS A TRACER OF TRANSLUCENT CLOUDS

    Burgh, Eric B.; France, Kevin; Jenkins, Edward B.

    2010-01-01

    Using archival, high-resolution far-ultraviolet Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph spectra of 34 Galactic O and B stars, we measure C I column densities and compare them with measurements from the literature of CO and H 2 with regard to understanding the presence of translucent clouds along the line of sight. We find that the CO/H 2 and CO/C I ratios provide good discriminators for the presence of translucent material, and both increase as a function of molecular fraction, f N = 2N(H 2 )/N(H). We suggest that sightlines with values below CO/H 2 ∼10 -6 and CO/C I ∼1 contain mostly diffuse molecular clouds, while those with values above sample clouds in the transition region between diffuse and dark. These discriminating values are also consistent with the change in slope of the CO versus H 2 correlation near the column density at which CO shielding becomes important, as evidenced by the change in photochemistry regime studied by Sheffer et al. Based on the lack of correlation of the presence of translucent material with traditional measures of extinction, we recommend defining 'translucent clouds' based on the molecular content rather than line-of-sight extinction properties.

  13. SPECTRAL LINE SURVEY TOWARD MOLECULAR CLOUDS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Nishimura, Yuri; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi [Department of Physics, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Shimonishi, Takashi [Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, Aramakiazaaoba 6-3, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8578 (Japan); Sakai, Nami [RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aikawa, Yuri [Center for Computational Sciences, The University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Kawamura, Akiko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan)

    2016-02-20

    Spectral line survey observations of seven molecular clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) have been conducted in the 3 mm band with the Mopra 22 m telescope to reveal chemical compositions in low metallicity conditions. Spectral lines of fundamental species such as CS, SO, CCH, HCN, HCO{sup +}, and HNC are detected in addition to those of CO and {sup 13}CO, while CH{sub 3}OH is not detected in any source and N{sub 2}H{sup +} is marginally detected in two sources. The molecular-cloud scale (10 pc scale) chemical composition is found to be similar among the seven sources regardless of different star formation activities, and hence, it represents the chemical composition characteristic of the LMC without influences by star formation activities. In comparison with chemical compositions of Galactic sources, the characteristic features are (1) deficient N-bearing molecules, (2) abundant CCH, and (3) deficient CH{sub 3}OH. Feature (1) is due to a lower elemental abundance of nitrogen in the LMC, whereas features (2) and (3) seem to originate from extended photodissociation regions and warmer temperature in cloud peripheries due to a lower abundance of dust grains in the low metallicity condition. In spite of general resemblance of chemical abundances among the seven sources, the CS/HCO{sup +} and SO/HCO{sup +} ratios are found to be slightly higher in a quiescent molecular cloud. An origin of this trend is discussed in relation to possible depletion of sulfur along the molecular cloud formation.

  14. HII regions in collapsing massive molecular clouds

    Yorke, H.W.; Bodenheimer, P.; Tenorio-Tagle, G.

    1982-01-01

    Results of two-dimensional numerical calculations of the evolution of HII regions associated with self-gravitating, massive molecular clouds are presented. Depending on the location of the exciting star, a champagne flow can occur concurrently with the central collapse of a nonrotating cloud. Partial evaporation of the cloud at a rate of about 0.005 solar masses/yr results. When 100 O-stars are placed at the center of a freely falling cloud of 3x10 5 solar masses no evaporation takes place. Rotating clouds collapse to disks and the champagne flow can evaporate the cloud at a higher rate (0.01 solar masses/yr). It is concluded that massive clouds containing OB-stars have lifetimes of no more than 10 7 yr. (Auth.)

  15. The Smith Cloud: surviving a high-speed transit of the Galactic disc

    Tepper-García, Thor; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2018-02-01

    The origin and survival of the Smith high-velocity H I cloud has so far defied explanation. This object has several remarkable properties: (i) its prograde orbit is ≈100 km s-1 faster than the underlying Galactic rotation; (ii) its total gas mass (≳ 4 × 106 M⊙) exceeds the mass of all other high-velocity clouds (HVCs) outside of the Magellanic Stream; (iii) its head-tail morphology extends to the Galactic H I disc, indicating some sort of interaction. The Smith Cloud's kinetic energy rules out models based on ejection from the disc. We construct a dynamically self-consistent, multi-phase model of the Galaxy with a view to exploring whether the Smith Cloud can be understood in terms of an infalling, compact HVC that has transited the Galactic disc. We show that while a dark-matter (DM) free HVC of sufficient mass and density can reach the disc, it does not survive the transit. The most important ingredient to survival during a transit is a confining DM subhalo around the cloud; radiative gas cooling and high spatial resolution (≲ 10pc) are also essential. In our model, the cloud develops a head-tail morphology within ∼10 Myr before and after its first disc crossing; after the event, the tail is left behind and accretes on to the disc within ∼400 Myr. In our interpretation, the Smith Cloud corresponds to a gas 'streamer' that detaches, falls back and fades after the DM subhalo, distorted by the disc passage, has moved on. We conclude that subhaloes with MDM ≲ 109 M⊙ have accreted ∼109 M⊙ of gas into the Galaxy over cosmic time - a small fraction of the total baryon budget.

  16. The Monoceros R2 Molecular Cloud

    Carpenter, J. M.; Hodapp, K. W.

    2008-12-01

    The Monoceros R2 region was first recognized as a chain of reflection nebulae illuminated by A- and B-type stars. These nebulae are associated with a giant molecular cloud that is one of the closest massive star forming regions to the Sun. This chapter reviews the properties of the Mon R2 region, including the namesake reflection nebulae, the large scale molecula= r cloud, global star formation activity, and properties of prominent star forming regions in the cloud.

  17. A Discovery of a Compact High Velocity Cloud-Galactic Supershell System

    Park, Geumsook; Koo, Bon-Chul; Kang, Ji-hyun; Gibson, Steven J.; Peek, Joshua Eli Goldston; Douglas, Kevin A.; Korpela, Eric J.; Heiles, Carl E.

    2017-01-01

    High velocity clouds (HVCs) are neutral hydrogen (HI) gas clouds having very different radial velocities from those of the Galactic disk material. While some large HVC complexes are known to be gas streams tidally stripped from satellite galaxies of the Milky Way, there are relatively isolated and small angular-sized HVCs, so called “compact HVCs (CHVCs)”, the origin of which remains controversial. There are about 300 known CHVCs in the Milky Way, and many of them show a head-tail structure, implying a ram pressure interaction with the diffuse Galactic halo gas. It is, however, not clear whether CHVCs are completely dissipated in the Galactic halo to feed the multi-phase circumgalactic medium or they can survive their trip through the halo and collide with the Galactic disk. The colliding CHVCs may leave a gigantic trail in the disk, and it had been suggested that some of HI supershells that require ≧ 3 x 1052 erg may be produced by the collision of such HVCs.Here we report the detection of a kiloparsec (kpc)-size supershell in the outskirts of the Milky Way with the compact HVC 040+01-282 (hereafter, CHVC040) at its geometrical center using the “Inner-Galaxy Arecibo L-band Feed Array” HI 21 cm survey data. The morphological and physical properties of both objects suggest that CHVC040, which is either a fragment of a nearby disrupted galaxy or a cloud that originated from an intergalactic accreting flow, collided with the disk ˜5 Myr ago to form the supershell. Our results show that some compact HVCs can survive their trip through the Galactic halo and inject energy and momentum into the Milky Way disk.

  18. Star formation in evolving molecular clouds

    Völschow, M.; Banerjee, R.; Körtgen, B.

    2017-09-01

    Molecular clouds are the principle stellar nurseries of our universe; they thus remain a focus of both observational and theoretical studies. From observations, some of the key properties of molecular clouds are well known but many questions regarding their evolution and star formation activity remain open. While numerical simulations feature a large number and complexity of involved physical processes, this plethora of effects may hide the fundamentals that determine the evolution of molecular clouds and enable the formation of stars. Purely analytical models, on the other hand, tend to suffer from rough approximations or a lack of completeness, limiting their predictive power. In this paper, we present a model that incorporates central concepts of astrophysics as well as reliable results from recent simulations of molecular clouds and their evolutionary paths. Based on that, we construct a self-consistent semi-analytical framework that describes the formation, evolution, and star formation activity of molecular clouds, including a number of feedback effects to account for the complex processes inside those objects. The final equation system is solved numerically but at much lower computational expense than, for example, hydrodynamical descriptions of comparable systems. The model presented in this paper agrees well with a broad range of observational results, showing that molecular cloud evolution can be understood as an interplay between accretion, global collapse, star formation, and stellar feedback.

  19. Stability of emission line clouds in active galactic nuclei

    Krinsky, I.S.

    1989-01-01

    A numerical model was developed for a Quasar Stellar Object (QSO) broad emission line cloud (ELC) imbedded within a confining hot intercloud medium (HIM) for the purpose of studying its stability to perturbations in its temperature and density. A self-consistent model in radiative, pressure and thermal equilibrium is presented. The effect of trapped line radiation pressure is also included with the total pressure (particle plus radiation) held constant. The equilibrium model is found to have regions with radiation pressure exceeding gas pressure. Energy transport includes the effects of an external broken power law continuum and thermal conduction of heat from the HIM. Conduction is found to be unimportant to the total energy budget of the cloud, but is important to the dynamics of the ELC/HIM interface. Independent of the ELC/HIM model, an extension of second order probabilistic radiative transfer that treats the diffuse radiation field as composed of two oppositely directed streams is presented. The high ionization zone of the ELC is found to be unstable to radiatively driven sound waves. Both the external radiation field and the force of trapped line radiation are potential sources for driving the growth of sound waves. The final picture that emerges is that the ELC must be in a constant state of flux

  20. The Properties of Planck Galactic Cold Clumps in the L1495 Dark Cloud

    Tang, Mengyao; Liu, Tie; Qin, Sheng-Li; Kim, Kee-Tae; Wu, Yuefang; Tatematsu, Ken’ichi; Yuan, Jinghua; Wang, Ke; Parsons, Harriet; Koch, Patrick M.; Sanhueza, Patricio; Ward-Thompson, D.; Tóth, L. Viktor; Soam, Archana; Lee, Chang Won; Eden, David; Di Francesco, James; Rawlings, Jonathan; Rawlings, Mark G.; Montillaud, Julien; Zhang, Chuan-Peng; Cunningham, M. R.

    2018-04-01

    Planck Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCCs) possibly represent the early stages of star formation. To understand better the properties of PGCCs, we studied 16 PGCCs in the L1495 cloud with molecular lines and continuum data from Herschel, JCMT/SCUBA-2, and the PMO 13.7 m telescope. Thirty dense cores were identified in 16 PGCCs from 2D Gaussian fitting. The dense cores have dust temperatures of T d = 11–14 K, and H2 column densities of {N}{{{H}}2} = (0.36–2.5) × 1022 cm‑2. We found that not all PGCCs contain prestellar objects. In general, the dense cores in PGCCs are usually at their earliest evolutionary stages. All the dense cores have non-thermal velocity dispersions larger than the thermal velocity dispersions from molecular line data, suggesting that the dense cores may be turbulence-dominated. We have calculated the virial parameter α and found that 14 of the dense cores have α 2. This suggests that some of the dense cores are not bound in the absence of external pressure and magnetic fields. The column density profiles of dense cores were fitted. The sizes of the flat regions and core radii decrease with the evolution of dense cores. CO depletion was found to occur in all the dense cores, but is more significant in prestellar core candidates than in protostellar or starless cores. The protostellar cores inside the PGCCs are still at a very early evolutionary stage, sharing similar physical and chemical properties with the prestellar core candidates.

  1. Fast Molecular Cloud Destruction Requires Fast Cloud Formation

    Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark [American Museum of Natural History, 79th Street at Central Park West, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Burkert, Andreas [Universitäts Sternwarte München, Ludwigs-Maximilian-Universität, D-81679 München (Germany); Ibáñez-Mejía, Juan C., E-mail: mordecai@amnh.org, E-mail: burkert@usm.lmu.de, E-mail: ibanez@ph1.uni-koeln.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany)

    2017-09-20

    A large fraction of the gas in the Galaxy is cold, dense, and molecular. If all this gas collapsed under the influence of gravity and formed stars in a local free-fall time, the star formation rate in the Galaxy would exceed that observed by more than an order of magnitude. Other star-forming galaxies behave similarly. Yet, observations and simulations both suggest that the molecular gas is indeed gravitationally collapsing, albeit hierarchically. Prompt stellar feedback offers a potential solution to the low observed star formation rate if it quickly disrupts star-forming clouds during gravitational collapse. However, this requires that molecular clouds must be short-lived objects, raising the question of how so much gas can be observed in the molecular phase. This can occur only if molecular clouds form as quickly as they are destroyed, maintaining a global equilibrium fraction of dense gas. We therefore examine cloud formation timescales. We first demonstrate that supernova and superbubble sweeping cannot produce dense gas at the rate required to match the cloud destruction rate. On the other hand, Toomre gravitational instability can reach the required production rate. We thus argue that, although dense, star-forming gas may last only around a single global free-fall time; the dense gas in star-forming galaxies can globally exist in a state of dynamic equilibrium between formation by gravitational instability and disruption by stellar feedback. At redshift z ≳ 2, the Toomre instability timescale decreases, resulting in a prediction of higher molecular gas fractions at early times, in agreement with the observations.

  2. Carbon Chemistry in Transitional Clouds from the GOT C+ Survey of CII 158 micron Emission in the Galactic Plane

    Langer, W. D.; Velusamy, T.; Pineda, J.; Willacy, K.; Goldsmith, P. F.

    2011-05-01

    In understanding the lifecycle and chemistry of the interstellar gas, the transition from diffuse atomic to molecular gas clouds is a very important stage. The evolution of carbon from C+ to C0 and CO is a fundamental part of this transition, and C+ along with its carbon chemistry is a key diagnostic. Until now our knowledge of interstellar gas has been limited primarily to the diffuse atomic phase traced by HI and the dense molecular H2 phase traced by CO. However, we have generally been missing an important layer in diffuse and transition clouds, which is denoted by the warm "dark gas'', that is mostly H2 and little HI and CO, and is best traced with C+. Here, we discuss the chemistry in the transition from C+ to C0 and CO in these clouds as understood by a survey of the CII 1.9 THz (158 micron) line from a sparse survey of the inner galaxy over about 40 degrees in longitude as part of the Galactic Observations of Terahertz C+ (GOT C+) program, a Herschel Space Observatory Open Time Key Program to study interstellar clouds by sampling ionized carbon. Using the first results from GOT C+ along 11 LOSs, in a sample of 53 transition clouds, Velusamy, Langer et al. (A&A 521, L18, 2010) detected an excess of CII intensities indicative of a thick H2 layer (a significant warm H2, "dark gas'' component) around the 12CO core. Here we present a much larger, statistically significant sample of a few hundred diffuse and transition clouds traced by CII, along with auxiliary HI and CO data in the inner Galaxy between l=-30° and +30°. Our new and more extensive sample of transition clouds is used to elucidate the time dependent physical and carbon chemical evolution of diffuse to transition clouds, and transition layers. We consider the C+ to CO conversion pathways such as H++ O and C+ + H2 chemistry for CO production to constrain the physical parameters such as the FUV intensity and cosmic ray ionization rate that drive the CO chemistry in the diffuse transition clouds.

  3. On the physical mechanisms governing the cloud lifecycle in the Central Molecular Zone of the Milky Way

    Jeffreson, S. M. R.; Kruijssen, J. M. D.; Krumholz, M. R.; Longmore, S. N.

    2018-05-01

    We apply an analytic theory for environmentally-dependent molecular cloud lifetimes to the Central Molecular Zone of the Milky Way. Within this theory, the cloud lifetime in the Galactic centre is obtained by combining the time-scales for gravitational instability, galactic shear, epicyclic perturbations and cloud-cloud collisions. We find that at galactocentric radii ˜45-120 pc, corresponding to the location of the `100-pc stream', cloud evolution is primarily dominated by gravitational collapse, with median cloud lifetimes between 1.4 and 3.9 Myr. At all other galactocentric radii, galactic shear dominates the cloud lifecycle, and we predict that molecular clouds are dispersed on time-scales between 3 and 9 Myr, without a significant degree of star formation. Along the outer edge of the 100-pc stream, between radii of 100 and 120 pc, the time-scales for epicyclic perturbations and gravitational free-fall are similar. This similarity of time-scales lends support to the hypothesis that, depending on the orbital geometry and timing of the orbital phase, cloud collapse and star formation in the 100-pc stream may be triggered by a tidal compression at pericentre. Based on the derived time-scales, this should happen in approximately 20 per cent of all accretion events onto the 100-pc stream.

  4. Carbon Isotope Chemistry in Molecular Clouds

    Robertson, Amy N.; Willacy, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Few details of carbon isotope chemistry are known, especially the chemical processes that occur in astronomical environments like molecular clouds. Observational evidence shows that the C-12/C-13 abundance ratios vary due to the location of the C-13 atom within the molecular structure. The different abundances are a result of the diverse formation pathways that can occur. Modeling can be used to explore the production pathways of carbon molecules in an effort to understand and explain the chemical evolution of molecular clouds.

  5. Atomic hydrogen in and around the giant molecular cloud near W3 and W4

    Hasegawa, T.; Sato, F.; Fukui, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Cold HI gas appears as self-absorption dips in the 21-cm line profiles in and around the giant molecular cloud near W3 and W4. The cold HI cloud is approximately 150 pc long and extends along the galactic plane. It consists of several fragments, each of which is typically approximately 25 pc in diameter and (1 - 4) X 10 4 solar masses. The [H 2 ]/[HI] ratio is estimated to be 15 - 50. The mass of the entire HI cloud amounts to approximately 10 5 solar masses which is comparable to that observed in CO emission. (Auth.)

  6. Molecular Abundances in the Disk of AN Active Galactic Nucleus

    Harada, N.; Thompson, T. A.; Herbst, E.

    2011-06-01

    There are galactic nuclei that emit high luminosities L˜1044-46 erg S-1 including luminosity produced by X-rays from high mass accretion onto the central black holes. These nuclei are called active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and they are accompanied by molecular disks. Observations show high abundances of CN and HCN in the disks; the molecules are proposed to be probes of X-ray dominated regions (XDRs) created by the X-rays from AGNs. We have constructed a spatially-dependent chemical-abundance model of the molecular disk in NGC 1068, a typical AGN-dominated galaxy. Recently, new observations of CN and HCN have been made at much higher spatial resolution, and there are also detections of polyatomic molecules such as HC3N, c-C3H2, and C2H. We discuss how these observations and our simulations can help us to better understand the physical conditions, the disk structure, and conditions for star formation within molecular disks, which are still uncertain. We also include a comparison with other types of galaxies such as (ultra-) luminous infrared galaxies. Usero et al.Astronomy and Astrophysics. 419 (897), 2004. Initial results were presented at the International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy 2010, RF05 Garcia-Burillo et al. Astronomy and Astrophysics. 519 (2), 2010. Garcia-Burillo et al. Journal of Physics Conference Series, 131 (12031), 2008. Costagliola et al. ArXiv e-print arXiv:1101.2122, 2011. Nakajima et al. Astrophysical Journal Letters 728 (L38), 2008.

  7. Far-infrared, submillimeter, and millimeter spectroscopy of the Galactic center - Radio ARC and +20/+50 kilometer per second clouds

    Genzel, R.; Harris, A.I.; Geis, N.; Stacey, G.J.; Townes, C.H.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented from FIR, sub-mm, and mm spectroscopic observations of the radio arc and the +20/+50 km/s molecular clouds in the Galactic center. The results for the radio arc are analyzed, including the spatial distribution of C II forbidden line emission, the spatial distribution of CO emission, the luminosity and mass of C(+) regions, and the CO 7 - 6 emission and line profiles. Model calculations are used to study molecular gas in the radio arc. In addition, forbidden C II, CO 7 - 6, and C(O-18) mapping is presented for the +20/+50 km/x clouds. Consideration is given to the impact of the results on the interpretation of the physical conditions, excitation, and heating of the gas clouds in the arc and near the center. 65 refs

  8. A UNIVERSAL, LOCAL STAR FORMATION LAW IN GALACTIC CLOUDS, NEARBY GALAXIES, HIGH-REDSHIFT DISKS, AND STARBURSTS

    Krumholz, Mark R.; Dekel, Avishai; McKee, Christopher F.

    2012-01-01

    Star formation laws are rules that relate the rate of star formation in a particular region, either an entire galaxy or some portion of it, to the properties of the gas, or other galactic properties, in that region. While observations of Local Group galaxies show a very simple, local star formation law in which the star formation rate per unit area in each patch of a galaxy scales linearly with the molecular gas surface density in that patch, recent observations of both Milky Way molecular clouds and high-redshift galaxies apparently show a more complicated relationship in which regions of equal molecular gas surface density can form stars at quite different rates. These data have been interpreted as implying either that different star formation laws may apply in different circumstances, that the star formation law is sensitive to large-scale galaxy properties rather than local properties, or that there are high-density thresholds for star formation. Here we collate observations of the relationship between gas and star formation rate from resolved observations of Milky Way molecular clouds, from kpc-scale observations of Local Group galaxies, and from unresolved observations of both disk and starburst galaxies in the local universe and at high redshift. We show that all of these data are in fact consistent with a simple, local, volumetric star formation law. The apparent variations stem from the fact that the observed objects have a wide variety of three-dimensional size scales and degrees of internal clumping, so even at fixed gas column density the regions being observed can have wildly varying volume densities. We provide a simple theoretical framework to remove this projection effect, and we use it to show that all the data, from small solar neighborhood clouds with masses ∼10 3 M ☉ to submillimeter galaxies with masses ∼10 11 M ☉ , fall on a single star formation law in which the star formation rate is simply ∼1% of the molecular gas mass per local

  9. Footpoints of the giant molecular loops in the Galactic center region

    Riquelme, D.; Amo-Baladrón, M. A.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Mauersberger, R.; Martín, S.; Burton, M.; Cunningham, M.; Jones, P. A.; Menten, K. M.; Bronfman, L.; Güsten, R.

    2018-05-01

    Aims: We aim to reveal the morphology, chemical composition, kinematics, and to establish the main processes prevalent in the gas at the footpoints of the giant molecular loops (GMLs) in the Galactic center region. Methods: Using the 22-m Mopra telescope, we mapped the M-3.8+0.9 molecular cloud, placed at the footpoints of a GML, in 3-mm range molecular lines. To derive the molecular hydrogen column density, we also observed the 13CO(2 - 1) line at 1 mm using the 12-m APEX telescope. From the 3 mm observations 12 molecular species were detected, namely HCO+, HCN, H13CN, HNC, SiO, CS, CH3OH, N2H+, SO, HNCO, OCS, and HC3N. Results: Maps revealing the morphology and kinematics of the M-3.8+0.9 molecular cloud in different molecules are presented. We identify six main molecular complexes. We derive fractional abundances in 11 selected positions of the different molecules assuming local thermodynamical equilibrium. Conclusions: Most of the fractional abundances derived for the M-3.8+0.9 molecular cloud are very similar over the whole cloud. However, the fractional abundances of some molecules show significant difference with respect to those measured in the central molecular zone (CMZ). The abundances of the shock tracer SiO are very similar between the GMLs and the CMZ. The methanol emission is the most abundant species in the GMLs. This indicates that the gas is likely affected by moderate 30 km s-1 or even high velocity (50 km s-1) shocks, consistent with the line profile observed toward one of the studied position. The origin of the shocks is likely related to the flow of the gas throughout the GMLs towards the footpoints. OPRA and APEX final data cubes (FITS) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/613/A42

  10. STAR FORMATION IN DISK GALAXIES. I. FORMATION AND EVOLUTION OF GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUDS VIA GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITY AND CLOUD COLLISIONS

    Tasker, Elizabeth J.; Tan, Jonathan C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the formation and evolution of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in a Milky-Way-like disk galaxy with a flat rotation curve. We perform a series of three-dimensional adaptive mesh refinement numerical simulations that follow both the global evolution on scales of ∼20 kpc and resolve down to scales ∼ H ≥ 100 cm -3 and track the evolution of individual clouds as they orbit through the galaxy from their birth to their eventual destruction via merger or via destructive collision with another cloud. After ∼140 Myr a large fraction of the gas in the disk has fragmented into clouds with masses ∼10 6 M sun and a mass spectrum similar to that of Galactic GMCs. The disk settles into a quasi-steady-state in which gravitational scattering of clouds keeps the disk near the threshold of global gravitational instability. The cloud collision time is found to be a small fraction, ∼1/5, of the orbital time, and this is an efficient mechanism to inject turbulence into the clouds. This helps to keep clouds only moderately gravitationally bound, with virial parameters of order unity. Many other observed GMC properties, such as mass surface density, angular momentum, velocity dispersion, and vertical distribution, can be accounted for in this simple model with no stellar feedback.

  11. Chemistry and structure of giant molecular clouds in energetic environments

    Anderson, Crystal Nicole

    2016-09-01

    Throughout the years many studies on Galactic star formation have been conducted. This resulted in the idea that giant molecular clouds (GMCs) are hierarchical in nature with substructures spanning a large range of sizes. The physical processes that determine how molecular clouds fragment, form clumps/cores and then stars depends strongly on both recent radiative and mechanical feed- back from massive stars and, on longer term, from enhanced cooling due to the buildup of metals. Radiative and mechanical energy input from stellar populations can alter subsequent star formation over a large part of a galaxy and hence is relevant to the evolution of galaxies. Much of our knowledge of star formation on galaxy wide scales is based on scaling laws and other parametric descriptions. But to understand the overall evolution of star formation in galaxies we need to watch the feedback processes at work on giant molecular cloud (GMC) scales. By doing this we can begin to answer how strong feedback environments change the properties of the substructure in GMCs. Tests of Galactic star formation theory to other galaxies has been a challenging process due to the lack of resolution with current instruments. Thus, only the nearest galaxies allow us to resolve GMCs and their substructures. The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), is one of the closest low metallicity dwarf galaxies (D˜ 50 kpc) and is close enough that current instruments can resolve the sub- structure of its GMCs to molecular gas tracers (e.g. HCO+, HCN, HNC, CS, C2H, N2H+) detected in the LMC at 1.5-40 pc scales and in NGC 5253 at 40 pc scales. I then compare the molecular gas detections to the Central Molecular Zone in our Galaxy. Dense molecular gas was detected in all of the sources. For the regions in the LMC, molecular lines of CS, N2H+, C 2H, HNC, HCO+ and HCN were all detected in N159W and N113 while only HCN, HCO+, HNC, and C2H were detected in 30Dor-10. Toward NGC 5253 only HCO+, HCN, C2H and CS were detected. I

  12. The impact of galactic disc environment on star-forming clouds

    Nguyen, Ngan K.; Pettitt, Alex R.; Tasker, Elizabeth J.; Okamoto, Takashi

    2018-03-01

    We explore the effect of different galactic disc environments on the properties of star-forming clouds through variations in the background potential in a set of isolated galaxy simulations. Rising, falling, and flat rotation curves expected in halo-dominated, disc-dominated, and Milky Way-like galaxies were considered, with and without an additional two-arm spiral potential. The evolution of each disc displayed notable variations that are attributed to different regimes of stability, determined by shear and gravitational collapse. The properties of a typical cloud were largely unaffected by the changes in rotation curve, but the production of small and large cloud associations was strongly dependent on this environment. This suggests that while differing rotation curves can influence where clouds are initially formed, the average bulk properties are effectively independent of the global environment. The addition of a spiral perturbation made the greatest difference to cloud properties, successfully sweeping the gas into larger, seemingly unbound, extended structures and creating large arm-interarm contrasts.

  13. ALMA Reveals Molecular Cloud N55 in the Large Magellanic Cloud as a Site of Massive Star Formation

    Naslim, N.; Tokuda, K.; Onishi, T.; Kemper, F.; Wong, T.; Morata, O.; Takada, S.; Harada, R.; Kawamura, A.; Saigo, K.; Indebetouw, R.; Madden, S. C.; Hony, S.; Meixner, M.

    2018-02-01

    We present the molecular cloud properties of N55 in the Large Magellanic Cloud using 12CO(1–0) and 13CO(1–0) observations obtained with Atacama Large Millimeter Array. We have done a detailed study of molecular gas properties, to understand how the cloud properties of N55 differ from Galactic clouds. Most CO emission appears clumpy in N55, and molecular cores that have young stellar objects (YSOs) show larger linewidths and masses. The massive clumps are associated with high and intermediate mass YSOs. The clump masses are determined by local thermodynamic equilibrium and virial analysis of the 12CO and 13CO emissions. These mass estimates lead to the conclusion that (a) the clumps are in self-gravitational virial equilibrium, and (b) the 12CO(1–0)-to-H2 conversion factor, {X}{CO}, is 6.5 × 1020 cm‑2 (K km s‑1)‑1. This CO-to-H2 conversion factor for N55 clumps is measured at a spatial scale of ∼0.67 pc, which is about two times higher than the {X}{CO} value of the Orion cloud at a similar spatial scale. The core mass function of N55 clearly show a turnover below 200 {M}ȯ , separating the low-mass end from the high-mass end. The low-mass end of the 12CO mass spectrum is fitted with a power law of index 0.5 ± 0.1, while for 13CO it is fitted with a power law index 0.6 ± 0.2. In the high-mass end, the core mass spectrum is fitted with a power index of 2.0 ± 0.3 for 12CO, and with 2.5 ± 0.4 for 13CO. This power law behavior of the core mass function in N55 is consistent with many Galactic clouds.

  14. Galactic cosmic ray and El Nino Southern Oscillation trends in International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project D2 low-cloud properties

    Marsh, N.; Svensmark, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    [1] The recently reported correlation between clouds and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) implies the existence of a previously unknown process linking solar variability and climate. An analysis of the interannual variability of International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project D2 (ISCCP-D2) low-cloud...... a strong correlation with GCR, which suggests that low-cloud properties observed in these regions are less likely to be contaminated from overlying cloud. The GCR-low cloud correlation cannot easily be explained by internal climate processes, changes in direct solar forcing, or UV-ozone interactions...... properties over the period July 1983 to August 1994 suggests that low clouds are statistically related to two processes, (1) GCR and (2) El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), with GCR explaining a greater percentage of the total variance. Areas where satellites have an unobstructed view of low cloud possess...

  15. Molecular cloud formation by gravitational instabilities in a clumpy interstellar medium

    Elmegreen, B.G.

    1989-01-01

    A dispersion relation is derived for gravitational instabilities in a medium with cloud collisional cooling, using a time-dependent energy equation instead of the adiabatic equation of state. The instability extends to much smaller length scales than in the conventional Jeans analysis, and, in regions temporarily without cloud stirring, it has a large growth rate down to the cloud collision mean free path. These results suggests that gravitational instabilities in a variety of environments, such as galactic density wave shocks, swept-up shells, and extended, quiescent regions of the interstellar medium, can form molecular clouds with masses much less than the conventional Jeans mass, e.g., from 100 to 10 million solar masses for the ambient medium, and they can do this even when the unperturbed velocity dispersion remains high. Similar processes operating inside existing clouds might promote gravitationally driven fragmentation. 29 refs

  16. Planck 2013 results. XIII. Galactic CO emission

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.

    2014-01-01

    Rotational transition lines of CO play a major role in molecular radio astronomy as a mass tracer and in particular in the study of star formation and Galactic structure. Although a wealth of data exists for the Galactic plane and some well-known molecular clouds, there is no available high sensi...

  17. WATER ABSORPTION IN GALACTIC TRANSLUCENT CLOUDS: CONDITIONS AND HISTORY OF THE GAS DERIVED FROM HERSCHEL /HIFI PRISMAS OBSERVATIONS

    Flagey, N.; Goldsmith, P. F. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Lis, D. C.; Monje, R.; Phillips, T. G. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gerin, M.; De Luca, M.; Godard, B. [LERMA, UMR 8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, Ecole Normale Superieure, UPMC and UCP (France); Neufeld, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins Univ. 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sonnentrucker, P. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Goicoechea, J. R., E-mail: nflagey@jpl.nasa.gov [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-01-01

    We present Herschel/HIFI observations of the three ground state transitions of H{sub 2}O (556, 1669, and 1113 GHz) and H{sub 2}{sup 18}O (547, 1655, and 1101 GHz)-as well as the first few excited transitions of H{sub 2}O (987, 752, and 1661 GHz)-toward six high-mass star-forming regions, obtained as part of the PRISMAS (PRobing InterStellar Molecules with Absorption line Studies) Guaranteed Time Key Program. Water vapor associated with the translucent clouds in Galactic arms is detected in absorption along every line of sight in all the ground state transitions. The continuum sources all exhibit broad water features in emission in the excited and ground state transitions. Strong absorption features associated with the source are also observed at all frequencies except 752 GHz. We model the background continuum and line emission to infer the optical depth of each translucent cloud along the lines of sight. We derive the column density of H{sub 2}O or H{sub 2}{sup 18}O for the lower energy level of each transition observed. The total column density of water in translucent clouds is usually about a few 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}. We find that the abundance of water relative to hydrogen nuclei is 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} in agreement with models for oxygen chemistry in which high cosmic ray ionization rates are assumed. Relative to molecular hydrogen, the abundance of water is remarkably constant through the Galactic plane with X(H{sub 2}O) =5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}, which makes water a good traced of H{sub 2} in translucent clouds. Observations of the excited transitions of H{sub 2}O enable us to constrain the abundance of water in excited levels to be at most 15%, implying that the excitation temperature, T {sub ex}, in the ground state transitions is below 10 K. Further analysis of the column densities derived from the two ortho ground state transitions indicates that T {sub ex} {approx_equal} 5 K and that the density n(H{sub 2}) in the translucent clouds

  18. PHYSICAL CONTACT BETWEEN THE +20 km s{sup −1} CLOUD AND THE GALACTIC CIRCUMNUCLEAR DISK

    Takekawa, Shunya; Oka, Tomoharu [School of Fundamental Science and Technology, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Tanaka, Kunihiko, E-mail: shunya@aysheaia.phys.keio.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Institute of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan)

    2017-01-10

    This paper reports the discovery of evidence for physical contact between the Galactic circumnuclear disk (CND) and an exterior giant molecular cloud. The central 10 pc of our Galaxy has been imaged in the HCN J  = 1–0, HCO{sup +} J  = 1–0, CS J  = 2–1, H{sup 13}CN J  = 1–0, SiO J  = 2–1, SO N{sub J}  = 2{sub 3}–1{sub 2}, and HC{sub 3}N J  = 11–10 lines using the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m radio telescope. Based on our examination of the position–velocity maps of several high-density probe lines, we have found that an emission “bridge” may be connecting the +20 km s{sup −1} cloud (M–0.13–0.08) and the negative-longitude extension of the CND. Analyses of line intensity ratios imply that the chemical property of the bridge is located between the +20 km s{sup −1} cloud and the CND. We introduce a new interpretation that a part of the CND may be colliding with the 20 km s{sup −1} cloud and the collision may be responsible for the formation of the bridge. Such collisional events could promote mass accretion onto the CND or into the inner ionized cavity, which may be further tested by proper motion studies.

  19. THE ARIZONA RADIO OBSERVATORY CO MAPPING SURVEY OF GALACTIC MOLECULAR CLOUDS. V. THE SH2-235 CLOUD IN CO J  = 2 − 1, 13CO J  = 2 − 1, AND CO J  = 3 − 2

    Bieging, John H.; Peters, William L.; Patel, Saahil; Toth, L. Viktor; Zahorecz, Sarolta; Marton, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a program to map the Sh2-235 molecular cloud complex in the CO and 13 CO  J  = 2 − 1 transitions using the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope. The map resolution is 38″ (FWHM), with an rms noise of 0.12 K brightness temperature, for a velocity resolution of 0.34 km s −1 . With the same telescope, we also mapped the CO J  = 3 − 2 line at a frequency of 345 GHz, using a 64 beam focal plane array of heterodyne mixers, achieving a typical rms noise of 0.5 K brightness temperature with a velocity resolution of 0.23 km s −1 . The three spectral line data cubes are available for download. Much of the cloud appears to be slightly sub-thermally excited in the J  = 3 level, except for in the vicinity of the warmest and highest column density areas, which are currently forming stars. Using the CO and 13 CO  J  = 2 − 1 lines, we employ an LTE model to derive the gas column density over the entire mapped region. Examining a 125 pc 2  region centered on the most active star formation in the vicinity of Sh2-235, we find that the young stellar object surface density scales as approximately the 1.6-power of the gas column density. The area distribution function of the gas is a steeply declining exponential function of gas column density. Comparison of the morphology of ionized and molecular gas suggests that the cloud is being substantially disrupted by expansion of the H ii regions, which may be triggering current star formation.

  20. THE ARIZONA RADIO OBSERVATORY CO MAPPING SURVEY OF GALACTIC MOLECULAR CLOUDS. V. THE SH2-235 CLOUD IN CO J  = 2 − 1, {sup 13}CO J  = 2 − 1, AND CO J  = 3 − 2

    Bieging, John H.; Peters, William L. [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Patel, Saahil [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405-4105 (United States); Toth, L. Viktor; Zahorecz, Sarolta [Eötvös University, Department of Astronomy, Pázmány Péter sétány 1, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary); Marton, Gábor [Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17 (Hungary)

    2016-09-01

    We present the results of a program to map the Sh2-235 molecular cloud complex in the CO and {sup 13}CO  J  = 2 − 1 transitions using the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope. The map resolution is 38″ (FWHM), with an rms noise of 0.12 K brightness temperature, for a velocity resolution of 0.34 km s{sup −1}. With the same telescope, we also mapped the CO J  = 3 − 2 line at a frequency of 345 GHz, using a 64 beam focal plane array of heterodyne mixers, achieving a typical rms noise of 0.5 K brightness temperature with a velocity resolution of 0.23 km s{sup −1}. The three spectral line data cubes are available for download. Much of the cloud appears to be slightly sub-thermally excited in the J  = 3 level, except for in the vicinity of the warmest and highest column density areas, which are currently forming stars. Using the CO and {sup 13}CO  J  = 2 − 1 lines, we employ an LTE model to derive the gas column density over the entire mapped region. Examining a 125 pc{sup 2} region centered on the most active star formation in the vicinity of Sh2-235, we find that the young stellar object surface density scales as approximately the 1.6-power of the gas column density. The area distribution function of the gas is a steeply declining exponential function of gas column density. Comparison of the morphology of ionized and molecular gas suggests that the cloud is being substantially disrupted by expansion of the H ii regions, which may be triggering current star formation.

  1. The Far Infrared Lines of OH as Molecular Cloud Diagnostics

    Smith, Howard A.

    2004-01-01

    Future IR missions should give some priority to high resolution spectroscopic observations of the set of far-IR transitions of OH. There are 15 far-IR lines arising between the lowest eight rotational levels of OH, and ISO detected nine of them. Furthermore, ISO found the OH lines, sometimes in emission and sometimes in absorption, in a wide variety of galactic and extragalactic objects ranging from AGB stars to molecular clouds to active galactic nuclei and ultra-luminous IR galaxies. The ISO/LWS Fabry-Perot resolved the 119 m doublet line in a few of the strong sources. This set of OH lines provides a uniquely important diagnostic for many reasons: the lines span a wide wavelength range (28.9 m to 163.2 m); the transitions have fast radiative rates; the abundance of the species is relatively high; the IR continuum plays an important role as a pump; the contribution from shocks is relatively minor; and, not least, the powerful centimeter-wave radiation from OH allows comparison with radio and VLBI datasets. The problem is that the large number of sensitive free parameters, and the large optical depths of the strongest lines, make modeling the full set a difficult job. The SWAS montecarlo radiative transfer code has been used to analyze the ISO/LWS spectra of a number of objects with good success, including in both the lines and the FIR continuum; the DUSTY radiative transfer code was used to insure a self-consistent continuum. Other far IR lines including those from H2O, CO, and [OI] are also in the code. The OH lines all show features which future FIR spectrometers should be able to resolve, and which will enable further refinements in the details of each cloud's structure. Some examples are given, including the case of S140, for which independent SWAS data found evidence for bulk flows.

  2. PHYSICS OF THE GALACTIC CENTER CLOUD G2, ON ITS WAY TOWARD THE SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE

    Burkert, A.; Schartmann, M.; Alig, C. [University Observatory Munich, Scheinerstrasse 1, D-81679 Munich (Germany); Gillessen, S.; Genzel, R.; Fritz, T. K.; Eisenhauer, F., E-mail: burkert@usm.lmu.de [Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse 1, 85758 Garching (Germany)

    2012-05-01

    We investigate the origin, structure, and evolution of the small gas cloud G2, which is on an orbit almost straight into the Galactic central supermassive black hole (SMBH). G2 is a sensitive probe of the hot accretion zone of Sgr A*, requiring gas temperatures and densities that agree well with models of captured shock-heated stellar winds. Its mass is equal to the critical mass below which cold clumps would be destroyed quickly by evaporation. Its mass is also constrained by the fact that at apocenter its sound crossing timescale was equal to its infall timescale. Our numerical simulations show that the observed structure and evolution of G2 can be well reproduced if it forms in pressure equilibrium with its surroundings in 1995 at a distance from the SMBH of 7.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm. If the cloud had formed at apocenter in the 'clockwise' stellar disk as expected from its orbit, it would be torn into a very elongated spaghetti-like filament by 2011, which is not observed. This problem can be solved if G2 is the head of a larger, shell-like structure that formed at apocenter. Our numerical simulations show that this scenario explains not only G2's observed kinematical and geometrical properties but also the Br{gamma} observations of a low surface brightness gas tail that trails the cloud. In 2013, while passing the SMBH, G2 will break up into a string of droplets that within the next 30 years will mix with the surrounding hot gas and trigger cycles of active galactic nucleus activity.

  3. Nonequilibrium chemistry in shocked molecular clouds

    Iglesias, E.R.; Silk, J.

    1978-01-01

    The gas phase chemistry is studied behind a 10 km s -1 shock propagating into a dense molecular cloud. Our principal conclusions are that the concentrations of certain molecules (CO, NH 3 , HCN, N 2 ) are unperturbed by the shock; other molecules (H 2 CO, CN, HCO + ) are greatly decreased in abundance; and substantial amounts of H 2 O, HCO, and CH 4 are produced. Approximately 10 6 yr (independent of the density) must elapse after shock passage before chemical equilibrium is attained

  4. Turbulence and star formation in molecular clouds

    Larson, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    Data for many molecular clouds and condensations show that the internal velocity dispersion of each region is well correlated with its size and mass, and these correlations are approximately of power-law form. The dependence of velocity dispersion on region size is similar to the Kolmogoroff law for subsonic turbulence, suggesting that the observed motions are all part of a common hierarchy of interstellar turbulent motions. The regions studied are mostly gravitationally bound and in approximate virial equilibrium. However, they cannot have formed by simple gravitational collapse, and it appears likely that molecular clouds and their substructures have been created at least partly by processes of supersonic hydrodynamics. The hierarchy of subcondensations may terminate with objects so small that their internal motions are no longer supersonic; this predicts a minimum protostellar mass of the order of a few tenths of a solar mass. Massive 'protostellar' clumps always have supersonic internal motions and will therefore develop complex internal structures, probably leading to the formation of many pre-stellar condensation nuclei that grow by accretion to produce the final stellar mass spectrum. Molecular clouds must be transient structures, and are probably dispersed after not much more than 10 7 yr. (author)

  5. MAGMA-SMC: The Molecular Cloud Survey of the SMC

    Muller, Erik; Wong, Tony; Hughes, Annie; Ott, Jürgen; Pineda, Jorge L.; MAGMA Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    We present a brief summary and description of the upcoming 12CO(1-0) Magellanic Mopra Assesment (MAGMA) SMC survey data release. The MAGMA-SMC survey has sampled 100% of the known CO in the SMC (at ˜33″ resolution; 12 pc at D = 60 kpc). Having explored 522 × 103 square parsecs throughout the SMC with 69 5' × 5' fields, to a sensitivity of ˜150 mK, we apply the cloudprops (Rosolowsky & Leroy 2006) cloud-search algorithm optimized for low S/N data, to detect more than 30 CO clouds with virial masses between 103-104 M⊙, mean radii ˜5 pc and 0.3-0.9 km s-1 velocity width. Typical brightness temperatures are ˜1 K T mb . All detected molecular regions are associated with at least one 24 μm compact emission source. Smoothing rarely increases the total detected CO flux, implying the CO emission is typically confined to small spatial scales. As recent dust maps of the SMC imply extended H2 mass, the apparent compact nature of the CO population indicates some departures from the canonical Galactic X CO-factor in the low-metallicity and relatively un-evolved ISM of the SMC.

  6. Young star clusters in nearby molecular clouds

    Getman, K. V.; Kuhn, M. A.; Feigelson, E. D.; Broos, P. S.; Bate, M. R.; Garmire, G. P.

    2018-06-01

    The SFiNCs (Star Formation in Nearby Clouds) project is an X-ray/infrared study of the young stellar populations in 22 star-forming regions with distances ≲ 1 kpc designed to extend our earlier MYStIX (Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-ray) survey of more distant clusters. Our central goal is to give empirical constraints on cluster formation mechanisms. Using parametric mixture models applied homogeneously to the catalogue of SFiNCs young stars, we identify 52 SFiNCs clusters and 19 unclustered stellar structures. The procedure gives cluster properties including location, population, morphology, association with molecular clouds, absorption, age (AgeJX), and infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) slope. Absorption, SED slope, and AgeJX are age indicators. SFiNCs clusters are examined individually, and collectively with MYStIX clusters, to give the following results. (1) SFiNCs is dominated by smaller, younger, and more heavily obscured clusters than MYStIX. (2) SFiNCs cloud-associated clusters have the high ellipticities aligned with their host molecular filaments indicating morphology inherited from their parental clouds. (3) The effect of cluster expansion is evident from the radius-age, radius-absorption, and radius-SED correlations. Core radii increase dramatically from ˜0.08 to ˜0.9 pc over the age range 1-3.5 Myr. Inferred gas removal time-scales are longer than 1 Myr. (4) Rich, spatially distributed stellar populations are present in SFiNCs clouds representing early generations of star formation. An appendix compares the performance of the mixture models and non-parametric minimum spanning tree to identify clusters. This work is a foundation for future SFiNCs/MYStIX studies including disc longevity, age gradients, and dynamical modelling.

  7. Studying the Formation and Development of Molecular Clouds: With the CCAT Heterodyne Array Instrument (CHAI)

    Goldsmith, Paul F.

    2012-01-01

    Surveys of all different types provide basic data using different tracers. Molecular clouds have structure over a very wide range of scales. Thus, "high resolution" surveys and studies of selected nearby clouds add critical information. The combination of large-area and high resolution allows Increased spatial dynamic range, which in turn enables detection of new and perhaps critical morphology (e.g. filaments). Theoretical modeling has made major progress, and suggests that multiple forces are at work. Galactic-scale modeling also progressing - indicates that stellar feedback is required. Models must strive to reproduce observed cloud structure at all scales. Astrochemical observations are not unrelated to questions of cloud evolution and star formation but we are still learning how to use this capability.

  8. Supernova Driving. IV. The star-formation rate of molecular clouds

    Padoan, Paolo; Haugbølle, Troels; Nordlund, Åke

    2017-01-01

    We compute the star-formation rate (SFR) in molecular clouds (MCs) that originate ab initio in a new, higher-resolution simulation of supernova-driven turbulence. Because of the large number of well-resolved clouds with self-consistent boundary and initial conditions, we obtain a large range...... of cloud physical parameters with realistic statistical distributions, which is an unprecedented sample of star-forming regions to test SFR models and to interpret observational surveys. We confirm the dependence of the SFR per free-fall time, SFRff, on the virial parameter, αvir, found in previous...... MCs and in clouds near the Galactic center. Although not explicitly modeled by the theory, the scatter is consistent with the physical assumptions of our revised model and may also result in part from a lack of statistical equilibrium of the turbulence, due to the transient nature of MCs....

  9. Do the Herschel cold clouds in the Galactic halo embody its dark matter?

    Nieuwenhuizen, Theo M; Heusden, Erik F G van; Liska, Matthew T P

    2012-01-01

    Recent Herschel/SPIRE (Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver) maps of the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds (SMC, LMC) exhibit, in each, thousands of clouds. Observed at 250 μm, they must be cold, T ∼ 15 K, hence the name ‘Herschel cold clouds’ (HCCs). From the observed rotational velocity profile of the Galaxy and the assumption of spherical symmetry, its mass density is modeled in a form close to that of an isothermal sphere. If the HCCs constitute a certain fraction of it, their angular size distribution has a specified shape. A fit to the data deduced from the SMC/LMC maps supports this and yields 1.7 pc for their average radius. There are so many HCCs that they will make up all the missing Halo mass density if there is spherical symmetry and their average mass is of the order of 10 000M ⊙ . This compares with the Jeans mass of about 40 000M ⊙ and puts forward that the HCCs are, in fact, Jeans clusters, constituting all the Galactic dark matter and many of its missing baryons, a conclusion deduced before from a different field of the sky (Nieuwenhuizen et al 2011 J. Cosmol. 15 6017-29). A preliminary analysis of the intensities yields that the Jeans clusters themselves may consist of some billion MACHOs of a few dozen Earth masses. With a size of dozens of solar radii, they would mostly not lens, but cause occultation of stars in the LMC, SMC and toward the Galactic center, and may thus have been overlooked in microlensing.

  10. Observational Constraints for Modeling Diffuse Molecular Clouds

    Federman, S. R.

    2014-02-01

    Ground-based and space-borne observations of diffuse molecular clouds suggest a number of areas where further improvements to modeling efforts is warranted. I will highlight those that have the widest applicability. The range in CO fractionation caused by selective isotope photodissociation, in particular the large 12C16O/13C16O ratios observed toward stars in Ophiuchus, is not reproduced well by current models. Our ongoing laboratory measurements of oscillator strengths and predissociation rates for Rydberg transitions in CO isotopologues may help clarify the situtation. The CH+ abundance continues to draw attention. Small scale structure seen toward ζ Per may provide additional constraints on the possible synthesis routes. The connection between results from optical transitions and those from radio and sub-millimeter wave transitions requires further effort. A study of OH+ and OH toward background stars reveals that these species favor different environments. This brings to focus the need to model each cloud along the line of sight separately, and to allow the physical conditions to vary within an individual cloud, in order to gain further insight into the chemistry. Now that an extensive set of data on molecular excitation is available, the models should seek to reproduce these data to place further constraints on the modeling results.

  11. Infrared reflection nebulae in Orion Molecular Cloud

    Pendleton, Y.; Werner, M.W.; Capps, R.; Lester, D.; Hawaii Univ., Honolulu; Texas Univ., Austin)

    1986-01-01

    New observations of Orion Molecular Cloud 2 have been made from 1 to 100 microns using the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility and the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. An extensive program of polarimetry, photometry, and spectrophotometry has shown that the extended emission regions associated with two of the previously known near-infrared sources, IRS 1 and IRS 4, are infrared reflection nebulae, and that the compact sources IRS 1 and IRS 4 are the main luminosity sources in the cloud. The constraints from the far-infrared observations and an analysis of the scattered light from the IRS 1 nebula show that OMC-2/IRS 1 can be characterized by L of 500 solar luminosities or less and T of roughly 1000 K. The near-infrared albedo of the grains in the IRS 1 nebula is greater than 0.08. 27 references

  12. THE GLOBAL EVOLUTION OF GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUDS. II. THE ROLE OF ACCRETION

    Goldbaum, Nathan J.; Krumholz, Mark R.; Matzner, Christopher D.; McKee, Christopher F.

    2011-01-01

    We present virial models for the global evolution of giant molecular clouds (GMCs). Focusing on the presence of an accretion flow and accounting for the amount of mass, momentum, and energy supplied by accretion and star formation feedback, we are able to follow the growth, evolution, and dispersal of individual GMCs. Our model clouds reproduce the scaling relations observed in both galactic and extragalactic clouds. We find that accretion and star formation contribute roughly equal amounts of turbulent kinetic energy over the lifetime of the cloud. Clouds attain virial equilibrium and grow in such a way as to maintain roughly constant surface densities, with typical surface densities of order 50-200 M sun pc -2 , in good agreement with observations of GMCs in the Milky Way and nearby external galaxies. We find that as clouds grow, their velocity dispersion and radius must also increase, implying that the linewidth-size relation constitutes an age sequence. Lastly, we compare our models to observations of GMCs and associated young star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud and find good agreement between our model clouds and the observed relationship between H II regions, young star clusters, and GMCs.

  13. NARROW Na AND K ABSORPTION LINES TOWARD T TAURI STARS: TRACING THE ATOMIC ENVELOPE OF MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    Pascucci, I.; Simon, M. N. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Edwards, S. [Five College Astronomy Department, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063 (United States); Heyer, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-9305 (United States); Rigliaco, E. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Hillenbrand, L. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gorti, U.; Hollenbach, D., E-mail: pascucci@lpl.arizona.edu [SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

    2015-11-20

    We present a detailed analysis of narrow Na i and K i absorption resonance lines toward nearly 40 T Tauri stars in Taurus with the goal of clarifying their origin. The Na i λ5889.95 line is detected toward all but one source, while the weaker K i λ7698.96 line is detected in about two-thirds of the sample. The similarity in their peak centroids and the significant positive correlation between their equivalent widths demonstrate that these transitions trace the same atomic gas. The absorption lines are present toward both disk and diskless young stellar objects, which excludes cold gas within the circumstellar disk as the absorbing material. A comparison of Na i and CO detections and peak centroids demonstrates that the atomic gas and molecular gas are not co-located, the atomic gas being more extended than the molecular gas. The width of the atomic lines corroborates this finding and points to atomic gas about an order of magnitude warmer than the molecular gas. The distribution of Na i radial velocities shows a clear spatial gradient along the length of the Taurus molecular cloud filaments. This suggests that absorption is associated with the Taurus molecular cloud. Assuming that the gradient is due to cloud rotation, the rotation of the atomic gas is consistent with differential galactic rotation, whereas the rotation of the molecular gas, although with the same rotation axis, is retrograde. Our analysis shows that narrow Na i and K i absorption resonance lines are useful tracers of the atomic envelope of molecular clouds. In line with recent findings from giant molecular clouds, our results demonstrate that the velocity fields of the atomic and molecular gas are misaligned. The angular momentum of a molecular cloud is not simply inherited from the rotating Galactic disk from which it formed but may be redistributed by cloud–cloud interactions.

  14. NARROW Na AND K ABSORPTION LINES TOWARD T TAURI STARS: TRACING THE ATOMIC ENVELOPE OF MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    Pascucci, I.; Simon, M. N.; Edwards, S.; Heyer, M.; Rigliaco, E.; Hillenbrand, L.; Gorti, U.; Hollenbach, D.

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of narrow Na i and K i absorption resonance lines toward nearly 40 T Tauri stars in Taurus with the goal of clarifying their origin. The Na i λ5889.95 line is detected toward all but one source, while the weaker K i λ7698.96 line is detected in about two-thirds of the sample. The similarity in their peak centroids and the significant positive correlation between their equivalent widths demonstrate that these transitions trace the same atomic gas. The absorption lines are present toward both disk and diskless young stellar objects, which excludes cold gas within the circumstellar disk as the absorbing material. A comparison of Na i and CO detections and peak centroids demonstrates that the atomic gas and molecular gas are not co-located, the atomic gas being more extended than the molecular gas. The width of the atomic lines corroborates this finding and points to atomic gas about an order of magnitude warmer than the molecular gas. The distribution of Na i radial velocities shows a clear spatial gradient along the length of the Taurus molecular cloud filaments. This suggests that absorption is associated with the Taurus molecular cloud. Assuming that the gradient is due to cloud rotation, the rotation of the atomic gas is consistent with differential galactic rotation, whereas the rotation of the molecular gas, although with the same rotation axis, is retrograde. Our analysis shows that narrow Na i and K i absorption resonance lines are useful tracers of the atomic envelope of molecular clouds. In line with recent findings from giant molecular clouds, our results demonstrate that the velocity fields of the atomic and molecular gas are misaligned. The angular momentum of a molecular cloud is not simply inherited from the rotating Galactic disk from which it formed but may be redistributed by cloud–cloud interactions

  15. FOREST Unbiased Galactic plane Imaging survey with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope (FUGIN). III. Possible evidence for formation of NGC 6618 cluster in M 17 by cloud-cloud collision

    Nishimura, Atsushi; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Umemoto, Tomofumi; Fujita, Shinji; Matsuo, Mitsuhiro; Hattori, Yusuke; Kohno, Mikito; Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Tsuda, Yuya; Kuriki, Mika; Kuno, Nario; Torii, Kazufumi; Tsutsumi, Daichi; Okawa, Kazuki; Sano, Hidetoshi; Tachihara, Kengo; Ohama, Akio; Fukui, Yasuo

    2018-05-01

    We present 12CO (J = 1-0), 13CO (J = 1-0), and C18O (J = 1-0) images of the M 17 giant molecular clouds obtained as part of the FUGIN (FOREST Ultra-wide Galactic Plane Survey In Nobeyama) project. The observations cover the entire area of the M 17 SW and M 17 N clouds at the highest angular resolution (˜19″) to date, which corresponds to ˜0.18 pc at the distance of 2.0 kpc. We find that the region consists of four different velocity components: a very low velocity (VLV) clump, a low velocity component (LVC), a main velocity component (MVC), and a high velocity component (HVC). The LVC and the HVC have cavities. Ultraviolet photons radiated from NGC 6618 cluster penetrate into the N cloud up to ˜5 pc through the cavities and interact with molecular gas. This interaction is correlated with the distribution of young stellar objects in the N cloud. The LVC and the HVC are distributed complementarily after the HVC is displaced by 0.8 pc toward the east-southeast direction, suggesting that collision of the LVC and the HVC created the cavities in both clouds. The collision velocity and timescale are estimated to be 9.9 km s-1 and 1.1 × 105 yr, respectively. The high collision velocity can provide a mass accretion rate of up to 10^{-3} M_{⊙}yr-1, and the high column density (4 × 1023 cm-2) might result in massive cluster formation. The scenario of cloud-cloud collision likely explains well the stellar population and the formation history of the NGC 6618 cluster proposed by Hoffmeister et al. (2008, ApJ, 686, 310).

  16. Submillimeter/millimeter observations of the molecular clouds associated with Tycho's supernova remnant

    Xu Jinlong; Wang Junjie; Miller, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We have carried out CO J = 2 - 1 and CO J = 3 - 2 observations toward Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR) using the KOSMA 3m-telescope. From these observations, we identified three molecular clouds (MCs) around the SNR. The small cloud in the southwest was discovered for the first time. In the north and east, two MCs (Cloud A and Cloud B) adjacent in space display a bow-shaped morphology, and have broad emission lines, which provide some direct evidences of the SNR-MCs interaction. The MCs are revealed at -69∼ -59 km s -1 , coincident with Tycho's SNR. The MCs associated with Tycho's SNR have a mass of ∼ 2.13 x 10 3 M circleddot . Position-velocity diagrams show the two clouds to be adjacent in velocity, which means cloud-cloud collision could occur in this region. The maximum value (0.66 ± 0.10) of the integrated CO line intensity ratio (I COJ=3-2 /I COJ=2-1 ) for the three MCs agrees well with the previous measurement of individual Galactic MCs, implying that the SNR shock drove into the MCs. The two MCs have a line intensity ratio gradient. The distribution of the ratio appears to indicate that the shock propagates from the southwest to the northeast.

  17. Role of orbital dynamics and cloud-cloud collisions in the formation of giant molecular clouds in global spiral structures

    Roberts, W.W. Jr.; Stewart, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    The role of orbit crowding and cloud-cloud collisions in the formation of GMCs and their organization in global spiral structure is investigated. Both N-body simulations of the cloud system and a detailed analysis of individual particle orbits are used to develop a conceptual understanding of how individual clouds participate in the collective density response. Detailed comparisons are made between a representative cloud-particle simulation in which the cloud particles collide inelastically with one another and give birth to and subsequently interact with young star associations and stripped down simulations in which the cloud particles are allowed to follow ballistic orbits in the absence of cloud-cloud collisions or any star formation processes. Orbit crowding is then related to the behavior of individual particle trajectories in the galactic potential field. The conceptual picture of how GMCs are formed in the clumpy ISMs of spiral galaxies is formulated, and the results are compared in detail with those published by other authors. 68 references

  18. Submillimeter Spectroscopy of the R Coronae Australis Molecular Cloud Region

    Dunn, Marina Madeline; Walker, Christopher K.; Pat, Terrance; Sirsi, Siddhartha; Swift, Brandon J.; Peters, William L.

    2018-01-01

    The Interstellar Medium is comprised of large amounts of gas and dust which coalesce to form stars. Observing in the Terahertz regime of the electromagnetic spectrum, approximately 0.3 -300 microns, allows astronomers to study the ISM in unprecedented detail. Using the high spectral resolution imaging system of the SuperCam receiver, a 64-pixel array previously installed on the Submillimeter Telescope on Mt. Graham, AZ, we have begun a 500 square degree survey of the galactic plane. This instrument was designed to do a complete survey of the Milky Way from the ground, with the main focus being to observe two specific transitions of the carbon monoxide molecule, 12CO(3-2) and 13CO(3-2), at 345 GHz. In this work, we present results from these observations for the R Coronae Australis (R Cr A) complex, a region in the southern hemisphere of the sky, using spectroscopic data from a portion of the survey to gain better insight into the life cycle of the ISM. The majority of stars being formed here are similar to the stellar class of the Sun, making it an excellent area of observing interest. Using these results, we attempt to better ascertain the large-scale structure and kinematics inside of the molecular cloud.

