WorldWideScience

Sample records for gadus morhua intestinal

  1. Temperature modulates the effects of ocean acidification on intestinal ion transport in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Yong-An Hu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available CO2-driven seawater acidification has been demonstrated to enhance intestinal bicarbonate secretion rates in teleosts, leading to an increased release of CaCO3 under simulated ocean acidification scenarios. In this study, we investigated if increasing CO2 levels stimulate the intestinal acid–base regulatory machinery of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua and whether temperatures at the upper limit of thermal tolerance stimulate or counteract ion regulatory capacities. Juvenile G. morhua were acclimated for four weeks to three CO2 levels (550, 1,200 and 2,200 μatm covering present and near-future natural variability, at optimum (10°C and summer maximum temperature (18°C, respectively. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed the subcellular localization of ion transporters, including Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA, Na+/H+-exchanger 3 (NHE3, Na+/HCO3- cotransporter (NBC1, pendrin-like Cl-/HCO3- exchanger (SLC26a6, V-type H+-ATPase subunit a (VHA and Cl- channel 3 (CLC3 in epithelial cells of the anterior intestine. At 10°C, proteins and mRNA were generally up-regulated for most transporters in the intestinal epithelium after acclimation to higher CO2 levels. This supports recent findings demonstrating increased intestinal HCO3- secretion rates in response to CO2 induced seawater acidification. At 18°C, mRNA expression and protein concentrations of most ion transporters remained unchanged or were even decreased, suggesting thermal compensation. This response may be energetically favorable to retain blood HCO3- levels to stabilize pHe, but may negatively affect intestinal salt and water resorption of marine teleosts in future oceans.

  2. Review of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Important processes in the recruitment dynamics of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) are identified. Spawning areas are in the deep, saline waters below 20–40 m, depending on area topography. Spatial distribution remains relatively stable over time. Peak spawning shows an area-specific pattern...

  3. The parasitic copepod Lernaeocera branchialis negatively affects cardiorespiratory function in Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Jane W.; Seth, H.; Axelsson, M.

    2014-01-01

    The parasitic copepod Lernaeocera branchialis had a negative effect on cardiorespiratory function in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua such that it caused pronounced cardiac dysfunction with irregular rhythm and reduced stroke amplitude compared with uninfected fish. In addition, parasite infection...

  4. Occurrence of anisakid nematodes in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and Greenland cod (Gadus ogac), West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Kim N.; Hedeholm, Rasmus; Schack, Henriette B.

    2010-01-01

    Anisakid nematodes commonly infect gadids, and are of economic and aesthetic importance to the commercial fishing industry in Greenland as some species are pathogenic to humans. However, very little is known about the occurrence of these parasites and their impact on the hosts in Greenland waters....... During a survey in 2005, stomach sample of 227 Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and 64 Greenland cod (Gadus ogac) was collected in Godthaab and Sisimiut fiord systems in West Greenland waters. All cod were dissected for stomach contents and anisakid nematodes were removed from the visceral cavity. Third stage...... nematode species regarding prevalence of infection and mean infection intensity was evident, and there was no relationship between fish condition and the intensity of nematode infections. Standardised for size, capelin-eating cod were in better condition and more heavily infected than fish subsisting...

  5. Cod Gadus morhua and climate change: processes, productivity and prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, Keith

    2010-01-01

    the causes. Investigation of cod Gadus morhua populations across the whole North Atlantic Ocean has shown large-scale patterns of change in productivity due to lower individual growth and condition, caused by large-scale climate forcing. If a population is being heavily exploited then a drop in productivity......Environmental factors act on individual fishes directly and indirectly. The direct effects on rates and behaviour can be studied experimentally and in the field, particularly with the advent of ever smarter tags for tracking fishes and their environment. Indirect effects due to changes in food......, predators, parasites and diseases are much more difficult to estimate and predict. Climate can affect all life-history stages through direct and indirect processes and although the consequences in terms of growth, survival and reproductive output can be monitored, it is often difficult to determine...

  6. Genomic Sequencing of Ranaviruses Isolated from Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariel, Ellen; Steckler, Natalie K.; Subramaniam, Kuttichantran

    2016-01-01

    Ranaviruses have been isolated from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) in Denmark. Phylogenomic analyses revealed that these two ranaviruses are nearly identical and form a distinct clade at the base of the ranavirus tree branching off near other fish ranaviruses....

  7. Male size composition affects male reproductive variance in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. spawning aggregations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkevold, Dorte

    2006-01-01

    Estimates of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua reproductive success, determined using experimental spawning groups and genetic paternity assignment of offspring, showed that within-group variance in male size correlated positively with the degree of male mating skew, predicting a decrease in male reprodu...

  8. Differential expression of immune and stress genes in the skin of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caipang, C.M.A.; Lazado, C.C.; Brinchmann, M.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Kiron, V.

    2011-01-01

    The present study describes the transcriptional profiles of selected immune and stress genes with putative important roles in the cutaneous immune defense of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). In addition it shows differential expression of many genes at the dorsal and ventral sides of fish, in general

  9. Distribution and drift of Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua ) eggs and larvae in Greenland offshore waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Hovgård, Holger

    2002-01-01

    Catches of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) eggs and larvae from 45 national and international ichthyoplankton surveys conducted in Greenland offshore waters during the period 1950 to 1984 have been compiled and re-analysed. Southeast and Southwest Greenland were identified as im- portant spawning areas...

  10. Do North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) fisheries maintain high catch rates at low stock size?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Andersen, Bo Sølgaard

    2008-01-01

    This study presents all investigation of the relationship between stock size of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) and catch rates in seven commercial fishing fleets. The shape of the relationship was estimated using a model allowing both density-dependent changes in catchability and bias...

  11. Multidimensionality of behavioural phenotypes in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meager, Justin J; Fernö, Anders; Skjæraasen, Jon Egil; Järvi, Torbjörn; Rodewald, Petra; Sverdrup, Gisle; Winberg, Svante; Mayer, Ian

    2012-06-25

    Much of the inter-individual variation observed in animal behaviour is now attributed to the existence of behavioural phenotypes or animal personalities. Such phenotypes may be fundamental to fisheries and aquaculture, yet there have been few detailed studies of this phenomenon in exploited marine animals. We investigated the behavioural and neuroendocrine responses of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.), to situations reflecting critical ecological challenges: predator attacks and territorial challenges. Both hatchery-reared and wild fish were tested and behavioural profiles were compared with baseline conditions. We then used an objective, multivariate approach, rather than assigning individuals along one-dimensional behavioural axes, to examine whether distinct behavioural phenotypes were present. Our results indicate that two distinct behavioural phenotypes were evident in fish from each background. In hatchery-reared fish, phenotypes displayed divergent locomotor activity, sheltering, brain monoamine concentrations and responses to competitive challenges. In wild fish, phenotypes were distinguished primarily by locomotor activity, sheltering and responsiveness to predator stimuli. Hatcheries presumably represent a more stressful social environment, and social behaviour and neuroendocrine responses were important in discerning behavioural phenotypes in hatchery fish, whereas antipredator responses were important in discerning phenotypes in wild fish that have previously encountered predators. In both fish types, behavioural and physiological traits that classified individuals into phenotypes were not the same as those that were correlated across situations. These results highlight the multidimensionality of animal personalities, and that the processes that regulate one suite of behavioural traits may be very different to the processes that regulate other behaviours. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermal niche of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua: limits, tolerance and optima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Righton, David A.; Andersen, Ken Haste; Neat, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies in the marine environment have suggested that the limited phenotypic plasticity of cold-adapted species such as Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. will cause distributions to shift toward the poles in response to rising sea temperatures. Some cod stocks are predicted to collapse, but thi......Recent studies in the marine environment have suggested that the limited phenotypic plasticity of cold-adapted species such as Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. will cause distributions to shift toward the poles in response to rising sea temperatures. Some cod stocks are predicted to collapse...... niche of approximately 12°C, but latitudinal differences in water temperature meant that cod in the warmer, southern regions experienced 3 times the degree days (DD; ~4000 DD yr–1) than individuals from northern regions (~1200 DD yr–1). Growth rates increased with temperature, reaching a maximum...

  13. Ribosomal RNA gene sequences confirm that protistan endoparasite of larval cod Gadus morhua is Ichthyodinium sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Alf; Meyer, Stefan; Overton, Julia Lynne

    2010-01-01

    An enigmatic protistan endoparasite found in eggs and larvae of cod Gadus morhua and turbot Psetta maxima was isolated from Baltic cod larvae, and DNA was extracted for sequencing of the parasite's small Subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. The endoparasite has previously been suggested...... to be related to Ichthyodinium chabelardi, a dinoflagellate-like protist that parasitizes yolk sacs of embryos and larvae of a variety of fish species. Comparison of a 1535 bp long fragment of the SSU rRNA gene of the cod endoparasite showed absolute identify with I. chabelardi, demonstrating that the 2...

  14. Environmental effects on recruitment and implications for biological reference points of Eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Vinther, Morten; MacKenzie, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The decline of the Eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) stock from highest to lowest stock levels on record throughout the 1980s and early 1990s was caused by a combination of recruitment failure and increasing fishing pressure at declining stock sizes. The processes driving the reproductive success...... mortality or the limit biomass reference point is indicated. However, an accepted methodology to determine these reference points in situations of changing stock productivity or system carrying capacity does not exist. Environmental conditions affecting recruitment matter not only for the determination...

  15. Foraging behavior of larval cod ( Gadus morhua ) influenced by prey density and hunger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter

    1995-01-01

    activity, prey selectivity, and hunger in a variable prey environment. Gadus morhua eggs were collected in March 1992 and 1993 from the Kattegat area, Denmark, fertilised and incubated in the laboratory. After hatching, the larvae were transferred to rearing tanks of 172 litres. The behaviour of larvae (6...... their prey size selectivity. Behavioural response was to a large degree determined by the level of hunger, represented by the number of newly ingested prey in the gut. The findings show that cod larvae have a flexible response to changes in feeding conditions and imply that larvae can grow and survive even...

