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Sample records for gain spontaneous parametric

  1. Quantum-to-classical transition via fuzzy measurements on high-gain spontaneous parametric down-conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitelli, Chiara; Spagnolo, Nicolo; Toffoli, Lorenzo; Sciarrino, Fabio; De Martini, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We consider the high-gain spontaneous parametric down-conversion in a noncollinear geometry as a paradigmatic scenario to investigate the quantum-to-classical transition by increasing the pump power, that is, the average number of generated photons. The possibility of observing quantum correlations in such a macroscopic quantum system through dichotomic measurement will be analyzed by addressing two different measurement schemes, based on different dichotomization processes. More specifically, we will investigate the persistence of nonlocality in an increasing size (n/2)-spin singlet state by studying the change in the correlations form as n increases, both in the ideal case and in presence of losses. We observe a fast decrease in the amount of Bell's inequality violation for increasing system size. This theoretical analysis is supported by the experimental observation of macro-macro correlations with an average number of photons of about 10 3 . Our results shed light on the practical extreme difficulty of observing nonlocality by performing such a dichotomic fuzzy measurement.

  2. FEL gain optimisation and spontaneous radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bali, L.M.; Srivastava, A.; Pandya, T.P. [Lucknow Univ. (India)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Colson have evaluated FEL gains for small deviations from perfect electron beam injection, with radiation of the same polarisation as that of the wiggler fields. We find that for optimum gain the polarisation of the optical field should be the same as that of the spontaneous emission under these conditions. With a helical wiggler the axial oscillations resulting from small departures from perfect electron beam injection lead to injection dependent unequal amplitudes and phases of the spontaneous radiation in the two transverse directions. Viewed along the axis therefore the spontaneous emission is elliptically polarised. The azimuth of the ellipse varies with the difference of phase of the two transverse components of spontaneous emission but the eccentricity remains the same. With planar wigglers the spontaneous emission viewed in the axial direction is linearly polarised, again with an injection dependent azimuth. For optimum coherent gain of a radiation field its polarisation characteristics must be the same as those of the spontaneous radiation with both types of wiggler. Thus, with a helical wiggler and the data reported earlier, an increase of 10% in the FEL gain at the fundamental frequency and of 11% at the fifth harmonic has been calculated in the small gain per pass limit. Larger enhancements in gain may result from more favourable values of input parameters.

  3. Towards spontaneous parametric down-conversion at low temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akatiev Dmitrii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of observing spontaneous parametric down-conversion in doped nonlinear crystals at low temperatures, which would be useful for combining heralded single-photon sources and quantum memories, is studied theoretically. The ordinary refractive index of a lithium niobate crystal doped with magnesium oxide LiNbO3:MgO is measured at liquid nitrogen and helium temperatures. On the basis of the experimental data, the coefficients of the Sellmeier equation are determined for the temperatures from 5 to 300 K. In addition, a poling period of the nonlinear crystal has been calculated for observing type-0 spontaneous parametric down-conversion (ooo-synchronism at the liquid helium temperature under pumping at the wavelength of λp = 532 nm and emission of the signal field at the wavelength of λs = 794 nm, which corresponds to the resonant absorption line of Tm3+ doped ions.

  4. On the unlimited gain of a nonlinear parametric amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Vladislav

    2014-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with analysis of the response of a nonlinear parametric amplifier in abroad range of system parameters, particularly beyond resonance. Such analysis is of particular interestfor micro- and nanosystems, since many small-scale parametric amplifiers exhibit a distinctly...... nonlinearbehavior when amplitude of their response is sufficiently large. The modified method of direct separa-tion of motions is employed to study the considered system. As the result it is obtained that steady-stateamplitude of the nonlinear parametric amplifier response can reach large values in the case...... of arbitrarilysmall amplitude of external excitation, so that the amplifier gain tends to infinity. Very large amplifiergain can be achieved in a broad range of system parameters, in particular when the amplitude of para-metric excitation is comparatively small. The obtained results clearly demonstrate that very...

  5. Study on high gain broadband optical parametric chirped pulse amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.K.; Fujita, M.; Yamanaka, C.; Yoshida, H.; Kodama, R.; Fujita, H.; Nakatsuka, M.; Izawa, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Optical parametric chirped pulse amplification has apparent advantages over the current schemes for high energy ultrashort pulse amplification. High gain in a single pass amplification, small B-integral, low heat deposition, high contrast ratio and, especially the extremely broad gain bandwidth with large-size crystals available bring people new hope for over multi-PW level at which the existing Nd:glass systems suffered difficulties. In this paper we present simulation and experimental studies for a high gain optical parametric chirped pulse amplification system which may be used as a preamplifier to replace the current complicated regenerative system or multi-pass Ti:sapphire amplifiers. Investigations on the amplification bandwidth and gain with BBO are performed. Analysis and discussions are also given. (author)

  6. Asymmetric gain-saturated spectrum in fiber optical parametric amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Rottwitt, Karsten; Galili, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally and numerically an unexpected spectral asymmetry in the saturated-gain spectrum of single-pump fiber optical parametric amplifiers. The interaction between higher-order four-wave mixing products and dispersive waves radiated as an effect of third-order dispersion inf...... characteristics of the amplifier and shows local maxima for specific dispersion values....

  7. Spontaneous indices are inconsistent with arterial baroreflex gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Ruth D; Salisbury, Julie K; Taylor, J Andrew

    2003-10-01

    Spontaneously occurring, parallel fluctuations in arterial pressure and heart period are frequently used as indices of baroreflex function. Despite the convenience of spontaneous indices, their relation to the arterial baroreflex remains unclear. Therefore, in 97 volunteers, we derived 5 proposed indices (sequence method, alpha-index, transfer function, low-frequency transfer function, and impulse response function), compared them with arterial baroreflex gain (by the modified Oxford pharmacologic technique), and examined their relation to carotid distensibility and respiratory sinus arrhythmia. The subjects comprised men and women (n=41) aged 25 to 86 years, 30% of whom had established coronary artery disease. Generally, the indices were correlated with each other (except alpha-index and low-frequency transfer function) and with baroreflex gain. However, the Bland-Altman method demonstrated that the spontaneous indices had limits of agreement as large as the baroreflex gain itself. Even in individuals within the lowest tertile of baroreflex gain for whom baroreflex gain appears to be the most clinically relevant, spontaneous indices failed to relate to baroreflex gain. In fact, for these individuals, there was no correlation between any index and baroreflex gain. Forward stepwise linear regression showed that all spontaneous indices and baroreflex gain were related to respiratory sinus arrhythmia, but only baroreflex gain was related to carotid distensibility. Therefore, these data suggest that spontaneous indices are inadequate estimates of gain and are inconsistent with arterial baroreflex function.

  8. Extended parametric gain range in photonic crystal fibers with strongly frequency-dependent field distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Sidsel R; Alkeskjold, Thomas T; Olausson, Christina B; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2014-08-15

    The parametric gain range of a degenerate four-wave mixing process is determined in the undepleted pump regime. The gain range is considered with and without taking the mode field distributions of the four-wave mixing components into account. It is found that the mode field distributions have to be included to evaluate the parametric gain correctly in dispersion-tailored speciality fibers and that mode profile engineering can provide a way to increase the parametric gain range.

  9. Amplified spontaneous emissions in a high-gain laser amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osada, Hidenori; Gamo, Hideya.

    1978-01-01

    The gain and line-narrowing of the amplified spontaneous emissions(ASE) in a partially homogeneous high-gain Xe 3.51 μm laser amplifier were studied theoretically and experimentally with emphasis of saturation effect. The unidirectionally travelling ASE was generated by conveniently using optical isolators and used as a broadband radiation source. It has properties of 10 μW/mm 2 in intensity with fluctuation of less than 1% in 5 hours, 43.5 MHz of the linewidth and 1.0 x 10 -3 radians of beam divergence. The measured saturation intensity was 4.85 μW/mm 2 and a small signal gain was 0.1 cm -1 . The theoretical prediction of the line-narrowing shows reasonablly good agreement with the measured one. (author)

  10. Gain characteristics of a saturated fiber optic parametric amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Noordegraaf, Danny

    2008-01-01

    In this work we discuss saturation performance of a fiber optic parametric amplifier. A simple numerical model is described and applied to specific cases. A system experiment using a saturated amplifier illustrates a 4 dB improvement in required signal to noise ratio for a fixed bit error ratio....

  11. Numerical Modelling of Spontaneous Emission in Optical Parametric Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Fiber optical parametric processes offer a wide range of applications including phase sensitive as well as phase insensitive amplification, wavelength conversion and signal regeneration. One of the difficult challenges is any of these applications is to predict their associated noise performance....

  12. Jumps and bi-stability in the phase-gain characteristics of a nonlinear parametric amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumeyer, Stefan; van de Looij, Ruud; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2014-01-01

    This work experimentally investigates the impact of nonlinearity on macromechanical parametric amplification. For a strong cubic stiffness nonlinearity we observe jumps in gain (ratio of steady-state vibration amplitude of the externally and parametrically excited system, to vibration amplitude o...

  13. Experimental verification of high spectral entanglement for pulsed waveguided spontaneous parametric down-conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avenhaus, M.; Chekhova, M. V.; Krivitsky, Leonid

    2009-01-01

    We study the spectral properties of spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) in a periodically poled waveguided structure of potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) crystal pumped by ultrashort pulses. Our theoretical analysis reveals a strongly entangled and asymmetric structure of the two...

  14. Modal spectrum in spontaneous parametric down-conversion with noncollinear phase matching

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zhang, Y

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effect of the down-conversion angle between the signal and idler beams in spontaneous parametric down-conversion on the bandwidth of the modal spectrum (Schmidt number) of the down-converted quantum state. For this purpose, we...

  15. Simulating spontaneous parametric down-conversion using classical light: Conference paper

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zhang, Y

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple way of simulating Spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) by modulating a classical laser beam with two spatial light modulators (SLM) through a back projection setup. This system has the advantage of having very high...

  16. Extended parametric gain range in photonic crystal fibers with strongly frequency-dependent field distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin

    2014-01-01

    The parametric gain range of a degenerate four-wave mixing process is determined in the undepleted pump regime. The gain range is considered with and without taking the mode field distributions of the four-wave mixing components into account. It is found that the mode field distributions have...

  17. Localization of one-photon state in space and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox in spontaneous parametric down conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penin, A. N.; Reutova, T. A.; Sergienko, A. V.

    1992-01-01

    An experiment on one-photon state localization in space using a correlation technique in Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion (SPDC) process is discussed. Results of measurements demonstrate an idea of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox for coordinate and momentum variables of photon states. Results of the experiment can be explained with the help of an advanced wave technique. The experiment is based on the idea that two-photon states of optical electromagnetic fields arising in the nonlinear process of the spontaneous parametric down conversion (spontaneous parametric light scattering) can be explained by quantum mechanical theory with the help of a single wave function.

  18. Localization of one-photon state in space and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox in Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penin, A.N.; Reutova, T.A.; Sergienko, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    An experiment on one-photon state localization in space using a correlation technique in Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion (SPDC) process is discussed. Results of measurements demonstrate an idea of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox for coordinate and momentum variables of photon states. Results of the experiment can be explained with the help of an advanced wave technique. The experiment is based on the idea that two-photon states of optical electromagnetic fields arising in the nonlinear process of the spontaneous parametric down conversion (spontaneous parametric light scattering) can be explained by quantum mechanical theory with the help of a single wave function

  19. Two-Photon Entanglement and EPR Experiments Using Type-2 Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergienko, A. V.; Shih, Y. H.; Pittman, T. B.; Rubin, M. H.

    1996-01-01

    Simultaneous entanglement in spin and space-time of a two-photon quantum state generated in type-2 spontaneous parametric down-conversion is demonstrated by the observation of quantum interference with 98% visibility in a simple beam-splitter (Hanburry Brown-Twiss) anticorrelation experiment. The nonlocal cancellation of two-photon probability amplitudes as a result of this double entanglement allows us to demonstrate two different types of Bell's inequality violations in one experimental setup.

  20. MOSFET-Only Mixer/IIR Filter with Gain using Parametric Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Custódio, José R.; Oliveira, J.; Oliveira, L. B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a discrete-time passive Mixer/IIR filter. The use of an improved MOS Parametric Amplification leads to a moderate gain in the signal path and improved noise performance, instead of the conversion loss inherent to passive mixers. Simulation results demonstrate th...

  1. Angular spectrum characters of high gain non-critical phase match optical parametric oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jian-Hui; Liu Qiang; Gong Ma-Li

    2011-01-01

    The angular spectrum gain characters and the power magnification characters of high gain non-walk-off colinear optical parametric oscillators have been studied using the non-colinear phase match method for the first time. The experimental results of the KTiOAsO 4 and the KTiOPO 4 crystals are discussed in detail. At the high energy single resonant condition, low reflective ratio of the output mirror for the signal and long non-linear crystal are beneficial for small divergence angles. This method can also be used for other high gain non-walk-off phase match optical parametric processes. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  2. Spatiotemporal correlations in entangled photons generated by spontaneous parametric down conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, Clara I; Valencia, Alejandra; Torres, Juan P

    2008-01-01

    In most configurations aimed at generating entangled photons based on spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC), the generated pairs of photons are required to be entangled in only one degree of freedom. Any distinguishing information coming from the other degrees of freedom that characterize the photon should be suppressed to avoid correlations with the degree of freedom of interest. However, this suppression is not always possible. Here, we show how the frequency information available affects the purity of the two-photon state in space, revealing a correlation between the frequency and the space degrees of freedom. This correlation should be taken into account to calculate the total amount of entanglement between the photons.

  3. Multi-copy entanglement purification with practical spontaneous parametric down conversion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuai-Shuai; Shu Qi; Sheng Yu-Bo; Zhou Lan

    2017-01-01

    Entanglement purification is to distill the high quality entanglement from the low quality entanglement with local operations and classical communications. It is one of the key technologies in long-distance quantum communication. We discuss an entanglement purification protocol (EPP) with spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) sources, in contrast to previous EPP with multi-copy mixed states, which requires ideal entanglement sources. We show that the SPDC source is not an obstacle for purification, but can benefit the fidelity of the purified mixed state. This EPP works for linear optics and is feasible in current experiment technology. (paper)

  4. Experimental verification of self-calibration radiometer based on spontaneous parametric downconversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dongyang; Zheng, Xiaobing; Li, Jianjun; Hu, Youbo; Xia, Maopeng; Salam, Abdul; Zhang, Peng

    2018-03-01

    Based on spontaneous parametric downconversion process, we propose a novel self-calibration radiometer scheme which can self-calibrate the degradation of its own response and ultimately monitor the fluctuation of a target radiation. Monitor results were independent of its degradation and not linked to the primary standard detector scale. The principle and feasibility of the proposed scheme were verified by observing bromine-tungsten lamp. A relative standard deviation of 0.39 % was obtained for stable bromine-tungsten lamp. Results show that the proposed scheme is advanced of its principle. The proposed scheme could make a significant breakthrough in the self-calibration issue on the space platform.

  5. Amplified spontaneous emission spectrum and gain characteristic of a two-electrode semiconductor optical amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hanchao; Huang Lirong; Shi Zhongwei

    2011-01-01

    A two-electrode multi-quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier is designed and fabricated. The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) spectrum and gain were measured and analyzed. It is shown that the ASE spectrum and gain characteristic are greatly influencedby the distribution of the injection current density. By changing the injection current density of two electrodes, the full width at half maximum, peak wavelength, peak power of the ASE spectrum and the gain characteristic can be easily controlled. (semiconductor devices)

  6. Multi-copy entanglement purification with practical spontaneous parametric down conversion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai-Shuai; Shu, Qi; Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2017-06-01

    Entanglement purification is to distill the high quality entanglement from the low quality entanglement with local operations and classical communications. It is one of the key technologies in long-distance quantum communication. We discuss an entanglement purification protocol (EPP) with spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) sources, in contrast to previous EPP with multi-copy mixed states, which requires ideal entanglement sources. We show that the SPDC source is not an obstacle for purification, but can benefit the fidelity of the purified mixed state. This EPP works for linear optics and is feasible in current experiment technology. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474168 and 61401222), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK20151502), the Qing Lan Project in Jiangsu Province, China, and a Project Funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China.

  7. Role of volume and surface spontaneous parametric down-conversion in the generation of photon pairs in layered media

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Javůrek, D.; Peřina ml., Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 4 (2017), s. 1-13, č. článku 043828. ISSN 2469-9926 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : surface spontaneous * parametric down-conversion * photon pairs * layered media Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 2.925, year: 2016

  8. Entangled photon pair generation by spontaneous parametric down-conversion in finite-length one-dimensional photonic crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Centini, M.; Peřina ml., Jan; Sciscione, L.; Sibilia, C.; Scalora, M.; Bloemer, M.J.; Bertolotti, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 72, 03 (2005), 033806/1-033806/11 ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC P11.003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : photon pair * photonic crystals * spontaneous parametric down-conversion Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.997, year: 2005

  9. Emission of orbital-angular-momentum-entangled photon pairs in a nonlinear ring fiber utilizing spontaneous parametric down-conversion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Javůrek, D.; Svozilík, J.; Peřina ml., Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 4 (2014), "043844-1"-"043844-12" ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : photon pairs * orbital-angular-momentum-entangled * nonlinear ring fiber * spontaneous parametric down-conversion Subject RIV: BH - Optics , Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.808, year: 2014

  10. Dressed Gain from the Parametrically Amplified Four-Wave Mixing Process in an Atomic Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wen, Feng; Che, Junling; Zhang, Dan; Li, Changbiao; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min

    2015-10-01

    With a forward cone emitting from the strong pump laser in a thermal rubidium atomic vapor, we investigate the non-degenerate parametrically amplified four-wave mixing (PA-FWM) process with dressing effects in a three-level “double-Λ” configuration both theoretically and experimentally. By seeding a weak probe field into the Stokes or anti-Stokes channel of the FWM, the gain processes are generated in the bright twin beams which are called conjugate and probe beams, respectively. However, the strong dressing effect of the pump beam will dramatically affect the gain factors both in the probe and conjugate channels, and can inevitably impose an influence on the quantum effects such as entangled degree and the quantum noise reduction between the two channels. We systematically investigate the intensity evolution of the dressed gain processes by manipulating the atomic density, the Rabi frequency and the frequency detuning. Such dressing effects are also visually evidenced by the observation of Autler-Townes splitting of the gain peaks. The investigation can contribute to the development of quantum information processing and quantum communications.

  11. Controllable frequency entanglement via auto-phase-matched spontaneous parametric down-conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergienko, A.V.; Walton, Z.D.; Booth, M.C.; Saleh, B.E.A.; Teich, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A new method for generating entangled photons with controllable frequency correlation via spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) is presented. The method entails initiating counter-propagating SPDC in a single-mode nonlinear waveguide by pumping with a pulsed beam perpendicular to the waveguide. In a typical spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) experiment, a photon from a monochromatic pump beam decays into two photons (often referred to as signal and idler) via interaction with a nonlinear optical crystal. While the signal and idler may be broadband individually, conservation of energy requires that the sum of their respective frequencies equals the single frequency of the monochromatic pump. This engenders frequency anti-correlation in the down-converted beams. Two developments in quantum information theory have renewed interest in the generalized states of frequency correlation. First, quantum information processes requiring the synchronized creation of multiple photon pairs have been devised, such as quantum teleportation. The requisite temporal control can be achieved by pumping the crystal with a brief pulse. The availability of pump photons of differing frequencies relaxes the strict frequency anti-correlation in the down-converted beams. Second, applications such as entanglement-enhanced clock synchronization and one-way auto-compensating quantum cryptography have been introduced that specifically require frequency correlation, as opposed to the usual frequency anticorrelation. Our method for obtaining controllable frequency entanglement entails initiating type-I SPDC (signal and idler identically polarized) in a single-mode nonlinear waveguide by pumping with a pulsed beam perpendicular to the waveguide. The down-converted photons emerge from opposite ends of the waveguide with a joint spectrum that can be varied from frequency anti-correlated to frequency correlated by adjusting the temporal and spatial characteristics of the

  12. Two-Photon Quantum Entanglement from Type-II Spontaneous Parametric Down-Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Todd Butler

    The concept of two (or more) particle entanglement lies at the heart of many fascinating questions concerning the foundations of quantum mechanics. The counterintuitive nonlocal behavior of entangled states led Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) to ask their famous 1935 question, "Can quantum mechanical description of reality be considered complete?". Although the debate has been raging on for more than 60 years, there is still no absolutely conclusive answer to this question. For if entangled states exist and can be observed, then accepting quantum mechanics as a complete theory requires a drastic overhaul of one's physical intuition with regards to the common sense notions of locality and reality put forth by EPR. Contained herein are the results of research investigating various non-classical features of the two-photon entangled states produced in Type-II Spontaneous Parametric Down -Conversion (SPDC). Through a series of experiments we have manifest the nonlocal nature of the quantum mechanical "two-photon effective wavefunction" (or Biphoton) realized by certain photon-counting coincidence measurements performed on these states. In particular, we examine a special double entanglement, in which the states are seen to be simultaneously entangled in both spin and space-time variables. The observed phenomena based on this double entanglement lead to many interesting results which defy classical explanation, but are well described within the framework of quantum mechanics. The implications provide a unique perspective concerning the nature of the photon, and the concept of quantum entanglement.

  13. Coherence properties of spontaneous parametric down-conversion pumped by a multi-mode cw diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Osung; Ra, Young-Sik; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2009-07-20

    Coherence properties of the photon pair generated via spontaneous parametric down-conversion pumped by a multi-mode cw diode laser are studied with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Each photon of the pair enters a different input port of the interferometer and the biphoton coherence properties are studied with a two-photon detector placed at one output port. When the photon pair simultaneously enters the interferometer, periodic recurrence of the biphoton de Broglie wave packet is observed, closely resembling the coherence properties of the pump diode laser. With non-zero delays between the photons at the input ports, biphoton interference exhibits the same periodic recurrence but the wave packet shapes are shown to be dependent on both the input delay as well as the interferometer delay. These properties could be useful for building engineered entangled photon sources based on diode laser-pumped spontaneous parametric down-conversion.

  14. Ultra-wideband and high-gain parametric amplification in telecom wavelengths with an optimally mode-matched PPLN waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sua, Yong Meng; Chen, Jia-Yang; Huang, Yu-Ping

    2018-06-15

    We report a wideband optical parametric amplification (OPA) over 14 THz covering telecom S, C, and L bands with observed maximum parametric gain of 38.3 dB. The OPA is realized through cascaded second-harmonic generation and difference-frequency generation (cSHG-DFG) in a 2 cm periodically poled LiNbO 3 (PPLN) waveguide. With tailored cross section geometry, the waveguide is optimally mode matched for efficient cascaded nonlinear wave mixing. We also identify and study the effect of competing nonlinear processes in this cSHG-DFG configuration.

  15. Spontaneous emission and gain in a waveguide free-electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golightly, W.J.; Ride, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    A free-electron laser enclosed in a waveguide of narrowly spaced parallel plates has been proposed as a compact, coherent source of far-infrared radiation. In this paper, the spontaneous emission and small-signal gain of such a device are analyzed. Maxwell's equations are solved for the fields of a relativistic electron beam passing through a linearly polarized undulator in the presence of a parallel-plane waveguide. The radiation intensity is resolved into its component waveguide modes for the fundamental frequency and for all harmonics. The intensity profile in a given harmonic mode is altered significantly when a parameter involving the undulator period, beam energy, and transverse dimension of the guide is such that the radiation group velocity is close to the electrons' axial velocity. The small-signal gain in the waveguide free-electron laser is calculated and related to the spontaneous emission. Near zero slip, the gain curve is significantly different from that of a free-space free-electron laser with the same parameters

  16. Mode Engineering of Single Photons from Cavity Spontaneous Parametric Down-Conversion Source and Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Uttam

    Over the past decade, much effort has been made in identifying and characterizing systems that can form a building block of quantum networks, among which semiconductor quantum dots (QD) and spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) source are two of the most promising candidates. The work presented in this thesis will be centered on investigating and engineering the mentioned systems for generating customizable single photons. A type-II SPDC source can generate a highly flexible pair of entangled photons that can be used to interface disparate quantum systems. In this thesis, we have successfully implemented a cavity-SPDC source that emits polarization correlated photons at 942 nm with a lifetime of 950-1050ps that mode matches closely with InAs/GaAs QD photons. The source emits 80 photon pairs per second per mW pump power within the 150MHz bandwidth. Though the detection of idler photons, the source is capable of emitting heralded photons with g2?0.5 for up to 40 mW pump power. For a low pump power of 5 mW, the heralded g2 is 0.06, indicating that the system is an excellent heralded single photon source. By directly exciting a single QD with cavity-SPDC photons, we have demonstrated a heralded-absorption of SPDC photons by QD, resulting in the coupling of the two systems. Due to the large pump bandwidth, the emitted source is highly multimode in nature, requiring us to post-filter the downconverted field, resulting in a lower photon pair emission rate. We propose placing an intra-cavity etalon to suppress the multi-mode emissions and increase the photon count rate. Understanding and experimentally implementing two-photon interference (HOM) measurements will be crucial for building a scalable quantum network. A detailed theoretical description of HOM measurements is given and is experimentally demonstrated using photons emitted by QD. Through HOM measurements we demonstrated that the QD sample in the study is capable of emitting indistinguishable photons, with

  17. Energy expenditure, spontaneous physical activity and with weight gain in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Anne-Elisabeth; Montaurier, Christophe; Cano, Noël; Caillot, Nicolas; Blot, A; Meunier, Nathalie; Pereira, Bruno; Marceau, Geoffroy; Sapin, Vincent; Jouve, Christelle; Boirie, Yves; Deteix, Patrice; Morio, Beatrice

    2015-06-01

    Alterations in energy metabolism could trigger weight gain after renal transplantation. Nineteen transplanted non-diabetic men, 53 ± 1.6 years old, receiving calcineurin inhibitors but no corticosteroids were studied. They were compared with nine healthy men matched for height, age and lean body mass. Daily energy expenditure and its components (sleeping, basal and absorptive metabolic rates) were analyzed for 24 h in calorimetric chambers and for 4 days in free living conditions using calibrated accelerometry. Other variables known to influence energy expenditure were assessed: body composition, physical activity, 4-day food intake, drug consumption, serum C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, thyroid and parathyroid hormones, and epinephrine. Transplant recipients who gained more than 5% body weight after transplantation (n = 11, +11.0 ± 1.5 kg) were compared with those who did not (n = 8) and with the controls. Weight gain compared with non-weight gain patients and controls exhibited higher fat mass without change in lean body mass. Daily, sleeping and resting energy expenditure adjusted for lean body mass was significantly higher in non-weight gain (167.1 ± 4.2 kJ/kg/lean body mass/24 h, P controls (146.1 ± 4.6). Weight gain compared with controls and non-weight gain subjects had lower free living physical activity and a higher consumption of antihypertensive drugs and β-blockers. After kidney transplantation, weight gain patients were characterized by lower adjusted energy expenditure, reduced spontaneous physical activity but a more sedentary life style and a trend toward a higher energy intake explaining the reason they gained weight. The nWG KTR had increased resting and sleeping EE which protected them from weight gain. Such hypermetabolism was also observed in 24-h EE measurements. By comparison with the nWG patients, the WG transplant recipients were characterized by higher β-blocker consumption. These data could be helpful in the prevention of weight

  18. Entangled photon pair generation by spontaneous parametric down-conversion in finite-length one-dimensional photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centini, M.; Sciscione, L.; Sibilia, C.; Bertolotti, M.; Perina, J. Jr.; Scalora, M.; Bloemer, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    A description of spontaneous parametric down-conversion in finite-length one-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals is developed using semiclassical and quantum approaches. It is shown that if a suitable averaging is added to the semiclassical model, its results are in very good agreement with the quantum approach. We propose two structures made with GaN/AlN that generate both degenerate and nondegenerate entangled photon pairs. Both structures are designed so as to achieve a high efficiency of the nonlinear process

  19. Very long spatial and temporal spontaneous coherence of 2D polariton condensates across the parametric threshold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spano, R.; Cuadra, J.; Lingg, C.

    2011-01-01

    , and a relative large beam area (∅~50 μm) to obtain a true 2D condensate. Its coherence properties are measured with a Michelson interferometer. A finite correlation length is measured at an energy δE=-0.19 meV from the parametric threshold, as shown in Fig. 1(A). Once the threshold is reached, by changing...

  20. Third-order spontaneous parametric down-conversion in thin optical fibers as a photon-triplet source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Maria [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, apdo. postal 70-543, DF 04510 Mexico City (Mexico); Departamento de Optica, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Apartado Postal 2732, BC 22860 Ensenada (Mexico); Garay-Palmett, Karina; U' Ren, Alfred B. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, apdo. postal 70-543, DF 04510 Mexico City (Mexico)

    2011-09-15

    We study the third-order spontaneous parametric down-conversion (TOSPDC) process, as a means to generate entangled photon triplets. Specifically, we consider thin optical fibers as the nonlinear medium to be used as the basis for TOSPDC in configurations where phase matching is attained through the use of more than one fiber transverse modes. Our analysis in this paper, which follows from our earlier paper [Opt. Lett. 36, 190-192 (2011)], aims to supply experimentalists with the details required in order to design a TOSPDC photon-triplet source. Specifically, our analysis focuses on the photon triplet state, on the rate of emission, and on the TOSPDC phase-matching characteristics for the cases of frequency-degenerate and frequency nondegenerate TOSPDC.

  1. Influence of weight gain, according to Institute of Medicine 2009 recommendation, on spontaneous preterm delivery in twin pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algeri, Paola; Pelizzoni, Francesca; Bernasconi, Davide Paolo; Russo, Francesca; Incerti, Maddalena; Cozzolino, Sabrina; Mastrolia, Salvatore Andrea; Vergani, Patrizia

    2018-01-03

    Maternal total weight gain during pregnancy influences adverse obstetric outcomes in singleton pregnancies. However, its impact in twin gestation is less understood. Our objective was to estimate the influence of total maternal weight gain on preterm delivery in twin pregnancies. We conducted a retrospective cohort study including diamniotic twin pregnancies with spontaneous labor delivered at 28 + 0 weeks or later. We analyzed the influence of total weight gain according to Institute of Medicine (IOM) cut-offs on the development of preterm delivery (both less than 34 and 37 weeks). Outcome were compared between under and normal weight gain and between over and normal weight gain separately using Fisher's exact test with Holm-Bonferroni correction. One hundred seventy five women were included in the study and divided into three groups: under (52.0%), normal (41.7%) and overweight gain (6.3%). Normal weight gain was associated with a reduction in the rate of preterm delivery compared to under and over weight gain [less than 34 weeks: under vs. normal OR 4.97 (1.76-14.02), over vs. normal OR 4.53 (0.89-23.08); less than 37 weeks: OR 3.16 (1.66-6.04) and 6.51 (1.30-32.49), respectively]. Normal weight gain reduces spontaneous preterm delivery compared to over and underweight gain.

  2. Pump-to-Signal Intensity Modulation Transfer in Saturated- Gain Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Lund-Hansen, Toke; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    The pump-to-signal intensity modulation transfer in saturated degenerate FOPAs is numerically investigated over the whole gain bandwidth. The intensity modulation transfer decreases and the OSNR improves when the amplifier operates in the saturation regime....

  3. Spontaneous mirror left-right symmetry breaking for leptogenesis parametrized by Majorana neutrino mass matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Pei-Hong

    2017-10-01

    We introduce a mirror copy of the ordinary fermions and Higgs scalars for embedding the SU(2) L × U(1) Y electroweak gauge symmetry into an SU(2) L × SU(2) R × U(1) B-L left-right gauge symmetry. We then show the spontaneous left-right symmetry breaking can automatically break the parity symmetry motivated by solving the strong CP problem. Through the SU(2) R gauge interactions, a mirror Majorana neutrino can decay into a mirror charged lepton and two mirror quarks. Consequently we can obtain a lepton asymmetry stored in the mirror charged leptons. The Yukawa couplings of the mirror and ordinary charged fermions to a dark matter scalar then can transfer the mirror lepton asymmetry to an ordinary lepton asymmetry which provides a solution to the cosmic baryon asymmetry in association with the SU(2) L sphaleron processes. In this scenario, the baryon asymmetry can be well described by the neutrino mass matrix up to an overall factor.

  4. Towards terahertz detection and calibration through spontaneous parametric down-conversion in the terahertz idler-frequency range generated by a 795 nm diode laser system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Kornienko

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We study a calibration scheme for terahertz wave nonlinear-optical detectors based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Contrary to the usual low wavelength pump in the green, we report here on the observation of spontaneous parametric down-conversion originating from an in-growth poled lithium niobate crystal pumped with a continuous wave 50 mW, 795 nm diode laser system, phase-matched to a terahertz frequency idler wave. Such a system is more compact and allows for longer poling periods as well as lower losses in the crystal. Filtering the pump radiation by a rubidium-87 vapor cell allowed the frequency-angular spectra to be obtained down to ∼0.5 THz or ∼1 nm shift from the pump radiation line. The presence of an amplified spontaneous emission “pedestal” in the diode laser radiation spectrum significantly hampers the observation of spontaneous parametric down-conversion spectra, in contrast to conventional narrowband gas lasers. Benefits of switching to longer pump wavelengths are pointed out, such as collinear optical-terahertz phase-matching in bulk crystals.

  5. Towards terahertz detection and calibration through spontaneous parametric down-conversion in the terahertz idler-frequency range generated by a 795 nm diode laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, Vladimir V.; Kitaeva, Galiya Kh.; Sedlmeir, Florian; Leuchs, Gerd; Schwefel, Harald G. L.

    2018-05-01

    We study a calibration scheme for terahertz wave nonlinear-optical detectors based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Contrary to the usual low wavelength pump in the green, we report here on the observation of spontaneous parametric down-conversion originating from an in-growth poled lithium niobate crystal pumped with a continuous wave 50 mW, 795 nm diode laser system, phase-matched to a terahertz frequency idler wave. Such a system is more compact and allows for longer poling periods as well as lower losses in the crystal. Filtering the pump radiation by a rubidium-87 vapor cell allowed the frequency-angular spectra to be obtained down to ˜0.5 THz or ˜1 nm shift from the pump radiation line. The presence of an amplified spontaneous emission "pedestal" in the diode laser radiation spectrum significantly hampers the observation of spontaneous parametric down-conversion spectra, in contrast to conventional narrowband gas lasers. Benefits of switching to longer pump wavelengths are pointed out, such as collinear optical-terahertz phase-matching in bulk crystals.

  6. Introduction to the transverse spatial correlations in spontaneous parametric down-conversion through the biphoton birth zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneeloch, James; Howell, John C

    2016-01-01

    As a tutorial to the spatial aspects of spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC), we present a detailed first-principles derivation of the transverse correlation width of photon pairs in degenerate collinear SPDC. This width defines the size of a biphoton birth zone, the region where the signal and idler photons are likely to be found when conditioning on the position of the destroyed pump photon. Along the way, we discuss the quantum-optical calculation of the amplitude for the SPDC process, as well as its simplified form for nearly collinear degenerate phase matching. Following this, we show how this biphoton amplitude can be approximated with a double-Gaussian wavefunction, and give a brief discussion of the measurement statistics (and subsequent convenience) of such double-Gaussian wavefunctions. Next, we use this approximation to get a simplified estimation of the transverse correlation width, and compare it to more accurate calculations as well as experimental results. We then conclude with a discussion of the concept of a biphoton birth zone, using it to develop intuition for the tradeoff between the first-order spatial coherence and bipohoton correlations in SPDC. (tutorial)

  7. Amplified spontaneous emission and laser emission from a high optical-gain medium of dye-doped dendrimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Shiyoshi; Nakahama, Tatsuo; Mashiko, Shinro

    2005-01-01

    We measured the amplified spontaneous emission and laser emission from high-gain media of laser-dye encapsulated dendrimers. A highly branched poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM-OH) dendrimer formed a guest-host complex with a conventional laser-dye (DCM), resulting in a high optical-gain. Of particular note was the appearance of a laser threshold, above which a super-narrowed laser spectrum was observed, although laser feedback was caused without any mirror cavity devices. The optical feedback was attributed to spatial confinement of the light due to gain guiding under optical excitation. The laser spectrum clearly indicated a resonant laser-mode with a spectrum linewidth of less than 0.1 nm. This order of spectrum narrowing is comparable to that seen in the laser emission from ordinary laser devices

  8. Gain media edge treatment to suppress amplified spontaneous emission in a high power laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Soules, Thomas F.; Fochs, Scott N.; Rotter, Mark D.; Letts, Stephan A.

    2008-12-09

    A novel method and apparatus for suppressing ASE and parasitic oscillation modes in a high average power laser is introduced. By roughening one or more peripheral edges of a solid-state crystal or ceramic laser gain media and by bonding such edges using a substantially high index bonding elastomer or epoxy to a predetermined electromagnetic absorbing arranged adjacent to the entire outer surface of the peripheral edges of the roughened laser gain media, ASE and parasitic oscillation modes can be effectively suppressed.

  9. Criterion of transverse coherence of self-amplified spontaneous emission in high gain free electron laser amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, M.; Kim, K.J.

    1995-01-01

    In a high gain free electron laser amplifier based on Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) the spontaneous radiation generated by an electron beam near the undulator entrance is amplified many orders of magnitude along the undulator. The transverse coherence properties of the amplified radiation depends on both the amplification process and the coherence of the seed radiation (the undulator radiation generated in the first gain length or so). The evolution of the transverse coherence in the amplification process is studied based on the solution of the coupled Maxwell-Vlasov equations including higher order transverse modes. The coherence of the seed radiation is determined by the number of coherent modes in the phase space area of the undulator radiation. We discuss the criterion of transverse coherence and identify governing parameters over a broad range of parameters. In particular we re-examine the well known emittance criterion for the undulator radiation, which states that full transverse coherence is guaranteed if the rms emittance is smaller than the wavelength divided by 4π. It is found that this criterion is modified for SASE because of the different optimization conditions required for the electron beam. Our analysis is a generalization of the previous study by Yu and Krinsky for the case of vanishing emittance with parallel electron beam. Understanding the transverse coherence of SASE is important for the X-ray free electron laser projects now under consideration at SLAC and DESY

  10. Realization of the purely spatial Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox in full-field images of spontaneous parametric down-conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Paul-Antoine; Mougin-Sisini, Joé; Devaux, Fabrice; Lantz, Eric

    2012-07-01

    We demonstrate Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entanglement by detecting purely spatial quantum correlations in the near and far fields of spontaneous parametric down-conversion generated in a type-2 beta barium borate crystal. Full-field imaging is performed in the photon-counting regime with an electron-multiplying CCD camera. The data are used without any postselection, and we obtain a violation of Heisenberg inequalities with inferred quantities taking into account all the biphoton pairs in both the near and far fields by integration on the entire two-dimensional transverse planes. This ensures a rigorous demonstration of the EPR paradox in its original position-momentum form.

  11. Continuous-wave infrared optical gain and amplified spontaneous emission at ultralow threshold by colloidal HgTe quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiregat, Pieter; Houtepen, Arjan J.; Sagar, Laxmi Kishore; Infante, Ivan; Zapata, Felipe; Grigel, Valeriia; Allan, Guy; Delerue, Christophe; van Thourhout, Dries; Hens, Zeger

    2018-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) raise more and more interest as solution-processable and tunable optical gain materials. However, especially for infrared active QDs, optical gain remains inefficient. Since stimulated emission involves multifold degenerate band-edge states, population inversion can be attained only at high pump power and must compete with efficient multi-exciton recombination. Here, we show that mercury telluride (HgTe) QDs exhibit size-tunable stimulated emission throughout the near-infrared telecom window at thresholds unmatched by any QD studied before. We attribute this unique behaviour to surface-localized states in the bandgap that turn HgTe QDs into 4-level systems. The resulting long-lived population inversion induces amplified spontaneous emission under continuous-wave optical pumping at power levels compatible with solar irradiation and direct current electrical pumping. These results introduce an alternative approach for low-threshold QD-based gain media based on intentional trap states that paves the way for solution-processed infrared QD lasers and amplifiers.

  12. Continuous-wave infrared optical gain and amplified spontaneous emission at ultralow threshold by colloidal HgTe quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiregat, Pieter; Houtepen, Arjan J; Sagar, Laxmi Kishore; Infante, Ivan; Zapata, Felipe; Grigel, Valeriia; Allan, Guy; Delerue, Christophe; Van Thourhout, Dries; Hens, Zeger

    2018-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) raise more and more interest as solution-processable and tunable optical gain materials. However, especially for infrared active QDs, optical gain remains inefficient. Since stimulated emission involves multifold degenerate band-edge states, population inversion can be attained only at high pump power and must compete with efficient multi-exciton recombination. Here, we show that mercury telluride (HgTe) QDs exhibit size-tunable stimulated emission throughout the near-infrared telecom window at thresholds unmatched by any QD studied before. We attribute this unique behaviour to surface-localized states in the bandgap that turn HgTe QDs into 4-level systems. The resulting long-lived population inversion induces amplified spontaneous emission under continuous-wave optical pumping at power levels compatible with solar irradiation and direct current electrical pumping. These results introduce an alternative approach for low-threshold QD-based gain media based on intentional trap states that paves the way for solution-processed infrared QD lasers and amplifiers.

  13. Realization of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox using momentum- and position-entangled photons from spontaneous parametric down conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, John C; Bennink, Ryan S; Bentley, Sean J; Boyd, R W

    2004-05-28

    We report on a momentum-position realization of the EPR paradox using direct detection in the near and far fields of the photons emitted by collinear type-II phase-matched parametric down conversion. Using this approach we achieved a measured two-photon momentum-position variance product of 0.01 variant Planck's over 2pi (2), which dramatically violates the bounds for the EPR and separability criteria.

  14. A 6.2 mW 0.024 mm2 fully-passive RF downconverter with 12 dB gain enhancement using MOS parametric amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Custódio, J. R.; Bastos, I.; Oliveira, L. B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a fully-passive discrete-time switched-capacitor RF downconverter with an on-chip oscillator, that combines quadrature mixing and harmonic rejection, designed in a 130 nm digital CMOS technology. By using MOS capacitors (varactors) to perform parametric amplification, it is p......, it is possible to achieve a measured gain enhancement of about 12 dB, together with 21 dB noise figure and more than 5 dBm IIP3. Operating in the VHF-III band, the downconverter core dissipates 6.2 mW and occupies 0.024 mm2....

  15. Gain optimization in fiber optical parametric amplifiers by combining standard and high-SBS threshold highly nonlinear fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Ros, Francesco; Rottwitt, Karsten; Peucheret, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Combining Al-doped and Ge-doped HNLFs as gain media in FOPAs is proposed and optimized, resulting in efficient SBS mitigation while circumventing the additional loss of the high SBS threshold Al-doped fiber.......Combining Al-doped and Ge-doped HNLFs as gain media in FOPAs is proposed and optimized, resulting in efficient SBS mitigation while circumventing the additional loss of the high SBS threshold Al-doped fiber....

  16. Resonant parametric interference effect in spontaneous bremsstrahlung of an electron in the field of a nucleus and two pulsed laser waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebed', A. A.; Padusenko, E. A.; Roshchupkin, S. P.; Dubov, V. V.

    2018-04-01

    Electron-nucleus bremsstrahlung in the field of two moderately strong pulsed laser waves in the case of incommensurate frequencies is theoretically studied under resonant conditions. The process is studied in detail in a special kinematic region, where stimulated processes with correlated emission and absorption of photons of the first and second waves become predominant (parametric interference effect). The availability of this region is caused by interference of the first and second laser waves. The correspondence between the emission angle and the final-electron energy is established in this interference kinematic. In this case, the cross-sectional properties are determined by the multiphoton quantum interference parameter, which is proportional to the product of intensities of the first and second waves. The resonant differential cross section of electron-nucleus spontaneous bremsstrahlung with simultaneous registration of both emission angles of the spontaneous photon and the scattered electron can exceed by four or five orders of magnitude the corresponding cross section in the absence of an external field. It was shown for nonrelativistic electrons that the resonant cross section of the studied process in the field of two pulsed laser waves within the interference region in two order of magnitude may exceed corresponding cross sections at other scattering kinematics. The obtained results may be experimentally verified, for example, by scientific facilities at sources of pulsed laser radiation (such as SLAC, FAIR, XFEL, ELI).

  17. Time-bin entangled photon pairs from spontaneous parametric down-conversion pumped by a cw multi-mode diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Osung; Park, Kwang-Kyoon; Ra, Young-Sik; Kim, Yong-Su; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2013-10-21

    Generation of time-bin entangled photon pairs requires the use of the Franson interferometer which consists of two spatially separated unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers through which the signal and idler photons from spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) are made to transmit individually. There have been two SPDC pumping regimes where the scheme works: the narrowband regime and the double-pulse regime. In the narrowband regime, the SPDC process is pumped by a narrowband cw laser with the coherence length much longer than the path length difference of the Franson interferometer. In the double-pulse regime, the longitudinal separation between the pulse pair is made equal to the path length difference of the Franson interferometer. In this paper, we propose another regime by which the generation of time-bin entanglement is possible and demonstrate the scheme experimentally. In our scheme, differently from the previous approaches, the SPDC process is pumped by a cw multi-mode (i.e., short coherence length) laser and makes use of the coherence revival property of such a laser. The high-visibility two-photon Franson interference demonstrates clearly that high-quality time-bin entanglement source can be developed using inexpensive cw multi-mode diode lasers for various quantum communication applications.