  19. The temperature of large dust grains in molecular clouds

    Clark, F. O.; Laureijs, R. J.; Prusti, T.

    1991-01-01

    The temperature of the large dust grains is calculated from three molecular clouds ranging in visual extinction from 2.5 to 8 mag, by comparing maps of either extinction derived from star counts or gas column density derived from molecular observations to I(100). Both techniques show the dust temperature declining into clouds. The two techniques do not agree in absolute scale.

  20. The Search for Primordial Molecular Cloud Matter

    van Kooten, Elishevah M M E

    evolution. Some of the least altered, most primitive meteorites can give us clues to the original make-up of the interstellar molecular cloud from which the Sun and its surrounding planets formed, thus, permitting us to trace Solar System formation from its most early conditions. Using state......Our Solar System today presents a somewhat static picture compared to the turbulent start of its existence. Meteorites are the left-over building blocks of planet formation and allow us to probe the chemical and physical processes that occurred during the first few million years of Solar System...... prebiotic species such as amino acids, determining the formation pathways of this organic matter is of utmost importance to understanding the habitability of Earth as well as exoplanetary systems. Hence, further detailed analyses of organic matter in some of the meteorites with primordial signatures have...

  1. The magnetic field of molecular clouds

    Padoan, P.

    2018-01-01

    The magnetic field of molecular clouds (MCs) plays an important role in the process of star formation: it determines the statistical properties of supersonic turbulence that controls the fragmentation of MCs, controls the angular momentum transport during the protostellar collapse, and affects the stability of circumstellar disks. In this work, we focus on the problem of the determination of the magnetic field strength. We review the idea that the MC turbulence is super-Alfvénic, and we argue that MCs are bound to be born super-Alfvénic. We show that this scenario is supported by results from a recent simulation of supernova-driven turbulence on a scale of 250 pc, where the turbulent cascade is resolved on a wide range of scales, including the interior of MCs.

  2. The emerging role of cloud computing in molecular modelling.

    Ebejer, Jean-Paul; Fulle, Simone; Morris, Garrett M; Finn, Paul W

    2013-07-01

    There is a growing recognition of the importance of cloud computing for large-scale and data-intensive applications. The distinguishing features of cloud computing and their relationship to other distributed computing paradigms are described, as are the strengths and weaknesses of the approach. We review the use made to date of cloud computing for molecular modelling projects and the availability of front ends for molecular modelling applications. Although the use of cloud computing technologies for molecular modelling is still in its infancy, we demonstrate its potential by presenting several case studies. Rapid growth can be expected as more applications become available and costs continue to fall; cloud computing can make a major contribution not just in terms of the availability of on-demand computing power, but could also spur innovation in the development of novel approaches that utilize that capacity in more effective ways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Six Years of Monitoring of the Sgr B2 Molecular Cloud with INTEGRAL

    Terrier, R.; Bélanger, G.; Ponti, G.; Trap, G.; Goldwurm, A.; Decourchelle, A.

    2009-05-01

    Several molecular clouds around the Galactic Centre (GC) emit strong neutral iron fluorescence line at 6.4 keV, as well as hard X-ray emission up to 100 keV. The origin of this emission has long been a matter of controversy: irradiation by low energy cosmic ray electrons or X-rays emitted by a nearby flaring source in the central region. A recent evidence for time variability in the iron line intensity that has been detected in the Sgr B2 cloud favors the reflexion scenario. We present here the data obtained after 6 years of INTEGRAL monitoring of the GC. In particular, we show a lightcurve of Sgr B2 that reveals a decrease in the hard X-ray flux over the last years and discuss its implications. We finally discuss perspectives with Simbol-X.

  4. PRESENT-DAY GALACTIC EVOLUTION: LOW-METALLICITY, WARM, IONIZED GAS INFLOW ASSOCIATED WITH HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUD COMPLEX A

    Barger, K. A.; Haffner, L. M.; Wakker, B. P.; Hill, Alex S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Madsen, G. J. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Duncan, A. K., E-mail: kbarger@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: haffner@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: Alex.Hill@csiro.au, E-mail: wakker@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: greg.madsen@sydney.edu.au [Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, Terre Haute, IN 47803 (United States)

    2012-12-20

    The high-velocity cloud Complex A is a probe of the physical conditions in the Galactic halo. The kinematics, morphology, distance, and metallicity of Complex A indicate that it represents new material that is accreting onto the Galaxy. We present Wisconsin H{alpha} Mapper kinematically resolved observations of Complex A over the velocity range of -250 to -50 km s{sup -1} in the local standard of rest reference frame. These observations include the first full H{alpha} intensity map of Complex A across (l, b) = (124 Degree-Sign , 18 Degree-Sign ) to (171 Degree-Sign , 53 Degree-Sign ) and deep targeted observations in H{alpha}, [S II] {lambda}6716, [N II] {lambda}6584, and [O I] {lambda}6300 toward regions with high H I column densities, background quasars, and stars. The H{alpha} data imply that the masses of neutral and ionized material in the cloud are similar, both being greater than 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }. We find that the Bland-Hawthorn and Maloney model for the intensity of the ionizing radiation near the Milky Way is consistent with the known distance of the high-latitude part of Complex A and an assumed cloud geometry that puts the lower-latitude parts of the cloud at a distance of 7-8 kpc. This compatibility implies a 5% ionizing photon escape fraction from the Galactic disk. We also provide the nitrogen and sulfur upper abundance solutions for a series of temperatures, metallicities, and cloud configurations for purely photoionized gas; these solutions are consistent with the sub-solar abundances found by previous studies, especially for temperatures above 10{sup 4} K or for gas with a high fraction of singly ionized nitrogen and sulfur.

  5. STAR FORMATION IN TURBULENT MOLECULAR CLOUDS WITH COLLIDING FLOW

    Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Dobashi, Kazuhito; Shimoikura, Tomomi

    2015-01-01

    Using self-gravitational hydrodynamical numerical simulations, we investigated the evolution of high-density turbulent molecular clouds swept by a colliding flow. The interaction of shock waves due to turbulence produces networks of thin filamentary clouds with a sub-parsec width. The colliding flow accumulates the filamentary clouds into a sheet cloud and promotes active star formation for initially high-density clouds. Clouds with a colliding flow exhibit a finer filamentary network than clouds without a colliding flow. The probability distribution functions (PDFs) for the density and column density can be fitted by lognormal functions for clouds without colliding flow. When the initial turbulence is weak, the column density PDF has a power-law wing at high column densities. The colliding flow considerably deforms the PDF, such that the PDF exhibits a double peak. The stellar mass distributions reproduced here are consistent with the classical initial mass function with a power-law index of –1.35 when the initial clouds have a high density. The distribution of stellar velocities agrees with the gas velocity distribution, which can be fitted by Gaussian functions for clouds without colliding flow. For clouds with colliding flow, the velocity dispersion of gas tends to be larger than the stellar velocity dispersion. The signatures of colliding flows and turbulence appear in channel maps reconstructed from the simulation data. Clouds without colliding flow exhibit a cloud-scale velocity shear due to the turbulence. In contrast, clouds with colliding flow show a prominent anti-correlated distribution of thin filaments between the different velocity channels, suggesting collisions between the filamentary clouds

  6. STAR FORMATION IN TURBULENT MOLECULAR CLOUDS WITH COLLIDING FLOW

    Matsumoto, Tomoaki [Faculty of Humanity and Environment, Hosei University, Fujimi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8160 (Japan); Dobashi, Kazuhito; Shimoikura, Tomomi, E-mail: matsu@hosei.ac.jp [Department of Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Tokyo Gakugei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8501 (Japan)

    2015-03-10

    Using self-gravitational hydrodynamical numerical simulations, we investigated the evolution of high-density turbulent molecular clouds swept by a colliding flow. The interaction of shock waves due to turbulence produces networks of thin filamentary clouds with a sub-parsec width. The colliding flow accumulates the filamentary clouds into a sheet cloud and promotes active star formation for initially high-density clouds. Clouds with a colliding flow exhibit a finer filamentary network than clouds without a colliding flow. The probability distribution functions (PDFs) for the density and column density can be fitted by lognormal functions for clouds without colliding flow. When the initial turbulence is weak, the column density PDF has a power-law wing at high column densities. The colliding flow considerably deforms the PDF, such that the PDF exhibits a double peak. The stellar mass distributions reproduced here are consistent with the classical initial mass function with a power-law index of –1.35 when the initial clouds have a high density. The distribution of stellar velocities agrees with the gas velocity distribution, which can be fitted by Gaussian functions for clouds without colliding flow. For clouds with colliding flow, the velocity dispersion of gas tends to be larger than the stellar velocity dispersion. The signatures of colliding flows and turbulence appear in channel maps reconstructed from the simulation data. Clouds without colliding flow exhibit a cloud-scale velocity shear due to the turbulence. In contrast, clouds with colliding flow show a prominent anti-correlated distribution of thin filaments between the different velocity channels, suggesting collisions between the filamentary clouds.

  7. Molecular clouds in the Carina arm - the largest objects, associated regions of star formation, and the Carina arm in the Galaxy

    Grabelsky, D.A.; Cohen, R.S.; Bronfman, L.; Thaddeus, P.

    1988-01-01

    The Columbia CO survey of the southern Galactic plane is used to identify giant molecular clouds and cloud complexes in the Vela-Carina-Centaurus section of the Galaxy. Twenty-seven giant molecular clouds between l = 270 and 300 deg are catalogued and their heliocentric distances given. In addition, 16 clouds at l greater than 300 deg beyond the solar circle extend the catalog to include the very distant portion of the Carina arm. The most massive clouds in the catalog trace the Carina arm over 23 kpc in the plane of the Galaxy. The average mass of these objects is 1.4 x 10 to the 6th solar, and their average spacing along the arm is 700 pc. The composite distribution projected onto the Galactic plane of the largest molecular clouds in the Carina arm and of similarly massive clouds in the first and second quadrants strongly suggests that the Carina and Sagittarius arms form a single spiral arm about 40 kpc in length wrapping two-thirds of the way around the Galaxy. Descriptions of each cloud, including identification of associated star-forming regions, are presented in an appendix. 76 references

  8. Pleiades cluster. IV. The visit of a molecular CO cloud

    Breger, M.

    1987-01-01

    The location, size, and mass of the CO molecular cloud seen in the direction of the Pleiades cluster is determined from a study of the polarization and reddening of cluster members and nonmembers. Arguments are presented against both a foreground and background location of the molecular cloud, so that the cloud should be presently situated inside the cluster. Stellar reddening determinations with the appropriate value of R = 3.3 for the region, as well as star counts, lead to a determination of a total extinction of A(V) in the range of 1.0-1.6 mag for the central region of the CO cloud. The extinction determinations for cluster members and background stars indicate a mass of 20 solar masses for the CO cloud visiting the Pleiades cluster. 20 references

  9. Featured Image: A Molecular Cloud Outside Our Galaxy

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-06-01

    What do molecular clouds look like outside of our own galaxy? See for yourself in the images above and below of N55, a molecular cloud located in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). In a recent study led by Naslim Neelamkodan (Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taiwan), a team of scientists explore N55 to determine how its cloud properties differ from clouds within the Milky Way. The image above reveals the distribution of infrared-emitting gas and dust observed in three bands by the Spitzer Space Telescope. Overplotted in cyan are observations from the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment tracing the clumpy, warm molecular gas. Below, new observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) reveal the sub-parsec-scale molecular clumps in greater detail, showing the correlation of massive clumps with Spitzer-identified young stellar objects (crosses). The study presented here indicates that this cloud in the LMC is the site of massive star formation, with properties similar to equivalent clouds in the Milky Way. To learn more about the authors findings, check out the article linked below.CitationNaslim N. et al 2018 ApJ 853 175. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aaa5b0

  10. Properties of molecular clouds containing Herbig-Haro objects

    Loren, R.B.; Evans, N.J. II; Knapp, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    We have studied the physical conditions in the molecular clouds associated with a large number of Herbig-Haro and related objects. Formaldehyde emission at 2 mm was detected in the direction of approx.15 out of 30 objects observed. Using the 2 mm H 2 CO emission and observations of 2 cm H 2 CO absorption, along the the 2.6 mm CO line, we calculate core densities of these molecular clouds. Dense cores are found near but not necessarily coincident with the HH objects. Known embedded infrared sources are more likely to be at the position of greatest density than are the HH objects themselves. The densities determined for the cloud cores are intermediate between the densities of cold, dark clouds such as L134 N and the hot clouds associated with H II regions. Thus, a continuous spectrum of densities is observed in molecular clouds. The temperature and density of the clouds in this study are not well correlated. The cores associated with HH 29 IR and T Tau are very dense (6 x 10 4 and 9 x 10 4 cm -3 ), yet have temperatures typical of cold dark clouds.The strong inverse correlation between X (H 2 CO) and density found by Wootten et al. is also found in the clouds associated with HH objects. This correlation also holds within a single cloud, indicating that the correlation is not due to differences in cloud age and evolution toward gas-phase chemical equilibrium. The decrease of X (H 2 CO) with density is more rapid than predicted by steady state ion-molecule chemistry and may be the result of increased depletion of molecules onto grain surfaces at higher density

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF FAR-ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION ON THE PROPERTIES OF MOLECULAR CLOUDS IN THE 30 DOR REGION OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Pineda, Jorge L.; Klein, Ulrich; Ott, Juergen; Wong, Tony; Muller, Erik; Hughes, Annie

    2009-01-01

    We present a complete 12 CO J = 1 → 0 map of the prominent molecular ridge in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) obtained with the 22 m ATNF Mopra Telescope. The region stretches southward by ∼2 deg. (or 1.7 kpc) from 30 Doradus, the most vigorous star-forming region in the Local Group. The location of this molecular ridge is unique insofar as it allows us to study the properties of molecular gas as a function of the ambient radiation field in a low-metallicity environment. We find that the physical properties of CO-emitting clumps within the molecular ridge do not vary with the strength of the far-ultraviolet radiation field. Since the peak CO brightness of the clumps shows no correlation with the radiation field strength, the observed constant value for CO-to-H 2 conversion factor along the ridge seems to require an increase in the kinetic temperature of the molecular gas that is offset by a decrease in the angular filling factor of the CO emission. We find that the difference between the CO-to-H 2 conversion factor in the molecular ridge and the outer Milky Way is smaller than has been reported by previous studies of the CO emission: applying the same cloud identification and analysis methods to our CO observations of the LMC molecular ridge and CO data from the outer Galaxy survey by Dame et al., we find that the average CO-to-H 2 conversion factor in the molecular ridge is X CO ≅ (3.9 ± 2.5) x 10 20 cm -2 (K km s -1 ) -1 , approximately twice the value that we determine for the outer Galaxy clouds. The mass spectrum and the scaling relations between the properties of the CO clumps in the molecular ridge are similar, but not identical, to those that have been established for Galactic molecular clouds.

  12. THE DETECTION OF A HOT MOLECULAR CORE IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD WITH ALMA

    Shimonishi, Takashi; Onaka, Takashi; Kawamura, Akiko; Aikawa, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    We report the first detection of a hot molecular core outside our Galaxy based on radio observations with ALMA toward a high-mass young stellar object (YSO) in a nearby low metallicity galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Molecular emission lines of CO, C 17 O, HCO + , H 13 CO + , H 2 CO, NO, SiO, H 2 CS, 33 SO, 32 SO 2 , 34 SO 2 , and 33 SO 2 are detected from a compact region (∼0.1 pc) associated with a high-mass YSO, ST11. The temperature of molecular gas is estimated to be higher than 100 K based on rotation diagram analysis of SO 2 and 34 SO 2 lines. The compact source size, warm gas temperature, high density, and rich molecular lines around a high-mass protostar suggest that ST11 is associated with a hot molecular core. We find that the molecular abundances of the LMC hot core are significantly different from those of Galactic hot cores. The abundances of CH 3 OH, H 2 CO, and HNCO are remarkably lower compared to Galactic hot cores by at least 1–3 orders of magnitude. We suggest that these abundances are characterized by the deficiency of molecules whose formation requires the hydrogenation of CO on grain surfaces. In contrast, NO shows a high abundance in ST11 despite the notably low abundance of nitrogen in the LMC. A multitude of SO 2 and its isotopologue line detections in ST11 imply that SO 2 can be a key molecular tracer of hot core chemistry in metal-poor environments. Furthermore, we find molecular outflows around the hot core, which is the second detection of an extragalactic protostellar outflow. In this paper, we discuss the physical and chemical characteristics of a hot molecular core in the low metallicity environment.

  13. SUBMILLIMETER POLARIZATION SPECTRUM IN THE VELA C MOLECULAR CLOUD

    Gandilo, Natalie N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Ade, Peter A. R.; Pascale, Enzo [Cardiff University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Angilè, Francesco E.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dober, Bradley; Galitzki, Nicholas; Klein, Jeffrey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA, 19104 (United States); Ashton, Peter; Fissel, Laura M.; Matthews, Tristan G.; Novak, Giles [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Benton, Steven J. [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Jadwin Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Korotkov, Andrei L. [Department of Physics, Brown University, 182 Hope Street, Providence, RI, 02912 (United States); Li, Zhi-Yun [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Martin, Peter G. [CITA, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Moncelsi, Lorenzo [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA, 91125 (United States); Nakamura, Fumitaka [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Netterfield, Calvin B., E-mail: ngandil1@jhu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3701 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); and others

    2016-06-20

    Polarization maps of the Vela C molecular cloud were obtained at 250, 350, and 500 μ m during the 2012 flight of the balloon-borne telescope BLASTPol. These measurements are used in conjunction with 850 μ m data from Planck to study the submillimeter spectrum of the polarization fraction for this cloud. The spectrum is relatively flat and does not exhibit a pronounced minimum at λ ∼ 350 μ m as suggested by previous measurements of other molecular clouds. The shape of the spectrum does not depend strongly on the radiative environment of the dust, as quantified by the column density or the dust temperature obtained from Herschel data. The polarization ratios observed in Vela C are consistent with a model of a porous clumpy molecular cloud being uniformly heated by the interstellar radiation field.

  14. Do the Herschel cold clouds in the Galactic halo embody its dark matter?

    Nieuwenhuizen, T.M.; van Heusden, E.F.G.; Liska, M.T.P.

    2012-01-01

    Recent Herschel/SPIRE (Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver) maps of the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds (SMC, LMC) exhibit, in each, thousands of clouds. Observed at 250 μm, they must be cold, T ~ 15 K, hence the name 'Herschel cold clouds' (HCCs). From the observed rotational velocity

  15. The parsec-scale relationship between ICO and AV in local molecular clouds

    Lee, Cheoljong; Leroy, Adam K.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Indebetouw, Remy; Sandstrom, Karin; Schruba, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    We measure the parsec-scale relationship between integrated CO intensity (ICO) and visual extinction (AV) in 24 local molecular clouds using maps of CO emission and dust optical depth from Planck. This relationship informs our understanding of CO emission across environments, but clean Milky Way measurements remain scarce. We find uniform ICO for a given AV, with the results bracketed by previous studies of the Pipe and Perseus clouds. Our measured ICO-AV relation broadly agrees with the standard Galactic CO-to-H2 conversion factor, the relation found for the Magellanic clouds at coarser resolution, and numerical simulations by Glover & Clark (2016). This supports the idea that CO emission primarily depends on shielding, which protects molecules from dissociating radiation. Evidence for CO saturation at high AV and a threshold for CO emission at low AV varies remains uncertain due to insufficient resolution and ambiguities in background subtraction. Resolution of order 0.1 pc may be required to measure these features. We use this ICO-AV relation to predict how the CO-to-H2 conversion factor (XCO) would change if the Solar Neighbourhood clouds had different dust-to-gas ratio (metallicity). The calculations highlight the need for improved observations of the CO emission threshold and H I shielding layer depth. They are also sensitive to the shape of the column density distribution. Because local clouds collectively show a self-similar distribution, we predict a shallow metallicity dependence for XCO down to a few tenths of solar metallicity. However, our calculations also imply dramatic variations in cloud-to-cloud XCO at subsolar metallicity.

  16. XMM-NEWTON MEASUREMENT OF THE GALACTIC HALO X-RAY EMISSION USING A COMPACT SHADOWING CLOUD

    Henley, David B.; Shelton, Robin L.; Cumbee, Renata S.; Stancil, Phillip C.

    2015-01-01

    Observations of interstellar clouds that cast shadows in the soft X-ray background can be used to separate the background Galactic halo emission from the local emission due to solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) and/or the Local Bubble (LB). We present an XMM-Newton observation of a shadowing cloud, G225.60–66.40, that is sufficiently compact that the on- and off-shadow spectra can be extracted from a single field of view (unlike previous shadowing observations of the halo with CCD-resolution spectrometers, which consisted of separate on- and off-shadow pointings). We analyzed the spectra using a variety of foreground models: one representing LB emission, and two representing SWCX emission. We found that the resulting halo model parameters (temperature T h ≈ 2 × 10 6 K, emission measure E h ≈4×10 −3  cm −6  pc) were not sensitive to the foreground model used. This is likely due to the relative faintness of the foreground emission in this observation. However, the data do favor the existence of a foreground. The halo parameters derived from this observation are in good agreement with those from previous shadowing observations, and from an XMM-Newton survey of the Galactic halo emission. This supports the conclusion that the latter results are not subject to systematic errors, and can confidently be used to test models of the halo emission

  17. ALMA observations of molecular absorption in four directions toward the Galactic bulge

    Liszt, H.; Gerin, M.

    2018-02-01

    Context. Alma Cycle 3 observations serendipitously showed strong absorption from diffuse molecular gas in the Galactic bulge at -200 km s-1 51(3σ) for the bulge gas toward J1744 and 58 ± 9 and 64 ± 4 for the disk gas toward J1717 and J1744, respectively, all well above the value of 20-25 typical of the central molecular zone. Conclusions: The kinematics and chemistry of the bulge gas observed toward J1744 more nearly resemble that of gas in the Milky Way disk than in the central molecular zone.

  18. THE MAGELLANIC MOPRA ASSESSMENT (MAGMA). I. THE MOLECULAR CLOUD POPULATION OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Wong, Tony; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert A.; Looney, Leslie W.; Seale, Jonathan; Welty, Daniel E.; Hughes, Annie; Maddison, Sarah; Ott, Jürgen; Muller, Erik; Fukui, Yasuo; Kawamura, Akiko; Mizuno, Yoji; Pineda, Jorge L.; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Paradis, Deborah; Henkel, Christian; Klein, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    We present the properties of an extensive sample of molecular clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) mapped at 11 pc resolution in the CO(1-0) line. Targets were chosen based on a limiting CO flux and peak brightness as measured by the NANTEN survey. The observations were conducted with the ATNF Mopra Telescope as part of the Magellanic Mopra Assessment. We identify clouds as regions of connected CO emission and find that the distributions of cloud sizes, fluxes, and masses are sensitive to the choice of decomposition parameters. In all cases, however, the luminosity function of CO clouds is steeper than dN/dL∝L –2 , suggesting that a substantial fraction of mass is in low-mass clouds. A correlation between size and linewidth, while apparent for the largest emission structures, breaks down when those structures are decomposed into smaller structures. We argue that the correlation between virial mass and CO luminosity is the result of comparing two covariant quantities, with the correlation appearing tighter on larger scales where a size-linewidth relation holds. The virial parameter (the ratio of a cloud's kinetic to self-gravitational energy) shows a wide range of values and exhibits no clear trends with the CO luminosity or the likelihood of hosting young stellar object (YSO) candidates, casting further doubt on the assumption of virialization for molecular clouds in the LMC. Higher CO luminosity increases the likelihood of a cloud harboring a YSO candidate, and more luminous YSOs are more likely to be coincident with detectable CO emission, confirming the close link between giant molecular clouds and massive star formation.

  19. Interstellar C2, CH, and CN in translucent molecular clouds

    Dishoeck, van E.F.; Black, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Optical absorption-line techniques have been applied to the study of a number of translucent molecular clouds in which the total column densities are large enough that substantial molecular abundances can be maintained. Results are presented for a survey of absorption lines of interstellar C2, CH,

  20. H2, CO, and dust absorption through cold molecular clouds

    Lacy, John H.; Sneden, Chris; Kim, Hwihyun; Jaffe, Daniel Thomas

    2017-06-01

    We have made observations with IGRINS on the Harlan J. Smith telescope at McDonald Observatory of near-infrared absorption by H2, CO, and dust toward stars behind molecular clouds, primarily the TMC. Prior to these observations, the abundance of H2 in molecular clouds, relative to the commonly used tracer CO, had only been measured toward a few embedded stars, which may be surrounded by atypical gas. The new observations provide a representative sample of these molecules in cold molecular gas. We find N(H2)/Av ~ 0.9e+21, N(CO)/Av ~ 1.6e+17, and H2/CO ~ 6000. The measured H2/CO ratio is consistent with that measured toward embedded stars in various molecular clouds, but half that derived from mm-wave observations of CO emission and star counts or other determinations of Av.

  1. TRACING THE MAGNETIC FIELD MORPHOLOGY OF THE LUPUS I MOLECULAR CLOUD

    Franco, G. A. P. [Departamento de Física—ICEx—UFMG, Caixa Postal 702, 30.123-970 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Alves, F. O., E-mail: franco@fisica.ufmg.br, E-mail: falves@mpe.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstr. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Deep R-band CCD linear polarimetry collected for fields with lines of sight toward the Lupus I molecular cloud is used to investigate the properties of the magnetic field within this molecular cloud. The observed sample contains about 7000 stars, almost 2000 of them with a polarization signal-to-noise ratio larger than 5. These data cover almost the entire main molecular cloud and also sample two diffuse infrared patches in the neighborhood of Lupus I. The large-scale pattern of the plane-of-sky projection of the magnetic field is perpendicular to the main axis of Lupus I, but parallel to the two diffuse infrared patches. A detailed analysis of our polarization data combined with the Herschel/SPIRE 350 μm dust emission map shows that the principal filament of Lupus I is constituted by three main clumps that are acted on by magnetic fields that have different large-scale structural properties. These differences may be the reason for the observed distribution of pre- and protostellar objects along the molecular cloud and the cloud’s apparent evolutionary stage. On the other hand, assuming that the magnetic field is composed of large-scale and turbulent components, we find that the latter is rather similar in all three clumps. The estimated plane-of-sky component of the large-scale magnetic field ranges from about 70 to 200 μG in these clumps. The intensity increases toward the Galactic plane. The mass-to-magnetic flux ratio is much smaller than unity, implying that Lupus I is magnetically supported on large scales.

  2. TRACING THE MAGNETIC FIELD MORPHOLOGY OF THE LUPUS I MOLECULAR CLOUD

    Franco, G. A. P.; Alves, F. O.

    2015-01-01

    Deep R-band CCD linear polarimetry collected for fields with lines of sight toward the Lupus I molecular cloud is used to investigate the properties of the magnetic field within this molecular cloud. The observed sample contains about 7000 stars, almost 2000 of them with a polarization signal-to-noise ratio larger than 5. These data cover almost the entire main molecular cloud and also sample two diffuse infrared patches in the neighborhood of Lupus I. The large-scale pattern of the plane-of-sky projection of the magnetic field is perpendicular to the main axis of Lupus I, but parallel to the two diffuse infrared patches. A detailed analysis of our polarization data combined with the Herschel/SPIRE 350 μm dust emission map shows that the principal filament of Lupus I is constituted by three main clumps that are acted on by magnetic fields that have different large-scale structural properties. These differences may be the reason for the observed distribution of pre- and protostellar objects along the molecular cloud and the cloud’s apparent evolutionary stage. On the other hand, assuming that the magnetic field is composed of large-scale and turbulent components, we find that the latter is rather similar in all three clumps. The estimated plane-of-sky component of the large-scale magnetic field ranges from about 70 to 200 μG in these clumps. The intensity increases toward the Galactic plane. The mass-to-magnetic flux ratio is much smaller than unity, implying that Lupus I is magnetically supported on large scales

  3. A new all-sky map of Galactic high-velocity clouds from the 21-cm HI4PI survey

    Westmeier, Tobias

    2018-02-01

    High-velocity clouds (HVCs) are neutral or ionized gas clouds in the vicinity of the Milky Way that are characterized by high radial velocities inconsistent with participation in the regular rotation of the Galactic disc. Previous attempts to create a homogeneous all-sky H I map of HVCs have been hampered by a combination of poor angular resolution, limited surface brightness sensitivity and suboptimal sampling. Here, a new and improved H I map of Galactic HVCs based on the all-sky HI4PI survey is presented. The new map is fully sampled and provides significantly better angular resolution (16.2 versus 36 arcmin) and column density sensitivity (2.3 versus 3.7 × 1018 cm-2 at the native resolution) than the previously available LAB survey. The new HVC map resolves many of the major HVC complexes in the sky into an intricate network of narrow H I filaments and clumps that were not previously resolved by the LAB survey. The resulting sky coverage fraction of high-velocity H I emission above a column density level of 2 × 1018 cm-2 is approximately 15 per cent, which reduces to about 13 per cent when the Magellanic Clouds and other non-HVC emission are removed. The differential sky coverage fraction as a function of column density obeys a truncated power law with an exponent of -0.93 and a turnover point at about 5 × 1019 cm-2. H I column density and velocity maps of the HVC sky are made publicly available as FITS images for scientific use by the community.

  4. Large scale IRAM 30 m CO-observations in the giant molecular cloud complex W43

    Carlhoff, P.; Nguyen Luong, Q.; Schilke, P.; Motte, F.; Schneider, N.; Beuther, H.; Bontemps, S.; Heitsch, F.; Hill, T.; Kramer, C.; Ossenkopf, V.; Schuller, F.; Simon, R.; Wyrowski, F.

    2013-12-01

    We aim to fully describe the distribution and location of dense molecular clouds in the giant molecular cloud complex W43. It was previously identified as one of the most massive star-forming regions in our Galaxy. To trace the moderately dense molecular clouds in the W43 region, we initiated W43-HERO, a large program using the IRAM 30 m telescope, which covers a wide dynamic range of scales from 0.3 to 140 pc. We obtained on-the-fly-maps in 13CO (2-1) and C18O (2-1) with a high spectral resolution of 0.1 km s-1 and a spatial resolution of 12''. These maps cover an area of ~1.5 square degrees and include the two main clouds of W43 and the lower density gas surrounding them. A comparison to Galactic models and previous distance calculations confirms the location of W43 near the tangential point of the Scutum arm at approximately 6 kpc from the Sun. The resulting intensity cubes of the observed region are separated into subcubes, which are centered on single clouds and then analyzed in detail. The optical depth, excitation temperature, and H2 column density maps are derived out of the 13CO and C18O data. These results are then compared to those derived from Herschel dust maps. The mass of a typical cloud is several 104 M⊙ while the total mass in the dense molecular gas (>102 cm-3) in W43 is found to be ~1.9 × 106 M⊙. Probability distribution functions obtained from column density maps derived from molecular line data and Herschel imaging show a log-normal distribution for low column densities and a power-law tail for high densities. A flatter slope for the molecular line data probability distribution function may imply that those selectively show the gravitationally collapsing gas. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgThe final datacubes (13CO and C18O) for the entire survey are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/560/A24

  5. Molecular Evidence for Species-Level Distinctions in Clouded Leopards

    Buckley-Beason, Valerie A.; Johnson, Warren E.; Nash, Willliam G.; Stanyon, Roscoe; Menninger, Joan C.; Driscoll, Carlos A.; Howard, JoGayle; Bush, Mitch; Page, John E.; Roelke, Melody E.; Stone, Gary; Martelli, Paolo P.; Wen, Ci; Ling, Lin; Duraisingam, Ratna K.

    2006-01-01

    Among the 37 living species of Felidae, the clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) is generally classified as a monotypic genus basal to the Panthera lineage of great cats [1–5]. This secretive, mid-sized (16–23 kg) carnivore, now severely endangered, is traditionally subdivided into four southeast Asian subspecies (Figure 1A) [4–8]. We used molecular genetic methods to re-evaluate subspecies partitions and to quantify patterns of population genetic variation among 109 clouded leopards of known ...

  6. Supernova Driving. IV. The Star-formation Rate of Molecular Clouds

    Padoan, Paolo; Haugbølle, Troels; Nordlund, Åke; Frimann, Søren

    2017-05-01

    We compute the star-formation rate (SFR) in molecular clouds (MCs) that originate ab initio in a new, higher-resolution simulation of supernova-driven turbulence. Because of the large number of well-resolved clouds with self-consistent boundary and initial conditions, we obtain a large range of cloud physical parameters with realistic statistical distributions, which is an unprecedented sample of star-forming regions to test SFR models and to interpret observational surveys. We confirm the dependence of the SFR per free-fall time, SFRff, on the virial parameter, α vir, found in previous simulations, and compare a revised version of our turbulent fragmentation model with the numerical results. The dependences on Mach number, { M }, gas to magnetic pressure ratio, β, and compressive to solenoidal power ratio, χ at fixed α vir are not well constrained, because of random scatter due to time and cloud-to-cloud variations in SFRff. We find that SFRff in MCs can take any value in the range of 0 ≤ SFRff ≲ 0.2, and its probability distribution peaks at a value of SFRff ≈ 0.025, consistent with observations. The values of SFRff and the scatter in the SFRff-α vir relation are consistent with recent measurements in nearby MCs and in clouds near the Galactic center. Although not explicitly modeled by the theory, the scatter is consistent with the physical assumptions of our revised model and may also result in part from a lack of statistical equilibrium of the turbulence, due to the transient nature of MCs.

  7. Waves on the surface of the Orion molecular cloud.

    Berné, Olivier; Marcelino, Núria; Cernicharo, José

    2010-08-19

    Massive stars influence their parental molecular cloud, and it has long been suspected that the development of hydrodynamical instabilities can compress or fragment the cloud. Identifying such instabilities has proved difficult. It has been suggested that elongated structures (such as the 'pillars of creation') and other shapes arise because of instabilities, but alternative explanations are available. One key signature of an instability is a wave-like structure in the gas, which has hitherto not been seen. Here we report the presence of 'waves' at the surface of the Orion molecular cloud near where massive stars are forming. The waves seem to be a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability that arises during the expansion of the nebula as gas heated and ionized by massive stars is blown over pre-existing molecular gas.

  8. Carbon chemistry in dense molecular clouds: Theory and observational constraints

    Blake, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    For the most part, gas phase models of the chemistry of dense molecular clouds predict the abundances of simple species rather well. However, for larger molecules and even for small systems rich in carbon these models often fail spectacularly. Researchers present a brief review of the basic assumptions and results of large scale modeling of the carbon chemistry in dense molecular clouds. Particular attention is to the influence of the gas phase C/O ratio in molecular clouds, and the likely role grains play in maintaining this ratio as clouds evolve from initially diffuse objects to denser cores with associated stellar and planetary formation. Recent spectral line surveys at centimeter and millimeter wavelengths along with selected observations in the submillimeter have now produced an accurate inventory of the gas phase carbon budget in several different types of molecular clouds, though gaps in our knowledge clearly remain. The constraints these observations place on theoretical models of interstellar chemistry can be used to gain insights into why the models fail, and show also which neglected processes must be included in more complete analyses. Looking toward the future, larger molecules are especially difficult to study both experimentally and theoretically in such dense, cold regions, and some new methods are therefore outlined which may ultimately push the detectability of small carbon chains and rings to much heavier species

  9. Gamma-ray observations of the Orion Molecular Clouds with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Antolini, E.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cecchi, C.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; D' Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Enoto, T.; Falletti, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fukui, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hayashi, K.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Lee, S. -H.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Makishima, K.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Mehault, J.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nishino, S.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Roth, M.; Sadrozinski, H. F. -W.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Strong, A. W.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Tibolla, O.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tramacere, A.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Zimmer, S.

    2012-08-08

    We report on the gamma-ray observations of giant molecular clouds Orion A and B with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The gamma-ray emission in the energy band between ~100 MeV and ~100 GeV is predicted to trace the gas mass distribution in the clouds through nuclear interactions between the Galactic cosmic rays (CRs) and interstellar gas. The gamma-ray production cross-section for the nuclear interaction is known to ~10% precision which makes the LAT a powerful tool to measure the gas mass column density distribution of molecular clouds for a known CR intensity. We present here such distributions for Orion A and B, and correlate them with those of the velocity-integrated CO intensity (W CO) at a 1° × 1° pixel level. The correlation is found to be linear over a W CO range of ~10-fold when divided in three regions, suggesting penetration of nuclear CRs to most of the cloud volumes. The W CO-to-mass conversion factor, X CO, is found to be ~2.3 × 1020 cm-2(K km s–1)–1 for the high-longitude part of Orion A (l > 212°), ~1.7 times higher than ~1.3 × 1020 found for the rest of Orion A and B. We interpret the apparent high X CO in the high-longitude region of Orion A in the light of recent works proposing a nonlinear relation between H2 and CO densities in the diffuse molecular gas. W CO decreases faster than the H2 column density in the region making the gas "darker" to W CO.

  10. MOLECULAR CLOUD CHEMISTRY AND THE IMPORTANCE OF DIELECTRONIC RECOMBINATION

    Bryans, P.; Kreckel, H.; Savin, D. W.; Roueff, E.; Wakelam, V.

    2009-01-01

    Dielectronic recombination (DR) of singly charged ions is a reaction pathway that is commonly neglected in chemical models of molecular clouds. In this study we include state-of-the-art DR data for He + , C + , N + , O + , Na + , and Mg + in chemical models used to simulate dense molecular clouds, protostars, and diffuse molecular clouds. We also update the radiative recombination (RR) rate coefficients for H + , He + , C + , N + , O + , Na + , and Mg + to the current state-of-the-art values. The new RR data have little effect on the models. However, the inclusion of DR results in significant differences in gas-grain models of dense, cold molecular clouds for the evolution of a number of surface and gas-phase species. We find differences of a factor of 2 in the abundance for 74 of the 655 species at times of 10 4 -10 6 yr in this model when we include DR. Of these 74 species, 16 have at least a factor of 10 difference in abundance. We find the largest differences for species formed on the surface of dust grains. These differences are due primarily to the addition of C + DR, which increases the neutral C abundance, thereby enhancing the accretion of C onto dust. These results may be important for the warm-up phase of molecular clouds when surface species are desorbed into the gas phase. We also note that no reliable state-of-the-art RR or DR data exist for Si + , P + , S + , Cl + , and Fe + . Modern calculations for these ions are needed to better constrain molecular cloud models.

  11. Filaments in simulations of molecular cloud formation

    Gómez, Gilberto C.; Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Morelia Apartado Postal 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico)

    2014-08-20

    We report on the filaments that develop self-consistently in a new numerical simulation of cloud formation by colliding flows. As in previous studies, the forming cloud begins to undergo gravitational collapse because it rapidly acquires a mass much larger than the average Jeans mass. Thus, the collapse soon becomes nearly pressureless, proceeding along its shortest dimension first. This naturally produces filaments in the cloud and clumps within the filaments. The filaments are not in equilibrium at any time, but instead are long-lived flow features through which the gas flows from the cloud to the clumps. The filaments are long-lived because they accrete from their environment while simultaneously accreting onto the clumps within them; they are essentially the locus where the flow changes from accreting in two dimensions to accreting in one dimension. Moreover, the clumps also exhibit a hierarchical nature: the gas in a filament flows onto a main, central clump but other, smaller-scale clumps form along the infalling gas. Correspondingly, the velocity along the filament exhibits a hierarchy of jumps at the locations of the clumps. Two prominent filaments in the simulation have lengths ∼15 pc and masses ∼600 M {sub ☉} above density n ∼ 10{sup 3} cm{sup –3} (∼2 × 10{sup 3} M {sub ☉} at n > 50 cm{sup –3}). The density profile exhibits a central flattened core of size ∼0.3 pc and an envelope that decays as r {sup –2.5} in reasonable agreement with observations. Accretion onto the filament reaches a maximum linear density rate of ∼30 M {sub ☉} Myr{sup –1} pc{sup –1}.

  12. An intergalactic absorbing cloud in the neighbourhood of the North galactic pole

    Murawski, W.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to study the possibility that the lack of galaxies in the area between the Virgo and Coma clusters, to which OKROY (1965) drew attention, is due to an intergalactic cloud. Using Zwicky's Catalogue of Galaxies and Clusters of Galaxies, it is shown that there is a shortage of galaxies in the suspected area for all magnitude classes. The absorption of the cloud is calculated to be 0.45+-05 mag. A quantity called the areal colour index (ACI) is introduced and defined as ACI=a sub(b) b sub(b)/(a sub(r) b sub(r)) where a and b are the lengths of the major and minor axes of a galaxy, respectively, and the subscripts b and r respectively refer to measurements on the blue and red prints of the Palomar survey, given in the Uppsala Catalogue of Galaxies. The average ACI is found to be 1.25 for the control area, and 1.04 for the area covered by Okroy's alleged obscuring cloud. On the basis of this colour data an approximate map showing the shape of the cloud is given. The effect of the alleged cloud on the shape frequency of types of galaxies is discussed. It is found that the cloud significantly increases the ratio of elliptical and dwarf galaxies to SO's. The determination of the distance to the cloud and its density is discussed. (author)

  13. On the star-forming ability of Molecular Clouds

    Anathpindika, S.; Burkert, A.; Kuiper, R.

    2018-02-01

    The star-forming ability of a molecular cloud depends on the fraction of gas it can cycle into the dense-phase. Consequently, one of the crucial questions in reconciling star formation in clouds is to understand the factors that control this process. While it is widely accepted that the variation in ambient conditions can alter significantly the ability of a cloud to spawn stars, the observed variation in the star-formation rate in nearby clouds that experience similar ambient conditions, presents an interesting question. In this work, we attempted to reconcile this variation within the paradigm of colliding flows. To this end we develop self-gravitating, hydrodynamic realizations of identical flows, but allowed to collide off-centre. Typical observational diagnostics such as the gas-velocity dispersion, the fraction of dense-gas, the column density distribution (N-PDF), the distribution of gas mass as a function of K-band extinction and the strength of compressional/solenoidal modes in the post-collision cloud were deduced for different choices of the impact parameter of collision. We find that a strongly sheared cloud is terribly inefficient in cycling gas into the dense phase and that such a cloud can possibly reconcile the sluggish nature of star formation reported for some clouds. Within the paradigm of cloud formation via colliding flows this is possible in case of flows colliding with a relatively large impact parameter. We conclude that compressional modes - though probably essential - are insufficient to ensure a relatively higher star-formation efficiency in a cloud.

  14. Dense Molecular Gas Around Protostars and in Galactic Nuclei European Workshop on Astronomical Molecules 2004

    Baan, W A; Langevelde, H J

    2004-01-01

    The phenomena observed in young stellar objects (YSO), circumstellar regions and extra-galactic nuclei show some similarity in their morphology, dynamical and physical processes, though they may differ in scale and energy. The European Workshop on Astronomical Molecules 2004 gave astronomers a unique opportunity to discuss the links among the observational results and to generate common interpretations of the phenomena in stars and galaxies, using the available diagnostic tools such as masers and dense molecular gas. Their theoretical understanding involves physics, numerical simulations and chemistry. Including a dozen introductory reviews, topics of papers in this book also cover: maser and dense gas diagnostics and related phenomena, evolution of circumstellar regions around protostars, evolution of circumnuclear regions of active galaxies, diagnostics of the circumnuclear gas in stars and galactic nuclei. This book summarizes our present knowledge in these topics, highlights major problems to be addressed...

  15. Atomic Oxygen Abundance in Molecular Clouds: Absorption Toward Sagittarius B2

    Lis, D. C.; Keene, Jocelyn; Phillips, T. G.; Schilke, P.; Werner, M. W.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2001-01-01

    We have obtained high-resolution (approximately 35 km/s) spectra toward the molecular cloud Sgr B2 at 63 micrometers, the wavelength of the ground-state fine-structure line of atomic oxygen (O(I)), using the ISO-LWS instrument. Four separate velocity components are seen in the deconvolved spectrum, in absorption against the dust continuum emission of Sgr B2. Three of these components, corresponding to foreground clouds, are used to study the O(I) content of the cool molecular gas along the line of sight. In principle, the atomic oxygen that produces a particular velocity component could exist in any, or all, of three physically distinct regions: inside a dense molecular cloud, in the UV illuminated surface layer (PDR) of a cloud, and in an atomic (H(I)) gas halo. For each of the three foreground clouds, we estimate, and subtract from the observed O(I) column density, the oxygen content of the H(I) halo gas, by scaling from a published high-resolution 21 cm spectrum. We find that the remaining O(I) column density is correlated with the observed (13)CO column density. From the slope of this correlation, an average [O(I)]/[(13)CO] ratio of 270 +/- 120 (3-sigma) is derived, which corresponds to [O(I)]/[(13)CO] = 9 for a CO to (13)CO abundance ratio of 30. Assuming a (13)CO abundance of 1x10(exp -6) with respect to H nuclei, we derive an atomic oxygen abundance of 2.7x10(exp -4) in the dense gas phase, corresponding to a 15% oxygen depletion compared to the diffuse ISM in our Galactic neighborhood. The presence of multiple, spectrally resolved velocity components in the Sgr B2 absorption spectrum allows, for the first time, a direct determination of the PDR contribution to the O(I) column density. The PDR regions should contain O(I) but not (13)CO, and would thus be expected to produce an offset in the O(I)-(13)CO correlation. Our data do not show such an offset, suggesting that within our beam O(I) is spatially coexistent with the molecular gas, as traced by (13)CO

  16. Model for collimated outflows in molecular clouds and the case of HH 7-11

    Silvestro, G; Ferrari, A; Rosner, R; Trussoni, E; Tsinganos, K

    1987-01-15

    Modelling is carried out for collimated outflows of high-velocity gas in molecular clouds, which is often observed to be associated with linear chains of optical emission knots. A wind-flow model is proposed to account for the phenomenon, based on the structural similarities between the outflows and jets from active galactic nuclei and quasars. The chain of Herbig-Haro objects HH7-11 is used to illustrate the proposal. The model is based on flows in a channel of variable cross-sectional area due to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities between the flow and the ambient medium. Solutions of the Mach number equation for such a channel are presented, which possess multiple critical points and shocks identified with observed optical knots. (U.K.).

  17. THE MAGELLANIC QUASARS SURVEY. III. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF 758 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI BEHIND THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    Kozłowski, Szymon; Udalski, Andrzej; Szymański, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Ulaczyk, K.; Poleski, R.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Skowron, J.; Onken, Christopher A.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Meixner, M.; Bonanos, A. Z.

    2013-01-01

    The Magellanic Quasars Survey (MQS) has now increased the number of quasars known behind the Magellanic Clouds by almost an order of magnitude. All survey fields in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and 70% of those in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) have been observed. The targets were selected from the third phase of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE-III) based on their optical variability, mid-IR, and/or X-ray properties. We spectroscopically confirmed 758 quasars (565 in the LMC and 193 in the SMC) behind the clouds, of which 94% (527 in the LMC and 186 in the SMC) are newly identified. The MQS quasars have long-term (12 yr and growing for OGLE), high-cadence light curves, enabling unprecedented variability studies of quasars. The MQS quasars also provide a dense reference grid for measuring both the internal and bulk proper motions of the clouds, and 50 quasars are bright enough (I ∼< 18 mag) for absorption studies of the interstellar/intergalactic medium of the clouds

  18. Molecular mobility on interstellar ices. Computational nanoscience on the galactic scale

    Karssemeijer, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding nature on the largest scales can sometimes require minute details of its very smallest processes. This is certainly true in the field of astrochemistry, the study of the formation and evolution of molecules in outer space; in particular in molecular clouds. Here, in the birthplace of

  19. Correlation analysis of the Taurus molecular cloud complex

    Kleiner, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    Autocorrelation and power spectrum methods were applied to the analysis of the density and velocity structure of the Taurus Complex and Heiles Cloud 2 as traced out by 13 CO J = 1 → 0 molecular line observations obtained with the 14m antenna of the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory. Statistically significant correlations in the spacing of density fluctuations within the Taurus Complex and Heiles 2 were uncovered. The length scales of the observed correlations correspond in magnitude to the Jeans wavelengths characterizing gravitational instabilities with (i) interstellar atomic hydrogen gas for the case of the Taurus complex, and (ii) molecular hydrogen for Heiles 2. The observed correlations may be the signatures of past and current gravitational instabilities frozen into the structure of the molecular gas. The appendices provide a comprehensive description of the analytical and numerical methods developed for the correlation analysis of molecular clouds

  20. The thermodynamics of molecular cloud fragmentation : Star formation under non-Milky Way conditions

    Hocuk, S.; Spaans, M.

    Context. Properties of candidate stars, forming out of molecular clouds, depend on the ambient conditions of the parent cloud. We present a series of 2D and 3D simulations of fragmentation of molecular clouds in starburst regions, as well as of clouds under conditions in dwarf galaxies, leading to

  1. MOLECULAR CLOUD EVOLUTION. III. ACCRETION VERSUS STELLAR FEEDBACK

    Vazquez-Semadeni, Enrique; ColIn, Pedro; Gomez, Gilberto C.; Ballesteros-Paredes, Javier; Watson, Alan W.

    2010-01-01

    We numerically investigate the effect of feedback from the ionization heating from massive stars on the evolution of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) and their star formation efficiency (SFE), which we treat as an instantaneous, time-dependent quantity. We follow the GMCs' evolution from their formation to advanced star-forming stages. After an initial period of contraction, the collapsing clouds begin forming stars, whose feedback evaporates part of the clouds' mass, opposing the continuing accretion from the infalling gas. Our results are as follows: (1) in the presence of feedback, the clouds attain levels of the SFE that are consistent at all times with observational determinations for regions of comparable star formation rates. (2) However, the dense gas mass is larger in general in the presence of feedback, while the total mass (dense gas + stars) is nearly insensitive to the presence of feedback, suggesting that it is determined mainly by the accretion, while the feedback inhibits mainly the conversion of dense gas to stars, because it acts directly to reheat and disperse the gas that is directly on its way to forming stars. (3) The factor by which the SFE is reduced upon the inclusion of feedback is a decreasing function of the cloud's mass, for clouds of size ∼10 pc. This naturally explains the larger observed SFEs of massive-star-forming regions. (4) The clouds may attain a pseudo-virialized state, with a value of the virial mass very similar to the actual cloud mass. However, this state differs from true virialization in that the clouds, rather than being equilibrium entities, are the centers of a larger-scale collapse, in which accretion replenishes the mass consumed by star formation. (5) The higher-density regions within the clouds are in a similar situation, accreting gas infalling from the less-dense, more extended regions of the clouds. (6) The density probability density functions of the regions containing the clouds in general exhibit a shape

  2. Linking the formation of molecular clouds and high-mass stars: a multi-tracer and multi-scale study

    Nguyen-Luong, Quang

    2012-01-01

    Star formation is a complex process involving many physical processes acting from the very large scales of the galaxy to the very small scales of individual stars. Among the highly debated topics, the gas to star-formation-rate (SFR) relation is an interesting topic for both the galactic and extragalactic communities. Although it is studied extensively for external galaxies, how this relation behaves with respect to the molecular clouds of the Milky Way is still unclear. The detailed mechanisms of the formation of molecular clouds and stars, especially high-mass stars, are still not clear. To tackle these two questions, we investigate the molecular cloud formation and the star formation activities in the W43 molecular cloud complex and the G035.39-00.33 filament. The first goal is to infer the connections of the gas-SFR relations of these two objects to those of other galactic molecular clouds and to extragalactic ones. The second goal is to look for indications that the converging flows theory has formed the W43 molecular cloud since it is the first theory to explain star formation self-consistently, from the onset of molecular clouds to the formation of seeds of (high-mass) stars. We use a large dataset of continuum tracers at 3.6--870 μm extracted from Galaxy-wide surveys such as HOBYS, EPOS, Hi-GAL, ATLASGAL, GLIMPSE, and MIPSGAL to trace the cloud structure, mass and star formation activities of both the W43 molecular cloud complex and the G035.39-00.33 filament. To explore the detailed formation mechanisms of the molecular cloud in W43 from low-density to very high-density gas, we take advantage of the existing H_I, "1"3CO 1-0 molecular line data from the VGPS and GRS surveys in combination with the new dedicated molecular line surveys with the IRAM 30 m. We characterise the W43 molecular complex as being a massive complex (M(total) ∼ 7.1 *10"6 M. over spatial extent of ∼ 140 pc), which has a high concentration of dense clumps (M(clumps) ∼ 8.4*10"5 M

  3. Gravity, turbulence and the scaling ``laws'' in molecular clouds

    Ballesteros-Paredes, Javier

    The so-called Larson (1981) scaling laws found empirically in molecular clouds have been generally interpreted as evidence that the clouds are turbulent and fractal. In the present contribution we discussed how recent observations and models of cloud formation suggest that: (a) these relations are the result of strong observational biases due to the cloud definition itself: since the filling factor of the dense structures is small, by thresholding the column density the computed mean density between clouds is nearly constant, and nearly the same as the threshold (Ballesteros-Paredes et al. 2012). (b) When accounting for column density variations, the velocity dispersion-size relation does not appears anymore. Instead, dense cores populate the upper-left corner of the δ v-R diagram (Ballesteros-Paredes et al. 2011a). (c) Instead of a δ v-R relation, a more appropriate relation seems to be δ v 2 / R = 2 GMΣ, which suggest that clouds are in collapse, rather than supported by turbulence (Ballesteros-Paredes et al. 2011a). (d) These results, along with the shapes of the star formation histories (Hartmann, Ballesteros-Paredes & Heitsch 2012), line profiles of collapsing clouds in numerical simulations (Heitsch, Ballesteros-Paredes & Hartmann 2009), core-to-core velocity dispersions (Heitsch, Ballesteros-Paredes & Hartmann 2009), time-evolution of the column density PDFs (Ballesteros-Paredes et al. 2011b), etc., strongly suggest that the actual source of the non-thermal motions is gravitational collapse of the clouds, so that the turbulent, chaotic component of the motions is only a by-product of the collapse, with no significant ``support" role for the clouds. This result calls into question if the scale-free nature of the motions has a turbulent, origin (Ballesteros-Paredes et al. 2011a; Ballesteros-Paredes et al. 2011b, Ballesteros-Paredes et al. 2012).

  4. Statistical characteristics of turbulence in giant molecular clouds. Part 1

    Ogul'chansky, Ya.Yu.

    1989-01-01

    Using the invariant group of transformations of equations for characteristic functional of turbulence in compressible medium the spectral characteristics in inertial range are obtained. The influence of magnetic field on the turbulent spectra is evaluated. The application of the results obtained to supersonical turbulence in giant molecular clouds is discussed. 42 refs

  5. Primordial Molecular Cloud Material in Metal-Rich Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Taylor, G. J.

    2016-03-01

    The menagerie of objects that make up our Solar System reflects the composition of the huge molecular cloud in which the Sun formed, a late addition of short-lived isotopes from an exploding supernova or stellar winds from a neighboring massive star, heating and/or alteration by water in growing planetesimals that modified and segregated the primordial components, and mixing throughout the Solar System. Outer Solar System objects, such as comets, have always been cold, hence minimizing the changes experienced by more processed objects. They are thought to preserve information about the molecular cloud. Elishevah Van Kooten (Natural History Museum of Denmark and the University of Copenhagen) and co-authors in Denmark and at the University of Hawai'i, measured the isotopic compositions of magnesium and chromium in metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites. They found that the meteorites preserve an isotopic signature of primordial molecular cloud materials, providing a potentially detailed record of the molecular cloud's composition and of materials that formed in the outer Solar System.

  6. Low density molecular cloud in the vicinity of the Pleiades

    Federman, S.R.; Wilson, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    The central region of a small, low density molecular cloud, which lies to the south of the Pleiades cluster, has been studied through the use of molecular line observations. Column densities for CH, OH, 12 CO, and 13 CO are derived from the radio data. The CH and OH data yield a visual extinction through the center of the cloud of about 3 mag. The ratio of the antenna temperatures for the OH main lines is consistent with optically thin emission; therefore, the OH results are a good indication of the total extinction through the optically thin emission; therefore, the OH results are a good indication of the total extinction through the cloud. The analysis of the carbon monoxide data produces a relatively high kinetic temperature of at least 20 K, a low total gas density of approx.300-500 cm -3 , and a column density of approx.4 x 10 17 cm -2 for 12 CO. Thus this small molecular cloud is not typical of the molecular material generally studied in Taurus

  7. An evolutionary model for collapsing molecular clouds and their star formation activity. II. Mass dependence of the star formation rate

    Zamora-Avilés, Manuel; Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 3-72, Morelia, Michoacán 58089 (Mexico)

    2014-10-01

    We discuss the evolution and dependence on cloud mass of the star formation rate (SFR) and efficiency (SFE) of star-forming molecular clouds (MCs) within the scenario that clouds are undergoing global collapse and that the SFR is controlled by ionization feedback. We find that low-mass clouds (M {sub max} ≲ 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}) spend most of their evolution at low SFRs, but end their lives with a mini-burst, reaching a peak SFR ∼10{sup 4} M {sub ☉} Myr{sup –1}, although their time-averaged SFR is only (SFR) ∼ 10{sup 2} M {sub ☉} Myr{sup –1}. The corresponding efficiencies are SFE{sub final} ≲ 60% and (SFE) ≲ 1%. For more massive clouds (M {sub max} ≳ 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}), the SFR first increases and then reaches a plateau because the clouds are influenced by stellar feedback since earlier in their evolution. As a function of cloud mass, (SFR) and (SFE) are well represented by the fits (SFR) ≈ 100(1 + M {sub max}/1.4 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}){sup 1.68} M {sub ☉} Myr{sup –1} and (SFE) ≈ 0.03(M {sub max}/2.5 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}){sup 0.33}, respectively. Moreover, the SFR of our model clouds follows closely the SFR-dense gas mass relation recently found by Lada et al. during the epoch when their instantaneous SFEs are comparable to those of the clouds considered by those authors. Collectively, a Monte Carlo integration of the model-predicted SFR(M) over a Galactic giant molecular cloud mass spectrum yields values for the total Galactic SFR that are within half an order of magnitude of the relation obtained by Gao and Solomon. Our results support the scenario that star-forming MCs may be in global gravitational collapse and that the low observed values of the SFR and SFE are a result of the interruption of each SF episode, caused primarily by the ionizing feedback from massive stars.

  8. The PdBI arcsecond whirlpool survey (PAWS): Environmental dependence of giant molecular cloud properties in M51

    Colombo, Dario; Hughes, Annie; Schinnerer, Eva; Meidt, Sharon E.; Leroy, Adam K.; Pety, Jérôme; Dumas, Gaëlle; Schuster, Karl F.; Dobbs, Clare L.; García-Burillo, Santiago; Thompson, Todd A.; Kramer, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the PdBI Arcsecond Whirlpool Survey (PAWS), we have generated the largest extragalactic giant molecular cloud (GMC) catalog to date, containing 1507 individual objects. GMCs in the inner M51 disk account for only 54% of the total 12 CO(1-0) luminosity of the survey, but on average they exhibit physical properties similar to Galactic GMCs. We do not find a strong correlation between the GMC size and velocity dispersion, and a simple virial analysis suggests that ∼30% of GMCs in M51 are unbound. We have analyzed the GMC properties within seven dynamically motivated galactic environments, finding that GMCs in the spiral arms and in the central region are brighter and have higher velocity dispersions than inter-arm clouds. Globally, the GMC mass distribution does not follow a simple power-law shape. Instead, we find that the shape of the mass distribution varies with galactic environment: the distribution is steeper in inter-arm region than in the spiral arms, and exhibits a sharp truncation at high masses for the nuclear bar region. We propose that the observed environmental variations in the GMC properties and mass distributions are a consequence of the combined action of large-scale dynamical processes and feedback from high-mass star formation. We describe some challenges of using existing GMC identification techniques for decomposing the 12 CO(1-0) emission in molecule-rich environments, such as M51's inner disk.

  9. Molecular Cloud Structures and Massive Star Formation in N159

    Nayak, O.; Meixner, M.; Fukui, Y.; Tachihara, K.; Onishi, T.; Saigo, K.; Tokuda, K.; Harada, R.

    2018-02-01

    The N159 star-forming region is one of the most massive giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We show the 12CO, 13CO, CS molecular gas lines observed with ALMA in N159 west (N159W) and N159 east (N159E). We relate the structure of the gas clumps to the properties of 24 massive young stellar objects (YSOs) that include 10 newly identified YSOs based on our search. We use dendrogram analysis to identify properties of the molecular clumps, such as flux, mass, linewidth, size, and virial parameter. We relate the YSO properties to the molecular gas properties. We find that the CS gas clumps have a steeper size–linewidth relation than the 12CO or 13CO gas clumps. This larger slope could potentially occur if the CS gas is tracing shocks. The virial parameters of the 13CO gas clumps in N159W and N159E are low (<1). The threshold for massive star formation in N159W is 501 M ⊙ pc‑2, and the threshold for massive star formation in N159E is 794 M ⊙ pc‑2. We find that 13CO is more photodissociated in N159E than N159W. The most massive YSO in N159E has cleared out a molecular gas hole in its vicinity. All the massive YSO candidates in N159E have a more evolved spectral energy distribution type in comparison to the YSO candidates in N159W. These differences lead us to conclude that the giant molecular cloud complex in N159E is more evolved than the giant molecular cloud complex in N159W.