  16. Correlations between hemoglobin type and temperature preference of juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Jane W.; Gräns, Albin; Therkildsen, Nina Overgaard

    2012-01-01

    Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) exhibits polymorphic hemoglobin variants with the HbI locus showing a strong North-South geographic cline in frequency distribution of three main types (1/1, 1/2 and 2/2). This may indicate selective advantages of the different HbI types under various temperature re...... inconsistent thermoregulatory behavior. To obtain a more definitive picture of the extent to which thermal niches are realized under natural conditions field observations in areas where the 3 HbI types co-exist should be performed...

  17. Characterization of Francisella sp., GM2212, the first Francisella isolate from marine fish, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottem, Karl F; Nylund, Are; Karlsbakk, Egil

    2007-01-01

    A Francisella sp., isolate GM2212(T), previously isolated from diseased farmed Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in Norway is characterized. The complete 16S rDNA, 16S-23S intergenic spacer, 23S rDNA, 23S-5S intergenic spacer, 5S rDNA, FopA, lipoprotein TUL4 (LpnA), malate dehydrogenase and a hypothetica...

  18. New species in the genus Francisella (Gammaproteobacteria; Francisellaceae); Francisella piscicida sp. nov. isolated from cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottem, Karl F; Nylund, Are; Karlsbakk, Egil

    2007-01-01

    A Francisella strain, GM2212, previously isolated from moribund farmed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in Norway, is closely related to Francisella philomiragia among Francisella spp. according to its complete 16S rDNA, 16S-23S intergenic spacer, 23S rDNA, 23S-5S intergenic spacer, 5S rDNA, Fop...

  19. Effects of reproduction on growth and survival in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, assessed by comparison to triploids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trippel, Edward A.; Butts, Ian; Babin, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    in captive iteroparous, batch-spawning Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), utilizing diploids and triploids, knowing that triploid females invest little to no energy into gametogenesis. Based on annual specific growth rate, there was no evidence for a somatic cost of reproduction at ages 2 (virgin year) and 4...

  20. Gastrointestinal microbial community changes in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) exposed to crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagi, Andrea; Riiser, Even Sannes; Molland, Hilde Steine; Star, Bastiaan; Haverkamp, Thomas H A; Sydnes, Magne Olav; Pampanin, Daniela Maria

    2018-04-02

    The expansion of offshore oil exploration increases the risk of marine species being exposed to oil pollution in currently pristine areas. The adverse effects of oil exposure through toxic properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been well studied in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Nevertheless, the fate of conjugated metabolites in the intestinal tract and their effect on the diversity of intestinal microbial community in fish is less understood. Here, we investigated the intestinal microbial community composition of Atlantic cod after 28 days of exposure to crude oil (concentration range 0.0-0.1 mg/L). Analysis of PAH metabolites in bile samples confirmed that uptake and biotransformation of oil compounds occurred as a result of the exposure. Various evidence for altered microbial communities was found in fish exposed to high (0.1 mg/L) and medium (0.05 mg/L) concentrations of oil when compared to fish exposed to low oil concentration (0.01 mg/L) or no oil (control). First, altered banding patterns were observed on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for samples pooled from each treatment group. Secondly, based on 16S rRNA sequences, higher levels of oil exposure were associated with a loss of overall diversity of the gut microbial communities. Furthermore, 8 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found to have significantly different relative abundances in samples from fishes exposed to high and medium oil concentrations when compared to samples from the control group and low oil concentration. Among these, only one OTU, a Deferribacterales, had increased relative abundance in samples from fish exposed to high oil concentration. The results presented herein contribute to a better understanding of the effects of oil contamination on the gut microbial community changes in fish and highlight the importance of further studies into the area. Our findings suggest that increased relative abundance of bacteria belonging to the order

  1. Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua benefits from the availability of seagrass (Zostera marina nursery habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Lilley

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua is a species of significant economic and historic importance but infamous for its decline. Apart from overfishing, the causes of this decline and its subsequent lack of recovery remain largely unresolved. Indeed, the degree to which specific habitats are important for this species remains unquantified at the scale of North Atlantic. Here, the literature on the role of eelgrass meadows (Zostera marina as valuable nursery habitat for the Atlantic cod is reviewed and synthesized. Evidence is presented on relative densities of Atlantic cod in shallow water environments and in eelgrass meadows in comparison to alternative habitats. In addition, evidence pertaining to the ’viability gains’ attributed to the use of eelgrass meadows as nursery habitat (growth and survival by juvenile Atlantic cod is analyzed. Although juvenile Atlantic cod use of Z. marina is found to be facultative, when possible, available literatures indicates that they may select Z. marina as a nursery habitat where they are found in high density (average of at least 246 ha−1. From their use of Z. marina habitat the juvenile Atlantic cod receives viability benefits from it, improving their chances of reaching maturation. This paper provides strong evidence that eelgrass meadows are of significant importance to contributing to Atlantic cod stocks. Keywords: Zostera marina, Eelgrass, Gadus morhua, Fisheries, Juveniles, Nursery habitat

  2. Hydrographic influence on the spawning habitat suitability of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, K.; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Huwer, B.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrographic influence on the spawning habitat suitability of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 69: 1736–1743.Recruitment variability of marine fish is influenced by the reproductive potential of the stock (i.e. stock characteristics and abundance) and the survival...... of early life stages, mediated by environmental conditions of both a physical (water temperature, salinity and oxygen conditions, ocean currents) and a biological nature (i.e. food, predators). The objective of this study is to assess the importance of variability in environmental conditions within...... allowing survival of western Baltic cod eggs indicates that favourable conditions predominantly occurred during the late spawning season in April/May, while minimum survival rates could be expected from January to March. Unsuitable time periods and habitats exhibiting the highest mortality rates...

  3. Host size-dependent anisakid infection in Baltic cod Gadus morhua associated with differential food preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, Shaozhi; Huwer, Bastian; Bahlool, Qusay

    2016-01-01

    A significant increase in the infection level of Baltic cod Gadus morhua with the anisakid nematode larvae Contracaecum osculatum and Pseudoterranova decipiens has been recorded during recent years due to the expanding local population of grey seals Halichoerus grypus, which act as final hosts...... for these parasites. Here, we report from an investigation of 368 cod (total length [TL] 6-49 cm; caught in ICES Subdivision 25) that the infection level of juvenile cod (TL 6-30 cm) with larvae of C. osculatum and P. decipiens is absent or very low, whereas it increases drastically in larger cod (TL 31-48 cm...... suggest that the C. osculatum life cycle in the Baltic Sea includes grey seals as final hosts, sprat as the first transport host and cod as second transport host. It may be speculated that sprat obtain infection by feeding on copepods and/or cladocerans, which could serve as the first intermediate hosts...

  4. Does DNA extraction affect the physical and chemical composition of historical cod (Gadus morhua) otoliths?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, Nina Overgaard; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Hüssy, Karin

    2010-01-01

    Archived otoliths constitute an important source of historical DNA for use in temporal genetic studies, but such otoliths are also valuable for other research applications, e.g. growth or microchemistry studies, where information about the past is of relevance. Consequently, there are potentially...... conflicting interests regarding how the limited and irreplaceable otolith collections should be used. To resolve this, it is important to find out whether DNA extraction damages otoliths such that they can no longer be used for other research purposes or whether individual otoliths can be used in multiple...... applications. We examined the effects of three different DNA extraction methods on the elemental composition, the morphology, and the clarity of annual growth increments for successful age estimation of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) otoliths that had been archived for 0–31 years. The three extraction methods...

  5. Seasonal prevalence and intensity of follicular atresia in Baltic cod Gadus morhua callarias L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Gerd; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Diekmann, R.

    2008-01-01

    of the physical disector method and volume fraction (Delesse principle). Atretic oocytes were observed in 32% of the ovaries. Prevalence of atresia was independent of female size, but increased significantly with declining female condition from prespawning and through the spawning stages. The relative intensity...... of atresia, i.e. number of atretic oocytes in relation to normally developed vitellogenic oocytes, was low amounting to 1.4% on average. Similar to prevalence, relative intensity of atresia differed significantly between maturity stages and increased with decreasing female condition. The population egg loss......In the present study, 307 ovaries of eastern Baltic cod Gadus morhua callarias sampled during the prespawning and spawning season 2000 were analysed histologically to estimate the seasonal prevalence and intensity of atresia. The number of atretic oocytes per ovary was estimated using a combination...

  6. Chemical surface disinfection of eggs of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overton, J L; Bruun, Morten Sichlau; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2010-01-01

    The effect of two disinfectants on eggs and larvae of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua, was investigated. The eggs were disinfected for 10 min using various concentrations of either glutaraldehyde (100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg L−1) or iodophor (10, 50, 100 and 150 mg L−1), 1–4-days post......-fertilization. Bactericidal effect of disinfection, survival to hatching, hatching success and larval abnormalities were assessed. Larval survival was recorded at 5-, 10- and 15-days post-hatch (dph). Although Baltic cod eggs have an unusually thin chorion, they could tolerate surface disinfection. A reduction in bacterial...... growth was observed with increased concentrations of disinfectant (3.0 × 107–1.6 × 101 CFU mL−1). Abnormalities in newly hatched larvae were not related to disinfection. Survival of the yolk sac larvae was significantly better for eggs treated with 400 mg L−1 glutaraldehyde for 10 min at 10 and 15 dph...

  7. Host size-dependent anisakid infection in Baltic cod Gadus morhua associated with differential food preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, Shaozhi; Huwer, Bastian; Bahlool, Qusay

    2016-01-01

    A significant increase in the infection level of Baltic cod Gadus morhua with the anisakid nematode larvae Contracaecum osculatum and Pseudoterranova decipiens has been recorded during recent years due to the expanding local population of grey seals Halichoerus grypus, which act as final hosts......). A third nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum was rarely found. The study indicates that the prey animals for large cod act as transport hosts for the parasite larvae. Analyses of stomach contents of cod caught in the same area (2007-2014) showed that small benthic organisms (including polychaetes Harmothoë...... suggest that the C. osculatum life cycle in the Baltic Sea includes grey seals as final hosts, sprat as the first transport host and cod as second transport host. It may be speculated that sprat obtain infection by feeding on copepods and/or cladocerans, which could serve as the first intermediate hosts...