  18. Continuous-wave infrared optical gain and amplified spontaneous emission at ultralow threshold by colloidal HgTe quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiregat, Pieter; Houtepen, Arjan J.; Sagar, Laxmi Kishore; Infante, Ivan; Zapata, Felipe; Grigel, Valeriia; Allan, Guy; Delerue, Christophe; Van Thourhout, Dries; Hens, Zeger

    2017-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) raise more and more interest as solution-processable and tunable optical gain materials. However, especially for infrared active QDs, optical gain remains inefficient. Since stimulated emission involves multifold degenerate band-edge states, population inversion can be

  19. Continuous-wave infrared optical gain and amplified spontaneous emission at ultralow threshold by colloidal HgTe quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiregat, P.A.; Houtepen, A.J.; Sagar, Laxmi Kishore; Infante, Ivan; Zapata, Felipe; Grigel, Valeriia; Allan, Guy; Delerue, Christophe; Van Thourhout, Dries; Hens, Zeger

    2018-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) raise more and more interest as solution-processable and tunable optical gain materials. However, especially for infrared active QDs, optical gain remains inefficient. Since stimulated emission involves multifold degenerate band-edge states, population inversion can

  20. Study of the amplified spontaneous emission spectral width and gain coefficient for a KrF laser in unsaturated and saturated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hariri, A; Sarikhani, S

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of a model of a geometrically dependent gain coefficient, the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) spectral width was calculated analytically for the nearly resonant transition of ν ∼ ν 0 , and also numerically for a wide range of transition frequencies. For this purpose, the intensity rate equation was used under unsaturated and saturated conditions. For verifying the proposed model, reported measurements of the ASE energy versus the excitation length for a KrF laser were used. For the excitation length of l = 84 cm corresponding to single-path propagation, the ASE spectral width for the homogeneously broadened transition was calculated to be 6.28 Å, to be compared with the measured 4.1 Å spectral width reported for a KrF oscillator utilizing a two-mirror resonator. With the gain parameters obtained from the ASE energy measurements, the unsaturated and saturated gain coefficients for l = 84 cm were calculated to be 0.042 cm −1 and 0.014 cm −1 , respectively. These values of the gain coefficient are comparable to but slightly lower than the measured gain coefficient for laser systems of 80–100 cm excitation lengths reported from different laboratories. (letter)

  1. Enhancement and suppression of opto-acoustic parametric interactions using optical feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhongyang; Zhao Chunnong; Ju, L.; Blair, D. G.

    2010-01-01

    A three mode opto-acoustic parametric amplifier (OAPA) is created when two orthogonal optical modes in a high finesse optical cavity are coupled via an acoustic mode of the cavity mirror. Such interactions are predicted to occur in advanced long baseline gravitational wave detectors. They can have high positive gain, which leads to strong parametric instability. Here we show that an optical feedback scheme can enhance or suppress the parametric gain of an OAPA, allowing exploration of three-mode parametric interactions, especially in cavity systems that have insufficient optical power to achieve spontaneous instability. We derive analytical equations and show that optical feedback is capable of controlling predicted instabilities in advanced gravitational wave detectors within a time scale of 13∼10 s.

  2. Pump to signal noise transfer in parametric fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Hansen, Toke; Rottwitt, Karsten; Peucheret, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Fiber optic parametric amplifiers have been suggested due to their potential low spontaneous emission. However, by nature the parametric amplifier only work in a forward pumped configuration, which result in transfer of relative intensity noise in the pump to the signal.......Fiber optic parametric amplifiers have been suggested due to their potential low spontaneous emission. However, by nature the parametric amplifier only work in a forward pumped configuration, which result in transfer of relative intensity noise in the pump to the signal....

  3. Resolved discrepancies between visible spontaneous Raman cross-section and direct near-infrared Raman gain measurements in TeO2-based glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Clara; Stegeman, Robert; Couzi, Michel; Talaga, David; Cardinal, Thierry; Richardson, Kathleen; Stegeman, George

    2005-06-13

    Disagreements on the Raman gain response of different tellurite-based glasses, measured at different wavelengths, have been recently reported in the literature. In order to resolve this controversy, a multi-wavelength Raman cross-section experiment was conducted on two different TeO2-based glass samples. The estimated Raman gain response of the material shows good agreement with the directly-measured Raman gain data at 1064 nm, after correction for the dispersion and wavelength-dependence of the Raman gain process.

  4. Macromechanical Parametric Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumeyer, Stefan

    between the two peaks can be altered. The first experimental bistable amplified steady-state responses are also reported. The derived analytical models and experimental setups can readily be extended to investigate other factors. Some of the results are also applicable to the more general field of systems...... for energy harvesting. Using analytical, numerical, and experimental methods, the thesis focuses on superthreshold pumping (above the systems parametric instability threshold), nonlinear effects, frequency response backbones, and frequency detuning effects for parametric amplifiers. Part one of the thesis...... covers superthreshold pumping and nonlinear effects. Superthresh-old pumping produces some useful characteristics. For instance, strong superthreshold pumping yields a high gain even though nonlinear effects tend to reduce it. In addition, a narrower excitation phase range is realized for which...

  5. Parametric and Non-Parametric System Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    1999-01-01

    the focus is on combinations of parametric and non-parametric methods of regression. This combination can be in terms of additive models where e.g. one or more non-parametric term is added to a linear regression model. It can also be in terms of conditional parametric models where the coefficients...... considered. It is shown that adaptive estimation in conditional parametric models can be performed by combining the well known methods of local polynomial regression and recursive least squares with exponential forgetting. The approach used for estimation in conditional parametric models also highlights how...... networks is included. In this paper, neural networks are used for predicting the electricity production of a wind farm. The results are compared with results obtained using an adaptively estimated ARX-model. Finally, two papers on stochastic differential equations are included. In the first paper, among...

  6. Estimating the potential gains from mergers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Wang, Dexiang

    2005-01-01

    We introduce simple production economic models to estimate the potential gains from mergers. We decompose the gains into technical ef¿ciency, size (scale) and harmony (mix) gains, and we discuss alternative ways to capture these gains. We propose to approximate the production processes using...... the non-parametric. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach, and we use the resulting operational approach to estimate the potential gains from merging agricultural extension of¿ces in Denmark....

  7. On Parametric (and Non-Parametric Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Smith

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article raises the issue of the correct characterization of ‘Parametric Variation’ in syntax and phonology. After specifying their theoretical commitments, the authors outline the relevant parts of the Principles–and–Parameters framework, and draw a three-way distinction among Universal Principles, Parameters, and Accidents. The core of the contribution then consists of an attempt to provide identity criteria for parametric, as opposed to non-parametric, variation. Parametric choices must be antecedently known, and it is suggested that they must also satisfy seven individually necessary and jointly sufficient criteria. These are that they be cognitively represented, systematic, dependent on the input, deterministic, discrete, mutually exclusive, and irreversible.

  8. Spontaneous deregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, Benjamin; Geradin, Damien

    Platform businesses such as Airbnb and Uber have risen to success partly by sidestepping laws and regulations that encumber their traditional competitors. Such rule flouting is what the authors call “spontaneous private deregulation,” and it’s happening in a growing number of industries. The authors

  9. Quantum and Raman Noise in a Depleted Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Rottwitt, Karsten; McKinstrie, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    The noise properties of both phase-sensitive and phase-insensitive saturated parametric amplifiers are studied using a semi-classical approach. Vacuum fluctuations as well as spontaneous Raman scattering are included in the analysis....

  10. Motivations of parametric studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birac, C.

    1988-01-01

    The paper concerns the motivations of parametric studies in connection with the Programme for the Inspection of Steel Components PISC II. The objective of the PISC II exercise is to evaluate the effectiveness of current and advanced NDT techniques for inspection of reactor pressure vessel components. The parametric studies were initiated to determine the influence of some parameters on defect detection and dimensioning, and to increase the technical bases of the Round Robin Tests. A description is given of the content of the parametric studies including:- the effect of the defects' characteristics, the effect of equipment characteristics, the effect of cladding, and possible use of electromagnetic techniques. (U.K.)

  11. Implementing calculations of solar gains in parametric models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2009-01-01

    Working with environmentally sustainable architecture today is becoming more and more challenging due to the strict energy demands in the building regulations (Hyde et al. 2007). This demands a design process, where parameters affecting the energy demands are considered from the very beginning......, and where relations between the architectural form, the building envelope and the climatic conditions on the site are in focus in order to lower the energy demand in the building during operation. Such a focus on energy consumption is the theme at Architecture & Design's, Aalborg University, 8th semester...... architecture specialization, where the students work with environmental architecture. A basis for understanding this and for working with different parameters related to this topic is the diagram seen in Figure 1 and 2 (Knudstrup et al. 2009) developed through studies of different tools used in the broad field...

  12. Performance Analysis Of Single-Pumped And Dual-Pumped Parametric Optical Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandar Myint

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study we present a performance analysis of single-pumped and dual- pumped parametric optical amplifier and present the analysis of gain flatness in dual- pumped Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifier FOPA based on four-wave mixing FWM. Result shows that changing the signal power and pump power give the various gains in FOPA. It is also found out that the parametric gain increase with increase in pump power and decrease in signal power. .Moreover in this paper the phase matching condition in FWM plays a vital role in predicting the gain profile of the FOPAbecause the parametric gain is maximum when the total phase mismatch is zero.In this paper single-pumped parametric amplification over a 50nm gain bandwidth is demonstrated using 500 nm highly nonlinear fiber HNLF and signal achieves about 31dB gain. For dual-pumped parametric amplification signal achieves 26.5dB gains over a 50nm gain bandwidth. Therefore dual-pumped parametric amplifier can provide relatively flat gain over a much wider bandwidth than the single-pumped FOPA.

  13. [Spontaneous hypoglycemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellorhaoui, M; Schultze, W

    1977-01-15

    On the basis of a survey is attempted to describe mode of development, symptomatology, individual forms and the different possibilities of therapy of the spontaneous hypoglycaemias. A particularly broad range was devoted to the cerebral sequelae, since in these cases--according to our experience--on account of simulation of neurologico-psychiatric symptoms at the soonest wrong diagnoses are to be expected. Furthermore, it is attempted to classify the hypoglycemias according to their development, in which cases their incompleteness was evident from the very beginning. The individual forms of appearance are treated according their to significance. Out of the inducible hypoglycaemias a particular attention is devoted to the forms caused by insulin and oral antidiabetics, since these most frequently participate in the development. Finally the author inquires into diagnostic measures for recognition of special forms of hypoglycaemia. In this place the diagnostics of hyperinsulinism conditioned by adenomatosis or tumours of other kinds is of particular importance. Finally conservative and operative possibilities of the therapy of these tumours are discussed,whereby the only recently tested treatment with streptotocin is mentioned.

  14. Security and gain improvement of a practical quantum key distribution using a gated single-photon source and probabilistic photon-number resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Hideki; Wang, Haibo; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2005-01-01

    We propose a high security quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme utilizing one mode of spontaneous parametric downconversion gated by a photon number resolving detector. This photon number measurement is possible by using single-photon detectors operating at room temperature and optical fibers. By post selection, the multiphoton probability in this scheme can be reduced to lower than that of a scheme using an attenuated coherent light resulting in improvement of security. Furthermore, if distillation protocol (error correction and privacy amplification) is performed, the gain will be increased. Hence a QKD system with higher security and bit rate than the laser-based QKD system can be attained using present available technologies

  15. PARAMETRIC DRAWINGS VS. AUTOLISP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRUNĂ Liviu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors make a critical analysis of the advantages offered by the parametric drawing use by comparison with the AutoLISP computer programs used when it comes about the parametric design. Studying and analysing these two work models the authors have got to some ideas and conclusions which should be considered in the moment in that someone must to decide if it is the case to elaborate a software, using the AutoLISP language, or to establish the base rules that must be followed by the drawing, in the idea to construct outlines or blocks which can be used in the projection process.

  16. PARAMETRIC DRAWINGS VS. AUTOLISP

    OpenAIRE

    PRUNĂ Liviu; SLONOVSCHI Andrei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the authors make a critical analysis of the advantages offered by the parametric drawing use by comparison with the AutoLISP computer programs used when it comes about the parametric design. Studying and analysing these two work models the authors have got to some ideas and conclusions which should be considered in the moment in that someone must to decide if it is the case to elaborate a software, using the AutoLISP language, or to establish the base rules that must be followed...

  17. Parametric Instability in Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, L; Grass, S; Zhao, C; Degallaix, J; Blair, D G

    2006-01-01

    High frequency parametric instabilities in optical cavities are radiation pressure induced interactions between test mass mechanical modes and cavity optical modes. The parametric gain depends on the cavity power and the quality factor of the test mass internal modes (usually in ultrasonic frequency range), as well as the overlap integral for the mechanical and optical modes. In advanced laser interferometers which require high optical power and very low acoustic loss test masses, parametric instabilities could prevent interferometer operation if not suppressed. Here we review the problem of parametric instabilities in advanced detector configurations for different combinations of sapphire and fused silica test masses, and compare three methods for control or suppression of parametric instabilities-thermal tuning, surface damping and active feedback

  18. Controlling Parametric Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Pettersen, Kristin Ytterstad

    2012-01-01

    the authors review the conditions for the onset of parametric resonance, and propose a nonlinear control strategy in order to both induce the resonant oscillations and to stabilize the unstable motion. Lagrange’s theory is used to derive the dynamics of the system and input–output feedback linearization...

  19. Classification rates: non‐parametric verses parametric models using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research sought to establish if non parametric modeling achieves a higher correct classification ratio than a parametric model. The local likelihood technique was used to model fit the data sets. The same sets of data were modeled using parametric logit and the abilities of the two models to correctly predict the binary ...

  20. Parametric instabilities in advanced gravitational wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gras, S; Zhao, C; Blair, D G; Ju, L

    2010-01-01

    As the LIGO interferometric gravitational wave detectors have finished gathering a large observational data set, an intense effort is underway to upgrade these observatories to improve their sensitivity by a factor of ∼10. High circulating power in the arm cavities is required, which leads to the possibility of parametric instability due to three-mode opto-acoustic resonant interactions between the carrier, transverse optical modes and acoustic modes. Here, we present detailed numerical analysis of parametric instability in a configuration that is similar to Advanced LIGO. After examining parametric instability for a single three-mode interaction in detail, we examine instability for the best and worst cases, as determined by the resonance condition of transverse modes in the power and signal recycling cavities. We find that, in the best case, the dual recycling detector is substantially less susceptible to instability than a single cavity, but its susceptibility is dependent on the signal recycling cavity design, and on tuning for narrow band operation. In all cases considered, the interferometer will experience parametric instability at full power operation, but the gain varies from 3 to 1000, and the number of unstable modes varies between 7 and 30 per test mass. The analysis focuses on understanding the detector complexity in relation to opto-acoustic interactions, on providing insights that can enable predictions of the detector response to transient disturbances, and of variations in thermal compensation conditions.

  1. Towards Stabilizing Parametric Active Contours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jinchao; Fan, Zhun; Olsen, Søren Ingvor

    2014-01-01

    Numerical instability often occurs in evolving of parametric active contours. This is mainly due to the undesired change of parametrization during evolution. In this paper, we propose a new tangential diffusion term to compensate this undesired change. As a result, the parametrization will converge...

  2. Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Costumbrado

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 16-year-old male with asthma was brought to the emergency department by his parents for increasing right-sided chest pain associated with cough and mild dyspnea over the past week. Albuterol inhaler did not provide relief. He denied recent trauma, fever, sweats, and chills. The patient’s vitals and oxygen saturations were stable. Physical exam revealed a tall, slender body habitus with no signs of chest wall injuries. Bilateral breath sounds were present, but slightly diminished on the right. A chest radiograph was ordered to determine the etiology of the patient’s symptoms. Significant findings: Initial chest radiograph showed a 50% right-sided pneumothorax with no mediastinal shift, which can be identified by the sharp line representing the pleural lung edge (see arrows and lack of peripheral lung markings extending to the chest wall. While difficult to accurately estimate volume from a two-dimensional image, a 2 cm pneumothorax seen on chest radiograph correlates to approximately 50% volume.1 The patient underwent insertion of a pigtail pleural drain on the right and repeat chest radiograph showed resolution of previously seen pneumothorax. Ultimately the pigtail drain was removed and chest radiograph showed clear lung fields without evidence of residual pneumothorax or pleural effusion. Discussion: Pneumothorax is characterized by air between the lungs and the chest wall.2 Spontaneous pneumothorax (SP occurs when the pneumothorax is not due to trauma or any discernable etiology. 3 SP is multifactorial and may be associated with subpleural blebs, bullae, and other connective tissue changes that predispose the lungs to leak air into the pleural space.4 SP can be further subdivided into primary (no history of underlying lung disease or secondary (history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis, lung malignancy, etc..2 It is estimated that the incidence of SP among US pediatric

  3. MEMS digital parametric loudspeaker

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo

    2016-03-23

    This paper reports on the design and fabrication of MEMS actuator arrays suitable for Digital Sound reconstruction and Parametric Directional Loudspeakers. Two distinct versions of the device were fabricated: one using the electrostatic principle actuation and the other one, the piezoelectric principle. Both versions used similar membrane dimensions, with a diameter of 500 μm. These devices are the smallest Micro-Machined Ultrasound Transducer (MUT) arrays that can be operated for both modes: Digital Sound Reconstruction and Parametric Loudspeaker. The chips consist of an array with 256 transducers, in a footprint of 12 mm by 12 mm. The total single chip size is: 2.3 cm by 2.3 cm, including the contact pads. © 2016 IEEE.

  4. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2012-01-19

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  5. MEMS digital parametric loudspeaker

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Castro, David; Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Kosel, Jü rgen; Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the design and fabrication of MEMS actuator arrays suitable for Digital Sound reconstruction and Parametric Directional Loudspeakers. Two distinct versions of the device were fabricated: one using the electrostatic principle actuation and the other one, the piezoelectric principle. Both versions used similar membrane dimensions, with a diameter of 500 μm. These devices are the smallest Micro-Machined Ultrasound Transducer (MUT) arrays that can be operated for both modes: Digital Sound Reconstruction and Parametric Loudspeaker. The chips consist of an array with 256 transducers, in a footprint of 12 mm by 12 mm. The total single chip size is: 2.3 cm by 2.3 cm, including the contact pads. © 2016 IEEE.

  6. Build up of off-diagonal long-range order in microcavity exciton-polaritons across the parametric threshold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spano, R.; Cuadra, J.; Lingg, C.

    2013-01-01

    We report an experimental study of the spontaneous spatial and temporal coherence of polariton condensates generated in the optical parametric oscillator configuration, below and at the parametric threshold, and as a function of condensate area. Above the threshold we obtain very long coherence t...

  7. Parametric Resonance in Dynamical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nijmeijer, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Parametric Resonance in Dynamical Systems discusses the phenomenon of parametric resonance and its occurrence in mechanical systems,vehicles, motorcycles, aircraft and marine craft, and micro-electro-mechanical systems. The contributors provide an introduction to the root causes of this phenomenon and its mathematical equivalent, the Mathieu-Hill equation. Also included is a discussion of how parametric resonance occurs on ships and offshore systems and its frequency in mechanical and electrical systems. This book also: Presents the theory and principles behind parametric resonance Provides a unique collection of the different fields where parametric resonance appears including ships and offshore structures, automotive vehicles and mechanical systems Discusses ways to combat, cope with and prevent parametric resonance including passive design measures and active control methods Parametric Resonance in Dynamical Systems is ideal for researchers and mechanical engineers working in application fields such as MEM...

  8. Parametric Study Of Window Frame Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a parametric study on window frame geometry with the goal of designing frames with very good thermal properties. Three different parametric frame models are introduced, deseribed by a number of variables. In the first part of the study, a process of sensitivity analysis...... is conducted to determine which of the parameters describing the frame have the highest impact on its thermal performance. Afterwards, an optimization process is conducted on each frame in order to optimize the design with regard to three objectives: minimizing the thermal transmittance, maxim izing the net...... energy gain factor and minimizing the material use. Since the objectives contradiet each other, it was found that it is not possible to identifY a single solution that satisfies all these goals. lnstead, a compromise between the objectives has to be found....

  9. Brownian parametric oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbe, Christine; Jung, Peter; Hänggi, Peter

    1994-05-01

    We discuss the stochastic dynamics of dissipative, white-noise-driven Floquet oscillators, characterized by a time-periodic stiffness. Thus far, little attention has been paid to these exactly solvable nonstationary systems, although they carry a rich potential for several experimental applications. Here, we calculate and discuss the mean values and variances, as well as the correlation functions and the Floquet spectrum. As one main result, we find for certain parameter values that the fluctuations of the position coordinate are suppressed as compared to the equilibrium value of a harmonic oscillator (parametric squeezing).

  10. Optical parametric amplification and oscillation assisted by low-frequency stimulated emission

    OpenAIRE

    Longhi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Optical parametric amplification/oscillation provide a powerful tool for coherent light generation in spectral regions inaccessible to lasers. Parametric gain is based on a frequency {\\it down-conversion} process, and thus it can not be realized for signal waves at a frequency $\\omega_3$ {\\it higher} than the frequency of the pump wave $\\omega_1$. In this work we suggest a route toward the realization of {\\it up-conversion} optical parametric amplification and oscillation, i.e. amplification ...

  11. Parametric Linear Dynamic Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Faymonville

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Parametric Linear Dynamic Logic (PLDL, which extends Linear Dynamic Logic (LDL by temporal operators equipped with parameters that bound their scope. LDL was proposed as an extension of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL that is able to express all ω-regular specifications while still maintaining many of LTL's desirable properties like an intuitive syntax and a translation into non-deterministic Büchi automata of exponential size. But LDL lacks capabilities to express timing constraints. By adding parameterized operators to LDL, we obtain a logic that is able to express all ω-regular properties and that subsumes parameterized extensions of LTL like Parametric LTL and PROMPT-LTL. Our main technical contribution is a translation of PLDL formulas into non-deterministic Büchi word automata of exponential size via alternating automata. This yields a PSPACE model checking algorithm and a realizability algorithm with doubly-exponential running time. Furthermore, we give tight upper and lower bounds on optimal parameter values for both problems. These results show that PLDL model checking and realizability are not harder than LTL model checking and realizability.

  12. Management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudmik, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Background: Epistaxis is a common otolaryngology emergency and is often controlled with first-line interventions such as cautery, hemostatic agents, or anterior nasal packing. A subset of patients will continue to bleed and require more aggressive therapy. Methods: Intractable spontaneous epistaxis was traditionally managed with posterior nasal packing and prolonged hospital admission. In an effort to reduce patient morbidity and shorten hospital stay, surgical and endovascular techniques have gained popularity. A literature review was conducted. Results: Transnasal endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation and arterial embolization provide excellent control rates but the decision to choose one over the other can be challenging. The role of transnasal endoscopic anterior ethmoid artery ligation is unclear but may be considered in certain cases when bleeding localizes to the ethmoid region. Conclusion: This article will focus on the management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis and discuss the role of endoscopic arterial ligation and embolization as it pertains to this challenging clinical scenario. PMID:22391084

  13. Parametric amplifications in the nonlinear transmission line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawata, T; Sakai, J; Inoue, H [Toyama Univ., Takaoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1980-03-01

    The parametric amplification in a transmission line with nonlinear capacitors is analysed theoretically using the equations of three wave interactions. Since this line has two modes, high frequency and low frequency modes, there may occur some mode coupling phenomena through the resonant interactions. We consider three waves with wave number k sub(j) and frequency ..omega..sub(j) in resonance with each other, that is, ..omega../sub 1/ + ..omega../sub 2/ = ..omega../sub 3/ and k/sub 1/ + k/sub 2/ = k/sub 3/, where 0 <= ..omega../sub 1/ <= ..omega../sub 2/ <= ..omega../sub 3/ and k/sub 3/ >= 0. Such conditions are realized in our network and there exist two states: ''forward state'' (each group velocity is positive) and ''backward state'' (one of the group velocities is negative). The coupled equations of three waves has two constant pumps: high frequency (HF) pump and low frequency (LF) pump. Using linear approximations, we examine the possible types of parametric amplification and obtain the power gains depending on the frequency deviation. For only the case of HF pump we get the gain between signals with seme frequency and also get the gain from the low frequency signal to the high frequency signal (''up-conversion'') for the LF pump. The nonlinear analysis gives the exact relation between input and output signals. For the forward state the gain is absolutely suppressed by the ratio of pumping power to input power, while the gain of backward state has no finite maximum and there may appear an ''oscillating state'' if the pumping power is comparatively small.

  14. Enhanced Gain in Photonic Crystal Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara; Semenova, Elizaveta; Hansen, Per Lunnemann

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate enhanced gain in the slow-light regime of quantum well photonic crystal amplifiers. A strong gain enhancement is observed with the increase of the group refractive index, due to light slow-down. The slow light enhancement is shown in a amplified spontaneous emission....... These results are promising for short and efficient semiconductor optical amplifiers. This effect will also benefit other devices, such as mode locked lasers....

  15. Kernel bandwidth estimation for non-parametric density estimation: a comparative study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Walt, CM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the performance of conventional bandwidth estimators for non-parametric kernel density estimation on a number of representative pattern-recognition tasks, to gain a better understanding of the behaviour of these estimators in high...

  16. Markovian Dynamics of Josephson Parametric Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kaiser

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we derive the dynamics of the lossy DC pumped non-degenerate Josephson parametric amplifier (DCPJPA. The main element in a DCPJPA is the superconducting Josephson junction. The DC bias generates the AC Josephson current varying the nonlinear inductance of the junction. By this way the Josephson junction acts as the pump oscillator as well as the time varying reactance of the parametric amplifier. In quantum-limited amplification, losses and noise have an increased impact on the characteristics of an amplifier. We outline the classical model of the lossy DCPJPA and derive the available noise power spectral densities. A classical treatment is not capable of including properties like spontaneous emission which is mandatory in case of amplification at the quantum limit. Thus, we derive a quantum mechanical model of the lossy DCPJPA. Thermal losses are modeled by the quantum Langevin approach, by coupling the quantized system to a photon heat bath in thermodynamic equilibrium. The mode occupation in the bath follows the Bose-Einstein statistics. Based on the second quantization formalism, we derive the Heisenberg equations of motion of both resonator modes. We assume the dynamics of the system to follow the Markovian approximation, i.e. the system only depends on its actual state and is memory-free. We explicitly compute the time evolution of the contributions to the signal mode energy and give numeric examples based on different damping and coupling constants. Our analytic results show, that this model is capable of including thermal noise into the description of the DC pumped non-degenerate Josephson parametric amplifier.

  17. Markovian Dynamics of Josephson Parametric Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Waldemar; Haider, Michael; Russer, Johannes A.; Russer, Peter; Jirauschek, Christian

    2017-09-01

    In this work, we derive the dynamics of the lossy DC pumped non-degenerate Josephson parametric amplifier (DCPJPA). The main element in a DCPJPA is the superconducting Josephson junction. The DC bias generates the AC Josephson current varying the nonlinear inductance of the junction. By this way the Josephson junction acts as the pump oscillator as well as the time varying reactance of the parametric amplifier. In quantum-limited amplification, losses and noise have an increased impact on the characteristics of an amplifier. We outline the classical model of the lossy DCPJPA and derive the available noise power spectral densities. A classical treatment is not capable of including properties like spontaneous emission which is mandatory in case of amplification at the quantum limit. Thus, we derive a quantum mechanical model of the lossy DCPJPA. Thermal losses are modeled by the quantum Langevin approach, by coupling the quantized system to a photon heat bath in thermodynamic equilibrium. The mode occupation in the bath follows the Bose-Einstein statistics. Based on the second quantization formalism, we derive the Heisenberg equations of motion of both resonator modes. We assume the dynamics of the system to follow the Markovian approximation, i.e. the system only depends on its actual state and is memory-free. We explicitly compute the time evolution of the contributions to the signal mode energy and give numeric examples based on different damping and coupling constants. Our analytic results show, that this model is capable of including thermal noise into the description of the DC pumped non-degenerate Josephson parametric amplifier.

  18. Nanoscale electromechanical parametric amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Benjamin Jose; Zettl, Alexander

    2016-09-20

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to a parametric amplifier. In one aspect, a device includes an electron source electrode, a counter electrode, and a pumping electrode. The electron source electrode may include a conductive base and a flexible conductor. The flexible conductor may have a first end and a second end, with the second end of the flexible conductor being coupled to the conductive base. A cross-sectional dimension of the flexible conductor may be less than about 100 nanometers. The counter electrode may be disposed proximate the first end of the flexible conductor and spaced a first distance from the first end of the flexible conductor. The pumping electrode may be disposed proximate a length of the flexible conductor and spaced a second distance from the flexible conductor.

  19. Parametric Room Acoustic Workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Svidt, Kjeld; Molin, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates and assesses different room acoustics software and the opportunities they offer to engage in parametric acoustics workflow and to influence architectural designs. The first step consists in the testing and benchmarking of different tools on the basis of accuracy, speed...... and interoperability with Grasshopper 3d. The focus will be placed to the benchmarking of three different acoustic analysis tools based on raytracing. To compare the accuracy and speed of the acoustic evaluation across different tools, a homogeneous set of acoustic parameters is chosen. The room acoustics parameters...... included in the set are reverberation time (EDT, RT30), clarity (C50), loudness (G), and definition (D50). Scenarios are discussed for determining at different design stages the most suitable acoustic tool. Those scenarios are characterized, by the use of less accurate but fast evaluation tools to be used...

  20. Parametric Human Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzog, Dennis

    adapt the primitives to the actual appearance of the tracked motion, since the appearance of actions depends on the object locations. From the recognition perspective, it is necessary to recognize a performed action, but the understanding requires also the recovery of the action parameters, which can......The thesis aims at the learning of action primitives and their application on the perceptive side (tracking/recognition) and the generative side (synthesizing for robot control). A motivation is to use a unified primitive representation applicable on both sides. The thesis considers arm actions...... with an investigation of PHMM training methods and structures to utilize the PHMM as a unified representation of parametric primitives, which is adequate for recognition and for synthesis. This is evaluated on a large motion data set. Main contributions of the thesis are the development and evaluation of approaches...

  1. Brillouin suppression in a fiber optical parametric amplifier by combining temperature distribution and phase modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Noordegraaf, Danny; Nielsen, Carsten Vandel

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate an increased gain in optical parametric amplier through suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering by applying a temperature distribution along the fiber resulting in a reduction of the required phase modulation.......We demonstrate an increased gain in optical parametric amplier through suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering by applying a temperature distribution along the fiber resulting in a reduction of the required phase modulation....

  2. Dynamic range enhancement and amplitude regeneration in single pump fibre optic parametric amplifiers using DPSK modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peucheret, Christophe; Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Seoane, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Input power dynamic range enhancement and amplitude regeneration of highly distorted signals are demonstrated experimentally for 40 Gbit/s RZ-DPSK in a single-pump fibre parametric amplifier with 22 dB smallsignal gain.......Input power dynamic range enhancement and amplitude regeneration of highly distorted signals are demonstrated experimentally for 40 Gbit/s RZ-DPSK in a single-pump fibre parametric amplifier with 22 dB smallsignal gain....

  3. Spontaneous external gallbladder perforation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noeldge, G.; Wimmer, B.; Kirchner, R.

    1981-01-01

    Spontaneous perforation of the gallbladder is one complication of cholelithiasis. There is a greater occurence of free perforation in the peritoneal cavity with bilary pertonitis, followed by the perforation into the stomach, small intestine and colon. A single case of the nowadays rare spontaneous perforation in and through the abdominal wall will be reported. Spontaneous gallbladder perforation appears nearly asymptomatic in its clinical course because of absent biliary peritonitis. (orig.) [de

  4. Parametric Mass Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) systems are designed based upon having redundant systems with replaceable orbital replacement units (ORUs). These ORUs are designed to be swapped out fairly quickly, but some are very large, and some are made up of many components. When an ORU fails, it is replaced on orbit with a spare; the failed unit is sometimes returned to Earth to be serviced and re-launched. Such a system is not feasible for a 500+ day long-duration mission beyond low Earth orbit. The components that make up these ORUs have mixed reliabilities. Components that make up the most mass-such as computer housings, pump casings, and the silicon board of PCBs-typically are the most reliable. Meanwhile components that tend to fail the earliest-such as seals or gaskets-typically have a small mass. To better understand the problem, my project is to create a parametric model that relates both the mass of ORUs to reliability, as well as the mass of ORU subcomponents to reliability.

  5. Peritonitis - spontaneous bacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP); Ascites - peritonitis; Cirrhosis - peritonitis ... who are on peritoneal dialysis for kidney failure. Peritonitis may have other causes . These include infection from ...

  6. Raman and loss induced quantum noise in depleted fiber optical parametric amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Rottwitt, Karsten; McKinstrie, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a semi-classical approach for predicting the quantum noise properties of fiber optical parametric amplifiers. The unavoidable contributors of noise, vacuum fluctuations, loss-induced noise, and spontaneous Raman scattering, are included in the analysis of both phase-insensitive and phase...

  7. Should I Gain Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Should I Gain Weight? KidsHealth / For Teens / Should I Gain Weight? ... something about it. Why Do People Want to Gain Weight? Some of the reasons people give for ...

  8. Performance scaling via passive pulse shaping in cavity-enhanced optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Aleem M; Moses, Jeffrey; Hong, Kyung-Han; Lai, Chien-Jen; Kärtner, Franz X

    2010-06-15

    We show that an enhancement cavity seeded at the full repetition rate of the pump laser can automatically reshape small-signal gain across the interacting pulses in an optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier for close-to-optimal operation, significantly increasing both the gain bandwidth and the conversion efficiency, in addition to boosting gain for high-repetition-rate amplification. Applied to a degenerate amplifier, the technique can provide an octave-spanning gain bandwidth.

  9. Planar Parametrization in Isogeometric Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens; Evgrafov, Anton; Nguyen, Dang-Manh

    2012-01-01

    Before isogeometric analysis can be applied to solving a partial differential equation posed over some physical domain, one needs to construct a valid parametrization of the geometry. The accuracy of the analysis is affected by the quality of the parametrization. The challenge of computing...... and maintaining a valid geometry parametrization is particularly relevant in applications of isogemetric analysis to shape optimization, where the geometry varies from one optimization iteration to another. We propose a general framework for handling the geometry parametrization in isogeometric analysis and shape...... are suitable for our framework. The non-linear methods we consider are based on solving a constrained optimization problem numerically, and are divided into two classes, geometry-oriented methods and analysis-oriented methods. Their performance is illustrated through a few numerical examples....

  10. Parametric FEM for geometric biomembranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonito, Andrea; Nochetto, Ricardo H.; Sebastian Pauletti, M.

    2010-05-01

    We consider geometric biomembranes governed by an L2-gradient flow for bending energy subject to area and volume constraints (Helfrich model). We give a concise derivation of a novel vector formulation, based on shape differential calculus, and corresponding discretization via parametric FEM using quadratic isoparametric elements and a semi-implicit Euler method. We document the performance of the new parametric FEM with a number of simulations leading to dumbbell, red blood cell and toroidal equilibrium shapes while exhibiting large deformations.

  11. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fullam, L

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous\\/primary intracranial hypotension is characterised by orthostatic headache and is associated with characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings. CASE REPORT: We present a case report of a patient with typical symptoms and classical radiological images. DISCUSSION: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is an under-recognised cause of headache and can be diagnosed by history of typical orthostatic headache and findings on MRI brain.

  12. Circulation and Directional Amplification in the Josephson Parametric Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatridge, Michael

    Nonreciprocal transport and directional amplification of weak microwave signals are fundamental ingredients in performing efficient measurements of quantum states of flying microwave light. This challenge has been partly met, as quantum-limited amplification is now regularly achieved with parametrically-driven, Josephson-junction based superconducting circuits. However, these devices are typically non-directional, requiring external circulators to separate incoming and outgoing signals. Recently this limitation has been overcome by several proposals and experimental realizations of both directional amplifiers and circulators based on interference between several parametric processes in a single device. This new class of multi-parametrically driven devices holds the promise of achieving a variety of desirable characteristics simultaneously- directionality, reduced gain-bandwidth constraints and quantum-limited added noise, and are good candidates for on-chip integration with other superconducting circuits such as qubits.

  13. The parametric resonance—from LEGO Mindstorms to cold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawalec, Tomasz; Sierant, Aleksandra

    2017-07-01

    We show an experimental setup based on a popular LEGO Mindstorms set, allowing us to both observe and investigate the parametric resonance phenomenon. The presented method is simple but covers a variety of student activities like embedded software development, conducting measurements, data collection and analysis. It may be used during science shows, as part of student projects and to illustrate the parametric resonance in mechanics or even quantum physics, during lectures or classes. The parametrically driven LEGO pendulum gains energy in a spectacular way, increasing its amplitude from 10° to about 100° within a few tens of seconds. We provide also a short description of a wireless absolute orientation sensor that may be used in quantitative analysis of driven or free pendulum movement.

  14. The parametric resonance—from LEGO Mindstorms to cold atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawalec, Tomasz; Sierant, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    We show an experimental setup based on a popular LEGO Mindstorms set, allowing us to both observe and investigate the parametric resonance phenomenon. The presented method is simple but covers a variety of student activities like embedded software development, conducting measurements, data collection and analysis. It may be used during science shows, as part of student projects and to illustrate the parametric resonance in mechanics or even quantum physics, during lectures or classes. The parametrically driven LEGO pendulum gains energy in a spectacular way, increasing its amplitude from 10° to about 100° within a few tens of seconds. We provide also a short description of a wireless absolute orientation sensor that may be used in quantitative analysis of driven or free pendulum movement. (paper)

  15. Parametric design using IGRIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.

    1994-10-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site near Richland, Washington is being cleaned up after 50 years of nuclear materials production. One of the most serious problems at the site is the waste stored in single-shell underground storage tanks. There are 149 of these tanks containing the spent fuel residue remaining after the fuel is dissolved in acid and the desired materials (primarily plutonium and uranium) are separated out. The tanks are upright cylinders 75 ft. in diameter with domed tops. They are made of reinforced concrete, have steel liners, and each tank is buried under 7--12 ft. of overburden. The tanks are up to 40-ft. high, and have capacities of 500,000, 750,000, or 1,000,000 gallons of waste. As many as one-third of these tanks are known or suspected to leak. The waste form contained in the tanks varies in consistency from liquid supernatant to peanut-butter-like gels and sludges to hard salt cake (perhaps as hard as low-grade concrete). The current waste retrieval plan is to insert a large long-reach manipulator through a hole cut in the top of the tank, and use a variety of end-effectors to mobilize the waste and remove it from the tank. PNL has, with the assistance of Deneb robotics employees, developed a means of using the IGRIP code to perform parametric design of mechanical systems. This method requires no modifications to the IGRIP code, and all design data are stored in the IGRIP workcell. The method is presented in the context of development of a passive articulated mechanism that is used to deliver down-arm services to a gantry robot. The method is completely general, however, and could be used to design a fully articulated manipulator. Briefly, the method involves using IGCALC expressions to control manipulator joint angles, and IGCALC variables to allow user control of link lengths and offsets. This paper presents the method in detail, with examples drawn from PNL's experience with the gantry robot service-providing mechanism

  16. Optimization of an Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification System for the OMEGA EP Laser System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begishev, I.; Bagnoud, V.; Guardalben, M.; Waxer, L.; Puth, J.; Zuegel, J.

    2003-01-01

    OAK B204 We report on the experimental achievements of the optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) system, including 29% pump-to-signal conversion efficiency and 107 gain using two LBO crystals configured as a single amplification stage. Temporal and spatial shaping of the pump laser pulse is required to achieve both high-gain and high-conversion efficiency

  17. Noncritical quadrature squeezing through spontaneous polarization symmetry breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Ferrer, Ferran V.; Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos; de Valcárcel, Germán J.; Roldán, Eugenio

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of generating noncritical quadrature squeezing by spontaneous polarization symmetry breaking. We consider first type-II frequency-degenerate optical parametric oscillators, but discard them for a number of reasons. Then we propose a four-wave mixing cavity in which the polarization of the output mode is always linear but has an arbitrary orientation. We show that in such a cavity complete noise suppression in a quadrature of the output field occurs, irrespective of ...

  18. Noncritical quadrature squeezing through spontaneous polarization symmetry breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ferrer, Ferran V; Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos; de Valcárcel, Germán J; Roldán, Eugenio

    2010-07-01

    We discuss the possibility of generating noncritical quadrature squeezing by spontaneous polarization symmetry breaking. We first consider Type II frequency-degenerate optical parametric oscillators but discard them for a number of reasons. Then we propose a four-wave-mixing cavity, in which the polarization of the output mode is always linear but has an arbitrary orientation. We show that in such a cavity, complete noise suppression in a quadrature of the output field occurs, irrespective of the parameter values.

  19. STATCAT, Statistical Analysis of Parametric and Non-Parametric Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Hugh

    1990-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: A suite of 26 programs designed to facilitate the appropriate statistical analysis and data handling of parametric and non-parametric data, using classical and modern univariate and multivariate methods. 2 - Method of solution: Data is read entry by entry, using a choice of input formats, and the resultant data bank is checked for out-of- range, rare, extreme or missing data. The completed STATCAT data bank can be treated by a variety of descriptive and inferential statistical methods, and modified, using other standard programs as required

  20. Ionospheric modification and parametric instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fejer, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Thresholds and linear growth rates for stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering and for the parametric decay instability are derived by using arguments of energy transfer. For this purpose an expression for the ponderomotive force is derived. Conditions under which the partial pressure force due to differential dissipation exceeds the ponderomotive force are also discussed. Stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering are weakly excited by existing incoherent backscatter radars. The parametric decay instability is strongly excited in ionospheric heating experiments. Saturation theories of the parametric decay instability are therefore described. After a brief discussion of the purely growing instability the effect of using several pumps is discussed as well as the effects of inhomogenicity. Turning to detailed theories of ionospheric heating, artificial spread F is discussed in terms of a purely growing instability where the nonlinearity is due to dissipation. Field-aligned short-scale striations are explained in terms of dissipation of the parametrically excited Langmuir waves (plasma oscillations): they might be further amplified by an explosive instability (except the magnetic equator). Broadband absorption is probably responsible for the 'overshoot' effect: the initially observed level of parametrically excited Langmuir waves is much higher than the steady state level

  1. Parametric Thinking in Urban Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai

    2010-01-01

    The paper states that most applications of parametric mod- elling to architecture and urban design fall into one of two strands of either form for form’s sake, or the negotiation of environmental con- cerns, while approaches which allow scenarios to be easily tested and modified without the appli...... of the paper. The pros and cons of this simple approach is discussed, and the paper con- cludes, that while it does not represent a suitable solution in all cases, it fills a gap among the existing approaches to parametric urban de- sign.......The paper states that most applications of parametric mod- elling to architecture and urban design fall into one of two strands of either form for form’s sake, or the negotiation of environmental con- cerns, while approaches which allow scenarios to be easily tested and modified without...

  2. Spontaneous mutation by mutagenic repair of spontaneous lesions in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, P.J.; Quah, S.-K.; Borstel, R.C. von

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that strains of yeast carrying mutations in many of the steps in pathways repairing radiation-induced damage to DNA have enhanced spontaneous mutation rates. Most strains isolated because they have enhanced spontaneous mutation carry mutations in DNA repair systems. This suggests that much spontaneous mutation arises by mutagenic repair of spontaneous lesions. (author)

  3. An extended parametrization of gas amplification in proportional wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beingessner, S.P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Hargrove, C.K.

    1987-01-01

    It is normally assumed that the gas amplification in proportional chambers is a function of Townsend's first ionization coefficient, α, and that α is a function of the anode surface electric field only. Experimental measurements are presented demonstrating the breakdown of the latter assumption for electric fields, X, greater than about 150 V/cm/Torr on the anode wire surface for a gas mixture of 80/20 argon/methane. For larger values of X, the parametrization of the proportional gas gain data requires an additional term related to the gradient of the electric field near the wire. This extended gain parametrization remains valid until the onset of nonproportional contributions such as positive ion space charge saturation effects. Furthermore, deviations of the data from this parametrization are used to measure the onset of these space charge effects. A simple scaling dependence of the gain data on the product of pressure and wire radius over the whole proportional range is also demonstrated. (orig.)

  4. Entanglement in a parametric converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Su-Yong; Qamar, Shahid; Lee, Hai-Woong; Zubairy, M Suhail [Center for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: shahid_qamar@pieas.edu.pk, E-mail: zubairy@physics.tamu.edu

    2008-07-28

    In this paper, we consider a parametric converter as a source of entangled radiation. We examine recently derived conditions (Hillery and Zubairy 2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 050503, Duan et al 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 2722) for determining when the two output modes in a parametric converter are entangled. We show that for different initial field states, the two criteria give different conditions that ensure that the output states are entangled. We also present an input-output calculation for the entanglement of the output field.

  5. Variance in parametric images: direct estimation from parametric projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maguire, R.P.; Leenders, K.L.; Spyrou, N.M.