  10. CO line ratios in molecular clouds: the impact of environment

    Peñaloza, Camilo H.; Clark, Paul C.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2018-04-01

    Line emission is strongly dependent on the local environmental conditions in which the emitting tracers reside. In this work, we focus on modelling the CO emission from simulated giant molecular clouds (GMCs), and study the variations in the resulting line ratios arising from the emission from the J = 1-0, J = 2-1, and J = 3-2 transitions. We perform a set of smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations with time-dependent chemistry, in which environmental conditions - including total cloud mass, density, size, velocity dispersion, metallicity, interstellar radiation field (ISRF), and the cosmic ray ionization rate (CRIR) - were systematically varied. The simulations were then post-processed using radiative transfer to produce synthetic emission maps in the three transitions quoted above. We find that the cloud-averaged values of the line ratios can vary by up to ±0.3 dex, triggered by changes in the environmental conditions. Changes in the ISRF and/or in the CRIR have the largest impact on line ratios since they directly affect the abundance, temperature, and distribution of CO-rich gas within the clouds. We show that the standard methods used to convert CO emission to H2 column density can underestimate the total H2 molecular gas in GMCs by factors of 2 or 3, depending on the environmental conditions in the clouds.

  11. High rate of destruction of molecular clouds by hot stars

    Heydari-Malayeri, M.; Lortet, M.C.; Deharveng, L.

    1980-01-01

    Tenorio-Tagle (1979) first proposed the idea of a third dynamical phase, the champagne phase, following the formation and expansion phases of an HII region. The champagne phase begins when the high pressure gas of an HII region formed inside a molecular cloud reaches the edge of the cloud and bursts into the lower pressure, low density, intercloud medium. One important implication of the model is the prediction of an enormous enhancement of the rate of erosion of the molecular cloud by the ionising radiation of hot stars, which begins as soon as the process of the decrease of the gas density between the star and the cloud is started. The proportion of hydrogen molecules eroded by ionising photons may reach about 10 -2 . The mass eroded may exceed the mass of the ionised gas in the case where the ionisation front reaching the edge of the cloud is of D-type. Additional mechanisms (for instance stellar winds), if at work, may even increase the efficiency of the mechanism. (Auth.)

  12. Formation of massive stars in OB associations and giant molecular clouds

    Lada, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    Certain interesting patterns are being perceived in the morphology of the regions which have recently produced massive OB stars. In particular, current evidence seems to favour the notion that the formation of massive stars takes place at the edges and not the centres of large molecular cloud complexes. It is this aspect of the observations that is discussed in the present paper. The phenomena described here will pertain to massive stars only. Specifically, stars with spectral types earlier than B3 will be considered since it is usually only these stars that produce sufficient havoc (e.g., maser sources, CO bright spots, H II regions) to noticeably affect their early environments. The corresponding phenomena for lower mass stars could be entirely different. A review is first presented of what has been learned about the OB star formation process from studies of the visible OB stars themselves. Then, newly derived information pertaining to the most recent episodes of OB star birth in galactic molecular clouds is discussed. Finally, a short discussion of the significance of the results and their implications for possible star formation mechanisms will be made. (U.K.)

  13. Manifestations of electric currents in interstellar molecular clouds

    Carlqvist, P.; Gahm, G.F.

    1991-12-01

    We draw the attention to filamentary structures in molecular clouds and point out the existence of subfilaments of sinusoidal shape and also of helix-like structures. For two dark clouds, the Lynds 204 complex and the Sandqvist 187-188 complex (The Norma 'sword') we make a detailed study of such shapes and in addition we find the possible existence of helices wound around the main filaments. All these features are highly reminiscent of morphologies encountered in solar ascending prominences and in experiments in plasma physics and suggest the existence of electric currents and magnetic fields in these clouds. On the basis of a generalization of the Bennett pinch model, we derive the magnitudes of the currents expected to flow in the filaments. Values of column densities, magnetic field strengths, and direction of the fields are derived from observations. Magnetic fields with both toroidal and axial components are considered. This study shows that axial currents of the order of a few times 10 13 A are necessary for the clouds to be in equilibrium. The corresponding mean current densities are very small and even at the very low values of the fractional abundance of electrons encountered in these clouds, the mean electron velocities are of the order of 10 -2 -10 -5 m s -1 , much lower than the thermal velocities in the clouds. We suggest that helical structures may evolve as a result of various instabilities in the pinched clouds. We also call the attention to the kink intability in connection with the sinusoidal shapes. The existence of electromagnetically controlled features in the interstellar clouds can be tested by further observations. (au)

  14. Polarization of far-infrared radiation from molecular clouds

    Novak, G.; Gonatas, D. P.; Hildebrand, R. H.; Platt, S. R.; Dragovan, M.

    1989-01-01

    The paper reports measurements of the polarization of far-infrared emission from dust in nine molecular clouds. Detections were obtained in Mon R2, in the Kleinmann-Low (KL) nebula in Orion, and in Sgr A. Upper limits were set for six other clouds. A comparison of the 100 micron polarization of KL with that previously measured at 270 microns provides new evidence that the polarization is due to emission from magnetically aligned dust grains. Comparing the results for Orion with measurements at optical wavelengths, it is inferred that the magnetic field direction in the outer parts of the Orion cloud is the same as that in the dense core. This direction is nearly perpendicular to the ridge of molecular emission and is parallel to both the molecular outflow in KL and the axis of rotation of the cloud core. In Mon R2, the field direction which the measurements imply does not agree withthat derived from 0.9-2.2 micron polarimetry. The discrepancy is attributed to scattering in the near-infrared. In Orion and Sgr A, where comparisons are possible, the measurements are in good agreement with 10 micron polarization measurements.

  15. Planck intermediate results: XXXV. Probing the role of the magnetic field in the formation of structure in molecular clouds

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.; Arnaud, M.; Arzoumanian, D.

    2016-01-01

    Within ten nearby (d < 450 pc) Gould belt molecular clouds we evaluate in this paper statistically the relative orientation between the magnetic field projected on the plane of sky, inferred from the polarized thermal emission of Galactic dust observed by Planck at 353 GHz, and the gas column density structures, quantified by the gradient of the column density, N_H. The selected regions, covering several degrees in size, are analysed at an effective angular resolution of 10' FWHM, thus sampling physical scales from 0.4 to 40 pc in the nearest cloud. The column densities in the selected regions range from N_H≈ 10"2"1 to10"2"3 cm"-"2, and hence they correspond to the bulk of the molecular clouds. The relative orientation is evaluated pixel by pixel and analysed in bins of column density using the novel statistical tool called “histogram of relative orientations”. Throughout this study, we assume that the polarized emission observed by Planck at 353 GHz is representative of the projected morphology of the magnetic field in each region, i.e., we assume a constant dust grain alignment efficiency, independent of the local environment. Within most clouds we find that the relative orientation changes progressively with increasing N_H, from mostly parallel or having no preferred orientation to mostly perpendicular. In simulations of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in molecular clouds this trend in relative orientation is a signature of Alfvénic or sub-Alfvénic turbulence, implying that the magnetic field is significant for the gas dynamics at the scales probed by Planck. Finally, we compare the deduced magnetic field strength with estimates we obtain from other methods and discuss the implications of the Planck observations for the general picture of molecular cloud formation and evolution.

  16. ALMA Observations of Molecular Clouds in Three Group-centered Elliptical Galaxies: NGC 5846, NGC 4636, and NGC 5044

    Temi, Pasquale; Amblard, Alexandre; Gitti, Myriam; Brighenti, Fabrizio; Gaspari, Massimo; Mathews, William G.; David, Laurence

    2018-05-01

    We present new ALMA CO(2–1) observations of two well-studied group-centered elliptical galaxies: NGC 4636 and NGC 5846. In addition, we include a revised analysis of Cycle 0 ALMA observations of the central galaxy in the NGC 5044 group. We find evidence that molecular gas is a common presence in bright group-centered galaxies (BGG). CO line widths are broader than Galactic molecular clouds, and using the reference Milky Way X CO, the total molecular mass ranges from 2.6 × 105 M ⊙ in NGC 4636 to 6.1 × 107 M ⊙ in NGC 5044. Complementary observations using the ALMA Compact Array do not exhibit any detection of a CO diffuse component at the sensitivity level achieved by current exposures. The origin of the detected molecular features is still uncertain, but these ALMA observations suggest that they are the end product of the hot gas cooling process and not the result of merger events. Some of the molecular clouds are associated with dust features as revealed by HST dust extinction maps, suggesting that these clouds formed from dust-enhanced cooling. The global nonlinear condensation may be triggered via the chaotic turbulent field or buoyant uplift. The large virial parameter of the molecular structures and correlation with the warm ({10}3{--}{10}5 {{K}})/hot (≥106) phase velocity dispersion provide evidence that they are unbound giant molecular associations drifting in the turbulent field, consistent with numerical predictions of the chaotic cold accretion process. Alternatively, the observed large CO line widths may be generated by molecular gas flowing out from cloud surfaces due to heating by the local hot gas atmosphere.

  17. The hierarchical structure of molecular clouds

    Chieze, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The mass-radius-velocity dispersion relations observed among the members of cool molecular complexes is interpreted in terms of fragmentation at the gravitational instability threshold in a roughly constant pressure environment. The mass range of the self-similar fragmentation hierarchy is governed by the thermal instability thresholds. Using a realistic equation of state, the gravitational stability of thermally stable clumps is analysed as a function of both the local gas pressure and extinction of the mean interstellar radiation field

  18. The Sequential Growth of Star Formation Seeds in the Galactic Snake : Infrared Dark Cloud G11.11-0.12

    Wang, Ke; Zhang, Qizhou; Testi, Leonardo; Wu, Yuefang; Zhang, Huawei; van der Tak, Floris; Pillai, Thushara; Wyrowski, Friedrich; Carey, Sean; Ragan, Sarah; Henning, Thomas

    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) 1.3 and 0.88 mm broad band observations, and Very Large Array (VLA) observations in NH3 (J,K) = (1,1) up to (5,5), as well as H2O and CH3OH maser lines toward the two most massive molecular clumps in Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) G11.11-0.12, also known as the Snake

  19. Hierarchical fragmentation and differential star formation in the Galactic `Snake': infrared dark cloud G11.11-0.12

    Wang, Ke; Zhang, Qizhou; Testi, Leonardo; van der Tak, Floris; Wu, Yuefang; Zhang, Huawei; Pillai, Thushara; Wyrowski, Friedrich; Carey, Sean; Ragan, Sarah E.; Henning, Thomas

    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) λ = 0.88 and 1.3 mm broad-band observations, and Very Large Array (VLA) observations in NH3 (J, K) = (1,1) up to (5,5), H2O and CH3OH maser lines towards the two most massive molecular clumps in infrared dark cloud (IRDC) G11.11-0.12. Sensitive high-resolution

  20. Two Models of Magnetic Support for Photoevaporated Molecular Clouds

    Ryutov, D; Kane, J; Mizuta, A; Pound, M; Remington, B

    2004-01-01

    The thermal pressure inside molecular clouds is insufficient for maintaining the pressure balance at an ablation front at the cloud surface illuminated by nearby UV stars. Most probably, the required stiffness is provided by the magnetic pressure. After surveying existing models of this type, we concentrate on two of them: the model of a quasi-homogeneous magnetic field and the recently proposed model of a ''magnetostatic turbulence''. We discuss observational consequences of the two models, in particular, the structure and the strength of the magnetic field inside the cloud and in the ionized outflow. We comment on the possible role of reconnection events and their observational signatures. We mention laboratory experiments where the most significant features of the models can be tested

  1. Emission from small dust particles in diffuse and molecular cloud medium

    Bernard, J.P.; Desert, X.

    1990-01-01

    Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) observations of the whole galaxy has shown that long wavelength emission (100 and 60 micron bands) can be explained by thermal emission from big grains (approx 0.1 micron) radiating at their equilibrium temperature when heated by the InterStellar Radiation Field (ISRF). This conclusion has been confirmed by continuum sub-millimeter observations of the galactic plane made by the EMILIE experiment at 870 microns (Pajot et al. 1986). Nevertheless, shorter wavelength observations like 12 and 25 micron IRAS bands, show an emission from the galactic plane in excess with the long wavelength measurements which can only be explained by a much hotter particles population. Because dust at equilibrium cannot easily reach high temperatures required to explain this excess, this component is thought to be composed of very small dust grains or big molecules encompassing thermal fluctuations. Researchers present here a numerical model that computes emission, from Near Infrared Radiation (NIR) to Sub-mm wavelengths, from a non-homogeneous spherical cloud heated by the ISRF. This model fully takes into account the heating of dust by multi-photon processes and back-heating of dust in the Visual/Infrared Radiation (VIS-IR) so that it is likely to describe correctly emission from molecular clouds up to large A sub v and emission from dust experiencing temperature fluctuations. The dust is a three component mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, very small grains, and classical big grains with independent size distributions (cut-off and power law index) and abundances

  2. The Lifetimes and Evolution of Molecular Cloud Cores

    Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique; Kim, Jongsoo; Shadmehri, Mohsen; Ballesteros-Paredes, Javier

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the lifetimes and evolution of clumps and cores formed as turbulent density fluctuations in nearly isothermal molecular clouds. In order to maintain a broad perspective, we consider both the magnetic and nonmagnetic cases. In the latter, we argue that clumps are unlikely to reach a hydrostatic state if molecular clouds can in general be described as single-phase media with an effective polytropic exponent γecriticality of their ``parent clouds'' (the numerical boxes). In subcritical boxes, magnetostatic clumps do not form. A minority of moderately gravitationally bound clumps form, which however are dispersed by the turbulence in ~1.3 Myr, suggesting that these few longer lived cores can marginally be ``captured'' by AD to increase their mass-to-flux ratio and eventually collapse, although on timescales not significantly longer than the dynamical ones. In supercritical boxes, some cores manage to become locally supercritical and collapse in typical timescales of 2 tfc (~1 Myr). In the most supercritical simulation, a few longer lived cores are observed, which last for up to ~3 Myr, but these end up re-expanding rather than collapsing, because they are sub-Jeans in spite of being supercritical. Fewer clumps and cores form in these simulations than in their nonmagnetic counterpart. Our results suggest the following: (1) not all cores observed in molecular clouds will necessarily form stars and that a class of ``failed cores'' should exist, which will eventually redisperse and which may be related to the observed starless cores; (2) cores may be out-of-equilibrium, transient structures, rather than quasi-magnetostatic configurations; (3) the magnetic field may help reduce the star formation efficiency by reducing the probability of core formation, rather than by significantly delaying the collapse of individual cores, even in magnetically supercritical clouds.

  3. Cold Water Vapor in the Barnard 5 Molecular Cloud

    Wirstrom, E. S.; Charnley, S. B.; Persson, C. M.; Buckle, J. V.; Cordiner, M. A.; Takakuwa, S.

    2014-01-01

    After more than 30 yr of investigations, the nature of gas-grain interactions at low temperatures remains an unresolved issue in astrochemistry. Water ice is the dominant ice found in cold molecular clouds; however, there is only one region where cold ((is) approximately 10 K) water vapor has been detected-L1544. This study aims to shed light on ice desorption mechanisms under cold cloud conditions by expanding the sample. The clumpy distribution of methanol in dark clouds testifies to transient desorption processes at work-likely to also disrupt water ice mantles. Therefore, the Herschel HIFI instrument was used to search for cold water in a small sample of prominent methanol emission peaks. We report detections of the ground-state transition of o-H2O (J = 110-101) at 556.9360 GHz toward two positions in the cold molecular cloud, Barnard 5. The relative abundances of methanol and water gas support a desorption mechanism which disrupts the outer ice mantle layers, rather than causing complete mantle removal.

  4. COLD WATER VAPOR IN THE BARNARD 5 MOLECULAR CLOUD

    Wirström, E. S.; Persson, C. M. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Charnley, S. B.; Cordiner, M. A. [Astrochemistry Laboratory and The Goddard Center for Astrobiology, Mailstop 691, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20770 (United States); Buckle, J. V. [Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Takakuwa, S., E-mail: eva.wirstrom@chalmers.se [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2014-06-20

    After more than 30 yr of investigations, the nature of gas-grain interactions at low temperatures remains an unresolved issue in astrochemistry. Water ice is the dominant ice found in cold molecular clouds; however, there is only one region where cold (∼10 K) water vapor has been detected—L1544. This study aims to shed light on ice desorption mechanisms under cold cloud conditions by expanding the sample. The clumpy distribution of methanol in dark clouds testifies to transient desorption processes at work—likely to also disrupt water ice mantles. Therefore, the Herschel HIFI instrument was used to search for cold water in a small sample of prominent methanol emission peaks. We report detections of the ground-state transition of o-H{sub 2}O (J = 1{sub 10}-1{sub 01}) at 556.9360 GHz toward two positions in the cold molecular cloud, Barnard 5. The relative abundances of methanol and water gas support a desorption mechanism which disrupts the outer ice mantle layers, rather than causing complete mantle removal.

  5. Dense gas and star formation in individual Giant Molecular Clouds in M31

    Viaene, S.; Forbrich, J.; Fritz, J.

    2018-04-01

    Studies both of entire galaxies and of local Galactic star formation indicate a dependency of a molecular cloud's star formation rate (SFR) on its dense gas mass. In external galaxies, such measurements are derived from HCN(1-0) observations, usually encompassing many Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs) at once. The Andromeda galaxy (M31) is a unique laboratory to study the relation of the SFR and HCN emission down to GMC scales at solar-like metallicities. In this work, we correlate our composite SFR determinations with archival HCN, HCO+, and CO observations, resulting in a sample of nine reasonably representative GMCs. We find that, at the scale of individual clouds, it is important to take into account both obscured and unobscured star formation to determine the SFR. When correlated against the dense-gas mass from HCN, we find that the SFR is low, in spite of these refinements. We nevertheless retrieve an SFR-dense-gas mass correlation, confirming that these SFR tracers are still meaningful on GMC scales. The correlation improves markedly when we consider the HCN/CO ratio instead of HCN by itself. This nominally indicates a dependency of the SFR on the dense-gas fraction, in contradiction to local studies. However, we hypothesize that this partly reflects the limited dynamic range in dense-gas mass, and partly that the ratio of single-pointing HCN and CO measurements may be less prone to systematics like sidelobes. In this case, the HCN/CO ratio would importantly be a better empirical measure of the dense-gas content itself.

  6. Molecular cloud-scale star formation in NGC 300

    Faesi, Christopher M.; Lada, Charles J.; Forbrich, Jan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Menten, Karl M. [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Bouy, Hervé [Centro de Astrobiología, (INTA-CSIC), Departamento de Astrofísica, POB 78, ESAC Campus, 28691 Villanueva dela Cañada (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    We present the results of a galaxy-wide study of molecular gas and star formation in a sample of 76 H II regions in the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 300. We have measured the molecular gas at 250 pc scales using pointed CO(J = 2-1) observations with the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescope. We detect CO in 42 of our targets, deriving molecular gas masses ranging from our sensitivity limit of ∼10{sup 5} M {sub ☉} to 7 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}. We find a clear decline in the CO detection rate with galactocentric distance, which we attribute primarily to the decreasing radial metallicity gradient in NGC 300. We combine Galaxy Evolution Explorer far-ultraviolet, Spitzer 24 μm, and Hα narrowband imaging to measure the star formation activity in our sample. We have developed a new direct modeling approach for computing star formation rates (SFRs) that utilizes these data and population synthesis models to derive the masses and ages of the young stellar clusters associated with each of our H II region targets. We find a characteristic gas depletion time of 230 Myr at 250 pc scales in NGC 300, more similar to the results obtained for Milky Way giant molecular clouds than the longer (>2 Gyr) global depletion times derived for entire galaxies and kiloparsec-sized regions within them. This difference is partially due to the fact that our study accounts for only the gas and stars within the youngest star-forming regions. We also note a large scatter in the NGC 300 SFR-molecular gas mass scaling relation that is furthermore consistent with the Milky Way cloud results. This scatter likely represents real differences in giant molecular cloud physical properties such as the dense gas fraction.

  7. Modelling dust polarization observations of molecular clouds through MHD simulations

    King, Patrick K.; Fissel, Laura M.; Chen, Che-Yu; Li, Zhi-Yun

    2018-03-01

    The BLASTPol observations of Vela C have provided the most detailed characterization of the polarization fraction p and dispersion in polarization angles S for a molecular cloud. We compare the observed distributions of p and S with those obtained in synthetic observations of simulations of molecular clouds, assuming homogeneous grain alignment. We find that the orientation of the mean magnetic field relative to the observer has a significant effect on the p and S distributions. These distributions for Vela C are most consistent with synthetic observations where the mean magnetic field is close to the line of sight. Our results point to apparent magnetic disorder in the Vela C molecular cloud, although it can be due to either an inclination effect (i.e. observing close to the mean field direction) or significant field tangling from strong turbulence/low magnetization. The joint correlations of p with column density and of S with column density for the synthetic observations generally agree poorly with the Vela C joint correlations, suggesting that understanding these correlations requires a more sophisticated treatment of grain alignment physics.

  8. A search for pre-main-sequence stars in high-latitude molecular clouds. 3: A survey of the Einstein database

    Caillault, Jean-Pierre; Magnani, Loris; Fryer, Chris

    1995-01-01

    In order to discern whether the high-latitude molecular clouds are regions of ongoing star formation, we have used X-ray emission as a tracer of youthful stars. The entire Einstein database yields 18 images which overlap 10 of the clouds mapped partially or completely in the CO (1-0) transition, providing a total of approximately 6 deg squared of overlap. Five previously unidentified X-ray sources were detected: one has an optical counterpart which is a pre-main-sequence (PMS) star, and two have normal main-sequence stellar counterparts, while the other two are probably extragalactic sources. The PMS star is located in a high Galactic latitude Lynds dark cloud, so this result is not too suprising. The translucent clouds, though, have yet to reveal any evidence of star formation.

  9. On the fragmentation of filaments in a molecular cloud simulation

    Chira, R.-A.; Kainulainen, J.; Ibáñez-Mejía, J. C.; Henning, Th.; Mac Low, M.-M.

    2018-03-01

    Context. The fragmentation of filaments in molecular clouds has attracted a lot of attention recently as there seems to be a close relation between the evolution of filaments and star formation. The study of the fragmentation process has been motivated by simple analytical models. However, only a few comprehensive studies have analysed the evolution of filaments using numerical simulations where the filaments form self-consistently as part of large-scale molecular cloud evolution. Aim. We address the early evolution of parsec-scale filaments that form within individual clouds. In particular, we focus on three questions: How do the line masses of filaments evolve? How and when do the filaments fragment? How does the fragmentation relate to the line masses of the filaments? Methods: We examine three simulated molecular clouds formed in kiloparsec-scale numerical simulations performed with the FLASH adaptive mesh refinement magnetohydrodynamic code. The simulations model a self-gravitating, magnetised, stratified, supernova-driven interstellar medium, including photoelectric heating and radiative cooling. We follow the evolution of the clouds for 6 Myr from the time self-gravity starts to act. We identify filaments using the DisPerSe algorithm, and compare the results to other filament-finding algorithms. We determine the properties of the identified filaments and compare them with the predictions of analytic filament stability models. Results: The average line masses of the identified filaments, as well as the fraction of mass in filamentary structures, increases fairly continuously after the onset of self-gravity. The filaments show fragmentation starting relatively early: the first fragments appear when the line masses lie well below the critical line mass of Ostriker's isolated hydrostatic equilibrium solution ( 16 M⊙ pc-1), commonly used as a fragmentation criterion. The average line masses of filaments identified in three-dimensional volume density cubes

  10. Compression of turbulent magnetized gas in giant molecular clouds

    Birnboim, Yuval; Federrath, Christoph; Krumholz, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Interstellar gas clouds are often both highly magnetized and supersonically turbulent, with velocity dispersions set by a competition between driving and dissipation. This balance has been studied extensively in the context of gases with constant mean density. However, many astrophysical systems are contracting under the influence of external pressure or gravity, and the balance between driving and dissipation in a contracting, magnetized medium has yet to be studied. In this paper, we present three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of compression in a turbulent, magnetized medium that resembles the physical conditions inside molecular clouds. We find that in some circumstances the combination of compression and magnetic fields leads to a rate of turbulent dissipation far less than that observed in non-magnetized gas, or in non-compressing magnetized gas. As a result, a compressing, magnetized gas reaches an equilibrium velocity dispersion much greater than would be expected for either the hydrodynamic or the non-compressing case. We use the simulation results to construct an analytic model that gives an effective equation of state for a coarse-grained parcel of the gas, in the form of an ideal equation of state with a polytropic index that depends on the dissipation and energy transfer rates between the magnetic and turbulent components. We argue that the reduced dissipation rate and larger equilibrium velocity dispersion has important implications for the driving and maintenance of turbulence in molecular clouds and for the rates of chemical and radiative processes that are sensitive to shocks and dissipation.

  11. Study of clumping in the Cepheus OB 3 molecular cloud

    Carr, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    A portion of the Cep OB 3 molecular cloud has been mapped in the (C-13)O (1-0) line on a completely sampled grid with a 1.5-arcmin spacing. A total of 45 individual clouds, or clumps, have been identified in the map, with masses from 3 to 300 solar mass, sizes 3 pc or smaller, and mean densities of a few hundred/cu cm. Power-law correlations are found among the clump properties, namely, M proportional to R exp 2.5 and Delta(v) exp 0.24. These exponents differ somewhat from those found for similar correlations for molecular clouds in previous studies. Determination of the virial masses for the clumps shows that the clumps are not gravitationally bound and must be expanding on a time scale of about 1 Myr. Measurements of the (C-13)O (2-1) line give volume densities of 2000-5000. Comparisons of these densities with the mean volume densities from the (C-13)O (1-0) data suggest that the gas is clumped on a small scale with a volume filling factor of 0.04-0.10. 31 references

  12. Encounters of The Solar System With Molecular Clouds

    Wickramasinghe, J. T.

    2008-01-01

    The solar system has penetrated about 5 -- 10 giant molecular clouds over its history, and passes within 5 parsecs of a star-forming nebula every 100 million years or so. Numerical simulations of the effect of such encounters in perturbing the Oort cloud of comets are carried out using standard n-body computational techniques. It is found that the ingress of comets into the inner planetary system during such encounters amounts to factors of ∼100 over the average. During an encounter the impact rate of comets onto Earth increases by a comparable factor. The of ages of impact craters on the Earth is shown to be consistent with predictions from the model

  13. Dust and gas distribution in molecular clouds: an observational approach

    Campeggio, Loretta; Elia, Davide; Maiolo, Berlinda M T; Strafella, Francesco; Cecchi-Pestellini, Cesare

    2005-01-01

    The interstellar medium (ISM), gas and dust, appears to be arranged in clouds, whose dimensions, masses and densities span a large range of scales: from giant molecular clouds to small isolated globules. The structure of these objects show a high degree of complexity appearing, in the range of the observed scales, as a non-homogeneous ('clumpy') distribution of matter. The arrangement of the ISM is clearly relevant for the study of the fragmentation of the clouds and then of the star formation processes. To quantify observationally the ISM structure, many methods have been developed and our study is focused on some of them, exploiting multiwavelength observations of IS objects. The investigations presented here have been carried out by considering both the dust absorption (in optical and near IR wavelengths) and the gas emission (in the submm-radio spectral range). We present the maps obtained from the reduction of raw data and a first tentative analysis by means of methods as the structure function, the autocorrelation, and the Δ-variance. These are appropriate tools to highlight the complex structure of the ISM with reference to the paradigm given by the supersonic turbulence. Three observational cases are briefly discussed. In order to analyse the structure of objects characterized by different sizes, we applied the above-mentioned algorithms to the extinction map of the dark globule CB 107 and to the CO(J = 1-0) integrated intensity map of Vela Molecular Ridge, D Cloud. Finally we compare the results obtained with synthetic fractal maps known as 'fractional Brownian motion' fBm images

  14. Molecular clouds in the North American and Pelican Nebulae: structures

    Zhang, Shaobo; Xu, Ye; Yang, Ji, E-mail: shbzhang@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, and Key Laboratory for Radio Astronomy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2014-03-01

    We present observations of a 4.25 deg{sup 2} area toward the North American and Pelican Nebulae in the J = 1-0 transitions of {sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, and C{sup 18}O. Three molecules show different emission areas with their own distinct structures. These different density tracers reveal several dense clouds with a surface density of over 500 M {sub ☉} pc{sup –2} and a mean H{sub 2} column density of 5.8, 3.4, and 11.9 × 10{sup 21} cm{sup –2} for {sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, and C{sup 18}O, respectively. We obtain a total mass of 5.4 × 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉} ({sup 12}CO), 2.0 × 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉} ({sup 13}CO), and 6.1 × 10{sup 3} M {sub ☉} (C{sup 18}O) in the complex. The distribution of excitation temperature shows two phases of gas: cold gas (∼10 K) spreads across the whole cloud; warm gas (>20 K) outlines the edge of the cloud heated by the W80 H II region. The kinetic structure of the cloud indicates an expanding shell surrounding the ionized gas produced by the H II region. There are six discernible regions in the cloud: the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Islands and Sea, and Pelican's Beak, Hat, and Neck. The areas of {sup 13}CO emission range within 2-10 pc{sup 2} with mass of (1-5) × 10{sup 3} M {sub ☉} and line width of a few km s{sup –1}. The different line properties and signs of star-forming activity indicate they are in different evolutionary stages. Four filamentary structures with complicated velocity features are detected along the dark lane in LDN 935. Furthermore, a total of 611 molecular clumps within the {sup 13}CO tracing cloud are identified using the ClumpFind algorithm. The properties of the clumps suggest that most of the clumps are gravitationally bound and at an early stage of evolution with cold and dense molecular gas.

  15. GASEOUS CO ABUNDANCE-AN EVOLUTIONARY TRACER FOR MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    Liu Tie; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei, E-mail: liutiepku@gmail.com, E-mail: ywu@pku.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2013-09-20

    Planck cold clumps are among the most promising objects to investigate the initial conditions of the evolution of molecular clouds. In this work, by combing the dust emission data from the survey of the Planck satellite with the molecular data of {sup 12}CO/{sup 13}CO/C{sup 18}O (1-0) lines from observations with the Purple Mountain Observatory 13.7 m telescope, we investigate the CO abundance, CO depletion, and CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor of 674 clumps in the early cold cores sample. The median and mean values of the CO abundance are 0.89 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} and 1.28 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}, respectively. The mean and median of CO depletion factor are 1.7 and 0.9, respectively. The median value of X{sub CO-to-H{sub 2}} for the whole sample is 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2} K{sup -1} km{sup -1} s. The CO abundance, CO depletion factor, and CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor are strongly (anti-)correlated to other physical parameters (e.g., dust temperature, dust emissivity spectral index, column density, volume density, and luminosity-to-mass ratio). To conclude, the gaseous CO abundance can be used as an evolutionary tracer for molecular clouds.

  16. GASEOUS CO ABUNDANCE—AN EVOLUTIONARY TRACER FOR MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    Liu Tie; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei

    2013-01-01

    Planck cold clumps are among the most promising objects to investigate the initial conditions of the evolution of molecular clouds. In this work, by combing the dust emission data from the survey of the Planck satellite with the molecular data of 12 CO/ 13 CO/C 18 O (1-0) lines from observations with the Purple Mountain Observatory 13.7 m telescope, we investigate the CO abundance, CO depletion, and CO-to-H 2 conversion factor of 674 clumps in the early cold cores sample. The median and mean values of the CO abundance are 0.89 × 10 –4 and 1.28 × 10 –4 , respectively. The mean and median of CO depletion factor are 1.7 and 0.9, respectively. The median value of X CO-to-H 2 for the whole sample is 2.8 × 10 20 cm –2 K –1 km –1 s. The CO abundance, CO depletion factor, and CO-to-H 2 conversion factor are strongly (anti-)correlated to other physical parameters (e.g., dust temperature, dust emissivity spectral index, column density, volume density, and luminosity-to-mass ratio). To conclude, the gaseous CO abundance can be used as an evolutionary tracer for molecular clouds

  17. Isotopic evidence for primordial molecular cloud material in metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites

    van Kooten, Elishevah M. M. E.; Wielandt, Daniel Kim Peel; Schiller, Martin

    2016-01-01

    product of (26)Al. This correlation is interpreted as reflecting progressive thermal processing of in-falling (26)Al-rich molecular cloud material in the inner Solar System. The thermally unprocessed molecular cloud matter reflecting the nucleosynthetic makeup of the molecular cloud before the last......)Mg*-depleted and (54)Cr-enriched component. This composition is consistent with that expected for thermally unprocessed primordial molecular cloud material before its pollution by stellar-derived (26)Al. The (26)Mg* and (54)Cr compositions of bulk metal-rich chondrites require significant amounts (25......-50%) of primordial molecular cloud matter in their precursor material. Given that such high fractions of primordial molecular cloud material are expected to survive only in the outer Solar System, we infer that, similarly to cometary bodies, metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites are samples of planetesimals...

  18. Radiation transport and the kinematics of molecular clouds

    Kwan, J.

    1978-01-01

    We compare line profiles calculated under either the systematic mottion interpretation or the turbulent motion interpretation of the molecular line widths, with the stipulation that both the density and temperature distributions be decreasing functions of radius. In systematic motion of the form V (r) proportional/sup -alpha/, α>0, optically thin lines observed toward the center are flat-topped or double-peaked, and optically thick lines are asymmetric. In a constant collapes or outflow velocity, optically thin lines observed toward the center are double-peaked, and optically thick lines arfe flat-topped. In systematic motion of the form V (r) proportionalr/sup α/,α>0, both optically thin and optically thick lines are centrally peaked. The distinguishing feature in this case is that the width (FWHM) of the CS 3→ 2 line is considerably smaller that that of the 13 CO 1 → 0 line. In turbulent motion, the CO 1 → 0, 2 → 1, and 3 → 2 lines are marked by progressively more pronounced self-absorptions.The observations at M17 SW and the Kleinmann-Low (KL) nebula are studied. At M17 SW, they are best accounted for by a model in which turbulence dominates the central part of the molecular region but collapse prevails at the outer part. At KL, the present observations can be equally well explained by one of two models. The first model postulates that KL is at the front face of the molecular cloud and that the temperature is highest at the surface. Turbulence gives rise to the line broadening. The second model postulates that KL is deep within the molecular cloud. Systematic motion about KL accounts for the CO and 13 CO line widths, but high-density fragments at KL are required to provide excitations in other molecular lines with considerably larger spontaneous emission rates

  19. Molecular evidence for species-level distinctions in clouded leopards.

    Buckley-Beason, Valerie A; Johnson, Warren E; Nash, Willliam G; Stanyon, Roscoe; Menninger, Joan C; Driscoll, Carlos A; Howard, JoGayle; Bush, Mitch; Page, John E; Roelke, Melody E; Stone, Gary; Martelli, Paolo P; Wen, Ci; Ling, Lin; Duraisingam, Ratna K; Lam, Phan V; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2006-12-05

    Among the 37 living species of Felidae, the clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) is generally classified as a monotypic genus basal to the Panthera lineage of great cats. This secretive, mid-sized (16-23 kg) carnivore, now severely endangered, is traditionally subdivided into four southeast Asian subspecies (Figure 1A). We used molecular genetic methods to re-evaluate subspecies partitions and to quantify patterns of population genetic variation among 109 clouded leopards of known geographic origin (Figure 1A, Tables S1 ans S2 in the Supplemental Data available online). We found strong phylogeographic monophyly and large genetic distances between N. n. nebulosa (mainland) and N. n. diardi (Borneo; n = 3 individuals) with mtDNA (771 bp), nuclear DNA (3100 bp), and 51 microsatellite loci. Thirty-six fixed mitochondrial and nuclear nucleotide differences and 20 microsatellite loci with nonoverlapping allele-size ranges distinguished N. n. nebulosa from N. n. diardi. Along with fixed subspecies-specific chromosomal differences, this degree of differentiation is equivalent to, or greater than, comparable measures among five recognized Panthera species (lion, tiger, leopard, jaguar, and snow leopard). These distinctions increase the urgency of clouded leopard conservation efforts, and if affirmed by morphological analysis and wider sampling of N. n. diardi in Borneo and Sumatra, would support reclassification of N. n. diardi as a new species (Neofelis diardi).

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Molecular clouds with GLIMPSE/MIPSGAL data (Retes-Romero+, 2017)

    Retes-Romero, R.; Mayya, Y. D.; Luna, A.; Carrasco, L.

    2017-11-01

    All of the 12 selected molecular clouds have GLIMPSE and MIPSGAL public data available. Typical Spitzer RGB images (3.6um, 8.0um, and 24um) of the resulting sample of clouds are shown in Figure 1, where the position of the IRAS source is identified. In order to define the parent molecular cloud that harbors the high-mass star-forming regions, we used 13CO(J=1-0) emission data from the Galactic Ring Survey (GRS) database (Jackson+ 2006ApJS..163..145J). The survey data have a velocity resolution of 0.21km/s, a typical (1σ) rms sensitivity of ~0.13K, a main beam efficiency of {eta}mb=0.48, and a beam of 46". The 13CO emission spectra for the line of sight (LOS) to the selected IRAS sources are shown in Figure 2, where the observed velocity of the CS(J=2-1) emission line (Bronfman+ 1996, J/A+AS/115/81) is also marked. (3 data files).

  1. GOT C+ Survey of [CII] 158 μm Emission: Atomic to Molecular Cloud Transitions in the Inner Galaxy

    Velusamy, T.; Langer, W. D.; Willacy, K.; Pineda, J. L.; Goldsmith, P. F.

    2013-03-01

    We present the results of the distribution of CO-dark H2 gas in a sample of 2223 interstellar clouds in the inner Galaxy (l=-90° to +57°) detected in the velocity resolved [CII] spectra observed in the GOT C+ survey using the Herschel HIFI. We analyze the [CII] intensities along with the ancillary HI, 12CO and 13CO data for each cloud to determine their evolutionary state and to derive the H2 column densities in the C+ and C+/CO transition layers in the cloud. We discuss the overall Galactic distribution of the [CII] clouds and their properties as a function Galactic radius. GOT C+ results on the global distribution of [CII] clouds and CO-dark H2 gas traces the FUV intensity and star formation rate in the Galactic disk.

  2. THE SECOND SURVEY OF THE MOLECULAR CLOUDS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD BY NANTEN. II. STAR FORMATION

    Kawamura, Akiko; Mizuno, Yoji; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Mizuno, Norikazu; Onishi, Toshikazu; Fukui, Yasuo; Fillipovic, Miroslav D.; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Kim, Sungeun; Mizuno, Akira

    2009-01-01

    We studied star formation activities in the molecular clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We have utilized the second catalog of 272 molecular clouds obtained by NANTEN to compare the cloud distribution with signatures of massive star formation including stellar clusters, and optical and radio H II regions. We find that the molecular clouds are classified into three types according to the activities of massive star formation: Type I shows no signature of massive star formation; Type II is associated with relatively small H II region(s); and Type III with both H II region(s) and young stellar cluster(s). The radio continuum sources were used to confirm that Type I giant molecular clouds (GMCs) do not host optically hidden H II regions. These signatures of massive star formation show a good spatial correlation with the molecular clouds in the sense that they are located within ∼100 pc of the molecular clouds. Among possible ideas to explain the GMC types, we favor that the types indicate an evolutionary sequence; i.e., the youngest phase is Type I, followed by Type II, and the last phase is Type III, where the most active star formation takes place leading to cloud dispersal. The number of the three types of GMCs should be proportional to the timescale of each evolutionary stage if a steady state of massive star and cluster formation is a good approximation. By adopting the timescale of the youngest stellar clusters, 10 Myr, we roughly estimate the timescales of Types I, II, and III to be 6 Myr, 13 Myr, and 7 Myr, respectively, corresponding to a lifetime of 20-30 Myr for the GMCs with a mass above the completeness limit, 5 x 10 4 M sun .

  3. Numerical Simulations of Turbulent Molecular Clouds Regulated by Radiation Feedback Forces. II. Radiation-Gas Interactions and Outflows

    Raskutti, Sudhir; Ostriker, Eve C.; Skinner, M. Aaron

    2017-12-01

    Momentum deposition by radiation pressure from young, massive stars may help to destroy molecular clouds and unbind stellar clusters by driving large-scale outflows. We extend our previous numerical radiation hydrodynamic study of turbulent star-forming clouds to analyze the detailed interaction between non-ionizing UV radiation and the cloud material. Our simulations trace the evolution of gas and star particles through self-gravitating collapse, star formation, and cloud destruction via radiation-driven outflows. These models are idealized in that we include only radiation feedback and adopt an isothermal equation of state. Turbulence creates a structure of dense filaments and large holes through which radiation escapes, such that only ˜50% of the radiation is (cumulatively) absorbed by the end of star formation. The surface density distribution of gas by mass as seen by the central cluster is roughly lognormal with {σ }{ln{{Σ }}}=1.3{--}1.7, similar to the externally projected surface density distribution. This allows low surface density regions to be driven outwards to nearly 10 times their initial escape speed {v}{esc}. Although the velocity distribution of outflows is broadened by the lognormal surface density distribution, the overall efficiency of momentum injection to the gas cloud is reduced because much of the radiation escapes. The mean outflow velocity is approximately twice the escape speed from the initial cloud radius. Our results are also informative for understanding galactic-scale wind driving by radiation, in particular, the relationship between velocity and surface density for individual outflow structures and the resulting velocity and mass distributions arising from turbulent sources.

  4. Investigating Molecular Inheritance of Carbon in Star-forming Regions along a Galactic Gradient

    Smith, Rachel L.

    2015-04-01

    Observations of CO isotopologues taken at high spectral resolution toward young stellar objects (YSOs) are valuable tools for investigating protoplanetary chemical reservoirs, and enable robust comparisons between YSOs and solar system material (meteorites and the Sun). Investigating a range of YSO environments also helps parameterize variations in the distribution and evolution of carbon-based molecules, furthering an understanding of prebiotic chemistry. We have begun a wide survey of massive YSOs using Keck-NIRSPEC at high spectral resolution (R=25,000). Fundamental and first-overtone near-IR CO rovibrational absorption spectra have thus far been obtained toward 14 massive, luminous YSOs at Galactocentric radii (RGC) ranging from ~4.5 to 9.7 kpc. From these data we can obtain precise [12CO]/[13CO] gas-phase abundance ratios along a Galactic gradient, and [12CO]/[13CO]Gas can be further evaluated against published [12CO2]/[13CO2]Ice and [12CO]/[13CO]Ice because all observations are in absorption, a robust study of molecular inheritance is possible by virtue of comparing 12C/13C along the same lines-of-sight. Initial results for cold CO gas at RGC ~ 6.1 kpc and 9.4 kpc reveal [12C16O]/[13C16O] of 59+/‑8 and 74+/‑3, respectively, roughly following an expected 12C/13C Galactic gradient. Thus far, we find [12CO]/[13CO] in the cold CO gas to be lower than [12CO2]/[13CO2]Ice, suggesting that CO2 may not originate from CO reservoirs as often assumed. While very high-resolution observations of CO gas toward low-mass YSOs observed with VLT-CRIRES show significant heterogeneity in [12CO]/[13CO] at RGC ~ 8 kpc, this dispersion is not found for the massive YSOs. Both the low-mass and massive YSOs have higher [12CO]/[13CO] in warm vs. cold gas, and both show signatures suggesting possible interplay between CO ice and gas reservoirs. Overall, our results indicate that carbon isotopic evolution in massive YSO environments may follow different paths compared to low-mass YSOs

  5. Investigating Molecular Inheritance of Carbon in Star-forming Regions along a Galactic Gradient

    Smith, Rachel L.; Blake, Geoffrey; Boogert, Adwin; Pontoppidan, Klaus Martin; Lockwood, Alexandra C.

    2015-01-01

    Observations of CO isotopologues taken at high spectral resolution toward young stellar objects (YSOs) are valuable tools for investigating protoplanetary chemical reservoirs, and enable robust comparisons between YSOs and solar system material (meteorites and the Sun). Investigating a range of YSO environments also helps parameterize variations in the distribution and evolution of carbon-based molecules, furthering an understanding of prebiotic chemistry. We have begun a wide survey of massive YSOs using Keck-NIRSPEC at high spectral resolution (R=25,000). Fundamental and first-overtone near-IR CO rovibrational absorption spectra have thus far been obtained toward 14 massive, luminous YSOs at Galactocentric radii (RGC) ranging from ~4.5 to 9.7 kpc. From these data we can obtain precise [12CO]/[13CO] gas-phase abundance ratios along a Galactic gradient, and [12CO]/[13CO]Gas can be further evaluated against published [12CO2]/[13CO2]Ice and [12CO]/[13CO]Ice because all observations are in absorption, a robust study of molecular inheritance is possible by virtue of comparing 12C/13C along the same lines-of-sight. Initial results for cold CO gas at RGC ~ 6.1 kpc and 9.4 kpc reveal [12C16O]/[13C16O] of 59+/‑8 and 74+/‑3, respectively, roughly following an expected 12C/13C Galactic gradient. Thus far, we find [12CO]/[13CO] in the cold CO gas to be lower than [12CO2]/[13CO2]Ice, suggesting that CO2 may not originate from CO reservoirs as often assumed. While very high-resolution observations of CO gas toward low-mass YSOs observed with VLT-CRIRES show significant heterogeneity in [12CO]/[13CO] at RGC ~ 8 kpc, this dispersion is not found for the massive YSOs. Both the low-mass and massive YSOs have higher [12CO]/[13CO] in warm vs. cold gas, and both show signatures suggesting possible interplay between CO ice and gas reservoirs. Overall, our results indicate that carbon isotopic evolution in massive YSO environments may follow different paths compared to low-mass YSOs

  6. Implications of the IRAS data for galactic gamma-ray astronomy and EGRET

    Stecker, F.W.

    1990-01-01

    Using the results of gamma-ray, millimeter wave and far infrared surveys of the galaxy, one can derive a logically consistent picture of the large scale distribution of galactic gas and cosmic rays, one tied to the overall processes of stellar birth and destruction on a galactic scale. Using the results of the IRAS far-infrared survey of the galaxy, the large scale radial distributions of galactic far-infrared emission were obtained independently for both the northern and southern hemisphere sides of the Galaxy. It was found that the dominant feature in these distributions to be a broad peak coincident with the 5 kpc molecular gas cloud ring. Also found was evidence of spiral arm features. Strong correlations are evident between the large scale galactic distributions of far infrared emission, gamma-ray emission and total CO emission. There is a particularly tight correlation between the distribution of warm molecular clouds and far-infrared emission on a galactic scale

  7. THE LESSER ROLE OF SHEAR IN GALACTIC STAR FORMATION: INSIGHT FROM THE GALACTIC RING SURVEY

    Dib, Sami; Dariush, Ali [Astrophysics Group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Helou, George [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Moore, Toby J. T. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Urquhart, James S., E-mail: s.dib@imperial.ac.uk [Max-Planck Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2012-10-20

    We analyze the role played by shear in regulating star formation in the Galaxy on the scale of individual molecular clouds. The clouds are selected from the {sup 13}CO J = 1-0 line of the Galactic Ring Survey. For each cloud, we estimate the shear parameter which describes the ability of density perturbations to grow within the cloud. We find that for almost all molecular clouds considered, there is no evidence that shear is playing a significant role in opposing the effects of self-gravity. We also find that the shear parameter of the clouds does not depend on their position in the Galaxy. Furthermore, we find no correlations between the shear parameter of the clouds with several indicators of their star formation activity. No significant correlation is found between the shear parameter and the star formation efficiency of the clouds which is measured using the ratio of the massive young stellar objects luminosities, measured in the Red MSX survey, to the cloud mass. There are also no significant correlations between the shear parameter and the fraction of their mass that is found in denser clumps which is a proxy for their clump formation efficiency, nor with their level of fragmentation expressed in the number of clumps per unit mass. Our results strongly suggest that shear is playing only a minor role in affecting the rates and efficiencies at which molecular clouds convert their gas into dense cores and thereafter into stars.

  8. THE LESSER ROLE OF SHEAR IN GALACTIC STAR FORMATION: INSIGHT FROM THE GALACTIC RING SURVEY

    Dib, Sami; Dariush, Ali; Helou, George; Moore, Toby J. T.; Urquhart, James S.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the role played by shear in regulating star formation in the Galaxy on the scale of individual molecular clouds. The clouds are selected from the 13 CO J = 1-0 line of the Galactic Ring Survey. For each cloud, we estimate the shear parameter which describes the ability of density perturbations to grow within the cloud. We find that for almost all molecular clouds considered, there is no evidence that shear is playing a significant role in opposing the effects of self-gravity. We also find that the shear parameter of the clouds does not depend on their position in the Galaxy. Furthermore, we find no correlations between the shear parameter of the clouds with several indicators of their star formation activity. No significant correlation is found between the shear parameter and the star formation efficiency of the clouds which is measured using the ratio of the massive young stellar objects luminosities, measured in the Red MSX survey, to the cloud mass. There are also no significant correlations between the shear parameter and the fraction of their mass that is found in denser clumps which is a proxy for their clump formation efficiency, nor with their level of fragmentation expressed in the number of clumps per unit mass. Our results strongly suggest that shear is playing only a minor role in affecting the rates and efficiencies at which molecular clouds convert their gas into dense cores and thereafter into stars.

  9. Clustering the Orion B giant molecular cloud based on its molecular emission.

    Bron, Emeric; Daudon, Chloé; Pety, Jérôme; Levrier, François; Gerin, Maryvonne; Gratier, Pierre; Orkisz, Jan H; Guzman, Viviana; Bardeau, Sébastien; Goicoechea, Javier R; Liszt, Harvey; Öberg, Karin; Peretto, Nicolas; Sievers, Albrecht; Tremblin, Pascal

    2018-02-01

    Previous attempts at segmenting molecular line maps of molecular clouds have focused on using position-position-velocity data cubes of a single molecular line to separate the spatial components of the cloud. In contrast, wide field spectral imaging over a large spectral bandwidth in the (sub)mm domain now allows one to combine multiple molecular tracers to understand the different physical and chemical phases that constitute giant molecular clouds (GMCs). We aim at using multiple tracers (sensitive to different physical processes and conditions) to segment a molecular cloud into physically/chemically similar regions (rather than spatially connected components), thus disentangling the different physical/chemical phases present in the cloud. We use a machine learning clustering method, namely the Meanshift algorithm, to cluster pixels with similar molecular emission, ignoring spatial information. Clusters are defined around each maximum of the multidimensional Probability Density Function (PDF) of the line integrated intensities. Simple radiative transfer models were used to interpret the astrophysical information uncovered by the clustering analysis. A clustering analysis based only on the J = 1 - 0 lines of three isotopologues of CO proves suffcient to reveal distinct density/column density regimes ( n H ~ 100 cm -3 , ~ 500 cm -3 , and > 1000 cm -3 ), closely related to the usual definitions of diffuse, translucent and high-column-density regions. Adding two UV-sensitive tracers, the J = 1 - 0 line of HCO + and the N = 1 - 0 line of CN, allows us to distinguish two clearly distinct chemical regimes, characteristic of UV-illuminated and UV-shielded gas. The UV-illuminated regime shows overbright HCO + and CN emission, which we relate to a photochemical enrichment effect. We also find a tail of high CN/HCO + intensity ratio in UV-illuminated regions. Finer distinctions in density classes ( n H ~ 7 × 10 3 cm -3 ~ 4 × 10 4 cm -3 ) for the densest regions are also

  10. Ice in the Taurus molecular cloud: modelling of the 3-μm profile

    Bult, C.E.P.M. van de; Greenberg, J.M.; Whittet, D.C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Detailed calculations of the absorption by interstellar core-mantle particles with mantles of different compositions are compared with observations of the 3μm ice band in the Taurus molecular cloud. The strength and shape of the 3-μm band is shown to be a remarkably good diagnostic of the physical state and evolution of the dust in molecular clouds. The strength of the band is consistent with large fractional H 2 O mantle concentrations, in the range 60-70 per cent, as predicted by theoretical studies of cloud chemistry and as expected from the high oxygen abundance in pre-molecular clouds. (author)

  11. The Origin of Fast Molecular Outflows in Quasars: Molecule Formation in AGN-Driven Galactic Winds

    Richings, Alexander James; Faucher-Giguere, Claude-Andre

    2017-07-01

    Observations of AGN host galaxies have detected fast molecular outflows, with velocities up to 1000 km s-1. However, the origin of these molecular outflows is currently unclear. One possibility is that they are formed from molecular gas that is swept up from the host galaxy by the AGN wind. However, previous studies have suggested that molecular clouds that are swept up by an AGN wind are unlikely to survive being accelerated to such high velocities. An alternative scenario is that molecules may form within the AGN wind material itself. We present a suite of 3D hydrodynamic simulations of an idealised AGN wind that we have run to explore this scenario. These simulations are coupled to a time-dependent chemical model to follow the creation and destruction of molecules, including H2, CO, OH and HCO+. We find that molecules do form within the wind, with molecular outflow rates up to 140 M⊙ yr-1 after 1 Myr. This is sensitive to the ambient ISM density, metallicity, and AGN luminosity. We also compute observable CO emission lines from these simulations using a radiative transfer code in post-processing. The CO-derived outflow rates are comparable to those seen in observations, although the maximum line of sight velocities are a factor ≍2 lower than observed. We find a CO (1-0) to H2 conversion factor of αCO = 0.15 M⊙ (K km s-1 pc2)-1 at solar metallicity, 5 times lower than is typically assumed in observations of such systems.

  12. The structure of the Orion A molecular cloud

    Gerola, H.; Sofia, S.

    1975-01-01

    A consistent model of the Orion A molecular cloud is obtained by making use of the observed brightness temperature distributions of the J=2→1 and the J=1→0 transitions of the CO molecule, and the central component (F=2→1) of the J=1→0 transition of HCN, as well as the observed line profiles of the J=2→1 transition of CO, and the J=1→0 transition of HCN. The modeling is accomplished by fitting simultaneously all of these observations through solutions of the coupled equations of statistical equilibrium and radiative transfer for a spherical cloud having a kinetic temperature gradient, and different density and velocity distributions. We find that Orion A is strongly gravitationally bound and contracting, and that it can maintain the observed temperature distribution only by virtue of internal energy sources other than the contraction. This last conclusion is reached by computing the radiative losses due to the CO and HD cooling, as well as the losses due to the CO and HD cooling, as well as the losses due to inelastic collisions between the gas and the dust. Our results show that while the contraction rate is just about sufficient to balance the rate of radiation by CO, it is less than one-tenth of the rate at which energy is radiated by HD, and less than 0.001 of that at which energy could be lost to cool grains through totally inelastic collisions

  13. Turbulence in molecular clouds - A new diagnostic tool to probe their origin

    Canuto, V. M.; Battaglia, A.

    1985-01-01

    A method is presented to uncover the instability responsible for the type of turbulence observed in molecular clouds and the value of the physical parameters of the 'placental medium' from which turbulence originated. The method utilizes the observational relation between velocities and sizes of molecular clouds, together with a recent model for large-scale turbulence (constructed by Canuto and Goldman, 1985).

  14. The physical properties of giant molecular cloud complexes in the outer Galaxy - Implications for the ratio of H2 column density to (C-12)O intensity

    Sodroski, T. J.

    1991-01-01

    The physical properties of 35 giant molecular cloud complexes in the outer Galaxy were derived from the Goddard-Columbia surveys of the Galactic plane region (Dame et al., 1987). The spatial and radial velocity boundaries for the individual cloud complexes were estimated by analyzing the spatial and velocity structure of emission features in the (C-12)O surveys, and the distance to each cmplex was determined kinematically on the assumption of a flat rotation curve. The ratio of the H2 column density to the (C-12)O intensity for the outer Galaxy complexes was found to be about 6.0 x 10 to the 20th molecules/sq cm K per km/sec, which is by a factor of 2-3 greater than the value derived by other auhtors for the inner Galaxy complexes. This increase in the H2 column density/(C-12)O intensity with the distance from with the Galactic center is consistent with predictions of the optically thick cloudlet model of giant molecular cloud complexes.

  15. Prediction of the diffuse far-infrared flux from the galactic plane

    Fazio, G.G.; Stecker, F.W.

    1976-01-01

    A basic model and simple numerical relations useful for future far-infrared studies of the Galaxy are presented. Making use of recent CO and other galactic surveys, we then predict the diffuse far-infrared flux distribution from the galactic plane as a function of galactic longitude l for 4degree< or =l< or =90degree and the far-infrared emissivity as a function of galactocentric distance. Future measurements of the galactic far-infrared flux would yield valuable information on the physical properties and distribution of dust and molecular clouds in the Galaxy, particulary the inner region

  16. Infrared studies of the S235 molecular cloud

    Evans, N.J. II; Beichman, C.; Gatley, I.; Harvey, P.; Nadeau, D.; Sellgren, K.

    1981-01-01

    Infrared observations from 7.8 to 200 μm have been obtained for the S235 molecular cloud. Far-infrared maps were obtained for a region of active star formation, as marked by the presence of compact H II regions, water masers, and compact near-infrared sources. The primary heating source for the far-infrared emission appears to be the compact H II region, S235A. Detailed examination of the gas energetics in the region supports the plausibility of the picture in which the gas is heated by collisions with warm dust grains. The ratio of far-infrared optical depth to 13 CO column density is somewhat lower in this source than is commonly found. This effect may be caused by the presence of substantial 13 CO in regions where the dust is not warm enough to emit substantial 50--100 μm radiation

  17. MOLECULAR CLOUDS IN THE TRIFID NEBULA M20: POSSIBLE EVIDENCE FOR A CLOUD-CLOUD COLLISION IN TRIGGERING THE FORMATION OF THE FIRST GENERATION STARS

    Torii, K.; Enokiya, R.; Sano, H.; Yoshiike, S.; Hanaoka, N.; Ohama, A.; Furukawa, N.; Dawson, J. R.; Moribe, N.; Oishi, K.; Nakashima, Y.; Okuda, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Kawamura, A.; Mizuno, N.; Onishi, T.; Fukui, Y.; Maezawa, H.; Mizuno, A.

    2011-01-01

    A large-scale study of the molecular clouds toward the Trifid Nebula, M20, has been made in the J = 2-1 and J = 1-0 transitions of 12 CO and 13 CO. M20 is ionized predominantly by an O7.5 star HD164492. The study has revealed that there are two molecular components at separate velocities peaked toward the center of M20 and that their temperatures-30-50 K as derived by a large velocity gradient analysis-are significantly higher than the 10 K of their surroundings. We identify the two clouds as the parent clouds of the first generation stars in M20. The mass of each cloud is estimated to be ∼10 3 M sun and their separation velocity is ∼8 km s -1 over ∼1-2 pc. We find that the total mass of stars and molecular gas in M20 is less than ∼3.2 x 10 3 M sun , which is too small by an order of magnitude to gravitationally bind the system. We argue that the formation of the first generation stars, including the main ionizing O7.5 star, was triggered by the collision between the two clouds in a short timescale of ∼1 Myr, a second example alongside Westerlund 2, where a super-star cluster may have been formed due to cloud-cloud collision triggering.

  18. ANGULAR MOMENTUM IN GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUDS. II. M33

    Imara, Nia; Bigiel, Frank; Blitz, Leo

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis comparing the properties of 45 giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in M33 and the atomic hydrogen (H I) with which they are associated. High-resolution Very Large Array observations are used to measure the properties of H I in the vicinity of GMCs and in regions where GMCs have not been detected. The majority of molecular clouds coincide with a local peak in the surface density of atomic gas, though 7% of GMCs in the sample are not associated with high surface density atomic gas. The mean H I surface density in the vicinity of GMCs is 10 M sun pc -2 and tends to increase with GMC mass as Σ HI ∝ M 0.27 GMC . Thirty-nine of the 45 H I regions surrounding GMCs have linear velocity gradients of ∼0.05 km s -1 pc -1 . If the linear gradients previously observed in the GMCs result from rotation, 53% are counterrotating with respect to the local H I. And if the linear gradients in these local H I regions are also from rotation, 62% are counterrotating with respect to the galaxy. If magnetic braking reduced the angular momentum of GMCs early in their evolution, the angular velocity of GMCs would be roughly one order of magnitude lower than what is observed. Based on our observations, we consider the possibility that GMCs may not be rotating. Atomic gas not associated with GMCs has gradients closer to 0.03 km s -1 pc -1 , suggesting that events occur during the course of GMC evolution that may increase the shear in the atomic gas.

  19. HOW GALACTIC ENVIRONMENT REGULATES STAR FORMATION

    Meidt, Sharon E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie/Königstuhl 17 D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-02-10

    In a new simple model I reconcile two contradictory views on the factors that determine the rate at which molecular clouds form stars—internal structure versus external, environmental influences—providing a unified picture for the regulation of star formation in galaxies. In the presence of external pressure, the pressure gradient set up within a self-gravitating turbulent (isothermal) cloud leads to a non-uniform density distribution. Thus the local environment of a cloud influences its internal structure. In the simple equilibrium model, the fraction of gas at high density in the cloud interior is determined simply by the cloud surface density, which is itself inherited from the pressure in the immediate surroundings. This idea is tested using measurements of the properties of local clouds, which are found to show remarkable agreement with the simple equilibrium model. The model also naturally predicts the star formation relation observed on cloud scales and at the same time provides a mapping between this relation and the closer-to-linear molecular star formation relation measured on larger scales in galaxies. The key is that pressure regulates not only the molecular content of the ISM but also the cloud surface density. I provide a straightforward prescription for the pressure regulation of star formation that can be directly implemented in numerical models. Predictions for the dense gas fraction and star formation efficiency measured on large-scales within galaxies are also presented, establishing the basis for a new picture of star formation regulated by galactic environment.