  8. Comparative study of tranavirus isolates from cod (Gadus morhua) and turbot (Psetta maxima) with reference to other ranaviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariel, Ellen; Holopainen, Riikka; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Two iridovirus isolates recovered from cod (Gadus morhua) and turbot (Psetta maxima) in Denmark were examined in parallel with a panel of other ranaviruses including frog virus 3 (FV3), the reference strain for the genus Ranavirus. The isolates were assessed according to their reactivity in immun......Two iridovirus isolates recovered from cod (Gadus morhua) and turbot (Psetta maxima) in Denmark were examined in parallel with a panel of other ranaviruses including frog virus 3 (FV3), the reference strain for the genus Ranavirus. The isolates were assessed according to their reactivity......). The challenge trials indicate that rainbow trout fry cultured at 15A degrees C are not target species for the virus isolates in the present panel. We suggest that the two isolates belong in the genus Ranavirus and propose the name Ranavirus maxima (Rmax) for the turbot isolate....

  9. Using interview-based recall surveys to estimate cod Gadus morhua and eel Anguilla anguilla harvest in Danish recreational fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz; Storr-Paulsen, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Using interview-based recall surveys to estimate cod Gadus morhua and eel Anguilla anguilla harvest in Danish recreational fishing. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 69: 323–330.Marine recreational fishing is a popular outdoor activity in Denmark, practised by both anglers and passive gear fishers....... However, the impact on the targeted stocks is unknown, so to estimate the 2009 harvest of cod Gadus morhua and eel Anguilla anguilla, two separate interview-based surveys were initiated and carried out in 2009/2010. The first recall survey exclusively targeted fishers who had been issued......, in certain areas, the recreational harvest of cod accounted for more than 30% of the total yield. The majority (81%) of the recreational cod harvest was taken by anglers. Eels, however, are almost exclusively caught with passive gear (fykenets) and a total of 104 t year−1 was harvested, which corresponds...

  10. Size-dependent social attraction and repulsion explains the decision of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua to enter baited pots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, N; Fernö, A; Humborstad, O-B; Løkkeborg, S; Rieucau, G; Utne-Palm, A C

    2017-12-01

    The present study tested whether the presence of already retained fishes inside baited fish pots acted as a social attraction and affected the entrance probability of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in a fjord in northern Norway. Video analysis revealed that the probability of an entrance initially increased with the presence of low numbers of fishes inside the pot, but subsequently decreased at a critical number of caught fishes. The critical number was dependent on the size of the G. morhua attempting to enter. This demonstrates that social attraction and repulsion play a role in G. morhua pot fishing and has important implications for the capture efficiency of fisheries executed with pots. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  11. Factors regulating early life history dispersal of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from coastal Newfoundland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ryan R E; deYoung, Brad; Snelgrove, Paul V R; Gregory, Robert S

    2013-01-01

    To understand coastal dispersal dynamics of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), we examined spatiotemporal egg and larval abundance patterns in coastal Newfoundland. In recent decades, Smith Sound, Trinity Bay has supported the largest known overwintering spawning aggregation of Atlantic cod in the region. We estimated spawning and dispersal characteristics for the Smith Sound-Trinity Bay system by fitting ichthyoplankton abundance data to environmentally-driven, simplified box models. Results show protracted spawning, with sharply increased egg production in early July, and limited dispersal from the Sound. The model for the entire spawning season indicates egg export from Smith Sound is 13%•day(-1) with a net mortality of 27%•day(-1). Eggs and larvae are consistently found in western Trinity Bay with little advection from the system. These patterns mirror particle tracking models that suggest residence times of 10-20 days, and circulation models indicating local gyres in Trinity Bay that act in concert with upwelling dynamics to retain eggs and larvae. Our results are among the first quantitative dispersal estimates from Smith Sound, linking this spawning stock to the adjacent coastal waters. These results illustrate the biophysical interplay regulating dispersal and connectivity originating from inshore spawning of coastal northwest Atlantic.

  12. Factors regulating early life history dispersal of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua from coastal Newfoundland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R E Stanley

    Full Text Available To understand coastal dispersal dynamics of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua, we examined spatiotemporal egg and larval abundance patterns in coastal Newfoundland. In recent decades, Smith Sound, Trinity Bay has supported the largest known overwintering spawning aggregation of Atlantic cod in the region. We estimated spawning and dispersal characteristics for the Smith Sound-Trinity Bay system by fitting ichthyoplankton abundance data to environmentally-driven, simplified box models. Results show protracted spawning, with sharply increased egg production in early July, and limited dispersal from the Sound. The model for the entire spawning season indicates egg export from Smith Sound is 13%•day(-1 with a net mortality of 27%•day(-1. Eggs and larvae are consistently found in western Trinity Bay with little advection from the system. These patterns mirror particle tracking models that suggest residence times of 10-20 days, and circulation models indicating local gyres in Trinity Bay that act in concert with upwelling dynamics to retain eggs and larvae. Our results are among the first quantitative dispersal estimates from Smith Sound, linking this spawning stock to the adjacent coastal waters. These results illustrate the biophysical interplay regulating dispersal and connectivity originating from inshore spawning of coastal northwest Atlantic.

  13. Microbiological, chemical and sensory spoilage analysis of raw Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stored under modified atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuuliala, L; Al Hage, Y; Ioannidis, A-G; Sader, M; Kerckhof, F-M; Vanderroost, M; Boon, N; De Baets, B; De Meulenaer, B; Ragaert, P; Devlieghere, F

    2018-04-01

    During fish spoilage, microbial metabolism leads to the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), characteristic off-odors and eventual consumer rejection. The aim of the present study was to contribute to the development of intelligent packaging technologies by identifying and quantifying VOCs that indicate spoilage of raw Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) under atmospheres (%v/v CO 2 /O 2 /N 2 ) 60/40/0, 60/5/35 and air. Spoilage was examined by microbiological, chemical and sensory analyses over storage time at 4 or 8 °C. Selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) was used for quantifying selected VOCs and amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used for the characterization of the cod microbiota. OTUs classified within the Photobacterium genus increased in relative abundance over time under all storage conditions, suggesting that Photobacterium contributed to spoilage and VOC production. The onset of exponential VOC concentration increase and sensory rejection occurred at high total plate counts (7-7.5 log). Monitoring of early spoilage thus calls for sensitivity for low VOC concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of dietary fatty acids on the production and quality of eggs and larvae of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjbek, Maria; Støttrup, Josianne; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Cultivated Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) entering their first year of gamete maturation were fed diets with different levels of arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) for 6.5 months prior to commencement of spawning. Gravid females were stripped three times: at the beginning, peak......–173% higher in eggs than in diets. Cod fed the diet with the lowest EPA/ARA ratio had the greatest egg production. Eggs from fish on a diet with high ARA level had significantly higher fertilization and hatching success than those fed low levels of ARA. This diet produced on average 71 viable eggs g 1 female...

  15. The extracellular matrix of Gadus morhua muscle contains types III, V, VI and IV collagens in addition to type I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Lawson, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Confocal microscopy and immuno‐histochemistry were used to examine collagens in the extracellular matrix of cod Gadus morhua swimming muscle. In addition to the well known presence of type I fibrous collagen, types III and VI were also found in the myocommata and the endomysium. The beaded collagen......, type VI, was found in the endomysium and the network forming collagen, type IV, was found in the basement membrane. This is the first report of type V collagen in cod muscle and of types II, IV and VI in the muscle of a teleost....

  16. Genomic signatures of local directional selection in a high gene flow marine organism, the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard

    2009-01-01

    -associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for evidence of selection in local populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) across the species distribution. Results: Our global genome scan analysis identified eight outlier gene loci with very high statistical support, likely to be subject to directional...... selection in local demes, or closely linked to loci under selection. Likewise, on a regional south/north transect of central and eastern Atlantic populations, seven loci displayed strongly elevated levels of genetic differentiation. Selection patterns among populations appeared to be relatively widespread...

  17. Cortisol levels and expression of selected stress- and apoptosis-related genes in the embryos of Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua following short-term exposure to air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marlowe, Christopher; Caipang, A.; Fagutao, Ferdinand F.

    2015-01-01

    Embryos (morula stage) of Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L., were collected and subjected to air exposure for 2 min. followed by recovery at ambient conditions in the rearing container. Total immunoreactive cortisol and transcription of selected stress- and apoptosis-related genes of the embryos were...

  18. Potential bias in estimates of abundance and distribution of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) due to strong winds prevailing prior or during a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Olesen, Hans Jakob; Pedersen, Eva Maria

    2011-01-01

    The impact of strong winds on catches of cod (Gadus morhua) was studied using different fishing methods during small-scale surveys with commercial fishing vessels in the north-eastern central North Sea. Catch per unit effort of a flyshooter and a trawler were considerably lower in the shallower c...

  19. A study of lipid- and water-soluble arsenic species in liver of Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) containing high levels of total arsenic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Veronika; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Julshamn, Kale

    2015-01-01

    In the present study liver samples (n = 26) of Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua), ranging in total arsenic concentrations from 2.1 to 240 mg/kg liver wet weight (ww), were analysed for their content of total arsenic and arsenic species in the lipid-soluble and water-soluble fractions. The arsen...