    2000-01-01

    Recent work has shown that it is possible to apply linear kinetic models to dynamic projection data in PET in order to calculate parameter projections. These can subsequently be back-projected to form parametric images - maps of parameters of physiological interest. Critical to the application of these maps, to test for significant changes between normal and pathophysiology, is an assessment of the statistical uncertainty. In this context, parametric images also include simple integral images from, e.g., [O-15]-water used to calculate statistical parametric maps (SPMs). This paper revisits the concept of parameter projections and presents a more general formulation of the parameter projection derivation as well as a method to estimate parameter variance in projection space, showing which analysis methods (models) can be used. Using simulated pharmacokinetic image data we show that a method based on an analysis in projection space inherently calculates the mathematically rigorous pixel variance. This results in an estimation which is as accurate as either estimating variance in image space during model fitting, or estimation by comparison across sets of parametric images - as might be done between individuals in a group pharmacokinetic PET study. The method based on projections has, however, a higher computational efficiency, and is also shown to be more precise, as reflected in smooth variance distribution images when compared to the other methods. (author)

  6. Strong environmental coupling in a Josephson parametric amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutus, J. Y.; White, T. C.; Barends, R.; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Cleland, A. N.; Martinis, John M.; Megrant, A.; Sundqvist, K. M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a lumped-element Josephson parametric amplifier designed to operate with strong coupling to the environment. In this regime, we observe broadband frequency dependent amplification with multi-peaked gain profiles. We account for this behavior using the “pumpistor” model which allows for frequency dependent variation of the external impedance. Using this understanding, we demonstrate control over the complexity of gain profiles through added variation in the environment impedance at a given frequency. With strong coupling to a suitable external impedance, we observe a significant increase in dynamic range, and large amplification bandwidth up to 700 MHz giving near quantum-limited performance.

  7. Optical parametric amplification and oscillation assisted by low-frequency stimulated emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Stefano

    2016-04-15

    Optical parametric amplification and oscillation provide powerful tools for coherent light generation in spectral regions inaccessible to lasers. Parametric gain is based on a frequency down-conversion process and, thus, it cannot be realized for signal waves at a frequency ω3 higher than the frequency of the pump wave ω1. In this Letter, we suggest a route toward the realization of upconversion optical parametric amplification and oscillation, i.e., amplification of the signal wave by a coherent pump wave of lower frequency, assisted by stimulated emission of the auxiliary idler wave. When the signal field is resonated in an optical cavity, parametric oscillation is obtained. Design parameters for the observation of upconversion optical parametric oscillation at λ3=465 nm are given for a periodically poled lithium-niobate (PPLN) crystal doped with Nd(3+) ions.

  8. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... fitness > Weight gain during pregnancy Weight gain during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  9. Preventing Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Preventing Weight Gain Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... cancer. Choosing an Eating Plan to Prevent Weight Gain So, how do you choose a healthful eating ...

  10. Definition of spontaneous reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, K.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses his view of driven versus spontaneous. There is a close link between ''spontaneous'' and ''instability.'' One of the prominent examples for instability is the thermal convection instability. Just to remind you, if you heat a fluid layer from below, it takes a certain Rayleigh number to make it unstable. Beyond the onset point you find qualitatively new features. That is called ''spontaneous,'' and this is a bit more than semantics. It's a new qualitative property that appears and it is spontaneous although we have an energy flux through the system. It's a misconception, to call this ''driven'' pointing at the energy flux through it. Of course, the convection would not exist without this energy flux. But what makes it ''spontaneous'' is that without any particular external signal, a new qualitative feature appears. And this is what is called an ''instability'' and ''spontaneous.'' From these considerations the author got a little reassured of what distinction should be made in the field of the magnetosphere. If we have a smooth energy transport into the magnetosphere and suddenly we have this qualitatively new feature (change of B-topology) coming up; then, using this terminology we don't have a choice other than calling this spontaneous or unstable, if you like. If we ''tell'' the system where it should make its neutral line and where it should make its plasmoids, then, it is driven. And this provides a very clear-cut observational distinction. The author emphasizes the difference he sees is a qualitative difference, not only a quantitative one

  11. PARAMETRIC MODEL OF LUMBAR VERTEBRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAPPETTI Nicola

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work proposes the realization of a parametric/variational CAD model of a normotype lumbar vertebra, which could be used for improving the effectiveness of actual imaging techniques in informational augmentation of the orthopaedic and traumatological diagnosis. In addition it could be used for ergonomic static and dynamical analysis of the lumbar region and vertebral column.

  12. Parametric programming of industrial robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szulczyński Paweł

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes the use of parametric design software, commonly used by architects, in order to obtain complex trajectory and program code for industrial robots. The paper describes the drawbacks of existing solutions and proposes a new script to obtain a correct program. The result of the algorithm was verified experimentally.

  13. Relational Parametricity and Separation Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Yang, Hongseok

    2008-01-01

    Separation logic is a recent extension of Hoare logic for reasoning about programs with references to shared mutable data structures. In this paper, we provide a new interpretation of the logic for a programming language with higher types. Our interpretation is based on Reynolds's relational...... parametricity, and it provides a formal connection between separation logic and data abstraction. Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  14. Quantum optical measurement with tripartite entangled photons generated by triple parametric down-conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Minhaeng

    2018-05-01

    Parametric down-conversion is a second-order nonlinear optical process annihilating a pump photon and creating a pair of photons in the signal and idler modes. Then, by using two parametric down-converters and introducing a path indistinguishability for the two generated idler modes, a quantum coherence between two conjugate signal beams can be induced. Such a double spontaneous or stimulated parametric down-conversion scheme has been used to demonstrate quantum spectroscopy and imaging with undetected idler photons via measuring one-photon interference between their correlated signal beams. Recently, we considered another quantum optical measurement scheme utilizing W-type tripartite entangled signal photons that can be generated by employing three spontaneous parametric down-conversion crystals and by inducing coherences or path-indistinguishabilities between their correlated idler beams and between quantum vacuum fields. Here, we consider an extended triple stimulated parametric down-conversion scheme for quantum optical measurement of sample properties with undetected idler and photons. Noting the real effect of vacuum field indistinguishability on the fringe visibility as well as the role of zero-point field energy in the interferometry, we show that this scheme is an ideal and efficient way to create a coherent state of W-type entangled signal photons. We anticipate that this scheme would be of critical use in further developing quantum optical measurements in spectroscopy and microscopy with undetected photons.

  15. Quantum optical measurement with tripartite entangled photons generated by triple parametric down-conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Minhaeng

    2018-05-14

    Parametric down-conversion is a second-order nonlinear optical process annihilating a pump photon and creating a pair of photons in the signal and idler modes. Then, by using two parametric down-converters and introducing a path indistinguishability for the two generated idler modes, a quantum coherence between two conjugate signal beams can be induced. Such a double spontaneous or stimulated parametric down-conversion scheme has been used to demonstrate quantum spectroscopy and imaging with undetected idler photons via measuring one-photon interference between their correlated signal beams. Recently, we considered another quantum optical measurement scheme utilizing W-type tripartite entangled signal photons that can be generated by employing three spontaneous parametric down-conversion crystals and by inducing coherences or path-indistinguishabilities between their correlated idler beams and between quantum vacuum fields. Here, we consider an extended triple stimulated parametric down-conversion scheme for quantum optical measurement of sample properties with undetected idler and photons. Noting the real effect of vacuum field indistinguishability on the fringe visibility as well as the role of zero-point field energy in the interferometry, we show that this scheme is an ideal and efficient way to create a coherent state of W-type entangled signal photons. We anticipate that this scheme would be of critical use in further developing quantum optical measurements in spectroscopy and microscopy with undetected photons.

  16. Case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, Kanji; Yoshimoto, Hisanori; Harada, Kiyoshi; Uozumi, Tohru [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    1983-05-01

    The authors experienced a case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy diagnosed by CT scan with metrizamide and Conray. Patient was 23-year-old male who had been in good health until one month before admission, when he began to have headache and tinnitus. He noticed bilateral visual acuity was decreased about one week before admission and vomiting appeared two days before admission. He was admitted to our hospital because of bilateral papilledema and remarkable hydrocephalus diagnosed by CT scan. On admission, no abnormal neurological signs except for bilateral papilledema were noted. Immediately, right ventricular drainage was performed. Pressure of the ventricle was over 300mmH/sub 2/O and CSF was clear. PVG and PEG disclosed an another cavity behind the third ventricle, which was communicated with the third ventricle, and occlusion of aqueduct of Sylvius. Metrizamide CT scan and Conray CT scan showed a communication between this cavity and quadrigeminal and supracerebellar cisterns. On these neuroradiological findings, the diagnosis of obstructive hydrocephalus due to benign aqueduct stenosis accompanied with spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was obtained. Spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was noticed to produce arrest of hydrocephalus, but with our case, spontaneous regression of such symptoms did not appeared. By surgical ventriculocisternostomy (method by Torkildsen, Dandy, or Scarff), arrest of hydrocephalus was seen in about 50 to 70 per cent, which was the same results as those of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy. It is concluded that VP shunt or VA shunt is thought to be better treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus than the various kinds of surgical ventriculocisternostomy.

  17. Stability analysis of fuzzy parametric uncertain systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhiwani, R J; Patre, B M

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, the determination of stability margin, gain and phase margin aspects of fuzzy parametric uncertain systems are dealt. The stability analysis of uncertain linear systems with coefficients described by fuzzy functions is studied. A complexity reduced technique for determining the stability margin for FPUS is proposed. The method suggested is dependent on the order of the characteristic polynomial. In order to find the stability margin of interval polynomials of order less than 5, it is not always necessary to determine and check all four Kharitonov's polynomials. It has been shown that, for determining stability margin of FPUS of order five, four, and three we require only 3, 2, and 1 Kharitonov's polynomials respectively. Only for sixth and higher order polynomials, a complete set of Kharitonov's polynomials are needed to determine the stability margin. Thus for lower order systems, the calculations are reduced to a large extent. This idea has been extended to determine the stability margin of fuzzy interval polynomials. It is also shown that the gain and phase margin of FPUS can be determined analytically without using graphical techniques. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Towards a parametrization of multiparticle hadronic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giffon, M.; Hama, Y.; Predazzi, E.

    1979-11-01

    An explicit parametrization of high energy exclusive production cross-sections is shown to give a reasonable account of inclusive data. This is a first step towards a phenomenological parametrization of multiparticle hadronic amplitudes

  19. Bianchi surfaces: integrability in an arbitrary parametrization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieszporski, Maciej; Sym, Antoni

    2009-01-01

    We discuss integrability of normal field equations of arbitrarily parametrized Bianchi surfaces. A geometric definition of the Bianchi surfaces is presented as well as the Baecklund transformation for the normal field equations in an arbitrarily chosen surface parametrization.

  20. Optimal weight gain in triplet pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robert C; Erfani, Hadi; Shamshirsaz, Amir A; Spiel, Melissa; Ravangard, Sam F; Shaman, Majid; Allaf, M Baraa; Shamshirsaz, Alireza A; Haeri, Sina

    2017-08-01

    To identify appropriate weight gain in triplet gestations, which may aid in reducing the risk of perinatal morbidity within this high-risk cohort. This retrospective cohort study evaluated all non-anomalous triplet pregnancies between 23 and 40 weeks' gestation resulting in live births at five tertiary-care medical centers between 1991 and 2011. Subjects were divided by pre-pregnancy BMI into underweight, normal-weight, overweight, and obese groups, and then stratified by low (gain (≥1.5 lbs/week). Primary outcomes included spontaneous preterm birth and preeclampsia. We included 116 mothers and 348 corresponding neonates for final analysis. The incidence of preeclampsia and preterm delivery less than 32 weeks' gestation was 37% and 41%, respectively. The incidence of preeclampsia increased with weight gain per week, but was not statistically different from subjects who gained less weight. We found no statistical correlation between weight gain per week and preterm delivery. We found no association between preeclampsia or preterm delivery and increasing weight gain in triplet pregnancies. The association with increased risk for preeclampsia was predominantly due to BMI effect. Based on the current study, recommendations for optimal weight gain in mothers with triplet gestations could not be defined.

  1. Spontaneous tension haemopneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Benjamin Oliver; Itam, Sarah; Probst, Fey

    2008-10-31

    We present a patient with sudden onset progressive shortness of breath and no history of trauma, who rapidly became haemodynamically compromised with a pneumothorax and pleural effusion seen on chest radiograph. He was treated for spontaneous tension pneumothorax but this was soon revealed to be a tension haemopneumothorax. He underwent urgent thoracotomy after persistent bleeding to explore an apical vascular abnormality seen on CT scanning. To our knowledge this is the first such case reported.Aetiology and current approach to spontaneous haemothorax are discussed briefly.

  2. Spontaneous Atraumatic Mediastinal Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morkos Iskander BSc, BMBS, MRCS, PGCertMedEd

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous atraumatic mediastinal hematomas are rare. We present a case of a previously fit and well middle-aged lady who presented with acute breathlessness and an increasing neck swelling and spontaneous neck bruising. On plain chest radiograph, widening of the mediastinum was noted. The bruising was later confirmed to be secondary to mediastinal hematoma. This life-threatening diagnostic conundrum was managed conservatively with a multidisciplinary team approach involving upper gastrointestinal and thoracic surgeons, gastroenterologists, radiologists, intensivists, and hematologists along with a variety of diagnostic modalities. A review of literature is also presented to help surgeons manage such challenging and complicated cases.

  3. Spontaneous tension haemopneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itam Sarah

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a patient with sudden onset progressive shortness of breath and no history of trauma, who rapidly became haemodynamically compromised with a pneumothorax and pleural effusion seen on chest radiograph. He was treated for spontaneous tension pneumothorax but this was soon revealed to be a tension haemopneumothorax. He underwent urgent thoracotomy after persistent bleeding to explore an apical vascular abnormality seen on CT scanning. To our knowledge this is the first such case reported. Aetiology and current approach to spontaneous haemothorax are discussed briefly.

  4. Terahertz wave parametric oscillations at polariton resonance using a MgO:LiNbO3 crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongyang; Bing, Pibin; Yuan, Sheng; Xu, Degang; Yao, Jianquan

    2015-06-20

    Terahertz wave (THz-wave) parametric oscillations with a noncollinear phase-matching scheme at polariton resonance using a MgO:LiNbO3 crystal with a surface-emitted configuration are investigated. We investigate frequency tuning characteristics of a THz-wave via varying the wavelength of the pump wave and phase-matching angle. The effective parametric gain length under the noncollinear phase-matching condition is calculated. Parametric gain and absorption characteristics of a THz-wave in the vicinity of polariton resonances are analyzed.

  5. Detection of Parametric Roll on Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2012-01-01

    phenomenon could make the navigator change ship’s speed and heading, and these remedial actions could make the vessel escape the bifurcation. This chapter proposes non-parametric methods to detect the onset of parametric roll resonance. Theoretical conditions for parametric resonance are re...... on experimental data from towing tank tests and data from a container ship passing an Atlantic storm....

  6. Gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominiarek, Michelle A; Peaceman, Alan M

    2017-12-01

    Prenatal care providers are advised to evaluate maternal weight at each regularly scheduled prenatal visit, monitor progress toward meeting weight gain goals, and provide individualized counseling if significant deviations from a woman's goals occur. Today, nearly 50% of women exceed their weight gain goals with overweight and obese women having the highest prevalence of excessive weight gain. Risks of inadequate weight gain include low birthweight and failure to initiate breast-feeding whereas the risks of excessive weight gain include cesarean deliveries and postpartum weight retention for the mother and large-for-gestational-age infants, macrosomia, and childhood overweight or obesity for the offspring. Prenatal care providers have many resources and tools to incorporate weight and other health behavior counseling into routine prenatal practices. Because many women are motivated to improve health behaviors, pregnancy is often considered the optimal time to intervene for issues related to eating habits and physical activity to prevent excessive weight gain. Gestational weight gain is a potentially modifiable risk factor for a number of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials report that diet or exercise interventions during pregnancy can help reduce excessive weight gain. However, health behavior interventions for gestational weight gain have not significantly improved other maternal and neonatal outcomes and have limited effectiveness in overweight and obese women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Interactive Dimensioning of Parametric Models

    KAUST Repository

    Kelly, T.

    2015-06-22

    We propose a solution for the dimensioning of parametric and procedural models. Dimensioning has long been a staple of technical drawings, and we present the first solution for interactive dimensioning: A dimension line positioning system that adapts to the view direction, given behavioral properties. After proposing a set of design principles for interactive dimensioning, we describe our solution consisting of the following major components. First, we describe how an author can specify the desired interactive behavior of a dimension line. Second, we propose a novel algorithm to place dimension lines at interactive speeds. Third, we introduce multiple extensions, including chained dimension lines, controls for different parameter types (e.g. discrete choices, angles), and the use of dimension lines for interactive editing. Our results show the use of dimension lines in an interactive parametric modeling environment for architectural, botanical, and mechanical models.

  8. Spontaneous rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrancioglu, Ozgur; Akkas, Yucel; Arslan, Sulhattin; Sahin, Ekber

    2015-07-01

    Other than trauma, rib fracture can occur spontaneously due to a severe cough or sneeze. In this study, patients with spontaneous rib fractures were analyzed according to age, sex, underlying pathology, treatment, and complications. Twelve patients who presented between February 2009 and February 2011 with spontaneous rib fracture were reviewed retrospectively. The patients' data were evaluated according to anamnesis, physical examination, and chest radiographs. The ages of the patients ranged from 34 to 77 years (mean 55.91 ± 12.20 years), and 7 (58.4%) were male. All patients had severe cough and chest pain. The fractures were most frequently between 4th and 9th ribs; multiple rib fractures were detected in 5 (41.7%) patients. Eight (66.7%) patients had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 2 (16.7%) had bronchial asthma, and 2 (16.7%) had osteoporosis. Bone densitometry revealed a high risk of bone fracture in all patients. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or bronchial asthma had been treated with high-dose steroids for over a year. Spontaneous rib fracture due to severe cough may occur in patients with osteoporosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or bronchial asthma, receiving long-term steroid therapy. If these patients have severe chest pain, chest radiography should be performed to check for bone lesions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. [Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velkey, Bálint; Vitális, Eszter; Vitális, Zsuzsanna

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs most commonly in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Pathogens get into the circulation by intestinal translocation and colonize in peritoneal fluid. Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is based on elevated polymorphonuclear leukocyte count in the ascites (>0,25 G/L). Ascites culture is often negative but aids to get information about antibiotic sensitivity in positive cases. Treatment in stable patient can be intravenous then orally administrated ciprofloxacin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, while in severe cases intravenous III. generation cephalosporin. Nosocomial spontaneous bacterial peritonitis often caused by Gram-positive bacteria and multi-resistant pathogens can also be expected thus carbapenem should be the choice of the empiric treatment. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered. Norfloxacin is used most commonly, but changes are expected due to increase in quinolone resistance. As a primary prophylaxis, a short-term antibiotic treatment is recommended after gastrointestinal bleeding for 5 days, while long-term prophylaxis is for patients with low ascites protein, and advanced disease (400 mg/day). Secondary prophylaxis is recommended for all patients recovered from spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Due to increasing antibiotic use of antibiotics prophylaxis is debated to some degree. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(2), 50-57.

  10. Parametric Optimization of Hospital Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Malene Kirstine; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Christoffersen, L.D.

    2013-01-01

    Present paper presents a parametric performancebased design model for optimizing hospital design. The design model operates with geometric input parameters defining the functional requirements of the hospital and input parameters in terms of performance objectives defining the design requirements...... and preferences of the hospital with respect to performances. The design model takes point of departure in the hospital functionalities as a set of defined parameters and rules describing the design requirements and preferences....

  11. Parametric decay of the curvaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enqvist, K; Nurmi, S; Rigopoulos, G I

    2008-01-01

    We argue that the curvaton decay takes place most naturally by way of a broad parametric resonance. The mechanism is analogous to resonant inflaton decay but does not require any tuning of the curvaton coupling strength to other scalar fields. For low scale inflation and a correspondingly low mass scale for the curvaton, we speculate on observable consequences including the possibility of stochastic gravitational waves

  12. Parametric Fires for Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    The authorities, the construction association, and a number of companies in Denmark have supported the author writing a guide for design of building structures for parametric fires. The guide is published by the ministry as a supplement to the building regulations. However, consultants and contra......The authorities, the construction association, and a number of companies in Denmark have supported the author writing a guide for design of building structures for parametric fires. The guide is published by the ministry as a supplement to the building regulations. However, consultants...... and contractors have asked for a reference in English in order to make the guide-lines and the background for them available internationally. The paper therefore presents recommendations from the design guide especially concerning how to assess parametric design fires based on the opening factor method for large...... compartments. Findings leading to the guide-lines are discussed, and it is indicated what a safe design fire model means for structural design and how it differs from a safe design fire model for evacuation. Furthermore, the paper includes some experiences from the application of the design guide in practise...

  13. L2-gain and passivity techniques in nonlinear control

    CERN Document Server

    van der Schaft, Arjan

    2017-01-01

    This standard text gives a unified treatment of passivity and L2-gain theory for nonlinear state space systems, preceded by a compact treatment of classical passivity and small-gain theorems for nonlinear input-output maps. The synthesis between passivity and L2-gain theory is provided by the theory of dissipative systems. Specifically, the small-gain and passivity theorems and their implications for nonlinear stability and stabilization are discussed from this standpoint. The connection between L2-gain and passivity via scattering is detailed. Feedback equivalence to a passive system and resulting stabilization strategies are discussed. The passivity concepts are enriched by a generalised Hamiltonian formalism, emphasising the close relations with physical modeling and control by interconnection, and leading to novel control methodologies going beyond passivity. The potential of L2-gain techniques in nonlinear control, including a theory of all-pass factorizations of nonlinear systems, and of parametrization...

  14. Short-pulse propagation in fiber optical parametric amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristofori, Valentina

    Fiber optical parametric amplifiers (FOPAs) are attractive because they can provide large gain over a broad range of central wavelengths, depending only on the availability of a suitable pump laser. In addition, FOPAs are suitable for the realization of all-optical signal processing functionalities...... transfer can be reduced in saturated F OPAs. In order to characterize propagation impairments such as dispersion and Kerr effect, affecting signals reaching multi-terabit per second per channel, short pulses on the order of 500 fs need to be considered. Therefore, a short pulses fiber laser source...... is implemented to obtain an all-fiber system. The advantages of all fiber-systems are related to their reliability, long-term stability and compactness. Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is promising for the amplification of such signals thanks to the inherent compatibility of FOPAs with fiber...

  15. Phase Sensitive Amplification using Parametric Processes in Optical Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kang, Ning

    . Further, phase sensitive parametric processes in a nano-engineered silicon waveguide have been measured experimentally for the first time. Numerical optimizations show that with reduced waveguide propagation loss and reduced carrier life time, larger signal phase sensitive extinction ratio is achievable......Phase sensitive amplification using the parametric processes in fiber has the potential of delivering high gain and broadband operation with ultralow noise. It is able to regenerate both amplitude and phase modulated signals, simultaneously, with the appropriate design. This thesis concerns...... types. The regeneration capability of PSAs on phase encoded signal in an optical link has been optimized. Flat-top phase sensitive profile has been synthesized. It is able to provide simultaneous amplitude and phase noise squeezing, with enhanced phase noise margin compared to conventional designs...

  16. Digital spectral analysis parametric, non-parametric and advanced methods

    CERN Document Server

    Castanié, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Digital Spectral Analysis provides a single source that offers complete coverage of the spectral analysis domain. This self-contained work includes details on advanced topics that are usually presented in scattered sources throughout the literature.The theoretical principles necessary for the understanding of spectral analysis are discussed in the first four chapters: fundamentals, digital signal processing, estimation in spectral analysis, and time-series models.An entire chapter is devoted to the non-parametric methods most widely used in industry.High resolution methods a

  17. Parametric amplification and bidirectional invisibility in PT -symmetric time-Floquet systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutserimpas, Theodoros T.; Alù, Andrea; Fleury, Romain

    2018-01-01

    Parity-time (PT )-symmetric wave devices, which exploit balanced interactions between material gain and loss, exhibit extraordinary properties, including lasing and flux-conserving scattering processes. In a seemingly different research field, periodically driven systems, also known as time-Floquet systems, have been widely studied as a relevant platform for reconfigurable active wave control and manipulation. In this article, we explore the connection between PT -symmetry and parametric time-Floquet systems. Instead of relying on material gain, we use parametric amplification by considering a time-periodic modulation of the refractive index at a frequency equal to twice the incident signal frequency. We show that the scattering from a simple parametric slab, whose dynamics follows the Mathieu equation, can be described by a PT -symmetric scattering matrix, whose PT -breaking threshold corresponds to the Mathieu instability threshold. By combining different parametric slabs modulated out of phase, we create PT -symmetric time-Floquet systems that feature exceptional scattering properties, such as coherent perfect absorption (CPA)-laser operation and bidirectional invisibility. These bidirectional properties, rare for regular PT -symmetric systems, are related to a compensation of parametric amplification due to multiple scattering between two parametric systems modulated with a phase difference.

  18. Spontaneous tension haemopneumothorax

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Benjamin Oliver; Itam, Sarah; Probst, Fey

    2008-01-01

    Abstract We present a patient with sudden onset progressive shortness of breath and no history of trauma, who rapidly became haemodynamically compromised with a pneumothorax and pleural effusion seen on chest radiograph. He was treated for spontaneous tension pneumothorax but this was soon revealed to be a tension haemopneumothorax. He underwent urgent thoracotomy after persistent bleeding to explore an apical vascular abnormality seen on CT scanning. To our knowledge this is the first such c...

  19. Spontaneous spinal epidural abscess.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2011-10-01

    Spinal epidural abscess is an uncommon entity, the frequency of which is increasing. They occur spontaneously or as a complication of intervention. The classical triad of fever, back pain and neurological symptoms are not always present. High index of suspicion is key to diagnosis. Any delay in diagnosis and treatment can have significant neurological consequences. We present the case of a previously well man with a one month history of back pain resulting from an epidural abscess.

  20. Spontaneous polyploidization in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Madera, Axel O; Miller, Nathan D; Spalding, Edgar P; Weng, Yiqun; Havey, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    This is the first quantitative estimation of spontaneous polyploidy in cucumber and we detected 2.2% polyploids in a greenhouse study. We provide evidence that polyploidization is consistent with endoreduplication and is an on-going process during plant growth. Cucumber occasionally produces polyploid plants, which are problematic for growers because these plants produce misshaped fruits with non-viable seeds. In this study, we undertook the first quantitative study to estimate the relative frequency of spontaneous polyploids in cucumber. Seeds of recombinant inbred lines were produced in different environments, plants were grown in the field and greenhouse, and flow cytometry was used to establish ploidies. From 1422 greenhouse-grown plants, the overall relative frequency of spontaneous polyploidy was 2.2%. Plants possessed nuclei of different ploidies in the same leaves (mosaic) and on different parts of the same plant (chimeric). Our results provide evidence of endoreduplication and polysomaty in cucumber, and that it is an on-going and dynamic process. There was a significant effect (p = 0.018) of seed production environment on the occurrence of polyploid plants. Seed and seedling traits were not accurate predictors of eventual polyploids, and we recommend that cucumber producers rogue plants based on stature and leaf serration to remove potential polyploids.

  1. Chaotic parametric soliton-like pulses in ferromagnetic-film active ring resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishin, S. V.; Golova, T. M.; Morozova, M. A.; Romanenko, D. V.; Seleznev, E. P.; Sysoev, I. V.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P.

    2015-01-01

    The generation of quasi-periodic sequences of parametric soliton-like pulses in an active ring resonator with a ferromagnetic film via the three-wave parametric instability of a magnetostatic surface wave is studied theoretically and experimentally. These dissipative structures form in time due to the competition between the cubic nonlinearity caused by parametric coupling between spin waves and the time dispersion caused by the resonant cavity that is present in a self-oscillatory system. The development of dynamic chaos due to the parametric instability of a magnetostatic surface wave results in irregular behavior of a phase. However, this behavior does not break a quasi-periodic pulse sequence when the gain changes over a wide range. The generated soliton-like pulses have a chaotic nature, which is supported by the maximum Lyapunov exponent estimated from experimental time series

  2. Parametric Verification of Weighted Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Hansen, Mikkel; Mariegaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    are themselves indexed with linear equations. The parameters change the model-checking problem into a problem of computing a linear system of inequalities that characterizes the parameters that guarantee the satisfiability. To address this problem, we use parametric dependency graphs (PDGs) and we propose...... a global update function that yields an assignment to each node in a PDG. For an iterative application of the function, we prove that a fixed point assignment to PDG nodes exists and the set of assignments constitutes a well-quasi ordering, thus ensuring that the fixed point assignment can be found after...

  3. Parametric Sensibility in Lixiviation Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Margarita Rivera-Soto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results obtained in an analysis of the parametric sensibility, on the base of a mathematical model, which describes the behavior a lixiviation reactors battery inside the limits of the habitual work of the industrial plant, in a concrete process and of high complexity. The analysis was carried out with the purpose of determining the effect that the changes in different operation variables have on the behavior of the system and it gave as result that the most important variables are: the mineral-acid relationship, the concentration of magnesium and of nickel.

  4. Antidepressants and Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015;37:46. Blumenthal SR, et al. An electronic health records study of long-term weight gain following antidepressant ... your agreement to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy linked below. Terms and Conditions Privacy Policy ...

  5. Weight gain - unintentional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes Hormone changes or medical problems can also cause unintentional weight gain. This may be due to: Cushing syndrome Underactive thyroid, or low thyroid (hypothyroidism) Polycystic ovary syndrome Menopause Pregnancy Bloating, or swelling ...

  6. Review of High Gain FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shintake, Tsumoru

    2007-01-01

    For understanding on basic radiation mechanism of the high-gain FEL based on SASE, the author presents electron-crystal interpretation of FEL radiation. In the electron-crystal, electrons are localized at regularly spaced multi-layers, which represents micro-bunching, whose spacing is equal to the radiation wavelength, and the multi-layers are perpendicular to beam axis, thus, diffracted wave creates Bragg's spots in forward and backward directions. Due to the Doppler's effect, frequency of the back-scattered wave is up-converted, generates forwardly focused X-ray. The Bragg's effect contributes focusing the X-ray beam into a spot, thus peak power becomes extremely higher by factor of typically 107. This is the FEL radiation. As well known, the total numbers of scattered photons in Bragg's spots is equal to the total elastic scattering photons from the atoms contained in the crystal. Therefore, total power in the FEL laser is same as the spontaneous radiation power from the undulator for the same beam parameter. The FEL radiation phenomenon is simple interference effect. In today's presentations, we use the laser pointer, and we frequently experience difficulty in pointing precisely or steadily in one place on the screen, since the laser spot is very small and does not spread. Exactly same to this, X-ray FEL is a highly focused beam, and pointing stability dominates productivity of experiment, thus we need special care on beam stability from linear accelerator

  7. Suppression of Brillouin scattering in fibre-optical parametric amplifier by applying temperature control and phase modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Noordegraaf, Danny; Nielsen, Carsten Vandel

    2009-01-01

    An increased gain in a fibre-optical parametric amplifier through suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering is demonstrated by applying a temperature distribution along the fibre for a fixed phase modulation of the pump. The temperature distribution slightly impacts the gain spectrum....

  8. Parametric nanomechanical amplification at very high frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabalin, R B; Feng, X L; Roukes, M L

    2009-09-01

    Parametric resonance and amplification are important in both fundamental physics and technological applications. Here we report very high frequency (VHF) parametric resonators and mechanical-domain amplifiers based on nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). Compound mechanical nanostructures patterned by multilayer, top-down nanofabrication are read out by a novel scheme that parametrically modulates longitudinal stress in doubly clamped beam NEMS resonators. Parametric pumping and signal amplification are demonstrated for VHF resonators up to approximately 130 MHz and provide useful enhancement of both resonance signal amplitude and quality factor. We find that Joule heating and reduced thermal conductance in these nanostructures ultimately impose an upper limit to device performance. We develop a theoretical model to account for both the parametric response and nonequilibrium thermal transport in these composite nanostructures. The results closely conform to our experimental observations, elucidate the frequency and threshold-voltage scaling in parametric VHF NEMS resonators and sensors, and establish the ultimate sensitivity limits of this approach.

  9. Parametric Study of Sealant Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yoshimi

    It has become apparent in recent years the advancement of manufacturing processes in the aerospace industry. Sealant nozzles are a critical device in the use of fuel tank applications for optimal bonds and for ground service support and repair. Sealants has always been a challenging area for optimizing and understanding the flow patterns. A parametric study was conducted to better understand geometric effects of sealant flow and to determine whether the sealant rheology can be numerically modeled. The Star-CCM+ software was used to successfully develop the parametric model, material model, physics continua, and simulate the fluid flow for the sealant nozzle. The simulation results of Semco sealant nozzles showed the geometric effects of fluid flow patterns and the influences from conical area reduction, tip length, inlet diameter, and tip angle parameters. A smaller outlet diameter induced maximum outlet velocity at the exit, and contributed to a high pressure drop. The conical area reduction, tip angle and inlet diameter contributed most to viscosity variation phenomenon. Developing and simulating 2 different flow models (Segregated Flow and Viscous Flow) proved that both can be used to obtain comparable velocity and pressure drop results, however; differences are seen visually in the non-uniformity of the velocity and viscosity fields for the Viscous Flow Model (VFM). A comprehensive simulation setup for sealant nozzles was developed so other analysts can utilize the data.

  10. Polyaffine parametrization of image registration based on geodesic flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Sass; Thorup, Signe Strann; Warfield, Simon K.

    2012-01-01

    Image registration based on geodesic flows has gained much popularity in recent years. We describe a novel parametrization of the velocity field in a stationary flow equation. We show that the method offers both precision, flexibility, and simplicity of evaluation. With our representation, which ...... of geodesic shooting for computational anatomy. We avoid to do warp field convolution by interpolation in a dense field, we can easily calculate warp derivatives in a reference frame of choice, and we can consequently avoid interpolation in the image space altogether....

  11. Optimal Operation of a Josephson Parametric Amplifier for Vacuum Squeezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malnou, M.; Palken, D. A.; Vale, Leila R.; Hilton, Gene C.; Lehnert, K. W.

    2018-04-01

    A Josephson parametric amplifier (JPA) can create squeezed states of microwave light, lowering the noise associated with certain quantum measurements. We experimentally study how the JPA's pump influences the phase-sensitive amplification and deamplification of a coherent tone's amplitude when that amplitude is commensurate with vacuum fluctuations. We predict and demonstrate that, by operating the JPA with a single current pump whose power is greater than the value that maximizes gain, the amplifier distortion is reduced and, consequently, squeezing is improved. Optimizing the singly pumped JPA's operation in this fashion, we directly observe 3.87 ±0.03 dB of vacuum squeezing over a bandwidth of 30 MHz.

  12. A general approach to optomechanical parametric instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.; Barsotti, L.; Fritschel, P.

    2010-01-01

    We present a simple feedback description of parametric instabilities which can be applied to a variety of optical systems. Parametric instabilities are of particular interest to the field of gravitational-wave interferometry where high mechanical quality factors and a large amount of stored optical power have the potential for instability. In our use of Advanced LIGO as an example application, we find that parametric instabilities, if left unaddressed, present a potential threat to the stability of high-power operation.

  13. Connections between classical and parametric network entropies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Dehmer

    Full Text Available This paper explores relationships between classical and parametric measures of graph (or network complexity. Classical measures are based on vertex decompositions induced by equivalence relations. Parametric measures, on the other hand, are constructed by using information functions to assign probabilities to the vertices. The inequalities established in this paper relating classical and parametric measures lay a foundation for systematic classification of entropy-based measures of graph complexity.

  14. Amplified spontaneous emission in solar-pumped iodine laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong S.; Hwang, In H.; Han, Kwang S.; Lee, Ja H.

    1992-01-01

    The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from a long pulse, solar-simulating radiation pumped iodine laser amplifier is studied. The ASE threshold pump intensity is almost proportional to the inverse of the laser gain length when the gas pressure is constant in the laser tube.

  15. Receiver gain function: the actual NMR receiver gain

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Huaping; Harwood, John S.; Raftery, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The observed NMR signal size depends on the receiver gain parameter. We propose a receiver gain function to characterize how much the raw FID is amplified by the receiver as a function of the receiver gain setting. Although the receiver is linear for a fixed gain setting, the actual gain of the receiver may differ from what the gain setting suggests. Nevertheless, for a given receiver, we demonstrate that the receiver gain function can be calibrated. Such a calibration enables accurate compar...

  16. Dynamic characterization and amplification of sub-picosecond pulses in fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristofori, Valentina; Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Rishøj, Lars Søgaard

    2013-01-01

    We show a first-time demonstration of amplification of 400 fs pulses in a fiber optical parametric amplifier. The 400 fs signal is stretched in time, amplified by 26 dB and compressed back to 500 fs. A significant broadening of the pulses is experimentally shown due to dispersion and limited gain...

  17. Spontaneously broken mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endlich, Solomon; Nicolis, Alberto; Penco, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    The Galilei group involves mass as a central charge. We show that the associated superselection rule is incompatible with the observed phenomenology of superfluid helium 4: this is recovered only under the assumption that mass is spontaneously broken. This remark is somewhat immaterial for the real world, where the correct space-time symmetries are encoded by the Poincaré group, which has no central charge. Yet it provides an explicit example of how superselection rules can be experimentally tested. We elaborate on what conditions must be met for our ideas to be generalizable to the relativistic case of the integer/half-integer angular momentum superselection rule.

  18. Excitonic effects in gain and index in GaAlAs quantum well lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, M.P.; Harder, C. (IBM Research Division, Zurich Research Laboratory, 8803 Rueschlikon (Switzerland))

    1990-07-09

    Spontaneous emission and gain measurements in GaAlAs single quantum well lasers are presented. The gain is derived from the spontaneous emission detected through an opening in the top metallic contact of the lasers. Excitonic effects are seen in the gain (absorption) spectra for low carrier densities, and the step-like nature of the two-dimensional density of states is evident. From the gain spectra, refractive index changes are derived via a Kramers--Kronig transformation, and this is used to evaluate the linewidth enhancement factor as a function of photon energy.

  19. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  20. Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia C. Weeks MD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS is a known complication of malignancy and its treatment. The incidence varies on malignancy type, but is most common with hematologic neoplasms during cytotoxic treatment. Spontaneous TLS is thought to be rare. This case study is of a 62-year-old female admitted with multisystem organ failure, with subsequent diagnosis of aggressive B cell lymphoma. On admission, laboratory abnormalities included renal failure, elevated uric acid (20.7 mg/dL, and 3+ amorphous urates on urinalysis. Oliguric renal failure persisted despite aggressive hydration and diuretic use, requiring initiation of hemodialysis prior to chemotherapy. Antihyperuricemic therapy and hemodialysis were used to resolve hyperuricemia. However, due to multisystem organ dysfunction syndrome with extremely poor prognosis, the patient ultimately expired in the setting of a terminal ventilator wean. Although our patient did not meet current TLS criteria, she required hemodialysis due to uric acid nephropathy, a complication of TLS. This poses the clinical question of whether adequate diagnostic criteria exist for spontaneous TLS and if the lack of currently accepted guidelines has resulted in the underestimation of its incidence. Allopurinol and rasburicase are commonly used for prevention and treatment of TLS. Although both drugs decrease uric acid levels, allopurinol mechanistically prevents formation of the substrate rasburicase acts to solubilize. These drugs were administered together in our patient, although no established guidelines recommend combined use. This raises the clinical question of whether combined therapy is truly beneficial or, conversely, detrimental to patient outcomes.

  1. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardwell, C.; Cox, I.; Baldey, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A 49-year old female presented with severe postural headache with no history of trauma. A Computed Tomography (CT) study of the brain demonstrated abnormal meningeal enhancement raising the possibility of leptomeningeal metastases. The patient was then referred to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) which demonstrated diffuse smooth dural enhancement with ancillary findings characteristic of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. The patient was then referred to Nuclear Medicine to confirm the diagnosis and localise the presumed leak 400MBq of 99mTc DTPA was injected via lumbar puncture into the L3-L4 subarachnoid space Posterior images of the spine were taken with a GE XRT single head gamma camera at 1 and 4 hours post administration of radionuclide. Images demonstrated abnormal early arrival of radionuclide in the kidneys and bladder at 1 hour and abnormal leak of tracer was demonstrate at the level of the first thoracic vertebra on the right side at 4 hours. This confirmed CSF leak at this level. Consequently the patient underwent a blood patch and her symptoms resolved. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension is a syndrome often unrecognised presenting with symptoms including severe postural headache neck stiffness nausea vomiting tinnitus and vertigo. The diagnosis is frequently suspected from findings on MRI, but Nuclear Medicine CSF imaging provides a readily available and cost effective method for confirming the diagnosis, and for making the diagnosis in patients who are unsuitable for or do not have access to MRI. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  2. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardwell, C; Cox, I; Baldey, A [St. F.X. Cabrini Hospital, VIC (Australia). Departments of Nuclear Medicine and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    2002-07-01

    Full text: A 49-year old female presented with severe postural headache with no history of trauma. A Computed Tomography (CT) study of the brain demonstrated abnormal meningeal enhancement raising the possibility of leptomeningeal metastases. The patient was then referred to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) which demonstrated diffuse smooth dural enhancement with ancillary findings characteristic of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. The patient was then referred to Nuclear Medicine to confirm the diagnosis and localise the presumed leak 400MBq of 99mTc DTPA was injected via lumbar puncture into the L3-L4 subarachnoid space Posterior images of the spine were taken with a GE XRT single head gamma camera at 1 and 4 hours post administration of radionuclide. Images demonstrated abnormal early arrival of radionuclide in the kidneys and bladder at 1 hour and abnormal leak of tracer was demonstrate at the level of the first thoracic vertebra on the right side at 4 hours. This confirmed CSF leak at this level. Consequently the patient underwent a blood patch and her symptoms resolved. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension is a syndrome often unrecognised presenting with symptoms including severe postural headache neck stiffness nausea vomiting tinnitus and vertigo. The diagnosis is frequently suspected from findings on MRI, but Nuclear Medicine CSF imaging provides a readily available and cost effective method for confirming the diagnosis, and for making the diagnosis in patients who are unsuitable for or do not have access to MRI. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc.

  3. Design of parametric software tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits; Mullins, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The studies investigate the field of evidence-based design used in architectural design practice and propose a method using 2D/3D CAD applications to: 1) enhance integration of evidence-based design knowledge in architectural design phases with a focus on lighting and interior design and 2) assess...... fulfilment of evidence-based design criterion regarding light distribution and location in relation to patient safety in architectural health care design proposals. The study uses 2D/3D CAD modelling software Rhinoceros 3D with plug-in Grasshopper to create parametric tool prototypes to exemplify...... the operations and functions of the design method. To evaluate the prototype potentials, surveys with architectural and healthcare design companies are conducted. Evaluation is done by the administration of questionnaires being part of the development of the tools. The results show that architects, designers...

  4. Parametric instabilities in large plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, Marco; Liberman, Bernardo.

    1979-01-01

    Parametric decay processes in large plasmas are considered as the linear stage of a three wave interaction (pump, sideband and beat wave) in which the amplitude of the externally excited pump is sufficiently large to neglect pump depletion to first order, yet sufficiently small to allow a linearized treatment of the pump propagation to zeroth order. The coupling coefficients are then obtained from an iterative solution of Vlasov equation, and a compact expression is derived, in which the multiple series over Bessel functions is explicitly summed. Even in the limit of a very long wavelength pump, the dispersion relation obtained in this way does not coincide with the one obtained using the well-known ''dipole'' approximation, unless both the sideband and beat wave are resonant modes of the plasma. An analysis of the origin of this discrepancy allows us to conclude that ''quasimodes'' (evanescent waves driven absolutely unstable by the pump) are more correctly described by the iterative approach

  5. Parametric embedding for class visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Tomoharu; Saito, Kazumi; Ueda, Naonori; Stromsten, Sean; Griffiths, Thomas L; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

    2007-09-01

    We propose a new method, parametric embedding (PE), that embeds objects with the class structure into a low-dimensional visualization space. PE takes as input a set of class conditional probabilities for given data points and tries to preserve the structure in an embedding space by minimizing a sum of Kullback-Leibler divergences, under the assumption that samples are generated by a gaussian mixture with equal covariances in the embedding space. PE has many potential uses depending on the source of the input data, providing insight into the classifier's behavior in supervised, semisupervised, and unsupervised settings. The PE algorithm has a computational advantage over conventional embedding methods based on pairwise object relations since its complexity scales with the product of the number of objects and the number of classes. We demonstrate PE by visualizing supervised categorization of Web pages, semisupervised categorization of digits, and the relations of words and latent topics found by an unsupervised algorithm, latent Dirichlet allocation.

  6. Parametric studies on automotive radiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliet, C.; Oliva, A.; Castro, J.; Perez-Segarra, C.D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a set of parametric studies performed on automotive radiators by means of a detailed rating and design heat exchanger model developed by the authors. This numerical tool has been previously verified and validated using a wide experimental data bank. A first part of the analysis focuses on the influence of working conditions on both fluids (mass flows, inlet temperatures) and the impact of the selected coolant fluid. Following these studies, the influence of some geometrical parameters is analysed (fin pitch, louver angle) as well as the importance of coolant flow lay-out on the radiator global performance. This work provides an overall behaviour report of automobile radiators working at usual range of operating conditions, while significant knowledge-based design conclusions have also been reported. The results show the utility of this numerical model as a rating and design tool for heat exchangers manufacturers, being a reasonable compromise between classic ε - NTU methods and CFD

  7. Parametric instabilities in inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    The nonlinear coupling of three waves in a plasma is considered. One of the waves is assumed large and constant; its amplitude is the parameter of the parametric instability. The spatial-temporal evolution of the other two waves is treated theoretically, in one dimension, by analytic methods and by direct numerical integration of the basic equations. Various monotonic forms of inhomogeneity are considered; agreement with previous work is found and new results are established. Nonmonotonic inhomogeneities are considered, in the form of turbulence and, as a model problem, in the form of a simple sinusoidal modulation. Relatively small amounts of nonmonotonic inhomogeneity, in the presence of a linear density gradient, are found to destabilize the well-known convective saturation, absolute growth occurring instead. (U.S.)