  20. Molecular Gas toward the Gemini OB1 Molecular Cloud Complex. II. CO Outflow Candidates with Possible WISE Associations

    Li, Yingjie; Li, Fa-Cheng; Xu, Ye; Wang, Chen; Du, Xin-Yu; Yang, Wenjin; Yang, Ji

    2018-03-01

    We present a large-scale survey of CO outflows in the Gem OB1 molecular cloud complex and its surroundings, using the Purple Mountain Observatory Delingha 13.7 m telescope. A total of 198 outflow candidates were identified over a large area (∼58.5 square degrees), of which 193 are newly detected. Approximately 68% (134/198) are associated with the Gem OB1 molecular cloud complex, including clouds GGMC 1, GGMC 2, BFS 52, GGMC 3, and GGMC 4. Other regions studied are: the Local arm (Local Lynds, West Front), Swallow, Horn, and Remote cloud. Outflow candidates in GGMC 1, BFS 52, and Swallow are mainly located at ring-like or filamentary structures. To avoid excessive uncertainty in distant regions (≳3.8 kpc), we only estimated the physical parameters for clouds in the Gem OB1 molecular cloud complex and in the Local arm. In those clouds, the total kinetic energy and the energy injection rate of the identified outflow candidates are ≲1% and ≲3% of the turbulent energy and the turbulent dissipation rate of each cloud, indicating that the identified outflow candidates cannot provide enough energy to balance turbulence of their host cloud at the scale of the entire cloud (several to dozens of parsecs). The gravitational binding energy of each cloud is ≳135 times the total kinetic energy of the identified outflow candidates within the corresponding cloud, indicating that the identified outflow candidates cannot cause major disruptions to the integrity of their host cloud at the scale of the entire cloud.

  1. Galactic radio astronomy

    Sofue, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    This book is a concise primer on galactic radio astronomy for undergraduate and graduate students, and provides wide coverage of galactic astronomy and astrophysics such as the physics of interstellar matter and the dynamics and structure of the Milky Way Galaxy and galaxies. Radio astronomy and its technological development have led to significant progress in galactic astronomy and contributed to understanding interstellar matter and galactic structures. The book begins with the fundamental physics of radio-wave radiation, i.e., black body radiation, thermal emission, synchrotron radiation, and HI and molecular line emissions. The author then gives overviews of ingredients of galactic physics, including interstellar matter such as the neutral (HI), molecular hydrogen, and ionized gases, as well as magnetic fields in galaxies. In addition, more advanced topics relevant to the Galaxy and galaxies are also contained here: star formation, supernova remnants, the Galactic Center and black holes, galactic dynamics...

  2. The Molecular Structures of the Local Arm and Perseus Arm in the Galactic Region of l  = [139.°75, 149.°75], b  = [−5.°25, 5.°25

    Du, Xinyu; Xu, Ye; Yang, Ji; Sun, Yan, E-mail: xydu@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: xuye@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2017-04-01

    Using the Purple Mountain Observatory Delingha (PMODLH) 13.7 m telescope, we report a 96 deg{sup 2} {sup 12}CO/{sup 13}CO/C{sup 18}O mapping observation toward the Galactic region of l  = [139.°75,149.°75], b  = [−5.°25, 5.°25]. The molecular structures of the Local Arm and Perseus Arm are presented. Combining H i data and part of the Outer Arm results, we obtain that the warp structure of both atomic and molecular gas is obvious, while the flare structure only exists in atomic gas in this observing region. In addition, five filamentary giant molecular clouds on the Perseus Arm are identified. Among them, four are newly identified. Their relations with the Milky Way large-scale structure are discussed.

  3. Light-element nucleosynthesis in a molecular cloud interacting with a supernova remnant and the origin of beryllium-10 in the protosolar nebula

    Tatischeff, Vincent; Duprat, Jean; De Séréville, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The presence of short-lived radionuclides (t 1/2 < 10 Myr) in the early solar system provides important information about the astrophysical environment in which the solar system formed. The discovery of now extinct 10 Be (t 1/2 = 1.4 Myr) in calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) with Fractionation and Unidentified Nuclear isotope anomalies (FUN-CAIs) suggests that a baseline concentration of 10 Be in the early solar system was inherited from the protosolar molecular cloud. In this paper, we investigate various astrophysical contexts for the nonthermal nucleosynthesis of 10 Be by cosmic-ray-induced reactions. We first show that the 10 Be recorded in FUN-CAIs cannot have been produced in situ by irradiation of the FUN-CAIs themselves. We then show that trapping of Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) in the collapsing presolar cloud core induced a negligible 10 Be contamination of the protosolar nebula, the inferred 10 Be/ 9 Be ratio being at least 40 times lower than that recorded in FUN-CAIs ( 10 Be/ 9 Be ∼ 3 × 10 –4 ). Irradiation of the presolar molecular cloud by background GCRs produced a steady-state 10 Be/ 9 Be ratio ≲ 1.3 × 10 –4 at the time of the solar system formation, which suggests that the presolar cloud was irradiated by an additional source of CRs. Considering a detailed model for CR acceleration in a supernova remnant (SNR), we find that the 10 Be abundance recorded in FUN-CAIs can be explained within two alternative scenarios: (1) the irradiation of a giant molecular cloud by CRs produced by ≳ 50 supernovae exploding in a superbubble of hot gas generated by a large star cluster of at least 20,000 members, and (2) the irradiation of the presolar molecular cloud by freshly accelerated CRs escaped from an isolated SNR at the end of the Sedov-Taylor phase. In the second picture, the SNR resulted from the explosion of a massive star that ran away from its parent OB association, expanded during most of its adiabatic phase in an intercloud medium of

  4. The CO Transition from Diffuse Molecular Gas to Dense Clouds

    Rice, Johnathan S.; Federman, Steven

    2017-06-01

    The atomic to molecular transitions occurring in diffuse interstellar gas surrounding molecular clouds are affected by the local physical conditions (density and temperature) and the radiation field penetrating the material. Our optical observations of CH, CH^{+}, and CN absorption from McDonald Observatory and the European Southern Observatory are useful tracers of this gas and provide the velocity structure needed for analyzing lower resolution ultraviolet observations of CO and H_{2} absorption from Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. We explore the changing environment between diffuse and dense gas by using the column densities and excitation temperatures from CO and H_{2} to determine the gas density. The resulting gas densities from this method are compared to densities inferred from other methods such as C_{2} and CN chemistry. The densities allow us to interpret the trends from the combined set of tracers. Groupings of sight lines, such as those toward h and χ Persei or Chameleon provide a chance for further characterization of the environment. The Chameleon region in particular helps illuminate CO-dark gas, which is not associated with emission from H I at 21 cm or from CO at 2.6 mm. Expanding this analysis to include emission data from the GOT C+ survey allows the further characterization of neutral diffuse gas, including CO-dark gas.

  5. MOLECULAR OXYGEN IN OORT CLOUD COMET 1P/HALLEY

    Rubin, M.; Altwegg, K. [Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Dishoeck, E. F. van [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Schwehm, G. [ESA (retired) Science Operations Department, ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    2015-12-10

    Recently, the ROSINA mass spectrometer suite on board the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft discovered an abundant amount of molecular oxygen, O{sub 2}, in the coma of Jupiter family comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko of O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O = 3.80 ± 0.85%. It could be shown that O{sub 2} is indeed a parent species and that the derived abundances point to a primordial origin. Crucial questions are whether the O{sub 2} abundance is peculiar to comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko or Jupiter family comets in general, and also whether Oort cloud comets such as comet 1P/Halley contain similar amounts of molecular oxygen. We investigated mass spectra obtained by the Neutral Mass Spectrometer instrument during the flyby by the European Space Agency's Giotto probe of comet 1P/Halley. Our investigation indicates that a production rate of O{sub 2} of 3.7 ± 1.7% with respect to water is indeed compatible with the obtained Halley data and therefore that O{sub 2} might be a rather common and abundant parent species.

  6. DENSE GAS IN MOLECULAR CORES ASSOCIATED WITH PLANCK GALACTIC COLD CLUMPS

    Yuan, Jinghua; Li, Jin Zeng; Liu, Hong-Li [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Wu, Yuefang; Chen, Ping; Hu, Runjie [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Liu, Tie [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Zhang, Tianwei [Peking University Health Science Center, Xueyuan Road 38th, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Meng, Fanyi [Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, D-50937 (Germany); Wang, Ke, E-mail: ywu@pku.edu.cn [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany)

    2016-03-20

    We present the first survey of dense gas toward Planck Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCCs). Observations in the J = 1–0 transitions of HCO{sup +} and HCN toward 621 molecular cores associated with PGCCs were performed using the Purple Mountain Observatory’s 13.7 m telescope. Among them, 250 sources were detected, including 230 cores detected in HCO{sup +} and 158 in HCN. Spectra of the J = 1–0 transitions from {sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, and C{sup 18}O at the centers of the 250 cores were extracted from previous mapping observations to construct a multi-line data set. The significantly low detection rate of asymmetric double-peaked profiles, together with the good consistency among central velocities of CO, HCO{sup +}, and HCN spectra, suggests that the CO-selected Planck cores are more quiescent than classical star-forming regions. The small difference between line widths of C{sup 18}O and HCN indicates that the inner regions of CO-selected Planck cores are no more turbulent than the exterior. The velocity-integrated intensities and abundances of HCO{sup +} are positively correlated with those of HCN, suggesting that these two species are well coupled and chemically connected. The detected abundances of both HCO{sup +} and HCN are significantly lower than values in other low- to high-mass star-forming regions. The low abundances may be due to beam dilution. On the basis of an inspection of the parameters given in the PGCC catalog, we suggest that there may be about 1000 PGCC objects that have a sufficient reservoir of dense gas to form stars.

  7. Molecular-cloud-scale Chemical Composition. II. Mapping Spectral Line Survey toward W3(OH) in the 3 mm Band

    Nishimura, Yuri [Institute of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Harada, Nanase [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Shimonishi, Takashi [Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, Aramakiazaaoba 6-3, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Sakai, Nami [RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aikawa, Yuri [Department of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kawamura, Akiko [Chile Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2017-10-10

    To study a molecular-cloud-scale chemical composition, we conducted a mapping spectral line survey toward the Galactic molecular cloud W3(OH), which is one of the most active star-forming regions in the Perseus arm. We conducted our survey through the use of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope, and observed the area of 16′ × 16′, which corresponds to 9.0 pc × 9.0 pc. The observed frequency ranges are 87–91, 96–103, and 108–112 GHz. We prepared the spectrum averaged over the observed area, in which eight molecular species (CCH, HCN, HCO{sup +}, HNC, CS, SO, C{sup 18}O, and {sup 13}CO) are identified. On the other hand, the spectrum of the W3(OH) hot core observed at a 0.17 pc resolution shows the lines of various molecules such as OCS, H{sub 2}CS CH{sub 3}CCH, and CH{sub 3}CN in addition to the above species. In the spatially averaged spectrum, emission of the species concentrated just around the star-forming core, such as CH{sub 3}OH and HC{sub 3}N, is fainter than in the hot core spectrum, whereas emission of the species widely extended over the cloud such as CCH is relatively brighter. We classified the observed area into five subregions according to the integrated intensity of {sup 13}CO, and evaluated the contribution to the averaged spectrum from each subregion. The CCH, HCN, HCO{sup +}, and CS lines can be seen even in the spectrum of the subregion with the lowest {sup 13}CO integrated intensity range (<10 K km s{sup −1}). Thus, the contributions of the spatially extended emission is confirmed to be dominant in the spatially averaged spectrum.

  8. CO observations of southern high-latitude clouds

    Keto, E.R.; Myers, P.C.

    1986-01-01

    Results from a survey of 2.6 mm emission in the J = 1 to 0 transition of CO of clouds are reported for 15 high Galactic latitude clouds and three clouds located on the fringe of a large molecular cloud in the Chameleon dark cloud complex. The line widths, excitation temperatures, sizes, and n(CO)/N(H2) ratio of these clouds are similar to those seen in dark clouds. The densities, extinctions, and masses of the high-latitude clouds are one order of magnitude less than those found in dark clouds. For its size and velocity dispersion, the typical cloud has a mass of at least 10 times less than that needed to bind the cloud by self-gravity alone. External pressures are needed to maintain the typical cloud in equilibrium, and these values are consistent with several estimates of the intercloud pressure. 32 references

  9. MAGNETIC FIELD OF THE VELA C MOLECULAR CLOUD

    Kusune, Takayoshi; Sugitani, Koji [Graduate School of Natural Sciences, Nagoya City University, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8501 (Japan); Nakamura, Fumitaka; Tamura, Motohide [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Watanabe, Makoto [Department of Applied Physics, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-cho, Okayama-city, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Kwon, Jungmi [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yohinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Sato, Shuji, E-mail: t_kusune@nsc.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)

    2016-10-20

    We have performed extensive near-infrared ( JHK {sub s}) imaging polarimetry toward the Vela C molecular cloud, which covers the five high-density sub-regions (North, Centre-Ridge, Centre-Nest, South-Ridge, and South-Nest) with distinct morphological characteristics. The obtained polarization vector map shows that three of these sub-regions have distinct plane-of-the-sky (POS) magnetic-field characteristics according to the morphological characteristics. (1) In the Centre-Ridge sub-region, a dominating ridge, the POS magnetic field is mostly perpendicular to the ridge. (2) In the Centre-Nest sub-region, a structure having a slightly extended nest of filaments, the POS magnetic field is nearly parallel to its global elongation. (3) In the South-Nest sub-region, which has a network of small filaments, the POS magnetic field appears to be chaotic. By applying the Chandrasekhar–Fermi method, we derived the POS magnetic field strength as ∼70–310 μ G in the Centre-Ridge, Centre-Nest, and South-Ridge sub-regions. In the South-Nest sub-region, the dispersion of polarization angles is too large to apply the C-F method. Because the velocity dispersion in this sub-region is not greater than those in the other sub-regions, we suggest that the magnetic field in this sub-region is weaker than those in other sub-regions. We also discuss the relationship between the POS magnetic field (configuration and strength) and the cloud structure of each sub-region.

  10. MAGNETIC FIELD OF THE VELA C MOLECULAR CLOUD

    Kusune, Takayoshi; Sugitani, Koji; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Tamura, Motohide; Watanabe, Makoto; Kwon, Jungmi; Sato, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    We have performed extensive near-infrared ( JHK s ) imaging polarimetry toward the Vela C molecular cloud, which covers the five high-density sub-regions (North, Centre-Ridge, Centre-Nest, South-Ridge, and South-Nest) with distinct morphological characteristics. The obtained polarization vector map shows that three of these sub-regions have distinct plane-of-the-sky (POS) magnetic-field characteristics according to the morphological characteristics. (1) In the Centre-Ridge sub-region, a dominating ridge, the POS magnetic field is mostly perpendicular to the ridge. (2) In the Centre-Nest sub-region, a structure having a slightly extended nest of filaments, the POS magnetic field is nearly parallel to its global elongation. (3) In the South-Nest sub-region, which has a network of small filaments, the POS magnetic field appears to be chaotic. By applying the Chandrasekhar–Fermi method, we derived the POS magnetic field strength as ∼70–310 μ G in the Centre-Ridge, Centre-Nest, and South-Ridge sub-regions. In the South-Nest sub-region, the dispersion of polarization angles is too large to apply the C-F method. Because the velocity dispersion in this sub-region is not greater than those in the other sub-regions, we suggest that the magnetic field in this sub-region is weaker than those in other sub-regions. We also discuss the relationship between the POS magnetic field (configuration and strength) and the cloud structure of each sub-region.

  11. Observational calibration of the projection factor of Cepheids. IV. Period-projection factor relation of Galactic and Magellanic Cloud Cepheids

    Gallenne, A.; Kervella, P.; Mérand, A.; Pietrzyński, G.; Gieren, W.; Nardetto, N.; Trahin, B.

    2017-11-01

    Context. The Baade-Wesselink (BW) method, which combines linear and angular diameter variations, is the most common method to determine the distances to pulsating stars. However, the projection factor, p-factor, used to convert radial velocities into pulsation velocities, is still poorly calibrated. This parameter is critical on the use of this technique, and often leads to 5-10% uncertainties on the derived distances. Aims: We focus on empirically measuring the p-factor of a homogeneous sample of 29 LMC and 10 SMC Cepheids for which an accurate average distances were estimated from eclipsing binary systems. Methods: We used the SPIPS algorithm, which is an implementation of the BW technique. Unlike other conventional methods, SPIPS combines all observables, i.e. radial velocities, multi-band photometry and interferometry into a consistent physical modelling to estimate the parameters of the stars. The large number and their redundancy insure its robustness and improves the statistical precision. Results: We successfully estimated the p-factor of several Magellanic Cloud Cepheids. Combined with our previous Galactic results, we find the following P-p relation: -0.08± 0.04(log P-1.18) + 1.24± 0.02. We find no evidence of a metallicity dependent p-factor. We also derive a new calibration of the period-radius relation, log R = 0.684± 0.007(log P-0.517) + 1.489± 0.002, with an intrinsic dispersion of 0.020. We detect an infrared excess for all stars at 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm, which might be the signature of circumstellar dust. We measure a mean offset of Δm3.6 = 0.057 ± 0.006 mag and Δm4.5 = 0.065 ± 0.008 mag. Conclusions: We provide a new P-p relation based on a multi-wavelength fit that can be used for the distance scale calibration from the BW method. The dispersion is due to the LMC and SMC width we took into account because individual Cepheids distances are unknown. The new P-R relation has a small intrinsic dispersion: 4.5% in radius. This precision will

  12. Biogenic, urban, and wildfire influences on the molecular composition of dissolved organic compounds in cloud water

    Cook, Ryan D.; Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Peng, Zhuoyu; Boone, Eric; Chu, Rosalie K.; Dukett, James E.; Gunsch, Matthew J.; Zhang, Wuliang; Tolic, Nikola; Laskin, Alexander; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2017-12-01

    Organic aerosol formation and transformation occurs within aqueous aerosol and cloud droplets, yet little is known about the composition of high molecular weight organic compounds in cloud water. Cloud water samples collected at Whiteface Mountain, New York, during August-September 2014 were analyzed by ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry to investigate the molecular composition of dissolved organic carbon, with a focus on sulfur- and nitrogen-containing compounds. Organic molecular composition was evaluated in the context of cloud water inorganic ion concentrations, pH, and total organic carbon concentrations to gain insights into the sources and aqueous-phase processes of the observed high molecular weight organic compounds. Cloud water acidity was positively correlated with the average oxygen : carbon ratio of the organic constituents, suggesting the possibility for aqueous acid-catalyzed (prior to cloud droplet activation or during/after cloud droplet evaporation) and/or radical (within cloud droplets) oxidation processes. Many tracer compounds recently identified in laboratory studies of bulk aqueous-phase reactions were identified in the cloud water. Organosulfate compounds, with both biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compound precursors, were detected for cloud water samples influenced by air masses that had traveled over forested and populated areas. Oxidation products of long-chain (C10-12) alkane precursors were detected during urban influence. Influence of Canadian wildfires resulted in increased numbers of identified sulfur-containing compounds and oligomeric species, including those formed through aqueous-phase reactions involving methylglyoxal. Light-absorbing aqueous-phase products of syringol and guaiacol oxidation were observed in the wildfire-influenced samples, and dinitroaromatic compounds were observed in all cloud water samples (wildfire, biogenic, and urban-influenced). Overall, the cloud water molecular composition depended on

  13. Molecular clouds toward the super star cluster NGC 3603; possible evidence for a cloud-cloud collision in triggering the cluster formation

    Fukui, Y.; Ohama, A.; Hanaoka, N.; Furukawa, N.; Torii, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Fukuda, T.; Soga, S.; Moribe, N.; Kuroda, Y.; Hayakawa, T.; Kuwahara, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Okuda, T. [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Dawson, J. R. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Sandy Bay Campus, Churchill Avenue, Sandy Bay, TAS 7005 (Australia); Mizuno, N.; Kawamura, A. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Onishi, T.; Maezawa, H. [Department of Astrophysics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Mizuno, A., E-mail: fukui@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Solar-terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

    2014-01-01

    We present new large field observations of molecular clouds with NANTEN2 toward the super star cluster NGC 3603 in the transitions {sup 12}CO(J = 2-1, J = 1-0) and {sup 13}CO(J = 2-1, J = 1-0). We suggest that two molecular clouds at 13 km s{sup –1} and 28 km s{sup –1} are associated with NGC 3603 as evidenced by higher temperatures toward the H II region, as well as morphological correspondence. The mass of the clouds is too small to gravitationally bind them, given their relative motion of ∼20 km s{sup –1}. We suggest that the two clouds collided with each other 1 Myr ago to trigger the formation of the super star cluster. This scenario is able to explain the origin of the highest mass stellar population in the cluster, which is as young as 1 Myr and is segregated within the central sub-pc of the cluster. This is the second super star cluster along with Westerlund 2 where formation may have been triggered by a cloud-cloud collision.

  14. Clustering the Orion B giant molecular cloud based on its molecular emission

    Bron, Emeric; Daudon, Chloé; Pety, Jérôme; Levrier, François; Gerin, Maryvonne; Gratier, Pierre; Orkisz, Jan H.; Guzman, Viviana; Bardeau, Sébastien; Goicoechea, Javier R.; Liszt, Harvey; Öberg, Karin; Peretto, Nicolas; Sievers, Albrecht; Tremblin, Pascal

    2018-02-01

    Context. Previous attempts at segmenting molecular line maps of molecular clouds have focused on using position-position-velocity data cubes of a single molecular line to separate the spatial components of the cloud. In contrast, wide field spectral imaging over a large spectral bandwidth in the (sub)mm domain now allows one to combine multiple molecular tracers to understand the different physical and chemical phases that constitute giant molecular clouds (GMCs). Aims: We aim at using multiple tracers (sensitive to different physical processes and conditions) to segment a molecular cloud into physically/chemically similar regions (rather than spatially connected components), thus disentangling the different physical/chemical phases present in the cloud. Methods: We use a machine learning clustering method, namely the Meanshift algorithm, to cluster pixels with similar molecular emission, ignoring spatial information. Clusters are defined around each maximum of the multidimensional probability density function (PDF) of the line integrated intensities. Simple radiative transfer models were used to interpret the astrophysical information uncovered by the clustering analysis. Results: A clustering analysis based only on the J = 1-0 lines of three isotopologues of CO proves sufficient to reveal distinct density/column density regimes (nH 100 cm-3, 500 cm-3, and >1000 cm-3), closely related to the usual definitions of diffuse, translucent and high-column-density regions. Adding two UV-sensitive tracers, the J = 1-0 line of HCO+ and the N = 1-0 line of CN, allows us to distinguish two clearly distinct chemical regimes, characteristic of UV-illuminated and UV-shielded gas. The UV-illuminated regime shows overbright HCO+ and CN emission, which we relate to a photochemical enrichment effect. We also find a tail of high CN/HCO+ intensity ratio in UV-illuminated regions. Finer distinctions in density classes (nH 7 × 103 cm-3, 4 × 104 cm-3) for the densest regions are also

  15. CLOUD–CLOUD COLLISION AS A TRIGGER OF THE HIGH-MASS STAR FORMATION: A MOLECULAR LINE STUDY IN RCW 120

    Torii, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Hattori, Y.; Sano, H.; Ohama, A.; Yamamoto, H.; Tachihara, K.; Soga, S.; Shimizu, S.; Fukui, Y. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Okuda, T.; Mizuno, N. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Onishi, T. [Department of Astrophysics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Nakaku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Mizuno, A., E-mail: torii@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

    2015-06-10

    RCW 120 is a Galactic H ii region that has a beautiful ring shape that is bright in the infrared. Our new CO J = 1–0 and J = 3–2 observations performed with the NANTEN2, Mopra, and ASTE telescopes have revealed that two molecular clouds with a velocity separation of 20 km s{sup −1} are both physically associated with RCW 120. The cloud at −8 km s{sup −1} apparently traces the infrared ring, while the other cloud at −28 km s{sup −1} is distributed just outside the opening of the infrared ring, interacting with the H ii region as suggested by the high kinetic temperature of the molecular gas and by the complementary distribution with the ionized gas. A spherically expanding shell driven by the H ii region is usually considered to be the origin of the observed ring structure in RCW 120. Our observations, however, indicate no evidence of the expanding motion in the velocity space, which is inconsistent with the expanding shell model. We postulate an alternative that, by applying the model introduced by Habe and Ohta, the exciting O star in RCW 120 was formed by a collision between the present two clouds at a collision velocity of ∼30 km s{sup −1}. In the model, the observed infrared ring can be interpreted as the cavity created in the larger cloud by the collision, whose inner surface is illuminated by the strong ultraviolet radiation after the birth of the O star. We discuss that the present cloud–cloud collision scenario explains the observed signatures of RCW 120, i.e., its ring morphology, coexistence of the two clouds and their large velocity separation, and absence of the expanding motion.

  16. Synthetic CO, H2 and H I surveys of the second galactic quadrant, and the properties of molecular gas

    Duarte-Cabral, A.; Acreman, D. M.; Dobbs, C. L.; Mottram, J. C.; Gibson, S. J.; Brunt, C. M.; Douglas, K. A.

    2015-03-01

    We present CO, H2, H I and HISA (H I self-absorption) distributions from a set of simulations of grand design spirals including stellar feedback, self-gravity, heating and cooling. We replicate the emission of the second galactic quadrant by placing the observer inside the modelled galaxies and post-process the simulations using a radiative transfer code, so as to create synthetic observations. We compare the synthetic data cubes to observations of the second quadrant of the Milky Way to test the ability of the current models to reproduce the basic chemistry of the Galactic interstellar medium (ISM), as well as to test how sensitive such galaxy models are to different recipes of chemistry and/or feedback. We find that models which include feedback and self-gravity can reproduce the production of CO with respect to H2 as observed in our Galaxy, as well as the distribution of the material perpendicular to the Galactic plane. While changes in the chemistry/feedback recipes do not have a huge impact on the statistical properties of the chemistry in the simulated galaxies, we find that the inclusion of both feedback and self-gravity are crucial ingredients, as our test without feedback failed to reproduce all of the observables. Finally, even though the transition from H2 to CO seems to be robust, we find that all models seem to underproduce molecular gas, and have a lower molecular to atomic gas fraction than is observed. Nevertheless, our fiducial model with feedback and self-gravity has shown to be robust in reproducing the statistical properties of the basic molecular gas components of the ISM in our Galaxy.

  17. Observations of far-infrared molecular emission lines from the Orion molecular cloud

    Viscuso, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Orion Nebula has been the subject of intensive study for over one hundred years. Far-infrared (FIR) molecular line observations of CO in the shock region surrounding the infrared source IRc2 have suggested that the molecular hydrogen density in the shocked and post-shock gas is roughly 3 x 10 6 cm -3 . The temperature of this gas is on the order of 750-2000K. IRc2, like other nearby infrared sources within the Nebula, is thought to be a site of recent star formation. This object is apparently at the center of a massive bipolar molecular outflow of gas, which is producing a shock front where it meets the ambient molecular cloud surrounding IRc2. Study of such regions is important for the understanding of the chemical and physical processes that are involved in the formation of stars from molecular clouds. Recently, several far-infrared transitions among the low-lying levels of OH have been observed toward IRc2. OH is thought to be abundant, and it plays an important role in the chemical evolution of the shock and post-shock regions. The OH emission serves as a sensitive probe of the temperature and density for the shock-processed gas. A rigorous treatment of the radiative transfer of these measured transitions is performed using the escape probability formalism. From this analysis, the author determines the temperature of the OH-emitting region to be on the order of 40K. This suggests that the gas is part of the post-shock gas that has cooled sufficiently, most likely by way of radiative cooling by CO

  18. THE MASS-SIZE RELATION FROM CLOUDS TO CORES. I. A NEW PROBE OF STRUCTURE IN MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    Kauffmann, J.; Shetty, R.; Goodman, A. A.; Pillai, T.; Myers, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    We use a new contour-based map analysis technique to measure the mass and size of molecular cloud fragments continuously over a wide range of spatial scales (0.05 ≤ r/pc ≤ 10), i.e., from the scale of dense cores to those of entire clouds. The present paper presents the method via a detailed exploration of the Perseus molecular cloud. Dust extinction and emission data are combined to yield reliable scale-dependent measurements of mass. This scale-independent analysis approach is useful for several reasons. First, it provides a more comprehensive characterization of a map (i.e., not biased toward a particular spatial scale). Such a lack of bias is extremely useful for the joint analysis of many data sets taken with different spatial resolution. This includes comparisons between different cloud complexes. Second, the multi-scale mass-size data constitute a unique resource to derive slopes of mass-size laws (via power-law fits). Such slopes provide singular constraints on large-scale density gradients in clouds.

  19. Radiation-hydrodynamics of HII regions and molecular clouds

    Sandford, M.T. II; Whitaker, R.W.; Klein, R.I.

    1981-01-01

    Two-dimensional calculations of ionization-shock fronts surrounding neutral cloud clumps reveal that a radiation-driven implosion of the clump can occur. The implosion of a cloud clump results in the formation of density enhancements that may eventually form low mass stars. The smaller globules produced may become Herbig-Haro objects, or maser sources

  20. Color excesses, intrinsic colors, and absolute magnitudes of Galactic and Large Magellanic Cloud Wolf-Rayet stars

    Vacca, W.D.; Torres-Dodgen, A.V.

    1990-01-01

    A new method of determining the color excesses of WR stars in the Galaxy and the LMC has been developed and is used to determine the excesses for 44 Galactic and 32 LMC WR stars. The excesses are combined with line-free, narrow-band spectrophotometry to derive intrinsic colors of the WR stars of nearly all spectral subtypes. No correlation of UV spectral index or intrinsic colors with spectral subtype is found for the samples of single WN or WC stars. There is evidence that early WN stars in the LMC have flatter UV continua and redder intrinsic colors than early WN stars in the Galaxy. No separation is found between the values derived for Galactic WC stars and those obtained for LMC WC stars. The intrinsic colors are compared with those calculated from model atmospheres of WR stars and generally good agreement is found. Absolute magnitudes are derived for WR stars in the LMC and for those Galactic WR stars located in clusters and associations for which there are reliable distance estimates. 78 refs

  1. Optical polarimetry and molecular line studies of L1157 dark molecular cloud

    Sharma, Ekta; Soam, Archana; Gopinathan, Maheswar

    2018-04-01

    Filaments are omnipresent in molecular clouds which are believed to fragment into cores. The detailed process of the evolution from filaments to cores depends critically on the physical conditions in the star forming region. This study aims at characterising gas motions using velocity structure and finding the dynamical importance of magnetic fields in the filament morphology. The plane-of-the-sky component of the magnetic field has been measured using optical polarization of the background stars. The orientation is found to be almost perpendicular to the filament implying its dynamical importance in the evolution of the cloud. Optical polarimetric results match very well with the sub millimetre polarization angles obtained in the inner core regions. The magnetic fields are found to have an orientation of 130° east with respect to north. The angular offset between the outflow axis and the magnetic field direction is found to be 25°. Values for parameters like the excitation temperature, optical depth and column densities have been derived using molecular lines. Optically thick lines show non-gaussian features. The non-thermal widths tell about the presence of turbulent motions whereas the C180 lines follow Gaussian features almost at all the locations observed in the filament.

  2. ATOMIC HYDROGEN IN A GALACTIC CENTER OUTFLOW

    McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Green, J. A.; Hill, A. S. [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Marsfield, NSW 2122 (Australia); Lockman, F. J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); Dickey, J. M. [School of Physics and Mathematics, University of Tasmania, TAS 7001 (Australia); Gaensler, B. M.; Green, A. J., E-mail: naomi.mcclure-griffiths@csiro.au [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2013-06-10

    We describe a population of small, high-velocity, atomic hydrogen clouds, loops, and filaments found above and below the disk near the Galactic center. The objects have a mean radius of 15 pc, velocity widths of {approx}14 km s{sup -1}, and are observed at |z| heights up to 700 pc. The velocity distribution of the clouds shows no signature of Galactic rotation. We propose a scenario where the clouds are associated with an outflow from a central star-forming region at the Galactic center. We discuss the clouds as entrained material traveling at {approx}200 km s{sup -1} in a Galactic wind.

  3. ATOMIC HYDROGEN IN A GALACTIC CENTER OUTFLOW

    McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Green, J. A.; Hill, A. S.; Lockman, F. J.; Dickey, J. M.; Gaensler, B. M.; Green, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a population of small, high-velocity, atomic hydrogen clouds, loops, and filaments found above and below the disk near the Galactic center. The objects have a mean radius of 15 pc, velocity widths of ∼14 km s –1 , and are observed at |z| heights up to 700 pc. The velocity distribution of the clouds shows no signature of Galactic rotation. We propose a scenario where the clouds are associated with an outflow from a central star-forming region at the Galactic center. We discuss the clouds as entrained material traveling at ∼200 km s –1 in a Galactic wind.

  4. A large catalog of accurate distances to molecular clouds from PS1 photometry

    Schlafly, E. F.; Rix, H.-W.; Martin, N. F. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Green, G.; Finkbeiner, D. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bell, E. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Tonry, J. L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Draper, P. W.; Metcalfe, N. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Price, P. A. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Distance measurements to molecular clouds are important but are often made separately for each cloud of interest, employing very different data and techniques. We present a large, homogeneous catalog of distances to molecular clouds, most of which are of unprecedented accuracy. We determine distances using optical photometry of stars along lines of sight toward these clouds, obtained from PanSTARRS-1. We simultaneously infer the reddenings and distances to these stars, tracking the full probability distribution function using a technique presented in Green et al. We fit these star-by-star measurements using a simple dust screen model to find the distance to each cloud. We thus estimate the distances to almost all of the clouds in the Magnani et al. catalog, as well as many other well-studied clouds, including Orion, Perseus, Taurus, Cepheus, Polaris, California, and Monoceros R2, avoiding only the inner Galaxy. Typical statistical uncertainties in the distances are 5%, though the systematic uncertainty stemming from the quality of our stellar models is about 10%. The resulting catalog is the largest catalog of accurate, directly measured distances to molecular clouds. Our distance estimates are generally consistent with available distance estimates from the literature, though in some cases the literature estimates are off by a factor of more than two.

  5. CO observations of a molecular cloud complex associated with the bright rim near VY Canis Majoris

    Lada, C.J.; Reid, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    Extensive CO observations of a large molecular cloud complex (approx. 15 pc) associated with a bright rim near the peculiar star VY CMa are presented. CO emission peaks in a region along and adjacent to the bright rim which forms the western border of the cloud complex. This emission abruptly decreases across the bright rim, and this decrease suggests a physical association of the rim with the cloud. The molecular complex is found to consist of two clouds which have different radial velocities and physical properties. The possibility that these two clouds may be in near-collision is discussed. The physical association of the bright rim with the cloud complex indicates that the clouds are at the same distance, 1.5 kpc, as the stars which excite the rim. Since VY CMa appears to be located at the tip of the bright rim and has a velocity similar to that of the molecular cloud complex and the stars of the cluster NGC 2362, it is concluded that VY CMa is also at the same distance. The resulting luminosity of VY CMa (5 x 10 5 L sub solar) indicates that the star is very massive, and places constraints on interpretation of its evolutionary state. 5 figures, 2 tables

  6. Molecular line observations of infrared dark clouds in the galaxy

    Finn, Susanna C.

    Although massive stars play many important roles in the universe, their formation is poorly understood. Recently, a class of interstellar clouds known as Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs) has been identified as likely progenitors of massive stars and clusters. These clouds are dense (nH 2 > 105 cm--3), cold (T Nessie Nebula," an extreme case of a filamentary IRDC, with predictions from the theory of the fluid instability and then expand the sample to other filamentary IRDCs. The observations are consistent with theoretical predictions of clump spacing, clump masses, and linear mass density. Fragmentation of filaments due to the sausage instability might be the dominant mode of star formation in the Universe.

  7. The molecular chemistry of diffuse and translucent clouds in the line-of-sight to Sgr B2: Absorption by simple organic and inorganic molecules in the GBT PRIMOS survey

    Corby, J. F.; McGuire, B. A.; Herbst, E.; Remijan, A. J.

    2018-02-01

    The 1-50 GHz PRebiotic Interstellar MOlecular Survey (PRIMOS) contains 50 molecular absorption lines observed in clouds located in the line-of-sight to Sgr B2(N). The line-of-sight material is associated with diffuse and translucent clouds located in the Galactic center, bar, and spiral arms in the disk. We measured the column densities and estimate abundances, relative to H2, of 11 molecules and additional isotopologues observed in this material. We used absorption by optically thin transitions of c-C3H2 to estimate the molecular hydrogen columns, and argue that this method is preferable to more commonly used methods. We discuss the kinematic structure and abundance patterns of small molecules including the sulfur-bearing species CS, SO, CCS, H2CS, and HCS+; oxygen-bearing molecules OH, SiO, and H2CO; and simple hydrocarbon molecules c-C3H2, l-C3H, and l-C3H+. Finally, we discuss the implications of the observed chemistry for the structure of the gas and dust in the ISM. Highlighted results include the following. First, whereas gas in the disk has a molecular hydrogen fraction of 0.65, clouds on the outer edge of the Galactic bar and in or near the Galactic center have molecular fractions of 0.85 and >0.9, respectively. Second, we observe trends in isotope ratios with Galactocentric distance; while carbon and silicon show enhancement of the rare isotopes at low Galactocentric distances, sulfur exhibits no trend with Galactocentric distance. We also determine that the ratio of c-C3H2/c-H13CCCH provides a good estimate of the 12C/13C ratio, whereas H2CO/H213CO exhibits fractionation. Third, we report the presence of l-C3H+ in diffuse clouds for the first time. Finally, we suggest that CS has an enhanced abundance within higher density clumps of material in the disk, and therefore may be diagnostic of cloud conditions. If this holds, the diffuse clouds in the Galactic disk contain multiple embedded hyperdensities in a clumpy structure, and the density profile is not

  8. THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. VIII. A MID-INFRARED KINEMATIC DISTANCE DISCRIMINATION METHOD

    Ellsworth-Bowers, Timothy P.; Glenn, Jason; Battersby, Cara; Ginsburg, Adam; Bally, John [CASA, University of Colorado, UCB 389, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Mairs, Steven [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC V8P 1A1 (Canada); Evans, Neal J. II [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Shirley, Yancy L., E-mail: timothy.ellsworthbowers@colorado.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    We present a new distance estimation method for dust-continuum-identified molecular cloud clumps. Recent (sub-)millimeter Galactic plane surveys have cataloged tens of thousands of these objects, plausible precursors to stellar clusters, but detailed study of their physical properties requires robust distance determinations. We derive Bayesian distance probability density functions (DPDFs) for 770 objects from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey in the Galactic longitude range 7. Degree-Sign 5 {<=} l {<=} 65 Degree-Sign . The DPDF formalism is based on kinematic distances, and uses any number of external data sets to place prior distance probabilities to resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity (KDA) for objects in the inner Galaxy. We present here priors related to the mid-infrared absorption of dust in dense molecular regions and the distribution of molecular gas in the Galactic disk. By assuming a numerical model of Galactic mid-infrared emission and simple radiative transfer, we match the morphology of (sub-)millimeter thermal dust emission with mid-infrared absorption to compute a prior DPDF for distance discrimination. Selecting objects first from (sub-)millimeter source catalogs avoids a bias towards the darkest infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) and extends the range of heliocentric distance probed by mid-infrared extinction and includes lower-contrast sources. We derive well-constrained KDA resolutions for 618 molecular cloud clumps, with approximately 15% placed at or beyond the tangent distance. Objects with mid-infrared contrast sufficient to be cataloged as IRDCs are generally placed at the near kinematic distance. Distance comparisons with Galactic Ring Survey KDA resolutions yield a 92% agreement. A face-on view of the Milky Way using resolved distances reveals sections of the Sagittarius and Scutum-Centaurus Arms. This KDA-resolution method for large catalogs of sources through the combination of (sub-)millimeter and mid-infrared observations of molecular

  9. Molecular clouds toward three Spitzer bubbles S116, S117, and S118: Evidence for a cloud-cloud collision which formed the three H II regions and a 10 pc scale molecular cavity

    Fukui, Yasuo; Ohama, Akio; Kohno, Mikito; Torii, Kazufumi; Fujita, Shinji; Hattori, Yusuke; Nishimura, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Tachihara, Kengo

    2018-05-01

    We carried out a molecular-line study toward the three Spitzer bubbles S116, S117, and S118, which show active formation of high-mass stars. We found molecular gas consisting of two components with a velocity difference of ˜5 km s-1. One of them, the small cloud, has a typical velocity of -63 km s-1 and the other, the large cloud, has one of -58 km s-1. The large cloud has a nearly circular intensity depression, the size of which is similar to that of the small cloud. We present an interpretation that its cavity was created by a collision between the two clouds and that this collision compressed the gas into a dense layer elongating along the western rim of the small cloud. In this scenario, the O stars including those in the three Spitzer bubbles were formed in the interface layer compressed by the collision. Assuming that the relative motion of the clouds has a tilt of 45° to the line of sight, we estimate that the collision continued for the last 1 Myr at a relative velocity of ˜10 km s-1. In the S116-S117-S118 system the H II regions are located outside of the cavity. This morphology is ascribed to the density-bound distribution of the large cloud which caused the H II regions to expand more easily toward the outer part of the large cloud than towards the inside of the cavity. The present case proves that a cloud-cloud collision creates a cavity without the action of O-star feedback, and suggests that the collision-compressed layer is highly filamentary.

  10. THE PHYSICAL CONDITIONS IN A PRE-SUPER STAR CLUSTER MOLECULAR CLOUD IN THE ANTENNAE GALAXIES

    Johnson, K. E.; Indebetouw, R.; Evans, A. S.; Leroy, A. K.; Brogan, C. L.; Hibbard, J.; Sheth, K.; Whitmore, B. C.

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of the physical conditions in an extreme molecular cloud in the Antennae merging galaxies. This cloud has properties consistant with those required to form a globular cluster. We have obtained ALMA CO and 870 μm observations of the Antennae galaxy system with ∼0.″5 resolution. This cloud stands out in the data with a radius of ≲24 pc and mass of >5 × 10 6 M ⊙ . The cloud appears capable of forming a globular cluster, but the lack of associated thermal radio emission indicates that star formation has not yet altered the environment. The lack of thermal radio emission places the cloud in an early stage of evolution, which we expect to be short-lived (≲1 Myr) and thus rare. Given its mass and kinetic energy, for the cloud to be confined (as its appearance strongly suggests) it must be subject to an external pressure of P/k B ≳ 10 8 K cm −3 –10,000 times higher than typical interstellar pressure. This would support theories that high pressures are required to form globular clusters and may explain why extreme environments like the Antennae are preferred environments for generating such objects. Given the cloud temperature of ∼25 K, the internal pressure must be dominated by non-thermal processes, most likely turbulence. We expect the molecular cloud to collapse and begin star formation in ≲1 Myr

  11. A simple approach to CO cooling in molecular clouds

    Whitworth, A. P.; Jaffa, S. E.

    2018-03-01

    Carbon monoxide plays an important role in interstellar molecular clouds, both as a coolant, and as a diagnostic molecule. However, a proper evaluation of the cooling rate due to CO requires a determination of the populations of many levels, the spontaneous and stimulated radiative de-excitation rates between these levels, and the transfer of the emitted multi-line radiation; additionally, this must be done for three isotopologues. It would be useful to have a simple analytic formulation that avoided these complications and the associated computational overhead; this could then be used in situations where CO plays an important role as a coolant, but the details of this role are not the main concern. We derive such a formulation here, by first considering the two asymptotic forms that obtain in the limits of (a) low volume-density and optical depth, and (b) high volume-density and optical depth. These forms are then combined in such a way as to fit the detailed numerical results from Goldsmith & Langer (1978, ApJ, 222, 881; hereafter GL78). The GL78 results cover low temperatures, and a range of physical conditions where the interplay of thermal and sub-thermal excitation, optical-depth effects, and the contributions from rare isotopologues, are all important. The fit is obtained using the Metropolis-Hastings method, and reproduces the results of GL78 well. It is a purely local and analytic function of state — specifically a function of the density, ρ, isothermal sound speed, a, CO abundance, XCO, and velocity divergence, ∇ṡυ. As an illustration of its use, we consider the cooling layer following a slow steady non-magnetic planar J-shock. We show that, in this idealised configuration, if the post-shock cooling is dominated by CO and its isotopologues, the thickness of the post-shock cooling layer is very small and approximately independent of the pre-shock velocity, υo, or pre-shock isothermal sound speed, ao.

  12. METHANOL IN THE STARLESS CORE, TAURUS MOLECULAR CLOUD-1

    Soma, Tatsuya; Sakai, Nami; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi, E-mail: soma@taurus.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    To explore the formation mechanisms of gas phase CH{sub 3}OH in cold starless cores, we have conducted high spectral resolution observations toward the cyanopolyyne peak of Taurus Molecular Cloud-1 (TMC-1 CP) with the IRAM 30 m telescope, the Green Bank Telescope, and the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. The spectral lines of CH{sub 3}OH toward TMC-1 CP are found to have a double-peaked profile separated by 0.5 km s{sup −1}. Since the double-peaked profile is observed for {sup 13}CH{sub 3}OH, it is not due to optical depth and/or self-absorption effects. The spectral line profile of CH{sub 3}OH is much different from those of C{sup 34}S, C{sub 3}S, and HC{sub 7}N observed toward this source. The H{sub 2} densities of the emitting region of CH{sub 3}OH for the blueshifted and redshifted components are derived to be (1.7 ± 0.5) × 10{sup 4} cm{sup −3} and (4.3 ± 1.2) × 10{sup 4} cm{sup −3}, respectively. These densities are similar to or slightly lower than those found for the other molecules. These results suggest a chemical differentiation between CH{sub 3}OH and the other molecules, which has indeed been confirmed by mapping observations of the CH{sub 3}OH and C{sup 34}S lines. These results are consistent with the general idea that CH{sub 3}OH is formed on dust grains and is liberated into the gas phase by non-thermal desorption. The grain-surface origin of CH{sub 3}OH is further confirmed by the CH{sub 3}OH/{sup 13}CH{sub 3}OH ratio. Weak shocks caused by accreting diffuse gas to the TMC-1 filament, photoevaporation caused by cosmic-ray induced UV radiation, and the desorption of excess reaction energy in the formation of CH{sub 3}OH on dust grains are discussed for the desorption mechanisms.

  13. Ionization impact on molecular clouds and star formation: Numerical simulations and observations

    Tremblin, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    At all the scales of Astrophysics, the impact of the ionization from massive stars is a crucial issue. At the galactic scale, the ionization can regulate star formation by supporting molecular clouds against gravitational collapse and at the stellar scale, indications point toward a possible birth place of the Solar System close to massive stars. At the molecular cloud scale, it is clear that the hot ionized gas compresses the surrounding cold gas, leading to the formation of pillars, globules, and shells of dense gas in which some young stellar objects are observed. What are the formation mechanisms of these structures? Are the formation of these young stellar objects triggered or would have they formed anyway? Do massive stars have an impact on the distribution of the surrounding gas? Do they have an impact on the mass distribution of stars (the initial mass function, IMF)? This thesis aims at shedding some light on these questions, by focusing especially on the formation of the structures between the cold and the ionized gas. We present the state of the art of the theoretical and observational works on ionized regions (H II regions) and we introduce the numerical tools that have been developed to model the ionization in the hydrodynamic simulations with turbulence performed with the HERACLES code. Thanks to the simulations, we present a new model for the formation of pillars based on the curvature and collapse of the dense shell on itself and a new model for the formations of cometary globules based on the turbulence of the cold gas. Several diagnostics have been developed to test these new models in the observations. If pillars are formed by the collapse of the dense shell on itself, the velocity spectrum of a nascent pillar presents a large spectra with a red-shifted and a blue-shifted components that are caused by the foreground and background parts of the shell that collapse along the line of sight. If cometary globules emerge because of the turbulence of

  14. Compression and ablation of the photo-irradiated molecular cloud the Orion Bar.

    Goicoechea, Javier R; Pety, Jérôme; Cuadrado, Sara; Cernicharo, José; Chapillon, Edwige; Fuente, Asunción; Gerin, Maryvonne; Joblin, Christine; Marcelino, Nuria; Pilleri, Paolo

    2016-09-08

    The Orion Bar is the archetypal edge-on molecular cloud surface illuminated by strong ultraviolet radiation from nearby massive stars. Our relative closeness to the Orion nebula (about 1,350 light years away from Earth) means that we can study the effects of stellar feedback on the parental cloud in detail. Visible-light observations of the Orion Bar show that the transition between the hot ionized gas and the warm neutral atomic gas (the ionization front) is spatially well separated from the transition between atomic and molecular gas (the dissociation front), by about 15 arcseconds or 6,200 astronomical units (one astronomical unit is the Earth-Sun distance). Static equilibrium models used to interpret previous far-infrared and radio observations of the neutral gas in the Orion Bar (typically at 10-20 arcsecond resolution) predict an inhomogeneous cloud structure comprised of dense clumps embedded in a lower-density extended gas component. Here we report one-arcsecond-resolution millimetre-wave images that allow us to resolve the molecular cloud surface. In contrast to stationary model predictions, there is no appreciable offset between the peak of the H 2 vibrational emission (delineating the H/H 2 transition) and the edge of the observed CO and HCO + emission. This implies that the H/H 2 and C + /C/CO transition zones are very close. We find a fragmented ridge of high-density substructures, photoablative gas flows and instabilities at the molecular cloud surface. The results suggest that the cloud edge has been compressed by a high-pressure wave that is moving into the molecular cloud, demonstrating that dynamical and non-equilibrium effects are important for the cloud evolution.

  15. Large-scale CO J = 1-0 observations of the giant molecular cloud associated with the infrared ring N35 with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope

    Torii, Kazufumi; Fujita, Shinji; Matsuo, Mitsuhiro; Nishimura, Atsushi; Kohno, Mikito; Kuriki, Mika; Tsuda, Yuya; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Umemoto, Tomofumi; Kuno, Nario; Hattori, Yusuke; Yoshiike, Satoshi; Ohama, Akio; Tachihara, Kengo; Shima, Kazuhiro; Habe, Asao; Fukui, Yasuo

    2018-05-01

    We report an observational study of the giant molecular cloud (GMC) associated with the Galactic infrared ring-like structure N35 and two nearby H II regions G024.392+00.072 (H II region A) and G024.510-00.060 (H II region B), using the new CO J = 1-0 data obtained as a part of the FOREST Unbiased Galactic Plane Imaging survey with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope (FUGIN) project at a spatial resolution of 21″. Our CO data reveals that the GMC, with a total molecular mass of 2.1 × 106 M⊙, has two velocity components of over ˜10-15 km s-1. The majority of molecular gas in the GMC is included in the lower-velocity component (LVC) at ˜110-114 km s-1, while the higher-velocity components (HVCs) at ˜118-126 km s-1 consist of three smaller molecular clouds which are located near the three H II regions. The LVC and HVCs show spatially complementary distributions along the line-of-sight, despite large velocity separations of ˜5-15 km s-1, and are connected in velocity by the CO emission with intermediate intensities. By comparing the observations with simulations, we discuss a scenario where collisions of the three HVCs with the LVC at velocities of ˜10-15 km s-1 can provide an interpretation of these two observational signatures. The intermediate-velocity features between the LVC and HVCs can be understood as broad bridge features, which indicate the turbulent motion of the gas at the collision interfaces, while the spatially complementary distributions represent the cavities created in the LVC by the HVCs through the collisions. Our model indicates that the three H II regions were formed after the onset of the collisions, and it is therefore suggested that the high-mass star formation in the GMC was triggered by the collisions.

  16. Hi-GAL: The Herschel Infrared Galactic Plane Survey

    Molinari, S.; Swinyard, B.; Bally, J.; Barlow, M.; Bernard, J.-P.; Martin, P.; Moore, T.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Plume, R.; Testi, L.; Zavagno, A.; Abergel, A.; Ali, B.; André, P.; Baluteau, J.-P.

    2010-01-01

    Hi-GAL, the Herschel infrared Galactic Plane Survey, is an Open Time Key Project of the Herschel Space Observatory. It will make an unbiased photometric survey of the inner Galactic plane by mapping a 2° wide strip in the longitude range ∣l∣ < 60° in five wavebands between 70 μm and 500 μm. The aim of Hi-GAL is to detect the earliest phases of the formation of molecular clouds and high-mass stars and to use the optimum combination of Herschel wavelength coverage, sensitivity, mapping strategy...

  17. HERSCHEL SURVEY OF GALACTIC OH{sup +}, H{sub 2}O{sup +}, AND H{sub 3}O{sup +}: PROBING THE MOLECULAR HYDROGEN FRACTION AND COSMIC-RAY IONIZATION RATE

    Indriolo, Nick; Neufeld, D. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gerin, M.; Falgarone, E. [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, Ecole Normale Supérieure, PSL Research University, CNRS, UMR8112, F-75014 Paris (France); Schilke, P.; Chambers, E. T.; Ossenkopf, V. [I. Physikalisches Institut der Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, 50937 Köln (Germany); Benz, A. O. [Institute of Astronomy, ETH Zürich (Switzerland); Winkel, B.; Menten, K. M. [MPI für Radioastronomie, Bonn (Germany); Black, John H.; Persson, C. M. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-43992 Onsala (Sweden); Bruderer, S.; Van Dishoeck, E. F. [Max Planck Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Godard, B.; Lis, D. C. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR8112, LERMA, F-75005 Paris (France); Goicoechea, J. R. [Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), E-28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Gupta, H. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sonnentrucker, P. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Van der Tak, F. F. S. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Landleven 12, 9747 AD Groningen (Netherlands); and others

    2015-02-10

    In diffuse interstellar clouds the chemistry that leads to the formation of the oxygen-bearing ions OH{sup +}, H{sub 2}O{sup +}, and H{sub 3}O{sup +} begins with the ionization of atomic hydrogen by cosmic rays, and continues through subsequent hydrogen abstraction reactions involving H{sub 2}. Given these reaction pathways, the observed abundances of these molecules are useful in constraining both the total cosmic-ray ionization rate of atomic hydrogen (ζ{sub H}) and molecular hydrogen fraction (f{sub H{sub 2}}). We present observations targeting transitions of OH{sup +}, H{sub 2}O{sup +}, and H{sub 3}O{sup +} made with the Herschel Space Observatory along 20 Galactic sight lines toward bright submillimeter continuum sources. Both OH{sup +} and H{sub 2}O{sup +} are detected in absorption in multiple velocity components along every sight line, but H{sub 3}O{sup +} is only detected along 7 sight lines. From the molecular abundances we compute f{sub H{sub 2}} in multiple distinct components along each line of sight, and find a Gaussian distribution with mean and standard deviation 0.042 ± 0.018. This confirms previous findings that OH{sup +} and H{sub 2}O{sup +} primarily reside in gas with low H{sub 2} fractions. We also infer ζ{sub H} throughout our sample, and find a lognormal distribution with mean log (ζ{sub H}) = –15.75 (ζ{sub H} = 1.78 × 10{sup –16} s{sup –1}) and standard deviation 0.29 for gas within the Galactic disk, but outside of the Galactic center. This is in good agreement with the mean and distribution of cosmic-ray ionization rates previously inferred from H{sub 3}{sup +} observations. Ionization rates in the Galactic center tend to be 10-100 times larger than found in the Galactic disk, also in accord with prior studies.

  18. Interstellar ice grains in the Taurus molecular clouds

    Whittet, D.C.B.; Bode, M.F.; Baines, D.W.T.; Evans, A.

    1983-01-01

    Observations made in November 1981 using the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) at Mauna Kea of the 3 μm ice absorption feature in the spectra of several obscured stars in the Taurus interstellar clouds are reported. The feature correlated in strength with extinction at visual wavelengths (Asub(v)), and is present in stars with Asub(v) as low as 4-6 mag. Ice may be widespread in the Taurus clouds, vindicating ideas on grain composition and growth first reported nearly 50 yr ago. (author)

  19. STAR FORMATION IN THE MOLECULAR CLOUD ASSOCIATED WITH THE MONKEY HEAD NEBULA: SEQUENTIAL OR SPONTANEOUS?

    Chibueze, James O.; Imura, Kenji; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Handa, Toshihiro; Kamezaki, Tatsuya; Yamaguchi, Yoshiyuki [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Nagayama, Takumi; Sunada, Kazuyoshi [Mizusawa VLBI Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Fujisawa, Kenta [Department of Physics and Informatics, Faculty of Science, Yamaguchi University, Yoshida 1677-1, Yamaguchi 753-8512 (Japan); Nakano, Makoto [Faculty of Education and Welfare Science, Oita University, Oita 870-1192 (Japan); Sekido, Mamoru, E-mail: james@milkyway.sci.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Kashima Space Research Center, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 893-1 Hirai, Kashima, Ibaraki 314-8501 (Japan)

    2013-01-01

    We mapped the (1,1), (2,2), and (3,3) lines of NH{sub 3} toward the molecular cloud associated with the Monkey Head Nebula (MHN) with a 1.'6 angular resolution using a Kashima 34 m telescope operated by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT). The kinetic temperature of the molecular gas is 15-30 K in the eastern part and 30-50 K in the western part. The warmer gas is confined to a small region close to the compact H II region S252A. The cooler gas is extended over the cloud even near the extended H II region, the MHN. We made radio continuum observations at 8.4 GHz using the Yamaguchi 32 m radio telescope. The resultant map shows no significant extension from the H{alpha} image. This means that the molecular cloud is less affected by the MHN, suggesting that the molecular cloud did not form by the expanding shock of the MHN. Although the spatial distribution of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and Two Micron All Sky Survey point sources suggests that triggered low- and intermediate-mass star formation took place locally around S252A, but the exciting star associated with it should be formed spontaneously in the molecular cloud.

  20. Mapping of the extinction in Giant Molecular Clouds using optical star counts

    Cambresy, L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents large scale extinction maps of most nearby Giant Molecular Clouds of the Galaxy (Lupus, rho-Ophiuchus, Scorpius, Coalsack, Taurus, Chamaeleon, Musca, Corona Australis, Serpens, IC 5146, Vela, Orion, Monoceros R1 and R2, Rosette, Carina) derived from a star count method using an adaptive grid and a wavelet decomposition applied to the optical data provided by the USNO-Precision Measuring Machine. The distribution of the extinction in the clouds leads to estimate their total...

  1. A Catalog of Distances to Molecular Clouds from Pan-STARRS1

    Schlafly, Eddie; Green, G.; Finkbeiner, D. P.; Rix, H.

    2014-01-01

    We present a catalog of distances to molecular clouds, derived from PanSTARRS-1 photometry. We simultaneously infer the full probability distribution function of reddening and distance of the stars towards these clouds using the technique of Green et al. (2013) (see neighboring poster). We fit the resulting measurements using a simple dust screen model to infer the distance to each cloud. The result is a large, homogeneous catalog of distances to molecular clouds. For clouds with heliocentric distances greater than about 200 pc, typical statistical uncertainties in the distances are 5%, with systematic uncertainty stemming from the quality of our stellar models of about 10%. We have applied this analysis to many of the most well-studied clouds in the δ > -30° sky, including Orion, California, Taurus, Perseus, and Cepheus. We have also studied the entire catalog of Magnani, Blitz, and Mundy (1985; MBM), though for about half of those clouds we can provide only upper limits on the distances. We compare our distances with distances from the literature, when available, and find good agreement.

  2. Laboratory and modeling studies of chemistry in dense molecular clouds

    Huntress, W. T., Jr.; Prasad, S. S.; Mitchell, G. F.

    1980-01-01

    A chemical evolutionary model with a large number of species and a large chemical library is used to examine the principal chemical processes in interstellar clouds. Simple chemical equilibrium arguments show the potential for synthesis of very complex organic species by ion-molecule radiative association reactions.

  3. Clumpy molecular clouds: A dynamic model self-consistently regulated by T Tauri star formation

    Norman, C.; Silk, J.

    1980-01-01

    A new model is proposed which can account for the longevity, energetics, and dynamical structure of dark molecular clouds. It seems clear that the kinetic and gravitational energy in macroscopic cloud motions cannot account for the energetic of many molecular clouds. A stellar energy source must evidently be tapped, and infrared observations indicate that one cannot utilize massive stars in dark clouds. Recent observations of a high space density of T Tauri stars in some dark clouds provide the basis for our assertion that high-velocity winds from these low-mass pre--main-sequence stars provide a continuous dynamic input into molecular clouds. The T Tauri winds sweep up shells of gas, the intersections or collisions of which form dense clumps embedded in a more rarefied interclump medium. Observations constrain the clumps to be ram-pressure confined, but at the relatively low Mach numbers, continuous leakage occurs. This mass input into the interclump medium leads to the existence of two phases; a dense, cold phase (clumps of density approx.10 4 --10 5 cm -3 and temperature approx.10 K) and a warm, more diffuse, interclump medium (ICM, of density approx.10 3 --10 4 cm -3 and temperature approx.30 K). Clump collisions lead to coalescence, and the evolution of the mass spectrum of clumps is studied

  4. GREEN BANK TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE NH3 (3, 3) AND (6, 6) TRANSITIONS TOWARD SAGITTARIUS A MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    Minh, Young Chol; Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Ho, Paul T. P.; Hsieh, Pei-Ying; Su, Yu-Nung; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Wright, Melvyn

    2013-01-01

    Ammonia (3, 3) and (6, 6) transitions have been observed using the Green Bank Telescope toward the Sgr A region. The gas is mainly concentrated in 50 km s –1 and 20 km s –1 clouds located in a plane inclined to the galactic plane. These 'main' clouds appear to be virialized and influenced by the expansion of the supernova remnant Sgr A East. The observed emission shows very complicated features in the morphology and velocity structure. Gaussian multi-component fittings of the observed spectra revealed that various 'streaming' gas components exist all over the observed region. These components include those previously known as 'streamers' and 'ridges', but most of these components appear not to be directly connected to the major gas condensations (the 50 km s –1 and 20 km s –1 clouds). They are apparently located out of the galactic plane, and they may have a different origin than the major gas condensations. Some of the streaming components are expected to be sources that feed the circumnuclear disk of our Galactic center directly and episodically. They may also evolve differently than major gas condensations under the influence of the activities of the Galactic center

  5. CO and IRAS detection of an intermediate-velocity cloud

    Desert, F.X.; Bazell, D.; Blitz, L.