  20. Diet of Norwegian coastal cod (Gadus morhua) studied by using citizen science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoksen, Siri Elise; Reiss, Henning

    2018-04-01

    The Norwegian coastal cod (Gadus morhua) is a keystone species in the food web of northern Norwegian fjords. Their relatively stationary populations might specifically depend on local food resources, but the diet of cod has rarely been studied in fjord systems. Using a citizen science approach, where recreational anglers and tourists participated in the sampling, we studied small-scale differences in the diet composition of cod in a fjord system in northern Norway. We compared the cod diet from the MPA Saltstraumen, characterised by strong tidal currents and a highly diverse and abundant fauna, with the inner fjord area of Skjerstadfjord. The diet composition of cod significantly differed between both areas within the fjord. Although fish was the dominant prey in both areas, cod consumed > 40% invertebrates in terms of weight, even in the cod size class of 70-99 cm. The invertebrate prey also caused the observed spatial differences. In Saltstraumen, brittle stars (Ophiuroidea), crabs (Brachyura) and sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea) were important food sources for cod, while sea urchins (Echinoidea), clams (Bivalvia), shrimps (Caridea) and krill (Euphausiacea) dominated the diet in the inner Skjerstadfjord. The high densities of sessile fauna in the dynamic environment of Saltstraumen, was only partly reflected in the diet of cod, with only Holothuroidea found in 17% of the stomachs. High rates of empty stomachs (24%), cannibalism as well as a higher proportion of low-energy prey in the diet of large cod, may indicate a shortage of high quality food in Skjerstadfjord. The samples for this study were collected through a citizen science campaign. This approach might provide opportunities to be used for coastal ecological monitoring with potential applications in local ecosystem management strategies through public involvement.

  1. Accumulation and elimination of methylmercury in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) following dietary exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amlund, Heidi [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), P.O. Box 2029 Nordnes, 5817 Bergen (Norway)]. E-mail: heidi.amlund@nifes.no; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), P.O. Box 2029 Nordnes, 5817 Bergen (Norway); Berntssen, Marc H.G. [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), P.O. Box 2029 Nordnes, 5817 Bergen (Norway)

    2007-08-01

    Methylmercury is known to bioaccumulate and biomagnify up the marine food chain. Fish from high levels of the marine food chain may contain relatively high concentrations of mercury, and most (>70%) of the mercury found in muscle is methylmercury. In aquaculture, marine protein (mainly fishmeal) is the dominant source of methylmercury, and this raises some concern with regards to fish welfare and consumer safety. A dietary exposure study, including a depuration period, was carried out in order to study the accumulation and elimination of methylmercury in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.), and to estimate the transfer of methylmercury from feed to fish. Fish were sampled throughout a three month exposure period and a three month depuration period. Muscle samples were fractionated into a protein and a lipid fraction by lipid extraction using methanol and chloroform. Mercury and methylmercury were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and gas chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICPMS), respectively. A continuous accumulation of methylmercury, after a lag period of 10 days, was observed in muscle tissue during the three months exposure to methylmercury (0.95+/-0.03{mu}g Hg/g feed, n=6). After three months, the final concentration in muscle was 0.38+/-0.04{mu}g Hg/gww (n=6), where methylmercury constituted 90-95% of the mercury present. The elimination of methylmercury from muscle was slow and incomplete (within the three months of depuration) with an estimated elimination half-life (t{sub 1/2}) of 377 days. The transfer of methylmercury from feed to Atlantic cod, described by the estimated absorption efficiency, was 38%. In muscle more than 99% of the mercury was found in the protein fraction. These results suggest that Atlantic cod readily takes up dietary methylmercury, which is efficiently accumulated into muscle, where it is incorporated into larger peptides or proteins. Comparable results were found for

  2. Development of a SNP resource and a genetic linkage map for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higgins Brent

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua is a species with increasing economic significance for the aquaculture industry. The genetic improvement of cod will play a critical role in achieving successful large-scale aquaculture. While many microsatellite markers have been developed in cod, the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs is currently limited. Here we report the identification of SNPs from sequence data generated by a large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST program, focusing on fish originating from Canadian waters. Results A total of 97976 ESTs were assembled to generate 13448 contigs. We detected 4753 SNPs that met our selection criteria (depth of coverage ≥ 4 reads; minor allele frequency > 25%. 3072 SNPs were selected for testing. The percentage of successful assays was 75%, with 2291 SNPs amplifying correctly. Of these, 607 (26% SNPs were monomorphic for all populations tested. In total, 64 (4% of SNPs are likely to represent duplicated genes or highly similar members of gene families, rather than alternative alleles of the same gene, since they showed a high frequency of heterozygosity. The remaining polymorphic SNPs (1620 were categorised as validated SNPs. The mean minor allele frequency of the validated loci was 0.258 (± 0.141. Of the 1514 contigs from which validated SNPs were selected, 31% have a significant blast hit. For the SNPs predicted to occur in coding regions (141, we determined that 36% (51 are non-synonymous. Many loci (1033 SNPs; 64% are polymorphic in all populations tested. However a small number of SNPs (184 that are polymorphic in the Western Atlantic were monomorphic in fish tested from three European populations. A preliminary linkage map has been constructed with 23 major linkage groups and 924 mapped SNPs. Conclusions These SNPs represent powerful tools to accelerate the genetic improvement of cod aquaculture. They have been used to build a genetic linkage map that can be applied to

  3. Accumulation and elimination of methylmercury in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) following dietary exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amlund, Heidi; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Berntssen, Marc H.G.

    2007-01-01

    Methylmercury is known to bioaccumulate and biomagnify up the marine food chain. Fish from high levels of the marine food chain may contain relatively high concentrations of mercury, and most (>70%) of the mercury found in muscle is methylmercury. In aquaculture, marine protein (mainly fishmeal) is the dominant source of methylmercury, and this raises some concern with regards to fish welfare and consumer safety. A dietary exposure study, including a depuration period, was carried out in order to study the accumulation and elimination of methylmercury in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.), and to estimate the transfer of methylmercury from feed to fish. Fish were sampled throughout a three month exposure period and a three month depuration period. Muscle samples were fractionated into a protein and a lipid fraction by lipid extraction using methanol and chloroform. Mercury and methylmercury were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and gas chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICPMS), respectively. A continuous accumulation of methylmercury, after a lag period of 10 days, was observed in muscle tissue during the three months exposure to methylmercury (0.95+/-0.03μg Hg/g feed, n=6). After three months, the final concentration in muscle was 0.38+/-0.04μg Hg/gww (n=6), where methylmercury constituted 90-95% of the mercury present. The elimination of methylmercury from muscle was slow and incomplete (within the three months of depuration) with an estimated elimination half-life (t 1/2 ) of 377 days. The transfer of methylmercury from feed to Atlantic cod, described by the estimated absorption efficiency, was 38%. In muscle more than 99% of the mercury was found in the protein fraction. These results suggest that Atlantic cod readily takes up dietary methylmercury, which is efficiently accumulated into muscle, where it is incorporated into larger peptides or proteins. Comparable results were found for Atlantic salmon

  4. Effects of ocean acidification increase embryonic sensitivity to thermal extremes in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlke, Flemming T; Leo, Elettra; Mark, Felix C; Pörtner, Hans-Otto; Bickmeyer, Ulf; Frickenhaus, Stephan; Storch, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    Thermal tolerance windows serve as a powerful tool for estimating the vulnerability of marine species and their life stages to increasing temperature means and extremes. However, it remains uncertain to which extent additional drivers, such as ocean acidification, modify organismal responses to temperature. This study investigated the effects of CO 2 -driven ocean acidification on embryonic thermal sensitivity and performance in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, from the Kattegat. Fertilized eggs were exposed to factorial combinations of two PCO 2 conditions (400 μatm vs. 1100 μatm) and five temperature treatments (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 °C), which allow identifying both lower and upper thermal tolerance thresholds. We quantified hatching success, oxygen consumption (MO 2 ) and mitochondrial functioning of embryos as well as larval morphometrics at hatch and the abundance of acid-base-relevant ionocytes on the yolk sac epithelium of newly hatched larvae. Hatching success was high under ambient spawning conditions (3-6 °C), but decreased towards both cold and warm temperature extremes. Elevated PCO 2 caused a significant decrease in hatching success, particularly at cold (3 and 0 °C) and warm (12 °C) temperatures. Warming imposed limitations to MO 2 and mitochondrial capacities. Elevated PCO 2 stimulated MO 2 at cold and intermediate temperatures, but exacerbated warming-induced constraints on MO 2 , indicating a synergistic interaction with temperature. Mitochondrial functioning was not affected by PCO 2 . Increased MO 2 in response to elevated PCO 2 was paralleled by reduced larval size at hatch. Finally, ionocyte abundance decreased with increasing temperature, but did not differ between PCO 2 treatments. Our results demonstrate increased thermal sensitivity of cod embryos under future PCO 2 conditions and suggest that acclimation to elevated PCO 2 requires reallocation of limited resources at the expense of embryonic growth. We conclude that ocean acidification

  5. Development of international fisheries for the eastern Baltic cod ( Gadus morhua ) from the late 1880s until 1938

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; MacKenzie, Brian; Karlsdottir, H.M.

    2007-01-01

    of indicators of fishing effort and qualitative information on developments in fishing technology. This information has been assembled for different countries and locations in the Baltic Sea. We first summarize the multi-decadal development of national cod fisheries and their relative importance during......The paper provides an overview of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) fisheries from the end of the 1880s until 1938, in order to improve the knowledge of long-term stock dynamics. The data compiled and included in the study comprise catches and economic values of exploited fish species, time series...... the first decades of the 20th century. We then assess whether these data can be used to estimate the relative roles of fishing and ecosystem changes on variations in catches. We conclude that the assembled data reveal biologically meaningful variations in the state of the cod stock and that some...

  6. Effects of sex, stock, and environment on the shape of known-age Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua ) otoliths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardinale, M.; Doering-Arjes, P.; Kastowsky, M.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of sex, stock, and environment on the shape of known-age Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) otoliths from the Faroe Islands were investigated. Moreover, the feasibility of otolith shape analysis for stock identification was evaluated. The shape was described by using several normalized Fourier...... descriptors and morphometric variables. There were no consistent differences between the left and right otoliths and between sexes within different age classes, stocks, and environments. With our experimental design, we could evaluate the relative importance of genetic and environmental conditions (water...... temperature and diet regime) on otolith shape and morphometrics. Using otolith shape, cod individuals were significantly separated into Bank and Plateau stocks. Total classification success was between 79% and 85% between stocks and between 85% and 96% between environments for the different age classes...