  8. Spontaneous cooperation for prosocials, but not for proselfs: Social value orientation moderates spontaneous cooperation behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischkowski, Dorothee; Glöckner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation is essential for the success of societies and there is an ongoing debate whether individuals have therefore developed a general spontaneous tendency to cooperate or not. Findings that cooperative behavior is related to shorter decision times provide support for the spontaneous cooperation effect, although contrary results have also been reported. We show that cooperative behavior is better described as person × situation interaction, in that there is a spontaneous cooperation effect for prosocial but not for proself persons. In three studies, one involving population representative samples from the US and Germany, we found that cooperation in a public good game is dependent on an interaction between individuals’ social value orientation and decision time. Increasing deliberation about the dilemma situation does not affect persons that are selfish to begin with, but it is related to decreasing cooperation for prosocial persons that gain positive utility from outcomes of others and score high on the related general personality trait honesty/humility. Our results demonstrate that the spontaneous cooperation hypothesis has to be qualified in that it is limited to persons with a specific personality and social values. Furthermore, they allow reconciling conflicting previous findings by identifying an important moderator for the effect. PMID:26876773

  9. Photomultiplier gain stabilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Baud, P.; Sautiez, B.

    1958-07-01

    By the control and adjustment of magnetic deflection applied to the electron beam of a photomultiplier it has proved possible to flatten the gain curve, forming plateaux at levels dependent upon the voltage at intake. It should be possible to add this simple device to most photomultipliers on the market today. (author) [fr

  10. Integrable multi parametric SU(N) chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, Angela; Roditi, Itzhak; Rodrigues, Ligia M.C.S.

    1996-03-01

    We analyse integrable models associated to a multi parametric SU(N) R-matrix. We show that the Hamiltonians describe SU(N) chains with twisted boundary conditions and that the underlying algebraic structure is the multi parametric deformation of SU(N) enlarged by the introduction of a central element. (author). 15 refs

  11. Observation of Parametric Instability in Advanced LIGO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Matthew; Gras, Slawek; Fritschel, Peter; Miller, John; Barsotti, Lisa; Martynov, Denis; Brooks, Aidan; Coyne, Dennis; Abbott, Rich; Adhikari, Rana X; Arai, Koji; Bork, Rolf; Kells, Bill; Rollins, Jameson; Smith-Lefebvre, Nicolas; Vajente, Gabriele; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Adams, Carl; Aston, Stuart; Betzweiser, Joseph; Frolov, Valera; Mullavey, Adam; Pele, Arnaud; Romie, Janeen; Thomas, Michael; Thorne, Keith; Dwyer, Sheila; Izumi, Kiwamu; Kawabe, Keita; Sigg, Daniel; Derosa, Ryan; Effler, Anamaria; Kokeyama, Keiko; Ballmer, Stefan; Massinger, Thomas J; Staley, Alexa; Heinze, Matthew; Mueller, Chris; Grote, Hartmut; Ward, Robert; King, Eleanor; Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, Chunnong

    2015-04-24

    Parametric instabilities have long been studied as a potentially limiting effect in high-power interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Until now, however, these instabilities have never been observed in a kilometer-scale interferometer. In this Letter, we describe the first observation of parametric instability in a gravitational wave detector, and the means by which it has been removed as a barrier to progress.

  12. Parametric Methods for Order Tracking Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm

    2017-01-01

    Order tracking analysis is often used to find the critical speeds at which structural resonances are excited by a rotating machine. Typically, order tracking analysis is performed via non-parametric methods. In this report, however, we demonstrate some of the advantages of using a parametric method...

  13. Parametric resonance in neutrino oscillations in matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neutrino oscillations in matter can exhibit a specific resonance enhancement - parametric resonance, which is different from the MSW resonance. Oscillations of atmospheric and solar neutrinos inside the earth can undergo parametric enhancement when neutrino trajectories cross the core of the earth. In this paper we ...

  14. On the parametric approximation in quantum optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ariano, G.M.; Paris, M.G.A.; Sacchi, M.F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pavia (Italy); Pavia Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica ' Alessandro Volta'

    1999-03-01

    The authors perform the exact numerical diagonalization of Hamiltonians that describe both degenerate and nondegenerate parametric amplifiers, by exploiting the conservation laws pertaining each device. It is clarify the conditions under which the parametric approximation holds, showing that the most relevant requirements is the coherence of the pump after the interaction, rather than its un depletion.

  15. On the parametric approximation in quantum optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ariano, G.M.; Paris, M.G.A.; Sacchi, M.F.; Pavia Univ.

    1999-01-01

    The authors perform the exact numerical diagonalization of Hamiltonians that describe both degenerate and nondegenerate parametric amplifiers, by exploiting the conservation laws pertaining each device. It is clarify the conditions under which the parametric approximation holds, showing that the most relevant requirements is the coherence of the pump after the interaction, rather than its un depletion

  16. Parametric form of QCD travelling waves

    OpenAIRE

    Peschanski, R.

    2005-01-01

    We derive parametric travelling-wave solutions of non-linear QCD equations. They describe the evolution towards saturation in the geometric scaling region. The method, based on an expansion in the inverse of the wave velocity, leads to a solvable hierarchy of differential equations. A universal parametric form of travelling waves emerges from the first two orders of the expansion.

  17. Developing a Parametric Urban Design Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai; Obeling, Esben

    2014-01-01

    Parametric urban design is a potentially powerful tool for collaborative urban design processes. Rather than making one- off designs which need to be redesigned from the ground up in case of changes, parametric design tools make it possible keep the design open while at the same time allowing...... for a level of detailing which is high enough to facilitate an understan- ding of the generic qualities of proposed designs. Starting from a brief overview of parametric design, this paper presents initial findings from the development of a parametric urban design tool with regard to developing a structural...... logic which is flexible and expandable. It then moves on to outline and discuss further development work. Finally, it offers a brief reflection on the potentials and shortcomings of the software – CityEngine – which is used for developing the parametric urban design tool....

  18. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joash, Dr.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiology is not only rare but an important cause of new daily persistent headaches among young & middle age individuals. The Etiology & Pathogenesis is generally caused by spinal CSF leak. Precise cause remains largely unknown, underlying structural weakness of spinal meninges is suspected. There are several MR Signs of Intracranial Hypotension that include:- diffuse pachymeningeal (dural) enhancement; bilateral subdural, effusion/hematomas; Downward displacement of brain; enlargement of pituitary gland; Engorgement of dural venous sinuses; prominence of spinal epidural venous plexus and Venous sinus thrombosis & isolated cortical vein thrombosis. The sum of volumes of intracranial blood, CSF & cerebral tissue must remain constant in an intact cranium. Treatment in Many cases can be resolved spontaneously or by use Conservative approach that include bed rest, oral hydration, caffeine intake and use of abdominal binder. Imaging Modalities for Detection of CSF leakage include CT myelography, Radioisotope cisternography, MR myelography, MR imaging and Intrathecal Gd-enhanced MR

  19. Spontaneous soft tissue hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan, A; Darnige, L; Sapoval, M; Pellerin, O

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous muscle hematomas are a common and serious complication of anticoagulant treatment. The incidence of this event has increased along with the rise in the number of patients receiving anticoagulants. Radiological management is both diagnostic and interventional. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is the main tool for the detection of hemorrhage to obtain a positive, topographic diagnosis and determine the severity. Detection of an active leak of contrast material during the arterial or venous phase is an indication for the use of arterial embolization. In addition, the interventional radiological procedure can be planned with CTA. Arterial embolization of the pedicles that are the source of the bleeding is an effective technique. The rate of technical and clinical success is 90% and 86%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Spontaneous wave packet reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.

    1994-06-01

    There are taken into account the main conceptual difficulties met by standard quantum mechanics in dealing with physical processes involving macroscopic system. It is stressed how J.A.Wheeler's remarks and lucid analysis have been relevant to pinpoint and to bring to its extreme consequences the puzzling aspects of quantum phenomena. It is shown how the recently proposed models of spontaneous dynamical reduction represent a consistent way to overcome the conceptual difficulties of the standard theory. Obviously, many nontrivial problems remain open, the first and more relevant one being that of generalizing the model theories considered to the relativistic case. This is the challenge of the dynamical reduction program. 43 refs, 2 figs

  1. Learn and gain

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Alami, Suhair Eyad Jamal

    2013-01-01

    Initiating the slogan ""love it, live it"", Learn and Gain includes eight short stories, chosen to illustrate various modes of narration, as well as to provoke reflection and discussion on a range of issues. All texts utilized here illustrate how great writers can, with their insight and gift for words, help us to see the world we live in, in new probing and exciting ways. What characterises the book, the author believes, is the integration of the skills of literary competence, communicative c...

  2. Sensitivity enhancement of remotely coupled NMR detectors using wirelessly powered parametric amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chunqi; Murphy-Boesch, Joseph; Dodd, Stephen; Koretsky, Alan

    2012-09-01

    A completely wireless detection coil with an integrated parametric amplifier has been constructed to provide local amplification and transmission of MR signals. The sample coil is one element of a parametric amplifier using a zero-bias diode that mixes the weak MR signal with a strong pump signal that is obtained from an inductively coupled external loop. The NMR sample coil develops current gain via reduction in the effective coil resistance. Higher gain can be obtained by adjusting the level of the pumping power closer to the oscillation threshold, but the gain is ultimately constrained by the bandwidth requirement of MRI experiments. A feasibility study here shows that on a NaCl/D(2) O phantom, (23) Na signals with 20 dB of gain can be readily obtained with a concomitant bandwidth of 144 kHz. This gain is high enough that the integrated coil with parametric amplifier, which is coupled inductively to external loops, can provide sensitivity approaching that of direct wire connection. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland P.

    2008-06-07

    Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances was an SBIR project begun in July 2004 and ended in January 2008 with Muons, Inc., (Dr. Rolland Johnson, PI), and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) (Dr. Yaroslav Derbenev, Subcontract PI). The project was to develop the theory and simulations of Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) so that it could be used to provide the extra transverse cooling needed for muon colliders in order to relax the requirements on the proton driver, reduce the site boundary radiation, and provide a better environment for experiments. During the course of the project, the theoretical understanding of PIC was developed and a final exposition is ready for publication. Workshops were sponsored by Muons, Inc. in May and September of 2007 that were devoted to the PIC technique. One outcome of the workshops was the interesting and somewhat unexpected realization that the beam emittances using the PIC technique can get small enough that space charge forces can be important. A parallel effort to develop our G4beamline simulation program to include space charge effects was initiated to address this problem. A method of compensating for chromatic aberrations by employing synchrotron motion was developed and simulated. A method of compensating for spherical aberrations using beamline symmetry was also developed and simulated. Different optics designs have been developed using the OptiM program in preparation for applying our G4beamline simulation program, which contains all the power of the Geant4 toolkit. However, no PIC channel design that has been developed has had the desired cooling performance when subjected to the complete G4beamline simulation program. This is believed to be the consequence of the difficulties of correcting the aberrations associated with the naturally large beam angles and beam sizes of the PIC method that are exacerbated by the fringe fields of the rather complicated channel designs that have been

  4. Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Rolland P.

    2008-01-01

    Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances was an SBIR project begun in July 2004 and ended in January 2008 with Muons, Inc., (Dr. Rolland Johnson, PI), and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) (Dr. Yaroslav Derbenev, Subcontract PI). The project was to develop the theory and simulations of Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) so that it could be used to provide the extra transverse cooling needed for muon colliders in order to relax the requirements on the proton driver, reduce the site boundary radiation, and provide a better environment for experiments. During the course of the project, the theoretical understanding of PIC was developed and a final exposition is ready for publication. Workshops were sponsored by Muons, Inc. in May and September of 2007 that were devoted to the PIC technique. One outcome of the workshops was the interesting and somewhat unexpected realization that the beam emittances using the PIC technique can get small enough that space charge forces can be important. A parallel effort to develop our G4beamline simulation program to include space charge effects was initiated to address this problem. A method of compensating for chromatic aberrations by employing synchrotron motion was developed and simulated. A method of compensating for spherical aberrations using beamline symmetry was also developed and simulated. Different optics designs have been developed using the OptiM program in preparation for applying our G4beamline simulation program, which contains all the power of the Geant4 toolkit. However, no PIC channel design that has been developed has had the desired cooling performance when subjected to the complete G4beamline simulation program. This is believed to be the consequence of the difficulties of correcting the aberrations associated with the naturally large beam angles and beam sizes of the PIC method that are exacerbated by the fringe fields of the rather complicated channel designs that have been

  5. Traveling wave parametric amplifier with Josephson junctions using minimal resonator phase matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, T. C.; Mutus, J. Y.; Hoi, I.-C.; Barends, R.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Martinis, John M.; Megrant, A.; Chaudhuri, S.

    2015-01-01

    Josephson parametric amplifiers have become a critical tool in superconducting device physics due to their high gain and quantum-limited noise. Traveling wave parametric amplifiers (TWPAs) promise similar noise performance, while allowing for significant increases in both bandwidth and dynamic range. We present a TWPA device based on an LC-ladder transmission line of Josephson junctions and parallel plate capacitors using low-loss amorphous silicon dielectric. Crucially, we have inserted λ/4 resonators at regular intervals along the transmission line in order to maintain the phase matching condition between pump, signal, and idler and increase gain. We achieve an average gain of 12 dB across a 4 GHz span, along with an average saturation power of −92 dBm with noise approaching the quantum limit

  6. Spontaneous compactification to homogeneous spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The spontaneous compactification of extra dimensions to compact homogeneous spaces is studied. The methods developed within the framework of coset space dimensional reduction scheme and the most general form of invariant metrics are used to find solutions of spontaneous compactification equations

  7. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a

  8. Comparison of parametric instabilities for different test mass materials in advanced gravitational wave interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, L.; Zhao, C.; Gras, S.; Degallaix, J.; Blair, D.G.; Munch, J.; Reitze, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    Following the recognition that parametric instabilities can significantly compromise the performance of advanced laser interferometer gravitational wave detectors, we compare the performance of three different test mass configurations: all fused silica test masses, all sapphire test masses and fused silica inboard test masses with sapphire end test masses. We show that the configuration with sapphire end test masses offers the opportunity for thermal tuning on a time scale comparable to the ring up time of oscillatory instabilities. This approach may enable significant reduction of parametric gain

  9. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum: Hamman Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushank Chadha, BS

    2018-04-01

    significant fat stranding. The image also showed an intraluminal stent traversing the gastric antrum and gastric pylorus with no indication of obstruction. Circumferential mural thickening of the gastric antrum and body were consistent with the patient’s history of gastric adenocarcinoma. The shotty perigastric lymph nodes with associated fat stranding, along the greater curvature of the distal gastric body suggested local regional nodal metastases and possible peritoneal carcinomatosis. The thoracic CT scans showed extensive pneumomediastinum that tracked into the soft tissues of the neck, which given the history of vomiting also raised concern for esophageal perforation. There was still no evidence of mediastinal abscess or fat stranding. Additionally, a left subclavian vein port catheter, which terminates with tip at the cavoatrial junction of the superior vena cava can also be seen on the image. Discussion: Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum, also known as Hamman syndrome, is defined by the uncommon incidence of free air in the mediastinum due to the bursting of alveoli, as a result of extended spells of shouting, coughing, or vomiting.1,2 The condition is diagnosed when a clear cause (aerodigestive rupture, barotrauma, infection secondary to gas-forming organisms3 for pneumomediastinum cannot be clearly identified on diagnostic studies. Macklin and Macklin were the first to note the pathogenesis of the syndrome and explained that the common denominator to spontaneous pneumomediastinum was that increased alveolar pressure leads to alveolar rupture.3 Common clinical findings for spontaneous pneumomediastinum include: chest pain, dyspnea, cough, and emesis.4 The condition is not always readily recognized on initial presentation in part for its rare incidence, estimated to be approximately 1 in every 44,500 ED patients3and also because of the non-specific presenting symptoms. For this patient, there was no clear singular cause, and therefore she received care for spontaneous

  10. Low-noise parametric amplification at 35 GHz in a single Josephson tunnel junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Jesper; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Sørensen, O. H.

    1979-01-01

    Parametric amplification at 35 GHz has been obtained using a single Josephson tunnel junction as the active element. The amplifier was operated in the singly quasidegenerate mode with a pump frequency at 70 GHz. The noise temperature was measured and found correlated with the gain. At the highest...... gain achieved, 11.6 dB, the noise temperature was 400 K. The noise temperature was reduced considerably by decreasing the gain. At 8 and 4 dB we found 165±25 K and 50±30 K, respectively. Applied Physics Letters is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  11. Controlling flexible rotor vibrations using parametric excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atepor, L, E-mail: katepor@yahoo.co [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents both theoretical and experimental studies of an active vibration controller for vibration in a flexible rotor system. The paper shows that the vibration amplitude can be modified by introducing an axial parametric excitation. The perturbation method of multiple scales is used to solve the equations of motion. The steady-state responses, with and without the parametric excitation terms, is investigated. An experimental test machine uses a piezoelectric exciter mounted on the end of the shaft. The results show a reduction in the rotor response amplitude under principal parametric resonance, and some good correlation between theory and experiment.

  12. Linear Parametric Model Checking of Timed Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hune, Tohmas Seidelin; Romijn, Judi; Stoelinga, Mariëlle

    2001-01-01

    We present an extension of the model checker Uppaal capable of synthesize linear parameter constraints for the correctness of parametric timed automata. The symbolic representation of the (parametric) state-space is shown to be correct. A second contribution of this paper is the identication...... of a subclass of parametric timed automata (L/U automata), for which the emptiness problem is decidable, contrary to the full class where it is know to be undecidable. Also we present a number of lemmas enabling the verication eort to be reduced for L/U automata in some cases. We illustrate our approach...

  13. Gains from quota trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper Levring; Bogetoft, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We provide a framework for evaluating potential effects of introducing tradable quotas to a sector. The effects depend on the economies of scale and scope of the production technology, and on firms' ability and willingness to learn best practice methods (catching up) and to change their input...... and output composition (mix). To illustrate our approach, data from the Danish fishery are used to calculate the potential gains from introducing individually transferable fishing quotas. Data envelopment analysis is used to model the production technology. We find that pure reallocation is as important...

  14. Gaining Relational Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    2015-01-01

    Establishing strategic technological partnerships (STPs) with foreign partners is an increasingly studied topic within the innovation management literature. Partnering firms can jointly create sources of relational competitive advantage. Chinese firms often lack research and development (R......&D) capabilities but are increasingly becoming preferred technological partners for transnational corporations. We investigate an STP between a Scandinavian and a Chinese firm and try to explore how to gain relational competitive advantage by focusing on its two essential stages: relational rent generation...... and appropriation. Based on an explorative case study, we develop a conceptual framework that consists of process, organizational alliance factors, and coordination modes that we propose lead to relational competitive advantage....

  15. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  16. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haritanti, A.; Karacostas, D.; Drevelengas, A.; Kanellopoulos, V.; Paraskevopoulou, E.; Lefkopoulos, A.; Economou, I.; Dimitriadis, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is an uncommon but increasingly recognized syndrome. Orthostatic headache with typical findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the key to diagnosis. Delayed diagnosis of this condition may subject patients to unnecessary procedures and prolong morbidity. We describe six patients with SIH and outline the important clinical and neuroimaging findings. They were all relatively young, 20-54 years old, with clearly orthostatic headache, minimal neurological signs (only abducent nerve paresis in two) and diffuse pachymeningeal gadolinium enhancement on brain MRI, while two of them presented subdural hygromas. Spinal MRI was helpful in detecting a cervical cerebrospinal fluid leak in three patients and dilatation of the vertebral venous plexus with extradural fluid collection in another. Conservative management resulted in rapid resolution of symptoms in five patients (10 days-3 weeks) and in one who developed cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, the condition resolved in 2 months. However, this rapid clinical improvement was not accompanied by an analogous regression of the brain MR findings that persisted on a longer follow-up. Along with recent literature data, our patients further point out that SIH, to be correctly diagnosed, necessitates increased alertness by the attending physician, in the evaluation of headaches

  17. Genetics Home Reference: primary spontaneous pneumothorax

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Primary spontaneous pneumothorax Primary spontaneous pneumothorax Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Primary spontaneous pneumothorax is an abnormal accumulation of air in the ...

  18. Parametric optimization of inverse trapezoid oleophobic surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalli, Andrea; Bøggild, Peter; Okkels, Fridolin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a comprehensive and versatile approach to the parametric shape optimization of oleophobic surfaces. We evaluate the performance of inverse trapezoid microstructures in terms of three objective parameters: apparent contact angle, maximum sustainable hydrostatic pressure...

  19. Parametric decay below the upper hybrid frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, E; Krause, K; Schlueter, H [Bochum Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik 2

    1977-03-21

    Parametric decay of the upper hybrid mode is observed between the electron cyclotron frequency and its first two harmonics. The decay products are identified as electron Bernstein and ion acoustic mode. The diagnostic results confirm the relevant dispersion relations.

  20. Optimal parametric modelling of measured short waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.

    the importance of selecting a suitable sampling interval for better estimates of parametric modelling and also for better statistical representation. Implementation of the above algorithms in a structural monitoring system has the potential advantage of storing...

  1. Robust and Efficient Parametric Face Alignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    2011-01-01

    We propose a correlation-based approach to parametric object alignment particularly suitable for face analysis applications which require efficiency and robustness against occlusions and illumination changes. Our algorithm registers two images by iteratively maximizing their correlation coefficient

  2. Ranking Forestry Investments With Parametric Linear Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul A. Murphy

    1976-01-01

    Parametric linear programming is introduced as a technique for ranking forestry investments under multiple constraints; it combines the advantages of simple tanking and linear programming as capital budgeting tools.

  3. A Parametric k-Means Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpey, Thaddeus

    2007-01-01

    Summary The k points that optimally represent a distribution (usually in terms of a squared error loss) are called the k principal points. This paper presents a computationally intensive method that automatically determines the principal points of a parametric distribution. Cluster means from the k-means algorithm are nonparametric estimators of principal points. A parametric k-means approach is introduced for estimating principal points by running the k-means algorithm on a very large simulated data set from a distribution whose parameters are estimated using maximum likelihood. Theoretical and simulation results are presented comparing the parametric k-means algorithm to the usual k-means algorithm and an example on determining sizes of gas masks is used to illustrate the parametric k-means algorithm. PMID:17917692

  4. Parametric resonance in neutrino oscillations in matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    specific phase relationships has an interesting property that it can accumulate if the matter .... In Д 3 we discuss the physical interpretation of the parametric reso- nance in neutrino ..... long-baseline accelerator and reactor experiments [12,29].

  5. Intermodal parametric gain of degenerate four wave mixing in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard

    2013-01-01

    Intermodal degenerate four wave mixing (FWM) is investigated numerically in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers. The dispersion is controlled independently of core size, and thus allows for power scaling of the FWM process.......Intermodal degenerate four wave mixing (FWM) is investigated numerically in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers. The dispersion is controlled independently of core size, and thus allows for power scaling of the FWM process....

  6. Parametric resonance in an expanding universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlatev, I.; Huey, G.; Steinhardt, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    Parametric resonance has been discussed as a mechanism for copious particle production following inflation. Here we present a simple and intuitive calculational method for estimating the efficiency of parametric amplification as a function of parameters. This is important for determining whether resonant amplification plays an important role in the reheating process. We find that significant amplification occurs only for a limited range of couplings and interactions. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  7. Simulating quantum state engineering in spontaneous parametric down-conversion using classical light

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zhang, Y

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available range of pump beams for quantum state engineering and confirm that the results are in agreement with theory. Our approach offers high photon count rates, is quick to yield results and can easily be converted back to a SPDC setup. It is likely to be a...

  8. Qutrits and ququarts in spontaneous parametric down-conversion, correlations and entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, M. V., E-mail: fedorovmv@gmail.com; Volkov, P. A.; Milhailova, J. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-15

    We investigate features of biphoton qutrits and ququarts with the symmetry of biphoton wavefunctions fully taken into account. Entanglement quantifiers of such states are found as functions of qutrit and ququart parameters. For biphoton qutrits, a general relation between degrees of entanglement and polarization is established. In the case of biphoton ququarts, photon frequencies are considered as variables independent of polarization variables, with both polarization and frequency degrees of freedom equally contributing to the total ququart entanglement. Averaging over one of these two degrees of freedom is shown to reduce pure ququart states to mixed two-qubit states. The degree of polarization and degrees of correlations in mixed polarization states are investigated.

  9. General theory of spontaneous emission near exceptional points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, Adi; Zhen, Bo; Miller, Owen D; Hsu, Chia W; Hernandez, Felipe; Rodriguez, Alejandro W; Soljačić, Marin; Johnson, Steven G

    2017-05-29

    We present a general theory of spontaneous emission at exceptional points (EPs)-exotic degeneracies in non-Hermitian systems. Our theory extends beyond spontaneous emission to any light-matter interaction described by the local density of states (e.g., absorption, thermal emission, and nonlinear frequency conversion). Whereas traditional spontaneous-emission theories imply infinite enhancement factors at EPs, we derive finite bounds on the enhancement, proving maximum enhancement of 4 in passive systems with second-order EPs and significantly larger enhancements (exceeding 400×) in gain-aided and higher-order EP systems. In contrast to non-degenerate resonances, which are typically associated with Lorentzian emission curves in systems with low losses, EPs are associated with non-Lorentzian lineshapes, leading to enhancements that scale nonlinearly with the resonance quality factor. Our theory can be applied to dispersive media, with proper normalization of the resonant modes.

  10. Efficiency Analysis of German Electricity Distribution Utilities : Non-Parametric and Parametric Tests

    OpenAIRE

    von Hirschhausen, Christian R.; Cullmann, Astrid

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This paper applies parametric and non-parametric and parametric tests to assess the efficiency of electricity distribution companies in Germany. We address traditional issues in electricity sector benchmarking, such as the role of scale effects and optimal utility size, as well as new evidence specific to the situation in Germany. We use labour, capital, and peak load capacity as inputs, and units sold and the number of customers as output. The data cover 307 (out of 553) ...

  11. Ziprasidone-induced spontaneous orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boora, K; Chiappone, K; Dubovsky, S; Xu, J

    2010-06-01

    Neuroleptic treatment in schizophrenic patients has been associated with sexual dysfunction, including impotence and decreased libido. Spontaneous ejaculation without sexual arousal during typical antipsychotic treatment is a rare condition that has been described with zuclopentixol, trifluoperazine, and thiothixene. Here, we are reporting a case of spontaneous orgasm with ziprasidone in a bipolar patient. This patient began to repeatedly experience spontaneous sexual arousal and orgasm, which she had never experienced in the past. Ziprasidone might be causing an increase in sexual orgasm by 5-HT2 receptor antagonism, which preclinical evidence suggests that it facilitates dopamine release in the cortex.

  12. Plug and Play Robust Distributed Control with Ellipsoidal Parametric Uncertainty System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang-jian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a continuous linear time invariant system with ellipsoidal parametric uncertainty structured into subsystems. Since the design of a local controller uses only information on a subsystem and its neighbours, we combine the plug and play idea and robust distributed control to propose one distributed control strategy for linear system with ellipsoidal parametric uncertainty. Firstly for linear system with ellipsoidal parametric uncertainty, a necessary and sufficient condition for robust state feedback control is proposed by means of linear matrix inequality. If this necessary and sufficient condition is satisfied, this robust state feedback gain matrix can be easily derived to guarantee robust stability and prescribed closed loop performance. Secondly the plug and play idea is introduced in the design process. Finally by one example of aircraft flutter model parameter identification, the efficiency of the proposed control strategy can be easily realized.

  13. Vacuum solutions of a gravity model with vector-induced spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolami, O.; Paramos, J.

    2005-01-01

    We study the vacuum solutions of a gravity model where Lorentz symmetry is spontaneously broken once a vector field acquires a vacuum expectation value. Results are presented for the purely radial Lorentz symmetry breaking (LSB), radial/temporal LSB and axial/temporal LSB. The purely radial LSB result corresponds to new black hole solutions. When possible, parametrized post-Newtonian parameters are computed and observational boundaries used to constrain the Lorentz symmetry breaking scale

  14. Quark potential of spontaneous strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, G.; Kleinert, H.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present some recent developments in string models with an extrinsic curvature term in action. Particular emphasis is placed upon the static quark potential and on the thermal deconfinement properties of spontaneous strings

  15. Hematome Extra - Dural Rachidien Spontane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cl. Gros

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available Four personal cases of Spontaneous Spinal Epidurdl Hemerrhage are Reported. And 29 additional cases have been analysed by reviewing the literature. The clinical radiologcal and surgical aspects were discussed.

  16. Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodan Paramanathan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Vinodan Paramanathan, Ardalan ZolnourianQueen's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Burton on Trent, Staffordshire DE13 0RB, UKAbstract: Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma is an uncommon clinical entity seen in ophthalmology practice. It is poorly represented in the literature. Current evidence attributes it to orbital trauma, neoplasm, vascular malformations, acute sinusitis, and systemic abnormalities. A 65-year-old female presented with spontaneous intraorbital hematoma manifesting as severe ocular pains, eyelid edema, proptosis, and diplopia, without a history of trauma. Computer tomography demonstrated a fairly well defined extraconal lesion with opacification of the paranasal sinuses. The principal differential based on all findings was that of a spreading sinus infection and an extraconal tumor. An unprecedented finding of a spontaneous orbital hematoma was discovered when the patient was taken to theater. We discuss the rarity of this condition and its management.Keywords: hemorrhage, ophthalmology, spontaneous, intra-orbital, hematoma

  17. PHAZE, Parametric Hazard Function Estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: Phaze performs statistical inference calculations on a hazard function (also called a failure rate or intensity function) based on reported failure times of components that are repaired and restored to service. Three parametric models are allowed: the exponential, linear, and Weibull hazard models. The inference includes estimation (maximum likelihood estimators and confidence regions) of the parameters and of the hazard function itself, testing of hypotheses such as increasing failure rate, and checking of the model assumptions. 2 - Methods: PHAZE assumes that the failures of a component follow a time-dependent (or non-homogenous) Poisson process and that the failure counts in non-overlapping time intervals are independent. Implicit in the independence property is the assumption that the component is restored to service immediately after any failure, with negligible repair time. The failures of one component are assumed to be independent of those of another component; a proportional hazards model is used. Data for a component are called time censored if the component is observed for a fixed time-period, or plant records covering a fixed time-period are examined, and the failure times are recorded. The number of these failures is random. Data are called failure censored if the component is kept in service until a predetermined number of failures has occurred, at which time the component is removed from service. In this case, the number of failures is fixed, but the end of the observation period equals the final failure time and is random. A typical PHAZE session consists of reading failure data from a file prepared previously, selecting one of the three models, and performing data analysis (i.e., performing the usual statistical inference about the parameters of the model, with special emphasis on the parameter(s) that determine whether the hazard function is increasing). The final goals of the inference are a point estimate

  18. Spontaneity and international marketing performance

    OpenAIRE

    Souchon, Anne L.; Hughes, Paul; Farrell, Andrew M.; Nemkova, Ekaterina; Oliveira, Joao S.

    2016-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to ascertain how today’s international marketers can perform better on the global scene by harnessing spontaneity. Design/methodology/approach – The authors draw on contingency theory to develop a model of the spontaneity – international marketing performance relationship, and identify three potential m...

  19. Spontaneous ischaemic stroke in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, Hanne Birgit; Skerritt, G. C.; Gideon, P.

    2013-01-01

    Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms.......Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms....

  20. Spontaneous calf haematoma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaidah, N H; Liew, N C

    2014-02-01

    Spontaneous calf haematoma is a rare condition and few case reports have been published in the English literature. Common conditions like deep vein thrombosis and traumatic gastrocnemius muscle tear need to be considered when a patient presents with unilateral calf swelling and tenderness. Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging are essential for confirmation of diagnosis. The purpose of this paper is to report on a rare case of spontaneous calf hematoma and its diagnosis and management.

  1. Quantifying emissions from spontaneous combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-01

    Spontaneous combustion can be a significant problem in the coal industry, not only due to the obvious safety hazard and the potential loss of valuable assets, but also with respect to the release of gaseous pollutants, especially CO2, from uncontrolled coal fires. This report reviews methodologies for measuring emissions from spontaneous combustion and discusses methods for quantifying, estimating and accounting for the purpose of preparing emission inventories.

  2. Parametric x-ray FEL operating with external Bragg reflectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baryshevsky, V.G.; Batrakov, K.G.; Dubovskaya, I.Ya.

    1995-01-01

    In the crystal X-ray FELs using channeling and parametric quasi-Cherenkov mechanisms of spontaneous radiation were considered as versions of FEL allowing, in principle, to obtain coherent X-ray source. In this case a crystal is both radiator and resonator for X-rays emitted by a particle beam passing through crystal. However, it is well-known that a beam current density required for lasing is extremely high in X-ray spectral range for any radiation mechanisms and it is very important to find a way to lower its magnitude. The application of three-dimensional distributed feedback formed by dynamical diffraction of emitted photons permitted to reduce starting beam current density 10 2 -10 4 times up to 10 9 . One of ways to lower the starting current is the formation of multi-wave distributed feedback the another one is the application of external reflectors. The thing is that lasing regime was shown to be produced at frequencies in the vicinity of degeneration point for roots of dispersion equation describing radiation modes excited in an active medium (crystal plus particle beam). Unfortunately, in case of parametric quasi-Cherenkov FEL this region coincides with the region of strong self-absorption of radiation inside a crystal. That fact, obviously, increases the starting beam current. In this report we have shown that the application of external Bragg reflectors gives the possibility to lower radiation self-absorption inside a crystal by modifying radiation modes excited in the active medium under consideration. The corresponding dispersion equation and the expression for excited modes are derived. The generation equation determining starting conditions for lasing is obtained. Using these expressions we have shown that the application of external Bragg reflectors permits to reduce starting beam current density more than 10 times

  3. Non-parametric Tuning of PID Controllers A Modified Relay-Feedback-Test Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Boiko, Igor

    2013-01-01

    The relay feedback test (RFT) has become a popular and efficient  tool used in process identification and automatic controller tuning. Non-parametric Tuning of PID Controllers couples new modifications of classical RFT with application-specific optimal tuning rules to form a non-parametric method of test-and-tuning. Test and tuning are coordinated through a set of common parameters so that a PID controller can obtain the desired gain or phase margins in a system exactly, even with unknown process dynamics. The concept of process-specific optimal tuning rules in the nonparametric setup, with corresponding tuning rules for flow, level pressure, and temperature control loops is presented in the text.   Common problems of tuning accuracy based on parametric and non-parametric approaches are addressed. In addition, the text treats the parametric approach to tuning based on the modified RFT approach and the exact model of oscillations in the system under test using the locus of a perturbedrelay system (LPRS) meth...

  4. Characterization of tunable light source by optical parametric oscillator for high resolution spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J. W. [Ewha Womens Univ., Seoul (Korea); Rhee, B. G. [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea); Park, S. W. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea); Noh, J. W. [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea)

    1998-04-01

    A tunable light source is developed by the optical parametric oscillator, which is very useful for a high resolution spectroscopy. The electronic structure of molecules and atoms can be examined by a proper coherent light source. Optical parametric oscillator provides light sources stable and widely tunable. In this work, the characteristics of the parametric optical generation are examined in the LiNbO{sub 3}. The theoretical analysis as well as the experimental measurement is performed. The pump laser is a second harmonic of Nd:YAG laser, and the parametric gain is measured. The characteristics of singly resonant oscillator and doubly resonant oscillator is studied as a function of temperature. It is found that 1mole% MgO:LiNbO{sub 3} crystal provides the tunability from 0.6{mu}m to 3.0{mu}m wavelength. Both the critical and noncritical phase matching are studied. The optical damage occurring in a congruent LiNbO{sub 3} crystal was not observed in 1mole% MgO:LiNbO{sub 3} crystal, opening a possibility for a high power optical parametric oscillation generation. The current work can be extended to an experiment employing the fundamental Nd:YAG as pump to provide a coherent light source for the study of molecular vibrations. 28 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  5. Self-amplified spontaneous emission for short wavelength coherent radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.J.; Xie, M.

    1992-09-01

    We review the recent progress in our understanding of the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), emphasizing the application to short wavelength generation. Simple formulae are given for the start-up, exponential gain and the saturation of SASE. Accelerator technologies producing high brightness electron beams required for short wavelength SASE are discussed. An example utilizing electron beams from a photocathode-linac system to produce 4nm SASE in the multigigawatt range is presented

  6. Short pulse generation from a passively mode-locked fiber optical parametric oscillator with optical time-stretch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yi; Wei, Xiaoming; Du, Shuxin; Wong, Kenneth K Y; Tsia, Kevin K; Xu, Yiqing

    2018-04-16

    We propose a passively mode-locked fiber optical parametric oscillator assisted with optical time-stretch. Thanks to the lately developed optical time-stretch technique, the onset oscillating spectral components can be temporally dispersed across the pump envelope and further compete for the parametric gain with the other parts of onset oscillating sidebands within the pump envelope. By matching the amount of dispersion in optical time-stretch with the pulse width of the quasi-CW pump and oscillating one of the parametric sidebands inside the fiber cavity, we numerically show that the fiber parametric oscillator can be operated in a single pulse regime. By varying the amount of the intracavity dispersion, we further verify that the origin of this single pulse mode-locking regime is due to the optical pulse stretching and compression.

  7. Facial Performance Transfer via Deformable Models and Parametric Correspondence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, Akshay; de la Hunty, Miles; Dhall, Abhinav; Goecke, Roland

    2012-09-01

    The issue of transferring facial performance from one person's face to another's has been an area of interest for the movie industry and the computer graphics community for quite some time. In recent years, deformable face models, such as the Active Appearance Model (AAM), have made it possible to track and synthesize faces in real time. Not surprisingly, deformable face model-based approaches for facial performance transfer have gained tremendous interest in the computer vision and graphics community. In this paper, we focus on the problem of real-time facial performance transfer using the AAM framework. We propose a novel approach of learning the mapping between the parameters of two completely independent AAMs, using them to facilitate the facial performance transfer in a more realistic manner than previous approaches. The main advantage of modeling this parametric correspondence is that it allows a "meaningful" transfer of both the nonrigid shape and texture across faces irrespective of the speakers' gender, shape, and size of the faces, and illumination conditions. We explore linear and nonlinear methods for modeling the parametric correspondence between the AAMs and show that the sparse linear regression method performs the best. Moreover, we show the utility of the proposed framework for a cross-language facial performance transfer that is an area of interest for the movie dubbing industry.

  8. Control of photon correlations in type II parametric down-conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, R; Joseph, A T; Pike, E R; Sarkar, Sarben

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe theoretically quantum control of temporal correlations of entangled photons produced by collinear type II spontaneous parametric down-conversion. We examine the effect of spectral phase modulation of the signal or idler photons arriving at a 50/50 beam splitter on the temporal shape of the entangled-photon wavepacket. The coincidence count rate is calculated analytically for photon pairs in terms of the modulation depth applied to either the signal or idler beam with a spectral phase filter. It is found that the two-photon coincidence rate can be controlled by varying the modulation depth of the spectral filter

  9. Pump Spectral Bandwidth, Birefringence, and Entanglement in Type-II Parametric Down Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Erenso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The twin photons produced by a type-II spontaneous parametric down conversion are well know as a potential source of photons for quantum teleportation due to the strong entanglement in polarization. This strong entanglement in polarization, however, depends on the spectral composition of the pump photon and the nature of optical isotropy of the crystal. By exact numerical calculation of the concurrence, we have shown that how pump photons spectral width and the birefringence nature of the crystal directly affect the degree of polarization entanglement of the twin photons.

  10. Chirp and temperature effects in parametric down conversion from crystals pumped at 800 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Lozano, X.; Wiechers, C.; Lucio, J. L.

    2018-04-01

    We consider spontaneous parametric down conversion from aperiodic poled crystals pumped at 800 nm. Our analyses account the effect of internal and external parameters, where, in the former, we include the crystal chirp and length, while in the latter temperature, also the pump chirp and other beam properties. The typical distribution produced is a pop-tab like structure in frequency-momentum space, and our results show that this system is a versatile light source, appropriated to manipulate the frequency and transverse momentum properties of the light produced. We briefly comment on the potential usefulness of the types of telecom wavelength light produced, in particular for quantum information applications.

  11. Acting to gain information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenchein, Stanley J.; Burns, J. Brian; Chapman, David; Kaelbling, Leslie P.; Kahn, Philip; Nishihara, H. Keith; Turk, Matthew

    1993-01-01

    This report is concerned with agents that act to gain information. In previous work, we developed agent models combining qualitative modeling with real-time control. That work, however, focused primarily on actions that affect physical states of the environment. The current study extends that work by explicitly considering problems of active information-gathering and by exploring specialized aspects of information-gathering in computational perception, learning, and language. In our theoretical investigations, we analyzed agents into their perceptual and action components and identified these with elements of a state-machine model of control. The mathematical properties of each was developed in isolation and interactions were then studied. We considered the complexity dimension and the uncertainty dimension and related these to intelligent-agent design issues. We also explored active information gathering in visual processing. Working within the active vision paradigm, we developed a concept of 'minimal meaningful measurements' suitable for demand-driven vision. We then developed and tested an architecture for ongoing recognition and interpretation of visual information. In the area of information gathering through learning, we explored techniques for coping with combinatorial complexity. We also explored information gathering through explicit linguistic action by considering the nature of conversational rules, coordination, and situated communication behavior.

  12. Assessing pupil and school performance by non-parametric and parametric techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, K.; Thanassoulis, E.; Simpson, G.; Battisti, G.; Charlesworth-May, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of the non-parametric free disposal hull (FDH) and the parametric multi-level model (MLM) as alternative methods for measuring pupil and school attainment where hierarchical structured data are available. Using robust FDH estimates, we show how to decompose the overall

  13. Experimental Sentinel-2 LAI estimation using parametric, non-parametric and physical retrieval methods - A comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrelst, Jochem; Rivera, Juan Pablo; Veroustraete, Frank; Muñoz-Marí, Jordi; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Camps-Valls, Gustau; Moreno, José

    2015-01-01

    Given the forthcoming availability of Sentinel-2 (S2) images, this paper provides a systematic comparison of retrieval accuracy and processing speed of a multitude of parametric, non-parametric and physically-based retrieval methods using simulated S2 data. An experimental field dataset (SPARC),

  14. Parametric Approach to Trajectory Tracking Control of Robot Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijie Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematic description of the trajectory of robot manipulators with the optimal trajectory tracking problem is formulated as an optimal control problem, and a parametric approach is proposed for the optimal trajectory tracking control problem. The optimal control problem is first solved as an open loop optimal control problem by using a time scaling transform and the control parameterization method. Then, by virtue of the relationship between the optimal open loop control and the optimal closed loop control along the optimal trajectory, a practical method is presented to calculate an approximate optimal feedback gain matrix, without having to solve an optimal control problem involving the complex Riccati-like matrix differential equation coupled with the original system dynamics. Simulation results of 2-link robot manipulator are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Multidimensional Rank Reduction Estimator for Parametric MIMO Channel Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Pesavento

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel algebraic method for the simultaneous estimation of MIMO channel parameters from channel sounder measurements is developed. We consider a parametric multipath propagation model with P discrete paths where each path is characterized by its complex path gain, its directions of arrival and departure, time delay, and Doppler shift. This problem is treated as a special case of the multidimensional harmonic retrieval problem. While the well-known ESPRIT-type algorithms exploit shift-invariance between specific partitions of the signal matrix, the rank reduction estimator (RARE algorithm exploits their internal Vandermonde structure. A multidimensional extension of the RARE algorithm is developed, analyzed, and applied to measurement data recorded with the RUSK vector channel sounder in the 2 GHz band.

  16. Parametric amplification and phase preserving amplitude regeneration of a 640 Gbit/s RZ-DPSK signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Galili, Michael; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2013-01-01

    We report the first experimental demonstration of parametric amplification and all-optical phase-preserving amplitude regeneration for a 640 Gbit/s return-to-zero (RZ) differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) optical time division multiplexed (OTDM) signal. In the designed gain-flattened single......-pump fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA), 620 fs short optical pulses are successfully amplified with 15 dB gain with error-free performance and less than 1 dB power penalty. Phase-preserving amplitude regeneration based on gain saturation in the FOPA is carried out for optical signals with degraded...... optical signal-to-noise ratio. An improvement of 2.2 dB in receiver sensitivity at a bit-error-ratio of 10−9 has been successfully achieved after regeneration, together with 13.3 dB net gain....

  17. A Complete Parametric Solutions of Eigenstructure Assignment by State-Derivative Feedback for Linear Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. S. Abdelaziz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a complete parametric approach for solving the problem of eigenstructure assignment via state-derivative feedback for linear systems. This problem is always solvable for any controllable systems iff the open-loop system matrix is nonsingular. In this work, two parametric solutions to the feedback gain matrix are introduced that describe the available degrees of freedom offered by the state-derivative feedback in selecting the associated eigenvectors from an admissible class. These freedoms can be utilized to improve robustness of the closed-loop system. Accordingly, the sensitivity of the assigned eigenvalues to perturbations in the system and gain matrix is minimized. Numerical examples are included to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. 

  18. Leading Gainful Employment Metric Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Kristina; MacPherson, Derek

    2016-01-01

    This chapter will address the importance of intercampus involvement in reporting of gainful employment student-level data that will be used in the calculation of gainful employment metrics by the U.S. Department of Education. The authors will discuss why building relationships within the institution is critical for effective gainful employment…

  19. Experimental observation of parametric effects near period doubling in a loss-modulated CO2 laser

    OpenAIRE

    Chizhevsky, V. N.

    1996-01-01

    A number of parametric effects, such as suppression of period doubling, shift of the bifurcation point, scaling law relating the shift and the perturbation amplitude, influence of the detuning on the suppression, reaching of the maximum gain between the original and shifted bifurcation points, and scaling law for idler power are experimentally observed near period doubling bifurcation in a loss-driven CO2 laser that is subjected to periodic loss perturbations at a frequency that is close to a...