    1990-01-01

    In the course of a radio survey of high-Galactic-latitude clouds, CO emission was detected at the position l = 210.8 deg and b = 63.1 deg with an LSR velocity of -39 km/sec. This molecular cloud constitutes the third one with an unusually large absolute velocity at these latitudes, as compared with the 5.4-km/sec cloud-to-cloud velocity dispersion of the high-latitude molecular clouds. The position is coincident with an H I intermediate-velocity cloud (GHL 11, Verschuur H, OLM 268) and the IR-excess cloud 306 in the list by Desert et al. (1988). This cloud is clearly detected at all four IRAS wavelengths and has warmer colors than the local ISM. 27 refs

  6. Gas kinematics and star formation in the filamentary molecular cloud G47.06+0.26

    Xu, Jin-Long; Xu, Ye; Zhang, Chuan-Peng; Liu, Xiao-Lan; Yu, Naiping; Ning, Chang-Chun; Ju, Bing-Gang

    2018-01-01

    Aims: We performed a multi-wavelength study toward the filamentary cloud G47.06+0.26 to investigate the gas kinematics and star formation. Methods: We present the 12CO (J = 1-0), 13CO (J = 1-0) and C18O (J = 1-0) observations of G47.06+0.26 obtained with the Purple Mountain Observation (PMO) 13.7 m radio telescope to investigate the detailed kinematics of the filament. Radio continuum and infrared archival data were obtained from the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS), the APEX Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy (ATLASGAL), the Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE) survey, and the Multi-band Imaging Photometer Survey of the Galaxy (MIPSGAL). To trace massive clumps and extract young stellar objects in G47.06+0.26, we used the BGPS catalog v2.0 and the GLIMPSE I catalog, respectively. Results: The 12CO (J = 1-0) and 13CO (J = 1-0) emission of G47.06+0.26 appear to show a filamentary structure. The filament extends about 45' (58.1 pc) along the east-west direction. The mean width is about 6.8 pc, as traced by the 13CO (J = 1-0) emission. G47.06+0.26 has a linear mass density of 361.5 M⊙pc-1. The external pressure (due to neighboring bubbles and H II regions) may help preventing the filament from dispersing under the effects of turbulence. From the velocity-field map, we discern a velocity gradient perpendicular to G47.06+0.26. From the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) catalog, we found nine BGPS sources in G47.06+0.26, that appear to these sources have sufficient mass to form massive stars. We obtained that the clump formation efficiency (CFE) is 18% in the filament. Four infrared bubbles were found to be located in, and adjacent to, G47.06+0.26. Particularly, infrared bubble N98 shows a cometary structure. CO molecular gas adjacent to N98 also shows a very intense emission. H II regions associated with infrared bubbles can inject the energy to surrounding gas. We calculated the kinetic energy, ionization energy, and thermal energy

  7. Low-Frequency Carbon Recombination Lines in the Orion Molecular Cloud Complex

    Tremblay, Chenoa D.; Jordan, Christopher H.; Cunningham, Maria; Jones, Paul A.; Hurley-Walker, Natasha

    2018-05-01

    We detail tentative detections of low-frequency carbon radio recombination lines from within the Orion molecular cloud complex observed at 99-129 MHz. These tentative detections include one alpha transition and one beta transition over three locations and are located within the diffuse regions of dust observed in the infrared at 100 μm, the Hα emission detected in the optical, and the synchrotron radiation observed in the radio. With these observations, we are able to study the radiation mechanism transition from collisionally pumped to radiatively pumped within the H ii regions within the Orion molecular cloud complex.

  8. On the effective turbulence driving mode of molecular clouds formed in disc galaxies

    Jin, Keitaro; Salim, Diane M.; Federrath, Christoph; Tasker, Elizabeth J.; Habe, Asao; Kainulainen, Jouni T.

    2017-07-01

    We determine the physical properties and turbulence driving mode of molecular clouds formed in numerical simulations of a Milky Way-type disc galaxy with parsec-scale resolution. The clouds form through gravitational fragmentation of the gas, leading to average values for mass, radii and velocity dispersion in good agreement with observations of Milky Way clouds. The driving parameter (b) for the turbulence within each cloud is characterized by the ratio of the density contrast (σ _{ρ /ρ _0}) to the average Mach number (M) within the cloud, b=σ _{ρ /ρ _0}/M. As shown in previous works, b ˜ 1/3 indicates solenoidal (divergence-free) driving and b ˜ 1 indicates compressive (curl-free) driving. We find that the average b value of all the clouds formed in the simulations has a lower limit of b > 0.2. Importantly, we find that b has a broad distribution, covering values from purely solenoidal to purely compressive driving. Tracking the evolution of individual clouds reveals that the b value for each cloud does not vary significantly over their lifetime. Finally, we perform a resolution study with minimum cell sizes of 8, 4, 2 and 1 pc and find that the average b value increases with increasing resolution. Therefore, we conclude that our measured b values are strictly lower limits and that a resolution better than 1 pc is required for convergence. However, regardless of the resolution, we find that b varies by factors of a few in all cases, which means that the effective driving mode alters significantly from cloud to cloud.

  9. CO(J = 2 - 1) study of molecular clouds in the southwest arm of M31

    Kutner, M.L.; Verter, F.; Rickard, L.J.

    1990-01-01

    The first map of M31 in the CO(J = 2 - 1) transition, covering a 3 arcmin by 3 arcmin section of the SW arm-interarm region, is presented. The CO spectra in the arm region defined by H II regions are characterized by strong, narrow features which are interpreted here to be giant molecular clouds with masses of a few 100,000 solar masses. The interarm emission is interpreted as an ensemble of small clouds with masses of a few 10,000 solar masses. On the arm about 70 percent of the emission comes from large clouds, while off the arm essentially all of it comes from small clouds. The mass surface density on this section of M31 is about that of a comparable section of the Scutum arm of the Galaxy. The velocities of the giant clouds in the arm are shifted with respect to the rest of the molecular and atomic gas by about 15 km/s. This may be due to cloud response to passage through the spiral arm potential. 49 refs

  10. Ratio of carbon monoxide to molecular hydrogen in interstellar dark clouds

    Dickman, R.L.; Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; and The Ivan A. Getting Laboratories, The Aerospace Corporation)

    1978-01-01

    Carbon monoxide and molecular hydrogen column densities are compared at various locations within 38 interstellar dark clouds. CO column densities were obtained from radio observations of the J=1→0 transitions of the 12 C 16 O and 13 C 16 O isotopic species of the molecule. Corresponding H 2 column densities were inferred by means of visual extinctions derived from star counts, since it is argued that the standard gas-to-extinction ratio can be expected to remain valid in the clouds studied. For locations in the sources possessing line-of-sight visual extinctions in the approximate range 1.5 -2 ) = (5.0 +- 2.5) x 10 5 N 13 between molecular hydrogen and 13 CO LTE column densities. The carbon monoxide molecule can therefore be used as a quantitative ''tracer'' for the (directly unobservable) H 2 content of dark clouds. The above relationship implies that at least approx.12% of the gas-phase carbon in the clouds studied is in the form of CO, provided that the clouds are assumed to be chemically homogeneous. Langer's ion-molecule chemistry for dark clouds appears to agree well with the present work if the fractionation channel of Watson, Anicich, and Huntress is included

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: M-3.8+0.9 molecular cloud 3mm datacubes (Riquelme+ 2018)

    Riquelme, D.; Amo-Baladron, A.; Martin-Pintado, J.; Mauersberger, R.; Martin, S.; Burton, M.; Cunningham, M.; Jones, P.; Menten, K. M.; Bronfman, L.; Guesten, R.

    2018-01-01

    We mapped the M-3.8+0.9 molecular cloud placed at the footpoints of a giant molecular loop, in 3-mm range molecular lines using Mopra telescope, and the 13CO (2-1) line at 1 mm using the 12-m Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) telescope. The Mopra observations were performed during September 2008 and August 2009. We used the digital mode filter bank MOPS in broadband mode, covering 8GHz of bandwidth simultaneously in four 2.2GHz sub-bands, each of them with 8192 channel spaced by 0.27MHz. Two polarizations were measured simultaneously. We produce one data cube per detected molecule. The final spatial resolution of the data cubes is between 49 arcsec and 51 arcsec at 115 and 86GHz respectively. The size of the pixel is 15 arcsec. The spectral resolution of the data is 269.5kHz (0.94-0.78km/s). The data is presented in T*a (K). The APEX observations were carried out on 24 June, and 1, 2, and 3 July 2014 under the APEX project code M-093.F-008-2014 using the APEX-1 (SHIFI) receiver and the eXtended bandwidth Fast Fourier Transform Spectrometer (XFFTS) backend. The data were regridded in equatorial coordinates and then converted to Galactic coordinates for comparison with the Mopra data using standard CLASS routines. The pixel size is 13.8 arcsec. The spatial resolution is 30.1 arcsec and the spectral resolution is 299.8kHz (1.03km/s). The data is presented in Tmb (K). (2 data files).

  12. Spectral shifting strongly constrains molecular cloud disruption by radiation pressure on dust

    Reissl, Stefan; Klessen, Ralf S.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Pellegrini, Eric W.

    2018-03-01

    Aim. We aim to test the hypothesis that radiation pressure from young star clusters acting on dust is the dominant feedback agent disrupting the largest star-forming molecular clouds and thus regulating the star-formation process. Methods: We performed multi-frequency, 3D, radiative transfer calculations including both scattering and absorption and re-emission to longer wavelengths for model clouds with masses of 104-107 M⊙, containing embedded clusters with star formation efficiencies of 0.009-91%, and varying maximum grain sizes up to 200 μm. We calculated the ratio between radiative and gravitational forces to determine whether radiation pressure can disrupt clouds. Results: We find that radiation pressure acting on dust almost never disrupts star-forming clouds. Ultraviolet and optical photons from young stars to which the cloud is optically thick do not scatter much. Instead, they quickly get absorbed and re-emitted by the dust at thermal wavelengths. As the cloud is typically optically thin to far-infrared radiation, it promptly escapes, depositing little momentum in the cloud. The resulting spectrum is more narrowly peaked than the corresponding Planck function, and exhibits an extended tail at longer wavelengths. As the opacity drops significantly across the sub-mm and mm wavelength regime, the resulting radiative force is even smaller than for the corresponding single-temperature blackbody. We find that the force from radiation pressure falls below the strength of gravitational attraction by an order of magnitude or more for either Milky Way or moderate starbust conditions. Only for unrealistically large maximum grain sizes, and star formation efficiencies far exceeding 50% do we find that the strength of radiation pressure can exceed gravity. Conclusions: We conclude that radiation pressure acting on dust does not disrupt star-forming molecular clouds in any Local Group galaxies. Radiation pressure thus appears unlikely to regulate the star

  13. Observations of the interstellar ice grain feature in the Taurus molecular clouds

    Whittet, D.C.B.; Longmore, A.J.; Baines, D.W.T.; Evans, A.

    1984-01-01

    Although water ice was originally proposed as a major constituent of the interstellar grain population, the advent of infrared astronomy has shown that the expected absorption due to O-H stretching vibrations at 3 μm is illusive. Observations have in fact revealed that the carrier of this feature is apparently restricted to regions deep within dense molecular clouds. However, the exact carrier of this feature is still controversial, and many questions remain as to the conditions required for its appearance. The Taurus molecular clouds were selected for observations, in the form of a preliminary survey in the 2-4 μm window. It is concluded that the carrier of the 3μm absorption feature appears to reside in the general cloud medium and is probably amorphous water ice. (author)

  14. Pillars of Creation among Destruction: Star Formation in Molecular Clouds near R136 in 30 Doradus

    Kalari, Venu M.; Rubio, Mónica; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Guzmán, Viviana V.; Zinnecker, Hans; Herrera, Cinthya N.

    2018-01-01

    We present new sensitive CO(2–1) observations of the 30 Doradus region in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We identify a chain of three newly discovered molecular clouds that we name KN1, KN2, and KN3 lying within 2–14 pc in projection from the young massive cluster R136 in 30 Doradus. Excited H2 2.12 μm emission is spatially coincident with the molecular clouds, but ionized Brγ emission is not. We interpret these observations as the tails of pillar-like structures whose ionized heads are pointing toward R136. Based on infrared photometry, we identify a new generation of stars forming within this structure.

  15. NOEMA Observations of a Molecular Cloud in the Low-metallicity Galaxy Kiso 5639

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Herrera, Cinthya; Rubio, Monica; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Sánchez Almeida, Jorge; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Olmo-García, Amanda

    2018-06-01

    A giant star-forming region in a metal-poor dwarf galaxy has been observed in optical lines with the 10 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) and in the emission line of CO(1–0) with the Northern Extended Millimeter Array (NOEMA) mm-wave interferometer. The metallicity was determined to be 12+{log}({{O}}/{{H}})=7.83+/- 0.09, from which we estimate a conversion factor of α CO ∼ 100 M ⊙ pc‑2(K km s‑1)‑1 and a molecular cloud mass of ∼2.9 × 107 M ⊙. This is an enormous concentration of molecular mass at one end of a small galaxy, suggesting a recent accretion. The molecular cloud properties seem normal: the surface density, 120 M ⊙ pc‑2, is comparable to that of a standard giant molecular cloud; the cloud’s virial ratio of ∼1.8 is in the star formation range; and the gas consumption time, 0.5 Gyr, at the present star formation rate is typical for molecular regions. The low metallicity implies that the cloud has an average visual extinction of only 0.8 mag, which is close to the threshold for molecule formation. With such an extinction threshold, molecular clouds in metal-poor regions should have high surface densities and high internal pressures. If high pressure is associated with the formation of massive clusters, then metal-poor galaxies such as dwarfs in the early universe could have been the hosts of metal-poor globular clusters.

  16. Radiation transport in dense interstellar dust clouds. II. Infrared emission from molecular clouds associated with H II regions

    Leung, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    Theoretical models are constructed to study the distribution of grain temperature (T/sub d/) and infrared emission from molecular clouds associated with H II regions (with embedded O: B stars). The effects of the following parameters on the temperature structure and the emergent spectrum are studied: grain type (graphite, silicate, and core-mantle grains), optical depth, density inhomogeneity, cloud size, anisotropic scattering, radiation field anisotropy, and characteristics of central heat source. T/sub d/ varies from approximately-greater-than100 K to approximately-less-than20 K throughout the major portion of a cloud, and dielectric grains attain lower temperatures. Due to an inward increase in T/sub d/, the radiation field is strongly forward-peaking, thereby producing a pronounced limb-darkening in the surface brightness. Important features of the computed emission spectra from typical models are compared with available observations, and the importance of beam dilution is emphasized. Theoretical surface brightnesses at selected infrared wavelengths are also presented. The outward radiation pressure on the dust grains is found to exceed the self-gravitational force of the gas over a large portion of a cloud, thus possibly causing the gas in the inner region to expand. Assumptions commonly used in the analysis of infrared observations are examined. Finally, observational methods of deriving the temperature structure (from color and brightness temperatures in the far-infrared), density distribution (from surface brightness at lambdaapproximately-greater-than1 mm), and optical depth (from multiaperture photometry) for the dust component in simple sources are discussed

  17. The abundance and emission of H2O and O-2 in clumpy molecular clouds

    Spaans, M; van Dishoeck, EF

    2001-01-01

    Recent observations with the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) indicate abundances of gaseous H2O and O-2 in dense molecular clouds that are significantly lower than those found in standard homogeneous chemistry models. We present here results for the thermal and chemical balance of

  18. 3D Results in VTK with data for gravitational collapse of a molecular hydrogen cloud

    Duarte P, R.; Klapp E, J.

    2007-01-01

    With the objective of using free software for visualization, we experience with VTK (Visualization Toolkit) system guided to objects, using a VTK classes library, Tcl languages and PV-WAVE, to create an application and to produce some images in 3D with data of 3D coordinated points, in this case of a gravitational collapse of a cloud of molecular hydrogen. (Author)

  19. [Cii] emission from L1630 in the Orion B molecular cloud.

    Pabst, C H M; Goicoechea, J R; Teyssier, D; Berné, O; Ochsendorf, B B; Wolfire, M G; Higgins, R D; Riquelme, D; Risacher, C; Pety, J; Le Petit, F; Roueff, E; Bron, E; Tielens, A G G M

    2017-10-01

    L1630 in the Orion B molecular cloud, which includes the iconic Horsehead Nebula, illuminated by the star system σ Ori, is an example of a photodissociation region (PDR). In PDRs, stellar radiation impinges on the surface of dense material, often a molecular cloud, thereby inducing a complex network of chemical reactions and physical processes. Observations toward L1630 allow us to study the interplay between stellar radiation and a molecular cloud under relatively benign conditions, that is, intermediate densities and an intermediate UV radiation field. Contrary to the well-studied Orion Molecular Cloud 1 (OMC1), which hosts much harsher conditions, L1630 has little star formation. Our goal is to relate the [Cii] fine-structure line emission to the physical conditions predominant in L1630 and compare it to studies of OMC1. The [Cii] 158 μ m line emission of L1630 around the Horsehead Nebula, an area of 12' × 17', was observed using the upgraded German Receiver for Astronomy at Terahertz Frequencies (upGREAT) onboard the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). Of the [Cii] emission from the mapped area 95%, 13 L ⊙ , originates from the molecular cloud; the adjacent Hii region contributes only 5%, that is, 1 L ⊙ . From comparison with other data (CO(1-0)-line emission, far-infrared (FIR) continuum studies, emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)), we infer a gas density of the molecular cloud of n H ∼ 3 · 10 3 cm -3 , with surface layers, including the Horsehead Nebula, having a density of up to n H ∼ 4 · 10 4 cm -3 . The temperature of the surface gas is T ∼ 100 K. The average [Cii] cooling efficiency within the molecular cloud is 1.3 · 10 -2 . The fraction of the mass of the molecular cloud within the studied area that is traced by [Cii] is only 8%. Our PDR models are able to reproduce the FIR-[Cii] correlations and also the CO(1-0)-[Cii] correlations. Finally, we compare our results on the heating efficiency of the

  20. The molecular complex associated with the Galactic H II region Sh2-90: a possible site of triggered star formation

    Samal, M. R.; Zavagno, A.; Deharveng, L.; Molinari, S.; Ojha, D. K.; Paradis, D.; Tigé, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Russeil, D.

    2014-06-01

    Aims: We investigate the star formation activity in the molecular complex associated with the Galactic H ii region Sh2-90. Methods: We obtain the distribution of the ionized and cold neutral gas using radio-continuum and Herschel observations. We use near-infrared and Spitzer data to investigate the stellar content of the complex. We discuss the evolutionary status of embedded massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) using their spectral energy distribution. Results: The Sh2-90 region presents a bubble morphology in the mid-infrared. Radio observations suggest it is an evolved H ii region with an electron density ~144 cm-3, emission measure ~ 6.7 × 104 cm-6 pc and an ionized mass ~55 M⊙. From Herschel and CO (J = 3 - 2) observations we found that the H ii region is part of an elongated extended molecular cloud (H2 column density ≥ 3 × 1021 cm-2 and dust temperature 18-27 K) of total mass ≥ 1 × 104 M⊙. We identify the ionizing cluster of Sh2-90, the main exciting star being an O8-O9 V star. Five cold dust clumps, four mid-IR blobs around B stars, and a compact H ii region are found at the edge of the bubble. The velocity information derived from CO data cubes suggest that most of them are associated with the Sh2-90 region. One hundred and twenty-nine low mass (≤3 M⊙) YSOs have been identified, and they are found to be distributed mostly in the regions of high column density. Four candidate Class 0/I MYSOs have been found. We suggest that multi-generation star formation is present in the complex. From evidence of interaction, time scales involved, and evolutionary status of stellar/protostellar sources, we argue that the star formation at the edges of Sh2-90 might have been triggered. However, several young sources in this complex are probably formed by some other processes. Full Table 5 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/566/A122

  1. Observations of HC3N, HC5N, and HC7N in molecular clouds

    Snell, R.L.; Schloerb, F.P.; Young, J.S.; Hjalmarson, A.; Friberg, P.

    1981-01-01

    We present observations of HC 3 N, HC 5 N, and HC 7 N in five molecular clouds. Statistical equilibrium calculations have been performed for HC 5 N and HC 7 N and compared with our data and data on other transitions of these molecules reported in the literature to derive the densities and the column densities of the cyanopolyynes in these clouds. We derive densities for TMC 1, TMC 2, and L1544 of between 1 and 4 x 10 4 cm -3 . We have found that the ratios of the cyanopolyynes in these three clouds are the following: HC 3 N/HC 5 Nroughly-equal1.4 and HC 5 N/HC 7 Nroughly-equal3. In L134 N and DR 21(OH) we have measured limits on the HC 5 N emission and find the HC 3 N/HC 5 N ratio to be substantially greater than in the three Taurus clouds. We have also compared the cyanopolyyne column densities with those of 13 CO and find that the abundance of HC 3 N in L134 N and DR 21(OH) is an order of magnitude smaller than that found in the Taurus clouds. The chemical differences between L134 N and the Taurus clouds are particularly interesting in view of their similar physical properties

  2. Molecular gas in the H II-region complex RCW 166: Possible evidence for an early phase of cloud-cloud collision prior to the bubble formation

    Ohama, Akio; Kohno, Mikito; Fujita, Shinji; Tsutsumi, Daichi; Hattori, Yusuke; Torii, Kazufumi; Nishimura, Atsushi; Sano, Hidetoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Tachihara, Kengo; Fukui, Yasuo

    2018-05-01

    Young H II regions are an important site for the study of O star formation based on distributions of ionized and molecular gas. We reveal that two molecular clouds at ˜48 km s-1 and ˜53 km s-1 are associated with the H II regions G018.149-00.283 in RCW 166 by using the JCMT CO High-Resolution Survey (COHRS) of the 12CO(J = 3-2) emission. G018.149-00.283 comprises a bright ring at 8 μm and an extended H II region inside the ring. The ˜48 km s-1 cloud delineates the ring, and the ˜53 km s-1 cloud is located within the ring, indicating a complementary distribution between the two molecular components. We propose a hypothesis that high-mass stars within G018.149-00.283 were formed by triggering during cloud-cloud collision at a projected velocity separation of ˜5 km s-1. We argue that G018.149-00.283 is in an early evolutionary stage, ˜0.1 Myr after the collision according to the scheme detailed by Habe and Ohta (1992, PASJ, 44, 203), which will be followed by a bubble formation stage like RCW 120. We also suggest that nearby H II regions N21 and N22 are candidates for bubbles possibly formed by cloud-cloud collision. Inoue and Fukui (2013, ApJ, 774, L31) showed that the interface gas becomes highly turbulent and realizes a high-mass accretion rate of 10-3-10-4 M⊙ yr-1 by magnetohydrodynamical numerical simulations, which offers an explanation of the O-star formation. The fairly high frequency of cloud-cloud collision in RCW 166 is probably due to the high cloud density in this part of the Scutum arm.

  3. ULTRAVIOLET ESCAPE FRACTIONS FROM GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUDS DURING EARLY CLUSTER FORMATION

    Howard, Corey; Pudritz, Ralph [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Klessen, Ralf [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-01-01

    The UV photon escape fraction from molecular clouds is a key parameter for understanding the ionization of the interstellar medium and extragalactic processes such as cosmic reionization. We present the ionizing photon flux and the corresponding photon escape fraction ( f {sub esc}) arising as a consequence of star cluster formation in a turbulent, 10{sup 6} M {sub ⊙} giant molecular cloud, simulated using the code FLASH. We make use of sink particles to represent young, star-forming clusters coupled with a radiative transfer scheme to calculate the emergent UV flux. We find that the ionizing photon flux across the cloud boundary is highly variable in time and space due to the turbulent nature of the intervening gas. The escaping photon fraction remains at ∼5% for the first 2.5 Myr, followed by two pronounced peaks at 3.25 and 3.8 Myr with a maximum f {sub esc} of 30% and 37%, respectively. These peaks are due to the formation of large H ii regions that expand into regions of lower density, some of which reaching the cloud surface. However, these phases are short-lived, and f {sub esc} drops sharply as the H ii regions are quenched by the central cluster passing through high-density material due to the turbulent nature of the cloud. We find an average f {sub esc} of 15% with factor of two variations over 1 Myr timescales. Our results suggest that assuming a single value for f {sub esc} from a molecular cloud is in general a poor approximation, and that the dynamical evolution of the system leads to large temporal variation.

  4. Relationship between turbulence energy and density variance in the solar neighbourhood molecular clouds

    Kainulainen, J.; Federrath, C.

    2017-11-01

    The relationship between turbulence energy and gas density variance is a fundamental prediction for turbulence-dominated media and is commonly used in analytic models of star formation. We determine this relationship for 15 molecular clouds in the solar neighbourhood. We use the line widths of the CO molecule as the probe of the turbulence energy (sonic Mach number, ℳs) and three-dimensional models to reconstruct the density probability distribution function (ρ-PDF) of the clouds, derived using near-infrared extinction and Herschel dust emission data, as the probe of the density variance (σs). We find no significant correlation between ℳs and σs among the studied clouds, but we cannot rule out a weak correlation either. In the context of turbulence-dominated gas, the range of the ℳs and σs values corresponds to the model predictions. The data cannot constrain whether the turbulence-driving parameter, b, and/or thermal-to-magnetic pressure ratio, β, vary among the sample clouds. Most clouds are not in agreement with field strengths stronger than given by β ≲ 0.05. A model with b2β/ (β + 1) = 0.30 ± 0.06 provides an adequate fit to the cloud sample as a whole. Based on the average behaviour of the sample, we can rule out three regimes: (i) strong compression combined with a weak magnetic field (b ≳ 0.7 and β ≳ 3); (ii) weak compression (b ≲ 0.35); and (iii) a strong magnetic field (β ≲ 0.1). When we include independent magnetic field strength estimates in the analysis, the data rule out solenoidal driving (b < 0.4) for the majority of the solar neighbourhood clouds. However, most clouds have b parameters larger than unity, which indicates a discrepancy with the turbulence-dominated picture; we discuss the possible reasons for this.

  5. Formation of Pillars at the Boundaries between HII Regions and Molecular Clouds

    Mizuta, A; Kane, J O; Pound, M W; Remington, B A; Ryutov, D D; Takabe, H

    2006-01-01

    We investigate numerically the hydrodynamic instability of an ionization front (IF) accelerating into a molecular cloud, with imposed initial perturbations of different amplitudes. When the initial amplitude is small, the imposed perturbation is completely stabilized and does not grow. When the initial perturbation amplitude is large enough, roughly the ratio of the initial amplitude to wavelength is greater than 0.02, portions of the IF temporarily separate from the molecular cloud surface, locally decreasing the ablation pressure. This causes the appearance of a large, warm HI region and triggers nonlinear dynamics of the IF. The local difference of the ablation pressure and acceleration enhances the appearance and growth of a multimode perturbation. The stabilization usually seen at the IF in the linear regimes does not work due to the mismatch of the modes of the perturbations at the cloud surface and in density in HII region above the cloud surface. Molecular pillars are observed in the late stages of the large amplitude perturbation case. The velocity gradient in the pillars is in reasonably good agreement with that observed in the Eagle Nebula. The initial perturbation is imposed in three different ways: in density, in incident photon number flux, and in the surface shape. All cases show both stabilization for a small initial perturbation and large growth of the second harmonic by increasing amplitude of the initial perturbation above a critical value

  6. C3H2 observations as a diagnostic probe for molecular clouds

    Avery, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    Recently the three-membered ring molecule, cyclopropenylidene, C3H2, has been identified in the laboratory and detected in molecular clouds by Thaddeus, Vrtilek and Gottlieb (1985). This molecule is wide-spread throughout the Galaxy and has been detected in 25 separate sources including cold dust clouds, circumstellar envelopes, HII regions, and the spiral arms observed against the Cas supernova remnant. In order to evaluate the potential of C3H2 as a diagnostic probe for molecular clouds, and to attempt to identify the most useful transitions, statistical equilibrium calculations were carried out for the lowest 24 levels of the ortho species and the lowest 10 levels of the para species. Many of the sources observed by Matthews and Irvine (1985) show evidence of being optically thick in the 1(10)-1(01) line. Consequently, the effects of radiative trapping should be incorporated into the equilibrium calculations. This was done using the Large Velocity Gradient approximation for a spherical cloud of uniform density. Some results of the calculations for T(K)=10K are given. Figures are presented which show contours of the logarithm of the ratio of peak line brightness temperatures for ortho-para pairs of lines at similar frequencies. It appears that the widespread nature of C3H2, the relatively large strength of its spectral lines, and their sensitivity to density and molecular abundance combine to make this a useful molecule for probing physical conditions in molecular clouds. The 1(10)-1(01) and 2(20)-2(11) K-band lines may be especially useful in this regard because of the ease with which they are observed and their unusual density-dependent emission/absorption properties.

  7. INFRARED DARK CLOUDS IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD?

    Lee, Min-Young; Stanimirovic, Snezana; Devine, Kathryn E.; Ott, Juergen; Van Loon, Jacco Th.; Oliveira, Joana M.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Jones, Paul A.; Cunningham, Maria R.

    2009-01-01

    We have applied the unsharp-masking technique to the 24 μm image of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, to search for high-extinction regions. This technique has been used to locate very dense and cold interstellar clouds in the Galaxy, particularly infrared dark clouds (IRDCs). Fifty-five candidate regions of high extinction, namely, high-contrast regions (HCRs), have been identified from the generated decremental contrast image of the SMC. Most HCRs are located in the southern bar region and mainly distributed in the outskirts of CO clouds, but most likely contain a significant amount of H 2 . HCRs have a peak contrast at 24 μm of 2%-2.5% and a size of 8-14 pc. This corresponds to the size of typical and large Galactic IRDCs, but Galactic IRDCs are 2-3 times darker at 24 μm than our HCRs. To constrain the physical properties of the HCRs, we have performed NH 3 , N 2 H + , HNC, HCO + , and HCN observations toward one of the HCRs, HCR LIRS36-east, using the Australia Telescope Compact Array and the Mopra single-dish radio telescope. We did not detect any molecular line emission, however, our upper limits to the column densities of molecular species suggest that HCRs are most likely moderately dense with n ∼ 10 3 cm -3 . This volume density is in agreement with predictions for the cool atomic phase in low-metallicity environments. We suggest that HCRs may be tracing clouds at the transition from atomic to molecule-dominated medium, and could be a powerful way to study early stages of gas condensation in low-metallicity galaxies. Alternatively, if made up of dense molecular clumps <0.5 pc in size, HCRs could be counterparts of Galactic IRDCs, and/or regions with highly unusual abundance of very small dust grains.

  8. Giant molecular cloud collisions as triggers of star formation. VI. Collision-induced turbulence

    Wu, Benjamin; Tan, Jonathan C.; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Christie, Duncan; Li, Qi

    2018-05-01

    We investigate collisions between giant molecular clouds (GMCs) as potential generators of their internal turbulence. Using magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of self-gravitating, magnetized, turbulent GMCs, we compare kinematic and dynamic properties of dense gas structures formed when such clouds collide compared to those that form in non-colliding clouds as self-gravity overwhelms decaying turbulence. We explore the nature of turbulence in these structures via distribution functions of density, velocity dispersions, virial parameters, and momentum injection. We find that the dense clumps formed from GMC collisions have higher effective Mach number, greater overall velocity dispersions, sustain near-virial equilibrium states for longer times, and are the conduit for the injection of turbulent momentum into high density gas at high rates.

  9. Gravitational fragmentation caught in the act: the filamentary Musca molecular cloud

    Kainulainen, J.; Hacar, A.; Alves, J.; Beuther, H.; Bouy, H.; Tafalla, M.

    2016-02-01

    Context. Filamentary structures are common in molecular clouds. Explaining how they fragment to dense cores is a missing step in understanding their role in star formation. Aims: We perform a case study of whether low-mass filaments are close to hydrostatic prior to their fragmentation, and whether their fragmentation agrees with gravitational fragmentation models. To accomplish this, we study the ~6.5 pc long Musca molecular cloud, which is an ideal candidate for a filament at an early stage of fragmentation. Methods: We employ dust extinction mapping, in conjunction with near-infrared JHKS-band data from the CTIO/NEWFIRM instrument, and 870 μm dust continuum emission data from the APEX/LABOCA instrument to estimate column densities in Musca. We use the data to identify fragments from the cloud and to determine the radial density distribution of its filamentary part. We compare the cloud's morphology with 13CO and C18O line emission observed with the APEX/SHeFI instrument. Results: The Musca cloud is pronouncedly fragmented at its ends, but harbors a remarkably well-defined, ~1.6 pc long filament in its center region. The line mass of the filament is 21-31 M⊙ pc-1 and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) 0.07 pc. The radial profile of the filament can be fitted with a Plummer profile, which has the power-index of 2.6 ± 11% and is flatter than that of an infinite hydrostatic filament. The profile can also be fitted with a hydrostatic cylinder truncated by external pressure. These models imply a central density of ~5-10 × 104 cm-3. The fragments in the cloud have a mean separation of ~0.4 pc, in agreement with gravitational fragmentation. These properties, together with the subsonic and velocity-coherent nature of the cloud, suggest a scenario in which an initially hydrostatic cloud is currently gravitationally fragmenting. The fragmentation started a few tenths of a Myr ago from the ends of the cloud, leaving its center still relatively nonfragmented

  10. Submillimeter Array {sup 12}CO (2-1) Imaging of the NGC 6946 Giant Molecular Clouds

    Wu, Ya-Lin [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Sakamoto, Kazushi; Pan, Hsi-An, E-mail: yalinwu@email.arizona.edu [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taiwan (China)

    2017-04-10

    We present a {sup 12}CO (2–1) mosaic map of the spiral galaxy NGC 6946 by combining data from the Submillimeter Array and the IRAM 30 m telescope. We identify 390 giant molecular clouds (GMCs) from the nucleus to 4.5 kpc in the disk. GMCs in the inner 1 kpc are generally more luminous and turbulent, some of which have luminosities >10{sup 6} K km s{sup −1} pc{sup 2} and velocity dispersions >10 km s{sup −1}. Large-scale bar-driven dynamics likely regulate GMC properties in the nuclear region. Similar to the Milky Way and other disk galaxies, GMC mass function of NGC 6946 has a shallower slope (index > −2) in the inner region, and a steeper slope (index < −2) in the outer region. This difference in mass spectra may be indicative of different cloud formation pathways: gravitational instabilities might play a major role in the nuclear region, while cloud coalescence might be dominant in the outer disk. Finally, the NGC 6946 clouds are similar to those in M33 in terms of statistical properties, but they are generally less luminous and turbulent than the M51 clouds.

  11. Star cluster formation in a turbulent molecular cloud self-regulated by photoionization feedback

    Gavagnin, Elena; Bleuler, Andreas; Rosdahl, Joakim; Teyssier, Romain

    2017-12-01

    Most stars in the Galaxy are believed to be formed within star clusters from collapsing molecular clouds. However, the complete process of star formation, from the parent cloud to a gas-free star cluster, is still poorly understood. We perform radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of the collapse of a turbulent molecular cloud using the RAMSES-RT code. Stars are modelled using sink particles, from which we self-consistently follow the propagation of the ionizing radiation. We study how different feedback models affect the gas expulsion from the cloud and how they shape the final properties of the emerging star cluster. We find that the star formation efficiency is lower for stronger feedback models. Feedback also changes the high-mass end of the stellar mass function. Stronger feedback also allows the establishment of a lower density star cluster, which can maintain a virial or sub-virial state. In the absence of feedback, the star formation efficiency is very high, as well as the final stellar density. As a result, high-energy close encounters make the cluster evaporate quickly. Other indicators, such as mass segregation, statistics of multiple systems and escaping stars confirm this picture. Observations of young star clusters are in best agreement with our strong feedback simulation.

  12. The Spitzer survey of interstellar clouds in the gould belt. VI. The Auriga-California molecular cloud observed with IRAC and MIPS

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda C.; Harvey, Paul M.; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Huard, Tracy L.; Miller, Jennifer F.; Tothill, Nicholas F. H.; Nutter, David; Bourke, Tyler L.; DiFrancesco, James; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Allen, Lori E.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Dunham, Michael M.; Merín, Bruno; Terebey, Susan; Peterson, Dawn E.

    2014-01-01

    We present observations of the Auriga-California Molecular Cloud (AMC) at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 24, 70, and 160 μm observed with the IRAC and MIPS detectors as part of the Spitzer Gould Belt Legacy Survey. The total mapped areas are 2.5 deg 2 with IRAC and 10.47 deg 2 with MIPS. This giant molecular cloud is one of two in the nearby Gould Belt of star-forming regions, the other being the Orion A Molecular Cloud (OMC). We compare source counts, colors, and magnitudes in our observed region to a subset of the SWIRE data that was processed through our pipeline. Using color-magnitude and color-color diagrams, we find evidence for a substantial population of 166 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the cloud, many of which were previously unknown. Most of this population is concentrated around the LkHα 101 cluster and the filament extending from it. We present a quantitative description of the degree of clustering and discuss the relative fraction of YSOs in earlier (Class I and F) and later (Class II) classes compared to other clouds. We perform simple SED modeling of the YSOs with disks to compare the mid-IR properties to disks in other clouds and identify 14 classical transition disk candidates. Although the AMC is similar in mass, size, and distance to the OMC, it is forming about 15-20 times fewer stars.

  13. The Spitzer survey of interstellar clouds in the gould belt. VI. The Auriga-California molecular cloud observed with IRAC and MIPS

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Harvey, Paul M. [Astronomy Department, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Gutermuth, Robert A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Huard, Tracy L.; Miller, Jennifer F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Tothill, Nicholas F. H. [School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751 (Australia); Nutter, David [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queen' s Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Bourke, Tyler L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); DiFrancesco, James [National Research Council Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Jørgensen, Jes K. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø. (Denmark); Allen, Lori E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ (United States); Chapman, Nicholas L. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Dunham, Michael M. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Merín, Bruno [Herschel Science Centre, ESAC-ESA, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Terebey, Susan [Department of Physics and Astronomy PS315, 5151 State University Drive, California State University at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90032 (United States); Peterson, Dawn E. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); and others

    2014-05-01

    We present observations of the Auriga-California Molecular Cloud (AMC) at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 24, 70, and 160 μm observed with the IRAC and MIPS detectors as part of the Spitzer Gould Belt Legacy Survey. The total mapped areas are 2.5 deg{sup 2} with IRAC and 10.47 deg{sup 2} with MIPS. This giant molecular cloud is one of two in the nearby Gould Belt of star-forming regions, the other being the Orion A Molecular Cloud (OMC). We compare source counts, colors, and magnitudes in our observed region to a subset of the SWIRE data that was processed through our pipeline. Using color-magnitude and color-color diagrams, we find evidence for a substantial population of 166 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the cloud, many of which were previously unknown. Most of this population is concentrated around the LkHα 101 cluster and the filament extending from it. We present a quantitative description of the degree of clustering and discuss the relative fraction of YSOs in earlier (Class I and F) and later (Class II) classes compared to other clouds. We perform simple SED modeling of the YSOs with disks to compare the mid-IR properties to disks in other clouds and identify 14 classical transition disk candidates. Although the AMC is similar in mass, size, and distance to the OMC, it is forming about 15-20 times fewer stars.

  14. Widespread rotationally hot hydronium ion in the galactic interstellar medium

    Lis, D. C.; Phillips, T. G.; Schilke, P.; Comito, C.; Higgins, R.

    2014-01-01

    We present new Herschel observations of the (6,6) and (9,9) inversion transitions of the hydronium ion toward Sagittarius B2(N) and W31C. Sensitive observations toward Sagittarius B2(N) show that the high, ∼500 K, rotational temperatures characterizing the population of the highly excited metastable H 3 O + rotational levels are present over a wide range of velocities corresponding to the Sagittarius B2 envelope, as well as the foreground gas clouds between the Sun and the source. Observations of the same lines toward W31C, a line of sight that does not intersect the Central Molecular Zone but instead traces quiescent gas in the Galactic disk, also imply a high rotational temperature of ∼380 K, well in excess of the kinetic temperature of the diffuse Galactic interstellar medium. While it is plausible that some fraction of the molecular gas may be heated to such high temperatures in the active environment of the Galactic center, characterized by high X-ray and cosmic-ray fluxes, shocks, and high degree of turbulence, this is unlikely in the largely quiescent environment of the Galactic disk clouds. We suggest instead that the highly excited states of the hydronium ion are populated mainly by exoergic chemical formation processes and the temperature describing the rotational level population does not represent the physical temperature of the medium. The same arguments may be applicable to other symmetric top rotors, such as ammonia. This offers a simple explanation of the long-standing puzzle of the presence of a pervasive, hot molecular gas component in the central region of the Milky Way. Moreover, our observations suggest that this is a universal process not limited to the active environments associated with galactic nuclei.

  15. THE TWO MOLECULAR CLOUDS IN RCW 38: EVIDENCE FOR THE FORMATION OF THE YOUNGEST SUPER STAR CLUSTER IN THE MILKY WAY TRIGGERED BY CLOUD–CLOUD COLLISION

    Fukui, Y.; Torii, K.; Ohama, A.; Hasegawa, K.; Hattori, Y.; Sano, H.; Yamamoto, H.; Tachihara, K. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Ohashi, S.; Fujii, K.; Kuwahara, S. [Department of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 133-0033 (Japan); Mizuno, N.; Okuda, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Dawson, J. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and MQ Research Centre in Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia); Onishi, T. [Department of Astrophysics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Nakaku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Mizuno, A., E-mail: torii@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

    2016-03-20

    We present distributions of two molecular clouds having velocities of 2 and 14 km s{sup −1} toward RCW 38, the youngest super star cluster in the Milky Way, in the {sup 12}CO J = 1–0 and 3–2 and {sup 13}CO J = 1–0 transitions. The two clouds are likely physically associated with the cluster as verified by the high intensity ratio of the J = 3–2 emission to the J = 1–0 emission, the bridging feature connecting the two clouds in velocity, and their morphological correspondence with the infrared dust emission. The velocity difference is too large for the clouds to be gravitationally bound. We frame a hypothesis that the two clouds are colliding with each other by chance to trigger formation of the ∼20 O stars that are localized within ∼0.5 pc of the cluster center in the 2 km s{sup −1} cloud. We suggest that the collision is currently continuing toward part of the 2 km s{sup −1} cloud where the bridging feature is localized. This is the third super star cluster alongside Westerlund 2 and NGC 3603 where cloud–cloud collision has triggered the cluster formation. RCW 38 is the youngest super star cluster in the Milky Way, holding a possible sign of on-going O star formation, and is a promising site where we may be able to witness the moment of O star formation.

  16. Polarimetry of the H/sub 2/ emission from the Orion Molecular Cloud

    Joyce, R R [Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ (USA)

    1982-08-01

    We have measured the linear polarization of the upsilon = 1 ..-->.. 0 S(1) emission of molecular hydrogen at three positions in the Orion Molecular Cloud. To the north-west of BNKL, at H/sub 2/ Peak 1 and Peak 5, we find p approximately = 10 per cent in position angle 110/sup 0/, in good agreement with previous continuum polarization measurements for the nearby source IRS 2. At H/sub 2/ Peak 2 to the south-east, we find p approximately = 0 per cent. The absence of H/sub 2/ emission-line polarization at Peak 2 is inconsistent with the scattering mechanism proposed by Elsasser and Staude and also with the shock-induced grain alignment mechanism discussed by Johnson et al. The observed spatial variations in polarization may be due to small-scale structure in the magnetic field of the cloud, or to local differences in the relative temperatures of the gas and dust.

  17. Heterogeneous condensation of ice mantle around silicate core grain in molecular cloud

    Hasegawa, H.

    1984-01-01

    Interstellar water ice grains are observed in the cold and dense regions such as molecular clouds, HII regions and protostellar objects. The water ice is formed from gas phase during the cooling stage of cosmic gas with solid grain surfaces of high temperature silicate minerals. It is a question whether the ice is formed through the homogeneous condensation process (as the ice alone) or the heterogeneous one (as the ice around the pre-existing high temperature mineral grains). (author)

  18. LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS OF SPITZER-IDENTIFIED PROTOSTARS IN NINE NEARBY MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    Kryukova, E.; Megeath, S. T.; Allen, T. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Gutermuth, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Pipher, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Allen, L. E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ (United States); Myers, P. C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Muzerolle, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-08-15

    We identify protostars in Spitzer surveys of nine star-forming (SF) molecular clouds within 1 kpc: Serpens, Perseus, Ophiuchus, Chamaeleon, Lupus, Taurus, Orion, Cep OB3, and Mon R2, which combined host over 700 protostar candidates. These clouds encompass a variety of SF environments, including both low-mass and high-mass SF regions, as well as dense clusters and regions of sparsely distributed star formation. Our diverse cloud sample allows us to compare protostar luminosity functions in these varied environments. We combine near- and mid-infrared photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey and Spitzer to create 1-24 {mu}m spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Using protostars from the c2d survey with well-determined bolometric luminosities, we derive a relationship between bolometric luminosity, mid-IR luminosity (integrated from 1-24 {mu}m), and SED slope. Estimations of the bolometric luminosities for protostar candidates are combined to create luminosity functions for each cloud. Contamination due to edge-on disks, reddened Class II sources, and galaxies is estimated and removed from the luminosity functions. We find that luminosity functions for high-mass SF clouds (Orion, Mon R2, and Cep OB3) peak near 1 L{sub Sun} and show a tail extending toward luminosities above 100 L{sub Sun }. The luminosity functions of the low-mass SF clouds (Serpens, Perseus, Ophiuchus, Taurus, Lupus, and Chamaeleon) do not exhibit a common peak, however the combined luminosity function of these regions peaks below 1 L{sub Sun }. Finally, we examine the luminosity functions as a function of the local surface density of young stellar objects. In the Orion molecular clouds, we find a significant difference between the luminosity functions of protostars in regions of high and low stellar density, the former of which is biased toward more luminous sources. This may be the result of primordial mass segregation, although this interpretation is not unique. We compare our luminosity

  19. LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS OF SPITZER-IDENTIFIED PROTOSTARS IN NINE NEARBY MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    Kryukova, E.; Megeath, S. T.; Allen, T. S.; Gutermuth, R. A.; Pipher, J.; Allen, L. E.; Myers, P. C.; Muzerolle, J.

    2012-01-01

    We identify protostars in Spitzer surveys of nine star-forming (SF) molecular clouds within 1 kpc: Serpens, Perseus, Ophiuchus, Chamaeleon, Lupus, Taurus, Orion, Cep OB3, and Mon R2, which combined host over 700 protostar candidates. These clouds encompass a variety of SF environments, including both low-mass and high-mass SF regions, as well as dense clusters and regions of sparsely distributed star formation. Our diverse cloud sample allows us to compare protostar luminosity functions in these varied environments. We combine near- and mid-infrared photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey and Spitzer to create 1-24 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Using protostars from the c2d survey with well-determined bolometric luminosities, we derive a relationship between bolometric luminosity, mid-IR luminosity (integrated from 1-24 μm), and SED slope. Estimations of the bolometric luminosities for protostar candidates are combined to create luminosity functions for each cloud. Contamination due to edge-on disks, reddened Class II sources, and galaxies is estimated and removed from the luminosity functions. We find that luminosity functions for high-mass SF clouds (Orion, Mon R2, and Cep OB3) peak near 1 L ☉ and show a tail extending toward luminosities above 100 L ☉ . The luminosity functions of the low-mass SF clouds (Serpens, Perseus, Ophiuchus, Taurus, Lupus, and Chamaeleon) do not exhibit a common peak, however the combined luminosity function of these regions peaks below 1 L ☉ . Finally, we examine the luminosity functions as a function of the local surface density of young stellar objects. In the Orion molecular clouds, we find a significant difference between the luminosity functions of protostars in regions of high and low stellar density, the former of which is biased toward more luminous sources. This may be the result of primordial mass segregation, although this interpretation is not unique. We compare our luminosity functions to those

  20. RCW 36 in the Vela Molecular Ridge: Evidence for high-mass star-cluster formation triggered by cloud-cloud collision

    Sano, Hidetoshi; Enokiya, Rei; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Saeki, Shun; Okawa, Kazuki; Tsuge, Kisetsu; Tsutsumi, Daichi; Kohno, Mikito; Hattori, Yusuke; Yoshiike, Satoshi; Fujita, Shinji; Nishimura, Atsushi; Ohama, Akio; Tachihara, Kengo; Torii, Kazufumi; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Kimura, Kimihiro; Ogawa, Hideo; Wong, Graeme F.; Braiding, Catherine; Rowell, Gavin; Burton, Michael G.; Fukui, Yasuo

    2018-05-01

    A collision between two molecular clouds is one possible candidate for high-mass star formation. The H II region RCW 36, located in the Vela molecular ridge, contains a young star cluster (˜ 1 Myr old) and two O-type stars. We present new CO observations of RCW 36 made with NANTEN2, Mopra, and ASTE using 12CO(J = 1-0, 2-1, 3-2) and 13CO(J = 2-1) emission lines. We have discovered two molecular clouds lying at the velocities VLSR ˜ 5.5 and 9 km s-1. Both clouds are likely to be physically associated with the star cluster, as verified by the good spatial correspondence among the two clouds, infrared filaments, and the star cluster. We also found a high intensity ratio of ˜ 0.6-1.2 for CO J = 3-2/1-0 toward both clouds, indicating that the gas temperature has been increased due to heating by the O-type stars. We propose that the O-type stars in RCW 36 were formed by a collision between the two clouds, with a relative velocity separation of 5 km s-1. The complementary spatial distributions and the velocity separation of the two clouds are in good agreement with observational signatures expected for O-type star formation triggered by a cloud-cloud collision. We also found a displacement between the complementary spatial distributions of the two clouds, which we estimate to be 0.3 pc assuming the collision angle to be 45° relative to the line-of-sight. We estimate the collision timescale to be ˜ 105 yr. It is probable that the cluster age found by Ellerbroek et al. (2013b, A&A, 558, A102) is dominated by the low-mass members which were not formed under the triggering by cloud-cloud collision, and that the O-type stars in the center of the cluster are explained by the collisional triggering independently from the low-mass star formation.

  1. Submillimeter and far infrared line observations of M17 SW: A clumpy molecular cloud penetrated by UV radiation

    Stutzki, J.; Stacey, G. J.; Genzel, R.; Harris, A. I.; Jaffe, d. T.; Lugten, J. B.

    1987-01-01

    Millimeter, submillimeter, and far infrared spectroscopic observations of the M17 SW star formation region are discussed. The results require the molecular cloud near the interface to be clumpy or filamentary. As a consequence, far ultraviolet radiation from the central OB stellar cluster can penetrate into the dense molecular cloud to a depth of several pc, thus creating bright and extended (CII) emission from the photodissociated surfaces of dense atomic and molecular clumps or sheets. The extended (CII) emission throughout the molecular cloud SW of the M17 complex has a level 20 times higher than expected from a single molecular cloud interface exposed to an ultraviolet radiation field typical of the solar neighborhood. This suggests that the molecular cloud as a whole is penetrated by ultraviolet radiation and has a clumpy or filamentary structure. The number of B stars expected to be embedded in the M17 molecular cloud probably can provide the UV radiation necessary for the extended (CII) emission. Alternatively, the UV radiation could be external, if the interstellar radiation in the vicinity of M17 is higher than in the solar neighborhood.

  2. LARGE-SCALE CO MAPS OF THE LUPUS MOLECULAR CLOUD COMPLEX

    Tothill, N. F. H.; Loehr, A.; Stark, A. A.; Lane, A. P.; Harnett, J. I.; Bourke, T. L.; Myers, P. C.; Parshley, S. C.; Wright, G. A.; Walker, C. K.

    2009-01-01

    Fully sampled degree-scale maps of the 13 CO 2-1 and CO 4-3 transitions toward three members of the Lupus Molecular Cloud Complex-Lupus I, III, and IV-trace the column density and temperature of the molecular gas. Comparison with IR extinction maps from the c2d project requires most of the gas to have a temperature of 8-10 K. Estimates of the cloud mass from 13 CO emission are roughly consistent with most previous estimates, while the line widths are higher, around 2 km s -1 . CO 4-3 emission is found throughout Lupus I, indicating widespread dense gas, and toward Lupus III and IV. Enhanced line widths at the NW end and along the edge of the B 228 ridge in Lupus I, and a coherent velocity gradient across the ridge, are consistent with interaction between the molecular cloud and an expanding H I shell from the Upper-Scorpius subgroup of the Sco-Cen OB Association. Lupus III is dominated by the effects of two HAe/Be stars, and shows no sign of external influence. Slightly warmer gas around the core of Lupus IV and a low line width suggest heating by the Upper-Centaurus-Lupus subgroup of Sco-Cen, without the effects of an H I shell.

  3. Gas, dust, stars, star formation, and their evolution in M 33 at giant molecular cloud scales

    Komugi, Shinya; Miura, Rie E.; Kuno, Nario; Tosaki, Tomoka

    2018-04-01

    We report on a multi-parameter analysis of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in the nearby spiral galaxy M 33. A catalog of GMCs identifed in 12CO(J = 3-2) was used to compile associated 12CO(J = 1-0), dust, stellar mass, and star formation rate. Each of the 58 GMCs are categorized by their evolutionary stage. Applying the principal component analysis on these parameters, we construct two principal components, PC1 and PC2, which retain 75% of the information from the original data set. PC1 is interpreted as expressing the total interstellar matter content, and PC2 as the total activity of star formation. Young (activity compared to intermediate-age and older clouds. Comparison of average cloud properties in different evolutionary stages imply that GMCs may be heated or grow denser and more massive via aggregation of diffuse material in their first ˜ 10 Myr. The PCA also objectively identified a set of tight relations between ISM and star formation. The ratio of the two CO lines is nearly constant, but weakly modulated by massive star formation. Dust is more strongly correlated with the star formation rate than the CO lines, supporting recent findings that dust may trace molecular gas better than CO. Stellar mass contributes weakly to the star formation rate, reminiscent of an extended form of the Schmidt-Kennicutt relation with the molecular gas term substituted by dust.

  4. A YOUNG GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUD FORMED AT THE INTERFACE OF TWO COLLIDING SUPERSHELLS: OBSERVATIONS MEET SIMULATIONS

    Dawson, J. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and MQ Research Centre in Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia); Ntormousi, E. [Service d' Astrophysique, CEA/DSM/IRFU Orme des Merisiers, Bat 709 Gif-sur-Yvette F-91191 (France); Fukui, Y.; Hayakawa, T. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya (Japan); Fierlinger, K., E-mail: joanne.dawson@mq.edu.au [University Observatory Munich, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München (Germany)

    2015-01-20

    Dense, star-forming gas is believed to form at the stagnation points of large-scale interstellar medium flows, but observational examples of this process in action are rare. We here present a giant molecular cloud (GMC) sandwiched between two colliding Milky Way supershells, which we argue shows strong evidence of having formed from material accumulated at the collision zone. Combining {sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, and C{sup 18}O(J = 1-0) data with new high-resolution, three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of colliding supershells, we discuss the origin and nature of the GMC (G288.5+1.5), favoring a scenario in which the cloud was partially seeded by pre-existing denser material, but assembled into its current form by the action of the shells. This assembly includes the production of some new molecular gas. The GMC is well interpreted as non-self-gravitating, despite its high mass (M{sub H{sub 2}}∼1.7×10{sup 5} M{sub ⊙}), and is likely pressure confined by the colliding flows, implying that self-gravity was not a necessary ingredient for its formation. Much of the molecular gas is relatively diffuse, and the cloud as a whole shows little evidence of star formation activity, supporting a scenario in which it is young and recently formed. Drip-like formations along its lower edge may be explained by fluid dynamical instabilities in the cooled gas.

  5. Herbig-haro objects and mid-infrared outflows in the VELA C molecular cloud

    Zhang, Miaomiao; Wang, Hongchi; Henning, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We have performed a deep [S II] λλ6717/6731 wide field Herbig-Haro (HH) object survey toward the Vela C molecular cloud with a sky coverage of about 2 deg 2 . In total, 18 new HH objects, HH 1090-1107, are discovered and the two previously known HH objects, HH 73-74, are also detected in our [S II] images. We also present an investigation of mid-infrared outflows in the Vela C molecular cloud using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer images taken from AllWISE data release. Using the method suggested by Zhang and Wang, 11 extended green objects (EGOs) are identified to be the mid-infrared outflows, including 6 new mid-infrared outflows that have not been detected previously at other wavelengths and 5 mid-infrared counterparts of the HH objects detected in this work. Using the AllWISE Source Catalog and the source classification scheme suggested by Koenig et al., we have identified 56 young stellar object (YSO) candidates in the Vela C molecular cloud. The possible driving sources of the HH objects and EGOs are discussed based on the morphology of HH objects and EGOs and the locations of HH objects, EGOs and YSO candidates. Finally we associate 12 HH objects and 5 EGOs with 10 YSOs and YSO candidates. The median length of the outflows in Vela C is 0.35 pc and the outflows seem to be oriented randomly.

  6. AN IMPRINT OF MOLECULAR CLOUD MAGNETIZATION IN THE MORPHOLOGY OF THE DUST POLARIZED EMISSION

    Soler, J. D.; Netterfield, C. B.; Fissel, L. M.; Hennebelle, P.; Martin, P. G.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a morphological imprint of magnetization found when considering the relative orientation of the magnetic field direction with respect to the density structures in simulated turbulent molecular clouds. This imprint was found using the Histogram of Relative Orientations (HRO), a new technique that utilizes the gradient to characterize the directionality of density and column density structures on multiple scales. We present results of the HRO analysis in three models of molecular clouds in which the initial magnetic field strength is varied, but an identical initial turbulent velocity field is introduced, which subsequently decays. The HRO analysis was applied to the simulated data cubes and mock-observations of the simulations produced by integrating the data cube along particular lines of sight. In the three-dimensional analysis we describe the relative orientation of the magnetic field B with respect to the density structures, showing that: (1) the magnetic field shows a preferential orientation parallel to most of the density structures in the three simulated cubes, (2) the relative orientation changes from parallel to perpendicular in regions with density over a critical density n T in the highest magnetization case, and (3) the change of relative orientation is largest for the highest magnetization and decreases in lower magnetization cases. This change in the relative orientation is also present in the projected maps. In conjunction with simulations, HROs can be used to establish a link between the observed morphology in polarization maps and the physics included in simulations of molecular clouds

  7. The Molecular Gas Environment in the 20 km s{sup −1} Cloud in the Central Molecular Zone

    Lu, Xing; Gu, Qiusheng [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210093 (China); Zhang, Qizhou; Battersby, Cara [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kauffmann, Jens; Pillai, Thushara [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Longmore, Steven N. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstraße 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Zhang, Zhi-Yu [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Ginsburg, Adam [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Mills, Elisabeth A. C., E-mail: xinglv.nju@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Jose State University, One Washington Square, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States)

    2017-04-10

    We recently reported a population of protostellar candidates in the 20 km s{sup −1} cloud in the Central Molecular Zone of the Milky Way, traced by H{sub 2}O masers in gravitationally bound dense cores. In this paper, we report molecular line studies with high angular resolution (∼3″) of the environment of star formation in this cloud. Maps of various molecular line transitions as well as the continuum at 1.3 mm are obtained using the Submillimeter Array. Five NH{sub 3} inversion lines and the 1.3 cm continuum are observed with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. The interferometric observations are complemented with single-dish data. We find that the CH{sub 3}OH, SO, and HNCO lines, which are usually shock tracers, are better correlated spatially with the compact dust emission from dense cores among the detected lines. These lines also show enhancement in intensities with respect to SiO intensities toward the compact dust emission, suggesting the presence of slow shocks or hot cores in these regions. We find gas temperatures of ≳100 K at 0.1 pc scales based on RADEX modeling of the H{sub 2}CO and NH{sub 3} lines. Although no strong correlations between temperatures and linewidths/H{sub 2}O maser luminosities are found, in high-angular-resolution maps we note several candidate shock-heated regions offset from any dense cores, as well as signatures of localized heating by protostars in several dense cores. Our findings suggest that at 0.1 pc scales in this cloud star formation and strong turbulence may together affect the chemistry and temperature of the molecular gas.

  8. Far-infrared observations of M17: The interaction of an H II region with a molecular cloud

    Gatley, I.; Becklin, E.E.; Sellgren, K.; Werner, M.W.