  7. Growth of juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in land-based recirculation systems: Effects of feeding regime, photoperiod and diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fülberth, Michael; Moran, Damian; Jarlbæk, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The combined effect of feeding regime and photoperiod on the growth of juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in land-based recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) was examined using three different commercial diets. Fish of 8–10 g were reared in 1 m3 tanks at an initial density of 10 kg m− 3 for 78 d....... Three RAS units were used to simultaneously test three feed/photoperiod regimes that might be encountered in the wild or aquaculture; LightDark (LD) 24:0, LD12:11 (+ 1 h crepuscular periods) and LD6:6 (+ 12 h crepuscular periods). Feed was administered during the light period every 30 min for a 3 min...... concentrations (photoperiod regime and diet on specific growth rate (SGR). Fish receiving the LD12:11 and LD6:6 regimes and Diet A grew best (SGR 2.59 and 2.54% d− 1 respectively). Fish...

  8. Variations in the drift of larval cod ( Gadus morhua L.) in the Baltic Sea : combining field observations and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, R.; Hinrichsen, H.H.; St. John, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Coupled three-dimensional (3-D) physical oceanographic modelling and field sampling programmes were carried out in May 1988 and August 1991 to investigate the potential drift of larval cod (Gadus morhua L.) in the Bornholm Basin of the Baltic Sea. The goals were to predict the transport of cod...... larvae, thus aiding the identification of physical processes influencing larval retention/dispersal. Numerical simulations were performed using a 3-D eddy-resolving baroclinic model based on the Bryan-Cox-Semtner code adapted for the Baltic Sea. Within the Bornholm Basin, the model was initialized...... for the time periods considered. Larval drift was simulated either by incorporation of passive drifters, or as the initial horizontal distribution of larvae implemented into the model. Drift model simulations of larval transport agreed relatively well with field observations. The influence of variations...

  9. Towards sustainable fisheries of the Öresund cod (Gadus morhua) through sub-stock-specific assessment and management recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Waldo, Staffan; Nilsson, P. Anders

    2013-01-01

    Fisheries management traditionally relies on stock assessments assuming discrete populations within large administrational areas. However, failing to account for sub-stock structuring may result in overestimation of the stocks' true harvest potential and unsustainable exploitation of small stock...... elements. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) frequently occurs in spatially segregated populations, some of which exhibit fine-scaled stock structuring within current management boundaries. Here we use the locally spawning cod stock in the Sound (“Öresund”) as a case study, and perform a sub-stock......-specific assessment to evaluate biological and economic effects of managing the Sound cod as a separate stock. Our results indicate that reducing exploitation pressure, particularly through technical regulations i.e. increasing gill-net mesh sizes, would not only enhance the stock age distribution, but yield long...

  10. Plasma FITC-dextran exchange between the primary and secondary circulatory systems in the Atlantic cod, Gadus Morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Claes; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2008-01-01

    Fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-dextran) exchange between the primary (PCS) and secondary (SCS) circulatory systems in the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua (Linnaeus, 1752), were studied using 20-kDa (n = 4) and 500-kDa (n = 4) FITC-dextran. In order to give a qualitative perspective...... of the general connection between the PCS and SCS, distribution of plasma-borne tracers (FITC-dextran) in the PCS and SCS were examined. In this study, a total of eight cod were cannulated in the ventral aorta (PCS) and dorsal cutaneous vessel (SCS), for investigation of FITC-dextran disappearance in the PCS...... and its subsequent appearance in the SCS. FITC-dextran of both sizes was found to be in equilibrium between the PCS and SCS in less than 20 min. This indicates a profound connection between the PCS and SCS in the Atlantic cod, and rapid mixing of tracers between the PCS and SCS. The destination...

  11. Impact of water-accommodated fractions of crude oil on Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua following chronic exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, R.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the long-term effects of hydrocarbon exposure on the gonadal development of fish. Mature Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were exposed to low concentrations of water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an ambient flowthrough seawater system. Some PAH-exposed cod groups were depurated afterwards for 38 to 287 days. Mortality was rare, and external lesions occurred only in the PAH-exposed groups. The gonado-somatic index revealed that gonadal development was disrupted in both sexes and spawning and spermiation was delayed in the 33 depurated PAH-groups. The findings indicate that chronic exposure to WAFs in the water column may have an adverse effect on reproduction in Atlantic cod.

  12. Hydroacoustic resolution of small-scale vertical distribution in Baltic cod Gadus morhua - habitat choise and limits during spawning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaber, Matthias; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Neuenfeldt, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    to cod. The results showed a clear influence of ambient salinity and oxygen concentration on the distribution pattern and distributional limitation of cod during spawning time, and also consistency of data storage tag-derived distribution patterns with those based on individual echotracking. We therefore...... and hence the spatial structure of the ecosystem. Our aim here is to present a method to resolve small-scale distribution on an individual level, as needed for the behaviorally-based prediction of habitat choice and limits. We focused on the small-scale vertical distribution of cod Gadus morhua L....... in the Bornholm Basin, central Baltic Sea, during spawning time in 2 years with different vertical thermohaline and oxygen stratifications. Individual cod were identified by echotracking of real-time in situ hydroacoustic distribution data. In order to resolve and identify hydrographic preferences and limits...

  13. Distribution and elimination of [14C]octachlorostyrene in cod (Gadus morhua), rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), and blue mussel (Mytilus edulis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingebrigtsen, K.; Solbakken, J.E.; Norheim, G.; Nafstad, I.

    1988-01-01

    Cod (Gadus morhua) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were given a single oral dose of 100 microCi/kg b.w. of [ 14 C]octachlorostyrene [( 14 C]OCS) in peanut oil. Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) was exposed to [ 14 C]OCS in water. The distribution and elimination of the compound was studied by liquid scintillation counting and whole-body autoradiography. The highest degree of radioactivity in the cod and rainbow trout was measured in the liver and the visceral fat, respectively. The degree of radioactivity in the brain of cod exceeded that of the rainbow trout by a factor between 2 and 4 at all survival times. In addition to bile excretion of [ 14 C]OCS-derived radioactivity, a possible excretion over the intestinal mucosa was suggested. The rate of elimination was slow in both species, and substantial amounts of radioactivity remained in the tissues 90 d after administration. In the blue mussel, the highest degree of radioactivity was found in the hepatopancreas. Substantial amounts of radioactivity were present in the mussel tissues 60 d after administration

  14. Stable isotope evidence for late medieval (14th-15th C origins of the eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua fishery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Orton

    Full Text Available Although recent historical ecology studies have extended quantitative knowledge of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua exploitation back as far as the 16th century, the historical origin of the modern fishery remains obscure. Widespread archaeological evidence for cod consumption around the eastern Baltic littoral emerges around the 13th century, three centuries before systematic documentation, but it is not clear whether this represents (1 development of a substantial eastern Baltic cod fishery, or (2 large-scale importation of preserved cod from elsewhere. To distinguish between these hypotheses we use stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis to determine likely catch regions of 74 cod vertebrae and cleithra from 19 Baltic archaeological sites dated from the 8th to the 16th centuries. δ(13C and δ(15N signatures for six possible catch regions were established using a larger sample of archaeological cod cranial bones (n = 249. The data strongly support the second hypothesis, revealing widespread importation of cod during the 13th to 14th centuries, most of it probably from Arctic Norway. By the 15th century, however, eastern Baltic cod dominate within our sample, indicating the development of a substantial late medieval fishery. Potential human impact on cod stocks in the eastern Baltic must thus be taken into account for at least the last 600 years.

  15. Historical DNA reveals the demographic history of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in medieval and early modern Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ólafsdóttir, Guðbjörg Ásta; Westfall, Kristen M; Edvardsson, Ragnar; Pálsson, Snæbjörn

    2014-02-22

    Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) vertebrae from archaeological sites were used to study the history of the Icelandic Atlantic cod population in the time period of 1500-1990. Specifically, we used coalescence modelling to estimate population size and fluctuations from the sequence diversity at the cytochrome b (cytb) and Pantophysin I (PanI) loci. The models are consistent with an expanding population during the warm medieval period, large historical effective population size (NE), a marked bottleneck event at 1400-1500 and a decrease in NE in early modern times. The model results are corroborated by the reduction of haplotype and nucleotide variation over time and pairwise population distance as a significant portion of nucleotide variation partitioned across the 1550 time mark. The mean age of the historical fished stock is high in medieval times with a truncation in age in early modern times. The population size crash coincides with a period of known cooling in the North Atlantic, and we conclude that the collapse may be related to climate or climate-induced ecosystem change.

  16. Fertilisation and hatching success of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) eggs when exposed to various concentrations of produced water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, D.; Lyons, M.; Burridge, L.; Lee, K.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the fertilization and hatching success of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) eggs that were exposed to various dilutions of produced water from a natural gas production platform. A control group of eggs was fertilized in sea water without any produced water. Another set of eggs were fertilized in sea water with 4 different concentrations of produced water and held their respective concentrations for 24 hours to evaluate the success of the fertilization. Viable fertilized eggs were transferred to 96 well plates containing fresh sea water and incubated in the dark at approximately 6 degrees C until hatch. Eggs began hatching about 14 days after fertilization (DPF), peaked at about 17 DPF, then finished hatching by 21 DPF. Analysis of PAH content in the diluted produced water showed that at 0.32 percent, 1.08 percent and 3.6 percent concentrations, the fertilization success was greater than or equal to that of the control group. However, for the 12 percent concentration, there were no viable fertilized eggs present after the 24 hour period. Survivability of eggs during sea water incubation was similar for the 0 percent, 0.32 percent and 1.08 percent treatment groups, but egg mortality increased for the 3.60 percent concentration group, to about 61.5 percent mean cumulative mortality at 6 DPF, then remained constant. The mean hatching success for all dilutions was presented.