  20. Efficient parametric interactions in a low loss GaInP photonic crystal waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cestier, I.; Willinger, A.; Colman, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    We describe time domain characterizations of dynamic four-wave mixing in a low loss modified W1 GaInP photonic crystal waveguide. Using 32 ps wide pump pulses with peak powers of up to 1:1W we achieved a very large conversion efficiency of ?6:8 dB as well as a 1:3 dB parametric gain experienced...

  1. Parametric pendulum based wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Daniil; Alevras, Panagiotis

    2018-01-01

    The paper investigates the dynamics of a novel wave energy converter based on the parametrically excited pendulum. The herein developed concept of the parametric pendulum allows reducing the influence of the gravity force thereby significantly improving the device performance at a regular sea state, which could not be achieved in the earlier proposed original point-absorber design. The suggested design of a wave energy converter achieves a dominant rotational motion without any additional mechanisms, like a gearbox, or any active control involvement. Presented numerical results of deterministic and stochastic modeling clearly reflect the advantage of the proposed design. A set of experimental results confirms the numerical findings and validates the new design of a parametric pendulum based wave energy converter. Power harvesting potential of the novel device is also presented.

  2. Parametric methods for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper

    is studied in Section 4, and Bayesian inference in Section 5. On one hand, as the development in computer technology and computational statistics continues,computationally-intensive simulation-based methods for likelihood inference probably will play a increasing role for statistical analysis of spatial...... inference procedures for parametric spatial point process models. The widespread use of sensible but ad hoc methods based on summary statistics of the kind studied in Chapter 4.3 have through the last two decades been supplied by likelihood based methods for parametric spatial point process models......(This text is submitted for the volume ‘A Handbook of Spatial Statistics' edited by A.E. Gelfand, P. Diggle, M. Fuentes, and P. Guttorp, to be published by Chapmand and Hall/CRC Press, and planned to appear as Chapter 4.4 with the title ‘Parametric methods'.) 1 Introduction This chapter considers...

  3. Parametric Conversion Using Custom MOS Varactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iniewski Krzysztof (Kris

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible role of customized MOS varactors in amplification, mixing, and frequency control of future millimeter wave CMOS RFICs is outlined. First, the parametric conversion concept is revisited and discussed in terms of modern RF communications systems. Second, the modeling, design, and optimization of MOS varactors are reconsidered in the context of their central role in parametric circuits. Third, a balanced varactor structure is proposed for robust oscillator frequency control in the presence of large extrinsic noise expected in tightly integrated wireless communicators. Main points include the proposal of a subharmonic pumping scheme based on the MOS varactor, a nonequilibrium elastance-voltage model, optimal varactor layout suggestions, custom m-CMOS varactor design and measurement, device-level balanced varactor simulations, and parametric circuit evaluation based on measured device characteristics.

  4. Piezoelectric energy harvesting with parametric uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S F; Friswell, M I; Adhikari, S

    2010-01-01

    The design and analysis of energy harvesting devices is becoming increasing important in recent years. Most of the literature has focused on the deterministic analysis of these systems and the problem of uncertain parameters has received less attention. Energy harvesting devices exhibit parametric uncertainty due to errors in measurement, errors in modelling and variability in the parameters during manufacture. This paper investigates the effect of parametric uncertainty in the mechanical system on the harvested power, and derives approximate explicit formulae for the optimal electrical parameters that maximize the mean harvested power. The maximum of the mean harvested power decreases with increasing uncertainty, and the optimal frequency at which the maximum mean power occurs shifts. The effect of the parameter variance on the optimal electrical time constant and optimal coupling coefficient are reported. Monte Carlo based simulation results are used to further analyse the system under parametric uncertainty

  5. Parametric analysis of ATM solar array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B. K.; Adkisson, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    The paper discusses the methods used for the calculation of ATM solar array performance characteristics and provides the parametric analysis of solar panels used in SKYLAB. To predict the solar array performance under conditions other than test conditions, a mathematical model has been developed. Four computer programs have been used to convert the solar simulator test data to the parametric curves. The first performs module summations, the second determines average solar cell characteristics which will cause a mathematical model to generate a curve matching the test data, the third is a polynomial fit program which determines the polynomial equations for the solar cell characteristics versus temperature, and the fourth program uses the polynomial coefficients generated by the polynomial curve fit program to generate the parametric data.

  6. A case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Kanji; Yoshimoto, Hisanori; Harada, Kiyoshi; Uozumi, Tohru; Kuwabara, Satoshi.

    1983-01-01

    The authors experienced a case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy diagnosed by CT scan with metrizamide and Conray. Patient was 23-year-old male who had been in good health until one month before admission, when he began to have headache and tinnitus. He noticed bilateral visual acuity was decreased about one week before admission and vomiting appeared two days before admission. He was admitted to our hospital because of bilateral papilledema and remarkable hydrocephalus diagnosed by CT scan. On admission, no abnormal neurological signs except for bilateral papilledema were noted. Immediately, right ventricular drainage was performed. Pressure of the ventricle was over 300mmH 2 O and CSF was clear. PVG and PEG disclosed an another cavity behind the third ventricle, which was communicated with the third ventricle, and occlusion of aqueduct of Sylvius. Metrizamide CT scan and Conray CT scan showed a communication between this cavity and quadrigeminal and supracerebellar cisterns. On these neuroradiological findings, the diagnosis of obstructive hydrocephalus due to benign aqueduct stenosis accompanied with spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was obtained. Spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was noticed to produce arrest of hydrocephalus, but with our case, spontaneous regression of such symptoms did not appeared. By surgical ventriculocisternostomy (method by Torkildsen, Dandy, or Scarff), arrest of hydrocephalus was seen in about 50 to 70 per cent, which was the same results as those of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy. It is concluded that VP shunt or VA shunt is thought to be better treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus than the various kinds of surgical ventriculocisternostomy. (J.P.N.)

  7. Parametric amplification and wavelength conversion of a 2.048-Tbit/s WDM PDM 16-QAM signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Jopson, R. M.; Gnauck, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate polarisation-insensitive parametric amplification in highly nonlinear fibre of a 2.048-Tbit/s dense WDM PDM 16-QAM signal with ∼10 dB on-off gain and simultaneous wavelength conversion and phase conjugation, with mean Q2 penalties of only 0.6 dB and 0.4 dB....

  8. Effects of bunch density gradient in high-gain free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.; Kim, K.-J.

    1999-01-01

    The authors investigate effects of the bunch density gradient in self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), including the role of coherent spontaneous emission (CSE) in the evolution of the free-electron laser (FEL) process. In the exponential gain regime, the authors solve the coupled Maxwell-Vlasov equations and extend the linear theory to a bunched beam with energy spread. A time-dependent, nonlinear simulation algorithm is used to study the CSE effect and the nonlinear evolution of the radiation pulse

  9. Parametric Landau damping of space charge modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macridin, Alexandru [Fermilab; Burov, Alexey [Fermilab; Stern, Eric [Fermilab; Amundson, James [Fermilab; Spentzouris, Panagiotis [Fermilab

    2016-09-23

    Landau damping is the mechanism of plasma and beam stabilization; it arises through energy transfer from collective modes to the incoherent motion of resonant particles. Normally this resonance requires the resonant particle's frequency to match the collective mode frequency. We have identified an important new damping mechanism, parametric Landau damping, which is driven by the modulation of the mode-particle interaction. This opens new possibilities for stability control through manipulation of both particle and mode-particle coupling spectra. We demonstrate the existence of parametric Landau damping in a simulation of transverse coherent modes of bunched accelerator beams with space charge.

  10. Universal parametrization for quark and lepton substructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akama, Keiichi; Terazawa, Hidezumi.

    1994-01-01

    A universal parametrization for possible quark and lepton substructure is advocated in terms of quark and lepton form factors. It is emphasized that the lower bounds on compositeness scale, Λ c , to be determined experimentally strongly depend on their definitions in composite models. From the recent HERA data, it is estimated to be Λ c > 50 GeV, 0.4 TeV and 10 TeV, depending on the parametrizations with a single-pole form factor, a contact interaction and a logarithmic form factor, respectively. (author)

  11. Parametric number covariance in quantum chaotic spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinayak; Kumar, Sandeep; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2016-03-01

    We study spectral parametric correlations in quantum chaotic systems and introduce the number covariance as a measure of such correlations. We derive analytic results for the classical random matrix ensembles using the binary correlation method and obtain compact expressions for the covariance. We illustrate the universality of this measure by presenting the spectral analysis of the quantum kicked rotors for the time-reversal invariant and time-reversal noninvariant cases. A local version of the parametric number variance introduced earlier is also investigated.

  12. Parametric frequency conversion in long Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, F.; Ashihara, S.; Yoshida, K.

    1976-01-01

    Current steps at voltages corresponding to the parametric coupling between an applied r.f. field and junction resonant modes have been observed in long Josephson tunnel junctions in the flux-flow state. The observed periodic variations of the step height due to the applied magnetic field are explained quantitatively by a perturbational analysis using Josephson phase equations. The present study demonstrates that the moving vortex array can serve as a coherent pump wave for signal waves propagating in the barrier region, which indicates, as a result, the possibility of traveling-wave parametric devices with long Josephson tunnel junctions. (author)

  13. Full and semi-analytic analyses of two-pump parametric amplification with pump depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Henrik; Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    This paper solves the four coupled equations describing non-degenerate four-wave mixing, with the focus on amplifying a signal in a fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA). Based on the full analytic solution, a simple approximate solution describing the gain is developed. The advantage...... of this new approximation is that it includes the depletion of the pumps, which is lacking in the usual quasi-linearized approximation. With the proposed model it is thus simple to predict the gain of a FOPA, which we demonstrate with a highly nonlinear fiber to show that an undepleted FOPA can produce a flat...

  14. Spontaneous altruism by chimpanzees and young children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Warneken

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available People often act on behalf of others. They do so without immediate personal gain, at cost to themselves, and even toward unfamiliar individuals. Many researchers have claimed that such altruism emanates from a species-unique psychology not found in humans' closest living evolutionary relatives, such as the chimpanzee. In favor of this view, the few experimental studies on altruism in chimpanzees have produced mostly negative results. In contrast, we report experimental evidence that chimpanzees perform basic forms of helping in the absence of rewards spontaneously and repeatedly toward humans and conspecifics. In two comparative studies, semi-free ranging chimpanzees helped an unfamiliar human to the same degree as did human infants, irrespective of being rewarded (experiment 1 or whether the helping was costly (experiment 2. In a third study, chimpanzees helped an unrelated conspecific gain access to food in a novel situation that required subjects to use a newly acquired skill on behalf of another individual. These results indicate that chimpanzees share crucial aspects of altruism with humans, suggesting that the roots of human altruism may go deeper than previous experimental evidence suggested.

  15. Flow Friction or Spontaneous Ignition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Gallus, Timothy D.; Sparks, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    "Flow friction," a proposed ignition mechanism in oxygen systems, has proved elusive in attempts at experimental verification. In this paper, the literature regarding flow friction is reviewed and the experimental verification attempts are briefly discussed. Another ignition mechanism, a form of spontaneous combustion, is proposed as an explanation for at least some of the fire events that have been attributed to flow friction in the literature. In addition, the results of a failure analysis performed at NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility are presented, and the observations indicate that spontaneous combustion was the most likely cause of the fire in this 2000 psig (14 MPa) oxygen-enriched system.

  16. Spontaneous rupture of vaginal enterocele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, J H; Galatius, H; Hansen, P K

    1985-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of an enterocele is a rare complication. Only 24 cases including the present case have been reported in the literature. The patients were elderly and had had at least one vaginal operation. The patients were remarkably unaffected symptomatically on admission.......Spontaneous rupture of an enterocele is a rare complication. Only 24 cases including the present case have been reported in the literature. The patients were elderly and had had at least one vaginal operation. The patients were remarkably unaffected symptomatically on admission....

  17. Spontaneous baryogenesis from asymmetric inflaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2015-10-01

    We propose a variant scenario of spontaneous baryogenesis from asymmetric inflaton based on current-current interactions between the inflaton and matter fields with a non-zero B-L charge. When the inflaton starts to oscillate around the minimum after inflation, it may lead to excitation of a CP-odd component, which induces an effective chemical potential for the B-L number through the current-current interactions. We study concrete inflation models and show that the spontaneous baryogenesis scenario can be naturally implemented in the chaotic inflation in supergravity.

  18. Using Parametrics to Facilitate Collaborative Urban Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai; Benbih, Karima; Obeling, Esben

    2013-01-01

    in the context of the urban South which is characterized by high urban growth rates, weak planning systems and modest means. The current state of planning and urban development in Morocco is introduced as a context for discussing collaborative urban design and parametric urban design, and some tentative...

  19. Parametric Architectural Design with Point-clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwierzycki, Mateusz; Evers, Henrik Leander; Tamke, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the efforts and benefits of the implementation of point clouds into architectural design processes and tools. Based on a study on the principal work processes of designers with point clouds the prototypical plugin/library - Volvox - was developed for the parametric modelling...

  20. Global chaos synchronization of coupled parametrically excited ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we study the synchronization behaviour of two linearly coupled parametrically excited chaotic pendula. The stability of the synchronized state is examined using Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI); and some sufficient criteria for global asymptotic synchronization are derived from which ...

  1. Interdisciplinary parametric design : The XXL experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turrin, M.; Sariyildiz, I.S.; Paul, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on large span structures for sport buildings, the paper tackles the role of parametric modelling and performance simulations, to enhance the integration between architectural and engineering design. The general approach contrasts post-engineering processes. In post-engineering, technical

  2. The parametrized simulation of electromagnetic showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, S.

    1992-09-01

    The simulation of electromagnetic showers in calorimeters by detailed tracking of all secondary particles is extremely computer time consuming. Without loosing considerably in precision, the use of parametrizations for global shower properties may reduce the computing time by factors of 10 1 to 10 4 , depending on the energy, the degree of parametrization, and the complexity in the material description and the cut off energies in the detailed simulation. To arrive at a high degree of universality, parametrizations of individual electromagnetic showers in homogeneous media are developed, taking the dependence of the shower development on the material into account. In sampling calorimeters, the inhomogeneous material distribution leads to additional effects which can be taken into account by geometry dependent terms in the parametrization of the longitudinal and radial energy density distributions. Comparisons with detailed simulations of homogeneous and sampling calorimeters show very good agreement in the fluctuations, correlations, and signal averages of spatial energy distributions. Verifications of the algorithms for the simulation of the H1 detector are performed using calorimeter test data for different moduls of the H1 liquid argon calorimeter. Special attention has been paid to electron pion separation, which is of great importance for physics analysis. (orig.) [de

  3. Narrow linewidth pulsed optical parametric oscillator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tunable narrow linewidth radiation by optical parametric oscillation has many applications, particularly in spectroscopic investigation. In this paper, different techniques such as injection seeding, use of spectral selecting element like grating, grating and etalon in combination, grazing angle of incidence, entangled cavity ...

  4. Consequences of hadron-nucleus multiplicity parametrization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, C.P.; Shyam, M.

    1986-01-01

    Some interesting consequences are analyzed of a new parametrization for the hadron-nucleus multiplicity distributions and they are compared with the experimental data. Further, it is illustrated how the scaling property for the average multiplicity will be modified and it is found that the experimental data support this behaviour. (orig.)

  5. Simple parametrization of nucleon form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    This Brief Report provides simple parametrizations of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors using functions of Q 2 that are consistent with dimensional scaling at high Q 2 . Good fits require only four parameters each for G Ep , G Mp , and G Mn and only two for G En

  6. Parametric studies of tandem mirror reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.; Boghosian, B.M.; Fink, J.H.; Myall, J.O.; Neef, W.S. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    This report, along with its companion, An Improved Tandem Mirror Reactor, discusses the recent progress and present status of our tandem mirror reactor studies. This report presents the detailed results of parametric studies up to, but not including, the very new ideas involving thermal barriers

  7. Path integral quantization of parametrized field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varadarajan, Madhavan

    2004-01-01

    Free scalar field theory on a flat spacetime can be cast into a generally covariant form known as parametrized field theory in which the action is a functional of the scalar field as well as the embedding variables which describe arbitrary, in general curved, foliations of the flat spacetime. We construct the path integral quantization of parametrized field theory in order to analyze issues at the interface of quantum field theory and general covariance in a path integral context. We show that the measure in the Lorentzian path integral is nontrivial and is the analog of the Fradkin-Vilkovisky measure for quantum gravity. We construct Euclidean functional integrals in the generally covariant setting of parametrized field theory using key ideas of Schleich and show that our constructions imply the existence of nonstandard 'Wick rotations' of the standard free scalar field two-point function. We develop a framework to study the problem of time through computations of scalar field two-point functions. We illustrate our ideas through explicit computation for a time independent (1+1)-dimensional foliation. Although the problem of time seems to be absent in this simple example, the general case is still open. We discuss our results in the contexts of the path integral formulation of quantum gravity and the canonical quantization of parametrized field theory

  8. Statistical prediction of parametric roll using FORM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Choi, Ju-hyuck; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the First Order Reliability Method (FORM) can be an efficient method for estimation of outcrossing rates and extreme value statistics for stationary stochastic processes. This is so also for bifurcation type of processes like parametric roll of ships. The present...

  9. Probabilistic Reachability for Parametric Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Ernst Moritz; Hermanns, Holger; Zhang, Lijun

    2011-01-01

    Given a parametric Markov model, we consider the problem of computing the rational function expressing the probability of reaching a given set of states. To attack this principal problem, Daws has suggested to first convert the Markov chain into a finite automaton, from which a regular expression...

  10. Non-Parametric Estimation of Correlation Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Rytter, Anders; Krenk, Steen

    In this paper three methods of non-parametric correlation function estimation are reviewed and evaluated: the direct method, estimation by the Fast Fourier Transform and finally estimation by the Random Decrement technique. The basic ideas of the techniques are reviewed, sources of bias are point...

  11. A parametric reconstruction of the deceleration parameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Mamon, Abdulla [Manipal University, Manipal Centre for Natural Sciences, Manipal (India); Visva-Bharati, Department of Physics, Santiniketan (India); Das, Sudipta [Visva-Bharati, Department of Physics, Santiniketan (India)

    2017-07-15

    The present work is based on a parametric reconstruction of the deceleration parameter q(z) in a model for the spatially flat FRW universe filled with dark energy and non-relativistic matter. In cosmology, the parametric reconstruction technique deals with an attempt to build up a model by choosing some specific evolution scenario for a cosmological parameter and then estimate the values of the parameters with the help of different observational datasets. In this paper, we have proposed a logarithmic parametrization of q(z) to probe the evolution history of the universe. Using the type Ia supernova, baryon acoustic oscillation and the cosmic microwave background datasets, the constraints on the arbitrary model parameters q{sub 0} and q{sub 1} are obtained (within 1σ and 2σ confidence limits) by χ{sup 2}-minimization technique. We have then reconstructed the deceleration parameter, the total EoS parameter ω{sub tot}, the jerk parameter and have compared the reconstructed results of q(z) with other well-known parametrizations of q(z). We have also shown that two model selection criteria (namely, the Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion) provide a clear indication that our reconstructed model is well consistent with other popular models. (orig.)

  12. Parametric Primitives for Hand Gesture Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baby, Sanmohan; Krüger, Volker

    2009-01-01

    Imitation learning is considered to be an effective way of teaching humanoid robots and action recognition is the key step to imitation learning. In this paper  an online algorithm to recognize parametric actions with object context is presented. Objects are key instruments in understanding...

  13. Parametric Transverse Patterns in Broad Aperture Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grigorieva, E.V.; Kashchenko, S.A.; Mosekilde, Erik

    1998-01-01

    Parametrically generated optical patterns are investigated for finite and large-scale transverse aperture lasers. Standing and rotating patterns as well as periodic and chaotic pattern alternations are described in the framework of the amplitude equation formalism. Sensitive dependence...... on the geometrical size of the system is demonstrated even in the case of large-scale systems....

  14. Operational gain : measuring the capture of genetic gain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concept of operational gain is more than the weighted average of the genetic quality of planted hectares, and encompasses tree breeding efficiencies, propagation efficiencies, matching of species and genotype to site, plant use efficiency and early measures of stand density and growth. To test the operational gain ...

  15. Spontaneous Development of Moral Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, M.

    1975-01-01

    Moral competence is more difficult to attain than scientific competence. Since language comprehension plays a central role in conceptual development, and moral language is difficult to learn, there is a common deficiency in moral conceptual development. This suggests a theory of non-spontaneous solutions to moral problems. (Author/MS)

  16. Spontaneous regression of pulmonary bullae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, H.; Ishikawa, H.; Ohtsuka, M.; Sekizawa, K.

    2002-01-01

    The natural history of pulmonary bullae is often characterized by gradual, progressive enlargement. Spontaneous regression of bullae is, however, very rare. We report a case in which complete resolution of pulmonary bullae in the left upper lung occurred spontaneously. The management of pulmonary bullae is occasionally made difficult because of gradual progressive enlargement associated with abnormal pulmonary function. Some patients have multiple bulla in both lungs and/or have a history of pulmonary emphysema. Others have a giant bulla without emphysematous change in the lungs. Our present case had treated lung cancer with no evidence of local recurrence. He had no emphysematous change in lung function test and had no complaints, although the high resolution CT scan shows evidence of underlying minimal changes of emphysema. Ortin and Gurney presented three cases of spontaneous reduction in size of bulla. Interestingly, one of them had a marked decrease in the size of a bulla in association with thickening of the wall of the bulla, which was observed in our patient. This case we describe is of interest, not only because of the rarity with which regression of pulmonary bulla has been reported in the literature, but also because of the spontaneous improvements in the radiological picture in the absence of overt infection or tumor. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  17. Shell theorem for spontaneous emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Lodahl, Peter

    2013-01-01

    and therefore is given exactly by the dipole approximation theory. This surprising result is a spontaneous emission counterpart to the shell theorems of classical mechanics and electrostatics and provides insights into the physics of mesoscopic emitters as well as great simplifications in practical calculations....

  18. Silicosis with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotedar Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentation with simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax is uncommon and usually in the context of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax.The association of pneumothorax and silicosis is infrequent and most cases are unilateral. Bilateral pneumothorax in silicosis is very rare with just a few reports in medical literature.

  19. Spontaneous emission by moving atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meystre, P.; Wilkens, M.

    1994-01-01

    It is well known that spontaneous emission is not an intrinsic atomic property, but rather results from the coupling of the atom to the vacuum modes of the electromagnetic field. As such, it can be modified by tailoring the electromagnetic environment into which the atom can radiate. This was already realized by Purcell, who noted that the spontaneous emission rate can be enhanced if the atom placed inside a cavity is resonant with one of the cavity is resonant with one of the cavity modes, and by Kleppner, who discussed the opposite case of inhibited spontaneous emission. It has also been recognized that spontaneous emission need not be an irreversible process. Indeed, a system consisting of a single atom coupled to a single mode of the electromagnetic field undergoes a periodic exchange of excitation between the atom and the field. This periodic exchange remains dominant as long as the strength of the coupling between the atom and a cavity mode is itself dominant. 23 refs., 6 figs

  20. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  1. Spontaneous Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome in a Term Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytekin Tokmak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous OHSS in a term pregnancy is extremely rare. The aim of this study is to present a case of spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS in a term pregnancy. A 29-year-old primigravida woman conceived spontaneously and was observed up until 35 weeks of gestation. During this time the patient had a normal pregnancy with normal ovaries. She applied to the current clinic during the 37th week of gestation with complaints of rapid weight gain, abdominal disturbance, and pain. Ultrasound examination showed large bilateral ovaries with multiple follicles and mild ascites. At 39 weeks of gestation, the ovaries were the same as detected previously, and a caesarean section was performed due to fetal macrosomia. A healthy female foetus weighing 4060 gr was delivered. The enlarged bilateral ovaries containing multiple follicles were drilled with electrocautery. The ovaries returned to a near normal state for two weeks after the birth. There are no reported cases of spontaneous OHSS in late pregnancy in the literature. Ovarian drilling may be useful during caesarean section. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(3.000: 623-626

  2. Abnormal Auditory Gain in Hyperacusis: Investigation with a Computational Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter U. Diehl

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperacusis is a frequent auditory disorder that is characterized by abnormal loudness perception where sounds of relatively normal volume are perceived as too loud or even painfully loud. As Hyperacusis patients show decreased loudness discomfort levels (LDLs and steeper loudness growth functions, it has been hypothesized that hyperacusis might be caused by an increase in neuronal response gain in the auditory system. Moreover, since about 85% of hyperacusis patients also experience tinnitus, the conditions might be caused by a common mechanism. However, the mechanisms that give rise to hyperacusis have remained unclear.Here we have used a computational model of the auditory system to investigate candidate mechanisms for hyperacusis. Assuming that perceived loudness is proportional to the summed activity of all auditory nerve fibers, the model was tuned to reproduce normal loudness perception. We then evaluated a variety of potential hyperacusis gain mechanisms by determining their effects on model equal-loudness contours and comparing the results to the LDLs of hyperacusis patients with normal hearing thresholds. Hyperacusis was best accounted for by an increase in nonlinear gain in the central auditory system. Good fits to the average patient LDLs were obtained for a general increase in gain that affected all frequency channels to the same degree, and also for a frequency-specific gain increase in the high-frequency range. Moreover, the gain needed to be applied after subtraction of spontaneous activity of the auditory nerve, which is in contrast to current theories of tinnitus generation based on amplification of spontaneous activity. Hyperacusis and tinnitus might therefore be caused by different changes in neuronal processing in the central auditory system.

  3. Parametric instabilities in magnetized bi-ion and dusty plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -ion or dusty plasma with parametric pumping of the magnetic field is analysed. The equation of motion governing the perturbed plasma is derived and parametrically excited transverse modes propagating along the magnetic field are found.

  4. Hyperbolic and semi-parametric models in finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, N. H.; Kiesel, Rüdiger

    2001-02-01

    The benchmark Black-Scholes-Merton model of mathematical finance is parametric, based on the normal/Gaussian distribution. Its principal parametric competitor, the hyperbolic model of Barndorff-Nielsen, Eberlein and others, is briefly discussed. Our main theme is the use of semi-parametric models, incorporating the mean vector and covariance matrix as in the Markowitz approach, plus a non-parametric part, a scalar function incorporating features such as tail-decay. Implementation is also briefly discussed.

  5. High Gain Advanced GPS Receiver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Alison; Zhang, Gengsheng

    2006-01-01

    NAVSYS High Gain Advanced GPS Receiver (HAGR) uses a digital beam-steering antenna array to enable up to eight GPS satellites to be tracked, each with up to 10 dBi of additional antenna gain over a conventional receiver solution...

  6. A Case of Spontaneously Resolved Bilateral Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Kahraman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A condition of intrapleural air-space accumulation in individuals without any history of trauma or lung disease is called as primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP. Sixteen-years-old male patient admitted with complains of chest pain and dyspnea beginning 3 day ago. On physical examination, severity of breath sounds decreased on right side. Chest radiograph was taken and right-sided pneumothorax was detected and tube thoracostomy was inserted. Two months ago the patient referred to a doctor with similar complaints and physical examination and chest radiograph were reported as normal. The radiograph was retrospectively examined and bilateral PSP was detected. We presented the case duo to spontaneous recovery of bilateral PSP is seen very rarely and so contributes data to the literature. In patients admitted to the clinic with chest pain and shortness of breath, pneumothorax should be considered at differential diagnosis.

  7. Photon–phonon parametric oscillation induced by quadratic coupling in an optomechanical resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lin; Ji, Fengzhou; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Weiping

    2017-01-01

    A direct photon–phonon parametric effect of quadratic coupling on the mean-field dynamics of an optomechanical resonator in the large-scale-movement regime is found and investigated. Under a weak pumping power, the mechanical resonator damps to a steady state with a nonlinear static response sensitively modified by the quadratic coupling. When the driving power increases beyond the static energy balance, the steady states lose their stabilities via Hopf bifurcations, and the resonator produces stable self-sustained oscillation (limit-circle behavior) of discrete energies with step-like amplitudes due to the parametric effect of quadratic coupling, which can be understood roughly by the power balance between gain and loss on the resonator. A further increase in the pumping power can induce a chaotic dynamic of the resonator via a typical routine of period-doubling bifurcation, but which can be stabilized by the parametric effect through an inversion-bifurcation process back to the limit-circle states. The bifurcation-to-inverse-bifurcation transitions are numerically verified by the maximal Lyapunov exponents of the dynamics, which indicate an efficient way of suppressing the chaotic behavior of the optomechanical resonator by quadratic coupling. Furthermore, the parametric effect of quadratic coupling on the dynamic transitions of an optomechanical resonator can be conveniently detected or traced by the output power spectrum of the cavity field. (paper)

  8. Spontaneous Retropharyngeal Emphysema: A Case Report | Chi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is a rare clinical condition in pediatric otolaryngology. The predominant symptoms are sore throat, odynophagia, dysphagia, and neck pain. Here, we report a case of spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysema. Keywords: Iatrogenic injury, retropharyngeal emphysema, spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysem, trauma ...

  9. Fault detection and isolation in systems with parametric faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1999-01-01

    The problem of fault detection and isolation of parametric faults is considered in this paper. A fault detection problem based on parametric faults are associated with internal parameter variations in the dynamical system. A fault detection and isolation method for parametric faults is formulated...

  10. Parametric Audio Based Decoder and Music Synthesizer for Mobile Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, A.W.J.; Szczerba, M.Z.; Therssen, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews parametric audio coders and discusses novel technologies introduced in a low-complexity, low-power consumption audiodecoder and music synthesizer platform developed by the authors. Thedecoder uses parametric coding scheme based on the MPEG-4 Parametric Audio standard. In order to

  11. Regional and parametric sensitivity analysis of Sobol' indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Pengfei; Lu, Zhenzhou; Song, Jingwen

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, utilizing the Monte Carlo estimators for variance-based sensitivity analysis has gained sufficient popularity in many research fields. These estimators are usually based on n+2 sample matrices well designed for computing both the main and total effect indices, where n is the input dimension. The aim of this paper is to use such n+2 sample matrices to investigate how the main and total effect indices change when the uncertainty of the model inputs are reduced. For this purpose, the regional main and total effect functions are defined for measuring the changes on the main and total effect indices when the distribution range of one input is reduced, and the parametric main and total effect functions are introduced to quantify the residual main and total effect indices due to the reduced variance of one input. Monte Carlo estimators are derived for all the developed sensitivity concepts based on the n+2 samples matrices originally used for computing the main and total effect indices, thus no extra computational cost is introduced. The Ishigami function, a nonlinear model and a planar ten-bar structure are utilized for illustrating the developed sensitivity concepts, and for demonstrating the efficiency and accuracy of the derived Monte Carlo estimators. - Highlights: • The regional main and total effect functions are developed. • The parametric main and total effect functions are introduced. • The proposed sensitivity functions are all generalizations of Sobol' indices. • The Monte Carlo estimators are derived for the four sensitivity functions. • The computational cost of the estimators is the same as that of Sobol' indices

  12. FEL small signal gain reduction due to phase error of undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Qika

    2002-01-01

    The effects of undulator phase errors on the Free Electron Laser small signal gain is analyzed and discussed. The gain reduction factor due to the phase error is given analytically for low-gain regimes, it shows that degradation of the gain is similar to that of the spontaneous radiation, has a simple exponential relation with square of the rms phase error, and the linear variation part of phase error induces the position shift of maximum gain. The result also shows that the Madey's theorem still hold in the presence of phase error. The gain reduction factor due to the phase error for high-gain regimes also can be given in a simple way

  13. Enhancing optical gains in Si nanocrystals via hydrogenation and cerium ion doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dong-Chen; Li, Yan-Li; Song, Sheng-Chi; Guo, Wen-Ping; Lu, Ming; Chen, Jia-Rong

    2014-01-01

    We report optical gain enhancements in Si nanocrystals (Si-NCs) via hydrogenation and Ce 3+ ion doping. Variable stripe length technique was used to obtain gains. At 0.3 W/cm 2 pumping power density of pulsed laser, net gains were observed together with gain enhancements after hydrogenation and/or Ce 3+ ion doping; gains after loss corrections were between 89.52 and 341.95 cm −1 ; and the photoluminescence (PL) lifetime was found to decrease with the increasing gain enhancement. At 0.04 W/cm 2 power density, however, no net gain was found and the PL lifetime increased with the increasing PL enhancement. The results were discussed according to stimulated and spontaneous excitation and de-excitation mechanisms of Si-NCs.

  14. The Absolute Stability Analysis in Fuzzy Control Systems with Parametric Uncertainties and Reference Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing-Fei; Ma, Li-Shan; Perng, Jau-Woei

    This study analyzes the absolute stability in P and PD type fuzzy logic control systems with both certain and uncertain linear plants. Stability analysis includes the reference input, actuator gain and interval plant parameters. For certain linear plants, the stability (i.e. the stable equilibriums of error) in P and PD types is analyzed with the Popov or linearization methods under various reference inputs and actuator gains. The steady state errors of fuzzy control systems are also addressed in the parameter plane. The parametric robust Popov criterion for parametric absolute stability based on Lur'e systems is also applied to the stability analysis of P type fuzzy control systems with uncertain plants. The PD type fuzzy logic controller in our approach is a single-input fuzzy logic controller and is transformed into the P type for analysis. In our work, the absolute stability analysis of fuzzy control systems is given with respect to a non-zero reference input and an uncertain linear plant with the parametric robust Popov criterion unlike previous works. Moreover, a fuzzy current controlled RC circuit is designed with PSPICE models. Both numerical and PSPICE simulations are provided to verify the analytical results. Furthermore, the oscillation mechanism in fuzzy control systems is specified with various equilibrium points of view in the simulation example. Finally, the comparisons are also given to show the effectiveness of the analysis method.

  15. Parametric structural modeling of insect wings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengesha, T E; Vallance, R R; Barraja, M; Mittal, R

    2009-01-01

    Insects produce thrust and lift forces via coupled fluid-structure interactions that bend and twist their compliant wings during flapping cycles. Insight into this fluid-structure interaction is achieved with numerical modeling techniques such as coupled finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics, but these methods require accurate and validated structural models of insect wings. Structural models of insect wings depend principally on the shape, dimensions and material properties of the veins and membrane cells. This paper describes a method for parametric modeling of wing geometry using digital images and demonstrates the use of the geometric models in constructing three-dimensional finite element (FE) models and simple reduced-order models. The FE models are more complete and accurate than previously reported models since they accurately represent the topology of the vein network, as well as the shape and dimensions of the veins and membrane cells. The methods are demonstrated by developing a parametric structural model of a cicada forewing.

  16. Casas-Ibarra parametrization and leptogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Zhizhong

    2010-01-01

    The Casas-Ibarra parametrization is a description of the Dirac neutrino mass matrix M D in terms of the neutrino mixing matrix V, an orthogonal matrix O and the diagonal mass matrices of light and heavy Majorana neutrinos in the type-I seesaw mechanism. Because M D + M D is apparently independent of V but dependent on O in this parametrization, a number of authors have claimed that unflavored leptogenesis has nothing to do with CP violation at low energies. Here we question this logic by clarifying the physical meaning of O. We establish a clear relationship between O and the observable quantities, and find that O does depend on V. We show that both unflavored leptogenesis and flavored leptogenesis have no direct connection with low-energy CP violation. (authors)

  17. Rayleigh-type parametric chemical oscillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Shyamolina; Ray, Deb Shankar, E-mail: pcdsr@iacs.res.in [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2015-09-28

    We consider a nonlinear chemical dynamical system of two phase space variables in a stable steady state. When the system is driven by a time-dependent sinusoidal forcing of a suitable scaling parameter at a frequency twice the output frequency and the strength of perturbation exceeds a threshold, the system undergoes sustained Rayleigh-type periodic oscillation, wellknown for parametric oscillation in pipe organs and distinct from the usual forced quasiperiodic oscillation of a damped nonlinear system where the system is oscillatory even in absence of any external forcing. Our theoretical analysis of the parametric chemical oscillation is corroborated by full numerical simulation of two well known models of chemical dynamics, chlorite-iodine-malonic acid and iodine-clock reactions.

  18. Rayleigh-type parametric chemical oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shyamolina; Ray, Deb Shankar

    2015-09-28

    We consider a nonlinear chemical dynamical system of two phase space variables in a stable steady state. When the system is driven by a time-dependent sinusoidal forcing of a suitable scaling parameter at a frequency twice the output frequency and the strength of perturbation exceeds a threshold, the system undergoes sustained Rayleigh-type periodic oscillation, wellknown for parametric oscillation in pipe organs and distinct from the usual forced quasiperiodic oscillation of a damped nonlinear system where the system is oscillatory even in absence of any external forcing. Our theoretical analysis of the parametric chemical oscillation is corroborated by full numerical simulation of two well known models of chemical dynamics, chlorite-iodine-malonic acid and iodine-clock reactions.

  19. Parametric instability in GEO 600 interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurkovsky, A.G.; Vyatchanin, S.P.

    2007-01-01

    We present analysis of undesirable effect of parametric instability in signal recycled GEO 600 interferometer. The basis for this effect is provided by excitation of additional (Stokes) optical mode, having frequency ω 1 , and mirror elastic mode, having frequency ω m , when the optical energy stored in the main FP cavity mode, having frequency ω 0 , exceeds a certain threshold and detuning Δ=ω 0 -ω 1 -ω m is small. We discuss the potential of observing parametric instability and its precursors in GEO 600 interferometer. This approach provides the best option to get familiar with this phenomenon, to develop experimental methods to depress it and to test the effectiveness of these methods in situ

  20. Spontaneous Rotational Inversion in Phycomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, Alain

    2011-03-01

    The filamentary fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus undergoes a series of remarkable transitions during aerial growth. During what is known as the stagea IV growth phase, the fungus extends while rotating in a counterclockwise manner when viewed from above (stagea IVa) and then, while continuing to grow, spontaneously reverses to a clockwise rotation (stagea IVb). This phase lasts for 24-48Ah and is sometimes followed by yet another reversal (stageAIVc) before the overall growth ends. Here, we propose a continuum mechanical model of this entire process using nonlinear, anisotropic, elasticity and show how helical anisotropy associated with the cell wall structure can induce spontaneous rotation and, under appropriate circumstances, the observed reversal of rotational handedness. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  1. Parametric Immunization in Bond Portfolio Management

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo, Jorge; Fonseca, José

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the relative immunization performance of the multifactor parametric interest rate risk model based on the Nelson-Siegel-Svensson specification of the yield curve with that of standard benchmark investment strategies, using European Central Bank yield curve data in the period between January 3, 2005 and December 31, 2011. In addition, we examine the role of portfolio design in the success of immunization strategies, particularly the role of the maturit...

  2. Parametric study of laser photovoltaic energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, G. H.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    1987-01-01

    Photovoltaic converters are of interest for converting laser power to electrical power in a space-based laser power system. This paper describes a model for photovoltaic laser converters and the application of this model to a neodymium laser silicon photovoltaic converter system. A parametric study which defines the sensitivity of the photovoltaic parameters is described. An optimized silicon photovoltaic converter has an efficiency greater than 50 percent for 1000 W/sq cm of neodymium laser radiation.

  3. Acoustic parametric pumping of spin waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtgar, Hedyeh; Zareyan, Malek; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.

    2014-11-01

    Recent experiments demonstrated generation of spin currents by ultrasound. We can understand this acoustically induced spin pumping in terms of the coupling between magnetization and lattice waves. Here we study the parametric excitation of magnetization by longitudinal acoustic waves and calculate the acoustic threshold power. The induced magnetization dynamics can be detected by the spin pumping into an adjacent normal metal that displays the inverse spin Hall effect.

  4. Acoustic parametric pumping of spin waves

    OpenAIRE

    Keshtgar, Hedyeh; Zareyan, Malek; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.

    2013-01-01

    Recent experiments demonstrated generation of spin currents by ultrasound. We can understand this acoustically induced spin pumping in terms of the coupling between magnetization and lattice waves. Here we study the parametric excitation of magnetization by longitudinal acoustic waves and calculate the acoustic threshold power. The induced magnetization dynamics can be detected by the spin pumping into an adjacent normal metal that displays the inverse spin Hall effect.

  5. Parametric motivation bases of floranimic nomination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga P. Ryabko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The period of further development in the cognitive theory of nomination has been extensive in recent years. Our research has been concentrated on the formation of conceptual foundations in cognitive theory of flora nomination. The macrofield of flora namings embraces three microfields: parametric, pragmatic and locative-temporal ones. They determine motivation processes in cognitive theory of flora nomination, i.e., the presentation of systematic qualities in flora namings in the English language. The description and characterization of such qualities presupposes the existence of their taxonomic organization and methodology criteria, both general and practical ones. Flora namings on the phenomenological level are considered to be the products of naöve-cognitive consciousness of language speakers. They are determined, from the one hand, by the external perceptive adaptations (parametric nomination and, from the other hand, by practical needs (pure pragmatic nomination and local-temporal nomination. In this article we have concentrated on the complex parametric motivated basis of flora nomination. It is presented by a number of qualities, firstly, by dominative qualities («form», «appearance and manner of growth», «color», secondly, by peripheral qualities («odour», «taste», «size» and, finally, by minor qualities («sound», «weight», «genger». In the structure of complex parametric nomination the only one conerete qualitative element from the whole combination of qualities becomes the leading one. The cultural-archetypal dominant element determines. In each concrete situation, the choice of preferable prototypal motivated quality.

  6. Multidimensional Scaling Visualization using Parametric Similarity Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, J. A. Tenreiro; Lopes, António M.; Galhano, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS) and parametric similarity indices (PSI) in the analysis of complex systems (CS). Each CS is viewed as a dynamical system, exhibiting an output time-series to be interpreted as a manifestation of its behavior. We start by adopting a sliding window to sample the original data into several consecutive time periods. Second, we define a given PSI for tracking pieces of data. We then compare the windows for different values of the parameter, an...

  7. On Algebraic Approach for MSD Parametric Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Oueslati , Marouene; Thiery , Stéphane; Gibaru , Olivier; Béarée , Richard; Moraru , George

    2011-01-01

    This article address the identification problem of the natural frequency and the damping ratio of a second order continuous system where the input is a sinusoidal signal. An algebra based approach for identifying parameters of a Mass Spring Damper (MSD) system is proposed and compared to the Kalman-Bucy filter. The proposed estimator uses the algebraic parametric method in the frequency domain yielding exact formula, when placed in the time domain to identify the unknown parameters. We focus ...

  8. Supercritical nonlinear parametric dynamics of Timoshenko microbeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farokhi, Hamed; Ghayesh, Mergen H.

    2018-06-01

    The nonlinear supercritical parametric dynamics of a Timoshenko microbeam subject to an axial harmonic excitation force is examined theoretically, by means of different numerical techniques, and employing a high-dimensional analysis. The time-variant axial load is assumed to consist of a mean value along with harmonic fluctuations. In terms of modelling, a continuous expression for the elastic potential energy of the system is developed based on the modified couple stress theory, taking into account small-size effects; the kinetic energy of the system is also modelled as a continuous function of the displacement field. Hamilton's principle is employed to balance the energies and to obtain the continuous model of the system. Employing the Galerkin scheme along with an assumed-mode technique, the energy terms are reduced, yielding a second-order reduced-order model with finite number of degrees of freedom. A transformation is carried out to convert the second-order reduced-order model into a double-dimensional first order one. A bifurcation analysis is performed for the system in the absence of the axial load fluctuations. Moreover, a mean value for the axial load is selected in the supercritical range, and the principal parametric resonant response, due to the time-variant component of the axial load, is obtained - as opposed to transversely excited systems, for parametrically excited system (such as our problem here), the nonlinear resonance occurs in the vicinity of twice any natural frequency of the linear system; this is accomplished via use of the pseudo-arclength continuation technique, a direct time integration, an eigenvalue analysis, and the Floquet theory for stability. The natural frequencies of the system prior to and beyond buckling are also determined. Moreover, the effect of different system parameters on the nonlinear supercritical parametric dynamics of the system is analysed, with special consideration to the effect of the length-scale parameter.

  9. Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula

    OpenAIRE

    Vyas, Sameer; Prakash, Mahesh; Kaman, Lileshwar; Bhardwaj, Nidhi; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula (EPF) is a rare entity. We describe a case in a middle-aged female who presented with severe retrosternal chest pain and shortness of breadth. Chest computed tomography showed right EPF and hydropneumothorax. She was managed conservatively keeping the chest tube drainage and performing feeding jejunostomy. A brief review of the imaging finding and management of EPF is discussed.

  10. Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Sameer; Prakash, Mahesh; Kaman, Lileshwar; Bhardwaj, Nidhi; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2011-10-01

    Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula (EPF) is a rare entity. We describe a case in a middle-aged female who presented with severe retrosternal chest pain and shortness of breadth. Chest computed tomography showed right EPF and hydropneumothorax. She was managed conservatively keeping the chest tube drainage and performing feeding jejunostomy. A brief review of the imaging finding and management of EPF is discussed.

  11. Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Vyas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula (EPF is a rare entity. We describe a case in a middle-aged female who presented with severe retrosternal chest pain and shortness of breadth. Chest computed tomography showed right EPF and hydropneumothorax. She was managed conservatively keeping the chest tube drainage and performing feeding jejunostomy. A brief review of the imaging finding and management of EPF is discussed.