    1979-01-01

    The central 15' of the M17 H II region--molecular cloud complex has been mapped with 1' resolution simultaneously at 30, 50, and 100 μm. The data suggest that the bulk of the luminosity radiated in the far-infrared is supplied by the exciting stars of the H II region; the far-infrared radiation is thermal emission from dust grains located chiefly outside the ionized gas. Large-scale systematic gradients in both the temperature and the column density of the dust are seen across the source. The appearance of the source in the far-infrared reflects the markedly nonuniform distribution of matter around the exciting stars; the H II region is bounded by the molecular cloud to the southwest. The core of the molecular cloud is heated primarily by infrared radiation from dust within and adjacent to the H II region; no evidence is seen for substantial luminosity sources embedded within the molecular cloud

  9. Low virial parameters in molecular clouds: Implications for high-mass star formation and magnetic fields

    Kauffmann, Jens; Pillai, Thushara [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Goldsmith, Paul F., E-mail: jens.kauffmann@astro.caltech.edu, E-mail: tpillai@astro.caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    Whether or not molecular clouds and embedded cloud fragments are stable against collapse is of utmost importance for the study of the star formation process. Only 'supercritical' cloud fragments are able to collapse and form stars. The virial parameter α = M {sub vir}/M, which compares the virial mass to the actual mass, provides one way to gauge stability against collapse. Supercritical cloud fragments are characterized by α ≲ 2, as indicated by a comprehensive stability analysis considering perturbations in pressure and density gradients. Past research has suggested that virial parameters α ≳ 2 prevail in clouds. This would suggest that collapse toward star formation is a gradual and relatively slow process and that magnetic fields are not needed to explain the observed cloud structure. Here, we review a range of very recent observational studies that derive virial parameters <<2 and compile a catalog of 1325 virial parameter estimates. Low values of α are in particular observed for regions of high-mass star formation (HMSF). These observations may argue for a more rapid and violent evolution during collapse. This would enable 'competitive accretion' in HMSF, constrain some models of 'monolithic collapse', and might explain the absence of high-mass starless cores. Alternatively, the data could point at the presence of significant magnetic fields ∼1 mG at high gas densities. We examine to what extent the derived observational properties might be biased by observational or theoretical uncertainties. For a wide range of reasonable parameters, our conclusions appear to be robust with respect to such biases.

  10. Magnetic diffusion and ionization fractions in dense molecular clouds: The role of charged grains

    Elmegreen, B.G.

    1979-01-01

    The ionization fraction is determined for dense molecular clouds by considering charge exchange, dissociative recombination, radiative recombination, and collisions between grains and charged species. The inclusion of grains tends to lower the ionization fraction for a given cosmic-ray ionization rate zeta and metal depletion delta. The observed values of the ionization fractions in dense cloud cores (i.e., -8 ) are obtained for reasonable values of zeta=10 -17 s -1 and delta=0.1.For temperatures less than 30 K, each grain alternates in charge between -e and 0. The resulting motion of the grains in a self-graviting cloud that contains a magnetic field will be periodic; their response to electromagnetic forces will depend on their instantaneous charge. This complex motion is calculated in order to determine the average viscous force between the grains and the neutral molecules in the cloud. The grain-neutral viscous force combines with the ion-neutral viscous force to regulate the motion of the neutral molecules relative to the magnetic field. The resultant The result neutral drift leads to a diffusion of the magnetic field out of the cloud. The time scale for this diffusion is calculated. Grain-related viscous forces dominate ion-related forces for ionization fractions less than 5 x 10 -8 . The magnetic diffusion time in a self-gravitating cloud that is supported by an internal magnetic field is shown to be at least 10 times larger thanthe free-fall time even when the ionization fraction is much less than 10 -8

  11. Galactic structure

    1989-01-01

    The occurrence of hot, apparently normal, massive stars far from the galactic plane has been a major puzzle in an understanding of galactic structure and evolution. Such stars have been discovered and studied at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) over a number of years. During 1989 further evidence has been obtained indicating that these stars are normal, massive objects. Other studies of galactic structure conducted by the SAAO have included research on: the central bulge region of our galaxy; populations of M giants in the galaxy; a faint blue object survey; a survey of the galactic plane for distant Cepheid variables; interstellar reddening, and K-type dwarfs as tracers for the gravitational force perpendicular to the galactic plane. 1 fig

  12. Molecular Clouds in the Extreme Outer Galaxy between l  = 34.°75 to 45.°25

    Sun, Yan; Su, Yang; Zhang, Shao-Bo; Xu, Ye; Chen, Xue-Peng; Yang, Ji; Jiang, Zhi-Bo; Fang, Min, E-mail: yansun@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory and Key Laboratory of Radio Astronomy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2017-06-01

    We present the results of an unbiased CO survey in the Galactic range of 34.°75 ≤  l  ≤ 45.°25 and −5.°25 ≤  b  ≤ 5.°25, and the velocity range beyond the Outer arm. A total of 168 molecular clouds (MCs) are identified within the Extreme Outer Galaxy (EOG) region, and 31 of these MCs are associated with {sup 13}CO  emission. However, none of them show significant C{sup 18}O  emission under the current detection limit. The typical size and mass of these MCs are 5 pc and 3 × 10{sup 3} M {sub ⊙}, implying a lack of large and massive MCs in the EOG region. Similar to MCs in the outer Galaxy, the velocity dispersions of EOG clouds are also correlated with their sizes; however, they are well displaced below the scaling relationship defined by the inner Galaxy MCs. These MCs with a median Galactocentric radius of 12.6 kpc show very different distributions from those of the MCs in the Outer arm published in our previous paper, while roughly following the Outer Scutum–Centaurus arm defined by Dame and Thaddeus. This result may provide robust evidence for the existence of the Outer Scutum–Centaurus arm. The lower limit of the total mass of this segment is about 2.7 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ⊙}, which is about one magnitude lower than that of the Outer arm. The mean thickness of the gaseous disk is about 1.°45 or 450 pc, and the scale height is about 1.°27, or 400 pc above the b  = 0° plane. The warp traced by CO emission is very obvious in the EOG region and its amplitude is consistent with the predictions by other warp models using different tracers, such as dust, H i, and stellar components of our Galaxy.

  13. Distribution of Si II in the Galactic center

    Graf, P.; Herter, T.; Gull, G. E.; Houck, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    A map of the Galactic center region in the forbidden Si II 34.8-micron line is presented. The line emission arises from within the photodissociation region (PDR) associated with the neutral gas ring surrounding an ionized gas core confined within 2 pc of the Galactic center. Si II is a useful probe of the inner regions of the ring since it is always optically thin. The Si II data, when analyzed in conjunction with O I, C II, and molecular measurements, outlines the transition region between the PDR and the surrounding molecular cloud. The Si II emission is found to extend beyond that of the O II into the neutral gas ring. Although the interpretation is not unique, the data are consistent with a constant gas-phase abundance of silicon within the inner part of the PDR while the gaseous silicon is depleted by molecule formation in the transition region.

  14. Evolution of star-bearing molecular clouds: the high-velocity HCO+ flow in NGC 2071

    Wootten, A.; Loren, R.B.; Sandqvist, A.; Friberg, P.; Hjalmarson, Aa.

    1984-01-01

    The J = 1-0 and J = 302 lines of HCO + and H 13 CO + have been observed in the molecular cloud NGC 2071, where they map the dense portions of a bidirectional molecular flow. The high resolution (42'') of our observations has enabled us to determine the distribution of mass, momentum , and energy in the flow as a function of projected distance from the cluster. Both momentum and energy diminish with distance from the central cluster of infrared sources. The highest velocities at a given intensity in this dense flow occur in a limited region coincident with an infrared cluster and the densest part of the molecular cloud. Higher resolution (33'') CO and 13 CO observations reveal that the extreme velocities in the flow occur in regions displaced on opposite sides of the cluster, suggesting that the flow only becomes visible in molecular line emission at distances approx.0.1 pc from its supposed source. Lower velocity material containing most of the mass of the flow is found over larger regions, as expected if the flow has decelerated as it has evolved. Assuming conservation of momentum, the historical rate of momentum injection is found to have been roughly constant over a period of 10 4 years, suggesting a constancy of the average luminosity of the central cluster over that time. The J = 3--2 HCO + profile does not show the absorption which is a prominent feature of the J = 1--0 profile, and the J = 3--2 line appears to be a useful probe of conditions specific to the dense cores of clouds. The high velocity HCO + emission correlates very well with spatial and velocity events of molecular hydrogen emission. The abundance of HCO + [X(HCO + )approx.10 -8 ], and by inference the electron density, is similar in material at all velocities

  15. UNUSUALLY LUMINOUS GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUDS IN THE OUTER DISK OF M33

    Bigiel, F.; Blitz, L.; Plambeck, R. L.; Bolatto, A. D.; Leroy, A. K.; Walter, F.; Rosolowsky, E. W.; Lopez, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    We use high spatial resolution (∼7 pc) observations from the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Wave Astronomy (CARMA) to derive detailed properties for eight giant molecular clouds (GMCs) at a galactocentric radius corresponding to approximately two CO scale lengths, or ∼0.5 optical radii (r 25 ), in the Local Group spiral galaxy M33. At this radius, molecular gas fraction, dust-to-gas ratio, and metallicity are much lower than in the inner part of M33 or in a typical spiral galaxy. This allows us to probe the impact of environment on GMC properties by comparing our measurements to previous data from the inner disk of M33, the Milky Way, and other nearby galaxies. The outer disk clouds roughly fall on the size-linewidth relation defined by extragalactic GMCs, but are slightly displaced from the luminosity-virial mass relation in the sense of having high CO luminosity compared to the inferred virial mass. This implies a different CO-to-H 2 conversion factor, which is on average a factor of 2 lower than the inner disk and the extragalactic average. We attribute this to significantly higher measured brightness temperatures of the outer disk clouds compared to the ancillary sample of GMCs, which is likely an effect of enhanced radiation levels due to massive star formation in the vicinity of our target field. Apart from brightness temperature, the properties we determine for the outer disk GMCs in M33 do not differ significantly from those of our comparison sample. In particular, the combined sample of inner and outer disk M33 clouds covers roughly the same range in size, line width, virial mass, and CO luminosity than the sample of Milky Way GMCs. When compared to the inner disk clouds in M33, however, we find even the brightest outer disk clouds to be smaller than most of their inner disk counterparts. This may be due to incomplete sampling or a potentially steeper cloud mass function at larger radii.

  16. First Observation of the Submillimeter Polarization Spectrum in a Translucent Molecular Cloud

    Ashton, Peter C.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Angilè, Francesco E.; Benton, Steven J.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dober, Bradley; Fissel, Laura M.; Fukui, Yasuo; Galitzki, Nicholas; Gandilo, Natalie N.; Klein, Jeffrey; Korotkov, Andrei L.; Li, Zhi-Yun; Martin, Peter G.; Matthews, Tristan G.; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Novak, Giles; Pascale, Enzo; Poidevin, Frédérick; Santos, Fabio P.; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Shariff, Jamil A.; Soler, Juan D.; Thomas, Nicholas E.; Tucker, Carole E.; Tucker, Gregory S.; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    2018-04-01

    Polarized emission from aligned dust is a crucial tool for studies of magnetism in the ISM, but a troublesome contaminant for studies of cosmic microwave background polarization. In each case, an understanding of the significance of the polarization signal requires well-calibrated physical models of dust grains. Despite decades of progress in theory and observation, polarized dust models remain largely underconstrained. During its 2012 flight, the balloon-borne telescope BLASTPol obtained simultaneous broadband polarimetric maps of a translucent molecular cloud at 250, 350, and 500 μm. Combining these data with polarimetry from the Planck 850 μm band, we have produced a submillimeter polarization spectrum, the first for a cloud of this type. We find the polarization degree to be largely constant across the four bands. This result introduces a new observable with the potential to place strong empirical constraints on ISM dust polarization models in a previously inaccessible density regime. Compared to models by Draine & Fraisse, our result disfavors two of their models for which all polarization arises due only to aligned silicate grains. By creating simple models for polarized emission in a translucent cloud, we verify that extinction within the cloud should have only a small effect on the polarization spectrum shape, compared to the diffuse ISM. Thus, we expect the measured polarization spectrum to be a valid check on diffuse ISM dust models. The general flatness of the observed polarization spectrum suggests a challenge to models where temperature and alignment degree are strongly correlated across major dust components.

  17. MODELING THE ATOMIC-TO-MOLECULAR TRANSITION AND CHEMICAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF TURBULENT STAR-FORMING CLOUDS

    Offner, Stella S. R. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Bisbas, Thomas G.; Viti, Serena [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6B (United Kingdom); Bell, Tom A., E-mail: stella.offner@yale.edu [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Carretera de Ajalvir, km 4, E-28850 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-06-10

    We use 3D-PDR, a three-dimensional astrochemistry code for modeling photodissociation regions (PDRs), to post-process hydrodynamic simulations of turbulent, star-forming clouds. We focus on the transition from atomic to molecular gas, with specific attention to the formation and distribution of H, C{sup +}, C, H{sub 2}, and CO. First, we demonstrate that the details of the cloud chemistry and our conclusions are insensitive to the simulation spatial resolution, to the resolution at the cloud edge, and to the ray angular resolution. We then investigate the effect of geometry and simulation parameters on chemical abundances and find weak dependence on cloud morphology as dictated by gravity and turbulent Mach number. For a uniform external radiation field, we find similar distributions to those derived using a one-dimensional PDR code. However, we demonstrate that a three-dimensional treatment is necessary for a spatially varying external field, and we caution against using one-dimensional treatments for non-symmetric problems. We compare our results with the work of Glover et al., who self-consistently followed the time evolution of molecule formation in hydrodynamic simulations using a reduced chemical network. In general, we find good agreement with this in situ approach for C and CO abundances. However, the temperature and H{sub 2} abundances are discrepant in the boundary regions (A{sub v} {<=} 5), which is due to the different number of rays used by the two approaches.

  18. The CLOUD experiment

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets (CLOUD) experiment as shown by Jasper Kirkby (spokesperson). Kirkby shows a sketch to illustrate the possible link between galactic cosmic rays and cloud formations. The CLOUD experiment uses beams from the PS accelerator at CERN to simulate the effect of cosmic rays on cloud formations in the Earth's atmosphere. It is thought that cosmic ray intensity is linked to the amount of low cloud cover due to the formation of aerosols, which induce condensation.

  19. Galactic dust and extinction

    Lyngaa, G.

    1979-01-01

    The ratio R between visual extinction and colour excess, is slightly larger than 3 and does not vary much throughout our part of the Galaxy. The distribution of dust in the galactic plane shows, on the large scale, a gradient with higher colour excesses towards l=50 0 than towards l=230 0 . On the smaller scale, much of the dust responsible for extinction is situated in clouds which tend to group together. The correlation between positions of interstellar dust clouds and positions of spiral tracers seems rather poor in our Galaxy. However, concentrated dark clouds as well as extended regions of dust show an inclined distribution similar to the Gould belt of bright stars. (Auth.)

  20. Penetration of Cosmic Rays into Dense Molecular Clouds: Role of Diffuse Envelopes

    Ivlev, A. V.; Dogiel, V. A.; Chernyshov, D. O.; Caselli, P.; Ko, C.-M.; Cheng, K. S.

    2018-03-01

    A flux of cosmic rays (CRs) propagating through a diffuse ionized gas can excite MHD waves, thus generating magnetic disturbances. We propose a generic model of CR penetration into molecular clouds through their diffuse envelopes, and identify the leading physical processes controlling their transport on the way from a highly ionized interstellar medium to the dense interior of the cloud. The model allows us to describe a transition between a free streaming of CRs and their diffusive propagation, determined by the scattering on the self-generated disturbances. A self-consistent set of equations, governing the diffusive transport regime in an envelope and the MHD turbulence generated by the modulated CR flux, is characterized by two dimensionless numbers. We demonstrate a remarkable mutual complementarity of different mechanisms leading to the onset of the diffusive regime, which results in a universal energy spectrum of the modulated CRs. In conclusion, we briefly discuss implications of our results for several fundamental astrophysical problems, such as the spatial distribution of CRs in the Galaxy as well as the ionization, heating, and chemistry in dense molecular clouds. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Prof. Vadim Tsytovich.

  1. More Than Filaments and Cores: Statistical Study of Structure Formation and Dynamics in Nearby Molecular Clouds

    Chen, How-Huan; Goodman, Alyssa

    2018-01-01

    In the past decade, multiple attempts at understanding the connection between filaments and star forming cores have been made using observations across the entire epectrum. However, the filaments and the cores are usually treated as predefined--and well-defined--entities, instead of structures that often come at different sizes, shapes, with substantially different dynamics, and inter-connected at different scales. In my dissertation, I present an array of studies using different statistical methods, including the dendrogram and the probability distribution function (PDF), of structures at different size scales within nearby molecular clouds. These structures are identified using observations of different density tracers, and where possible, in the multi-dimensional parameter space of key dynamic properties--the LSR velocity, the velocity dispersion, and the column density. The goal is to give an overview of structure formation in nearby star-forming clouds, as well as of the dynamics in these structures. I find that the overall statistical properties of a larger structure is often the summation/superposition of sub-structures within, and that there could be significant variations due to local physical processes. I also find that the star formation process within molecular clouds could in fact take place in a non-monolithic manner, connecting potentially merging and/or transient structures, at different scales.

  2. CO near the Pleiades: encounter of a star cluster with a small molecular cloud

    Bally, J.; White, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Although there is a large amount of interstellar matter near the Pleiades star cluster, the observed dust and gas is not a remnant of the placental molecular cloud from which the star cluster was formed. Carbon monoxide (CO) associated with the visible reflection nebulae was discovered by Cohen (1975). Its radial velocity differs from that of the cluster by many times the cluster escape velocity, which implies that the cloud-cluster association is the result of a chance encounter. This circumstance and the proximity of the Pleiades to the sun creates an unique opportunity for study of interstellar processes at high spatial resolution. To study the molecular component of the gas, a 1.7 square degree field was mapped with the ATandT Bell Laboratories 7-meter antenna (1.7' beam) on a 1' grid in the J=1.0 C(12)O line, obtaining over 6000 spectra with 50 kHz resolution. The cloud core was mapped in the J=1-0 line of C(13)O. Further observations include an unsuccessful search for CS (J=2-1) at ATandT BL, and some C(12)O J=2-1 spectra obtained at the Millimeter Wave Observatory of the University of Texas

  3. CO near the Pleiades: Encounter of a star cluster with a small molecular cloud

    Bally, J.; White, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Although there is a large amount of interstellar matter near the Pleiades star cluster, the observed dust and gas is not a remnant of the placental molecular cloud from which the star cluster was formed. Carbon monoxide (CO) associated with the visible reflection nebulae was discovered by Cohen (1975). Its radial velocity differs from that of the cluster by many times the cluster escape velocity, which implies that the cloud-cluster association is the result of a chance encounter. This circumstance and the proximity of the Pleiades to the sun creates an unique opportunity for study of interstellar processes at high spatial resolution. To study the molecular component of the gas, a 1.7 square degree field was mapped with the AT&T Bell Laboratories 7-meter antenna (1.7' beam) on a 1' grid in the J=1.0 C(12)O line, obtaining over 6,000 spectra with 50 kHz resolution. The cloud core was mapped in the J=1-0 line of C(13)O. Further observations include an unsuccessful search for CS (J=2-1) at AT&T BL, and some C(12)O J=2-1 spectra obtained at the Millimeter Wave Observatory of the University of Texas.

  4. Galactic dynamics

    Binney, James

    2008-01-01

    Since it was first published in 1987, Galactic Dynamics has become the most widely used advanced textbook on the structure and dynamics of galaxies and one of the most cited references in astrophysics. Now, in this extensively revised and updated edition, James Binney and Scott Tremaine describe the dramatic recent advances in this subject, making Galactic Dynamics the most authoritative introduction to galactic astrophysics available to advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and researchers. Every part of the book has been thoroughly overhauled, and many section

  5. Submillimeter and far-infrared line observations of M17 SW - A clumpy molecular cloud penetrated by ultraviolet radiation

    Stutzki, J.; Genzel, R.; Harris, A. I.; Stacey, G. J.; Jaffe, D. T.

    1988-01-01

    Millimeter, submillimeter, and far-IR spectroscopic observations of the M17 SW star formation region are reported. Strong forbidden C II 158 micron and CO J = 7 - 6 line emission arises in an H II region/molecular cloud interface of several pc thickness. Weaker forbidden C II emission appears to be extended over 15 pc throughout the molecular cloud. CO J = 14 - 13 and forbidden O I 145 micron spectra indicate high temperatures and densities for both molecular and atomic gas in the interface. The results require the molecular cloud near the interface to be clumpy or filamentary. The extended forbidden C II emission throughout the molecular cloud has a level around 20 times higher than expected from a single molecular cloud interface exposed to an ultraviolet radiation field typical of the solar neighborhood. The high gas temperature of molecular material in the UV-illuminated interface region suggests that CO self-shielding and heating of CO by photoelectrons are important.

  6. Molecular Hydrogen Images of Star Forming Regions in the Magellanic Clouds

    Probst, Ronald G.; Barba, R.; Bolatto, A.; Chu, Y.; Points, S.; Rubio, M.; Smith, C.

    2011-01-01

    The Large and Small Magellanic Clouds exhibit a variety of star formation physics with multiple phase components in low metallicity, gas rich environments. The 10 K, 100 K, and 104 K regimes are well explored. We are imaging LMC and SMC star forming regions in 2.12 micron H2 emission which arises in the 1000 K transition zone of molecular clouds. This is an NOAO Survey program using the widefield IR camera NEWFIRM on the CTIO 4-m Blanco telescope during its limited southern deployment. The data set will have immediate morphological applications and will provide target selection for followup infrared spectroscopy. We will provide a public archive of fully calibrated images with no proprietary period. NOAO is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  7. Observations of the J = 2 → 1 CO line in molecular clouds near compact H+ regions

    Riley, P.W.; Little, L.T.; Brown, A.T.; Hills, R.E.; Padman, R.; Vizard, D.; Lesurf, J.C.G.; Cronin, N.J.

    1982-01-01

    Observations of the J = 2 → 1 transitions of 12 CO and 13 CO at 230 and 220 GHz in 13 molecular clouds near compact H + regions have been made at UKIRT using an uncooled Schottky diode mixer and a digital auto-correlation spectrometer. The sources were chosen on the basis of their ammonia emission. A comparison between 12 CO and 13 CO spectra reveals a variety of self-absorption effects, ranging from slight asymmetries in the 12 CO profiles relative to their 13 CO counterparts (W43S, S88), to a deep narrow self-absorption dip (S68). The asymmetry observed in six sources out of ten is most easily explained if the clouds are collapsing; there is no clear evidence for expansion. The 13 CO linewidths are systematically wider than those from the NH 3 cores, suggesting that the velocity dispersion in the sources increases with distance from the centre. (author)

  8. Observations of the interstellar ice grain feature in the Taurus molecular clouds

    Whittet, D.C.B.; Bode, H.F.; Longmore, A.J.; Baines, D.W.T.; Evans, A.

    1983-01-01

    Although water ice was originally proposed as a major constituent of the interstellar grain population (e.g. Oort and van de Hulst, 1946), the advent of infrared astronomy has shown that the expected absorption due to O-H stretching vibrations at 3 μm is illusive. Observations have in fact revealed that the carrier of this feature is apparently restricted to regions deep within dense molecular clouds (Merrill et al., 1976; Willner et al., 1982). However, the exact carrier of this feature is still controversial, and many questions remain as to the conditions required for its appearance. It is also uncertain whether it is restricted to circumstellar shells, rather than the general cloud medium. Detailed discussion of the 3 μm band properties is given elsewhere in this volume. 15 references, 4 figures

  9. The galactic interstellar medium

    Burton, WB; Genzel, R

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains the papers of three extended lectures addressing advanced topics in astronomy and astrophysics. The topics discussed include the most recent observational data on interstellar matter outside our galaxy and the physics and chemistry of molecular clouds.

  10. HERSCHEL* FAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF THE GALACTIC CENTER. HOT MOLECULAR GAS: SHOCKS VERSUS RADIATION NEAR Sgr A

    Goicoechea, Javier R.; Etxaluze, M.; Cernicharo, J.; Bell, T. A. [Departamento de Astrofisica, Centro de Astrobiologia, CSIC-INTA, Carretera de Ajalvir, Km 4, Torrejon de Ardoz, E-28850 Madrid (Spain); Gerin, M.; De Luca, M.; Encrenaz, P. [LERMA, UMR 8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, Ecole Normale Superieure (France); Neufeld, D. A.; Indriolo, N. [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Contursi, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Postfach 1312, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Lis, D. C. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Polehampton, E. T. [RAL Space, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Sonnentrucker, P., E-mail: jr.goicoechea@cab.inta-csic.es [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2013-05-20

    We present a {approx}52-671 {mu}m spectral scan toward Sgr A* taken with the PACS and SPIRE spectrometers on board Herschel. The achieved angular resolution allows us to separate, for the first time at far-IR wavelengths, the emission toward the central cavity (gas in the inner central parsec of the galaxy) from that of the surrounding circumnuclear disk. The spectrum toward Sgr A* is dominated by strong [O III], [O I], [C II], [N III], [N II], and [C I] fine-structure lines (in decreasing order of luminosity) arising in gas irradiated by UV photons from the central stellar cluster. In addition, rotationally excited lines of {sup 12}CO (from J = 4-3 to 24-23), {sup 13}CO, H{sub 2}O, OH, H{sub 3}O{sup +}, HCO{sup +}, and HCN, as well as ground-state absorption lines of OH{sup +}, H{sub 2}O{sup +}, H{sub 3}O{sup +}, CH{sup +}, H{sub 2}O, OH, HF, CH, and NH are detected. The excitation of the {sup 12}CO ladder is consistent with a hot isothermal component at T{sub k} {approx_equal} 10{sup 3.1} K and n(H{sub 2}) {approx}< 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}. It is also consistent with a distribution of temperature components at higher density with most CO at T{sub k} {approx}< 300 K. The detected molecular features suggest that, at present, neither very enhanced X-ray nor cosmic-ray fluxes play a dominant role in the heating of the hot molecular gas. The hot CO component (either the bulk of the CO column or just a small fraction depending on the above scenario) results from a combination of UV- and shock-driven heating. If irradiated dense clumps/clouds do not exist, shocks likely dominate the heating of the hot molecular gas. This is consistent with the high-velocity gas detected toward Sgr A*.

  11. Molecular Line Studies of Ballistic Stellar Interlopers Burrowing through Dense Interstellar Clouds

    Rosen, Anna; Sahai, R.; Claussen, M.; Morris, M.

    2010-01-01

    When an intermediate-mass star speeds through a dense interstellar cloud at a high velocity, it can produce a cometary or bow shock structure due to the cloud being impacted by the intense stellar wind. This class of objects, recently discovered in an HST imaging survey, has been dubbed "ballistic stellar interlopers" (Sahai et al. 2009). Using the ARO's 12m and SMT 10m millimeter-wave dishes, we have obtained molecular line emission data towards 10 stellar interloper sources, in order to identify and characterize the dense clouds with which the interlopers are interacting. We have made small "on-the-fly" maps in the 12CO (J=2-1) and 13CO (J=2-1) lines for each cloud, and obtained spectra of high-density tracers such as N2H+ (J=3-2), HCO+ (J=3-2), CN(N=2-1), and SO(J=5-4), which probe a range of physical conditions in the interstellar clouds being impacted by the interlopers. The data have been reduced and analyzed, and preliminary estimates of the cloud temperatures (9-22 K) and 13CO optical depths (0.18-0.37) have been made. The maps, which show the emission as a function of radial velocity and spatial offset from the location of the interlopers, have helped us distinguish between the clouds interacting with the interlopers, and those which are unrelated but happen to lie along the line of sight. These data will now enable us to carry out high-resolution mm-wave interferometric observations of the interlopers in the future. This research was performed at JPL under the Minority Education Initiatives program. RS and MM were funded by a Long Term Space Astrophysics award from NASA for this work. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. Special thanks goes to John Bieging and Bill Peters of the Arizona Radio Observatory.

  12. CARMA LARGE AREA STAR FORMATION SURVEY: OBSERVATIONAL ANALYSIS OF FILAMENTS IN THE SERPENS SOUTH MOLECULAR CLOUD

    Fernández-López, M.; Looney, L.; Lee, K.; Segura-Cox, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana—Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Arce, H. G.; Plunkett, A. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Mundy, L. G.; Storm, S.; Teuben, P. J.; Pound, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Isella, A.; Kauffmann, J. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Tobin, J. J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Rosolowsky, E. [Departments of Physics and Statistics, University of British Columbia, Okanagan Campus, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Kwon, W. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Landleven 12, 9747-AD Groningen (Netherlands); Ostriker, E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Tassis, K. [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR-710 03 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Shirley, Y. L., E-mail: manferna@gmail.com [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We present the N{sub 2}H{sup +} (J = 1 → 0) map of the Serpens South molecular cloud obtained as part of the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey. The observations cover 250 arcmin{sup 2} and fully sample structures from 3000 AU to 3 pc with a velocity resolution of 0.16 km s{sup –1}, and they can be used to constrain the origin and evolution of molecular cloud filaments. The spatial distribution of the N{sub 2}H{sup +} emission is characterized by long filaments that resemble those observed in the dust continuum emission by Herschel. However, the gas filaments are typically narrower such that, in some cases, two or three quasi-parallel N{sub 2}H{sup +} filaments comprise a single observed dust continuum filament. The difference between the dust and gas filament widths casts doubt on Herschel ability to resolve the Serpens South filaments. Some molecular filaments show velocity gradients along their major axis, and two are characterized by a steep velocity gradient in the direction perpendicular to the filament axis. The observed velocity gradient along one of these filaments was previously postulated as evidence for mass infall toward the central cluster, but these kind of gradients can be interpreted as projection of large-scale turbulence.

  13. HIGH-ENERGY COSMIC-RAY DIFFUSION IN MOLECULAR CLOUDS: A NUMERICAL APPROACH

    Fatuzzo, M.; Melia, F.; Todd, E.; Adams, F. C.

    2010-01-01

    The propagation of high-energy cosmic rays (CRs) through giant molecular clouds constitutes a fundamental process in astronomy and astrophysics. The diffusion of CRs through these magnetically turbulent environments is often studied through the use of energy-dependent diffusion coefficients, although these are not always well motivated theoretically. Now, however, it is feasible to perform detailed numerical simulations of the diffusion process computationally. While the general problem depends upon both the field structure and particle energy, the analysis may be greatly simplified by dimensionless analysis. That is, for a specified purely turbulent field, the analysis depends almost exclusively on a single parameter-the ratio of the maximum wavelength of the turbulent field cells to the particle gyration radius. For turbulent magnetic fluctuations superimposed over an underlying uniform magnetic field, particle diffusion depends on a second dimensionless parameter that characterizes the ratio of the turbulent to uniform magnetic field energy densities. We consider both of these possibilities and parametrize our results to provide simple quantitative expressions that suitably characterize the diffusion process within molecular cloud environments. Doing so, we find that the simple scaling laws often invoked by the high-energy astrophysics community to model CR diffusion through such regions appear to be fairly robust for the case of a uniform magnetic field with a strong turbulent component, but are only valid up to ∼50 TeV particle energies for a purely turbulent field. These results have important consequences for the analysis of CR processes based on TeV emission spectra associated with dense molecular clouds.

  14. NuSTAR Hard X-ray Survey of the Galactic Center Region. I. Hard X-ray Morphology and Spectroscopy of the Diffuse Emission

    Mori, Kaya; Hailey, Charles J.; Krivonos, Roman

    2015-01-01

    We present the first sub-arcminute images of the Galactic Center above 10 keV, obtained with NuSTAR. NuSTAR resolves the hard X-ray source IGR J17456-2901 into non-thermal X-ray filaments, molecular clouds, point sources, and a previously unknown central component of hard X-ray emission (CHXE). Nu...

  15. The Spitzer Survey of Interstellar Clouds in the Gould Belt. VI. The Auriga-California Molecular Cloud Observed with IRAC and MIPS

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda C.; Harvey, Paul M.; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Huard, Tracy L.; Tothill, Nicholas F. H.; Nutter, David; Bourke, Tyler L.; DiFrancesco, James; Jorgensen, Jes K.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present observations of the Auriga-California Molecular Cloud (AMC) at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 24, 70 and 160 micrometers observed with the IRAC and MIPS detectors as part of the Spitzer Gould Belt Legacy Survey. The total mapped areas are 2.5 deg(exp 2) with IRAC and 10.47 deg2 with MIPS. This giant molecular cloud is one of two in the nearby Gould Belt of star-forming regions, the other being the Orion A Molecular Cloud (OMC). We compare source counts, colors and magnitudes in our observed region to a subset of the SWIRE data that was processed through our pipeline. Using color-magnitude and color-color diagrams, we find evidence for a substantial population of 166 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the cloud, many of which were previously unknown. Most of this population is concentrated around the LkH(alpha) 101 cluster and the filament extending from it. We present a quantitative description of the degree of clustering and discuss the fraction of YSOs in the region with disks relative to an estimate of the diskless YSO population. Although the AMC is similar in mass, size and distance to the OMC, it is forming about 15 - 20 times fewer stars.

  16. A High-Mass Cold Core in the Auriga-California Giant Molecular Cloud

    Magnus McGehee, Peregrine; Paladini, Roberta; Pelkonen, Veli-Matti; Toth, Viktor; Sayers, Jack

    2015-08-01

    The Auriga-California Giant Molecular Cloud is noted for its relatively low star formation rate, especially at the high-mass end of the Initial Mass Function. We combine maps acquired by the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory's Multiwavelength Submillimeter Inductance Camera [MUSIC] in the wavelength range 0.86 to 2.00 millimeters with Planck and publicly-available Herschel PACS and SPIRE data in order to characterize the mass, dust properties, and environment of the bright core PGCC G163.32-8.41.

  17. Cool C-shocks and high-velocity flows in molecular clouds

    Smith, M.D.; Brand, P.W.J.L.

    1990-01-01

    C-shocks can be driven through dense clouds when the neutrals and magnetic field interact weakly due to a paucity of ions. We develop a method for calculating C-shock properties with the aim of interpreting the observed high-velocity molecular hydrogen. A high Mach number approximation, corresponding to low temperatures, is employed. Under strong cooling conditions the flow is continuous even though a subsonic region may be present downstream. Analytic expressions for the maximum temperature, dissociation fraction, self-ionization level and J-shock transition are derived. (author)

  18. The star-forming content of the W3 giant molecular cloud

    Moore, T. J. T.; Bretherton, D. E.; Fujiyoshi, T.; Ridge, N. A.; Allsopp, J.; Hoare, M. G.; Lumsden, S. L.; Richer, J. S.

    2007-08-01

    We have surveyed a ˜0.9 square degree area of the W3 giant molecular cloud (GMC) and star-forming region in the 850-μm continuum, using the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. A complete sample of 316 dense clumps were detected with a mass range from around 13 to 2500 M⊙. Part of the W3 GMC is subject to an interaction with the H ii region and fast stellar winds generated by the nearby W4 OB association. We find that the fraction of total gas mass in dense, 850-μm traced structures is significantly altered by this interaction, being around 5-13 per cent in the undisturbed cloud but ˜25-37 per cent in the feedback-affected region. The mass distribution in the detected clump sample depends somewhat on assumptions of dust temperature and is not a simple, single power law but contains significant structure at intermediate masses. This structure is likely to be due to crowding of sources near or below the spatial resolution of the observations. There is little evidence of any difference between the index of the high-mass end of the clump mass function in the compressed region and in the unaffected cloud. The consequences of these results are discussed in terms of current models of triggered star formation.

  19. Cloud droplet activation mechanisms of amino acid aerosol particles: insight from molecular dynamics simulations

    Xin Li

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric amino acids constitute a large fraction of water-soluble organic nitrogen compounds in aerosol particles, and have been confirmed as effective cloud condensation nuclei (CCN materials in laboratory experiments. We present a molecular dynamics (MD study of six amino acids with different structures and chemical properties that are relevant to the remote marine atmospheric aerosol–cloud system, with the aim of investigating the detailed mechanism of their induced changes in surface activity and surface tension, which are important properties for cloud drop activation. Distributions and orientations of the amino acid molecules are studied; these l-amino acids are serine (SER, glycine (GLY, alanine (ALA, valine (VAL, methionine (MET and phenylalanine (PHE and are categorised as hydrophilic and amphiphilic according to their affinities to water. The results suggest that the presence of surface-concentrated amphiphilic amino acid molecules give rise to enhanced Lennard–Jones repulsion, which in turn results in decreased surface tension of a planar interface and an increased surface tension of the spherical interface of droplets with diameters below 10 nm. The observed surface tension perturbation for the different amino acids under study not only serves as benchmark for future studies of more complex systems, but also shows that amphiphilic amino acids are surface active. The MD simulations used in this study reproduce experimental results of surface tension measurements for planar interfaces and the method is therefore applicable for spherical interfaces of nano-size for which experimental measurements are not possible to conduct.

  20. EXTENSIVE [C I] MAPPING TOWARD THE ORION-A GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUD

    Shimajiri, Yoshito; Oshima, Tai; Kawabe, Ryohei [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, 462-2 Nobeyama Minamimaki, Minamisaku District, Nagano Prefecture 384-1305 (Japan); Sakai, Takeshi; Kohno, Kotaro [Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Momose, Munetake [Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo Mito, Ibaraki Prefecture 310-8512 (Japan); Kitamura, Yoshimi [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Saito, Masao, E-mail: Yoshito.Shimajiri@cea.fr [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan)

    2013-09-10

    We have carried out wide-field (0.17 deg{sup 2}) and high-angular resolution (21.''3 {approx} 0.04 pc) observations in the [C I] line toward the Orion-A giant molecular cloud with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment 10 m telescope in the On-The-Fly mode. The overall features of the [C I] emission are similar to those of the {sup 12}CO (J = 1-0) emission by Shimajiri et al. in 2011; the total intensity ratio of the [C I] to CO emission ranges from 0.05 to 0.2. The optical depth of the [C I] emission is found to be 0.1-0.75, suggesting optically thin emission. The column density of the [C I] emission is estimated to be (1.0-19) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}. These results are consistent with the results of the previous [C I] observations with a low-angular resolution of 2.'2. In the nearly edge-on photon-dominated regions (PDRs) and their candidates of the Orion Bar, DLSF, M 43 Shell, and Region D, the distributions of the [C I] emission coincide with those of the {sup 12}CO emission, inconsistent with the prediction by the plane-parallel PDR model. In addition, the [C I] distribution in the Orion A cloud is found to be more similar to those of the {sup 13}CO (J = 1-0), C{sup 18}O (J = 1-0), and H{sup 13}CO{sup +} (J = 1-0) lines than that of the {sup 12}CO (J = 1-0) line, suggesting that the [C I] emission is not limited to the cloud surface, but is tracing the dense, inner parts of the cloud.

  1. Galactic sprinklers

    Vandeusen, W.

    1984-01-01

    It is believed by many astronomers that gravitation is responsible for holding a strong whirlpool of hot, dense material together at the center of the Milky Way galaxy. However, the galactic-sprinkler model suggests that the whirlpool is not being held together, and that the stars, gas and dust within the spirals are being thrown outward. It is also suggested that much of the ejected material eventually returns to the galactic center, as do stars within our stellar neighborhood. The material is believed to be subjected to extreme changes in the gravitational time rate which may cause it to follow an inbound spiral that is basically similar to the outbound spiral. Radio studies also indicate that the galactic arms on either side of the galactic center move at different velocities and in different directions with respect to our location and that the whole group of stars in the vicinity of the solar system may be moving outward from the galactic center at a velocity of about 40 kps. Through the use of velocity data in kps, and distance data in light years, the radial component of the sun's trajectory can be estimated with respect to time by a parabola. The spiral trajectory of the sun can be calculated and plotted on polar coordinates by combining both the radial component and tangential component (230 kps)

  2. Opacity broadening and interpretation of suprathermal CO linewidths: Macroscopic turbulence and tangled molecular clouds

    Hacar, A.; Alves, J.; Burkert, A.; Goldsmith, P.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Since their first detection in the interestellar medium, (sub-)millimeter line observations of different CO isotopic variants have routinely been employed to characterize the kinematic properties of the gas in molecular clouds. Many of these lines exhibit broad linewidths that greatly exceed the thermal broadening expected for the low temperatures found within these objects. These observed suprathermal CO linewidths are assumed to originate from unresolved supersonic motions inside clouds. Aims: The lowest rotational J transitions of some of the most abundant CO isotopologues, 12CO and 13CO, are found to present large optical depths. In addition to well-known line saturation effects, these large opacities present a non-negligible contribution to their observed linewidths. Typically overlooked in the literature, in this paper we aim to quantify the impact of these opacity broadening effects on the current interpretation of the CO suprathermal line profiles. Methods: Combining large-scale observations and LTE modeling of the ground J = 1-0 transitions of the main 12CO, 13CO, C18O isotopologues, we have investigated the correlation of the observed linewidths as a function of the line opacity in different regions of the Taurus molecular cloud. Results: Without any additional contributions to the gas velocity field, a large fraction of the apparently supersonic (ℳ ~ 2-3) linewidths measured in both 12CO and 13CO (J = 1-0) lines can be explained by the saturation of their corresponding sonic-like, optically thin C18O counterparts assuming standard isotopic fractionation. Combined with the presence of multiple components detected in some of our C18O spectra, these opacity effects also seem to be responsible for most of the highly supersonic linewidths (ℳ > 8-10) detected in some of the broadest 12CO and 13CO spectra in Taurus. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that most of the suprathermal 12CO and 13CO linewidths reported in nearby clouds like Taurus

  3. Kinematics of the Optically Visible YSOs toward the Orion B Molecular Cloud

    Kounkel, Marina; Hartmann, Lee; Mateo, Mario [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bailey, John I. III, E-mail: mkounkel@umich.edu [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300-RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2017-08-01

    We present results from high-resolution optical spectra toward 66 young stars in the Orion B molecular cloud to study their kinematics and other properties. Observations of the H α and Li i 6707 Å lines are used to check membership and accretion properties. While the stellar radial velocities of NGC 2068 and L1622 are in good agreement with that of the molecular gas, many of the stars in NGC 2024 show a considerable offset. This could be a signature of either the expansion of the cluster, the high degree of the ejection of the stars from the cluster through dynamical interaction, or the acceleration of the gas due to stellar feedback.

  4. The Effect of an Inert Solid Reservoir on Molecular Abundances in Dense Interstellar Clouds

    Kalvāns Juris

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The question, what is the role of freeze-out of chemical species in determining the molecular abundances in the interstellar gas is a matter of debate. We investigate a theoretical case of a dense interstellar molecular cloud core by time-dependent modeling of chemical kinetics, where grain surface reactions deliberately are not included. That means, the gas-phase and solid-phase abundances are influenced only by gas reactions, accretion on grains and desorption. We compare the results to a reference model where no accretion occurs, and only gas-phase reactions are included. We can trace that the purely physical processes of molecule accretion and desorption have major chemical consequences on the gas-phase chemistry. The main effect of introduction of the gas-grain interaction is long-term molecule abundance changes that come nowhere near an equilibrium during the typical lifetime of a prestellar core.

  5. Rotational explanation of the high-velocity meolecular emission from the Orion Molecular Cloud

    Clark, F.O.; Biretta, J.A.; Martin, H.M.

    1979-01-01

    The high-velocity molecular emission of the Orion Molecular Cloud has been sampled using the J/sub N/=2 2 --1 1 rotational spectral line of the SO molecule. The resulting profile, including the high-velocity wings, has been reproduced using only known large-scale properties of the gas and applications of the results of published theoretical calculations. No new physical mechanism is required; observed rotation and conservation of angular momentum are sufficient to reproduce the line profile. The resulting physical state appears to be consistent with all known physical properties. This solution is not unique, but indicates the strengths and weaknesses of such a model for interpretation of Orion as well as the similarities of alternative explanations

  6. A survey of formaldehyde in the Cepheus OB3 molecular cloud

    Few, R.W.; Cohen, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    The 1 11 - 1 10 absorption line of formaldehyde at 6-cm wavelength has been surveyed over the region of the Cepheus OB3 molecular cloud, using the Jodrell Bank Mk II radio telescope (beamwidth 9 x 10 arcmin 2 ). The measurements have a velocity resolution of 0.27 km s - 1 and an rms noise level of approx. 0.01 K. The formaldehyde has a very clumpy distribution which is broadly similar to the CO distribution found by Sargent. A total molecular mass of 1.9 x 10 4 solar masses is implied by the formaldehyde measurements. Cepheus A is not the dominant concentration in the formaldehyde map. The most massive formaldehyde concentration is Cepheus C, which has a mass of 3600 solar masses. It appears to be stabilized by rotation. (author)

  7. A 3D view of the outflow in the Orion Molecular Cloud 1 (OMC-1)

    Nissen, H.D.; Cunningham, N.J.; Sherson, Maiken Gustafsson

    2012-01-01

    and proper motion data for near-IR emission of molecular hydrogen to obtain the first 3-dimensional (3D) structure of the OMC-1 outflow. Our work illustrates a new diagnostic tool for studies of star formation that will be exploited in the near future with the advent of high spatial resolution spectro...... Observatory, the Anglo-Australian Observatory and the Subaru Telescope. These data give the 3D velocity of ejecta yielding a 3D reconstruction of the outflows. This allows one to view the material from different vantage points in space giving considerable insight into the geometry. Our analysis indicates......The fast outflow emerging from a region associated with massive star formation in the Orion Molecular Cloud 1 (OMC-1), located behind the Orion Nebula, appears to have been set in motion by an explosive event. Here we study the structure and dynamics of outflows in OMC-1. We combine radial velocity...

  8. Planck 2013 results. XIII. Galactic CO emission

    Ade, P.A.R.; Alves, M.I.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J. -P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J. -F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R. -R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L. -Y; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J. -M.; Dempsey, J.T.; Desert, F. -X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enblin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Fukui, Y.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Handa, T.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hily-Blant, P.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J. -M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M. -A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Moore, T.J.T.; Morgante, G.; Morino, J.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Nakajima, T.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Okuda, T.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Preezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J. -L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J. -L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Sygnet, J. -F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Thomas, H.S.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Torii, K.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yoda, H. Yamamoto T.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-10-29

    Rotational transition lines of CO play a major role in molecular radio astronomy and in particular in the study of star formation and the Galactic structure. Although a wealth of data exists in the Galactic plane and some well-known molecular clouds, there is no available CO high sensitivity all-sky survey to date. Such all-sky surveys can be constructed using the \\Planck\\ HFI data because the three lowest CO rotational transition lines at 115, 230 and 345 GHz significantly contribute to the signal of the 100, 217 and 353 GHz HFI channels respectively. Two different component separation methods are used to extract the CO maps from Planck HFI data. The maps obtained are then compared to one another and to existing external CO surveys. From these quality checks the best CO maps in terms of signal to noise and/or residual foreground contamination are selected. Three sets of velocity-integrated CO emission maps are produced: Type 1 maps of the CO (1-0), (2-1), and (3-2) rotational transitions with low foreground ...

  9. THE PERILS OF CLUMPFIND: THE MASS SPECTRUM OF SUBSTRUCTURES IN MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    Pineda, Jaime E.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Rosolowsky, Erik W.

    2009-01-01

    We study the mass spectrum of substructures in the Perseus Molecular Cloud Complex traced by 13 CO(1-0), finding that dN/dM ∝ M -2.4 for the standard Clumpfind parameters. This result does not agree with the classical dN/dM ∝ M -1.6 . To understand this discrepancy, we study the robustness of the mass spectrum derived using the Clumpfind algorithm. Both two- and three-dimensional Clumpfind versions are tested, using 850 μm dust emission and 13 CO spectral-line observations of Perseus, respectively. The effect of varying threshold is not important, but varying stepsize produces a different effect for two- and three-dimensional cases. In the two-dimensional case, where emission is relatively isolated (associated with only the densest peaks in the cloud), the mass spectrum variability is negligible compared to the mass function fit uncertainties. In the three-dimensional case, however, where the 13 CO emission traces the bulk of the molecular cloud (MC), the number of clumps and the derived mass spectrum are highly correlated with the stepsize used. The distinction between 'two dimension' and 'three dimension' here is more importantly also a distinction between 'sparse' and 'crowded' emission. In any 'crowded' case, Clumpfind should not be used blindly to derive mass functions. Clumpfind's output in the 'crowded' case can still offer a statistical description of emission useful in intercomparisons, but the clump-list should not be treated as a robust region decomposition suitable to generate a physically meaningful mass function. We conclude that the 13 CO mass spectrum depends on the observations resolution, due to the hierarchical structure of the MC.

  10. AN ANALYSIS OF THE DEUTERIUM FRACTIONATION OF STAR-FORMING CORES IN THE PERSEUS MOLECULAR CLOUD

    Friesen, R. K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Rd., Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Kirk, H. M. [Origins Institute, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Shirley, Y. L., E-mail: friesen@di.utoronto.ca [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    We have performed a pointed survey of N{sub 2}D{sup +} 2-1 and N{sub 2}D{sup +} 3-2 emission toward 64 N{sub 2}H{sup +}-bright starless and protostellar cores in the Perseus molecular cloud using the Arizona Radio Observatory Submillimeter Telescope and Kitt Peak 12 m telescope. We find a mean deuterium fractionation in N{sub 2}H{sup +}, R{sub D} = N(N{sub 2}D{sup +})/N(N{sub 2}H{sup +}), of 0.08, with a maximum R{sub D} = 0.2. In detected sources, we find no significant difference in the deuterium fractionation between starless and protostellar cores, nor between cores in clustered or isolated environments. We compare the deuterium fraction in N{sub 2}H{sup +} with parameters linked to advanced core evolution. We only find significant correlations between the deuterium fraction and increased H{sub 2} column density, as well as with increased central core density, for all cores. Toward protostellar sources, we additionally find a significant anticorrelation between R{sub D} and bolometric temperature. We show that the Perseus cores are characterized by low CO depletion values relative to previous studies of star-forming cores, similar to recent results in the Ophiuchus molecular cloud. We suggest that the low average CO depletion is the dominant mechanism that constrains the average deuterium fractionation in the Perseus cores to small values. While current equilibrium and dynamic chemical models are able to reproduce the range of deuterium fractionation values we find in Perseus, reproducing the scatter across the cores requires variation in parameters such as the ionization fraction or the ortho-to-para-H{sub 2} ratio across the cloud, or a range in core evolution timescales.

  11. Morphology and kinematics of filaments in Serpens and Perseus molecular clouds: a high resolution study

    Dhabal, Arnab; Mundy, Lee; Rizzo, Maxime; Storm, Shaye; Teuben, Peter; CLASSy Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Filamentary structures are prevalent in molecular clouds over a wide range of scales, and are often associated with active star formation. The study of filament morphology and kinematics provide insights into the physical processes leading to core formation in clustered environments. As part of the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey (CLASSy) follow-up, we observed five Herschel filaments in the Serpens Main, Serpens South and NGC1333 molecular clouds using the J=1-0 transitions of dense gas tracers H13CO+, HNC and H13CN. Of these, H13CO+ and H13CN are optically thin and serve as a test of the kinematics previously seen by the CLASSy in N2H+. The observations have an angular resolution of 7'' and a spectral resolution of 0.16 km/s. Although the large scale structure compares well with the CARMA N2H+ (J=1-0) maps and Herschel dust continuum maps, we resolve finer structure within the filaments identified by Herschel. Most regions are found to have multiple structures and filaments partially overlapping in the line-of-sight. In two regions overlapping structures have velocity differences as high as 1.4 km/s. We identify 8 individual filaments with typical widths of 0.03-0.06 pc in these tracers, which is significantly less than widths observed in the Herschel dust column density maps. At least 50% of the filaments have distinct velocity gradients perpendicular to their major axis with average values in the range 4-10 km s-1 pc-1. These findings are in support of the theoretical models of filament formation by 2-D inflow in the shock layer created by colliding turbulent cells. We also find evidence of velocity gradients along the length of two filaments; the gradients suggest that these filaments are inflowing towards the cloud core.

  12. Formation of ultra-compact dwarf galaxies from supergiant molecular clouds

    Goodman, Morgan; Bekki, Kenji

    2018-05-01

    The origin of ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) is not yet clear. One possible formation path of UCDs is the threshing of a nucleated elliptical dwarf galaxy (dE, N), however, it remains unclear how such massive nuclear stellar systems were formed in dwarf galaxies. To better establish the early history of UCDs, we investigate the formation of UCD progenitor clusters from super giant molecular clouds (SGMCs), using hydrodynamical simulations. In this study we focus on SGMCs with masses 107 - 108 M_{\\odot } that can form massive star clusters that display physical properties similar to UCDs. We find that the clusters have extended star formation histories with two phases, producing multiple distinct stellar populations, and that the star formation rate is dependent on the feedback effects of SNe and AGB stars. The later generations of stars formed in these clusters are more compact, leading to a clearly nested structure, and these stars will be more He-rich than those of the first generation, leading to a slight colour gradient. The simulated clusters demonstrate scaling relations between Reff and M and σv and M consistent with those observed in UCDs and strongly consistent with those of the original SGMC. We discuss whether SGMCs such as these can be formed through merging of self-gravitating molecular clouds in galaxies at high-z.

  13. Into the Darkness: Interstellar Extinction Near the Cepheus OB3 Molecular Cloud

    Fitzpatrick, Edward L.; Jacklin, S.; Massa, D.

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a followup investigation to a study performed by Massa and Savage (1984, ApJ, 279, 310) of the properties of UV interstellar extinction in the region of the Cepheus OB3 molecular cloud. That study was performed using UV photometry and spectro-photometry from the ANS and IUE satellites. We have extended this study into the IR, utilizing the uniform database of IR photometry available from the 2MASS project. This is a part of a larger program whose goal is to study the properties of extinction in localized regions, where we hope to find clues to dust grain growth and destruction processes through spatial correlations of extinction with distinct environmental properties. Similarly to Massa and Savage’s UV results, we find that the IR extinction properties on the Cepheus OB3 region vary systematically with the apparent proximity of the target stars to the molecular cloud. We also find that the UV extinction and the IR extinction are crudely correlated. The methodology leading to these results and their implications are discussed.

  14. MULTI-SCALE ANALYSIS OF MAGNETIC FIELDS IN FILAMENTARY MOLECULAR CLOUDS IN ORION A

    Poidevin, Frédérick; Bastien, P.; Jones, T. J.

    2011-01-01

    New visible and K-band polarization measurements of stars surrounding molecular clouds in Orion A and stars in the Becklin-Neugebauer (BN) vicinity are presented. Our results confirm that magnetic fields located inside the Orion A molecular clouds and in their close neighborhood are spatially connected. On and around the BN object, we measured the angular offsets between the K-band polarization data and available submillimeter (submm) data. We find high values of the polarization degree, P K , and of the optical depth, τ K , close to an angular offset position of 90° whereas lower values of P K and τ K are observed for smaller angular offsets. We interpret these results as evidence for the presence of various magnetic field components toward lines of sight in the vicinity of BN. On a larger scale, we measured the distribution of angular offsets between available H-band polarization data and the same submm data set. Here we find an increase of (P H ) with angular offset, which we interpret as a rotation of the magnetic field by ∼< 60°. This trend generalizes previous results on small scales toward and around lines of sight to BN and is consistent with a twist of the magnetic field on a larger scale toward OMC-1. A comparison of our results with several other studies suggests that a two-component magnetic field, perhaps helical, could be wrapping the OMC-1 filament.

  15. Positrons annihilation and the Galactic center

    Wallyn, Pierre

    1992-01-01

    The Galactic center has been observed in gamma rays, many times since more than two decades and we do not still have a full comprehensive picture of this region. It is fairly well established that the 511 keV annihilation line has two origins: a steady diffuse emission, which follows more or less the type I supernovae distribution along the Galactic plane and a variable emission coming from the positrons emitted by (at least) one compact object and annihilating in a nearby cold molecular cloud. We present here an analysis of the profiles and intensifies of the 511 keV annihilation line observed in the direction of the Galactic center. We find that a warm medium (temperature of 8000 K) can describe the annihilation of positrons from the diffuse component of the line. The high state observations of the 511 keV line can be explained if the time-variable component is coming from the annihilation of the positrons in a cold medium (temperature around 80 K). This constraint on the annihilation medium temperature supports the association with the molecular cloud G-0.86-0.08 in the direction of 1E1740.7-2942. On may 22, 1989, HEXAGONE detected a narrow 511 keV line and also a broad emission around 170 keV in the direction of the Galactic center. Two weeks before, EXITE observed in the same direction a new transient source EXS 1737.9-2952 which showed a bump around 102 keV. We propose a simple semi-quantitative model which can mimic the bumps as well as its time variations and emphasize the strong similarities between EXS1737.9-2952 and Nova Muscae. We study the behaviour of positron annihilation by charge exchange in the cold phase of the interstellar medium. We calculate formula for the slowing-down time before thermalization of positrons of a given initial energy, for different medium densities. Our scenario explains the lack of detection of the recombination lines from positronium and gives new constraints on their possible observation. (author) [fr

  16. Supernovae-generated high-velocity compact clouds

    Yalinewich, A.; Beniamini, P.

    2018-05-01

    Context. A previous study claimed the discovery of an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH). This hypothetical black hole was invoked in order to explain the high-velocity dispersion in one of several dense molecular clouds near the Galactic center. The same study considered the possibility that this cloud was due to a supernova explosion, but disqualified this scenario because no X-rays were detected. Aims: We here check whether a supernova explosion could have produced that cloud, and whether this explanation is more likely than an IMBH. More specifically, we wish to determine whether a supernova inside a dense molecular cloud would emit in the X-rays. Methods: We have approached this problem from two different directions. First, we performed an analytic calculation to determine the cooling rate by thermal bremsstrahlung and compared this time to the lifetime of the cloud. Second, we estimated the creation rate of these dense clouds in the central molecular zone (CMZ) region near the Galactic center, where they were observed. Based on this rate, we can place lower bounds on the total mass of IMBHs and clouds and compare this to the masses of the components of the CMZ. Results: We find that the cooling time of the supernova remnant inside a molecular cloud is shorter than its dynamical time. This means that the temperature in such a remnant would be much lower than that of a typical supernova remnant. At such a low temperature, the remnant is not expected to emit in the X-rays. We also find that to explain the rate at which such dense clouds are created requires fine-tuning the number of IMBHs. Conclusions: We find the supernova model to be a more likely explanation for the formation of high-velocity compact clouds than an IMBH.

  17. GREEN BANK TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE NH{sub 3} (3, 3) AND (6, 6) TRANSITIONS TOWARD SAGITTARIUS A MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    Minh, Young Chol [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daeduk-daero 776, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Ho, Paul T. P.; Hsieh, Pei-Ying; Su, Yu-Nung [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Kim, Sungsoo S. [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Kyungki-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Wright, Melvyn [Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-08-10

    Ammonia (3, 3) and (6, 6) transitions have been observed using the Green Bank Telescope toward the Sgr A region. The gas is mainly concentrated in 50 km s{sup -1} and 20 km s{sup -1} clouds located in a plane inclined to the galactic plane. These 'main' clouds appear to be virialized and influenced by the expansion of the supernova remnant Sgr A East. The observed emission shows very complicated features in the morphology and velocity structure. Gaussian multi-component fittings of the observed spectra revealed that various 'streaming' gas components exist all over the observed region. These components include those previously known as 'streamers' and 'ridges', but most of these components appear not to be directly connected to the major gas condensations (the 50 km s{sup -1} and 20 km s{sup -1} clouds). They are apparently located out of the galactic plane, and they may have a different origin than the major gas condensations. Some of the streaming components are expected to be sources that feed the circumnuclear disk of our Galactic center directly and episodically. They may also evolve differently than major gas condensations under the influence of the activities of the Galactic center.

  18. Galactic models

    Buchler, J.R.; Gottesman, S.T.; Hunter, J.H. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Various papers on galactic models are presented. Individual topics addressed include: observations relating to galactic mass distributions; the structure of the Galaxy; mass distribution in spiral galaxies; rotation curves of spiral galaxies in clusters; grand design, multiple arm, and flocculent spiral galaxies; observations of barred spirals; ringed galaxies; elliptical galaxies; the modal approach to models of galaxies; self-consistent models of spiral galaxies; dynamical models of spiral galaxies; N-body models. Also discussed are: two-component models of galaxies; simulations of cloudy, gaseous galactic disks; numerical experiments on the stability of hot stellar systems; instabilities of slowly rotating galaxies; spiral structure as a recurrent instability; model gas flows in selected barred spiral galaxies; bar shapes and orbital stochasticity; three-dimensional models; polar ring galaxies; dynamical models of polar rings

  19. Effects of expanding compact H II regions upon molecular clouds: Molecular dissociation waves, shock waves, and carbon ionization

    Hill, J.K.; Hollenbach, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of young expanding compact H II regions upon their molecular environments are studied, emphasizing the simultaneous evolution of the molecular hydrogen dissociation front and the shocked shell of gas surrounding the nebula. For H II regions powered by 05 stars embedded in molecular clouds of ambient density 10 3 -10 4 cm -3 the dissociation wave initially travels outward much more rapidly than the shock, but later decelerates and is swept up by the shock about 10 5 yr after the expansion begins. The 21 cm line of atomic hydrogen will be optically thick in both the preshock and postshock gas for most of this period. The most important coolant transitions are the [O I] 63 μm line and, for t> or approx. =10 5 yr, the rotational transitions of H 2 and/or the rotational transitions of CO. The vibrational transitions of H 2 are excited predominantly by ultraviolet pumping. We estimate the preshock and postshock carbon recombination-line emission measures

  20. Wide-field 12CO (J=2-1) and 13CO (J=2-1) Observations toward the Aquila Rift and Serpens Molecular Cloud Complexes. I. Molecular Clouds and Their Physical Properties

    Nakamura, Fumitaka; Dobashi, Kazuhito; Shimoikura, Tomomi; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Onishi, Toshikazu

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of wide-field 12CO (J=2{--}1) and 13CO (J=2{--}1) observations toward the Aquila Rift and Serpens molecular cloud complexes (25^\\circ < l< 33^\\circ and 1^\\circ < b< 6^\\circ ) at an angular resolution of 3.‧4 (≈ 0.25 pc) and at a velocity resolution of 0.079 km s-1 with velocity coverage of -5 {km} {{{s}}}-1< {V}{LSR}< 35 {km} {{{s}}}-1. We found that the 13CO emission better traces the structures seen in the extinction map, and derived the {X}{13{CO}}-factor of this region. Applying SCIMES to the 13CO data cube, we identified 61 clouds and derived their mass, radii, and line widths. The line width-radius relation of the identified clouds basically follows those of nearby molecular clouds. The majority of the identified clouds are close to virial equilibrium, although the dispersion is large. By inspecting the 12CO channel maps by eye, we found several arcs that are spatially extended to 0.°2-3° in length. In the longitude-velocity diagrams of 12CO, we also found two spatially extended components that appear to converge toward Serpens South and the W40 region. The existence of two components with different velocities and arcs suggests that large-scale expanding bubbles and/or flows play a role in the formation and evolution of the Serpens South and W40 cloud.