  17. Differential Survival among Batches of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua L. from Fertilisation through to Post-Metamorphosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra E Petersen

    Full Text Available Aquaculture production of cod has decreased from over 20,000 tonnes in 2009 to less than 2,000 tonnes in 2014 and the industry faces many challenges, one of which is high and unpredictably variable mortality rates in the early life stages. Hence, full-cycle farming with hatchery produced juveniles is still considered unprofitable compared to fisheries and on-growing of wild cod. In the present study, potential batch differences in progeny survival of wild-caught, hatchery-spawned Faroe Bank cod (Gadus morhua L. were investigated at two defined periods during early life history; i the embryo stage (60 day degrees post fertilisation and ii the fry stage (110 days post hatch, post metamorphosis. The fry stage experiment was conducted in three replicates (N = 300 per replicate, and a panel of three polymorphic microsatellite markers was used for parental analysis. Mean survival rate at the embryo stage was 69% (± 20% SD. Survival was positively associated with egg diameter (P < 0.01, explaining 90% of the variation in egg survival rates. The data were too scarce to conclude either way concerning a possible correlation between survival rates between the two periods (P < 0.10. Offspring from three batches (from a total of eight dominated in the fry stage, contributing over 90% of the progeny, and results were consistent over all three replicate tanks. The skewed batch representation observed may be of relevance to the effective management of selective breeding programmes for cod.

  18. Feeding opportunities of larval and juvenile cod (Gadus morhua) in a Greenlandic fjord: temporal and spatial linkages between cod and their preferred prey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swalethorp, Rasmus; Kjellerup, Sanne; Malanski, Evandro

    2014-01-01

    preferences of the early-life stages of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) to quantify the availability of prey during a spring-summer season in a West Greenlandic fjord. We hypothesized that abundances of larval and juvenile cod at size were synchronized to optimal availability of preferred prey in space and time....... These findings stress the importance of focusing on abundance of preferred prey when assessing the actual prey availability to young fish. We found a spatio-temporal overlap between cod and their preferred prey, and observations suggest that advection of both zooplankton and cod contributed to this overlap...

  19. Low impact of exposure to environmentally relevant doses of 226Ra in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) embryonic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsvik, Pål A.; Berntssen, Marc H.G.; Hylland, Ketil; Eriksen, Dag Ø.; Holen, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether 226 Ra, a radionuclide present in produced water from oil platforms in the North Sea and other offshore drilling areas, could affect vulnerable early life stages of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Blastula-stage embryonic cells (EC) from fertilized eggs of Atlantic cod were isolated and exposed to environmental relevant concentrations of 226 Ra and transcription of selected genes quantified. The results showed a weak, but significant up-regulation of GPx3 and HSP70 transcripts after 48 h of exposure to 2.11 Bq/L. In EC exposed to three 226 Ra concentrations (2.11, 23 and 117 Bq/L) for 12 h, metallothionein, HSP90AA, thioredoxin and caspase 8 were significantly up-regulated in cells exposed to 117 Bq/L, whereas thioredoxin was also significantly up-regulated in EC exposed to 23 Bq/L. When EC were exposed to the same 226 Ra concentrations for 48 h, only heme oxygenase was significantly up-regulated in the 23 Bq/L exposure group. The results suggest that environmentally relevant activities of 226 Ra may induce oxidative stress and apoptosis in fish ECs. Exposure of Atlantic cod EC to Cd, selected as a model toxicant, supported the ability of EC around blastula stage to respond to toxicants by altered transcription. Due to dilution, environmentally relevant concentrations of radionuclides present in produced water would be expected to pose a minor threat to early life stages of fish. - Highlights: ► 226 Ra affects the transcription of genes in Atlantic cod embryonic cells. ► 226 Ra may induce oxidative stress and apoptosis in fish embryonic cells. ► 226 Ra not expected to pose a major threat to early life stages of marine fish.

  20. Skeletal muscle growth dynamics and the influence of first-feeding diet in Atlantic cod larvae (Gadus morhua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu A. Vo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics between hypertrophy (increase in cell size and hyperplasia (increase in cell numbers of white and red muscle in relation to body size [standard length (SL], and the influence of the first-feeding diets on muscle growth were investigated in Atlantic cod larvae (Gadus morhua. Cod larvae were fed copepod nauplii or rotifers of different nutritional qualities from 4 to 29 days post hatching (dph, Artemia nauplii from 20 to 40 dph and a formulated diet from 36 to 60 dph. The short period of feeding with cultivated copepod nauplii had a positive effect on both muscle hyperplasia and hypertrophy after the copepod/rotifer phase (19 dph, and a positive long term effect on muscle hypertrophy (60 dph. The different nutritional qualities of rotifers did not significantly affect muscle growth. We suggest here a model of the dynamics between hyperplasia and hypertrophy of red and white muscle fibre cells in relation to cod SL (4 to 30 mm, where the different red and white muscle growth phases clearly coincided with different metamorphosis stages in cod larvae. These shifts could be included as biomarkers for the different stages of development during metamorphosis. The main dietary muscle effect was that hypertrophic growth of red muscle fibres was stronger in cod larvae that were fed copepods than in larvae that were fed rotifers, both in relation to larval age and size. Red muscle fibres are directly involved in larval locomotory performance, but may also play an important role in the larval myogenesis. This can have a long term effect on growth potential and fish performance.

  1. Rearing Water Treatment Induces Microbial Selection Influencing the Microbiota and Pathogen Associated Transcripts of Cod (Gadus morhua Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnhild I. Vestrum

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that K-selection and microbial stability in the rearing water increases survival and growth of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua larvae, and that recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS are compatible with this. Here, we have assessed how water treatment influenced the larval microbiota and host responses at the gene expression level. Cod larvae were reared with two different rearing water systems: a RAS and a flow-through system (FTS. The water microbiota was examined using a 16S rDNA PCR/DGGE strategy. RNA extracted from larvae at 8, 13, and 17 days post hatching was used for microbiota and microarray gene expression analysis. Bacterial cDNA was synthesized and used for 16S rRNA amplicon 454 pyrosequencing of larval microbiota. Both water and larval microbiota differed significantly between the systems, and the larval microbiota appeared to become more dissimilar between systems with time. In total 4 phyla were identified for all larvae: Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. The most profound difference in larval microbiota was a high abundance of Arcobacter (Epsilonproteobacteria in FTS larvae (34 ± 9% of total reads. Arcobacter includes several species that are known pathogens for humans and animals. Cod larval transcriptome responses were investigated using an oligonucleotide gene expression microarray covering approximately 24,000 genes. Interestingly, FTS larvae transcriptional profiles revealed an overrepresentation of upregulated transcripts associated with responses to pathogens and infections, such as c1ql3-like, pglyrp-2-like and zg16, compared to RAS larvae. In conclusion, distinct water treatment systems induced differences in the larval microbiota. FTS larvae showed up-regulation of transcripts associated with responses to microbial stress. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that RAS promotes K-selection and microbial stability by maintaining a microbial load close to the

  2. Genomic signatures of local directional selection in a high gene flow marine organism; the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittelholzer Christian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marine fishes have been shown to display low levels of genetic structuring and associated high levels of gene flow, suggesting shallow evolutionary trajectories and, possibly, limited or lacking adaptive divergence among local populations. We investigated variation in 98 gene-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for evidence of selection in local populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L. across the species distribution. Results Our global genome scan analysis identified eight outlier gene loci with very high statistical support, likely to be subject to directional selection in local demes, or closely linked to loci under selection. Likewise, on a regional south/north transect of central and eastern Atlantic populations, seven loci displayed strongly elevated levels of genetic differentiation. Selection patterns among populations appeared to be relatively widespread and complex, i.e. outlier loci were generally not only associated with one of a few divergent local populations. Even on a limited geographical scale between the proximate North Sea and Baltic Sea populations four loci displayed evidence of adaptive evolution. Temporal genome scan analysis applied to DNA from archived otoliths from a Faeroese population demonstrated stability of the intra-population variation over 24 years. An exploratory landscape genetic analysis was used to elucidate potential effects of the most likely environmental factors responsible for the signatures of local adaptation. We found that genetic variation at several of the outlier loci was better correlated with temperature and/or salinity conditions at spawning grounds at spawning time than with geographic distance per se. Conclusion These findings illustrate that adaptive population divergence may indeed be prevalent despite seemingly high levels of gene flow, as found in most marine fishes. Thus, results have important implications for our understanding of the interplay of

  3. The use of otolith microstructure to estimate age in adult Atlantic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Fey, D.P.

    2010-01-01

    a distinct pattern with increasing distance from the primary primordium. A series of zones with clearly distinguishable increments, first with increasing then with decreasing widths in a dome-shaped pattern, were separated by zones where no regular increment structure was visible. Increment width seemed...... to be tightly coupled to the annual cycle in environmental temperature at a depth of 30–60 m, where G. morhua predominantly reside. Between 135 and 200 increments occurred within the different zones, with a non-significant trend towards lower increment numbers and widths with distance from the primary...... primordium of the otolith. Increment formation apparently ceased at temperatures C, but growth during the cold months corresponded closely with estimated growth rates. The increment patterns seemed to reflect annual cycles in environmental temperature, and the count of the increment cycles may thus...