  12. Spontaneous acute spinal subdural hematoma: spontaneous recovery from severe paraparesis--case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payer, Michael; Agosti, Reto

    2010-11-01

    Spontaneous idiopathic acute spinal subdural hematomas are highly exceptional. Neurological symptoms are usually severe, and rapid diagnosis with MRI is mandatory. Surgical evacuation has frequently been used therapeutically; however, spontaneous recovery in mild cases has also been reported. We present a case of spontaneous recovery from severe paraparesis after spontaneous acute SSDH, and review the English-speaking literature.

  13. Quantum theory of novel parametric devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, P.D.; Reid, M.D.; Dechoum, K.; Chaturvedi, S.; Olsen, M.; Kheruntsyan, K.; Bradley, A.

    2005-01-01

    While the parametric amplifier is a widely used and important source of entangled and squeezed photons, there are many possible ways to investigate the physics of intracavity parametric devices. Novel quantum theory of parametric devices in this talk will cover several new types of unconventional devices, including the following topics:- Critical intracavity paramp - We calculate intrinsic limits to entanglement of a quantum paramp, caused by nonlinear effects originating in phase noise of the pump. - Degenerate planar paramp - We obtain universal quantum critical fluctuations in a planar paramp device by mapping to the equations of magnetic Lifshitz points Nondegenerate planar paramp - The Mermin-Wagner theorem is used to demonstrate that there is no phase transition in the case of a nondegenerate planar device - Coupled channel paramp - A robust and novel integrated entanglement source can be generated using type I waveguides coupled inside a cavity to generate spatial entanglement - Cascade paramps - This possible 'GHZ-type' source is obtained by cascading successive down conversion crystals inside the same cavity, giving two thresholds Parallel paramps - Tripartite entanglement can be generated if three intracavity paramp crystals are operated in parallel, each idler mode acting as a signal for the next. Finally, we briefly treat the relevant experimental developments. (author)

  14. Parametric Architecture in the Urban Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszkiewicz, Krystyna; Kowalski, Karol G.

    2017-10-01

    The paper deals with the parametric architecture which is trying to introduce a new spatial language in the context for urban tissue that correspond to the artistic consciousness and the attitude of information and digital technologies era. The first part of the paper defines the main features of parametric architecture (such as: folding, continuity and curvilinearity) which are are characteristic of the new style of named the “parametricism”. This architecture is a strong emphasis on geometry, materiality, feasibility and sustainability, what emerges is an explicit agenda promoting material ornamentation, spatial spectacle and formal theatricality. The second part presents result of case study, especially parametric public use buildings, within the tissue of city. The analyzed objects are: The Sage Gateshead (1998-2004) in Gateshead, Kunsthaus in Graz (2000-2003), the Weltstadthaus (2003-2005) in Cologne, The Golden Terraces in Warsaw (2000-2007), the Metropol Parasol in Seville (2005-2011) the King Cross Station (2005-2012) in London, the headquarters of the Pathé Foundation (2006-2014) in Paris. Each of the enumerated examples shows a diverse approach to designing in the urban space, which reflect the age of digital technologies and the information society. In conclusion emphasizes, that new concept of the spatialization of architecture is the equivalent of the democratization of the political system, the liberalization of the economy, among other examples.

  15. Sgr A* Emission Parametrizations from GRMHD Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantua, Richard; Ressler, Sean; Quataert, Eliot

    2018-06-01

    Galactic Center emission near the vicinity of the central black hole, Sagittarius (Sgr) A*, is modeled using parametrizations involving the electron temperature, which is found from general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations to be highest in the disk-outflow corona. Jet-motivated prescriptions generalizing equipartition of particle and magnetic energies, e.g., by scaling relativistic electron energy density to powers of the magnetic field strength, are also introduced. GRMHD jet (or outflow)/accretion disk/black hole (JAB) simulation postprocessing codes IBOTHROS and GRMONTY are employed in the calculation of images and spectra. Various parametric models reproduce spectral and morphological features, such as the sub-mm spectral bump in electron temperature models and asymmetric photon rings in equipartition-based models. The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) will provide unprecedentedly high-resolution 230+ GHz observations of the "shadow" around Sgr A*'s supermassive black hole, which the synthetic models presented here will reverse-engineer. Both electron temperature and equipartition-based models can be constructed to be compatible with EHT size constraints for the emitting region of Sgr A*. This program sets the groundwork for devising a unified emission parametrization flexible enough to model disk, corona and outflow/jet regions with a small set of parameters including electron heating fraction and plasma beta.

  16. Parametric Cost Models for Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd; Dollinger, Courtney

    2010-01-01

    Multivariable parametric cost models for space telescopes provide several benefits to designers and space system project managers. They identify major architectural cost drivers and allow high-level design trades. They enable cost-benefit analysis for technology development investment. And, they provide a basis for estimating total project cost. A survey of historical models found that there is no definitive space telescope cost model. In fact, published models vary greatly [1]. Thus, there is a need for parametric space telescopes cost models. An effort is underway to develop single variable [2] and multi-variable [3] parametric space telescope cost models based on the latest available data and applying rigorous analytical techniques. Specific cost estimating relationships (CERs) have been developed which show that aperture diameter is the primary cost driver for large space telescopes; technology development as a function of time reduces cost at the rate of 50% per 17 years; it costs less per square meter of collecting aperture to build a large telescope than a small telescope; and increasing mass reduces cost.

  17. Parametric cost models for space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd; Dollinger, Courtnay

    2017-11-01

    Multivariable parametric cost models for space telescopes provide several benefits to designers and space system project managers. They identify major architectural cost drivers and allow high-level design trades. They enable cost-benefit analysis for technology development investment. And, they provide a basis for estimating total project cost. A survey of historical models found that there is no definitive space telescope cost model. In fact, published models vary greatly [1]. Thus, there is a need for parametric space telescopes cost models. An effort is underway to develop single variable [2] and multi-variable [3] parametric space telescope cost models based on the latest available data and applying rigorous analytical techniques. Specific cost estimating relationships (CERs) have been developed which show that aperture diameter is the primary cost driver for large space telescopes; technology development as a function of time reduces cost at the rate of 50% per 17 years; it costs less per square meter of collecting aperture to build a large telescope than a small telescope; and increasing mass reduces cost.

  18. Spontaneous fission of 259Md

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulet, E.K.; Wild, J.F.; Lougheed, R.W.; Baisden, P.A.; Landrum, J.H.; Dougan, R.J.; Mustafa, M.; Ghiorso, A.; Nitschke, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    The mass and kinetic energy distributions of fission fragments from the spontaneous fission of th newly discovered nuclide 259 Md were obtained. 259 Md was identified as the E. C. daughter of 259 No, and was found to decay entirely (> 95%) by spontaneous fission with a 95-min half-life. From the kinetic energies measured for 397 pairs of coincident fragments, a mass distribution was derived that is symmetric with sigma = 13 amu. 259 Md, together with 258 Fm and 259 Fm, form a select group of three nuclides whose mass division in spontaneous fission is highly symmetric. Unlike the total-kinetic-energy (TKE) distributions of 258 Fm and 259 Fm, which peak at approx. = to 240 MeV, this distribution for 259 Md is broad and is 50 MeV lower in energy. Analysis of the mass and energy distributions shows that events near mass symmetry also exhibit a broad TKE distribution, with one-third of the symmetric events having TKEs less than 200 MeV. The associated of low TKEs with symmetric mass division in the fission of very heavy actinides is anomalous and inconsistent with theories based upon the emergence of fragment shells near the scission point. Either three-body fragmentation or peculiar fragment shapes are assumed as the cause for the large consumption of Coulomb energy observed for a significant fraction of symmetric fissions in 259 Md. 6 figures

  19. Spontaneous Scalarization: Dead or Alive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Emanuele; Crispino, Luis; Gerosa, Davide; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Horbatsch, Michael; Macedo, Caio; Okada da Silva, Hector; Pani, Paolo; Sotani, Hajime; Sperhake, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    In 1993, Damour and Esposito-Farese showed that a wide class of scalar-tensor theories can pass weak-field gravitational tests and exhibit nonperturbative strong-field deviations away from General Relativity in systems involving neutron stars. These deviations are possible in the presence of ``spontaneous scalarization,'' a phase transition similar in nature to spontaneous magnetization in ferromagnets. More than twenty years after the original proposal, binary pulsar experiments have severely constrained the possibility of spontaneous scalarization occurring in nature. I will show that these experimental constraints have important implications for the torsional oscillation frequencies of neutron stars and for the so-called ``I-Love-Q'' relations in scalar-tensor theories. I will also argue that there is still hope to observe strong scalarization effects, despite the strong experimental bounds on the original mechanism. In particular, I will discuss two mechanisms that could produce strong scalarization in neutron stars: anisotropy and multiscalarization. This work was supported by NSF CAREER Award PHY-1055103.

  20. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mirfazaelian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of spleen due to malignant melanoma is a rare situation, with only a few case reports in the literature. This study reports a previously healthy, 30-year-old man who came with chief complaint of acute abdominal pain to emergency room. On physical examination, abdominal tenderness and guarding were detected to be coincident with hypotension. Ultrasonography revealed mild splenomegaly with moderate free fluid in abdominopelvic cavity. Considering acute abdominal pain and hemodynamic instability, he underwent splenectomy with splenic rupture as the source of bleeding. Histologic examination showed diffuse infiltration by tumor. Immunohistochemical study (positive for S100, HMB45, and vimentin and negative for CK, CD10, CK20, CK7, CD30, LCA, EMA, and chromogranin confirmed metastatic malignant melanoma. On further questioning, there was a past history of a nasal dark skin lesion which was removed two years ago with no pathologic examination. Spontaneous (nontraumatic rupture of spleen is an uncommon situation and it happens very rarely due to neoplastic metastasis. Metastasis of malignant melanoma is one of the rare causes of the spontaneous rupture of spleen.

  1. Nonscaling parametrization of hadronic spectra and dual parton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaponenko, O.N.

    2001-01-01

    Using the popular Wdowczyk-Wolfendale parametrization (WW-parametrization) as an example one studies restrictions imposed by a dual parton model for different nonscaling parametrizations of the pulsed hadron spectra in soft hadron-hadron and hadron-nuclear interactions. One derived a new parametrization free from basic drawback of the WW-formulae. In the central range the determined parametrization show agreement with the Wdowczyk-Wolfendale formula, but in contrast to the last-named one it does not result in contradiction with the experiment due to fast reduction of inelastic factor reduction with energy increase [ru

  2. Unified triminimal parametrizations of quark and lepton mixing matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaogang; Li Shiwen; Ma Boqiang

    2009-01-01

    We present a detailed study on triminimal parametrizations of quark and lepton mixing matrices with different basis matrices. We start with a general discussion on the triminimal expansion of the mixing matrix and on possible unified quark and lepton parametrization using quark-lepton complementarity. We then consider several interesting basis matrices and compare the triminimal parametrizations with the Wolfenstein-like parametrizations. The usual Wolfenstein parametrization for quark mixing is a triminimal expansion around the unit matrix as the basis. The corresponding quark-lepton complementarity lepton mixing matrix is a triminimal expansion around the bimaximal basis. Current neutrino oscillation data show that the lepton mixing matrix is very well represented by the tribimaximal mixing. It is natural to take it as an expanding basis. The corresponding zeroth order basis for quark mixing in this case makes the triminimal expansion converge much faster than the usual Wolfenstein parametrization. The triminimal expansion based on tribimaximal mixing can be converted to the Wolfenstein-like parametrizations discussed in the literature. We thus have a unified description between different kinds of parametrizations for quark and lepton sectors: the standard parametrizations, the Wolfenstein-like parametrizations, and the triminimal parametrizations.

  3. Parametric resonance of intrinsic localized modes in coupled cantilever arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Masayuki, E-mail: kimura.masayuki.8c@kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Electrical Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Matsushita, Yasuo [Advanced Mathematical Institute, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sughimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Hikihara, Takashi [Department of Electrical Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2016-08-19

    In this study, the parametric resonances of pinned intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) were investigated by computing the unstable regions in parameter space consisting of parametric excitation amplitude and frequency. In the unstable regions, the pinned ILMs were observed to lose stability and begin to fluctuate. A nonlinear Klein–Gordon, Fermi–Pasta–Ulam-like, and mixed lattices were investigated. The pinned ILMs, particularly in the mixed lattice, were destabilized by parametric resonances, which were determined by comparing the shapes of the unstable regions with those in the Mathieu differential equation. In addition, traveling ILMs could be generated by parametric excitation. - Highlights: • Destabilization of intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) by parametric excitation is investigated for FPU, NKG, and mixed lattices. • Frequency and amplitude of parametric excitation is determined based on characteristic multipliers of ILMs. • Unstable regions for the mixed lattice case show very similar shape to those of the Mathieu equation. • ILMs become unstable by causing parametric resonance.

  4. Parametric resonance of intrinsic localized modes in coupled cantilever arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Matsushita, Yasuo; Hikihara, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the parametric resonances of pinned intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) were investigated by computing the unstable regions in parameter space consisting of parametric excitation amplitude and frequency. In the unstable regions, the pinned ILMs were observed to lose stability and begin to fluctuate. A nonlinear Klein–Gordon, Fermi–Pasta–Ulam-like, and mixed lattices were investigated. The pinned ILMs, particularly in the mixed lattice, were destabilized by parametric resonances, which were determined by comparing the shapes of the unstable regions with those in the Mathieu differential equation. In addition, traveling ILMs could be generated by parametric excitation. - Highlights: • Destabilization of intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) by parametric excitation is investigated for FPU, NKG, and mixed lattices. • Frequency and amplitude of parametric excitation is determined based on characteristic multipliers of ILMs. • Unstable regions for the mixed lattice case show very similar shape to those of the Mathieu equation. • ILMs become unstable by causing parametric resonance.

  5. A probabilistic strategy for parametric catastrophe insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Rui; Martina, Mario; Stephenson, David; Youngman, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    Economic losses due to natural hazards have shown an upward trend since 1980, which is expected to continue. Recent years have seen a growing worldwide commitment towards the reduction of disaster losses. This requires effective management of disaster risk at all levels, a part of which involves reducing financial vulnerability to disasters ex-ante, ensuring that necessary resources will be available following such events. One way to achieve this is through risk transfer instruments. These can be based on different types of triggers, which determine the conditions under which payouts are made after an event. This study focuses on parametric triggers, where payouts are determined by the occurrence of an event exceeding specified physical parameters at a given location, or at multiple locations, or over a region. This type of product offers a number of important advantages, and its adoption is increasing. The main drawback of parametric triggers is their susceptibility to basis risk, which arises when there is a mismatch between triggered payouts and the occurrence of loss events. This is unavoidable in said programmes, as their calibration is based on models containing a number of different sources of uncertainty. Thus, a deterministic definition of the loss event triggering parameters appears flawed. However, often for simplicity, this is the way in which most parametric models tend to be developed. This study therefore presents an innovative probabilistic strategy for parametric catastrophe insurance. It is advantageous as it recognizes uncertainties and minimizes basis risk while maintaining a simple and transparent procedure. A logistic regression model is constructed here to represent the occurrence of loss events based on certain loss index variables, obtained through the transformation of input environmental variables. Flood-related losses due to rainfall are studied. The resulting model is able, for any given day, to issue probabilities of occurrence of loss

  6. Open and Closed Loop Parametric System Identification in Compact Disk Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Enrique Sanchez; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2001-01-01

    By measuring the current through the coil of the actuators in the optical pick-up in a compact disk player, open loop parametric system identification can be performed. The parameters are identified by minimizing the least-squares loss function of the ARX model. The only parameter which cannot be...... be identified in open loop is the optical gain. This is therefore estimated in closed loop. Practical results are analyzed and show very accurate estimates of the real parameters.......By measuring the current through the coil of the actuators in the optical pick-up in a compact disk player, open loop parametric system identification can be performed. The parameters are identified by minimizing the least-squares loss function of the ARX model. The only parameter which cannot...

  7. 2.5 TW, two-cycle IR laser pulses via frequency domain optical parametric amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruson, V; Ernotte, G; Lassonde, P; Laramée, A; Bionta, M R; Chaker, M; Di Mauro, L; Corkum, P B; Ibrahim, H; Schmidt, B E; Legaré, F

    2017-10-30

    Broadband optical parametric amplification in the IR region has reached a new milestone through the use of a non-collinear Frequency domain Optical Parametric Amplification system. We report a laser source delivering 11.6 fs pulses with 30 mJ of energy at a central wavelength of 1.8 μm at 10 Hz repetition rate corresponding to a peak power of 2.5 TW. The peak power scaling is accompanied by a pulse shortening of about 20% upon amplification due to the spectral reshaping with higher gain in the spectral wings. This source paves the way for high flux soft X-ray pulses and IR-driven laser wakefield acceleration.

  8. Spontaneous Gamma Activity in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoji; Oribe, Naoya; Kanba, Shigenobu; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Nestor, Paul G; Spencer, Kevin M

    2015-08-01

    A major goal of translational neuroscience is to identify neural circuit abnormalities in neuropsychiatric disorders that can be studied in animal models to facilitate the development of new treatments. Oscillations in the gamma band (30-100 Hz) of the electroencephalogram have received considerable interest as the basic mechanisms underlying these oscillations are understood, and gamma abnormalities have been found in schizophrenia (SZ). Animal models of SZ based on hypofunction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) demonstrate increased spontaneous broadband gamma power, but this phenomenon has not been identified clearly in patients with SZ. To examine spontaneous gamma power and its relationship to evoked gamma oscillations in the auditory cortex of patients with SZ. We performed a cross-sectional study including 24 patients with chronic SZ and 24 matched healthy control participants at the Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2012. Electroencephalograms were obtained during auditory steady-state stimulation at multiple frequencies (20, 30, and 40 Hz) and during a resting state in 18 participants in each group. Electroencephalographic activity in the auditory cortex was estimated using dipole source localization. Auditory steady-state response (ASSR) measures included the phase-locking factor and evoked power. Spontaneous gamma power was measured as induced (non-phase-locked) gamma power in the ASSR data and as total gamma power in the resting-state data. The ASSR phase-locking factor was reduced significantly in patients with SZ compared with controls for the 40-Hz stimulation (mean [SD], 0.075 [0.028] vs 0.113 [0.065]; F1,46 = 6.79 [P = .012]) but not the 20- or the 30-Hz stimulation (0.042 [0.038] vs 0.043 [0.034]; F1,46 = 0.006 [P = .938] and 0.084 [0.040] vs 0.098 [0.050]; F1,46 = 1.605 [P = .212], respectively), repeating previous findings. The mean [SD] broadband-induced (30

  9. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory predict gains in mathematics achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C

    2013-01-01

    Visuospatial competencies are related to performance in mathematical domains in adulthood, but are not consistently related to mathematics achievement in children. We confirmed the latter for first graders and demonstrated that children who show above average first-to-fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory have an advantage over other children in mathematics. The study involved the assessment of the mathematics and reading achievement of 177 children in kindergarten to fifth grade, inclusive, and their working memory capacity and processing speed in first and fifth grade. Intelligence was assessed in first grade and their second to fourth grade teachers reported on their in-class attentive behavior. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory span (d = 2.4) were larger than gains in the capacity of the central executive (d = 1.6) that in turn were larger than gains in phonological memory span (d = 1.1). First to fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory and in speed of numeral processing predicted end of fifth grade mathematics achievement, as did first grade central executive scores, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior. The results suggest there are important individual differences in the rate of growth of visuospatial memory during childhood and that these differences become increasingly important for mathematics learning.

  10. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory predict gains in mathematics achievement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoran Li

    Full Text Available Visuospatial competencies are related to performance in mathematical domains in adulthood, but are not consistently related to mathematics achievement in children. We confirmed the latter for first graders and demonstrated that children who show above average first-to-fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory have an advantage over other children in mathematics. The study involved the assessment of the mathematics and reading achievement of 177 children in kindergarten to fifth grade, inclusive, and their working memory capacity and processing speed in first and fifth grade. Intelligence was assessed in first grade and their second to fourth grade teachers reported on their in-class attentive behavior. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory span (d = 2.4 were larger than gains in the capacity of the central executive (d = 1.6 that in turn were larger than gains in phonological memory span (d = 1.1. First to fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory and in speed of numeral processing predicted end of fifth grade mathematics achievement, as did first grade central executive scores, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior. The results suggest there are important individual differences in the rate of growth of visuospatial memory during childhood and that these differences become increasingly important for mathematics learning.

  11. Developmental Gains in Visuospatial Memory Predict Gains in Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Visuospatial competencies are related to performance in mathematical domains in adulthood, but are not consistently related to mathematics achievement in children. We confirmed the latter for first graders and demonstrated that children who show above average first-to-fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory have an advantage over other children in mathematics. The study involved the assessment of the mathematics and reading achievement of 177 children in kindergarten to fifth grade, inclusive, and their working memory capacity and processing speed in first and fifth grade. Intelligence was assessed in first grade and their second to fourth grade teachers reported on their in-class attentive behavior. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory span (d = 2.4) were larger than gains in the capacity of the central executive (d = 1.6) that in turn were larger than gains in phonological memory span (d = 1.1). First to fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory and in speed of numeral processing predicted end of fifth grade mathematics achievement, as did first grade central executive scores, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior. The results suggest there are important individual differences in the rate of growth of visuospatial memory during childhood and that these differences become increasingly important for mathematics learning. PMID:23936154

  12. First lasing of a high-gain harmonic generation free-electron laser experiment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babzien, M.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Biedron, S. G.; DiMauro, L. F.; Douryan, A.; Galayda, J. N.; Gluskin, E.; Graves, W.; Jagger, J.; Johnson, E.; Krinsky, S.; Malone, R.; Pogorelsky, I.; Rakowsky, G.; Sajaev, V.; Skaritka, J.; Solomon, L.; Vasserman, I.; Wang, X. L.; Woodle, M.; Yakimenko, V.; Yu, L.-H.

    1999-09-11

    We report on the first lasing of a high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG) free-electron laser (FEL). The experiment was conducted at the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). This is a BNL experiment in collaboration with the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory. A preliminary measurement gives a high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG) pulse energy that is 2 x 10{sup 7} times larger than the spontaneous radiation, In a purely self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) mode of operation, the signal was measured as 10 times larger than the spontaneous radiation in the same distance ({approximately}2 m) through the same wiggler. This means the HGHG signal is 2 x 10{sup 6} times larger than the SASE signal. To obtain the same saturated output power by the SASE process, the radiator would have to be 3 times longer (6 m).

  13. Gain measurement in a CW medium-power diode pumped Nd:YAG laser amplifier by ASE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razzaghi, D; Hajiesmaeilbaigi, F; Ruzbehani, M

    2014-01-01

    Using the relation between amplified spontaneous emission intensity and gain, a set of formulas is derived for gain evaluation by comparing fluorescence yield in two different lengths of the active medium. Experimental measurements are carried out and gain is calculated by solving the derived formula. For comparison, measurements are also carried out using the probe beam method, which shows good agreement between the two methods in a typical CW medium-power diode pumped Nd:YAG amplifier. (paper)

  14. High gain L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier with two-stage ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    stage erbium-doped fiber amplifier; amplified spontaneous emission. Abstract. An experiment on gain enhancement in the long wavelength band erbium-doped fiber amplifier (L-band EDFA) is demonstrated using dual forward pumping scheme ...

  15. Soft x-ray laser gain measurements in a recombining plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suckewer, S.; Skinner, C.H.; Milchberg, H.; Keane, C.; Voorhees, D.

    1985-03-01

    An enhancement of approx. 100 of stimulated emission over spontaneous emission of the CVI 182 A line (one-pass gain approx. = 6.5) was measured in a recombining, magnetically confined plasma column by two independent techniques using intensity calibrated XUV monochromators. Additional confirmation that the enhancement was due to stimulated emission has been obtained with a soft x-ray mirror

  16. Gain-clamping techniques in two-stage double-pass L-band EDFA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two designs of long-wavelength band erbium-doped fiber amplifier (L-band. EDFA) for gain clamping in double-pass systems are demonstrated and compared. The first design is based on ring laser technique where a backward amplified spontaneous emis- sion (ASE) from the second stage is routed into the feedback loop ...

  17. Slow-light enhancement of spontaneous emission in active photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara; Chen, Yaohui; Semenova, Elizaveta

    2012-01-01

    Photonic crystal defect waveguides with embedded active layers containing single or multiple quantum wells or quantum dots have been fabricated. Spontaneous emission spectra are enhanced close to the bandedge, consistently with the enhancement of gain by slow light effects. These are promising...... results for future compact devices for terabit/s communication, such as miniaturised semiconductor optical amplifiers and mode-locked lasers....

  18. Tremor Detection Using Parametric and Non-Parametric Spectral Estimation Methods: A Comparison with Clinical Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Manzanera, Octavio; Elting, Jan Willem; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.; Maurits, Natasha M.

    2016-01-01

    In the clinic, tremor is diagnosed during a time-limited process in which patients are observed and the characteristics of tremor are visually assessed. For some tremor disorders, a more detailed analysis of these characteristics is needed. Accelerometry and electromyography can be used to obtain a better insight into tremor. Typically, routine clinical assessment of accelerometry and electromyography data involves visual inspection by clinicians and occasionally computational analysis to obtain objective characteristics of tremor. However, for some tremor disorders these characteristics may be different during daily activity. This variability in presentation between the clinic and daily life makes a differential diagnosis more difficult. A long-term recording of tremor by accelerometry and/or electromyography in the home environment could help to give a better insight into the tremor disorder. However, an evaluation of such recordings using routine clinical standards would take too much time. We evaluated a range of techniques that automatically detect tremor segments in accelerometer data, as accelerometer data is more easily obtained in the home environment than electromyography data. Time can be saved if clinicians only have to evaluate the tremor characteristics of segments that have been automatically detected in longer daily activity recordings. We tested four non-parametric methods and five parametric methods on clinical accelerometer data from 14 patients with different tremor disorders. The consensus between two clinicians regarding the presence or absence of tremor on 3943 segments of accelerometer data was employed as reference. The nine methods were tested against this reference to identify their optimal parameters. Non-parametric methods generally performed better than parametric methods on our dataset when optimal parameters were used. However, one parametric method, employing the high frequency content of the tremor bandwidth under consideration

  19. Comparative Study of Parametric and Non-parametric Approaches in Fault Detection and Isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katebi, S.D.; Blanke, M.; Katebi, M.R.

    This report describes a comparative study between two approaches to fault detection and isolation in dynamic systems. The first approach uses a parametric model of the system. The main components of such techniques are residual and signature generation for processing and analyzing. The second...... approach is non-parametric in the sense that the signature analysis is only dependent on the frequency or time domain information extracted directly from the input-output signals. Based on these approaches, two different fault monitoring schemes are developed where the feature extraction and fault decision...

  20. Spontaneous oscillations in microfluidic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Daniel; Angilella, Jean-Regis; Motter, Adilson

    2017-11-01

    Precisely controlling flows within microfluidic systems is often difficult which typically results in systems being heavily reliant on numerous external pumps and computers. Here, I present a simple microfluidic network that exhibits flow rate switching, bistablity, and spontaneous oscillations controlled by a single pressure. That is, by solely changing the driving pressure, it is possible to switch between an oscillating and steady flow state. Such functionality does not rely on external hardware and may even serve as an on-chip memory or timing mechanism. I use an analytic model and rigorous fluid dynamics simulations to show these results.

  1. Spontaneous coronary dissection: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Couto, Gustavo J. Ventura; Deslandes, Alexandre de O.; Santos, Paulo César de Souza; Cruz, Alexandre de Araújo; Saraiva, Roberto Santos

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo do trabalho é demonstrar o caso de um homem de 62 anos, com quadro de dissecção coronariana espontânea, localizada em 1/3 inicial de coronária circunflexa esquerda, tratado cirurgicamente com revascularização miocárdica. A operação realizada com sucesso demonstra, nesse caso, ser o único meio possível de cura.The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate the case of a 62-year-old man, with spontaneous coronary dissection of the left circumflex artery, treated surgically by myocardial ...

  2. [Spontaneous neoplasms in guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khar'kovskaia, N A; Khrustalev, S A; Vasil'eva, N N

    1977-01-01

    The authors present an analysis of the data of foreign literature and the results of their personal studies of spontaneous neoplasms in 40 guinea pigs of national breeding observed during observed during a 5-year period. In 4 of them malignant tumors were diagnosed-lympholeucosis (2 cases), dermoid ovarian cysts and also cancer and adenoma of the adrenal cortex (in one animal). The neoplasms described developed in guinea pigs, aged over 4 years, and they are referred to as mostly common tumors in this species of animals.

  3. Non-parametric smoothing of experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuketayev, A.T.; Pen'kov, F.M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Rapid processing of experimental data samples in nuclear physics often requires differentiation in order to find extrema. Therefore, even at the preliminary stage of data analysis, a range of noise reduction methods are used to smooth experimental data. There are many non-parametric smoothing techniques: interval averages, moving averages, exponential smoothing, etc. Nevertheless, it is more common to use a priori information about the behavior of the experimental curve in order to construct smoothing schemes based on the least squares techniques. The latter methodology's advantage is that the area under the curve can be preserved, which is equivalent to conservation of total speed of counting. The disadvantages of this approach include the lack of a priori information. For example, very often the sums of undifferentiated (by a detector) peaks are replaced with one peak during the processing of data, introducing uncontrolled errors in the determination of the physical quantities. The problem is solvable only by having experienced personnel, whose skills are much greater than the challenge. We propose a set of non-parametric techniques, which allows the use of any additional information on the nature of experimental dependence. The method is based on a construction of a functional, which includes both experimental data and a priori information. Minimum of this functional is reached on a non-parametric smoothed curve. Euler (Lagrange) differential equations are constructed for these curves; then their solutions are obtained analytically or numerically. The proposed approach allows for automated processing of nuclear physics data, eliminating the need for highly skilled laboratory personnel. Pursuant to the proposed approach is the possibility to obtain smoothing curves in a given confidence interval, e.g. according to the χ 2 distribution. This approach is applicable when constructing smooth solutions of ill-posed problems, in particular when solving

  4. The flight of the bumblebee: solutions from a vector-induced spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolami, Orfeu; Paramos, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    The vacuum solutions arising from a spontaneous breaking of Lorentz symmetry due to the acquisition of a vacuum expectation value by a vector field are derived. These include the purely radial Lorentz symmetry breaking (LSB), radial/temporal LSB and axial/temporal LSB scenarios. It is found that the purely radial LSB case gives rise to new black hole solutions. Whenever possible. Parametrized Post-Newtonian (PPN) parameters are computed and compared to observational bounds, in order to constrain the Lorentz symmetry breaking scale

  5. Parametric estimation of P(X > Y) for normal distributions in the context of probabilistic environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Rianne; Bekker, Andriëtte A; van der Voet, Hilko; Ter Braak, Cajo J F

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the risk, P(X > Y), in probabilistic environmental risk assessment of nanoparticles is a problem when confronted by potentially small risks and small sample sizes of the exposure concentration X and/or the effect concentration Y. This is illustrated in the motivating case study of aquatic risk assessment of nano-Ag. A non-parametric estimator based on data alone is not sufficient as it is limited by sample size. In this paper, we investigate the maximum gain possible when making strong parametric assumptions as opposed to making no parametric assumptions at all. We compare maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimators with the non-parametric estimator and study the influence of sample size and risk on the (interval) estimators via simulation. We found that the parametric estimators enable us to estimate and bound the risk for smaller sample sizes and small risks. Also, the Bayesian estimator outperforms the maximum likelihood estimators in terms of coverage and interval lengths and is, therefore, preferred in our motivating case study.

  6. Massively multi-parametric immunoassays using ICPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, S.D.; Ornatsky, O.; Bandura, D.R.; Baranov, V.I.

    2009-01-01

    The use of stable isotopes as tags in immunoassays, and their determination by ICPMS, is poised to have a huge impact on multi-parametric bioanalysis. A new technology, which we term 'mass cytometry', enables high throughput, highly multiplexed individual cell analysis. Preliminary results for T-cell immunophenotyping in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), agonist influence on concomitant phosphorylation pathways, and sub-classification of acute myeloid leukemia patients' samples will be presented. The significance of individual cell analysis is demonstrated by the identification of populations of rogue cells in PBMC samples through the use of multidimensional neural network cluster analysis. (author)

  7. A parametric evaluation of supersonic STOVL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, G. H.; Rapp, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study to evaluate parametric variations to a single engine short-takeoff vertical-landing fighter/attack aircraft design. The variables considered involved thrust vectoring, thrust degradation, maximum lift, and other changes to determine the impact on short-takeoff performance, but subject to a vertical-landing capability. The results indicate that there are certain parameters that have a significant effect on short-field performance. Also, the optimal control strategies for transitions from a short-takeoff to forward flight and from forward flight to hover are determined. The results have applicability beyond the configuration evaluated.

  8. Semi-parametric estimation for ARCH models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed Alzghool

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we conduct semi-parametric estimation for autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (ARCH model with Quasi likelihood (QL and Asymptotic Quasi-likelihood (AQL estimation methods. The QL approach relaxes the distributional assumptions of ARCH processes. The AQL technique is obtained from the QL method when the process conditional variance is unknown. We present an application of the methods to a daily exchange rate series. Keywords: ARCH model, Quasi likelihood (QL, Asymptotic Quasi-likelihood (AQL, Martingale difference, Kernel estimator

  9. Robust Parametric Control of Spacecraft Rendezvous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dake Gu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to design the robust parametric control for autonomous rendezvous of spacecrafts with the inertial information with uncertainty. We consider model uncertainty of traditional C-W equation to formulate the dynamic model of the relative motion. Based on eigenstructure assignment and model reference theory, a concise control law for spacecraft rendezvous is proposed which could be fixed through solving an optimization problem. The cost function considers the stabilization of the system and other performances. Simulation results illustrate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed control.

  10. Parametric resonance in acoustically levitated water drops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, C.L.; Xie, W.J.; Wei, B.

    2010-01-01

    Liquid drops can be suspended in air with acoustic levitation method. When the sound pressure is periodically modulated, the levitated drop is usually forced into an axisymmetric oscillation. However, a transition from axisymmetric oscillation into sectorial oscillation occurs when the modulation frequency approaches some specific values. The frequency of the sectorial oscillation is almost exactly half of the modulation frequency. It is demonstrated that this transition is induced by the parametric resonance of levitated drop. The natural frequency of sectorial oscillation is found to decrease with the increase of drop distortion extent.

  11. Parametric resonance in acoustically levitated water drops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, C.L.; Xie, W.J. [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Wei, B., E-mail: bbwei@nwpu.edu.c [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2010-05-10

    Liquid drops can be suspended in air with acoustic levitation method. When the sound pressure is periodically modulated, the levitated drop is usually forced into an axisymmetric oscillation. However, a transition from axisymmetric oscillation into sectorial oscillation occurs when the modulation frequency approaches some specific values. The frequency of the sectorial oscillation is almost exactly half of the modulation frequency. It is demonstrated that this transition is induced by the parametric resonance of levitated drop. The natural frequency of sectorial oscillation is found to decrease with the increase of drop distortion extent.

  12. Parametric systems analysis for tandem mirror hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.; Chapin, D.L.; Chi, J.W.H.

    1980-09-01

    Fusion fission systems, consisting of fissile producing fusion hybrids combining a tandem mirror fusion driver with various blanket types and net fissile consuming LWR's, have been modeled and analyzed parametrically. Analysis to date indicates that hybrids can be competitive with mined uranium when U 3 O 8 cost is about 100 $/lb., adding less than 25% to present day cost of power from LWR's. Of the three blanket types considered, uranium fast fission (UFF), thorium fast fission (ThFF), and thorium fission supressed (ThFS), the ThFS blanket has a modest economic advantage under most conditions but has higher support ratios and potential safety advantages under all conditions

  13. Molecular and parametric imaging with iron oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuszewski, L.; Bremer, C.; Tombach, B.; Heindel, W.

    2007-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) contrast agents, clinically established for high resolution magnetic resonance imaging of reticuloendothelial system containing anatomical structures, can additionally be exploited for the non-invasive characterization and quantification of pathology down to the molecular level. In this context, SPIOs can be applied for non-invasive cell tracking, quantification of tissue perfusion and target specific imaging, as well as for the detection of gene expression. This article provides an overview of new applications for clinically approved iron oxides as well of new, modified SPIO contrast agents for parametric and molecular imaging. (orig.) [de

  14. Parametric Cherenkov radiation (development of idea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buts, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    Some physical results of researches about charged particles radiation in mediums with a periodic heterogeneity and in periodic potential are reported. The development of ideas Parametric Cherenkov Radiation has shown, that in mediums, which have even a weak degree of a periodic heterogeneity of an permittivity or potential, the nonrelativistic oscillators can radiated as relativistic. They effectively radiate the high numbers of harmonics. In particular, in the carried out experiments the ultra-violet radiation was excited at action on a crystal of intensive ten-centimetric radiation. These results give the reasons to hope for making of nonrelativistic lasers on free electrons

  15. Parametrization relating the fermionic mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppe, A.

    1993-01-01

    When parametrizing the fermionic mass spectra in terms of the unit matrix and a recursive matrix scrR 0 , which corresponds to an underlying scaling pattern in the mass spectra, each fermionic sector is characterized by three parameters: k, α, and R. Using the set of relations displayed by the parameters of the different sectors, it is possible to formulate a ''family Lagrangian'' which for each sector encompasses all the families. Relations between quark masses are furthermore deduced from these ''family Lagrangians.'' Using the relations between the parameters of the different charge sectors, it is also possible to ''derive'' the quark mass spectra from the (charged) leptonic mass spectrum

  16. Parametric Portfolio Policies with Common Volatility Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ergemen, Yunus Emre; Taamouti, Abderrahim

    A parametric portfolio policy function is considered that incorporates common stock volatility dynamics to optimally determine portfolio weights. Reducing dimension of the traditional portfolio selection problem significantly, only a number of policy parameters corresponding to first- and second......-order characteristics are estimated based on a standard method-of-moments technique. The method, allowing for the calculation of portfolio weight and return statistics, is illustrated with an empirical application to 30 U.S. industries to study the economic activity before and after the recent financial crisis....

  17. Exercise in Configurable Products using Creo parametric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Georg Kronborg

    2017-01-01

    Family tables is a long know method with ProEngineer/Creo parametric to make families of products – like families of bolts and roller bearings. Configurable Products expand these possibilities in two major ways: First it makes configurable assemblies possible where one topologically different com...... been available as: configurable assemblies in earlier versions of Creo) An example of a practical application of configurable products is shown below where an outdoor Play/Exercise system is transferred from AutoCAD 2D to a 3D configurable product in Creo 3.0....

  18. Quantum phase from s-parametrized quasidistributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perinova, V; Luks, A

    2005-01-01

    It is familiar that a well behaved operator of the harmonic oscillator phase does not exist. Therefore, Turski's phase operator and the operator of Garrison and Wong may be at most defined in an interesting fashion and yield useful quantum expectation values. In this paper we touch on a recent incomplete definition of a phase operator which has also failed in the respect that it can be completed only to a definition of an 'incomplete' phase operator. We discuss, however, a possibility of completion of the definition and a relationship to the phase operator from an s-parametrized quasidistribution

  19. White-light parametric instabilities in plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J E; Silva, L O; Bingham, R

    2007-06-08

    Parametric instabilities driven by partially coherent radiation in plasmas are described by a generalized statistical Wigner-Moyal set of equations, formally equivalent to the full wave equation, coupled to the plasma fluid equations. A generalized dispersion relation for stimulated Raman scattering driven by a partially coherent pump field is derived, revealing a growth rate dependence, with the coherence width sigma of the radiation field, scaling with 1/sigma for backscattering (three-wave process), and with 1/sigma1/2 for direct forward scattering (four-wave process). Our results demonstrate the possibility to control the growth rates of these instabilities by properly using broadband pump radiation fields.

  20. Parametric Amplification of Gravitational Fluctuations during Reheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finelli, F.; Brandenberger, R.; Finelli, F.

    1999-01-01

    Cosmological perturbations can undergo amplification by parametric resonance during preheating even on scales larger than the Hubble radius, without violating causality. A unified description of gravitational and matter fluctuations is crucial to determine the strength of the instability. To extract specific signatures of the oscillating inflaton field during reheating, it is essential to focus on a variable describing metric fluctuations which is constant in the standard analyses of inflation. For a massive inflaton without self-coupling, we find no additional growth of superhorizon modes during reheating beyond the usual predictions. For a massless self-coupled inflaton, there is a sub-Hubble scale resonance. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  1. Ground-Based Telescope Parametric Cost Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Rowell, Ginger Holmes

    2004-01-01

    A parametric cost model for ground-based telescopes is developed using multi-variable statistical analysis, The model includes both engineering and performance parameters. While diameter continues to be the dominant cost driver, other significant factors include primary mirror radius of curvature and diffraction limited wavelength. The model includes an explicit factor for primary mirror segmentation and/or duplication (i.e.. multi-telescope phased-array systems). Additionally, single variable models based on aperture diameter are derived. This analysis indicates that recent mirror technology advances have indeed reduced the historical telescope cost curve.

  2. Preparing Schrodinger cat states by parametric pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leghtas, Zaki; Touzard, Steven; Pop, Ioan; Vlastakis, Brian; Zalys-Geller, Evan; Albert, Victor V.; Jiang, Liang; Frunzio, Luigi; Schoelkopf, Robert J.; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Devoret, Michel H.

    2014-03-01

    Maintaining a quantum superposition state of light in a cavity has important applications for quantum error correction. We present an experimental protocol based on parametric pumping and Josephson circuits, which could prepare a Schrodinger cat state in a cavity. This is achieved by engineering a dissipative environment, which exchanges only pairs or quadruples of photons with our cavity mode. The dissipative nature of this preparation would lead to the observation of a dynamical Zeno effect, where the competition between a coherent drive and the dissipation reveals non trivial dynamics. Work supported by: IARPA, ARO, and NSF.

  3. H∞ Loop Shaping Control of Input Saturated Systems with Norm-Bounded Parametric Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Lima Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a gain-scheduling control design strategy for a class of linear systems with the presence of both input saturation constraints and norm-bounded parametric uncertainty. LMI conditions are derived in order to obtain a gain-scheduled controller that ensures the robust stability and performance of the closed loop system. The main steps to obtain such a controller are given. Differently from other gain-scheduled approaches in the literature, this one focuses on the problem of H∞ loop shaping control design with input saturation nonlinearity and norm-bounded uncertainty to reduce the effect of the disturbance input on the controlled outputs. Here, the design problem has been formulated in the four-block H∞ synthesis framework, in which it is possible to describe the parametric uncertainty and the input saturation nonlinearity as perturbations to normalized coprime factors of the shaped plant. As a result, the shaped plant is represented as a linear parameter-varying (LPV system while the norm-bounded uncertainty and input saturation are incorporated. This procedure yields a linear parameter-varying structure for the controller that ensures the stability of the polytopic LPV shaped plant from the vertex property. Finally, the effectiveness of the method is illustrated through application to a physical system: a VTOL “vertical taking-off landing” helicopter.

  4. Optimization of two-photon wave function in parametric down conversion by adaptive optics control of the pump radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, M; Bonora, S; Sergienko, A V; Vallone, G; Villoresi, P

    2013-02-15

    We present an efficient method for optimizing the spatial profile of entangled-photon wave function produced in a spontaneous parametric down conversion process. A deformable mirror that modifies a wavefront of a 404 nm CW diode laser pump interacting with a nonlinear β-barium borate type-I crystal effectively controls the profile of the joint biphoton function. The use of a feedback signal extracted from the biphoton coincidence rate is used to achieve the optimal wavefront shape. The optimization of the two-photon coupling into two, single spatial modes for correlated detection is used for a practical demonstration of this physical principle.

  5. Ultrashort pulse shaping by optical parametric chirped amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelet, Ambre

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is to propose new laser architectures based on optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA). Common goals of OPCPA pre-amplifiers are to reach high energy level while maintaining the spectrum width and to adapt geometry of the amplified beam to the high power laser chain optics. We consider OPCPA as a way to control and to sculpt ultrashort pulses. Our first set-up aims at thwarting possible time recovery default between pump and signal pulses, which lower the energy extraction. A regenerative OPCPA, idler resonant, is a way to produce a high-intensity and high-repetition rate train of amplified signal replicas. Our second laser system pre-compensates the spectral gain narrowing by sculpting pulses directly within the OPCPA section, where a temporal shaping of the pump beam permits a spectro-spectral shaping of the amplified signal. Finally, we propose an OPCPA based on spatial coding and uniform amplification of spectral signal components by using a fan-out periodically poled crystal and a zero dispersion line. (author) [fr

  6. Simulation and parametric optimisation of thermal power plant cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ravindra Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to analyse parametric studies and optimum steam extraction pressures of three different (subcritical, supercritical and ultra-supercritical coal fired power plant cycles at a particular main steam temperature of 600 °C by keeping the reheat temperature at 537 °C and condenser pressure at 0.09 bar as constant. In order to maximize the heat rate gain possible with supercritical and ultra-supercritical steam conditions, eight stages of feed water heater arrangement with single reheater is considered. The system is optimized in such a way that the percentage exergetic losses are reduced for the increase of the exergetic efficiency and higher fuel utilization. The plant cycles are simulated and optimized by using Cycle Tempo 5.0 simulation software tool. From the simulation study, it is observed that the thermal efficiency of the three different power plant cycles obtained as 41.40, 42.48 and 43.03%, respectively. The specific coal consumption for three different power plant cycles are 0.56, 0.55 and 0.54 Tonnes/MWh. The improvement in feed water temperatures at the inlet of steam generator of respective cycles are 291, 305 and 316 °C.