  1. A Search for O2 in CO-Depleted Molecular Cloud Cores With Herschel

    Wirstroem, Eva S.; Charnley, Steven B.; Cordiner, Martin; Ceccarelli, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    The general lack of molecular oxygen in molecular clouds is an outstanding problem in astrochemistry. Extensive searches with the Submillimeter Astronomical Satellite, Odin, and Herschel have only produced two detections; upper limits to the O2 abundance in the remaining sources observed are about 1000 times lower than predicted by chemical models. Previous atomic oxygen observations and inferences from observations of other molecules indicated that high abundances of O atoms might be present in dense cores exhibiting large amounts of CO depletion. Theoretical arguments concerning the oxygen gas-grain interaction in cold dense cores suggested that, if O atoms could survive in the gas after most of the rest of the heavy molecular material has frozen out onto dust, then O2 could be formed efficiently in the gas. Using Herschel HIFI, we searched a small sample of four depletion cores-L1544, L694-2, L429, and Oph D-for emission in the low excitation O2 N(sub J)?=?3(sub 3)-1(sub 2) line at 487.249 GHz. Molecular oxygen was not detected and we derive upper limits to its abundance in the range of N(O2)/N (H2) approx. = (0.6-1.6) x10(exp -7). We discuss the absence of O2 in the light of recent laboratory and observational studies.

  2. NEWLY IDENTIFIED EXTENDED GREEN OBJECTS (EGOs) FROM THE SPITZER GLIMPSE II SURVEY. II. MOLECULAR CLOUD ENVIRONMENTS

    Chen Xi; Gan Conggui; Shen Zhiqiang [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030 (China); Ellingsen, Simon P.; Titmarsh, Anita [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia); He Jinhua, E-mail: chenxi@shao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, Yunnan Astronomical Observatory/National Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 110, Kunming 650011, Yunnan Province (China)

    2013-06-01

    We have undertaken a survey of molecular lines in the 3 mm band toward 57 young stellar objects using the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22 m radio telescope. The target sources were young stellar objects with active outflows (extended green objects (EGOs)) newly identified from the GLIMPSE II survey. We observe a high detection rate (50%) of broad line wing emission in the HNC and CS thermal lines, which combined with the high detection rate of class I methanol masers toward these sources (reported in Paper I) further demonstrates that the GLIMPSE II EGOs are associated with outflows. The physical and kinematic characteristics derived from the 3 mm molecular lines for these newly identified EGOs are consistent with these sources being massive young stellar objects with ongoing outflow activity and rapid accretion. These findings support our previous investigations of the mid-infrared properties of these sources and their association with other star formation tracers (e.g., infrared dark clouds, methanol masers and millimeter dust sources) presented in Paper I. The high detection rate (64%) of the hot core tracer CH{sub 3}CN reveals that the majority of these new EGOs have evolved to the hot molecular core stage. Comparison of the observed molecular column densities with predictions from hot core chemistry models reveals that the newly identified EGOs from the GLIMPSE II survey are members of the youngest hot core population, with an evolutionary time scale of the order of 10{sup 3} yr.

  3. AN OUTER ARM IN THE SECOND GALACTIC QUADRANT: STRUCTURE

    Du, Xinyu; Xu, Ye; Yang, Ji; Sun, Yan; Li, Facheng; Zhang, Shaobo; Zhou, Xin, E-mail: xydu@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: xuye@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2016-05-01

    The lack of arm tracers, especially remote tracers, is one of the most difficult problems preventing us from studying the structure of the Milky Way. Fortunately, with its high-sensitivity CO survey, the Milky Way Imaging Scroll Painting (MWISP) project offers such an opportunity. Since completing about one-third of its mission, an area of l = [100, 150]°, b = [−3, 5]° has nearly been covered. The Outer arm of the Milky Way first clearly revealed its shape in the second galactic quadrant in the form of molecular gas—this is the first time that the Outer arm has been reported in such a large-scale mapping of molecular gas. Using the 115 GHz {sup 12}CO(1–0) data of MWISP at the LSR velocity ≃[−100, −60] km s{sup −1} and in the area mentioned above, we have detected 481 molecular clouds in total, and among them 332 (about 69%) are newly detected and 457 probably belong to the Outer arm. The total mass of the detected Outer arm clouds is ∼3.1 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ⊙}. Assuming that the spiral arm is a logarithmic spiral, the pitch angle is fitted as ∼13.°1. Besides combining both the CO data from MWISP and the 21 cm H i data from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (CGPS), the gas distribution, warp, and thickness of the Outer arm are also studied.

  4. Search for cosmic ray origins by the study of supernova remnants associated with molecular clouds with HESS and test of HESS II sampling system

    Fiasson, A.

    2008-03-01

    The H.E.S.S. telescope (High energy Stereoscopic System), located in Namibia, is currently the most efficient for the observation of very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray sources. It is composed of 4 large diameter telescopes working in stereoscopic mode and allows an unequaled survey of the galactic plane at these extreme wavelengths. The H.E.S.S. experiment showed the presence of high energy particles up to 100 TeV within supernova remnant. This astrophysical objects are believed to be the main particle accelerator within the Galaxy. However, the particle nature remains unclear. This thesis presents a new observational approach in order to show hadronic particles acceleration through diffusive shock within supernova remnant. A search of supernova remnant associated with molecular cloud have been led within the HESS source catalog and the H.E.S.S. observations. An analysis of the new VHE gamma-ray source in Monoceros and its interpretation are presented. As well, the analysis and interpretation of new observations of the unidentified source HESS J1745-303 are presented. The multi-wavelength analysis of the new source HESS J1714-385, coincident with the supernova remnant CTB37A is presented. A contribution to the H.E.S.S. phase II building is also presented. This second phase consists in the building of a fifth telescope at the center of the existing system. The series tests of the new camera sampling system are reported. (author)

  5. Modeling galactic extinction

    Cecchi-Pestellini, C.; Mulas, G.; Casu, S.; Iatì, M. A.; Saija, R.; Cacciola, A.; Borghese, F.; Denti, P.

    2011-01-01

    We present a model for interstellar extinction dust, in which we assume a bimodal distribution of extinction carriers, a dispersion of core-mantle grains, supplemented by a collection of PAHs in free molecular form. We use state-of-the-art methods to calculate the extinction due to macroscopic dust particles, and the absorption cross-sections of PAHs in four different charge states. While successfull for most of observed Galactic extinction curves, in few cases the model cannot provide reliab...

  6. A measurement of the turbulence-driven density distribution in a non-star-forming molecular cloud

    Ginsburg, Adam; Darling, Jeremy [CASA, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Federrath, Christoph, E-mail: Adam.G.Ginsburg@gmail.com [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, Vic 3800 (Australia)

    2013-12-10

    Molecular clouds are supersonically turbulent. This turbulence governs the initial mass function and the star formation rate. In order to understand the details of star formation, it is therefore essential to understand the properties of turbulence, in particular the probability distribution of density in turbulent clouds. We present H{sub 2}CO volume density measurements of a non-star-forming cloud along the line of sight toward W49A. We use these measurements in conjunction with total mass estimates from {sup 13}CO to infer the shape of the density probability distribution function. This method is complementary to measurements of turbulence via the column density distribution and should be applicable to any molecular cloud with detected CO. We show that turbulence in this cloud is probably compressively driven, with a compressive-to-total Mach number ratio b=M{sub C}/M>0.4. We measure the standard deviation of the density distribution, constraining it to the range 1.5 < σ {sub s} < 1.9, assuming that the density is lognormally distributed. This measurement represents an essential input into star formation laws. The method of averaging over different excitation conditions to produce a model of emission from a turbulent cloud is generally applicable to optically thin line observations.

  7. THE 'TRUE' COLUMN DENSITY DISTRIBUTION IN STAR-FORMING MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    Goodman, Alyssa A.; Pineda, Jaime E.; Schnee, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    We use the COMPLETE Survey's observations of the Perseus star-forming region to assess and intercompare the three methods used for measuring column density in molecular clouds: near-infrared (NIR) extinction mapping; thermal emission mapping in the far-IR; and mapping the intensity of CO isotopologues. Overall, the structures shown by all three tracers are morphologically similar, but important differences exist among the tracers. We find that the dust-based measures (NIR extinction and thermal emission) give similar, log-normal, distributions for the full (∼20 pc scale) Perseus region, once careful calibration corrections are made. We also compare dust- and gas-based column density distributions for physically meaningful subregions of Perseus, and we find significant variations in the distributions for those (smaller, ∼few pc scale) regions. Even though we have used 12 CO data to estimate excitation temperatures, and we have corrected for opacity, the 13 CO maps seem unable to give column distributions that consistently resemble those from dust measures. We have edited out the effects of the shell around the B-star HD 278942 from the column density distribution comparisons. In that shell's interior and in the parts where it overlaps the molecular cloud, there appears to be a dearth of 13 CO, which is likely due either to 13 CO not yet having had time to form in this young structure and/or destruction of 13 CO in the molecular cloud by the HD 278942's wind and/or radiation. We conclude that the use of either dust or gas measures of column density without extreme attention to calibration (e.g., of thermal emission zero-levels) and artifacts (e.g., the shell) is more perilous than even experts might normally admit. And, the use of 13 CO data to trace total column density in detail, even after proper calibration, is unavoidably limited in utility due to threshold, depletion, and opacity effects. If one's main aim is to map column density (rather than temperature

  8. Circumstellar Disks and Outflows in Turbulent Molecular Cloud Cores: Possible Formation Mechanism for Misaligned Systems

    Matsumoto, Tomoaki [Faculty of Sustainability Studies, Hosei University, Fujimi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8160 (Japan); Machida, Masahiro N. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro, E-mail: matsu@hosei.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2017-04-10

    We investigate the formation of circumstellar disks and outflows subsequent to the collapse of molecular cloud cores with the magnetic field and turbulence. Numerical simulations are performed by using an adaptive mesh refinement to follow the evolution up to ∼1000 years after the formation of a protostar. In the simulations, circumstellar disks are formed around the protostars; those in magnetized models are considerably smaller than those in nonmagnetized models, but their size increases with time. The models with stronger magnetic fields tend to produce smaller disks. During evolution in the magnetized models, the mass ratios of a disk to a protostar is approximately constant at ∼1%–10%. The circumstellar disks are aligned according to their angular momentum, and the outflows accelerate along the magnetic field on the 10–100 au scale; this produces a disk that is misaligned with the outflow. The outflows are classified into two types: a magnetocentrifugal wind and a spiral flow. In the latter, because of the geometry, the axis of rotation is misaligned with the magnetic field. The magnetic field has an internal structure in the cloud cores, which also causes misalignment between the outflows and the magnetic field on the scale of the cloud core. The distribution of the angular momentum vectors in a core also has a non-monotonic internal structure. This should create a time-dependent accretion of angular momenta onto the circumstellar disk. Therefore, the circumstellar disks are expected to change their orientation as well as their sizes in the long-term evolutions.

  9. Massive stars, x-ray ridge, and galactic 26Al gamma-ray line emission

    Montmerle, T.

    1986-07-01

    Massive stars interact with their parent molecular cloud by means of their ionizing flux and strong winds, thereby creating giant, hollow HII regions. To account for the observed structure of these HII regions, it appears necessary that all the wind energy be dissipated. Dorland and Montmerle have recently proposed a new dissipation mechanism, in the process, diffuse hard X-rays are emitted. If the observed galactic X-ray ''ridge'' results from this process on a galactic scale, it can be accounted for by the interaction of ∼3000 Wolf-Rayet stars (mostly within a ∼6.5 kpc ring) with their surrounding interstellar gas. This result is essentially consistent with the suggestion by Prantzos and Casse that the galactic 26 Al γ-ray line emission originates in Wolf-Rayet stars

  10. A search for pre-main sequence stars in the high-latitude molecular clouds. II - A survey of the Einstein database

    Caillault, Jean-Pierre; Magnani, Loris

    1990-01-01

    The preliminary results are reported of a survey of every EINSTEIN image which overlaps any high-latitude molecular cloud in a search for X-ray emitting pre-main sequence stars. This survey, together with complementary KPNO and IRAS data, will allow the determination of how prevalent low mass star formation is in these clouds in general and, particularly, in the translucent molecular clouds.

  11. A Velocity Structure Analysis of Giant Molecular Cloud Associated with HII Region S152

    Woo-Yeol Choi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available S152 is a small bright emission nebula located in the Perseus arm. Its optical diameter corresponds to 1.5 pc for an adopted distance 3.5 kpc. However, S152 is a part of a giant molecular cloud complex, which consists of several dense cores, containing active star-forming sites, and well aligned arm-like features. We analyzed the FCRAO 12CO (J = 1→0 Outer Galaxy Survey data in this region to study the kinematical structure of this region, which resembles a big ``scorpion". We found that there exist three different velocity components, about --54.5, --50.4, --48.8 km s-1, depending on the position of the ``scorpion". There also exist velocity gradients of 0.21 km s-1 pc-1 and 0.16 km s-1 pc-1 through the whole extent of the ``scorpion". Interestingly, these two velocity gradients show an opposite direction with each other. It is likely that the velocity structure of this region may result from the mergence of different gas clouds, and the interaction with the SNR 109.1-1.0 occurred later, mostly at the region around the ``head of the scorpion" only.

  12. DISSOCIATIVE RECOMBINATION OF PROTONATED FORMIC ACID: IMPLICATIONS FOR MOLECULAR CLOUD AND COMETARY CHEMISTRY

    Vigren, E.; Hamberg, M.; Zhaunerchyk, V.; Larsson, M.; Thomas, R. D.; Af Ugglas, M.; Kashperka, I.; Geppert, W. D.; Kaminska, M.; Semaniak, J.; Millar, T. J.; Walsh, C.; Roberts, H.

    2010-01-01

    At the heavy ion storage ring CRYRING in Stockholm, Sweden, we have investigated the dissociative recombination of DCOOD + 2 at low relative kinetic energies, from ∼1 meV to 1 eV. The thermal rate coefficient has been found to follow the expression k(T) = 8.43 x 10 -7 (T/300) -0.78 cm 3 s -1 for electron temperatures, T, ranging from ∼10 to ∼1000 K. The branching fractions of the reaction have been studied at ∼2 meV relative kinetic energy. It has been found that ∼87% of the reactions involve breaking a bond between heavy atoms. In only 13% of the reactions do the heavy atoms remain in the same product fragment. This puts limits on the gas-phase production of formic acid, observed in both molecular clouds and cometary comae. Using the experimental results in chemical models of the dark cloud, TMC-1, and using the latest release of the UMIST Database for Astrochemistry improves the agreement with observations for the abundance of formic acid. Our results also strengthen the assumption that formic acid is a component of cometary ices.

  13. The pillars of creation giant molecular clouds, star formation, and cosmic recycling

    Beech, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This book explores the mechanics of star formation, the process by which matter pulls together and creates new structures. Written for science enthusiasts, the author presents an accessible explanation of how stars are born from the interstellar medium and giant molecular clouds. Stars produce the chemicals that lead to life, and it is they that have enabled the conditions for planets to form and life to emerge. Although the Big Bang provided the spark of initiation, the primordial universe that it sired was born hopelessly sterile. It is only through the continued recycling of the interstellar medium, star formation, and stellar evolution that the universe has been animated beyond a chaotic mess of elementary atomic particles, radiation, dark matter, dark energy, and expanding spacetime. Using the Milky Way and the Eagle Nebula in particular as case studies, Beech follows every step of this amazing process. .

  14. Evidence for nucleosynthetic enrichment of the protosolar molecular cloud core by multiple supernova events

    Schiller, Martin; Paton, Chad; Bizzarro, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The presence of isotope heterogeneity of nucleosynthetic origin amongst meteorites and their components provides a record of the diverse stars that contributed matter to the protosolar molecular cloud core. Understanding how and when the solar system's nucleosynthetic heterogeneity was established...... and preserved within the solar protoplanetary disk is critical for unraveling the earliest formative stages of the solar system. Here, we report calcium and magnesium isotope measurements of primitive and differentiated meteorites as well as various types of refractory inclusions, including refractory...... and differentiated meteorites along with canonical and FUN-CAIs define correlated, mass-independent variations in 43Ca, 46Ca and 48Ca. Moreover, sequential dissolution experiments of the Ivuna carbonaceous chondrite aimed at identifying the nature and number of presolar carriers of isotope anomalies within primitive...

  15. AMI OBSERVATIONS OF THE ANOMALOUS MICROWAVE EMISSION IN THE PERSEUS MOLECULAR CLOUD

    Tibbs, C. T.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Dickinson, C.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; Watson, R. A.; Paladini, R.; Grainge, K. J. B.

    2013-01-01

    We present observations of the known anomalous microwave emission region, G159.6–18.5, in the Perseus molecular cloud at 16 GHz performed with the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager Small Array. These are the highest angular resolution observations of G159.6–18.5 at microwave wavelengths. By combining these microwave data with infrared observations between 5.8 and 160 μm from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we investigate the existence of a microwave-infrared correlation on angular scales of ∼2'. We find that the overall correlation appears to increase toward shorter infrared wavelengths, which is consistent with the microwave emission being produced by electric dipole radiation from small, spinning dust grains. We also find that the microwave-infrared correlation peaks at 24 μm (6.7σ), suggesting that the microwave emission is originating from a population of stochastically heated small interstellar dust grains rather than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  16. Environmental Catastrophes in the Earth's History Due to Solar Systems Encounters with Giant Molecular Clouds

    Pavlov, Alexander A.

    2011-01-01

    In its motion through the Milky Way galaxy, the solar system encounters an average density (>=330 H atoms/cubic cm) giant molecular cloud (GMC) approximately every 108 years, a dense (approx 2 x 103 H atoms/cubic cm) GMC every approx 109 years and will inevitably encounter them in the future. However, there have been no studies linking such events with severe (snowball) glaciations in Earth history. Here we show that dramatic climate change can be caused by interstellar dust accumulating in Earth's atmosphere during the solar system's immersion into a dense (approx ,2 x 103 H atoms/cubic cm) GMC. The stratospheric dust layer from such interstellar particles could provide enough radiative forcing to trigger the runaway ice-albedo feedback that results in global snowball glaciations. We also demonstrate that more frequent collisions with less dense GMCs could cause moderate ice ages.

  17. 1300 micron continuum observations of the Sagittarius B2 molecular cloud core

    Goldsmith, P.F.; Snell, R.L.; Lis, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    Observations with 23-arcsec angular resolution are obtained of the continuum emission at 1300 microns wavelength from the central region of the Sgr B2 molecular cloud, which contains the north and middle high-mass star-forming regions and associated radio continuum and maser sources. The spatial resolution of the present data shows that the 1300-micron continuum emission peak is located at Sgr B2(N), in contrast to the midinfrared emission, which is centered on Sgr B2(M). Comparison with 53 micron data having comparable angular resolution suggests that there is optically thick foreground dust which prevents detection of Sgr B2(N) at wavelengths not greater than 100 microns. Within the about 1.5 x 3.5 pc region mapped, the total mass is 500,000 solar masses and the mean H2 density is 300,000/cu cm, somewhat larger than found in previous investigations. 27 references

  18. Near-infrared sources in the molecular cloud G35.2-0.74

    Tapia, M.; Roth, M.; Persi, P.; Ferrari-Toniolo, M.

    1985-01-01

    Near-infrared (1-4 μm) observations of the molecular cloud G35.2-0.74 reveal the presence of four infrared sources in the vicinity of two previously reported centres of recent star formation. The northern part of G35.2-0.74 contains three point sources which are interpreted as highly obscured stars. Irs 1 coincides with H 2 O and OH maser sources and seems to be a very young early-type star. The southern part of G35.2-0.74 shows a diffuse 2.2-μm source with a flux distribution in the short-wavelength region compatible with free-free emission and a large excess at lambda > or approx. 3 μm attributed to warm dust mixed with the gas. These data are consistent with a fully developed HII region. (author)

  19. Search for near-infrared counterparts of IRAS embedded sources in the M17 SW giant molecular cloud

    Elmegreen, D.M.; Phillips, J.; Beck, K.; Thomas, H.; Howard, J.

    1988-01-01

    Wide-field near-infrared and blue band plates of the region containing the M17 giant molecular cloud complex have been blinked to locate bright near-infrared stars that may be embedded in the M17 SW giant molecular cloud. Twenty such stars coincided with the positions of IRAS point sources that appeared embedded based on color-color diagrams. Some of these stars may be the sources of the infrared luminosities. Of the 20 stars, seven were too faint to appear on the B band plate. The optical magnitudes and colors determined from the plate image diameters were measured for the other 13 coincident stars; they are most likely upper main-sequence or pre-main-sequence stars with extinctions of 7 mag. The IRAS luminosity-temperature diagram indicates that the embedded sources in M17 are more massive than those in the Orion cloud. 35 references

  20. DENSITY OF WARM IONIZED GAS NEAR THE GALACTIC CENTER: LOW RADIO FREQUENCY OBSERVATIONS

    Roy, Subhashis

    2013-01-01

    We have observed the Galactic center (GC) region at 0.154 and 0.255 GHz with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. A total of 62 compact likely extragalactic (EG) sources are detected. Their scattering sizes decrease linearly with increasing angular distance from the GC up to about 1°. The apparent scattering sizes of the sources are more than an order of magnitude less than predicted earlier by the NE2001 model of Galactic electron distribution within 359.°5 e is ∼10 cm –3 , which matches the NE2001 model. This model predicts the EG sources to be resolved out from 1.4 GHz interferometric surveys. However, out of 10 EG sources expected in the region, 8 likely EG are present in the 1.4 GHz catalog. Ionized interfaces of dense molecular clouds to the ambient medium are most likely responsible for strong scattering and low radio frequency absorption. However, dense GC clouds traced by CS J = 1-0 emission are found to have a narrow distribution of ∼0.°2 across the Galactic plane. Angular distribution of most EG sources seen through the so-called Hyperstrong Scattering Region are random in b, and typically ∼7 out of 10 sources will not be seen through the dense molecular clouds, which explains why most of them are not scatter broadened at 1.4 GHz

  1. The carbon inventory in a quiescent, filamentary molecular cloud in G328

    Burton, Michael G.; Ashley, Michael C. B.; Braiding, Catherine; Storey, John W. V.; Kulesa, Craig; Hollenbach, David J.; Wolfire, Mark; Glück, Christian; Rowell, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    We present spectral line images of [C I] 809 GHz, CO J = 1-0 115 GHz and H I 1.4 GHz line emission, and calculate the corresponding C, CO and H column densities, for a sinuous, quiescent giant molecular cloud about 5 kpc distant along the l = 328° sightline (hereafter G328) in our Galaxy. The [C I] data comes from the High Elevation Antarctic Terahertz telescope, a new facility on the summit of the Antarctic plateau where the precipitable water vapor falls to the lowest values found on the surface of the Earth. The CO and H I data sets come from the Mopra and Parkes/ATCA telescopes, respectively. We identify a filamentary molecular cloud, ∼75 × 5 pc long with mass ∼4 × 10 4 M ☉ and a narrow velocity emission range of just 4 km s –1 . The morphology and kinematics of this filament are similar in CO, [C I], and H I, though in the latter appears as self-absorption. We calculate line fluxes and column densities for the three emitting species, which are broadly consistent with a photodissociation region model for a GMC exposed to the average interstellar radiation field. The [C/CO] abundance ratio averaged through the filament is found to be approximately unity. The G328 filament is constrained to be cold (T Dust < 20 K) by the lack of far-IR emission, to show no clear signs of star formation, and to only be mildly turbulent from the narrow line width. We suggest that it may represent a GMC shortly after formation, or perhaps still in the process of formation.

  2. The carbon inventory in a quiescent, filamentary molecular cloud in G328

    Burton, Michael G.; Ashley, Michael C. B.; Braiding, Catherine; Storey, John W. V. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Kulesa, Craig [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hollenbach, David J. [Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute, 189 Bernado Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043-5203 (United States); Wolfire, Mark [Astronomy Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Glück, Christian [KOSMA, I. Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Rowell, Gavin, E-mail: m.burton@unsw.edu.au [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)

    2014-02-20

    We present spectral line images of [C I] 809 GHz, CO J = 1-0 115 GHz and H I 1.4 GHz line emission, and calculate the corresponding C, CO and H column densities, for a sinuous, quiescent giant molecular cloud about 5 kpc distant along the l = 328° sightline (hereafter G328) in our Galaxy. The [C I] data comes from the High Elevation Antarctic Terahertz telescope, a new facility on the summit of the Antarctic plateau where the precipitable water vapor falls to the lowest values found on the surface of the Earth. The CO and H I data sets come from the Mopra and Parkes/ATCA telescopes, respectively. We identify a filamentary molecular cloud, ∼75 × 5 pc long with mass ∼4 × 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉} and a narrow velocity emission range of just 4 km s{sup –1}. The morphology and kinematics of this filament are similar in CO, [C I], and H I, though in the latter appears as self-absorption. We calculate line fluxes and column densities for the three emitting species, which are broadly consistent with a photodissociation region model for a GMC exposed to the average interstellar radiation field. The [C/CO] abundance ratio averaged through the filament is found to be approximately unity. The G328 filament is constrained to be cold (T {sub Dust} < 20 K) by the lack of far-IR emission, to show no clear signs of star formation, and to only be mildly turbulent from the narrow line width. We suggest that it may represent a GMC shortly after formation, or perhaps still in the process of formation.

  3. The effect of extreme ionization rates during the initial collapse of a molecular cloud core

    Wurster, James; Bate, Matthew R.; Price, Daniel J.

    2018-05-01

    What cosmic ray ionization rate is required such that a non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation of a collapsing molecular cloud will follow the same evolutionary path as an ideal MHD simulation or as a purely hydrodynamics simulation? To investigate this question, we perform three-dimensional smoothed particle non-ideal MHD simulations of the gravitational collapse of rotating, one solar mass, magnetized molecular cloud cores, which include Ohmic resistivity, ambipolar diffusion, and the Hall effect. We assume a uniform grain size of ag = 0.1 μm, and our free parameter is the cosmic ray ionization rate, ζcr. We evolve our models, where possible, until they have produced a first hydrostatic core. Models with ζcr ≳ 10-13 s-1 are indistinguishable from ideal MHD models, and the evolution of the model with ζcr = 10-14 s-1 matches the evolution of the ideal MHD model within 1 per cent when considering maximum density, magnetic energy, and maximum magnetic field strength as a function of time; these results are independent of ag. Models with very low ionization rates (ζcr ≲ 10-24 s-1) are required to approach hydrodynamical collapse, and even lower ionization rates may be required for larger ag. Thus, it is possible to reproduce ideal MHD and purely hydrodynamical collapses using non-ideal MHD given an appropriate cosmic ray ionization rate. However, realistic cosmic ray ionization rates approach neither limit; thus, non-ideal MHD cannot be neglected in star formation simulations.

  4. The Jeans Condition and Collapsing Molecular Cloud Cores: Filaments or Binaries?

    Boss, Alan P.; Fisher, Robert T.; Klein, Richard I.; McKee, Christopher F.

    2000-01-01

    consistent results. However, the B and M barotropic result differs significantly from the B and M Eddington result at the same maximum density, demonstrating the importance of detailed radiative transfer effects. Finally, we confirm that even in the case of isothermal collapse, an initially uniform density sphere can collapse and fragment into a binary system, in agreement with the 1998 results of Truelove et al. Fragmentation of molecular cloud cores thus appears to remain as a likely explanation of the formation of binary stars, but the sensitivity of these calculations to the numerical resolution and to the thermodynamical treatment demonstrates the need for considerable caution in computing and interpreting three-dimensional protostellar collapse calculations. (c) (c) 2000. The American Astronomical Society

  5. Seeing the Forest Through the Trees: The Distribution and Properties of Dense Molecular Gas in the Milky Way Galaxy

    Ellsworth-Bowers, Timothy P.

    The Milky Way Galaxy serves as a vast laboratory for studying the dynamics and evolution of the dense interstellar medium and the processes of and surrounding massive star formation. From our vantage point within the Galactic plane, however, it has been extremely difficult to construct a coherent picture of Galactic structure; we cannot see the forest for the trees. The principal difficulties in studying the structure of the Galactic disk have been obscuration by the ubiquitous dust and molecular gas and confusion between objects along a line of sight. Recent technological advances have led to large-scale blind surveys of the Galactic plane at (sub-)millimeter wavelengths, where Galactic dust is generally optically thin, and have opened a new avenue for studying the forest. The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) observed over 190 deg 2 of the Galactic plane in dust continuum emission near lambda = 1.1 mm, producing a catalog of over 8,000 dense molecular cloud structures across a wide swath of the Galactic disk. Deriving the spatial distribution and physical properties of these objects requires knowledge of distance, a component lacking in the data themselves. This thesis presents a generalized Bayesian probabilistic distance estimation method for dense molecular cloud structures, and demonstrates it with the BGPS data set. Distance probability density functions (DPDFs) are computed from kinematic distance likelihoods (which may be double- peaked for objects in the inner Galaxy) and an expandable suite of prior information to produce a comprehensive tally of our knowledge (and ignorance) of the distances to dense molecular cloud structures. As part of the DPDF formalism, this thesis derives several prior DPDFs for resolving the kinematic distance ambiguity in the inner Galaxy. From the collection of posterior DPDFs, a set of objects with well-constrained distance estimates is produced for deriving Galactic structure and the physical properties of dense molecular

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of the Formation of Molecular Clouds toward the Stellar Cluster Westerlund 2: Interaction of a Jet with a Clumpy Interstellar Medium

    Asahina, Yuta; Kawashima, Tomohisa; Furukawa, Naoko; Enokiya, Rei; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Fukui, Yasuo; Matsumoto, Ryoji

    2017-01-01

    The formation mechanism of CO clouds observed with the NANTEN2 and Mopra telescopes toward the stellar cluster Westerlund 2 is studied by 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations, taking into account the interstellar cooling. These molecular clouds show a peculiar shape composed of an arc-shaped cloud on one side of the TeV γ -ray source HESS J1023-575 and a linear distribution of clouds (jet clouds) on the other side. We propose that these clouds are formed by the interaction of a jet with clumps of interstellar neutral hydrogen (H i). By studying the dependence of the shape of dense cold clouds formed by shock compression and cooling on the filling factor of H i clumps, we found that the density distribution of H i clumps determines the shape of molecular clouds formed by the jet–cloud interaction: arc clouds are formed when the filling factor is large. On the other hand, when the filling factor is small, molecular clouds align with the jet. The jet propagates faster in models with small filling factors.

  7. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of the Formation of Molecular Clouds toward the Stellar Cluster Westerlund 2: Interaction of a Jet with a Clumpy Interstellar Medium

    Asahina, Yuta; Kawashima, Tomohisa [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Furukawa, Naoko; Enokiya, Rei; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Matsumoto, Ryoji, E-mail: asahina@cfca.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan)

    2017-02-20

    The formation mechanism of CO clouds observed with the NANTEN2 and Mopra telescopes toward the stellar cluster Westerlund 2 is studied by 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations, taking into account the interstellar cooling. These molecular clouds show a peculiar shape composed of an arc-shaped cloud on one side of the TeV γ -ray source HESS J1023-575 and a linear distribution of clouds (jet clouds) on the other side. We propose that these clouds are formed by the interaction of a jet with clumps of interstellar neutral hydrogen (H i). By studying the dependence of the shape of dense cold clouds formed by shock compression and cooling on the filling factor of H i clumps, we found that the density distribution of H i clumps determines the shape of molecular clouds formed by the jet–cloud interaction: arc clouds are formed when the filling factor is large. On the other hand, when the filling factor is small, molecular clouds align with the jet. The jet propagates faster in models with small filling factors.

  8. Searching for dark clouds in the outer galactic plane. I. A statistical approach for identifying extended red(dened) regions in 2MASS

    Frieswijk, W. W. F.; Shipman, R. F.

    Context. Most of what is known about clustered star formation to date comes from well studied star forming regions located relatively nearby, such as Rho-Ophiuchus, Serpens and Perseus. However, the recent discovery of infrared dark clouds may give new insights in our understanding of this dominant

  9. Galactic Observations of Terahertz C+ (GOT C+): Inner Galaxy Survey

    Yorke, Harold; Langer, William; Velusamy, T.; Pineda, J. L.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Li, D.

    To understand the lifecycle of the interstellar gas and star formation we need detailed information about the diffuse atomic and diffuse molecular gas cloud properties. The ionized carbon [CII] 1.9 THz fine structure line is an important tracer of the atomic gas in the diffuse regions and the interface regions of atomic gas to molecular clouds. Furthermore, C+ is a major ISM coolant and among the Galaxy's strongest far-IR emission lines, and thus controls the thermal conditions throughout large parts of the Galaxy. Until now our knowledge of interstellar gas has been limited to the diffuse atomic phase traced by HI and to the dense molecular H2 phase traced by CO. However, we are missing an important phase of the ISM, called "dark gas" in which there is no or little, HI, and mostly molecular hydrogen but with insufficient shielding of UV to allow CO to form. C+ emission and absorption lines at 1.9 THz have the potential to trace such cloud transitions and evolution. Galactic Observations of the Terahertz C+ Line (GOT C+) is a Herschel Space Observatory Open Time Key Program to study the diffuse interstellar medium by sampling [CII] 1.9 THz line emission throughout the Galactic disk. We discuss the broader perspective of this survey and the first results of GOT C+ obtained during the Science Demonstration Phase (SDP) and Priority Science Phase (PSP) of HIFI, which focus on approximately 100 lines of sight in the inner galaxy. These observations are being carried out with the Herschel Space Observatory, which is an ESA cornerstone mission, with contributions from NASA. This research was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. JLP is a Caltech-JPL Postdoctoral Associate.

  10. Dense molecular clumps associated with the Large Magellanic Cloud supergiant shells LMC 4 and LMC 5

    Fujii, Kosuke; Mizuno, Norikazu [Department of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 133-0033 (Japan); Minamidani, Tetsuhiro [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, 462-2 Nobeyama Minamimaki-mura, Minamisaku-gun, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Onishi, Toshikazu; Muraoka, Kazuyuki [Department of Physical Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen 1-1, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Kawamura, Akiko; Muller, Erik; Tatematsu, Ken' ichi; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Miura, Rie E.; Ezawa, Hajime [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Dawson, Joanne [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Tosaki, Tomoka [Joetsu University of Education, Yamayashiki-machi, Joetsu, Niigata 943-8512 (Japan); Sakai, Takeshi [Graduate School of Informatics and Engineering, The University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Tsukagoshi, Takashi [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo 2-1-1, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Tanaka, Kunihiko [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Fukui, Yasuo, E-mail: kosuke.fujii@nao.ac.jp [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the effects of supergiant shells (SGSs) and their interaction on dense molecular clumps by observing the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) star-forming regions N48 and N49, which are located between two SGSs, LMC 4 and LMC 5. {sup 12}CO (J = 3-2, 1-0) and {sup 13}CO(J = 1-0) observations with the ASTE and Mopra telescopes have been carried out toward these regions. A clumpy distribution of dense molecular clumps is revealed with 7 pc spatial resolution. Large velocity gradient analysis shows that the molecular hydrogen densities (n(H{sub 2})) of the clumps are distributed from low to high density (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} cm{sup –3}) and their kinetic temperatures (T {sub kin}) are typically high (greater than 50 K). These clumps seem to be in the early stages of star formation, as also indicated from the distribution of Hα, young stellar object candidates, and IR emission. We found that the N48 region is located in the high column density H I envelope at the interface of the two SGSs and the star formation is relatively evolved, whereas the N49 region is associated with LMC 5 alone and the star formation is quiet. The clumps in the N48 region typically show high n(H{sub 2}) and T {sub kin}, which are as dense and warm as the clumps in LMC massive cluster-forming areas (30 Dor, N159). These results suggest that the large-scale structure of the SGSs, especially the interaction of two SGSs, works efficiently on the formation of dense molecular clumps and stars.

  11. COLLAPSE AND FRAGMENTATION OF MAGNETIC MOLECULAR CLOUD CORES WITH THE ENZO AMR MHD CODE. I. UNIFORM DENSITY SPHERES

    Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic fields are important contributors to the dynamics of collapsing molecular cloud cores, and can have a major effect on whether collapse results in a single protostar or fragmentation into a binary or multiple protostar system. New models are presented of the collapse of magnetic cloud cores using the adaptive mesh refinement code Enzo2.0. The code was used to calculate the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) of initially spherical, uniform density, and rotation clouds with density perturbations, i.e., the Boss and Bodenheimer standard isothermal test case for three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamics codes. After first verifying that Enzo reproduces the binary fragmentation expected for the non-magnetic test case, a large set of models was computed with varied initial magnetic field strengths and directions with respect to the cloud core axis of rotation (parallel or perpendicular), density perturbation amplitudes, and equations of state. Three significantly different outcomes resulted: (1) contraction without sustained collapse, forming a denser cloud core; (2) collapse to form a single protostar with significant spiral arms; and (3) collapse and fragmentation into binary or multiple protostar systems, with multiple spiral arms. Comparisons are also made with previous MHD calculations of similar clouds with a barotropic equations of state. These results for the collapse of initially uniform density spheres illustrate the central importance of both magnetic field direction and field strength for determining the outcome of dynamic protostellar collapse.

  12. A relationship between SNR G109.1-1.0 and the molecular cloud of Sh2-152

    Heydari-Malayeri, M.; Kahane, C.; Lucas, R.

    1981-01-01

    The possible association of the supernova remnant SNR G109.1 - 1.0 and the x-ray source GF2259 + 586 with the molecular cloud of Sh2 - 152 has been investigated by observing the molecular line 13 CO (J = 1 → 0) of the complex Sh2 - 147/Sh2 - 153. The present results are compared with those of previous workers. It is shown that although the various estimates of distance for the SNR, the x-ray source, the H II region Sh2 - 152 and the molecular cloud are in relatively good agreement, because of the uncertainties of distance evaluation in the Perseus arm this cannot be regarded as conclusive proof of the association of these objects. (U.K.)

  13. Comprehensive models of diffuse interstellar clouds : physical conditions and molecular abundances

    Dishoeck, van E.F.; Black, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The limitations of steady state models of interstellar clouds are explored by means of comparison with observational data corresponding to clouds in front of Zeta Per, Zeta Oph, Chi Oph, and Omicron Per. The improved cloud models were constructed to reproduce the observed H and H2(J) column

  14. Planck intermediate results XXXV. Probing the role of the magnetic field in the formation of structure in molecular clouds

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.

    2016-01-01

    emission observed by Planck at 353 GHz is representative of the projected morphology of the magnetic field in each region, i.e., we assume a constant dust grain alignment efficiency, independent of the local environment. Within most clouds we find that the relative orientation changes progressively...... for the gas dynamics at the scales probed by Planck. We compare the deduced magnetic field strength with estimates we obtain from other methods and discuss the implications of the Planck observations for the general picture of molecular cloud formation and evolution....

  15. Visualization system: animation of the dynamic evolution of the molecular hydrogen cloud during its gravitational collapse in 3D

    Duarte P, R.; Klapp E, J.; Arreaga D, G.

    2006-01-01

    The results of a group of numeric simulations and a region of interest form a molecular hydrogen cloud that collapses under the action of their own force of graveness. For they are believed it two models the constant one and the gaussian with the profile of the density of the initial cloud and a barotropic equation of state that it allows the iso thermic change to adiabatic. For each pattern two values of critical density are used, a spectra of density interferences, obtaining a binary system, tertiary or even a quaternary one. The necessary programs explained in the methodology to generate the visualizations of the models are generated. (Author)

  16. First Near-infrared Imaging Polarimetry of Young Stellar Objects in the Circinus Molecular Cloud

    Kwon, Jungmi; Nakagawa, Takao; Tamura, Motohide; Hough, James H.; Choi, Minho; Kandori, Ryo; Nagata, Tetsuya; Kang, Miju

    2018-02-01

    We present the results of near-infrared (NIR) linear imaging polarimetry in the J, H, and K s bands of the low-mass star cluster-forming region in the Circinus Molecular Cloud Complex. Using aperture polarimetry of point-like sources, positive detection of 314, 421, and 164 sources in the J, H, and K s bands, respectively, was determined from among 749 sources whose photometric magnitudes were measured. For the source classification of the 133 point-like sources whose polarization could be measured in all 3 bands, a color–color diagram was used. While most of the NIR polarizations of point-like sources are well-aligned and can be explained by dichroic polarization produced by aligned interstellar dust grains in the cloud, 123 highly polarized sources have also been identified with some criteria. The projected direction on the sky of the magnetic field in the Cir-MMS region is indicated by the mean polarization position angles (70°) of the point-like sources in the observed region, corresponding to approximately 1.6× 1.6 pc2. In addition, the magnetic field direction is compared with the outflow orientations associated with Infrared Astronomy Satellite sources, in which two sources were found to be aligned with each other and one source was not. We also show prominent polarization nebulosities over the Cir-MMS region for the first time. Our polarization data have revealed one clear infrared reflection nebula (IRN) and several candidate IRNe in the Cir-MMS field. In addition, the illuminating sources of the IRNe are identified with near- and mid-infrared sources.

  17. General physical characteristics of the interstellar molecular gas

    Turner, B.E.

    1979-01-01

    The interstellar medium may be characterized by several physically rather distinct regimes: coronal gas, intercloud gas, diffuse clouds, isolated dark clouds and globules (of small to modest mass), more massive molecular clouds containing OB (and later) stars, and giant molecular clouds. Values of temperature, density, ionization fraction, mass, size, and velocity field are discussed for each regime. Heating and cooling mechanisms are reviewed. Nearly all molecular clouds exceed the Jeans criteria for gravitational instability, yet detailed models reveal no cases where observations can be interpreted unambiguously in terms of rapid collapse. The possibility that clouds are supported by turbulence, rotation, or magnetic fields is discussed, and it is concluded that none of these agencies suffice. Comments are made about fragmentation and star formation in molecular clouds, with possible explanations for why only low mass stars form in low mass clouds, why early-type stars form only in clouds with masses > approximately 10 3 M solar masses, and why O-stars seem to form near edges of clouds. Finally, large-scale interactions between molecular clouds and the galactic disk stellar population are discussed. (Auth.)

  18. GOT C+: Galactic Plane Survey of the 1.9 THz [CII] Line

    Langer, William

    2012-01-01

    The ionized carbon [CII] 1.9 THz fine structure line is a major gas coolant in the interstellar medium (ISM) and controls the thermal conditions in diffuse gas clouds and Photodissociation Regions (PDRs). The [CII] line is also an important tracer of the atomic gas and atomic to molecular transition in diffuse clouds throughout the Galaxy. I will review some of the results from the recently completed Galactic Observations of Terahertz C+ (GOT C+) survey. This Herschel Open Time Key Project is a sparse, but uniform volume sample survey of [CII] line emission throughout the Galactic disk using the HIFI heterodyne receiver. HIFI observations, with their high spectral resolution, isolate and locate individual clouds in the Galaxy and provide excitation information on the gas. I will present [CII] position-velocity maps that reveal the distribution and motion of the clouds in the inner Galaxy and discuss results on the physical properties of the gas using spectral observations of [CII] and ancillary HI and 12CO, 13CO, and C18O J=1-0 data. The [CII] emission is also a useful tracer of the "Dark H2 Gas", and I will discuss its distribution in a sample of interstellar clouds. This research was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  19. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE STUDY OF COSMIC RAYS AND THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN NEARBY MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    Ackermann, M. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Buehler, R. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bonamente, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Brandt, T. J. [CNRS, IRAP, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Brigida, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' M. Merlin' dell' Universita e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bruel, P., E-mail: hayashi@hep01.hepl.hiroshima-u.ac.jp, E-mail: mizuno@hep01.hepl.hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); and others

    2012-08-10

    We report an analysis of the interstellar {gamma}-ray emission from the Chamaeleon, R Coronae Australis (R CrA), and Cepheus and Polaris flare regions with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. They are among the nearest molecular cloud complexes, within {approx}300 pc from the solar system. The {gamma}-ray emission produced by interactions of cosmic rays (CRs) and interstellar gas in those molecular clouds is useful to study the CR densities and distributions of molecular gas close to the solar system. The obtained {gamma}-ray emissivities above 250 MeV are (5.9 {+-} 0.1{sub stat}{sup +0.9}{sub -1.0sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -27} photons s{sup -1} sr{sup -1} H-atom{sup -1}, (10.2 {+-} 0.4{sub stat}{sup +1.2}{sub -1.7sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -27} photons s{sup -1} sr{sup -1} H-atom{sup -1}, and (9.1 {+-} 0.3{sub stat}{sup +1.5}{sub -0.6sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -27} photons s{sup -1} sr{sup -1} H-atom{sup -1} for the Chamaeleon, R CrA, and Cepheus and Polaris flare regions, respectively. Whereas the energy dependences of the emissivities agree well with that predicted from direct CR observations at the Earth, the measured emissivities from 250 MeV to 10 GeV indicate a variation of the CR density by {approx}20% in the neighborhood of the solar system, even if we consider systematic uncertainties. The molecular mass calibrating ratio, X{sub CO} = N(H{sub 2})/W{sub CO}, is found to be (0.96 {+-} 0.06{sub stat}{sup +0.15}{sub -0.12sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} H{sub 2}-molecule cm{sup -2} (K km s{sup -1}){sup -1}, (0.99 {+-} 0.08{sub stat}{sup +0.18}{sub -0.10sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} H{sub 2}-molecule cm{sup -2} (K km s{sup -1}){sup -1}, and (0.63 {+-} 0.02{sub stat}{sup +0.09}{sub -0.07sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} H{sub 2}-molecule cm{sup -2} (K km s{sup -1}){sup -1} for the Chamaeleon, R CrA, and Cepheus and Polaris flare regions, respectively, suggesting a variation of X{sub CO} in the vicinity of the solar system. From the

  20. SDP_wlanger_3: State of the Diffuse ISM: Galactic Observations of the Terahertz CII Line (GOT CPlus)

    Langer, W.

    2011-09-01

    Star formation activity throughout the Galactic disk depends on the thermal and dynamical state of the interstellar gas, which in turn depends on heating and cooling rates, modulated by the gravitational potential and shock and turbulent pressures. Molecular cloud formation, and thus the star formation, may be regulated by pressures in the interstellar medium (ISM). To understand these processes we need information about the properties of the diffuse atomic and diffuse molecular gas clouds, and Photon Dominated Regions (PDR). An important tracer of these regions is the CII line at 158 microns (1900.5 GHz). We propose a "pencil-beam" survey of CII with HIFI band 7b, based on deep integrations and systematic sparse sampling of the Galactic disk plus selected targets, totaling over 900 lines of sight. We will detect both emission and, against the bright inner Galaxy and selected continuum sources, absorption lines. These spectra will provide the astronomical community with a large rich statistical database of the diffuse cloud properties throughout the Galaxy for understanding the Milky Way ISM and, by extension, other galaxies. It will be extremely valuable for determining the properties of the atomic gas, the role of barometric pressure and turbulence in cloud evolution, and the properties of the interface between the atomic and molecular clouds. The CII line is one of the major ISM cooling lines and is present throughout the Galactic plane. It is the strongest far-IR emission line in the Galaxy, with a total luminosity about a 1000 times that of the CO J=1-0 line. Combined with other data, it can be used to determine density, pressure, and radiation environment in gas clouds, and PDRs, and their dynamics via velocity fields. HSO is the best opportunity over the next several years to probe the ISM in this tracer and will provide a template for large-scale surveys with dedicated small telescopes and future surveys of other important ISM tracers.

  1. KPOT_wlanger_1: State of the Diffuse ISM: Galactic Observations of the Terahertz CII Line (GOT CPlus)

    Langer, W.

    2007-10-01

    Star formation activity throughout the Galactic disk depends on the thermal and dynamical state of the interstellar gas, which in turn depends on heating and cooling rates, modulated by the gravitational potential and shock and turbulent pressures. Molecular cloud formation, and thus the star formation, may be regulated by pressures in the interstellar medium (ISM). To understand these processes we need information about the properties of the diffuse atomic and diffuse molecular gas clouds, and Photon Dominated Regions (PDR). An important tracer of these regions is the CII line at 158 microns (1900.5 GHz). We propose a "pencil-beam" survey of CII with HIFI band 7b, based on deep integrations and systematic sparse sampling of the Galactic disk plus selected targets, totaling over 900 lines of sight. We will detect both emission and, against the bright inner Galaxy and selected continuum sources, absorption lines. These spectra will provide the astronomical community with a large rich statistical database of the diffuse cloud properties throughout the Galaxy for understanding the Milky Way ISM and, by extension, other galaxies. It will be extremely valuable for determining the properties of the atomic gas, the role of barometric pressure and turbulence in cloud evolution, and the properties of the interface between the atomic and molecular clouds. The CII line is one of the major ISM cooling lines and is present throughout the Galactic plane. It is the strongest far-IR emission line in the Galaxy, with a total luminosity about a 1000 times that of the CO J=1-0 line. Combined with other data, it can be used to determine density, pressure, and radiation environment in gas clouds, and PDRs, and their dynamics via velocity fields. HSO is the best opportunity over the next several years to probe the ISM in this tracer and will provide a template for large-scale surveys with dedicated small telescopes and future surveys of other important ISM tracers.

  2. Galactic evolution

    Pagel, B.

    1979-01-01

    Ideas are considered concerning the evolution of galaxies which are closely related to those of stellar evolution and the origin of elements. Using information obtained from stellar spectra, astronomers are now able to consider an underlying process to explain the distribution of various elements in the stars, gas and dust clouds of the galaxies. (U.K.)

  3. G0.253 + 0.016: A MOLECULAR CLOUD PROGENITOR OF AN ARCHES-LIKE CLUSTER

    Longmore, Steven N.; Ascenso, Joana; Testi, Leonardo; Bressert, Eli; Rathborne, Jill; Bastian, Nate; Alves, Joao; Meingast, Stefan; Bally, John; Battersby, Cara; Longmore, Andy; Purcell, Cormac; Walsh, Andrew; Jackson, James; Foster, Jonathan; Molinari, Sergio; Amorim, A.; Lima, J.; Marques, R.; Moitinho, A.

    2012-01-01

    Young massive clusters (YMCs) with stellar masses of 10 4 -10 5 M ☉ and core stellar densities of 10 4 -10 5 stars per cubic pc are thought to be the 'missing link' between open clusters and extreme extragalactic super star clusters and globular clusters. As such, studying the initial conditions of YMCs offers an opportunity to test cluster formation models across the full cluster mass range. G0.253 + 0.016 is an excellent candidate YMC progenitor. We make use of existing multi-wavelength data including recently available far-IR continuum (Herschel/Herschel Infrared Galactic Plane Survey) and mm spectral line (H 2 O Southern Galactic Plane Survey and Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz Survey) data and present new, deep, multiple-filter, near-IR (Very Large Telescope/NACO) observations to study G0.253 + 0.016. These data show that G0.253 + 0.016 is a high-mass (1.3 × 10 5 M ☉ ), low-temperature (T dust ∼ 20 K), high-volume, and column density (n ∼ 8 × 10 4 cm –3 ; N H 2 ∼4×10 23 cm –2 ) molecular clump which is close to virial equilibrium (M dust ∼ M virial ) so is likely to be gravitationally bound. It is almost devoid of star formation and, thus, has exactly the properties expected for the initial conditions of a clump that may form an Arches-like massive cluster. We compare the properties of G0.253 + 0.016 to typical Galactic cluster-forming molecular clumps and find it is extreme, and possibly unique in the Galaxy. This uniqueness makes detailed studies of G0.253 + 0.016 extremely important for testing massive cluster formation models.

  4. Where Galactic Snakes Live

    2006-01-01

    This infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows what astronomers are referring to as a 'snake' (upper left) and its surrounding stormy environment. The sinuous object is actually the core of a thick, sooty cloud large enough to swallow dozens of solar systems. In fact, astronomers say the 'snake's belly' may be harboring beastly stars in the process of forming. The galactic creepy crawler to the right of the snake is another thick cloud core, in which additional burgeoning massive stars might be lurking. The colorful regions below the two cloud cores are less dense cloud material, in which dust has been heated by starlight and glows with infrared light. Yellow and orange dots throughout the image are monstrous developing stars; the red star on the 'belly' of the snake is 20 to 50 times as massive as our sun. The blue dots are foreground stars. The red ball at the bottom left is a 'supernova remnant,' the remains of massive star that died in a fiery blast. Astronomers speculate that radiation and winds from the star before it died, in addition to a shock wave created when it exploded, might have played a role in creating the snake. Spitzer was able to spot the two black cloud cores using its heat-seeking infrared vision. The objects are hiding in the dusty plane of our Milky Way galaxy, invisible to optical telescopes. Because their heat, or infrared light, can sneak through the dust, they first showed up in infrared images from past missions. The cloud cores are so thick with dust that if you were to somehow transport yourself into the middle of them, you would see nothing but black, not even a star in the sky. Now, that's spooky! Spitzer's new view of the region provides the best look yet at the massive embryonic stars hiding inside the snake. Astronomers say these observations will ultimately help them better understand how massive stars form. By studying the clustering and range of masses of the stellar embryos, they hope to determine if the stars

  5. The EDGE-CALIFA survey: the influence of galactic rotation on the molecular depletion time across the Hubble sequence

    Colombo, D.; Kalinova, V.; Utomo, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Bolatto, A. D.; Levy, R. C.; Wong, T.; Sanchez, S. F.; Leroy, A. K.; Ostriker, E.; Blitz, L.; Vogel, S.; Mast, D.; García-Benito, R.; Husemann, B.; Dannerbauer, H.; Ellmeier, L.; Cao, Y.

    2018-04-01

    We present a kpc-scale analysis of the relationship between the molecular depletion time (τ^mol_dep) and the orbital time (τorb) across the field of 39 face-on local galaxies, selected from the EDGE-CALIFA sample. We find that, on average, 5 per cent of the available molecular gas is converted into stars per orbital time, or τ^mol_dep˜ 20 τ_orb. The resolved relation shows a scatter of ˜0.5 dex. The scatter is ascribable to galaxies of different morphologies that follow different τ^mol_dep-τorb relations which decrease in steepness from early- to late types. The morphologies appear to be linked with the star formation rate surface density, the molecular depletion time, and the orbital time, but they do not correlate with the molecular gas content of the galaxies in our sample. We speculate that in our molecular gas rich, early-type galaxies, the morphological quenching (in particular the disc stabilization via shear), rather than the absence of molecular gas, is the main factor responsible for their current inefficient star formation.

  6. Large Area, High Resolution N2H+ studies of dense gas in the Perseus and Serpens Molecular Clouds

    Storm, Shaye; Mundy, Lee

    2014-07-01

    Star formation in molecular clouds occurs over a wide range of spatial scales and physical densities. Understanding the origin of dense cores thus requires linking the structure and kinematics of gas and dust from cloud to core scales. The CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey (CLASSy) is a CARMA Key Project that spectrally imaged five diverse regions of the Perseus and Serpens Molecular Clouds in N2H+ (J=1-0), totaling over 800 square arcminutes. The observations have 7’’ angular resolution (~0.01 pc spatial resolution) to probe dense gas down to core scales, and use combined interferometric and single-dish data to fully recover line emission up to parsec scales. CLASSy observations are complete, and this talk will focus on three science results. First, the dense gas in regions with existing star formation has complex hierarchical structure. We present a non-binary dendrogram analysis for all regions and show that dense gas hierarchy correlates with star formation activity. Second, well-resolved velocity information for each dendrogram-identified structure allows a new way of looking at linewidth-size relations in clouds. Specifically, we find that non-thermal line-of-sight velocity dispersion varies weakly with structure size, while rms variation in the centroid velocity increases strongly with structure size. We argue that the typical line-of-sight depth of a cloud can be estimated from these relations, and that our regions have depths that are several times less than their extent on the plane of the sky. This finding is consistent with numerical simulations of molecular cloud turbulence that show that high-density sheets are a generic result. Third, N2H+ is a good tracer of cold, dense gas in filaments; we resolve multiple beams across many filaments, some of which are narrower than 0.1 pc. The centroid velocity fields of several filaments show gradients perpendicular to their major axis, which is a common feature in filaments formed from numerical

  7. THE ANGULAR MOMENTUM OF MAGNETIZED MOLECULAR CLOUD CORES: A TWO-DIMENSIONAL-THREE-DIMENSIONAL COMPARISON

    Dib, Sami; Csengeri, Timea; Audit, Edouard; Hennebelle, Patrick; Pineda, Jaime E.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Bontemps, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we present a detailed study of the rotational properties of magnetized and self-gravitating dense molecular cloud (MC) cores formed in a set of two very high resolution three-dimensional (3D) MC simulations with decaying turbulence. The simulations have been performed using the adaptative mesh refinement code RAMSES with an effective resolution of 4096 3 grid cells. One simulation represents a mildly magnetically supercritical cloud and the other a strongly magnetically supercritical cloud. We identify dense cores at a number of selected epochs in the simulations at two density thresholds which roughly mimic the excitation densities of the NH 3 (J - K) = (1,1) transition and the N 2 H + (1-0) emission line. A noticeable global difference between the two simulations is the core formation efficiency (CFE) of the high-density cores. In the strongly supercritical simulations, the CFE is 33% per unit free-fall time of the cloud (t ff,cl ), whereas in the mildly supercritical simulations this value goes down to ∼6 per unit t ff,cl . A comparison of the intrinsic specific angular momentum (j 3D ) distributions of the cores with the specific angular momentum derived using synthetic two-dimensional (2D) velocity maps of the cores (j 2D ) shows that the synthetic observations tend to overestimate the true value of the specific angular momentum by a factor of ∼8-10. We find that the distribution of the ratio j 3D /j 2D of the cores peaks at around ∼0.1. The origin of this discrepancy lies in the fact that contrary to the intrinsic determination of j which sums up the individual gas parcels' contributions to the angular momentum, the determination of the specific angular momentum using the standard observational procedure which is based on a measurement on the global velocity gradient under the hypothesis of uniform rotation smoothes out the complex fluctuations present in the 3D velocity field. Our results may well provide a natural explanation for the

  8. Calibrating the HISA temperature: Measuring the temperature of the Riegel-Crutcher cloud

    Dénes, H.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Dickey, J. M.; Dawson, J. R.; Murray, C. E.

    2018-06-01

    H I self absorption (HISA) clouds are clumps of cold neutral hydrogen (H I) visible in front of warm background gas, which makes them ideal places to study the properties of the cold atomic component of the interstellar medium (ISM). The Riegel-Crutcher (R-C) cloud is the most striking HISA feature in the Galaxy. It is one of the closest HISA clouds to us and is located in the direction of the Galactic Centre, which provides a bright background. High-resolution interferometric measurements have revealed the filamentary structure of this cloud, however it is difficult to accurately determine the temperature and the density of the gas without optical depth measurements. In this paper we present new H I absorption observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) against 46 continuum sources behind the Riegel-Crutcher cloud to directly measure the optical depth of the cloud. We decompose the complex H I absorption spectra into Gaussian components using an automated machine learning algorithm. We find 300 Gaussian components, from which 67 are associated with the R-C cloud (0 temperature and find it to be between 20 and 80 K. Our measurements uncover a temperature gradient across the cloud with spin temperatures decreasing towards positive Galactic latitudes. We also find three new OH absorption lines associated with the cloud, which support the presence of molecular gas.