  4. A moderate increase in ambient temperature modulates the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua spleen transcriptome response to intraperitoneal viral mimic injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hori Tiago S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua reared in sea-cages can experience large variations in temperature, and these have been shown to affect their immune function. We used the new 20K Atlantic cod microarray to investigate how a water temperature change which, simulates that seen in Newfoundland during the spring-summer (i.e. from 10°C to 16°C, 1°C increase every 5 days impacted the cod spleen transcriptome response to the intraperitoneal injection of a viral mimic (polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid, pIC. Results The temperature regime alone did not cause any significant increases in plasma cortisol levels and only minor changes in spleen gene transcription. However, it had a considerable impact on the fish spleen transcriptome response to pIC [290 and 339 significantly differentially expressed genes between 16°C and 10°C at 6 and 24 hours post-injection (HPI, respectively]. Seventeen microarray-identified transcripts were selected for QPCR validation based on immune-relevant functional annotations. Fifteen of these transcripts (i.e. 88%, including DHX58, STAT1, IRF7, ISG15, RSAD2 and IκBα, were shown by QPCR to be significantly induced by pIC. Conclusions The temperature increase appeared to accelerate the spleen immune transcriptome response to pIC. We found 41 and 999 genes differentially expressed between fish injected with PBS vs. pIC at 10°C and sampled at 6HPI and 24HPI, respectively. In contrast, there were 656 and 246 genes differentially expressed between fish injected with PBS vs. pIC at 16°C and sampled at 6HPI and 24HPI, respectively. Our results indicate that the modulation of mRNA expression of genes belonging to the NF-κB and type I interferon signal transduction pathways may play a role in controlling temperature-induced changes in the spleen’s transcript expression response to pIC. Moreover, interferon effector genes such as ISG15 and RSAD2 were differentially expressed between fish injected with

  5. Changes in regional brain monoaminergic activity and temporary down-regulation in stress response from dietary supplementation with l-tryptophan in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basic, D.; Schjolden, J.; Krogdahl, A.

    2013-01-01

    . Previous studies in teleosts demonstrate that 7 d of dietary administration with l-tryptophan (Trp), the direct precursor of 5-HT, suppresses the endocrine stress response. The present study investigated how long the suppressive effects of a Trp-enriched feed regimen, at doses corresponding to two, three......The brain monoamines serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and dopamine (DA) both play an integrative role in behavioural and neuroendocrine responses to challenges, and comparative models suggest common mechanisms for dietary modulation of transmission by these signal substances in vertebrates...... or four times the Trp levels in commercial feed, last in juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) when the fish are reintroduced to a diet with standard amino acid composition. We also wanted to determine whether Trp supplementation induced changes in brain monoaminergic neurochemistry in those forebrain...

  6. Behavioural changes of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) after marine boulder reef restoration: Implications for coastal habitat management and Natura 2000 areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne Gatt; Svendsen, Jon Christian; Stenberg, Claus

    2017-01-01

    While marine reefs are degraded globally, the responses of fish to marine reef restoration remain uncertain, particularly in temperate waters. This study measured the effect of marine boulder reef restoration on the behaviour of Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L., in a Natura 2000 area using acoustic...... telemetry. Cod were tagged and released in the study area before and after the restoration and tracked continuously for six months. A larger fraction of the released fish remained in the study area after restoration (94%) than before (53%). Moreover, throughout the study period, cod spent significantly more...... hours per day and prolonged their residence time in the study area after the restoration. The study indicates that marine reefs subjected to boulder extraction can be restored and function as favourable cod habitats. Temperate marine boulder reef restoration represents a valuable management tool...

  7. Infection levels and species diversity of ascaridoid nematodes in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, are correlated with geographic area and fish size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gay, M.; Bao, M.; MacKenzie, K.

    2018-01-01

    2012-2014.Prevalences for Anisakis in whole fish and in fillets in the different fishing areas varied from 16 to 100% and from 12 to 90% respectively. Abundance was also greatly influenced by the sampling area. Generalized additive model results indicate higher numbers of Anisakis in the North Sea......, C. osculatum and H. aduncum. In addition to high prevalence and abundance values, the cod sampled in this study presented a diversity of ascaridoid nematodes with a majority of fish displaying a co-infection. Out of 295 whole infected fish, 269 were co-infected by at least 2 genera.......Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is among the most important commercial fish species on the world market. Its infection by ascaridoid nematodes has long been known, Pseudoterranova even being named cod worm. In the present study, 755 individuals were sampled in the Barents, Baltic and North Seas during...

  8. Influences of potential predictor variables on gastric evacuation in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. feeding on fish prey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Gerner

    2012-01-01

    of photoperiod and pre-experimental treatment of prey were also tested. Freshly killed A. tobianus were evacuated from the stomach of G. morhua at a rate similar to the value estimated from conspecifics kept deep-frozen and subsequently thawed prior to the evacuation experiment. The evacuation rate in G. morhua...... exposed to continuous light did not differ from the rate obtained from fish maintained under a 12L:12D photoperiod. The evacuation rates estimated from the latter fish in the dark and light periods, respectively, were likewise similar. These results indicate that the resistance of prey to the digestive...

  9. An evaluation of the duration of efficacy of emamectin benzoate in the control of Caligus curtus Müller infestations in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamre, L A; Lunestad, B T; Hannisdal, R; Samuelsen, O B

    2011-06-01

    The duration of efficacy of emamectin benzoate in the control of Caligus curtus infestations in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L., was studied following an administration of 50 μg kg⁻¹ for seven consecutive days. No lice were found on medicated fish when challenged 1 week (challenge 1) or 5 weeks (challenge 2) following termination of medication, whereas the mean abundance of lice among the unmedicated fish was 17.9 and 19.3 lice per fish in challenge 1 and 2, respectively. Muscle concentrations of 19.5 ± 8.2 ng g⁻¹ and 3.4 ± 0.9 ng g⁻¹, respectively, and skin concentrations of 23.1 ± 10.8 and 4.2 ± 1.0 ng g⁻¹, respectively, were found 27 and 55 days following the termination of medication. Tissue concentrations and the duration of efficacy indicate a dosing regime for emamectin in cod, similar to the regime used for Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. A single-dose pharmacokinetic study of emamectin benzoate in cod, Gadus morhua L., held in sea water at 9 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsen, O B

    2010-02-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of the antiparasitic agent emamectin benzoate was studied in plasma after intravenous (i.v.) injection and in plasma, muscle and skin following oral (p.o.) administration to cod, Gadus morhua, held in sea water at 9 degrees C and weighing 100-200 g. Following i.v. injection, the plasma drug concentration-time profile showed two distinct phases. The plasma distribution half-life (t(1/2)alpha) was estimated as 2.5 h, the elimination half-life (t(1/2)beta) as 216 h, the total body clearance (Cl(T)) as 0.0059 L kg(-1) h(-1) and mean residence time (MRT) as 385 h. The volume of distribution at steady state, V(d(ss)), was calculated to be 1.839 L kg(-1). Following p.o. administration the peak plasma concentration (C(max)) was 15 ng mL(-1), the time to peak plasma concentration (T(max)) was 89 h and t(1/2)beta was 180 h. The highest concentration in muscle (21 ng g(-1)) was measured after 7 days and t(1/2)beta was calculated to be 247 h. For skin, a peak concentration of 28 ng g(-1) at 3 days was observed and a t(1/2)beta of 235 h was determined. The bioavailability following p.o. administration was calculated to be 38%.

  11. Uptake and elimination of aromatic hydrocarbons a chlorinated biphenyl in eggs and larvae of cod Gadus morhua

    OpenAIRE

    Solbakken, Jan Erik; Tilseth, Snorre; Palmork, Karsten H.

    1984-01-01

    Artificially fertilized eggs and newly hatched larvae of cod Gadus rnorhua L. were exposed to 14C labelled naphthalene, phenanthrene, benzo(a)pyrene and 2. 4. 5. 2', 4', 5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB) for 24 h and thereafter transferred to clean seawater. Radioactivity in eggs and larvae was measured at different times during exposure and after transfer to clean seawater. Maximum accumulation was found with phenanthrene, whereas naphthalene accumulated only slightly in both eggs a...

  12. Temporal variations in the fecundity of Arcto-Norwegian cod ( Gadus morhua) in response to natural changes in food and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjesbu, O. S.; Witthames, P. R.; Solemdal, P.; Greer Walker, M.

    1998-12-01

    Sexually mature Arcto-Norwegian female cod, Gadus morhua, were sampled off northern Norway either during spawning migration (Vesterålen) or at spawning sites (Lofoten) from 1986 to 1996. This period comprised a dramatic, nearly cyclical change in the Barents Sea ecosystem. The stock of the main food item, viz. the Barents Sea capelin Mallotus villosus villosus, changed from a low (1986), to a high (1991) and again to a low (1994) level of abundance while the climate changed from a cold (≤1989) to a warm regime. The relative annual potential fecundity (i.e. number of vitellogenic oocytes per g prespawning fish) increased by approximately 40% from 1987 to 1991. However, information from a back-calculation technique calibrated in the laboratory using spawning fish indicated that this change might have been as high as 80 to 90%. Ovaries were analysed by the gravimetric, the automated particle counting and the stereometric method (modified to use with ovaries too large to section whole). All three methods gave similar fecundity estimates. The latter method was applied to quantify atresia of developing oocytes in the good-condition year of 1991. Atresia was rare, occurring in only 30% of the ovaries and where it was present in only 1 to 4% of the vitellogenic oocytes. Spawning females sampled from 1991 to 1996 gradually produced fewer eggs and demonstrated clear interannual variations in vitellogenic oocyte mean size and distribution thought to reflect a delicate reproductive tactic to minimise negative nutritional effects on egg size and egg quality. Estimates of annual potential fecundity for the duration of the study were significantly positively correlated with environmental temperature and the availability of capelin during vitellogenesis.