  7. Parametric overdispersed frailty models for current status data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Steven; Aerts, Marc; Molenberghs, Geert; Hens, Niel

    2017-12-01

    Frailty models have a prominent place in survival analysis to model univariate and multivariate time-to-event data, often complicated by the presence of different types of censoring. In recent years, frailty modeling gained popularity in infectious disease epidemiology to quantify unobserved heterogeneity using Type I interval-censored serological data or current status data. In a multivariate setting, frailty models prove useful to assess the association between infection times related to multiple distinct infections acquired by the same individual. In addition to dependence among individual infection times, overdispersion can arise when the observed variability in the data exceeds the one implied by the model. In this article, we discuss parametric overdispersed frailty models for time-to-event data under Type I interval-censoring, building upon the work by Molenberghs et al. (2010) and Hens et al. (2009). The proposed methodology is illustrated using bivariate serological data on hepatitis A and B from Flanders, Belgium anno 1993-1994. Furthermore, the relationship between individual heterogeneity and overdispersion at a stratum-specific level is studied through simulations. Although it is important to account for overdispersion, one should be cautious when modeling both individual heterogeneity and overdispersion based on current status data as model selection is hampered by the loss of information due to censoring. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  8. Shaping of picosecond pulses for pumping optical parametric amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, J.A.; Krausz, F.; Major, Zs.; Horvath, B.

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. The use of temporally shaped pump pulses for optical parametric amplification (OPA) is expected to facilitate an increase of efficiency and suppression of possible spectral distortions in this process, since the gain sensitively depends on the pump intensity. Our simulations confirmed such beneficial effect of temporally shaped pump pulses on the OPA process. With the aim to realize an optimized OPA stage pumped by shaped pulses, a novel method for passively shaping narrow band picosecond pulses has been developed. The method is based on the pulse-stacking principle, where replicas of the incoming pulse are created in a specially designed four-beam interferometer. The replicas are recombined with appropriate delays. The interferometer design allows for a unique flexibility in varying the pulse shape, since all relevant degrees of freedom, such as relative intensities and delays between the pulse replicas are independently adjustable. According to our calculations a pulse with a flat-top time profile would provide optimal conditions in the OPA process. Usually the pump pulse needs to be amplified in a conventional laser amplifier prior to the OPA. Our cross-correlation measurements showed that we are able to obtain shaped amplified pulses by shaping the amplifier input. Furthermore, by precompensating the distortions introduced by the amplifier we demonstrated our capability to produce amplified pulses with a flat-top time profile.

  9. Noncritical generation of nonclassical frequency combs via spontaneous rotational symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos; Patera, Giuseppe; de Valcárcel, Germán J.

    2017-10-01

    Synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillators (SPOPOs) are optical cavities driven by mode-locked lasers, and containing a nonlinear crystal capable of down-converting a frequency comb to lower frequencies. SPOPOs have received a lot of attention lately because their intrinsic multimode nature makes them compact sources of quantum correlated light with promising applications in modern quantum information technologies. In this work we show that SPOPOs are also capable of accessing the challenging and interesting regime where spontaneous symmetry breaking confers strong nonclassical properties to the emitted light, which has eluded experimental observation so far. Apart from opening the possibility of studying experimentally this elusive regime of dissipative phase transitions, our predictions will have a practical impact, since we show that spontaneous symmetry breaking provides a specific spatiotemporal mode with large quadrature squeezing for any value of the system parameters, turning SPOPOs into robust sources of highly nonclassical light above threshold.

  10. Radiological evaluation of spontaneous pneumoperitoneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. D.; Rhee, H. S.

    1982-01-01

    112 cases of spontaneous penumoperitoneum, the causes of which were confirmed by clinical and surgical procedure at Presbyterian Medical Center from January, 1977 to July, 1981 were reviewed radiologically. The results were as follows: 1. Perforation of duodenal ulcer (46/112: 41.1%), stomach ulcer (22/112: 19.6%), and stomach cancer (11/112: 9.8%) were the three most common causes of spontaneous penumoperitoneum. These were 70.5% of all causes. 2. The most common site of free gas was both subdiaphragmatic areas (46: 41.1%). Others were Rt. subdiaphragmatic only (31: 27.7%), both subdiaphragmatic with subhepatic (16: 14.3%), Rt. subdiaphragmatic with subhepatic (7: 6.2%), Rt. subdiaphragmatic only (5: 4.4%), diffuse in abdomen (4: 3.6%), and subhepatic only (3: 2.7%). So 92.0% (103/112) were located in RUQ. 3. The radiological shape of free gas was classified: crescent (52: 46.4%) of small amount; half-moon (21: 18.8%) of moderate amount; large or diffuse (39: 34.8%) of large amount.4. The age between 31 and 60 occupied 69.1% (77/112), and male was predominant (5.2 times). 5. The patient's position showing free air most frequently was erect

  11. A Case of Multiple Spontaneous Keloid Scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhadi Jfri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Keloid scars result from an abnormal healing response to cutaneous injury or inflammation that extends beyond the borders of the original wound. Spontaneous keloid scars forming in the absence of any previous trauma or surgical procedure are rare. Certain syndromes have been associated with this phenomenon, and few reports have discussed the evidence of single spontaneous keloid scar, which raises the question whether they are really spontaneous. Here, we present a 27-year-old mentally retarded single female with orbital hypertelorism, broad nasal bridge, repaired cleft lip and high-arched palate who presented with progressive multiple spontaneous keloid scars in different parts of her body which were confirmed histologically by the presence of typical keloidal collagen. This report supports the fact that keloid scars can appear spontaneously and are possibly linked to a genetic factor. Furthermore, it describes a new presentation of spontaneous keloid scars in the form of multiple large lesions in different sites of the body.

  12. Gain measurements of the Ca-Xe charge exchange system. [for UV lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, C. J.; Chubb, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Charge-exchange-pumped Ca(+) was studied for possible positive laser gain at 370.6 and 315.9 nm using an Xe MPD arc as the Xe(+) source. The present paper describes the MPD arc, the calcium injection system, the diagnostics for gain, and spontaneous emission measurements and results. No positive gain measurements were observed. A small Xe-Ca charge exchange cross section compared to He-metal laser systems charge exchange cross sections is the most probable reason why the result was negative.

  13. PARAMETRIC INSURANCE COVER FOR NATURAL CATASTROPHE RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghei Margulescu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available With economic losses of over USD 370 bn caused by 325 catastrophic events, 2011 ranks as the worst ever year in terms of costs to society due to natural catastrophes and man-made disasters. Inthe same time, 2011 is the second most expensive year in the history for the insurance industry, with insured losses from catastrophic events amounting to USD 116 bn. Both the high level of damages and insured losses, as well as the unprecedented gap between the two values, made insurers and reinsurers worldwide to understand that some risks had so far been underestimated and they have to be better integrated in the catastrophes modelling.On the other hand, governments have to protect themselves against the financial impact of natural catastrophes and new forms of cooperation between the public and private sectors can help countries finance disaster risks. Viewed in a country’s wider risk management context, the purchase of parametric insurance cover, which transfers natural catastrophe risk to the private sector using an index- based trigger, is a necessary shift towards a pre-emptive risk management strategy. This kind of approach can be pursued by central governments or at the level of provincial or municipal governments, and a number of case studies included in the publication “Closing the financial gap” by Swiss Re (2011 illustrates how new forms of parametric insurance can help countries finance disaster risks.

  14. Quantum tomography enhanced through parametric amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazev, E.; Spasibko, K. Yu; Chekhova, M. V.; Khalili, F. Ya

    2018-01-01

    Quantum tomography is the standard method of reconstructing the Wigner function of quantum states of light by means of balanced homodyne detection. The reconstruction quality strongly depends on the photodetectors quantum efficiency and other losses in the measurement setup. In this article we analyze in detail a protocol of enhanced quantum tomography, proposed by Leonhardt and Paul [1] which allows one to reduce the degrading effect of detection losses. It is based on phase-sensitive parametric amplification, with the phase of the amplified quadrature being scanned synchronously with the local oscillator phase. Although with sufficiently strong amplification the protocol enables overcoming any detection inefficiency, it was so far not implemented in the experiment, probably due to the losses in the amplifier. Here we discuss a possible proof-of-principle experiment with a traveling-wave parametric amplifier. We show that with the state-of-the-art optical elements, the protocol enables high fidelity tomographic reconstruction of bright non-classical states of light. We consider two examples: bright squeezed vacuum and squeezed single-photon state, with the latter being a non-Gaussian state and both strongly affected by the losses.

  15. Supramodal parametric working memory processing in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Bernhard; Blankenburg, Felix

    2012-03-07

    Previous studies of delayed-match-to-sample (DMTS) frequency discrimination in animals and humans have succeeded in delineating the neural signature of frequency processing in somatosensory working memory (WM). During retention of vibrotactile frequencies, stimulus-dependent single-cell and population activity in prefrontal cortex was found to reflect the task-relevant memory content, whereas increases in occipital alpha activity signaled the disengagement of areas not relevant for the tactile task. Here, we recorded EEG from human participants to determine the extent to which these mechanisms can be generalized to frequency retention in the visual and auditory domains. Subjects performed analogous variants of a DMTS frequency discrimination task, with the frequency information presented either visually, auditorily, or by vibrotactile stimulation. Examining oscillatory EEG activity during frequency retention, we found characteristic topographical distributions of alpha power over visual, auditory, and somatosensory cortices, indicating systematic patterns of inhibition and engagement of early sensory areas, depending on stimulus modality. The task-relevant frequency information, in contrast, was found to be represented in right prefrontal cortex, independent of presentation mode. In each of the three modality conditions, parametric modulations of prefrontal upper beta activity (20-30 Hz) emerged, in a very similar manner as recently found in vibrotactile tasks. Together, the findings corroborate a view of parametric WM as supramodal internal scaling of abstract quantity information and suggest strong relevance of previous evidence from vibrotactile work for a more general framework of quantity processing in human working memory.

  16. Parametric uncertainty in optical image modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potzick, James; Marx, Egon; Davidson, Mark

    2006-10-01

    Optical photomask feature metrology and wafer exposure process simulation both rely on optical image modeling for accurate results. While it is fair to question the accuracies of the available models, model results also depend on several input parameters describing the object and imaging system. Errors in these parameter values can lead to significant errors in the modeled image. These parameters include wavelength, illumination and objective NA's, magnification, focus, etc. for the optical system, and topography, complex index of refraction n and k, etc. for the object. In this paper each input parameter is varied over a range about its nominal value and the corresponding images simulated. Second order parameter interactions are not explored. Using the scenario of the optical measurement of photomask features, these parametric sensitivities are quantified by calculating the apparent change of the measured linewidth for a small change in the relevant parameter. Then, using reasonable values for the estimated uncertainties of these parameters, the parametric linewidth uncertainties can be calculated and combined to give a lower limit to the linewidth measurement uncertainty for those parameter uncertainties.

  17. Parametric estimation of the Duffing system by using a modified gradient algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Ibanez, Carlos; Sanchez Herrera, Jorge; Garrido-Moctezuma, Ruben

    2008-01-01

    The Letter presents a strategy for recovering the unknown parameters of the Duffing oscillator using a measurable output signal. The suggested approach employs the construction of an integral parametrization of one auxiliary output. It is calculated by measuring the difference between the output and its respective delay output. First we estimate the auxiliary output, followed by the application of a modified gradient algorithm, then we adjust the gains of the proposed linear estimator, until this error converges to zero. The convergence of the proposed scheme is shown using Lyapunov method

  18. Quantitative evaluation of standard deviations of group velocity dispersion in optical fibre using parametric amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishøj, Lars Søgaard; Svane, Ask Sebastian; Lund-Hansen, Toke

    2014-01-01

    A numerical model for parametric amplifiers, which include stochastic variations of the group velocity dispersion (GVD), is presented. The impact on the gain is investigated, both with respect to the magnitude of the variations and by the effect caused by changing the wavelength of the pump. It i....... It is demonstrated that the described model is able to predict the experimental results and thereby provide a quantitative evaluation of the standard deviation of the GVD. For the investigated fibre, a standard deviation of 0.01 ps/(nm km) was found....

  19. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension without Orthostatic Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Kansu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We report 2 cases of spontaneous intracranial hypotension that presented with unilateral abducens nerve palsy, without orthostatic headache. While sixth nerve palsies improved without any intervention, subdural hematoma was detected with magnetic resonance imaging. We conclude that headache may be absent in spontaneous intracranial hypotension and spontaneous improvement of sixth nerve palsy can occur, even after the development of a subdural hematoma

  20. Spontaneous pneumothorax in silicotuberculosis of lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolenic, J.; Jurgova, T.; Zimacek, J.; Vajo, J.; Krchnavy, M.

    1995-01-01

    The authors describe the case of 62 years old man with the appearance of spontaneous pneumothorax, in whom the basic pulmonary disease was silicotuberculosis of the lung. At clinic of occupational diseases in Kosice have been evidence 965 cases of silicosis and silicotuberculosis. From 1971 they have now the first case of spontaneous pneumothorax. The authors make discussion about possible mechanical and biochemical factors, which cause relatively low incidence of spontaneous pneumothorax in silicosis of the lung. (authors)

  1. GHz-rate optical parametric amplifier in hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ke-Yao; Foster, Amy C

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate optical parametric amplification operating at GHz-rates at telecommunications wavelengths using a hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguide through the nonlinear optical process of four-wave mixing. We investigate how the parametric amplification scales with repetition rate. The ability to achieve amplification at GHz-repetition rates shows hydrogenated amorphous silicon’s potential for telecommunication applications and a GHz-rate optical parametric oscillator. (paper)

  2. Synchronization of chaos in non-identical parametrically excited systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idowu, B.A.; Vincent, U.E.; Njah, A.N.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the synchronization of chaotic systems consisting of non-identical parametrically excited oscillators. The active control technique is employed to design control functions based on Lyapunov stability theory and Routh-Hurwitz criteria so as to achieve global chaos synchronization between a parametrically excited gyroscope and each of the parametrically excited pendulum and Duffing oscillator. Numerical simulations are implemented to verify the results.

  3. Chaotic noise in superconducting microbridge 4-photon X-band parametric amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, J.E.; Christiansen, B.; Levinsen, M.T.

    1988-01-01

    The anomalous noise rise observed in nearly all types of parametric amplifiers based on Josephson junctions has been an intriguing as well as annoying problem for many years. This phenomenon has been most spectacular in microbridge amplifiers. Here we present measurements on externally pumped single microbridge 4-photon unbiased amplifiers, where the slit with the bridge is used as a slotline resonantly coupled to the waveguide in an exceptionally simple coupling scheme. This scheme may be of interest in itself, particularly if the noise problem can be overcome, but also in other connections. Up to 16 dB gain was obtained at the top of the waveguide. However, the noise rise was observed as usual. An analog computer study on a model including an input/output circiut was performed. The results are in very good agreement with the experiments. The amplification is heralded by a seemingly chaotic noise rise. This noise is then amplified linearly when gain occurs. Amplification is found to take place very close to where the supercurrent is completely suppressed by the pump. This has previously been interpreted as loss of phaselock being the cause of the noise rise. However, the power spectra of the time-derivative of the phase show the still to be locked in the region of positive gain. Furthermore, computations of the Lyapunov exponents show one to be positive in the region where gain occurs reaching a maximum value at the parameters corresponding to maximum gain. We therefore conclude that chaotic noise is indeed present in Josephson junction parametric amplifiers where low-impedance devices like microbridges with negligible capacitance are used as the active elements. (orig.)

  4. Osteonecrosis or spontaneous fractures following renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, J.; Nielsen, H.E.; Aarhus Univ.

    1981-01-01

    31 renal transplant recipients with posttransplant development of osteonecrosis or spontaneous fractures were evaluated with regard to age, duration of dialysis before transplantation. Determination of metacarpal bone mass at the time of transplantation and registration of bone resorption and soft tissue calcification at the time of transplantation and at the time of onset of osteonecrosis and spontaneous fractures were made. Apart from the increased mean age in patients with spontaneous fractures no difference was seen between the groups. Osteonecrosis and spontaneous fractures occurred in areas of trabecular bone. It seems most likely that after renal transplantation the patients show bone complications of different localization. (orig.) [de

  5. Entanglement, Einstein Podolsky Rosen correlations and Schrodinger cat state generation by quantum-injected optical parametric amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Martini, Francesco; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the multi-photon quantum superposition state generated by the quantum-injected high-gain optical parametric amplification of a single photon. The physical configurations based on the optimal universal and on the phase-covariant quantum cloning have been adopted. The theoretical results are supported by a set of experiments leading to the generation of an average number of clones in excess of 10 3

  6. Nonlinear theory for the parametric instability with comparable electron and ion temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberman, C.

    1972-01-01

    The basic linear theory of the parametric instability driven by a pump E 0 sin ω 0 t oscillating near the electron plasma frequency is reviewed. An expression is derived for the temporal nonlinear development of the fluctuation spectrum of the excited waves. For plasma with comparable electron and ion temperatures nonlinear Landau damping of electron plasma waves on ions provides the dominant nonlinearity. The steady state solutions are examined both analytically and numerically in the limit when the spontaneous emission term is small. The characteristics of the plasma wave spectrum agrees well with the general features of ionospheric observations. The enhanced dissipation rate of the pump due to the presence of the fluctuations agrees with laboratory observations. (U.S.)

  7. Type I parametric down conversion of highly focused Gaussian beams in finite length crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeronimo-Moreno, Yasser; Jáuregui, R

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the correlations in wave vector space of photon pairs generated by type I spontaneous parametric down conversion using a Gaussian pump beam. The analysis covers both moderate focused and highly focused regimes, paying special attention to the angular spectrum and the conditional angular spectrum. Simple analytic expressions are derived that allow a detailed study of the dependence of these spectra on the waist of the source and the length of the nonlinear crystal. These expressions are in good agreement with numerical expectations and reported experimental results. They are used to make a systematic search of optimization parameters that improve the feasibility of using highly focused Gaussian beams to generate idler and signal photons with predetermined mean values and spread of their transverse wave vectors. (papers)

  8. Parametric amplification and cascaded-nonlinearity processes in common atomic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huaibin; Zhang, Xun; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Tian, Yaling; Chen, Haixia; Li, Changbiao; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2013-01-01

    For the first time, we study the parametric amplification process of multi-wave mixing (PA-MWM) signal and cascaded-nonlinearity process (CNP) in sodium vapors both theoretically and experimentally, based on a conventional phase-conjugate MWM and a self-diffraction four-wave mixing (SD-FWM) processes, which are pumped by laser or amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), respectively. For laser pumping case, SD-FWM process serves as a quantum linear amplifier (a CNP) out (inside) of the resonant absorption region. While for ASE case, only the CNP occurs and the output linewidth is much narrower than that of the MWM signal due to the second selected effect of its electromagnetically induced transparency window. In addition, the phase-sensitive amplifying process seeded by two MWM processes is discussed for the first time. Theoretical fittings agree well with the experiment. The investigations have important potential applications in quantum communication.

  9. Absolute decay parametric instability of high-temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zozulya, A.A.; Silin, V.P.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.

    1986-01-01

    A new absolute decay parametric instability having wide spatial localization region is shown to be possible near critical plasma density. Its excitation is conditioned by distributed feedback of counter-running Langmuir waves occurring during parametric decay of incident and reflected pumping wave components. In a hot plasma with the temperature of the order of kiloelectronvolt its threshold is lower than that of a known convective decay parametric instability. Minimum absolute instability threshold is shown to be realized under conditions of spatial parametric resonance of higher orders

  10. Developmental Gains in Visuospatial Memory Predict Gains in Mathematics Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Visuospatial competencies are related to performance in mathematical domains in adulthood, but are not consistently related to mathematics achievement in children. We confirmed the latter for first graders and demonstrated that children who show above average first-to-fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory have an advantage over other children in mathematics. The study involved the assessment of the mathematics and reading achievement of 177 children in kindergarten to fifth grade, inclusiv...

  11. A Front End for Multipetawatt Lasers Based on a High-Energy, High-Average-Power Optical Parametric Chirped-Pulse Amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnoud, V.

    2004-01-01

    We report on a high-energy, high-average-power optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier developed as the front end for the OMEGA EP laser. The amplifier provides a gain larger than 109 in two stages leading to a total energy of 400 mJ with a pump-to-signal conversion efficiency higher than 25%

  12. Spontaneous non aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian Jieyong; Wang Zhong; Zhou Dai

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the etiology and the treatment of spontaneous non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods: Twenty five cases of cerebral vessel angiography negative patients were analysed retrospectively, the majority of them had been undergone CT, DSA, MRI examination in order to define the etiological factor. Results: Among them, there was 1 case of spinal arteria-vena malformation, 1 case of hemorrhagic blood and 2 cases according to the revealing of MRI could be explained as bled vascular-occult malformation or cavernous angioma. Conclusion: The management and prognosis of patients in whom non-aneurysm is founded on the initial angiogram depends on the pattern of hemorrhage of the initial CT scanning, repeated angiography should be avoided for the case of premise encephalic non-aneurysmal SAH and MRI examination may be indicated to defining of etiological factors

  13. Spontaneous baryogenesis in supersymmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, S.A.; Cottingham, W.N.; Whittingham, I.B.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we extent the results of previous work on spontaneous baryogenesis to general models involving charge-parity (CP) violation in the Higgs sector. We show how to deal with Chern-Simons terms appearing in the effective potential arising from phase changes in the vacuum expectation values of the Higgs fields. In particular, this enables us to apply this mechanism to general supersymmetric models including the minimal supersymmetric standard model, and the extended model with a gauge singlet. A comparison is made between this approach, and that in which one solves the equations of motion for Higgs winding modes. As anticipated in earlier work, the effect of the latter approach is found to be small. (Author)

  14. The influence of dual-recycling on parametric instabilities at Advanced LIGO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A C; Brown, D D; Dovale-Álvarez, M; Collins, C; Miao, H; Mow-Lowry, C M; Freise, A

    2017-01-01

    Laser interferometers with high circulating power and suspended optics, such as the LIGO gravitational wave detectors, experience an optomechanical coupling effect known as a parametric instability : the runaway excitation of a mechanical resonance in a mirror driven by the optical field. This can saturate the interferometer sensing and control systems and limit the observation time of the detector. Current mitigation techniques at the LIGO sites are successfully suppressing all observed parametric instabilities, and focus on the behaviour of the instabilities in the Fabry–Perot arm cavities of the interferometer, where the instabilities are first generated. In this paper we model the full dual-recycled Advanced LIGO design with inherent imperfections. We find that the addition of the power- and signal-recycling cavities shapes the interferometer response to mechanical modes, resulting in up to four times as many peaks. Changes to the accumulated phase or Gouy phase in the signal-recycling cavity have a significant impact on the parametric gain, and therefore which modes require suppression. (paper)

  15. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Recurrent spontaneous attacks of dizziness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    This article describes the common causes of recurrent vertigo and dizziness that can be diagnosed largely on the basis of history. Ninety percent of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness can be explained by six disorders: (1) Ménière disease is characterized by vertigo attacks, lasting 20 minutes to several hours, with concomitant hearing loss, tinnitus, and aural fullness. Aural symptoms become permanent during the course of the disease. (2) Attacks of vestibular migraine may last anywhere from minutes to days. Most patients have a previous history of migraine headaches, and many experience migraine symptoms during the attack. (3) Vertebrobasilar TIAs affect older adults with vascular risk factors. Most attacks last less than 1 hour and are accompanied by other symptoms from the posterior circulation territory. (4) Vestibular paroxysmia is caused by vascular compression of the eighth cranial nerve. It manifests itself with brief attacks of vertigo that recur many times per day, sometimes with concomitant cochlear symptoms. (5) Orthostatic hypotension causes brief episodes of dizziness lasting seconds to a few minutes after standing up and is relieved by sitting or lying down. In older adults, it may be accompanied by supine hypertension. (6) Panic attacks usually last minutes, occur in specific situations, and are accompanied by choking, palpitations, tremor, heat, and anxiety. Less common causes of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness include perilymph fistula, superior canal dehiscence, autoimmune inner ear disease, otosclerosis, cardiac arrhythmia, and medication side effects. Neurologists need to venture into otolaryngology, internal medicine, and psychiatry to master the differential diagnosis of recurrent dizziness.

  17. A Carbon Nanotube-based NEMS Parametric Amplifier for Enhanced Radio Wave Detection and Electronic Signal Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleman, B J; Sussman, A; Zettl, A [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Mickelson, W, E-mail: azettl@berkeley.edu [Center of Integrated Nanomechanical Systems, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-07-20

    We propose a scheme for a parametric amplifier based on a single suspended carbon nanotube field-emitter. This novel electromechanical nanotube device acts as a phase-sensitive, variable-gain, band-pass-filtering amplifier for electronic signal processing and, at the same time, can operate as a variable-sensitivity, tuneable detector and transducer of radio frequency electromagnetic waves. The amplifier can exhibit infinite gain at pumping voltages much less than 10 Volts. Additionally, the amplifier's low overhead power consumption (10-1000 nW) make it exceptionally attractive for ultra-low-power applications.

  18. A Carbon Nanotube-based NEMS Parametric Amplifier for Enhanced Radio Wave Detection and Electronic Signal Amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleman, B J; Sussman, A; Zettl, A; Mickelson, W

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme for a parametric amplifier based on a single suspended carbon nanotube field-emitter. This novel electromechanical nanotube device acts as a phase-sensitive, variable-gain, band-pass-filtering amplifier for electronic signal processing and, at the same time, can operate as a variable-sensitivity, tuneable detector and transducer of radio frequency electromagnetic waves. The amplifier can exhibit infinite gain at pumping voltages much less than 10 Volts. Additionally, the amplifier's low overhead power consumption (10-1000 nW) make it exceptionally attractive for ultra-low-power applications.

  19. Laser driven X-ray parametric amplification in neutral gases-a new brilliant light source in the XUV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurand, B.; Seres, J.; Bagnoud, V.; Ecker, B.; Hochhaus, D.C.; Neumayer, P.; Seres, E.; Spielmann, C.; Zielbauer, B.; Zimmer, D.; Kuehl, T.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present the experimental setup and results showing a new type of strong-field parametric amplification of high-order harmonic radiation. With a simple semi-classical model, we can identify the most important experimental parameters, the spectral range and the small signal gain in gases. Using a single stage amplifier, a small signal gain of 8000 has been obtained in argon for the spectral range of 40-50 eV, using 350 fs, 7 mJ pulses at 1.05 μm. An outlook for an experiment employing a double stage gas system will be given.

  20. Laser driven X-ray parametric amplification in neutral gases-a new brilliant light source in the XUV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurand, B., E-mail: b.aurand@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); ExtreMe Matter Institute, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Saarstr. 21, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Seres, J. [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Bagnoud, V. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Ecker, B. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz Institut Jena, Helmholtzweg 4, 07743 Jena (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Saarstr. 21, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Hochhaus, D.C.; Neumayer, P. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); ExtreMe Matter Institute, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Johann-Wolfgang von Goethe University, 60325 Frankfurt (Germany); Seres, E.; Spielmann, C. [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Zielbauer, B. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz Institut Jena, Helmholtzweg 4, 07743 Jena (Germany); Zimmer, D. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Kuehl, T. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); ExtreMe Matter Institute, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Saarstr. 21, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2011-10-11

    In this paper we present the experimental setup and results showing a new type of strong-field parametric amplification of high-order harmonic radiation. With a simple semi-classical model, we can identify the most important experimental parameters, the spectral range and the small signal gain in gases. Using a single stage amplifier, a small signal gain of 8000 has been obtained in argon for the spectral range of 40-50 eV, using 350 fs, 7 mJ pulses at 1.05 {mu}m. An outlook for an experiment employing a double stage gas system will be given.

  1. Even and odd subharmonic frequencies and chaos in Josephson junctions: Impact on parametric amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinsen, M.T.

    1982-01-01

    The Stewart-McCumber model of a Josephson junction has been shown to exhibit period-doubling bifurcation cascades, as described by the Feigenbaum bifurcation theory. Chaotic states, sometimes associated with the bifurcations, are also prevalent. The present paper deals with the questions of subharmonic generation and chaotic states in the aforementioned model, and in addition with the problem of the ubiquitous noise rise found in Josephson junction parametric amplifiers. The bifurcation is first discussed by drawing on analytical results on the Duffing equation which is an approximation to the complete ac-driven Stewart-McCumber model. The complete model is then solved on an analog computer. Thereafter it is shown that besides the even subharmonics predicted by the bifurcation theory, the natural subharmonic to expect at small dc currents is the odd. This may then have associated its own bifurcation tree. The role of spontaneous symmetry breaking will be discussed. This reconciles the earlier treatment of the 3-photon amplifier with the Feigenbaum scheme. Finally, analog calculations on a model of an externally pumped Josephson junction parametric amplifier will be discussed. The conclusion seems to be that chaotic noise cannot account for the noise rise

  2. Optomechanical transistor with mechanical gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. Z.; Tian, Lin; Li, Yong

    2018-04-01

    We study an optomechanical transistor, where an input field can be transferred and amplified unidirectionally in a cyclic three-mode optomechanical system. In this system, the mechanical resonator is coupled simultaneously to two cavity modes. We show that it only requires a finite mechanical gain to achieve the nonreciprocal amplification. Here the nonreciprocity is caused by the phase difference between the linearized optomechanical couplings that breaks the time-reversal symmetry of this system. The amplification arises from the mechanical gain, which provides an effective phonon bath that pumps the mechanical mode coherently. This effect is analogous to the stimulated emission of atoms, where the probe field can be amplified when its frequency is in resonance with that of the anti-Stokes transition. We show that by choosing optimal parameters, this optomechanical transistor can reach perfect unidirectionality accompanied with strong amplification. In addition, the presence of the mechanical gain can result in ultralong delay in the phase of the probe field, which provides an alternative to controlling light transport in optomechanical systems.

  3. Parametric resonance in quantum electrodynamics vacuum birefringence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arza, Ariel; Elias, Ricardo Gabriel

    2018-05-01

    Vacuum magnetic birefringence is one of the most interesting nonlinear phenomena in quantum electrodynamics because it is a pure photon-photon result of the theory and it directly signalizes the violation of the classical superposition principle of electromagnetic fields in the full quantum theory. We perform analytical and numerical calculations when an electromagnetic wave interacts with an oscillating external magnetic field. We find that in an ideal cavity, when the external field frequency is around the electromagnetic wave frequency, the normal and parallel components of the wave suffer parametric resonance at different rates, producing a vacuum birefringence effect growing in time. We also study the case where there is no cavity and the oscillating magnetic field is spatially localized in a region of length L . In both cases we find also a rotation of the elliptical axis.

  4. Parametric time-frequency domain spatial audio

    CERN Document Server

    Delikaris-Manias, Symeon; Politis, Archontis

    2018-01-01

    This book provides readers with the principles and best practices in spatial audio signal processing. It describes how sound fields and their perceptual attributes are captured and analyzed within the time-frequency domain, how essential representation parameters are coded, and how such signals are efficiently reproduced for practical applications. The book is split into four parts starting with an overview of the fundamentals. It then goes on to explain the reproduction of spatial sound before offering an examination of signal-dependent spatial filtering. The book finishes with coverage of both current and future applications and the direction that spatial audio research is heading in. Parametric Time-frequency Domain Spatial Audio focuses on applications in entertainment audio, including music, home cinema, and gaming--covering the capturing and reproduction of spatial sound as well as its generation, transduction, representation, transmission, and perception. This book will teach readers the tools needed...

  5. Parametric HMMs for Movement Recognition and Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzog, Dennis; Krüger, Volker

    2009-01-01

    , we develop an exemplar-based parametric hidden Markov model (PHMM) that allows to represent movements of a particular type. Since we use model interpolation to reduce the necessary amount of training data, we had to develop a method to setup local models in a synchronized way. In our experiments we......A common problem in human movement recognition is the recognition of movements of a particular type (semantic). E.g., grasping movements have a particular semantic (grasping) but the actual movements usually have very different appearances due to, e.g., different grasping directions. In this paper...... to recover the movement type, and, e.g., the object position a human is pointing at. Our experiments show the flexibility of the PHMMs in terms of the amount of training data and its robustness in terms of noisy observation data. In addition, we compare our PHMM to an other kind of PHMM, which has been...

  6. Parametric resonance and cosmological gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa, Paulo M.; Henriques, Alfredo B.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the production of gravitational waves due to quantum fluctuations of the vacuum during the transition from the inflationary to the radiation-dominated eras of the universe, assuming this transition to be dominated by the phenomenon of parametric resonance. The energy spectrum of the gravitational waves is calculated using the method of continuous Bogoliubov coefficients, which avoids the problem of overproduction of gravitons at large frequencies. We found, on the sole basis of the mechanism of quantum fluctuations, that the resonance field leaves no explicit and distinctive imprint on the gravitational-wave energy spectrum, apart from an overall upward or downward translation. Therefore, the main features in the spectrum are due to the inflaton field, which leaves a characteristic imprint at frequencies of the order of MHz/GHz.

  7. Parametric description of the quantum measurement process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuzzo-Scorpo, P.; Cuccoli, A.; Verrucchi, P.

    2015-08-01

    We present a description of the measurement process based on the parametric representation with environmental coherent states. This representation is specifically tailored for studying quantum systems whose environment needs being considered through the quantum-to-classical crossover. Focusing upon projective measures, and exploiting the connection between large-N quantum theories and the classical limit of related ones, we manage to push our description beyond the pre-measurement step. This allows us to show that the outcome production follows from a global-symmetry breaking, entailing the observed system's state reduction, and that the statistical nature of the process is brought about, together with the Born's rule, by the macroscopic character of the measuring apparatus.

  8. Parametric Design Strategies for Collaborative Urban Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai; Yıldırım, Miray Baş; Özkar, Mine

    2013-01-01

    to the collaboration between professionals, participation by different non-professional stakeholders, such as residents, local authorities, non-governmental organizations and investors, is another important component of collaborative urban design processes. The involvement of community in decision making process...... implications of planning and design decisions, unless they are presented with relatively detailed architectural models, whether physical or virtual. This however, typically presents steep demands in terms of time and resources. As a foundation for our work with parametric urban design lies the hypothesis...... to solve different scripting challenges. The paper is organized into an introduction, three main sections and closing section with conclusions and perspectives. The first section of the paper gives a theoretical discussion of the notion of collaborative design and the challenges of collaborative urban...

  9. Parametric systems analysis for ICF hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berwald, D.H.; Maniscalco, J.A.; Chapin, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Parametric design and systems analysis for inertial confinement fusion-fission hybrids are presented. These results were generated as part of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) sponsored Feasibility Assessment of Fusion-Fission Hybrids, using an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) hybrid power plant design code developed in conjunction with the feasibility assessment. The SYMECON systems analysis code, developed by Westinghouse, was used to generate economic results for symbiotic electricity generation systems consisting of the hybrid and its client Light Water Reactors (LWRs). These results explore the entire fusion parameter space for uranium fast fission blanket hybrids, thorium fast fission blanket hybrids, and thorium suppressed fission blanket types are discussed, and system sensitivities to design uncertainties are explored

  10. Simplifying the circuit of Josephson parametric converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, Baleegh; Brink, Markus; Chavez-Garcia, Jose; Keefe, George

    Josephson parametric converters (JPCs) are quantum-limited three-wave mixing devices that can play various important roles in quantum information processing in the microwave domain, including amplification of quantum signals, transduction of quantum information, remote entanglement of qubits, nonreciprocal amplification, and circulation of signals. However, the input-output and biasing circuit of a state-of-the-art JPC consists of bulky components, i.e. two commercial off-chip broadband 180-degree hybrids, four phase-matched short coax cables, and one superconducting magnetic coil. Such bulky hardware significantly hinders the integration of JPCs in scalable quantum computing architectures. In my talk, I will present ideas on how to simplify the JPC circuit and show preliminary experimental results

  11. Spherical Parametrization of the Higgs Boson Candidate

    CERN Document Server

    Gainer, James S; Matchev, Konstantin T; Mrenna, Stephen; Park, Myeonghun

    2013-01-01

    The latest results from the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) unequivocally confirm the existence of a resonance, $X$, with mass near 125 GeV which could be the Higgs boson of the Standard Model. Measuring the properties (quantum numbers and couplings) of this resonance is of paramount importance. Initial analyses by the LHC collaborations disfavor specific alternative benchmark hypotheses, e.g. pure pseudoscalars or gravitons. However, this is just the first step in a long-term program of detailed measurements. We consider the most general set of operators in the decay channels $X \\to ZZ$, $WW$, $Z\\gamma$, $\\gamma\\gamma$ and derive the constraint implied by the measured rate. This allows us to provide a useful parametrization of the orthogonal independent Higgs coupling degrees of freedom as coordinates on a suitably defined sphere.

  12. Examples in parametric inference with R

    CERN Document Server

    Dixit, Ulhas Jayram

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses examples in parametric inference with R. Combining basic theory with modern approaches, it presents the latest developments and trends in statistical inference for students who do not have an advanced mathematical and statistical background. The topics discussed in the book are fundamental and common to many fields of statistical inference and thus serve as a point of departure for in-depth study. The book is divided into eight chapters: Chapter 1 provides an overview of topics on sufficiency and completeness, while Chapter 2 briefly discusses unbiased estimation. Chapter 3 focuses on the study of moments and maximum likelihood estimators, and Chapter 4 presents bounds for the variance. In Chapter 5, topics on consistent estimator are discussed. Chapter 6 discusses Bayes, while Chapter 7 studies some more powerful tests. Lastly, Chapter 8 examines unbiased and other tests. Senior undergraduate and graduate students in statistics and mathematics, and those who have taken an introductory cou...

  13. Stellar parametrization from Gaia RVS spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Allende Prieto, C.; Fustes, D.; Manteiga, M.; Arcay, B.; Bijaoui, A.; Dafonte, C.; Ordenovic, C.; Ordoñez Blanco, D.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Among the myriad of data collected by the ESA Gaia satellite, about 150 million spectra will be delivered by the Radial Velocity Spectrometer (RVS) for stars as faint as GRVS~ 16. A specific stellar parametrization will be performed on most of these RVS spectra, I.e. those with enough high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), which should correspond to single stars that have a magnitude in the RVS band brighter than ~14.5. Some individual chemical abundances will also be estimated for the brightest targets. Aims: We describe the different parametrization codes that have been specifically developed or adapted for RVS spectra within the GSP-Spec working group of the analysis consortium. The tested codes are based on optimisation (FERRE and GAUGUIN), projection (MATISSE), or pattern-recognition methods (Artificial Neural Networks). We present and discuss each of their expected performances in the recovered stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, overall metallicity) for B- to K-type stars. The performances for determining of [α/Fe] ratios are also presented for cool stars. Methods: Each code has been homogeneously tested with a large grid of RVS simulated synthetic spectra of BAFGK-spectral types (dwarfs and giants), with metallicities varying from 10-2.5 to 10+ 0.5 the solar metallicity, and taking variations of ±0.4 dex in the composition of the α-elements into consideration. The tests were performed for S/N ranging from ten to 350. Results: For all the stellar types we considered, stars brighter than GRVS~ 12.5 are very efficiently parametrized by the GSP-Spec pipeline, including reliable estimations of [α/Fe]. Typical internal errors for FGK metal-rich and metal-intermediate stars are around 40 K in Teff, 0.10 dex in log(g), 0.04 dex in [M/H], and 0.03 dex in [α/Fe] at GRVS = 10.3. They degrade to 155 K in Teff, 0.15 dex in log(g), 0.10 dex in [M/H], and 0.1 dex in [α/Fe] at GRVS~ 12. Similar accuracies in Teff and [M/H] are

  14. Parametric inference for biological sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachter, Lior; Sturmfels, Bernd

    2004-11-16

    One of the major successes in computational biology has been the unification, by using the graphical model formalism, of a multitude of algorithms for annotating and comparing biological sequences. Graphical models that have been applied to these problems include hidden Markov models for annotation, tree models for phylogenetics, and pair hidden Markov models for alignment. A single algorithm, the sum-product algorithm, solves many of the inference problems that are associated with different statistical models. This article introduces the polytope propagation algorithm for computing the Newton polytope of an observation from a graphical model. This algorithm is a geometric version of the sum-product algorithm and is used to analyze the parametric behavior of maximum a posteriori inference calculations for graphical models.

  15. Toward a compact fibered squeezing parametric source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieussel, Alexandre; Ott, Konstantin; Joos, Maxime; Treps, Nicolas; Fabre, Claude

    2018-03-15

    In this work, we investigate three different compact fibered systems generating vacuum squeezing that involve optical cavities limited by the end surface of a fiber and by a curved mirror and containing a thin parametric crystal. These systems have the advantage to couple squeezed states directly to a fiber, allowing the user to benefit from the flexibility of fibers in the use of squeezing. Three types of fibers are investigated: standard single-mode fibers, photonic-crystal large-mode-area single-mode fibers, and short multimode fibers taped to a single-mode fiber. The observed squeezing is modest (-0.56  dB, -0.9  dB, -1  dB), but these experiments open the way for miniaturized squeezing devices that could be a very interesting advantage in scaling up quantum systems for quantum processing, opening new perspectives in the domain of integrated quantum optics.

  16. Normal dispersion femtosecond fiber optical parametric oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T N; Kieu, K; Maslov, A V; Miyawaki, M; Peyghambarian, N

    2013-09-15

    We propose and demonstrate a synchronously pumped fiber optical parametric oscillator (FOPO) operating in the normal dispersion regime. The FOPO generates chirped pulses at the output, allowing significant pulse energy scaling potential without pulse breaking. The output average power of the FOPO at 1600 nm was ∼60  mW (corresponding to 1.45 nJ pulse energy and ∼55% slope power conversion efficiency). The output pulses directly from the FOPO were highly chirped (∼3  ps duration), and they could be compressed outside of the cavity to 180 fs by using a standard optical fiber compressor. Detailed numerical simulation was also performed to understand the pulse evolution dynamics around the laser cavity. We believe that the proposed design concept is useful for scaling up the pulse energy in the FOPO using different pumping wavelengths.

  17. Parametric uncertainty modeling for robust control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, K.H.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1999-01-01

    The dynamic behaviour of a non-linear process can often be approximated with a time-varying linear model. In the presented methodology the dynamics is modeled non-conservatively as parametric uncertainty in linear lime invariant models. The obtained uncertainty description makes it possible...... to perform robustness analysis on a control system using the structured singular value. The idea behind the proposed method is to fit a rational function to the parameter variation. The parameter variation can then be expressed as a linear fractional transformation (LFT), It is discussed how the proposed...... point changes. It is shown that a diagonal PI control structure provides robust performance towards variations in feed flow rate or feed concentrations. However including both liquid and vapor flow delays robust performance specifications cannot be satisfied with this simple diagonal control structure...

  18. Parametric resonance and cosmological gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Paulo M.; Henriques, Alfredo B.

    2008-03-01

    We investigate the production of gravitational waves due to quantum fluctuations of the vacuum during the transition from the inflationary to the radiation-dominated eras of the universe, assuming this transition to be dominated by the phenomenon of parametric resonance. The energy spectrum of the gravitational waves is calculated using the method of continuous Bogoliubov coefficients, which avoids the problem of overproduction of gravitons at large frequencies. We found, on the sole basis of the mechanism of quantum fluctuations, that the resonance field leaves no explicit and distinctive imprint on the gravitational-wave energy spectrum, apart from an overall upward or downward translation. Therefore, the main features in the spectrum are due to the inflaton field, which leaves a characteristic imprint at frequencies of the order of MHz/GHz.

  19. Parametric cost estimation for space science missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillie, Charles F.; Thompson, Bruce E.

    2008-07-01

    Cost estimation for space science missions is critically important in budgeting for successful missions. The process requires consideration of a number of parameters, where many of the values are only known to a limited accuracy. The results of cost estimation are not perfect, but must be calculated and compared with the estimates that the government uses for budgeting purposes. Uncertainties in the input parameters result from evolving requirements for missions that are typically the "first of a kind" with "state-of-the-art" instruments and new spacecraft and payload technologies that make it difficult to base estimates on the cost histories of previous missions. Even the cost of heritage avionics is uncertain due to parts obsolescence and the resulting redesign work. Through experience and use of industry best practices developed in participation with the Aerospace Industries Association (AIA), Northrop Grumman has developed a parametric modeling approach that can provide a reasonably accurate cost range and most probable cost for future space missions. During the initial mission phases, the approach uses mass- and powerbased cost estimating relationships (CER)'s developed with historical data from previous missions. In later mission phases, when the mission requirements are better defined, these estimates are updated with vendor's bids and "bottoms- up", "grass-roots" material and labor cost estimates based on detailed schedules and assigned tasks. In this paper we describe how we develop our CER's for parametric cost estimation and how they can be applied to estimate the costs for future space science missions like those presented to the Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal Survey Study Committees.