  9. Approaching hell's kitchen: Molecular daredevil clouds in the vicinity of Sagittarius A* ⋆⋆

    Moser, Lydia; Sánchez-Monge, Álvaro; Eckart, Andreas; Requena-Torres, Miguel A.; García-Marin, Macarena; Kunneriath, Devaky; Zensus, Anton; Britzen, Silke; Sabha, Nadeen; Shahzamanian, Banafsheh; Borkar, Abhijeet; Fischer, Sebastian

    2017-07-01

    We report serendipitous detections of line emission with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in bands 3, 6, and 7 in the central parsec down to within 1'' around Sgr A* at an up to now highest resolution (electron temperature around Te 6000 K for the minispiral. The spectral index (S ∝ να) of Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) is 0.5 at 100-250 GHz and 0.0 at 230-340 GHz. The bright sources in the center show spectral indices around -0.1 implying Bremsstrahlung emission, while dust emission is emerging in the minispiral exterior. Apart from CS, which is most widespread in the center, H13CO+, HC3N, SiO, SO, C2H, CH3OH, 13CS and N2H+ are also detected. The bulk of the clumpy emission regions is at positive velocities and in a region confined by the minispiral northern arm (NA), bar, and the sources IRS 3 and 7. Although partly spatially overlapping with the radio recombination line (RRL) emission at same negative velocities, the relation to the minispiral remains unclear. A likely explanation is an infalling clump consisting of denser cloud cores embedded in diffuse gas. This central association (CA) of clouds shows three times higher CS/X (X: any other observed molecule) ratios than the circumnuclear disk (CND) suggesting a combination of higher excitation, by a temperature gradient and/or infrared (IR) pumping, and abundance enhancement due to UV and/or X-ray emission. Hence, we conclude that this CA is closer to the center than the CND is to the center. Moreover, we find molecular line emission at velocities up to 200 km s-1. Apart from the CA, we identified two intriguing regions in the CND. One region shows emission in all molecular species and higher energy levels tested in this and previous observations and contains a methanol class I maser. The other region shows similar behavior of the line ratios such as the CA. Outside the CND, we find the traditionally quiescent gas tracer N2H+ coinciding with the largest IR dark clouds in the field. Methanol

  10. Origin of CH+ in diffuse molecular clouds. Warm H2 and ion-neutral drift

    Valdivia, Valeska; Godard, Benjamin; Hennebelle, Patrick; Gerin, Maryvonne; Lesaffre, Pierre; Le Bourlot, Jacques

    2017-04-01

    Context. Molecular clouds are known to be magnetised and to display a turbulent and complex structure where warm and cold phases are interwoven. The turbulent motions within molecular clouds transport molecules, and the presence of magnetic fields induces a relative velocity between neutrals and ions known as the ion-neutral drift (vd). These effects all together can influence the chemical evolution of the clouds. Aims: This paper assesses the roles of two physical phenomena which have previously been invoked to boost the production of CH+ under realistic physical conditions: the presence of warm H2 and the increased formation rate due to the ion-neutral drift. Methods: We performed ideal magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations that include the heating and cooling of the multiphase interstellar medium (ISM), and where we treat dynamically the formation of the H2 molecule. In a post-processing step we compute the abundances of species at chemical equilibrium using a solver that we developed. The solver uses the physical conditions of the gas as input parameters, and can also prescribe the H2 fraction if needed. We validate our approach by showing that the H2 molecule generally has a much longer chemical evolution timescale compared to the other species. Results: We show that CH+ is efficiently formed at the edge of clumps, in regions where the H2 fraction is low (0.3-30%) but nevertheless higher than its equilibrium value, and where the gas temperature is high (≳ 300 K). We show that warm and out of equilibrium H2 increases the integrated column densities of CH+ by one order of magnitude up to values still 3-10 times lower than those observed in the diffuse ISM. We balance the Lorentz force with the ion-neutral drag to estimate the ion-drift velocities from our ideal MHD simulations. We find that the ion-neutral drift velocity distribution peaks around 0.04 km s-1, and that high drift velocities are too rare to have a significant statistical impact on the

  11. Planck 2015 results. XXVIII. The Planck Catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps

    Ade, P.A.R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Pelkonen, V.-M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present the Planck Catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCC), an all-sky catalogue of Galactic cold clump candidates detected by Planck. This catalogue is the full version of the Early Cold Core (ECC) catalogue, which was made available in 2011 with the Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and contained 915 high S/N sources. It is based on the Planck 48 months mission data that are currently being released to the astronomical community. The PGCC catalogue is an observational catalogue consisting exclusively of Galactic cold sources. The three highest Planck bands (857, 545, 353 GHz) have been combined with IRAS data at 3 THz to perform a multi-frequency detection of sources colder than their local environment. After rejection of possible extragalactic contaminants, the PGCC catalogue contains 13188 Galactic sources spread across the whole sky, i.e., from the Galactic plane to high latitudes, following the spatial distribution of the main molecular cloud complexes. The median temperature of PGCC so...

  12. Lane-Emden equation with inertial force and general polytropic dynamic model for molecular cloud cores

    Li, DaLei; Lou, Yu-Qing; Esimbek, Jarken

    2018-01-01

    We study self-similar hydrodynamics of spherical symmetry using a general polytropic (GP) equation of state and derive the GP dynamic Lane-Emden equation (LEE) with a radial inertial force. In reference to Lou & Cao, we solve the GP dynamic LEE for both polytropic index γ = 1 + 1/n and the isothermal case n → +∞; our formalism is more general than the conventional polytropic model with n = 3 or γ = 4/3 of Goldreich & Weber. For proper boundary conditions, we obtain an exact constant solution for arbitrary n and analytic variable solutions for n = 0 and n = 1, respectively. Series expansion solutions are derived near the origin with the explicit recursion formulae for the series coefficients for both the GP and isothermal cases. By extensive numerical explorations, we find that there is no zero density at a finite radius for n ≥ 5. For 0 ≤ n 0 for monotonically decreasing density from the origin and vanishing at a finite radius for c being less than a critical value Ccr. As astrophysical applications, we invoke our solutions of the GP dynamic LEE with central finite boundary conditions to fit the molecular cloud core Barnard 68 in contrast to the static isothermal Bonnor-Ebert sphere by Alves et al. Our GP dynamic model fits appear to be sensibly consistent with several more observations and diagnostics for density, temperature and gas pressure profiles.

  13. ALMA’s Polarized View of 10 Protostars in the Perseus Molecular Cloud

    Cox, Erin G.; Harris, Robert J.; Looney, Leslie W.; Li, Zhi-Yun; Yang, Haifeng; Tobin, John J.; Stephens, Ian

    2018-03-01

    We present 870 μm ALMA dust polarization observations of 10 young Class 0/I protostars in the Perseus Molecular Cloud. At ∼0.″35 (80 au) resolution, all of our sources show some degree of polarization, with most (9/10) showing significantly extended emission in the polarized continuum. Each source has incredibly intricate polarization signatures. In particular, all three disk-candidates have polarization vectors roughly along the minor axis, which is indicative of polarization produced by dust scattering. On ∼100 au scales, the polarization is at a relatively low level (≲1%) and is quite ordered. In sources with significant envelope emission, the envelope is typically polarized at a much higher (≳5%) level and has a far more disordered morphology. We compute the cumulative probability distributions for both the small (disk-scale) and large (envelope-scale) polarization percentage. We find that the two are intrinsically different, even after accounting for the different detection thresholds in the high/low surface brightness regions. We perform Kolmogorov–Smirnov and Anderson–Darling tests on the distributions of angle offsets of the polarization from the outflow axis. We find disk-candidate sources are different from the non-disk-candidate sources. We conclude that the polarization on the 100 au scale is consistent with the signature of dust scattering for disk-candidates and that the polarization on the envelope-scale in all sources may come from another mechanism, most likely magnetically aligned grains.

  14. The collapse of a molecular cloud core to stellar densities using radiation non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    Wurster, James; Bate, Matthew R.; Price, Daniel J.

    2018-04-01

    We present results from radiation non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) calculations that follow the collapse of rotating, magnetized, molecular cloud cores to stellar densities. These are the first such calculations to include all three non-ideal effects: ambipolar diffusion, Ohmic resistivity, and the Hall effect. We employ an ionization model in which cosmic ray ionization dominates at low temperatures and thermal ionization takes over at high temperatures. We explore the effects of varying the cosmic ray ionization rate from ζcr = 10-10 to 10-16 s-1. Models with ionization rates ≳10-12 s-1 produce results that are indistinguishable from ideal MHD. Decreasing the cosmic ray ionization rate extends the lifetime of the first hydrostatic core up to a factor of 2, but the lifetimes are still substantially shorter than those obtained without magnetic fields. Outflows from the first hydrostatic core phase are launched in all models, but the outflows become broader and slower as the ionization rate is reduced. The outflow morphology following stellar core formation is complex and strongly dependent on the cosmic ray ionization rate. Calculations with high ionization rates quickly produce a fast (≈14 km s-1) bipolar outflow that is distinct from the first core outflow, but with the lowest ionization rate, a slower (≈3-4 km s-1) conical outflow develops gradually and seamlessly merges into the first core outflow.

  15. GAMMA-RAY EMISSION OF ACCELERATED PARTICLES ESCAPING A SUPERNOVA REMNANT IN A MOLECULAR CLOUD

    Ellison, Donald C.; Bykov, Andrei M.

    2011-01-01

    We present a model of gamma-ray emission from core-collapse supernovae (SNe) originating from the explosions of massive young stars. The fast forward shock of the supernova remnant (SNR) can accelerate particles by diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) in a cavern blown by a strong, pre-SN stellar wind. As a fundamental part of nonlinear DSA, some fraction of the accelerated particles escape the shock and interact with a surrounding massive dense shell producing hard photon emission. To calculate this emission, we have developed a new Monte Carlo technique for propagating the cosmic rays (CRs) produced by the forward shock of the SNR, into the dense, external material. This technique is incorporated in a hydrodynamic model of an evolving SNR which includes the nonlinear feedback of CRs on the SNR evolution, the production of escaping CRs along with those that remain trapped within the remnant, and the broadband emission of radiation from trapped and escaping CRs. While our combined CR-hydro-escape model is quite general and applies to both core collapse and thermonuclear SNe, the parameters we choose for our discussion here are more typical of SNRs from very massive stars whose emission spectra differ somewhat from those produced by lower mass progenitors directly interacting with a molecular cloud.

  16. Ammonia observations of the molecular clouds near S68, S140, OMC2 and S106

    Little, L.T.; Brown, A.T.; Macdonald, G.H.; Riley, P.W.; Matheson, D.N.

    1980-01-01

    The J=1, K=1 and J=2, K=2 transitions of interstellar ammonia have been observed in the molecular clouds near S68, S140, OMC2 and S106. Maps of the ammonia emission obtained with a 2.2-arcmin beam are presented and compared with observations of other interstellar molecules, in particular carbon monoxide and formaldehyde. The distribution of the ammonia emission in OMC2 and S140 resembles more closely that of 2-mm formaldehyde than 13 CO, which is generally more extended. On the other hand, the densities of hydrogen molecules derived from the ammonia observations on the basis of a simple uniform-density model for the source are much lower than those obtained from 2-mm formaldehyde observations. This discrepancy may be resolved either by assuming a 'core-halo' or a 'clumped' structure for the source. The limits to 'halo' emission are used to suggest that the latter possibility is more probable, in which case the medium is well modelled as many clumps of density approximately 10 6 cm -3 and size -2 pc, immersed in a more tenuous medium of density approximately 10sup(3 to 4)cm -3 . (author)

  17. Dust and molecules in extra-galactic planetary nebulae

    Garcia-Hernandez, Domingo Aníbal

    2015-08-01

    Extra-galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) permit the study of dust and molecules in metallicity environments other than the Galaxy. Their known distances lower the number of free parameters in the observations vs. models comparison, providing strong constraints on the gas-phase and solid-state astrochemistry models. Observations of PNe in the Galaxy and other Local Group galaxies such as the Magellanic Clouds (MC) provide evidence that metallicity affects the production of dust as well as the formation of complex organic molecules and inorganic solid-state compounds in their circumstellar envelopes. In particular, the lower metallicity MC environments seem to be less favorable to dust production and the frequency of carbonaceous dust features and complex fullerene molecules is generally higher with decreasing metallicity. Here, I present an observational review of the dust and molecular content in extra-galactic PNe as compared to their higher metallicity Galactic counterparts. A special attention is given to the level of dust processing and the formation of complex organic molecules (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fullerenes, and graphene precursors) depending on metallicity.

  18. X-ray short-time lags in the Fe-K energy band produced by scattering clouds in active galactic nuclei

    Mizumoto, Misaki; Done, Chris; Hagino, Kouichi; Ebisawa, Ken; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Odaka, Hirokazu

    2018-05-01

    X-rays illuminating the accretion disc in active galactic nuclei give rise to an iron K line and its associated reflection spectrum which are lagged behind the continuum variability by the light-travel time from the source to the disc. The measured lag timescales in the iron band can be as short as ˜Rg/c, where Rg is the gravitational radius, which is often interpreted as evidence for a very small continuum source close to the event horizon of a rapidly spinning black hole. However, the short lags can also be produced by reflection from more distant material, because the primary photons with no time-delay dilute the time-lags caused by the reprocessed photons. We perform a Monte-Carlo simulation to calculate the dilution effect in the X-ray reverberation lags from a half-shell of neutral material placed at 100 Rg from the central source. This gives lags of ˜2 Rg/c, but the iron line is a distinctly narrow feature in the lag-energy plot, whereas the data often show a broader line. We show that both the short lag and the line broadening can be reproduced if the scattering material is outflowing at ˜0.1c. The velocity structure in the wind can also give shifts in the line profile in the lag-energy plot calculated at different frequencies. Hence we propose that the observed broad iron reverberation lags and shifts in profile as a function of frequency of variability can arise from a disc wind at fairly large distances from the X-ray source.

  19. Thermoresponsive Poly(2-oxazoline) Molecular Brushes by Living Ionic Polymerization: Kinetic Investigations of Pendant Chain Grafting and Cloud Point Modulation by Backbone and Side Chain Length Variation

    Zhang, Ning; Luxenhofer, Robert; Jordan, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    and the stretched conformation of the backbone, which is caused by the electrostatic repulsion of the oxazolinium moieties along the macroinitiator. The resulting molecular brushes showed thermoresponsive properties, that is, having a defined cloud point (CP

  20. The Galactic magnetic fields

    Han Jinlin

    2006-01-01

    A good progress has been made on studies of Galactic magnetic fields in last 10 years. I describe what we want to know about the Galactic magnetic fields, and then review we current knowledge about magnetic fields in the Galactic disk, the Galactic halo and the field strengths. I also listed many unsolved problems on this area

  1. NEAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRY OF A NORMAL SPIRAL GALAXY VIEWED THROUGH THE TAURUS MOLECULAR CLOUD COMPLEX

    Clemens, Dan P.; Cashman, L. R.; Pavel, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    Few normal galaxies have been probed using near-infrared polarimetry, even though it reveals magnetic fields in the cool interstellar medium better than either optical or radio polarimetry. Deep H-band (1.6 μm) linear imaging polarimetry toward Taurus serendipitously included the galaxy 2MASX J04412715+2433110 with adequate sensitivity and resolution to map polarization across nearly its full extent. The observations revealed the galaxy to be a steeply inclined (∼75°) disk type with a diameter, encompassing 90% of the Petrosian flux, of 4.2 kpc at a distance of 53 Mpc. Because the sight line passes through the Taurus Molecular Cloud complex, the foreground polarization needed to be measured and removed. The foreground extinction A V of 2.00 ± 0.10 mag and reddening E(H – K) of 0.125 ± 0.009 mag were also assessed and removed, based on analysis of Two Micron All Sky Survey, UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey, Spitzer, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry using the Near-Infrared Color Excess, NICE-Revisited, and Rayleigh-Jeans Color Excess methods. Corrected for the polarized foreground, the galaxy polarization values range from 0% to 3%. The polarizations are dominated by a disk-parallel magnetic field geometry, especially to the northeast, while either a vertical field or single scattering of bulge light produces disk-normal polarizations to the southwest. The multi-kiloparsec coherence of the magnetic field revealed by the infrared polarimetry is in close agreement with short-wavelength radio synchrotron observations of edge-on galaxies, indicating that both cool and warm interstellar media of disk galaxies may be threaded by common magnetic fields.

  2. THE MID-INFRARED EXTINCTION LAW IN THE OPHIUCHUS, PERSEUS, AND SERPENS MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    Chapman, Nicholas L.; Mundy, Lee G.; Lai, Shih-Ping; Evans, Neal J. II

    2009-01-01

    We compute the mid-IR extinction law from 3.6 to 24 μm in three molecular clouds-Ophiuchus, Perseus, and Serpens-by combining data from the 'Cores to Disks' Spitzer Legacy Science program with deep JHK s imaging. Using a new technique, we are able to calculate the line-of-sight (LOS) extinction law toward each background star in our fields. With these LOS measurements, we create, for the first time, maps of the χ 2 deviation of the data from two extinction law models. Because our χ 2 maps have the same spatial resolution as our extinction maps, we can directly observe the changing extinction law as a function of the total column density. In the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) bands, 3.6-8 μm, we see evidence for grain growth. Below A K s = 0.5, our extinction law is well fitted by the Weingartner and Draine R V = 3.1 diffuse interstellar-medium dust model. As the extinction increases, our law gradually flattens, and for A K s ≥1, the data are more consistent with the Weingartner and Draine R V = 5.5 model that uses larger maximum dust grain sizes. At 24 μm, our extinction law is 2-4 times higher than the values predicted by theoretical dust models, but is more consistent with the observational results of Flaherty et al. Finally, from our χ 2 maps we identify a region in Perseus where the IRAC extinction law is anomalously high considering its column density. A steeper near-IR extinction law than the one we have assumed may partially explain the IRAC extinction law in this region.

  3. Multi-phase Turbulence Density Power Spectra in the Perseus Molecular Cloud

    Pingel, N. M.; Lee, Min-Young; Burkhart, Blakesley; Stanimirović, Snežana

    2018-04-01

    We derive two-dimensional spatial power spectra of four distinct interstellar medium tracers, H I, 12CO(J = 1–0), 13CO(J = 1–0), and dust, in the Perseus molecular cloud, covering linear scales ranging from ∼0.1 pc to ∼90 pc. Among the four tracers, we find the steepest slopes of ‑3.23 ± 0.05 and ‑3.22 ± 0.05 for the uncorrected and opacity-corrected H I column density images. This result suggests that the H I in and around Perseus traces a non-gravitating, transonic medium on average, with a negligible effect from opacity. On the other hand, we measure the shallowest slope of ‑2.72 ± 0.12 for the 2MASS dust extinction data and interpret this as the signature of a self-gravitating, supersonic medium. Possible variations in the dust-to-gas ratio likely do not alter our conclusion. Finally, we derive slopes of ‑3.08 ± 0.08 and ‑2.88 ± 0.07 for the 12CO(1–0) and 13CO(1–0) integrated intensity images. Based on theoretical predictions for an optically thick medium, we interpret these slopes of roughly ‑3 as implying that both CO lines are susceptible to the opacity effect. While simple tests for the impact of CO formation and depletion indicate that the measured slopes of 12CO(1–0) and 13CO(1–0) are not likely affected by these chemical effects, our results generally suggest that chemically more complex and/or fully optically thick media may not be a reliable observational tracer for characterizing turbulence.

  4. Galactic bulges

    Peletier, Reynier; Gadotti, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    This book consists of invited reviews on Galactic Bulges written by experts in the field. A central point of the book is that, while in the standard picture of galaxy formation a significant amount of the baryonic mass is expected to reside in classical bulges, the question what is the fraction of galaxies with no classical bulges in the local Universe has remained open. The most spectacular example of a galaxy with no significant classical bulge is the Milky Way. The reviews of this book attempt to clarify the role of the various types of bulges during the mass build-up of galaxies, based on morphology, kinematics, and stellar populations, and connecting their properties at low and high redshifts. The observed properties are compared with the predictions of the theoretical models, accounting for the many physical processes leading to the central mass concentration and their destruction in galaxies. This book serves as an entry point for PhD students and non-specialists and as a reference work for researchers...

  5. THE RELATION BETWEEN GAS AND DUST IN THE TAURUS MOLECULAR CLOUD

    Pineda, Jorge L.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Chapman, Nicholas; Li Di; Snell, Ronald L.; Cambresy, Laurent; Brunt, Chris

    2010-01-01

    We report a study of the relation between dust and gas over a 100 deg 2 area in the Taurus molecular cloud. We compare the H 2 column density derived from dust extinction with the CO column density derived from the 12 CO and 13 CO J = 1 → 0 lines. We derive the visual extinction from reddening determined from 2MASS data. The comparison is done at an angular size of 200'' corresponding to 0.14 pc at a distance of 140 pc. We find that the relation between visual extinction A V and N(CO) is linear between A V ≅ 3 and 10 mag in the region associated with the B213-L1495 filament. In other regions, the linear relation is flattened for A V ∼> 4 mag. We find that the presence of temperature gradients in the molecular gas affects the determination of N(CO) by ∼30%-70% with the largest difference occurring at large column densities. Adding a correction for this effect and accounting for the observed relation between the column density of CO and CO 2 ices and A V , we find a linear relationship between the column of carbon monoxide and dust for observed visual extinctions up to the maximum value in our data ≅23 mag. We have used these data to study a sample of dense cores in Taurus. Fitting an analytical column density profile to these cores we derive an average volume density of about 1.4 x 10 4 cm -3 and a CO depletion age of about 4.2 x 10 5 yr. At visual extinctions smaller than ∼3 mag, we find that the CO fractional abundance is reduced by up to two orders of magnitude. The data show a large scatter suggesting a range of physical conditions of the gas. We estimate the H 2 mass of Taurus to be about 1.5 x 10 4 M sun , independently derived from the A V and N(CO) maps. We derive a CO integrated intensity to H 2 conversion factor of about 2.1 x 10 20 cm -2 (K km s -1 ) -1 , which applies even in the region where the [CO]/[H 2 ] ratio is reduced by up to two orders of magnitude. The distribution of column densities in our Taurus maps resembles a log

  6. A SCALING RELATION BETWEEN MEGAMASER DISK RADIUS AND BLACK HOLE MASS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Wardle, Mark; Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    Several thin, Keplerian, sub-parsec megamaser disks have been discovered in the nuclei of active galaxies and used to precisely determine the mass of their host black holes. We show that there is an empirical linear correlation between the disk radius and the black hole mass. We demonstrate that such disks are naturally formed by the partial capture of molecular clouds passing through the galactic nucleus and temporarily engulfing the central supermassive black hole. Imperfect cancellation of the angular momenta of the cloud material colliding after passing on opposite sides of the hole leads to the formation of a compact disk. The radial extent of the disk is determined by the efficiency of this process and the Bondi-Hoyle capture radius of the black hole, and naturally produces the empirical linear correlation of the radial extent of the maser distribution with black hole mass. The disk has sufficient column density to allow X-ray irradiation from the central source to generate physical and chemical conditions conducive to the formation of 22 GHz H 2 O masers. For initial cloud column densities ∼ 23.5 cm –2 the disk is non-self-gravitating, consistent with the ordered kinematics of the edge-on megamaser disks; for higher cloud columns the disk would fragment and produce a compact stellar disk similar to that observed around Sgr A* at the galactic center.

  7. Molecular Line Emission as a Tool for Galaxy Observations (LEGO). I. HCN as a tracer of moderate gas densities in molecular clouds and galaxies

    Kauffmann, Jens; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Melnick, Gary; Tolls, Volker; Guzman, Andres; Menten, Karl M.

    2017-09-01

    Trends observed in galaxies, such as the Gao & Solomon relation, suggest a linear relationship between the star formation rate and the mass of dense gas available for star formation. Validation of such trends requires the establishment of reliable methods to trace the dense gas in galaxies. One frequent assumption is that the HCN (J = 1-0) transition is unambiguously associated with gas at H2 densities ≫ 104 cm-3. If so, the mass of gas at densities ≫ 104 cm-3 could be inferred from the luminosity of this emission line, LHCN (1-0). Here we use observations of the Orion A molecular cloud to show that the HCN (J = 1-0) line traces much lower densities 103 cm-3 in cold sections of this molecular cloud, corresponding to visual extinctions AV ≈ 6 mag. We also find that cold and dense gas in a cloud like Orion produces too little HCN emission to explain LHCN (1-0) in star forming galaxies, suggesting that galaxies might contain a hitherto unknown source of HCN emission. In our sample of molecules observed at frequencies near 100 GHz (also including 12CO, 13CO, C18O, CN, and CCH), N2H+ is the only species clearly associated with relatively dense gas.

  8. Microwave spectral lines in galactic dust globules

    Martin, R.N.; Barrett, A.H.

    1978-01-01

    In order to better understand galactic dust globules, a program of mapping several molecular transitions in these clouds has been undertaken. The results of observations of the J=1→0 rotational transitions of CO, 13 CO, C 18 O, and CS, the J=2→1rotational transitions of CS and C 34 S, the J, K=1, 1 and J, K=2, 2 inversion transitions of NH 3 , the J/sub KKprime/=1 11 →1 10 and J/sub KKprime/=2 12 →2 11 transitions of H 2 CO, and the OH 2 Pi/sub 3/2/F=2→2 and F=1→1 transitions are reported here. Twelve globules have been selected for observation; seven of these were studied in detail and the remainder observed only sparsely. A strong positive correlation appears to exist between the spatial extent of the molecular emission (or absorption) and the optical features of the globule. Even the main isotope of CO shows this correlation between dust extinction and molecular emission. Close examination of the Palomar prints reveals dust wherever CO is observed, and CO is probably a good tracer of dust extinction.The simultaneous observation of many molecular transitions has proven useful in obtaining reliable physical parameters for the dust globules. For example, CO and NH 3 are reliable thermometers of the kinetic temperature, and CS and NH 3 are indicators of the total gas density. The kinetic temperatures of the globules are almost always approx.10 K, and the derived H 2 densities are 10/sup 3.4/-10/sup 4.5/ cm -3 . The density in the core of the globules could well be larger than these value, which represent an average for the entire cloud. The kinetic temperature appears uniform across each cloud (within a few kelvins), in agreement with theoretical predictions. All of the globules studied in detail appear to be gravitationally bound and collapsing objects. Rotation has been observed in at least two globules (B163 and B163 SW). The projected axis of rotation is in a direction opposite to that of the Galaxy

  9. The embedded young stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. I - Models for spectral energy distributions

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee

    1993-01-01

    We describe radiative transfer calculations of infalling, dusty envelopes surrounding pre-main-sequence stars and use these models to derive physical properties for a sample of 21 heavily reddened young stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. The density distributions needed to match the FIR peaks in the spectral energy distributions of these embedded sources suggest mass infall rates similar to those predicted for simple thermally supported clouds with temperatures about 10 K. Unless the dust opacities are badly in error, our models require substantial departures from spherical symmetry in the envelopes of all sources. These flattened envelopes may be produced by a combination of rotation and cavities excavated by bipolar flows. The rotating infall models of Terebey et al. (1984) models indicate a centrifugal radius of about 70 AU for many objects if rotation is the only important physical effect, and this radius is reasonably consistent with typical estimates for the sizes of circumstellar disks around T Tauri stars.

  10. A KINEMATIC AND PHOTOMETRIC STUDY OF THE GALACTIC YOUNG STAR CLUSTER NGC 7380

    Chen, W. P.; Chen, C. W.; Pandey, A. K.; Sharma, Saurabh; Chen Li; Sperauskas, J.; Ogura, K.; Chuang, R. J.; Boyle, R. P.

    2011-01-01

    We present proper motions, radial velocities, and a photometric study of the Galactic open cluster NGC 7380, which is associated with prominent emission nebulosity and dark molecular clouds. On the basis of the sample of highly probable member stars, the star cluster is found to be at a distance of 2.6 ± 0.4 kpc, has an age of around 4 Myr, and a physical size of ∼6 pc across with a tidal structure. The binary O-type star DH Cep is a member of the cluster in its late stage of clearing the surrounding material, and may have triggered the ongoing star formation in neighboring molecular clouds which harbor young stars that are coeval and comoving with, but not gravitationally bound by, the star cluster.

  11. Cold H I clouds near the supernova remnant W44

    Sato, F.

    1986-01-01

    The cold H I clouds near the supernova remnant W44 are investigated by the use of the Maryland-Green Bank Survey (Westerhout 1973). Several clouds with a mean diameter of about 20 pc are distributed in the region. They do not seem to make a shell around W44, contrary to the suggestion by Knapp and Kerr (1974) based on the low-resolution data at coarse grids. Some of them form a chain, about 100 pc in length, extending approximately along the galactic equator. It resembles the cold H I cloud near W3 and W4. The major constituent of the clouds is probably the hydrogen molecule, and the total mass of the entire complex amounts to 25,000 81,000 solar masses. The estimated Jeans mass indicates that they will contract to dense molecular clouds. Therefore, it may safely be concluded that the cold H1 cloud complex near W44 is a giant molecular cloud at an early evolutionary stage. 14 references

  12. STAR FORMATION LAWS: THE EFFECTS OF GAS CLOUD SAMPLING

    Calzetti, D.; Liu, G.; Koda, J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent observational results indicate that the functional shape of the spatially resolved star formation-molecular gas density relation depends on the spatial scale considered. These results may indicate a fundamental role of sampling effects on scales that are typically only a few times larger than those of the largest molecular clouds. To investigate the impact of this effect, we construct simple models for the distribution of molecular clouds in a typical star-forming spiral galaxy and, assuming a power-law relation between star formation rate (SFR) and cloud mass, explore a range of input parameters. We confirm that the slope and the scatter of the simulated SFR-molecular gas surface density relation depend on the size of the sub-galactic region considered, due to stochastic sampling of the molecular cloud mass function, and the effect is larger for steeper relations between SFR and molecular gas. There is a general trend for all slope values to tend to ∼unity for region sizes larger than 1-2 kpc, irrespective of the input SFR-cloud relation. The region size of 1-2 kpc corresponds to the area where the cloud mass function becomes fully sampled. We quantify the effects of selection biases in data tracing the SFR, either as thresholds (i.e., clouds smaller than a given mass value do not form stars) or as backgrounds (e.g., diffuse emission unrelated to current star formation is counted toward the SFR). Apparently discordant observational results are brought into agreement via this simple model, and the comparison of our simulations with data for a few galaxies supports a steep (>1) power-law index between SFR and molecular gas.

  13. Kinetic temperature of massive star-forming molecular clumps measured with formaldehyde. III. The Orion molecular cloud 1

    Tang, X. D.; Henkel, C.; Menten, K. M.; Wyrowski, F.; Brinkmann, N.; Zheng, X. W.; Gong, Y.; Lin, Y. X.; Esimbek, J.; Zhou, J. J.; Yuan, Y.; Li, D. L.; He, Y. X.

    2018-01-01

    We mapped the kinetic temperature structure of the Orion molecular cloud 1 (OMC-1) with para-H2CO (JKaKc = 303-202, 322-221, and 321-220) using the APEX 12 m telescope. This is compared with the temperatures derived from the ratio of the NH3 (2, 2)/(1, 1) inversion lines and the dust emission. Using the RADEX non-LTE model, we derive the gas kinetic temperature modeling the measured averaged line ratios of para-H2CO 322-221/303-202 and 321-220/303-202. The gas kinetic temperatures derived from the para-H2CO line ratios are warm, ranging from 30 to >200 K with an average of 62 ± 2 K at a spatial density of 105 cm-3. These temperatures are higher than those obtained from NH3 (2, 2)/(1, 1) and CH3CCH (6-5) in the OMC-1 region. The gas kinetic temperatures derived from para-H2CO agree with those obtained from warm dust components measured in the mid infrared (MIR), which indicates that the para-H2CO (3-2) ratios trace dense and warm gas. The cold dust components measured in the far infrared (FIR) are consistent with those measured with NH3 (2, 2)/(1, 1) and the CH3CCH (6-5) line series. With dust at MIR wavelengths and para-H2CO (3-2) on one side, and dust at FIR wavelengths, NH3 (2, 2)/(1, 1), and CH3CCH (6-5) on the other, dust and gas temperatures appear to be equivalent in the dense gas (n(H2) ≳ 104 cm-3) of the OMC-1 region, but provide a bimodal distribution, one more directly related to star formation than the other. The non-thermal velocity dispersions of para-H2CO are positively correlated with the gas kinetic temperatures in regions of strong non-thermal motion (Mach number ≳ 2.5) of the OMC-1, implying that the higher temperature traced by para-H2CO is related to turbulence on a 0.06 pc scale. Combining the temperature measurements with para-H2CO and NH3 (2, 2)/(1, 1) line ratios, we find direct evidence for the dense gas along the northern part of the OMC-1 10 km s-1 filament heated by radiation from the central Orion nebula. The reduced datacubes are

  14. H2 spectroscopy as an agent for extinction determinations The near-infrared curve for the Orion molecular cloud

    Davis, D.S.; Larson, H.P.; Hofmann, R.; Arizona Univ., Tucson; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Garching, West Germany)

    1986-01-01

    A near-infrared (1.8 to 3.5) microns extinction curve for the Orion molecular cloud is presented. The curve is derived from high-resolution spectra of the Orion H2 source recorded from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. The data reveal that the Orion extinction law is indistinguishable from a 1/lambda form in the near-infrared, except for strongly enhanced extinction near a wavelength of about 3 microns. The implications of these results, in the context of current interstellar grain models, are discussed. 53 references

  15. The embedded young stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. II - Models for scattered light images

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Whitney, Barbara A.; Gomez, Mercedes; Hartmann, Lee

    1993-01-01

    We describe NIR imaging observations of embedded young stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. We find a large range in J-K and H-K colors for these class I sources. The bluest objects have colors similar to the reddest T Tauri stars in the cloud; redder objects lie slightly above the reddening line for standard ISM dust and have apparent K extinctions of up to 5 mag. Most of these sources also show extended NIR emission on scales of 10-20 arcsec which corresponds to linear sizes of 1500-3000 AU. The NIR colors and nebular morphologies for this sample and the magnitude of linear polarization in several sources suggest scattered light produces most of the NIR emission in these objects. We present modeling results that suggest mass infall rates that agree with predictions for cold clouds and are generally consistent with rates estimated from radiative equilibrium models. For reasonable dust grain parameters, the range of colors and extinctions require flattened density distributions with polar cavities evacuated by bipolar outflows. These results support the idea that infall and outflow occur simultaneously in deeply embedded bipolar outflow sources. The data also indicate fairly large centrifugal radii and large inclinations to the rotational axis for a typical source.

  16. Heat sources for bright-rimmed molecular clouds: CO observations of NGC 7822

    Elmegreen, B.G.; Dickinson, D.F.; Lada, C.J.

    1978-01-01

    Observations of the 2.6 mm carbon monoxide line in the bright rim NGC 7822 reveal that the peak excitation and column density of the molecule lie in a ridge ahead of the ionization front. Several possibilities for the excitation of this ridge are discussed. Cosmic rays are shown to provide an excellent heat source for Bok globules, but they can account for only approx.20% of the required heating in NGC 7822. Direct shock or compressional heating of the gas could be adequate only if the pressure inside the cloud is much larger than the thermal pressure. If, in fact, this internal pressure is determined by the source of line broadening (e.g., magnetic fields or turbulence), then shock or compressional heating could be important, and pressure equilibrium may exist between the neutral cloud and the bright rim. Heating by warm grains or by the photoelectric effect is also considered, but such mechanisms are probably not important if the only source of radiation is external to the cloud. This is primarily a result of the low cloud density (approx.10 3 cm -3 ) inferred from our observations. The extent to which unknown embedded stars may provide the required gaseous heating cannot be estimated from our observations of NGC 7822.An interesting and new heat source is suggested which may have important applications to bright-rimmed clouds or to any other predominantly neutral clouds that may have undergone some recent compression. We suggest that the heat input to neutral gas due to the relaxation of internal magnetic fields will be greatly enhanced during cloud compression (with or without a shock). We show that the power input to the gas will increase more with increasing density than will the cooling rate. As a result, cloud compression can lead to an increase in the gas temperature for a period lasting several million years, which is the decay time of the compressed field. The observed ridge in NGC 7822 may be due to stimulated release of internal magnetic energy

  17. Phosphorus-bearing molecules in the Galactic Center

    Rivilla, V. M.; Jiménez-Serra, I.; Zeng, S.; Martín, S.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Armijos-Abendaño, J.; Viti, S.; Aladro, R.; Riquelme, D.; Requena-Torres, M.; Quénard, D.; Fontani, F.; Beltrán, M. T.

    2018-03-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the essential elements for life due to its central role in biochemical processes. Recent searches have shown that P-bearing molecules (in particular PN and PO) are present in star-forming regions, although their formation routes remain poorly understood. In this letter, we report observations of PN and PO towards seven molecular clouds located in the Galactic Center, which are characterized by different types of chemistry. PN is detected in five out of seven sources, whose chemistry is thought to be shock-dominated. The two sources with PN non-detections correspond to clouds exposed to intense UV/X-rays/cosmic ray (CR) radiation. PO is detected only towards the cloud G+0.693-0.03, with a PO/PN abundance ratio of ˜1.5. We conclude that P-bearing molecules likely form in shocked gas as a result of dust grain sputtering, while are destroyed by intense UV/X-ray/CR radiation.

  18. Simulating the UV escape fractions from molecular cloud populations in star-forming dwarf and spiral galaxies

    Howard, Corey S.; Pudritz, Ralph E.; Harris, William E.; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2018-04-01

    The escape of ultraviolet photons from the densest regions of the interstellar medium (ISM) - giant molecular clouds (GMCs) - is a poorly constrained parameter which is vital to understanding the ionization of the ISM and the intergalactic medium. We characterize the escape fraction, fesc,GMC, from a suite of individual GMC simulations with masses in the range 104-6 M⊙ using the adaptive-mesh refinement code FLASH. We find significantly different fesc,GMC depending on the GMC mass that can reach >90 per cent in the evolution of 5 × 104 and 105 M⊙ clouds or remain low at ˜5 per cent for most of the lifetime of more massive GMCs. All clouds show fluctuations over short, sub-Myr time-scales produced by flickering H II regions. We combine our results to calculate the total escape fraction (fesc,tot) from GMC populations in dwarf starburst and spiral galaxies by randomly drawing clouds from a GMC mass distribution (dN/dM ∝ Mα, where α is either -1.5 or -2.5) over fixed time intervals. We find typical fesc,tot values of 8 per cent for both the dwarf and spiral models. The fluctuations of fesc,tot, however, are much larger for the dwarf models with values as high as 90 per cent. The photons escaping from the 5 × 104 and 105 M⊙ GMCs are the dominant contributors to fesc,tot in all cases. We also show that the accompanying star formation rates (SFRs) of our model (˜2 × 10-2 and 0.73 M⊙yr-1) are consistent with observations of SFRs in dwarf starburst and spiral galaxies, respectively.

  19. TWO-FLUID MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS SIMULATIONS OF CONVERGING H I FLOWS IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM. II. ARE MOLECULAR CLOUDS GENERATED DIRECTLY FROM A WARM NEUTRAL MEDIUM?

    Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2009-01-01

    Formation of interstellar clouds as a consequence of thermal instability is studied using two-dimensional two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We consider the situation of converging, supersonic flows of warm neutral medium in the interstellar medium that generate a shocked slab of thermally unstable gas in which clouds form. We find, as speculated in Paper I, that in the shocked slab magnetic pressure dominates thermal pressure and the thermal instability grows in the isochorically cooling, thermally unstable slab that leads to the formation of H I clouds whose number density is typically n ∼ -3 , even if the angle between magnetic field and converging flows is small. We also find that even if there is a large dispersion of magnetic field, evolution of the shocked slab is essentially determined by the angle between the mean magnetic field and converging flows. Thus, the direct formation of molecular clouds by piling up warm neutral medium does not seem to be a typical molecular cloud formation process, unless the direction of supersonic converging flows is biased to the orientation of mean magnetic field by some mechanism. However, when the angle is small, the H I shell generated as a result of converging flows is massive and possibly evolves into molecular clouds, provided gas in the massive H I shell is piled up again along the magnetic field line. We expect that another subsequent shock wave can again pile up the gas of the massive shell and produce a larger cloud. We thus emphasize the importance of multiple episodes of converging flows, as a typical formation process of molecular clouds.

  20. Measurement of the abundance of stellar mass compact objects in the galactic halo by detecting micro-lenses in the Large Magellanic Cloud; Mesure de l'abondance des astres sombres de masse stellaire dans le halo galactique par la recherche de phenomenes de microlentilles vers les nuages de magellan

    Lasserre, Th

    2000-05-09

    Many experimental and theoretical results lead to the conclusion that at least 80 percent of the mass of our Galaxy is dark. Part of this so-called dark matter could be in the form of stellar mass compact objects, called MACHOS; these could be detected using the gravitational microlensing effect. The first generation experiments EROS1 and MACHO have strongly constrained the galactic abundance of objects lighter than 0.01 solar mass to less than 10 percent of the total mass. In parallel, the observation by the MACHO group of massive candidates (half the Sun's mass), numerous enough to constitute 50 percent of galactic dark matter, was a further motivation for the EROS group to extend this search to stellar mass objects in a second phase, EROS2. The present work deals with the analysis of 25 million stellar light curves in the Large Magellanic Cloud, observed for three years in order to extract the rare microlensing candidates and to measure the galactic halo mass fraction in the form of compact objects. After recalling the motivations of this search and the theoretical context, I describe the EROS2 experiment. The observational strategy and the photometric reduction procedures needed to deal with the 1.2 To of data are then presented. A new method to detect micro-lenses is detailed, as well as a discussion of background light curves, poorly known. We do not find enough microlensing candidates to explain the galactic rotation curve; this confirms, and improve on previous EROS1 and EROS2 results. Combining all results from EROS allows to exclude that MACHOS with a mass between 10 e-7 and 10 solar mass are important constituents of the galactic halo. This statement agrees with recent results from the MACHO group, although our interpretations differ, namely on the topics of the location of the lenses, and of a possible contamination of the microlensing ample by background phenomena. (author)

  1. Small-scale structure and chemical differentiation in the central region of the Sagittarius B2 molecular cloud

    Goldsmith, P.F.; Snell, R.L.; Hasegawa, T.; Ukita, N.; Nobeyama Radio Observatory, Minamimaki, Japan)

    1987-01-01

    Fifteen arcsec angular resolution observations of a number of molecular species in the center of the Sgr B2 molecular cloud, including HC3N in the ground and v7 = 1 vibrational states, SO, OCS,l and HNCO, have been performed. Emission from HC3N is fairly uniformly distributed over the region studied; SO and OCS have a spatially extended component but are strongly centrally peaked. HNCO and vibrationally excited HC 3 N emission are essentially restricted to a very small region around the center of activity in the north. The difference between the spatial distributions are attributed to variation in the chemical abundances of the various clumps. The excitation requirements of the vibrationally excited HC 3 N imply the presence of dust and gas at high temperatures. The results further heighten the apparent contradiction presented by the lack of infrared emission from this source. 53 references

  2. The impact of X-rays on molecular cloud fragmentation and the inital mass function

    Hocuk, S.; Spaans, M.

    2010-01-01

    Star formation is regulated through a variety of feedback processes. In this study, we treat feedback by X-rays and discuss its implications. Our aim is to investigate whether star formation is significantly affected when a star forming cloud resides in the vicinity of a strong X-ray source. We

  3. Ultraviolet Survey of CO and H2 in Diffuse Molecular Clouds: The Reflection of Two Photochemistry Regimes in Abundance Relationships

    Sheffer, Y.; Rogers, M.; Federman, S. R.; Abel, N. P.; Gredel, R.; Lambert, D. L.; Shaw, G.

    2008-11-01

    We carried out a comprehensive far-UV survey of 12CO and H2 column densities along diffuse molecular Galactic sight lines. This sample includes new measurements of CO from HST spectra along 62 sight lines and new measurements of H2 from FUSE data along 58 sight lines. In addition, high-resolution optical data were obtained at the McDonald and European Southern Observatories, yielding new abundances for CH, CH+, and CN along 42 sight lines to aid in interpreting the CO results. These new sight lines were selected according to detectable amounts of CO in their spectra and provide information on both lower density (production route for CO in higher density gas. Similar logarithmic plots among all five diatomic molecules reveal additional examples of dual slopes in the cases of CO versus CH (break at log N = 14.1, 13.0), CH+ versus H2 (13.1, 20.3), and CH+ versus CO (13.2, 14.1). We employ both analytical and numerical chemical schemes in order to derive details of the molecular environments. In the denser gas, where C2 and CN molecules also reside, reactions involving C+ and OH are the dominant factor leading to CO formation via equilibrium chemistry. In the low-density gas, where equilibrium chemistry studies have failed to reproduce the abundance of CH+, our numerical analysis shows that nonequilibrium chemistry must be employed for correctly predicting the abundances of both CH+ and CO.

  4. KINEMATIC STRUCTURE OF MOLECULAR GAS AROUND HIGH-MASS YSO, PAPILLON NEBULA, IN N159 EAST IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD: A NEW PERSPECTIVE WITH ALMA

    Saigo, Kazuya; Harada, Ryohei; Kawamura, Akiko [Chile Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Science, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Onishi, Toshikazu; Tokuda, Kazuki; Morioka, Yuuki [Department of Physical Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Nayak, Omnarayani; Meixner, Margaret [The Johns Hopkins University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 366 Bloomberg Center, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sewiło, Marta [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Indebetouw, Remy [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Torii, Kazufumi; Ohama, Akio; Hattori, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Tachihara, Kengo [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Minamidani, Tetsuhiro [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, 462-2 Nobeyama Minamimaki-mura, Minamisaku-gun, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Inoue, Tsuyoshi [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory (Japan); Madden, Suzanne; Lebouteiller, Vianney [Laboratoire AIM, CEA, Universite Paris VII, IRFU/Service d’Astrophysique, Bat. 709, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Galametz, Maud [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); and others

    2017-01-20

    We present the ALMA Band 3 and Band 6 results of {sup 12}CO(2-1), {sup 13}CO(2-1), H30 α recombination line, free–free emission around 98 GHz, and the dust thermal emission around 230 GHz toward the N159 East Giant Molecular Cloud (N159E) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). LMC is the nearest active high-mass star-forming face-on galaxy at a distance of 50 kpc and is the best target for studing high-mass star formation. ALMA observations show that N159E is the complex of filamentary clouds with the width and length of ∼1 pc and several parsecs. The total molecular mass is 0.92 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ⊙} from the {sup 13}CO(2-1) intensity. N159E harbors the well-known Papillon Nebula, a compact high-excitation H ii region. We found that a YSO associated with the Papillon Nebula has the mass of 35 M {sub ⊙} and is located at the intersection of three filamentary clouds. It indicates that the formation of the high-mass YSO was induced by the collision of filamentary clouds. Fukui et al. reported a similar kinematic structure toward two YSOs in the N159 West region, which are the other YSOs that have the mass of ≳35 M {sub ⊙}. This suggests that the collision of filamentary clouds is a primary mechanism of high-mass star formation. We found a small molecular hole around the YSO in Papillon Nebula with a sub-parsec scale. It is filled by free–free and H30 α emission. The temperature of the molecular gas around the hole reaches ∼80 K. It indicates that this YSO has just started the distruction of parental molecular cloud.

  5. KINEMATIC STRUCTURE OF MOLECULAR GAS AROUND HIGH-MASS YSO, PAPILLON NEBULA, IN N159 EAST IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD: A NEW PERSPECTIVE WITH ALMA

    Saigo, Kazuya; Harada, Ryohei; Kawamura, Akiko; Onishi, Toshikazu; Tokuda, Kazuki; Morioka, Yuuki; Nayak, Omnarayani; Meixner, Margaret; Sewiło, Marta; Indebetouw, Remy; Torii, Kazufumi; Ohama, Akio; Hattori, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Tachihara, Kengo; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Madden, Suzanne; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Galametz, Maud

    2017-01-01

    We present the ALMA Band 3 and Band 6 results of 12 CO(2-1), 13 CO(2-1), H30 α recombination line, free–free emission around 98 GHz, and the dust thermal emission around 230 GHz toward the N159 East Giant Molecular Cloud (N159E) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). LMC is the nearest active high-mass star-forming face-on galaxy at a distance of 50 kpc and is the best target for studing high-mass star formation. ALMA observations show that N159E is the complex of filamentary clouds with the width and length of ∼1 pc and several parsecs. The total molecular mass is 0.92 × 10 5 M ⊙ from the 13 CO(2-1) intensity. N159E harbors the well-known Papillon Nebula, a compact high-excitation H ii region. We found that a YSO associated with the Papillon Nebula has the mass of 35 M ⊙ and is located at the intersection of three filamentary clouds. It indicates that the formation of the high-mass YSO was induced by the collision of filamentary clouds. Fukui et al. reported a similar kinematic structure toward two YSOs in the N159 West region, which are the other YSOs that have the mass of ≳35 M ⊙ . This suggests that the collision of filamentary clouds is a primary mechanism of high-mass star formation. We found a small molecular hole around the YSO in Papillon Nebula with a sub-parsec scale. It is filled by free–free and H30 α emission. The temperature of the molecular gas around the hole reaches ∼80 K. It indicates that this YSO has just started the distruction of parental molecular cloud.

  6. Selected Theoretical Studies Group contributions to the 14th International Cosmic Ray conference. [including studies on galactic molecular hydrogen, interstellar reddening, and on the origin of cosmic rays

    1975-01-01

    The galactic distribution of H2 was studied through gamma radiation and through X-ray, optical, and infrared absorption measurements from SAS-2 and other sources. A comparison of the latitude distribution of gamma-ray intensity with reddening data shows reddening data to give the best estimate of interstellar gas in the solar vicinity. The distribution of galactic cosmic ray nucleons was determined and appears to be identical to the supernova remnant distribution. Interactions between ultrahigh energy cosmic-ray nuclei and intergalactic photon radiation fields were calculated, using the Monte Carlo method.

  7. Observation of galactic gamma radiation

    Paul, J.A.

    1982-09-01

    A complete and deep survey of the galactic high-energy gamma radiation is now available, thanks to the gamma-ray telescopes on board of the SAS-2 and COS-B spacecrafts. A comparison of the COS-B gamma-ray survey with a fully sampled CO survey together with an Hsub(I) survey is used to show that a simple model, in which uniformly distributed cosmic rays interact with the interstellar gas, can account for almost all the gamma-ray emission observed in the first galactic quadrant. At medium galactic latitudes, it is shown that a relationship exists between the gamma radiation and the interstellar absorption derived from galaxy counts. Therefore gamma rays from the local galactic environment can be used as a valuable probe of the content and structure of the local interstellar medium. The large scale features of the local interstellar gas are revealed, in particular wide concentrations of nearby molecular hydrogen. On a smaller scale, the detection of numerous localized gamma-ray sources focuses the attention on some particular phases of clusters of young and massive stars where diffuse processes of gamma-ray emission may also be at work

  8. HERBIG-HARO OBJECTS IN THE LUPUS I AND III MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    Wang Hongchi; Henning, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We performed a deep search for Herbig-Haro (HH) objects toward the Lupus I and III clouds, covering a sky area of ∼ 1 and ∼ 0.5 deg 2 , respectively. In total, 11 new HH objects, HH 981--991, are discovered. The HH objects both in Lupus I and in Lupus III tend to be concentrated in small areas. The HH objects detected in Lupus I are located in a region of radius 0.26 pc near the young star Sz 68. The abundance of HH objects shows that this region of the cloud is active in on-going star formation. HH objects in the Lup III cloud are concentrated in the central part of the cloud around the Herbig Ae/Be stars HR 5999 and 6000. HH 981 and 982 in Lupus I are probably driven by the young brown dwarf SSTc2d J154457.9-342340 which has a mass of 50 M J . HH 990 and 991 in Lup III align well with the HH 600 jet emanating from the low-mass star Par-Lup3-4, and are probably excited by this low-mass star of spectral type M5. High proper motions for HH 228 W, E, and E2 are measured, which confirms that they are excited by the young star Th 28. In contrast, HH 78 exhibits no measurable proper motion in the time span of 18 years, indicating that HH 78 is unlikely part of the HH 228 flow. The HH objects in Lup I and III are generally weak in terms of brightness and dimension in comparison to HH objects we detected with the same technique in the R CrA and Cha I clouds. Through a comparison with the survey results from the Spitzer c2d program, we find that our optical survey is more sensitive, in terms of detection rate, than the Spitzer IRAC survey to high-velocity outflows in the Lup I and III clouds.

  9. Squeezed between shells? The origin of the Lupus I molecular cloud. II. APEX CO and GASS H I observations

    Gaczkowski, B.; Roccatagliata, V.; Flaischlen, S.; Kröll, D.; Krause, M. G. H.; Burkert, A.; Diehl, R.; Fierlinger, K.; Ngoumou, J.; Preibisch, T.

    2017-12-01

    Context. Lupus I cloud is found between the Upper Scorpius (USco) and Upper Centaurus-Lupus (UCL) subgroups of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association, where the expanding USco H I shell appears to interact with a bubble currently driven by the winds of the remaining B stars of UCL. Aims: We investigate whether the Lupus I molecular could have formed in a colliding flow, and in particular, how the kinematics of the cloud might have been influenced by the larger scale gas dynamics. Methods: We performed APEX 13CO(2-1)and C18O(2-1) line observations of three distinct parts of Lupus I that provide kinematic information on the cloud at high angular and spectral resolution. We compare those results to the atomic hydrogen data from the GASS H I survey and our dust emission results presented in the previous paper. Based on the velocity information, we present a geometric model for the interaction zone between the USco shell and the UCL wind bubble. Results: We present evidence that the molecular gas of Lupus Iis tightly linked to the atomic material of the USco shell. The CO emission in Lupus Iis found mainly at velocities between vLSR = 3-6 km s-1, which is in the same range as the H I velocities. Thus, the molecular cloud is co-moving with the expanding USco atomic H I shell. The gas in the cloud shows a complex kinematic structure with several line-of-sight components that overlay each other. The nonthermal velocity dispersion is in the transonic regime in all parts of the cloud and could be injected by external compression. Our observations and the derived geometric model agree with a scenario in which Lupus Iis located in the interaction zone between the USco shell and the UCL wind bubble. Conclusions: The kinematics observations are consistent with a scenario in which the Lupus Icloud formed via shell instabilities. The particular location of Lupus I between USco and UCL suggests that counterpressure from the UCL wind bubble and pre-existing density enhancements

  10. DETECTION OF WIDESPREAD HOT AMMONIA IN THE GALACTIC CENTER

    Mills, E. A. C.; Morris, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    We present the detection of metastable inversion lines of ammonia (NH 3 ) from energy levels high above the ground state. We detect these lines in both emission and absorption toward 15 of 17 positions in the central 300 pc of the Galaxy. In total, we observe seven metastable transitions of NH 3 : (8, 8), (9, 9), (10, 10), (11, 11), (12, 12), (13, 13) and (15, 15), with energies (in Kelvins) ranging from 680 to 2200 K. We also mapped emission from NH 3 (8, 8) and (9, 9) in two clouds in the Sgr A complex (M-0.02–0.07 and M-0.13–0.08), and we find that the line emission is concentrated toward the dense centers of these molecular clouds. The rotational temperatures derived from the metastable lines toward M-0.02–0.07 and M-0.13–0.08 and an additional cloud (M0.25+0.01) range from 350 to 450 K. Similarly highly-excited lines of NH 3 have previously been observed toward Sgr B2, where gas with kinetic temperatures of ∼600 K had been inferred. Our observations show that the existence of a hot molecular gas component is not unique to Sgr B2, but rather appears common to many Galactic center molecular clouds. In M-0.02–0.07, we find that the hot NH 3 contributes ∼10% of the cloud's total NH 3 column density, and further, that the hot NH 3 in this cloud arises in gas which is extended or uniformly distributed on ∼>10 arcsec scales. We discuss the implications of these constraints upon the nature of this hot gas component. In addition to the detection of hot metastable NH 3 line emission, we also detect for the first time emission from nonmetastable inversion transitions of NH 3 in both M-0.02–0.07 and M-0.13–0.08

  11. Discovery of a protostar in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Gatley, I.; Becklin, E.E.; Hyland, A.R.; Jones, T.J.

    1981-01-01

    A near infrared search of the H II region/molecular cloud complex N 159 in the Large Magellanic Cloud has revealed a very red (H-K = 2.1, K-L' = 2.7) compact object. The location, brightness, colour and 2.1 to 2.4 μm spectrum of this source suggest that it is very young, and similar to the galactic infrared 'protostars'. This is the first identification of an infrared protostar in an external galaxy. Its discovery provides direct evidence of current star formation in the Large Magellanic Cloud, and suggests that regions of star formation in external galaxies will appear similar to those in the Milky Way. (author)

  12. Chemical complexity induced by efficient ice evaporation in the Barnard 5 molecular cloud

    Taquet, Vianney; Wirström, Eva; Charnley, Steven B.; Faure, Alexandre; López-Sepulcre, Ana; Persson, Carina M.

    2017-01-01

    Cold gas-phase water has recently been detected in a cold dark cloud, Barnard 5 located in the Perseus complex, by targeting methanol peaks as signposts for ice mantle evaporation. Observed morphology and abundances of methanol and water are consistent with a transient non-thermal evaporation process only affecting the outermost ice mantle layers, possibly triggering a more complex chemistry. We present the detection of the Complex Organic Molecules (COMs) acetaldehyde and methyl formate as w...

  13. Filament and core formation in nearby molecular clouds: results from the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey

    Storm, Shaye; Mundy, Lee G.; Fernández-López, Manuel; Lee, Katherine I.; Ostriker, Eve C.; Looney, Leslie; Chen, Che-Yu; Classy Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Stars rarely form in isolation, so it is critical to understand how the parsec-scale molecular cloud environment shapes the formation of individual dense cores at the sub-0.1 pc scale. To address the pathway to core formation in a clustered environment, I co-developed the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey, which spectrally imaged dense gas tracer lines across 800 square arcminutes of the Perseus and Serpens Molecular clouds with 7'' angular resolution. There are four key results from initial papers. First, I created a new non-binary dendrogram code that shows correlation between the hierarchical complexity of dense, N2H+ (J=1-0) structures and the amount of star formation activity in a cluster. This may imply that feedback from young protostars changes the structure of dense gas within a cluster and increases the amount of high column density material. Second, we discovered strong radial velocity gradients within filaments that are an order of magnitude larger than detected axial gradients. We see similar radial gradients in filaments formed in numerical simulations of converging, turbulent flows; this suggests that the observed filaments are accreting material from an environment that is flattened at larger scales, and that they are more likely to fragment locally into cores than to support the flow of gas along the filament length. Third, we constructed two size-linewidth relations using the dendrogram-identified gas structures and our high resolution maps of the gas centroid velocity and line-of-sight velocity dispersion. The two relations show distinct behavior, and we developed a theoretical framework based on isotropic turbulence to show that they support the clustered regions being flattened (sheet-like) at parsec scales, with depths on the order 0.1-0.2 pc into the sky. Finally, we found that many filaments seen with Herschel show substructure in our high resolution maps, which implies that measuring the widths of filaments may be more complex than

  14. THE HERSCHEL EXPLOITATION OF LOCAL GALAXY ANDROMEDA (HELGA). VI. THE DISTRIBUTION AND PROPERTIES OF MOLECULAR CLOUD ASSOCIATIONS IN M31

    Kirk, J. M. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Gear, W. K.; Smith, M. W. L.; Ford, G.; Eales, S. A.; Gomez, H. L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff, Wales CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Fritz, J.; Baes, M.; De Looze, I.; Gentile, G.; Gordon, K.; Verstappen, J.; Viaene, S. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Bendo, G. J. [UK ALMA Regional Centre Node, Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); O' Halloran, B. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Madden, S. C.; Lebouteiller, V. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service, Paris, F-91190 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Roman-Duval, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Boselli, A. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, UMR 7326 CNRS, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille (France); Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); and others

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a catalog of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in the Andromeda (M31) galaxy extracted from the Herschel Exploitation of Local Galaxy Andromeda (HELGA) data set. GMCs are identified from the Herschel maps using a hierarchical source extraction algorithm. We present the results of this new catalog and characterize the spatial distribution and spectral energy properties of its clouds based on the radial dust/gas properties found by Smith et al. A total of 326 GMCs in the mass range 10{sup 4}-10{sup 7} M {sub ☉} are identified; their cumulative mass distribution is found to be proportional to M {sup –2.34}, in agreement with earlier studies. The GMCs appear to follow the same correlation of cloud mass to L {sub CO} observed in the Milky Way. However, comparison between this catalog and interferometry studies also shows that the GMCs are substructured below the Herschel resolution limit, suggesting that we are observing associations of GMCs. Following Gordon et al., we study the spatial structure of M31 by splitting the observed structure into a set of spiral arms and offset rings. We fit radii of 10.3 and 15.5 kpc to the two most prominent rings. We then fit a logarithmic spiral with a pitch angle of 8.°9 to the GMCs not associated with either ring. Last, we comment on the effects of deprojection on our results and investigate the effect different models for M31's inclination will have on the projection of an unperturbed spiral arm system.

  15. Self-gravitational Hydrodynamics with Three-dimensional Adaptive Mesh Refinement: Methodology and Applications to Molecular Cloud Collapse and Fragmentation

    Truelove, J.K.; Klein, R.I.; McKee, C.F.; Holliman, J.H. II; Truelove, J.K.; McKee, C.F.; Truelove, J.K.; Holliman, J.H. II; Klein, R.I.; Woods, D.T.; McKee, C.F.; Woods, D.T.; Howell, L.H.; Greenough, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    We describe a new code for numerical solution of three-dimensional self-gravitational hydrodynamics problems. This code utilizes the technique of local adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), employing multiple grids at multiple levels of resolution and automatically and dynamically adding and removing these grids as necessary to maintain adequate resolution. This technology allows solution of problems that would be prohibitively expensive with a code using fixed resolution, and it is more versatile and efficient than competing methods of achieving variable resolution. In particular, we ap