  20. Parametric representation of centrifugal pump homologous curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, Marcelo A.; Mattos, Joao R.L. de

    2015-01-01

    Essential for any mathematical model designed to simulate flow transient events caused by pump operations is the pump performance data. The performance of a centrifugal pump is characterized by four basic quantities: the rotational speed, the volumetric flow rate, the dynamic head, and the hydraulic torque. The curves showing the relationships between these four variables are called the pump characteristic curves. The characteristic curves are empirically developed by the pump manufacturer and uniquely describe head and torque as functions of volumetric flow rate and rotation speed. Because of comprising a large amount of points, this configuration is not suitable for computational purposes. However, it can be converted to a simpler form by the development of the homologous curves, in which dynamic head and hydraulic torque ratios are expressed as functions of volumetric flow and rotation speed ratios. The numerical use of the complete set of homologous curves requires specification of sixteen partial curves, being eight for the dynamic head and eight for the hydraulic torque. As a consequence, the handling of homologous curves is still somewhat complicated. In solving flow transient problems that require the pump characteristic data for all the operation zones, the parametric form appears as the simplest way to deal with the homologous curves. In this approach, the complete characteristics of a pump can be described by only two closed curves, one for the dynamic head and other for the hydraulic torque, both in function of a single angular coordinate defined adequately in terms of the quotient between volumetric flow ratio and rotation speed ratio. The usefulness and advantages of this alternative method are demonstrated through a practical example in which the homologous curves for a pump of the type used in the main coolant loops of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) are transformed to the parametric form. (author)

  1. Evaluation of Two Energy Balance Closure Parametrizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Fabian; De Roo, Frederik; Kohnert, Katrin; Desjardins, Raymond L.; Schmid, Hans Peter; Mauder, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    A general lack of energy balance closure indicates that tower-based eddy-covariance (EC) measurements underestimate turbulent heat fluxes, which calls for robust correction schemes. Two parametrization approaches that can be found in the literature were tested using data from the Canadian Twin Otter research aircraft and from tower-based measurements of the German Terrestrial Environmental Observatories (TERENO) programme. Our analysis shows that the approach of Huang et al. (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 127:273-292, 2008), based on large-eddy simulation, is not applicable to typical near-surface flux measurements because it was developed for heights above the surface layer and over homogeneous terrain. The biggest shortcoming of this parametrization is that the grid resolution of the model was too coarse so that the surface layer, where EC measurements are usually made, is not properly resolved. The empirical approach of Panin and Bernhofer (Izvestiya Atmos Oceanic Phys 44:701-716, 2008) considers landscape-level roughness heterogeneities that induce secondary circulations and at least gives a qualitative estimate of the energy balance closure. However, it does not consider any feature of landscape-scale heterogeneity other than surface roughness, such as surface temperature, surface moisture or topography. The failures of both approaches might indicate that the influence of mesoscale structures is not a sufficient explanation for the energy balance closure problem. However, our analysis of different wind-direction sectors shows that the upwind landscape-scale heterogeneity indeed influences the energy balance closure determined from tower flux data. We also analyzed the aircraft measurements with respect to the partitioning of the "missing energy" between sensible and latent heat fluxes and we could confirm the assumption of scalar similarity only for Bowen ratios 1.

  2. A new class of spontaneously polarized materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, David; Plekan, Oksana; Cassidy, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Very large electric fields form spontaneously within films of seemingly prosaic chemicals such as nitrous oxide or propane.We describe how the discovery of this unexpected phenomenon took place and how we attempt to understand the nature of the new class of spontaneously polarized materials...

  3. Spontaneously broken abelian gauge invariant supersymmetric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainland, G.B.; Tanaka, K.

    A model is presented that is invariant under an Abelian gauge transformation and a modified supersymmetry transformation. This model is broken spontaneously, and the interplay between symmetry breaking, Goldstone particles, and mass breaking is studied. In the present model, spontaneously breaking the Abelian symmetry of the vacuum restores the invariance of the vacuum under a modified supersymmetry transformation. (U.S.)

  4. Spontaneous onset of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, A.M.; Perez, R.S.G.M.; Huygen, F.J.; van Eijs, F.; van Kleef, M.; Bauer, M.C.R.; van Hilten, J.J.; Marinus, J.

    2010-01-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) usually develops after a noxious event, but spontaneous onsets have been described in 3-11% of the cases. The existence of spontaneous-onset CRPS is highly debated and the aim of the present study was therefore to compare the phenotypic characteristics of CRPS

  5. Spontaneous CP violation on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Laine, Mikko

    2000-01-01

    At finite temperatures around the electroweak phase transition, the thermodynamics of the MSSM can be described by a three-dimensional two Higgs doublet effective theory. This effective theory has a phase where CP is spontaneously violated. We study spontaneous CP violation with non-perturbative lattice simulations, and analyse whether one could end up in this phase for any physical MSSM parameter values.

  6. Spontaneous rupture of choledochal cyst: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ho Seob; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Chan Sung; Choi, Jong Cheol; Oh, Jong Young

    2002-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of a choledochal cyst leading to biliary peritonitis is a rare complication which can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed. The authors report the ultrasound and CT findings of two cases of spontaneous choledochal cystic rupture and the biliary peritonitis which ensued

  7. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum after bench press training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Tomoya

    2017-04-01

    Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is often associated with asthma and mainly affects adolescent males with a tall, thin body habitus. A 17-year-old man complained of chest and pharyngeal pain after bench press training and spontaneous pneumomediastinum was diagnosed. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chest pain of uncertain cause.

  8. Spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture in alkaptonuria | Mohammed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous Achilles tendon ruptures are uncommon. We present a 46-year-old man with spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture due to ochronosis. To our knowledge, this has not been previously reported in Sudan literature. The tendon of the reported patient healed well after debridement and primary repairs.

  9. Spontaneous rupture of choledochal cyst: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ho Seob; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Chan Sung; Choi, Jong Cheol; Oh, Jong Young [Dong-a University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-11-01

    Spontaneous rupture of a choledochal cyst leading to biliary peritonitis is a rare complication which can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed. The authors report the ultrasound and CT findings of two cases of spontaneous choledochal cystic rupture and the biliary peritonitis which ensued.

  10. Children's Spontaneous Vocalisations during Play: Aesthetic Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Countryman, June; Gabriel, Martha; Thompson, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the phenomenon of spontaneous vocalisations in the self-chosen, unstructured outdoor play of children aged 3-12. Spontaneous vocalisations encompass the whole range of children's unprompted, natural, expressive vocal soundings beyond spoken language. Non-participant observations at childcare centres and on elementary school…

  11. Early pregnancy angiogenic markers and spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B; Dechend, Ralf; Karumanchi, S Ananth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion is the most commonly observed adverse pregnancy outcome. The angiogenic factors soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor are critical for normal pregnancy and may be associated to spontaneous abortion. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between...... maternal serum concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor, and subsequent spontaneous abortion. STUDY DESIGN: In the prospective observational Odense Child Cohort, 1676 pregnant women donated serum in early pregnancy, gestational week ..., interquartile range 71-103). Concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor were determined with novel automated assays. Spontaneous abortion was defined as complete or incomplete spontaneous abortion, missed abortion, or blighted ovum

  12. Fast, Sequence Adaptive Parcellation of Brain MR Using Parametric Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puonti, Oula; Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Van Leemput, Koen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose a method for whole brain parcellation using the type of generative parametric models typically used in tissue classification. Compared to the non-parametric, multi-atlas segmentation techniques that have become popular in recent years, our method obtains state-of-the-art ...

  13. Parametric Statistics of Individual Energy Levels in Random Hamiltonians

    OpenAIRE

    Smolyarenko, I. E.; Simons, B. D.

    2002-01-01

    We establish a general framework to explore parametric statistics of individual energy levels in disordered and chaotic quantum systems of unitary symmetry. The method is applied to the calculation of the universal intra-level parametric velocity correlation function and the distribution of level shifts under the influence of an arbitrary external perturbation.

  14. Design and development of a parametrically excited nonlinear energy harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, Tanju; Ghayesh, Mergen H.; Li, Weihua; Alici, Gursel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A parametrically broadband energy harvester was fabricated. • Strong softening-type nonlinear behaviour was observed. • Experiments were conducted showing the large bandwidth of the device. - Abstract: An energy harvester has been designed, fabricated and tested based on the nonlinear dynamical response of a parametrically excited clamped-clamped beam with a central point-mass; magnets have been used as the central point-mass which pass through a coil when parametrically excited. Experiments have been conducted for the energy harvester when the system is excited (i) harmonically near the primary resonance; (ii) harmonically near the principal parametric resonance; (iii) by means of a non-smooth periodic excitation. An electrodynamic shaker was used to parametrically excite the system and the corresponding displacement of the magnet and output voltages of the coil were measured. It has been shown that the system displays linear behaviour at the primary resonance; however, at the principal parametric resonance, the motion characteristic of the magnet substantially changed displaying a strong softening-type nonlinearity. Theoretical simulations have also been conducted in order to verify the experimental results; the comparison between theory and experiment were within very good agreement of each other. The energy harvester developed in this paper is capable of harvesting energy close to the primary resonance as well as the principal parametric resonance; the frequency-band has been broadened significantly mainly due to the nonlinear effects as well as the parametric excitation.

  15. QCD parametrizations of the parton distribution of deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotikov, A.V.; Maksimov, S.J.; Parobij, I.S.

    1993-01-01

    A realistic parametrization of the gluon and quarks distributions is suggested. It is shown that the solutions of the Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Paris equations can be presented by these parametrizations and these equations unambiguously lead to the constraints on the Q 2 -evolution of the parameters. (author). 10 refs

  16. Parametric excitation of drift waves in a sheared slab geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vranjes, J.; Weiland, J.

    1992-01-01

    The threshold for parametric excitation of drift waves in a sheared slab geometry is calculated for a pump wave that is a standing wave along the magnetic field, using the Hasegawa-Mima nonlinearity. The shear damping is counteracted by the parametric coupling and the eigenvalue problem is solved analytically using Taylor's strong coupling approximation. (au)

  17. Additivity for parametrized topological Euler characteristic and Reidemeister torsion

    OpenAIRE

    Badzioch, Bernard; Dorabiala, Wojciech

    2005-01-01

    Dwyer, Weiss, and Williams have recently defined the notions of parametrized topological Euler characteristic and parametrized topological Reidemeister torsion which are invariants of bundles of compact topological manifolds. We show that these invariants satisfy additivity formulas paralleling the additive properties of the classical Euler characteristic and Reidemeister torsion of finite CW-complexes.

  18. Schwinger-type parametrization of open string worldsheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Playle

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A parametrization of (super moduli space near the corners corresponding to bosonic or Neveu–Schwarz open string degenerations is introduced for worldsheets of arbitrary topology. With this parametrization, Feynman graph polynomials arise as the α′→0 limit of objects on moduli space. Furthermore, the integration measures of string theory take on a very simple and elegant form.

  19. Parametric Cost and Schedule Modeling for Early Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-02

    Research NoteNational Security Rep rt PARAMETRIC MODELING FOR EARLY TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT COST AND SCHEDULE Chuck...Alexander NSR_11x17_Cover_CostModeling_v8.indd 1 11/20/17 3:15 PM PARAMETRIC COST AND SCHEDULE MODELING FOR EARLY  TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT Chuck...COST AND SCHEDULE MODELING FOR EARLY  TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT iii Contents Figures

  20. Parametric Room Acoustic workflows with real-time acoustic simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates and assesses the opportunities that real-time acoustic simulation offer to engage in parametric acoustics workflow and to influence architectural designs from early design stages......The paper investigates and assesses the opportunities that real-time acoustic simulation offer to engage in parametric acoustics workflow and to influence architectural designs from early design stages...

  1. Parametric Equations: Push 'Em Back, Push 'Em Back, Way Back!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieply, Joseph F.

    1993-01-01

    Stresses using the features of graphing calculators to teach parametric equations much earlier in the curriculum than is presently done. Examples using parametric equations to teach slopes and lines in beginning algebra, inverse functions in advanced algebra, the wrapping function, and simulations of physical phenomena are presented. (MAZ)

  2. A PARAMETRIC STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF SHORT-TERM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (b). (•). Figure I a) The building embedded in a layered formation; b) The building model with base springs. PARAMETRIC STUDY. 'fhe parametric study carried out in this work aims at investigating the effect of the soil flexibility on the internal force distribution of selected structural systems of buildings that are founded on soil.

  3. PISC II: Parametric studies. Monitoring of PISC-II parametric studies in ultrasonic NDT for PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toft, M.W.

    1989-09-01

    The CEGB NDT Applications Centre is partipating in the EEC-funded international Programme for the Inspection of Steel Components (PISC) on account of its relevance to the inspection of Sizewell B and future PWRs. This report describes an inspection monitoring exercise undertaken by NDTAC under partial funding from JRC Ispra, at the initiation of the PISC-III Ultrasonic Modelling Group. Experimental studies have been carried out under PISC-II to investigate ultrasonic defect response as a function of various parameters which characterise the inspection situation. Some of these parametric studies are potentially useful for the validation of theoretical models of ultrasonic inspection and are consequently relevant to the work of the PISC-III Modelling Group. The aim of the present exercise was to ensure that data obtained by the various contract organizations participating in the PISC-II Parametric Studies was of high quality, was a complete record of the inspection and would yield valid comparisons with the predictions of theoretical models. The exercise entailed visits by a nominated CEGB observer to 4 European NDT Laboratories at which the parametric studies were in progress; CISE (Milan); UKAEA (Harwell); UKAEA (Risley) and Vincotte (Brussels). This report presents the findings of those visits

  4. Autonomous Supervision and Control of Parametric Roll Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galeazzi, Roberto

    therefore two objectives. The first is to develop methods for detection of the inception of parametric roll resonance. The second is to develop control strategies to stabilize the motion after parametric roll has started. Stabilisation of parametric roll resonance points to two possible courses of action...... strategies are then combined to stabilise parametric roll resonance within few roll cycles. Limitations on the maximum stabilisable roll angle are analysed and linked to the ii slew rate saturation and hydrodynamic stall characteristics of the fin stabilisers. The study on maximum stabilisable roll angle...... leads to the requirements for early detection. Two novel detectors are proposed, which work within a shorttime prediction horizon, and issue early warnings of parametric roll inception within few roll cycles from its onset. The main idea behind these detection schemes is that of exploiting the link...

  5. Tools in the orbit space approach to the study of invariant functions: rational parametrization of strata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, G; Valente, G

    2003-01-01

    Functions which are equivariant or invariant under the transformations of a compact linear group G acting in a Euclidean space R n , can profitably be studied as functions defined in the orbit space of the group. The orbit space is the union of a finite set of strata, which are semialgebraic manifolds formed by the G-orbits with the same orbit-type. In this paper, we provide a simple recipe to obtain rational parametrizations of the strata. Our results can be easily exploited, in many physical contexts where the study of equivariant or invariant functions is important, for instance in the determination of patterns of spontaneous symmetry breaking, in the analysis of phase spaces and structural phase transitions (Landau theory), in equivariant bifurcation theory, in crystal field theory and in most areas where use is made of symmetry-adapted functions. A physically significant example of utilization of the recipe is given, related to spontaneous polarization in chiral biaxial liquid crystals, where the advantages with respect to previous heuristic approaches are shown

  6. Tools in the orbit space approach to the study of invariant functions: rational parametrization of strata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, G; Valente, G [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2003-02-21

    Functions which are equivariant or invariant under the transformations of a compact linear group G acting in a Euclidean space R{sup n}, can profitably be studied as functions defined in the orbit space of the group. The orbit space is the union of a finite set of strata, which are semialgebraic manifolds formed by the G-orbits with the same orbit-type. In this paper, we provide a simple recipe to obtain rational parametrizations of the strata. Our results can be easily exploited, in many physical contexts where the study of equivariant or invariant functions is important, for instance in the determination of patterns of spontaneous symmetry breaking, in the analysis of phase spaces and structural phase transitions (Landau theory), in equivariant bifurcation theory, in crystal field theory and in most areas where use is made of symmetry-adapted functions. A physically significant example of utilization of the recipe is given, related to spontaneous polarization in chiral biaxial liquid crystals, where the advantages with respect to previous heuristic approaches are shown.

  7. GAIN Technology Workshops Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braase, Lori Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    National and global demand for nuclear energy is increasing and United States (U.S.) global leadership is eroding. There is a sense of urgency with respect to the deployment of the innovative nuclear energy technologies. The Gateway for Accelerated Innovation in Nuclear (GAIN) initiative is based on the simultaneous achievement of three strategic goals. The first is maintaining global technology leadership within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The second is enabling global industrial leadership for nuclear vendors and suppliers. The third is focused on utility optimization of nuclear energy within the clean energy portfolio. An effective public-private partnership is required to achieve these goals. DOEs recognizes the recent sense of urgency new developers and investors have in getting their concepts to market. They know that time to market for nuclear technology takes too long and the facilities needed to conduct the necessary research, development and demonstration (RD&D) activities are very expensive to develop and maintain. Early technologies, in the lower technology readiness levels (TRL) need materials testing, analysis, modeling, code development, etc., most of which currently exists in the DOE national laboratory system. However, mature technologies typically need large component testing and demonstration facilities, which are expensive and long-lead efforts. By understanding the needs of advanced nuclear technology developers, GAIN will connect DOE national laboratory capabilities (e.g., facilities, expertise, materials, and data) with industry RD&D needs. In addition, GAIN is working with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to streamline processes and increase understanding of the licensing requirements for advanced reactors.

  8. GAIN Technology Workshops Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braase, Lori Ann

    2016-01-01

    National and global demand for nuclear energy is increasing and United States (U.S.) global leadership is eroding. There is a sense of urgency with respect to the deployment of the innovative nuclear energy technologies. The Gateway for Accelerated Innovation in Nuclear (GAIN) initiative is based on the simultaneous achievement of three strategic goals. The first is maintaining global technology leadership within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The second is enabling global industrial leadership for nuclear vendors and suppliers. The third is focused on utility optimization of nuclear energy within the clean energy portfolio. An effective public-private partnership is required to achieve these goals. DOEs recognizes the recent sense of urgency new developers and investors have in getting their concepts to market. They know that time to market for nuclear technology takes too long and the facilities needed to conduct the necessary research, development and demonstration (RD&D) activities are very expensive to develop and maintain. Early technologies, in the lower technology readiness levels (TRL) need materials testing, analysis, modeling, code development, etc., most of which currently exists in the DOE national laboratory system. However, mature technologies typically need large component testing and demonstration facilities, which are expensive and long-lead efforts. By understanding the needs of advanced nuclear technology developers, GAIN will connect DOE national laboratory capabilities (e.g., facilities, expertise, materials, and data) with industry RD&D needs. In addition, GAIN is working with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to streamline processes and increase understanding of the licensing requirements for advanced reactors.

  9. Commutated automatic gain control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    A commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for a prototype Loran C receiver. The receiver uses a microcomputer to control a memory aided phase-locked loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The circuit designed for the AGC is described, and bench and flight test results are presented. The AGC circuit described actually samples starting at a point 40 microseconds after a zero crossing determined by the software lock pulse ultimately generated by a 30 microsecond delay and add network in the receiver front end envelope detector.

  10. [Fast food promotes weight gain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn; Astrup, Arne V

    2007-05-07

    The total amounts of fat in a fast food menu consisting of French fries and fried Chicken Nuggets from McDonald's and KFC, respectively, bought in 35 different countries vary from 41 to 71 gram. In most countries the menu contained unacceptably high amounts of industrially-produced trans fat which contributes to an increased risk of ischaemic heart disease, weight gain, abdominal fat accumulation and type 2 diabetes. The quality of the ingredients in fast food ought to be better and the size of the portions smaller and less energy-dense so that frequent fast food meals do not increase the risk of obesity and diseases among customers.

  11. Bilateral spontaneous hemotympanum: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Economou Nicolas C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common causes of hemotympanum are therapeutic nasal packing, epistaxis, blood disorders and blunt trauma to the head. Hemotympanum is characterized as idiopathic, when it is detected in the presence of chronic otitis media. A rare case of spontaneous bilateral hemotympanum in a patient treated with anticoagulants is presented herein. Case presentation A 72-year-old male presented with acute deterioration of hearing. In the patient's medical history aortic valve replacement 1 year before presentation was reported. Since then he had been administered regularly coumarinic anticoagulants, with INR levels maintained between 3.4 and 4.0. Otoscopy revealed the presence of bilateral hemotympanum. The audiogram showed symmetrical moderately severe mixed hearing loss bilaterally, with the conductive component predominating. Tympanograms were flat bilaterally with absent acoustic reflexes. A computerized tomography scan showed the presence of fluid in the mastoid and middle ear bilaterally. Treatment was conservative and consisted of a 10-day course of antibiotics, anticongestants and temporary interruption of the anticoagulant therapy. After 3 weeks, normal tympanic membranes were found and hearing had returned to previous levels. Conclusion Anticoagulant intake should be included in the differential diagnosis of hemotympanum, because its detection and appropriate treatment may lead to resolution of the disorder.

  12. Spontaneous flocking in human groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Michael; Pyritz, Lennart W; Boos, Margarete

    2013-01-01

    Flocking behaviour, as a type of self-organised collective behaviour, is described as the spatial formation of groups without global control and explicit inter-individual recruitment signals. It can be observed in many animals, such as bird flocks, shoals or herds of ungulates. Spatial attraction between humans as the central component of flocking behaviour has been simulated in a number of seminal models but it has not been detected experimentally in human groups so far. The two other sub-processes of this self-organised collective movement - collision avoidance and alignment - are excluded or held constant respectively in this study. We created a computer-based, multi-agent game where human players, represented as black dots, moved on a virtual playground. The participants were deprived of social cues about each other and could neither communicate verbally nor nonverbally. They played two games: (1) Single Game, where other players were invisible, and (2) Joint Game, where each player could see players' positions in a local radius around himself/herself. We found that individuals approached their neighbours spontaneously if their positions were visible, leading to less spatial dispersion of the whole group compared to moving alone. We conclude that human groups show the basic component of flocking behaviour without being explicitly instructed or rewarded to do so. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Spontaneous Metacognition in Rhesus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-09-01

    Metacognition is the ability to think about thinking. Although monitoring and controlling one's knowledge is a key feature of human cognition, its evolutionary origins are debated. In the current study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; N = 120) could make metacognitive inferences in a one-shot decision. Each monkey experienced one of four conditions, observing a human appearing to hide a food reward in an apparatus consisting of either one or two tubes. The monkeys tended to search the correct location when they observed this baiting event, but engaged in information seeking-by peering into a center location where they could check both potential hiding spots-if their view had been occluded and information seeking was possible. The monkeys only occasionally approached the center when information seeking was not possible. These results show that monkeys spontaneously use information about their own knowledge states to solve naturalistic foraging problems, and thus provide the first evidence that nonhumans exhibit information-seeking responses in situations with which they have no prior experience. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Cosmological aspects of spontaneous baryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, Andrea De; Kobayashi, Takeshi [SISSA,Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste,Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2016-08-24

    We investigate cosmological aspects of spontaneous baryogenesis driven by a scalar field, and present general constraints that are independent of the particle physics model. The relevant constraints are obtained by studying the backreaction of the produced baryons on the scalar field, the cosmological expansion history after baryogenesis, and the baryon isocurvature perturbations. We show that cosmological considerations alone provide powerful constraints, especially for the minimal scenario with a quadratic scalar potential. Intriguingly, we find that for a given inflation scale, the other parameters including the reheat temperature, decoupling temperature of the baryon violating interactions, and the mass and decay constant of the scalar are restricted to lie within ranges of at most a few orders of magnitude. We also discuss possible extensions to the minimal setup, and propose two ideas for evading constraints on isocurvature perturbations: one is to suppress the baryon isocurvature with nonquadratic scalar potentials, another is to compensate the baryon isocurvature with cold dark matter isocurvature by making the scalar survive until the present.

  15. Parametric and non-parametric approach for sensory RATA (Rate-All-That-Apply) method of ledre profile attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastuti, S.; Harijono; Murtini, E. S.; Fibrianto, K.

    2018-03-01

    This current study is aimed to investigate the use of parametric and non-parametric approach for sensory RATA (Rate-All-That-Apply) method. Ledre as Bojonegoro unique local food product was used as point of interest, in which 319 panelists were involved in the study. The result showed that ledre is characterized as easy-crushed texture, sticky in mouth, stingy sensation and easy to swallow. It has also strong banana flavour with brown in colour. Compared to eggroll and semprong, ledre has more variances in terms of taste as well the roll length. As RATA questionnaire is designed to collect categorical data, non-parametric approach is the common statistical procedure. However, similar results were also obtained as parametric approach, regardless the fact of non-normal distributed data. Thus, it suggests that parametric approach can be applicable for consumer study with large number of respondents, even though it may not satisfy the assumption of ANOVA (Analysis of Variances).

  16. Can Beta Blockers Cause Weight Gain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause weight gain? Can beta blockers cause weight gain? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes. Weight gain can occur as a side effect of some ... and metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol-XL). The average weight gain is about 2.6 pounds (about 1.2 ...

  17. A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chris J; Van der Slot, Peter J M; Boller, Klaus-J

    2013-01-01

    We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ at a repetition rate of 5 Hz.

  18. Spontaneous pneumothorax in diffuse cystic lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Joseph; Lee, Yun Chor Gary; Gupta, Nishant

    2017-07-01

    Diffuse cystic lung diseases (DCLDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders with varying pathophysiologic mechanisms that are characterized by the presence of air-filled lung cysts. These cysts are prone to rupture, leading to the development of recurrent spontaneous pneumothoraces. In this article, we review the epidemiology, clinical features, and management DCLD-associated spontaneous pneumothorax, with a focus on lymphangioleiomyomatosis, Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. DCLDs are responsible for approximately 10% of apparent primary spontaneous pneumothoraces. Computed tomography screening for DCLDs (Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis) following the first spontaneous pneumothorax has recently been shown to be cost-effective and can help facilitate early diagnosis of the underlying disorders. Patients with DCLD-associated spontaneous pneumothorax have a very high rate of recurrence, and thus pleurodesis should be considered following the first episode of spontaneous pneumothorax in these patients, rather than waiting for a recurrent episode. Prior pleurodesis is not a contraindication to future lung transplant. Although DCLDs are uncommon, spontaneous pneumothorax is often the sentinel event that provides an opportunity for diagnosis. By understanding the burden and implications of pneumothoraces in DCLDs, clinicians can facilitate early diagnosis and appropriate management of the underlying disorders.

  19. Spontaneous symmetry breaking and its cosmological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzarev, I.Yu.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of symmetry and of the spontaneous symmetry breaking are presented in popular form as applied to quantum physics. Though the presence of the spontaneous symmetry breaking is not proved directly for interactions of elementary particles, on considering the hypothesis of its presence as applied to the hot Universe theory a possibility of obtaining rather uncommon cosmological consequences is discussed. In particular, spontaneous symmetry breaking of vacuum and the rather hot Universe lead necessarily to the presence of the domain structure of the Universe with the surfase energy at the domain interface in the form of a real physical object

  20. Spontaneous Dissection of the Superior Mesenteric Artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, Patrick J.; Esther, James B.; Sheldon, Elana L.; Sparks, Steven R.; Brophy, David P.; Oglevie, Steven B.

    2001-01-01

    Spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is a rare occurrence, especially when not associated with aortic dissection. Currently, only 28 cases appear to have been reported. Due to the scarcity of cases in the literature, the natural history of isolated, spontaneous SMA dissection is unclear. CT has been reported to be useful for the initial diagnosis of SMA dissection [2-5]. We present two recent cases of spontaneous SMA dissection in which enhanced spiral CT was instrumental in following the disease process and guiding clinical decision making

  1. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalip Gupta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is an uncommon cause of ascites. Here we describe a case of a 75 year-old female patient with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and subclinical hypothyroidism that resolved with thyroid replacement and antibiotic therapy respectively. Ascitic fluid analysis revealed a gram-positive bacterium on gram staining. A review of the literature revealed just one other reported case of myxoedema ascites with concomitant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and no case has till been reported of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in subclinical hypothyroidism.

  2. Does Spontaneous Favorability to Power (vs. Universalism) Values Predict Spontaneous Prejudice and Discrimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchon, Nicolas; Maio, Gregory R; Hanel, Paul H P; Bardin, Brigitte

    2017-10-01

    We conducted five studies testing whether an implicit measure of favorability toward power over universalism values predicts spontaneous prejudice and discrimination. Studies 1 (N = 192) and 2 (N = 86) examined correlations between spontaneous favorability toward power (vs. universalism) values, achievement (vs. benevolence) values, and a spontaneous measure of prejudice toward ethnic minorities. Study 3 (N = 159) tested whether conditioning participants to associate power values with positive adjectives and universalism values with negative adjectives (or inversely) affects spontaneous prejudice. Study 4 (N = 95) tested whether decision bias toward female handball players could be predicted by spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values. Study 5 (N = 123) examined correlations between spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values, spontaneous importance toward power (vs. universalism) values, and spontaneous prejudice toward Black African people. Spontaneous positivity toward power (vs. universalism) values was associated with spontaneous negativity toward minorities and predicted gender bias in a decision task, whereas the explicit measures did not. These results indicate that the implicit assessment of evaluative responses attached to human values helps to model value-attitude-behavior relations. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Personality Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Gain optimization method of a DQW superluminescent diode with broad multi-state emission

    KAUST Repository

    Dimas, Clara E.

    2010-01-01

    Optimizing gain through systematic methods of varying current injection schemes analytically is significant to maximize experimentally device yield and evaluation. Various techniques are used to calculate the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) gain for light emitting devices consisting of single-section and multiple-sections of even length. Recently double quantum well (DQW) superluminescent diodes (SLD) have shown a broad multi-state emission due to mutlielectrodes of non-equal lengths and at high non-equal current densities. In this study, we adopt an improved method utilizing an ASE intensity ratio to calibrate a gain curve based on the sum of the measured ASE spectra to efficiently estimate the gain. Although the laser gain for GaAs/AlGaAs material is well studied, the ASE gain of SLD devices has not been systematically studied particular to further explain the multiple-state emission observed in fabricated devices. In addition a unique gain estimate was achieved where the excited state gain clamps prior to the ground state due to approaching saturation levels. In our results, high current densities in long sectioned active regions achieved sufficient un-truncated gain that show evidence of excited state emission has been observed.

  4. Amplified spontaneous emission measurements on the Aurora large aperture module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oertel, J.A.; Czuchlewski, S.J.; Leland, W.T.; Turner, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    The large aperture module (LAM) of the Aurora KrF laser can be used to address a number of issues that relate to the scaling of KrF amplifiers to larger ICF systems. Perhaps foremost among these are the possible effects of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) on laser performance. To assess this problem a 3-D computer code has been developed to model these ASE effects. The code uses an iterative procedure to arrive at a self-consistent steady state solution to the 3-D distribution of coherent and incoherent fluxes within the amplifier. Two-pass energy extraction, wall reflectivity, and nonuniform excitation are included in the model. The authors previously reported the effects of ASE on the small signal gains measured in the 1- x 1- x 2-m 3 LAM. The code also makes quantitative predictions of the ASE that should be generated in the amplifier. This paper indicates the radiance expected for a medium of uniform gain in terms of the (g - ν)L product and the parameter g/a. The quantity (g - ν)L is the product of the net gain and the path length along the direction of observation. The present experiments compare values of ASE measured at various locations around the LAM with the code predictions. The impact of ASE on amplifier output, is also discussed

  5. A soft double regularization approach to parametric blind image deconvolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Yap, Kim-Hui

    2005-05-01

    This paper proposes a blind image deconvolution scheme based on soft integration of parametric blur structures. Conventional blind image deconvolution methods encounter a difficult dilemma of either imposing stringent and inflexible preconditions on the problem formulation or experiencing poor restoration results due to lack of information. This paper attempts to address this issue by assessing the relevance of parametric blur information, and incorporating the knowledge into the parametric double regularization (PDR) scheme. The PDR method assumes that the actual blur satisfies up to a certain degree of parametric structure, as there are many well-known parametric blurs in practical applications. Further, it can be tailored flexibly to include other blur types if some prior parametric knowledge of the blur is available. A manifold soft parametric modeling technique is proposed to generate the blur manifolds, and estimate the fuzzy blur structure. The PDR scheme involves the development of the meaningful cost function, the estimation of blur support and structure, and the optimization of the cost function. Experimental results show that it is effective in restoring degraded images under different environments.

  6. Experimental investigation of saturation effect on pump-to-signal intensity modulation transfer in single-pump phase-insensitive fiber optic parametric amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristofori, Valentina; Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Lund-Hansen, Toke

    2013-01-01

    We present an experimental characterization of how signal gain saturation affects the transfer of intensity modulation from the pump to the signal in single-pump, phase-insensitive fiber optic parametric amplifiers (FOPAs). In this work, we demonstrate experimentally for the first time, to our...... knowledge, how gain saturation of a FOPA reduces the noise contribution due to the transfer of pump power fluctuations to the signal. In a particular example, it is shown that the transferred noise is significantly reduced by a factor of 3, while the FOPA gain remains above 10 dB....

  7. Function parametrization by using 4-point transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dikusar, N.D.

    1996-01-01

    A continuous parametrization of the smooth curve f(x)=f(x;R) is suggested on a basis of four-point transformations. Coordinates of three reference points of the curve are chosen as parameters R. This approach allows to derive a number of advantages in function approximation and fitting of empiric data. The transformations have made possible to derive a new class of polynomials (monosplines) having the better approximation quality than monomials {x n }. A behaviour of an error of the approximation has a uniform character. A three-point model of the cubic spline (TPS) is proposed. The model allows to reduce a number of unknown parameters in twice and to obtain an advantage in a computing aspect. The new approach to the function approximation and fitting are shown on a number of examples. The proposed approach gives a new mathematical tool and a new possibility in both practical applications and theoretical research of numerical and computational methods. 13 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Parametric Decay during HHFW on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.R.; Bernabei, S.; Biewer, T.; Diem, S.; Hosea, J.; LeBlanc, B.; Phillips, C.K.; Ryan, P.; Swain, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) heating experiments on NSTX have been observed to be accompanied by significant edge ion heating (T i >> T e ). This heating is found to be anisotropic with T perp > T par . Simultaneously, coherent oscillations have been detected with an edge Langmuir probe. The oscillations are consistent with parametric decay of the incident fast wave (ω > 13ω ci ) into ion Bernstein waves and an unobserved ion-cyclotron quasi-mode. The observation of anisotropic heating is consistent with Bernstein wave damping, and the Bernstein waves should completely damp in the plasma periphery as they propagate toward a cyclotron harmonic resonance. The number of daughter waves is found to increase with rf power, and to increase as the incident wave's toroidal wavelength increases. The frequencies of the daughter wave are separated by the edge ion cyclotron frequency. Theoretical calculations of the threshold for this decay in uniform plasma indicate an extremely small value of incident power should be required to drive the instability. While such decays are commonly observed at lower harmonics in conventional ICRF heating scenarios, they usually do not involve the loss of significant wave power from the pump wave. On NSTX an estimate of the power loss can be found by calculating the minimum power required to support the edge ion heating (presumed to come from the decay Bernstein wave). This calculation indicates at least 20-30% of the incident rf power ends up as decay waves

  9. Parametric Design in Timber Gridshell Tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismailiyah Al Athas Syarifah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins with a simple proposition: rather than mimicking the geometric structures found in nature, perhaps the most effective modes of sustainable fabrication can be found throughunderstanding the nature of materials themselves. The material becomes a design parameter through the constraints of fabrication tools, limitations of material size, and most importantly the productivecapacity of material resistance a given material’s capacity and tendencies to take shape, rather than cutting shape out of material. Gridshell structures provide an intriguing case study to pursue this proposition. Not only is there clear precedent in the form finding experiments of frei Otto and the institute for lightweight structures, but also the very nurbs based tools of current design practices developed from the ability of wood to bend. Taking the bent wood spline quite literally, gridshells provide a means that is at once formally expressive, structurally optimized, materially efficient, and quite simply a delight to experience. The the larger motivation of this work anticipates a parametric system linking the intrinsic material values of the gridshell tectonic with extrinsic criteria such as programmatic needs and environmental response. Through an applied case study of gridshells, the play between form and material is tested out through the author’s own experimentation with gridshells and the pedagogical results of two gridshell studios.The goal of this research is to establish a give and take relationship between top down formal emphasis and a bottom-up material influence.

  10. Multidimensional Scaling Visualization Using Parametric Similarity Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Tenreiro Machado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS and parametric similarity indices (PSI in the analysis of complex systems (CS. Each CS is viewed as a dynamical system, exhibiting an output time-series to be interpreted as a manifestation of its behavior. We start by adopting a sliding window to sample the original data into several consecutive time periods. Second, we define a given PSI for tracking pieces of data. We then compare the windows for different values of the parameter, and we generate the corresponding MDS maps of ‘points’. Third, we use Procrustes analysis to linearly transform the MDS charts for maximum superposition and to build a globalMDS map of “shapes”. This final plot captures the time evolution of the phenomena and is sensitive to the PSI adopted. The generalized correlation, theMinkowski distance and four entropy-based indices are tested. The proposed approach is applied to the Dow Jones Industrial Average stock market index and the Europe Brent Spot Price FOB time-series.

  11. Parametric analysis of a magnetized cylindrical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahedo, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The relevant macroscopic model, the spatial structure, and the parametric regimes of a low-pressure plasma confined by a cylinder and an axial magnetic field is discussed for the small-Debye length limit, making use of asymptotic techniques. The plasma response is fully characterized by three-dimensionless parameters, related to the electron gyroradius, and the electron and ion collision mean-free-paths. There are the unmagnetized regime, the main magnetized regime, and, for a low electron-collisionality plasma, an intermediate-magnetization regime. In the magnetized regimes, electron azimuthal inertia is shown to be a dominant phenomenon in part of the quasineutral plasma region and to set up before ion radial inertia. In the main magnetized regime, the plasma structure consists of a bulk diffusive region, a thin layer governed by electron inertia, a thinner sublayer controlled by ion inertia, and the non-neutral Debye sheath. The solution of the main inertial layer yields that the electron azimuthal energy near the wall is larger than the electron thermal energy, making electron resistivity effects non-negligible. The electron Boltzmann relation is satisfied only in the very vicinity of the Debye sheath edge. Ion collisionality effects are irrelevant in the magnetized regime. Simple scaling laws for plasma production and particle and energy fluxes to the wall are derived.

  12. Parametric Analysis of Flexible Logic Control Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Fu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on deep analysis about the essential relation between two input variables of normal two-dimensional fuzzy controller, we used universal combinatorial operation model to describe the logic relationship and gave a flexible logic control method to realize the effective control for complex system. In practical control application, how to determine the general correlation coefficient of flexible logic control model is a problem for further studies. First, the conventional universal combinatorial operation model has been limited in the interval [0,1]. Consequently, this paper studies a kind of universal combinatorial operation model based on the interval [a,b]. And some important theorems are given and proved, which provide a foundation for the flexible logic control method. For dealing reasonably with the complex relations of every factor in complex system, a kind of universal combinatorial operation model with unequal weights is put forward. Then, this paper has carried out the parametric analysis of flexible logic control model. And some research results have been given, which have important directive to determine the values of the general correlation coefficients in practical control application.

  13. A scale invariance criterion for LES parametrizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs Schaefer-Rolffs

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Turbulent kinetic energy cascades in fluid dynamical systems are usually characterized by scale invariance. However, representations of subgrid scales in large eddy simulations do not necessarily fulfill this constraint. So far, scale invariance has been considered in the context of isotropic, incompressible, and three-dimensional turbulence. In the present paper, the theory is extended to compressible flows that obey the hydrostatic approximation, as well as to corresponding subgrid-scale parametrizations. A criterion is presented to check if the symmetries of the governing equations are correctly translated into the equations used in numerical models. By applying scaling transformations to the model equations, relations between the scaling factors are obtained by demanding that the mathematical structure of the equations does not change.The criterion is validated by recovering the breakdown of scale invariance in the classical Smagorinsky model and confirming scale invariance for the Dynamic Smagorinsky Model. The criterion also shows that the compressible continuity equation is intrinsically scale-invariant. The criterion also proves that a scale-invariant turbulent kinetic energy equation or a scale-invariant equation of motion for a passive tracer is obtained only with a dynamic mixing length. For large-scale atmospheric flows governed by the hydrostatic balance the energy cascade is due to horizontal advection and the vertical length scale exhibits a scaling behaviour that is different from that derived for horizontal length scales.

  14. Supercritical extraction of oleaginous: parametric sensitivity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The economy has become universal and competitive, thus the industries of vegetable oil extraction must advance in the sense of minimising production costs and, at the same time, generating products that obey more rigorous patterns of quality, including solutions that do not damage the environment. The conventional oilseed processing uses hexane as solvent. However, this solvent is toxic and highly flammable. Thus the search of substitutes for hexane in oleaginous extraction process has increased in the last years. The supercritical carbon dioxide is a potential substitute for hexane, but it is necessary more detailed studies to understand the phenomena taking place in such process. Thus, in this work a diffusive model for semi-continuous (batch for the solids and continuous for the solvent isothermal and isobaric extraction process using supercritical carbon dioxide is presented and submitted to a parametric sensitivity analysis by means of a factorial design in two levels. The model parameters were disturbed and their main effects analysed, so that it is possible to propose strategies for high performance operation.

  15. Improvement of Statistical Decisions under Parametric Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechval, Nicholas A.; Nechval, Konstantin N.; Purgailis, Maris; Berzins, Gundars; Rozevskis, Uldis

    2011-10-01

    A large number of problems in production planning and scheduling, location, transportation, finance, and engineering design require that decisions be made in the presence of uncertainty. Decision-making under uncertainty is a central problem in statistical inference, and has been formally studied in virtually all approaches to inference. The aim of the present paper is to show how the invariant embedding technique, the idea of which belongs to the authors, may be employed in the particular case of finding the improved statistical decisions under parametric uncertainty. This technique represents a simple and computationally attractive statistical method based on the constructive use of the invariance principle in mathematical statistics. Unlike the Bayesian approach, an invariant embedding technique is independent of the choice of priors. It allows one to eliminate unknown parameters from the problem and to find the best invariant decision rule, which has smaller risk than any of the well-known decision rules. To illustrate the proposed technique, application examples are given.

  16. Heritability of gestational weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Elina Scheers; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per

    2015-01-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) is a complex trait involving intrauterine environmental, maternal environmental, and genetic factors. However, the extent to which these factors contribute to the total variation in GWG is unclear. We therefore examined the genetic and environmental influences...... on the variation in GWG in the first and second pregnancy in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin mother-pairs. Further, we explored if any co-variance existed between factors influencing the variation in GWG of the mothers’ first and second pregnancies. By using Swedish nationwide record-linkage data, we...... identified 694 twin mother-pairs with complete data on their first pregnancy and 465 twin mother-pairs with complete data on their second pregnancy during 1982–2010. For a subanalysis, 143 twin mother-pairs had complete data on two consecutive pregnancies during the study period. We used structural equation...

  17. Unidirectional high gain brake stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, David J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to a unidirectional high gain brake arrangement that includes in combination a shaft mounted for rotation within a housing. The shaft is rotatable in either direction. A brake is selectively releasably coupled to the housing and to the shaft. The brake has a first member. An intermittent motion device is respectively coupled through the first member to the housing and through a one-way clutch to the shaft. The brake also has a second member that is mechanically coupled to the first brake member and to the housing. The intermittent motion device causes the brake to be activated by movement imparted to the first brake member after a preset number of revolutions of the shaft in one direction. The brake is released by rotation of the shaft in an opposite direction whereby torque transmitted through the one-way clutch to the first brake member is removed.

  18. Boesmanland gains from nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, I.

    1984-01-01

    It is being claimed that the geobotany of the Boesmanland will gain from the use of the farm Vaalputs for radioactive waste disposal from the Koeberg nuclear power station. Only 1 km 2 of the 10 000 ha that was bought for the purpose will be used for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes and 2 m 3 to 3 m 3 per year will be used for the storage of high-level radioactive wastes. The rest of the area, Nucor plans to develop as a nature reserve, restoring the natural botany and ecology. Before Vaalputs was selected as site for radioactive waste disposal, a regional analysis was done. According to this there is more or less 500 people staying within a radius of 25km from the farm. Geological surveys showed no mineral deposits of economic value. During the past 100 million years the area was also free from seismic activity

  19. Parametric and Non-Parametric Vibration-Based Structural Identification Under Earthquake Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentaris, Fragkiskos P.; Fouskitakis, George N.

    2014-05-01

    The problem of modal identification in civil structures is of crucial importance, and thus has been receiving increasing attention in recent years. Vibration-based methods are quite promising as they are capable of identifying the structure's global characteristics, they are relatively easy to implement and they tend to be time effective and less expensive than most alternatives [1]. This paper focuses on the off-line structural/modal identification of civil (concrete) structures subjected to low-level earthquake excitations, under which, they remain within their linear operating regime. Earthquakes and their details are recorded and provided by the seismological network of Crete [2], which 'monitors' the broad region of south Hellenic arc, an active seismic region which functions as a natural laboratory for earthquake engineering of this kind. A sufficient number of seismic events are analyzed in order to reveal the modal characteristics of the structures under study, that consist of the two concrete buildings of the School of Applied Sciences, Technological Education Institute of Crete, located in Chania, Crete, Hellas. Both buildings are equipped with high-sensitivity and accuracy seismographs - providing acceleration measurements - established at the basement (structure's foundation) presently considered as the ground's acceleration (excitation) and at all levels (ground floor, 1st floor, 2nd floor and terrace). Further details regarding the instrumentation setup and data acquisition may be found in [3]. The present study invokes stochastic, both non-parametric (frequency-based) and parametric methods for structural/modal identification (natural frequencies and/or damping ratios). Non-parametric methods include Welch-based spectrum and Frequency response Function (FrF) estimation, while parametric methods, include AutoRegressive (AR), AutoRegressive with eXogeneous input (ARX) and Autoregressive Moving-Average with eXogeneous input (ARMAX) models[4, 5

  20. Parametric resonance and cooling on an atom chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Bo; Li Xiaolin; Ke Min; Wang Yuzhu

    2008-01-01

    This paper observes the parametric excitation on atom chip by measuring the trap loss when applying a parametric modulation. By modulating the current in chip wires, it modulates not only the trap frequency but also the trap position. It shows that the strongest resonance occurs when the modulation frequency equals to the trap frequency. The resonance amplitude increases exponentially with modulation depth. Because the Z-trap is an anharmonic trap, there exists energy selective excitation which would cause parametric cooling. We confirm this effect by observing the temperature of atom cloud dropping