  13. Optimized conditions for primary culture of pituitary cells from the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The importance of osmolality, pCO₂, and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodne, Kjetil; von Krogh, Kristine; Weltzien, Finn-Arne; Sand, Olav; Haug, Trude M

    2012-09-01

    Protocols for primary cultures of teleost cells are commonly only moderately adjusted from similar protocols for mammalian cells, the main adjustment often being of temperature. Because aquatic habitats are in general colder than mammalian body temperatures and teleosts have gills in direct contact with water, pH and buffer capacity of blood and extracellular fluid are different in fish and mammals. Plasma osmolality is generally higher in marine teleosts than in mammals. Using Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) as a model, we have optimized these physiological parameters to maintain primary pituitary cells in culture for an extended period without loosing key properties. L-15 medium with adjusted osmolality, adapted to low pCO(2) (3.8mm Hg) and temperature (12°C), and with pH 7.85, maintained the cells in a physiologically sounder state than traditional culture medium, significantly improving cell viability compared to the initial protocol. In the optimized culture medium, resting membrane potential and response to releasing hormone were stable for at least two weeks, and the proportion of cells firing action potentials during spawning season was about seven times higher than in the original culture medium. The cells were moderately more viable when the modified medium was supplemented with newborn calf serum or artificial serum substitute. Compared to serum-free L-15 medium, expression of key genes (lhb, fshb, and gnrhr2a) was better maintained in medium containing SSR, whereas NCS tended to decrease the expression level. Although serum-free medium is adequate for many applications, serum supplement may be preferable for experiments dependent on membrane integrity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantitative proteomics analysis reveals perturbation of lipid metabolic pathways in the liver of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) treated with PCB 153.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadetie, Fekadu; Oveland, Eystein; Døskeland, Anne; Berven, Frode; Goksøyr, Anders; Karlsen, Odd André

    2017-04-01

    PCB 153 is one of the most abundant PCB congeners detected in biological samples. It is a persistent compound that is still present in the environment despite the ban on production and use of PCBs in the late 1970s. It has strong tendencies to bioaccumulate and biomagnify in biota, and studies have suggested that it is an endocrine and metabolic disruptor. In order to study mechanisms of toxicity, we exposed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) to various doses of PCB 153 (0, 0.5, 2 and 8mg/kg body weight) for two weeks and examined the effects on expression of liver proteins using label-free quantitative proteomics. Label-free liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the liver proteome resulted in the quantification of 1272 proteins, of which 78 proteins were differentially regulated in the PCB 153-treated dose groups compared to the control group. Functional enrichment analysis showed that pathways significantly affected are related to lipid metabolism, cytoskeletal remodeling, cell cycle and cell adhesion. Importantly, the main effects appear to be on lipid metabolism, with up-regulation of enzymes in the de novo fatty acid synthesis pathway, consistent with previous transcriptomics results. Increased plasma triglyceride levels were also observed in the PCB 153 treated fish, in agreement with the induction of the lipogenic genes and proteins. The results suggest that PCB 153 perturbs lipid metabolism in the Atlantic cod liver. Elevated levels of lipogenic enzymes and plasma triglycerides further suggest increased synthesis of fatty acids and triglycerides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of fish length and nutritional condition on the fecundity of distressed Atlantic cod Gadus morhua from the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mion, M.; Thorsen, A.; Vitale, F.

    2018-01-01

    for future fecundity studies on this stock. The results showed that FP was mainly positively related to fish length, but K and IH also contributed significantly to the variation in FP . The model predicted that fish with K = 1·2 have a FP 51% higher than fish of the same LT with K = 0·8. The prevalence...... of fecundity regulation by atresia was 5·8%, but it was found only in fish in the pre-spawning maturity stage and with low K. Temporal changes in biological features such as the length composition and individual body condition of eastern Baltic G. morhua, should be accounted for when estimating stock...

  16. Seasonal variation in biomarkers in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), Icelandic scallop (Chlamys islandica) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)—Implications for environmental monitoring in the Barents Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahrgang, J.; Brooks, S.J.; Evenset, A.; Camus, L.; Jonsson, M.; Smith, T.J.; Lukina, J.; Frantzen, M.; Giarratano, E.; Renaud, P.E.

    2013-01-01

    In the Barents Sea, the limited data on biological relevant indicators and their responses to various anthropogenic stressors have hindered the development of a consistent scientific basis for selecting indicator species and developing practical procedures for environmental monitoring. Accordingly, the main aim of the present study was to develop a common set of baseline values for contaminants and biomarkers in three species, and to identify their strengths and limitations in monitoring of the Barents Sea. Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), Icelandic scallop (Chlamys islandica) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were sampled from a north Norwegian fjord in March, June, September and December 2010. Digestive glands from the bivalve species and liver from Atlantic cod were analysed for biomarkers of oxidative stress (catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GPX], glutathione-S-transferase activities [GST], lipid peroxidation as thiobarbituric reactive substances [TBARS] and total oxyradical scavenging capacity [TOSC]), biotransformation (ethoxyresorufine-O-deethylase activity [EROD]) and general stress (lysosomal membrane stability [LMS]). Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals in the bivalves and PAH metabolites in fish bile were quantified. Finally, energy reserves (total lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) and electron transport system (ETS) activity in the digestive gland of the bivalves and liver of Atlantic cod provided background information for reproductive cycle and general physiological status of the organisms. Blue mussel and Icelandic scallop showed very similar trends in biological cycle, biomarker expression and seasonality. Biomarker baselines in Atlantic cod showed weaker seasonal variability. However, important biological events may have been undetected due to the large time intervals between sampling occasions. Physiological biomarkers such as energy reserves and ETS activity were recommended as complementary parameters to the

  17. Seasonal variation in biomarkers in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), Icelandic scallop (Chlamys islandica) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)-Implications for environmental monitoring in the Barents Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahrgang, J., E-mail: jasmine.m.nahrgang@uit.no [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); Brooks, S.J. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), NO-0349 Oslo (Norway); Evenset, A. [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); Camus, L. [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); University Centre In Svalbard (UNIS), NO-9171 Longyearbyen (Norway); Jonsson, M.; Smith, T.J. [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); Lukina, J. [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); University of Tromso, Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics, Department of Arctic and Marine Biosciences, NO-9037 Tromso (Norway); Frantzen, M. [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); Giarratano, E. [Centro Nacional Patagonico (CENPAT-CONICET), AR-9120 Puerto Madryn (Argentina); Renaud, P.E. [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); University Centre In Svalbard (UNIS), NO-9171 Longyearbyen (Norway)

    2013-02-15

    In the Barents Sea, the limited data on biological relevant indicators and their responses to various anthropogenic stressors have hindered the development of a consistent scientific basis for selecting indicator species and developing practical procedures for environmental monitoring. Accordingly, the main aim of the present study was to develop a common set of baseline values for contaminants and biomarkers in three species, and to identify their strengths and limitations in monitoring of the Barents Sea. Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), Icelandic scallop (Chlamys islandica) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were sampled from a north Norwegian fjord in March, June, September and December 2010. Digestive glands from the bivalve species and liver from Atlantic cod were analysed for biomarkers of oxidative stress (catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GPX], glutathione-S-transferase activities [GST], lipid peroxidation as thiobarbituric reactive substances [TBARS] and total oxyradical scavenging capacity [TOSC]), biotransformation (ethoxyresorufine-O-deethylase activity [EROD]) and general stress (lysosomal membrane stability [LMS]). Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals in the bivalves and PAH metabolites in fish bile were quantified. Finally, energy reserves (total lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) and electron transport system (ETS) activity in the digestive gland of the bivalves and liver of Atlantic cod provided background information for reproductive cycle and general physiological status of the organisms. Blue mussel and Icelandic scallop showed very similar trends in biological cycle, biomarker expression and seasonality. Biomarker baselines in Atlantic cod showed weaker seasonal variability. However, important biological events may have been undetected due to the large time intervals between sampling occasions. Physiological biomarkers such as energy reserves and ETS activity were recommended as complementary parameters to the

  18. Trofiske skift og fysiske faktorer i væksten hos Færøske torsk (Gadus morhua) undersøgt ved brug af stabile isotoper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Nielsen, Jens; Christensen, Jens Tang; Grønkjær, P.

    Projektets formål er at forstå variationen i vækst hos torsk (Gadus Morhua) ved brug af otolither (øresten), og sammenhængen med fysiske faktorer, såsom havstrømme, hav temperatur, osv på den Færøske shelf. Dette undersøges ved hjælp af, 1) en otolith vækst kronologi som dækker mere end 60 år (1948...... en mindre amplitude i variationen af ringbredde end direkte vækst målinger. Over hele vækstkronologien ses en negativ udvikling i væksten hos torsk, dog afbrudt af kortere perioder med positiv vækst. De stabile isotop prøver udtages fra hele otolitter fra 5 år gamle torsk. Fra protein delen af...... omgivelser torsken har oplevet, især den omgivende temperatur. Karbon signalet fra den uorganiske del af otolitten vil blive sammenlignet med værdierne i protein delen. De stabile isotop-værdier, samt vækst data vil blive analyseret for at se sammenhængen mellem klimaet og væksten hos torsk. Både lokalt, med...

  19. Robustness of egg production methods as a fishery independent alternative to assess the Eastern Baltic cod stock (Gadus morhua callarias L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Gerd; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Voss, Rüdiger

    2012-01-01

    potential (SRP). Eastern Baltic cod (Gad us morhua callarias L) has severely declined throughout the 2nd half of the 1980s and 1st half of the 1990s due to climate-driven adverse hydrographic conditions and high fishing intensity. Since 2007 the stock is managed under a long-term management plan and showed...... signs of recovery in most recent years. Since 1986. egg surveys have been carried! out regularly in the Bornholm Basin, the most important spawning area of Eastern Baltic cod since mid-1980s. In the present paper the robustness of EPM towards simplification of spawning parameters and toward; reduction...... of the number of egg surveys is tested applying three different methods requiring different numbers of egg surveys. We applied the annual egg production method (AEPM) requiring full egg survey coverage of the spawning season to estimate cod abundances in the Bornholm Basin. In addition, the daily fecundity...

  20. Computer vision-based evaluation of pre- and postrigor changes in size and shape of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets during rigor mortis and ice storage: effects of perimortem handling stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misimi, E; Erikson, U; Digre, H; Skavhaug, A; Mathiassen, J R

    2008-03-01

    The present study describes the possibilities for using computer vision-based methods for the detection and monitoring of transient 2D and 3D changes in the geometry of a given product. The rigor contractions of unstressed and stressed fillets of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were used as a model system. Gradual changes in fillet shape and size (area, length, width, and roundness) were recorded for 7 and 3 d, respectively. Also, changes in fillet area and height (cross-section profiles) were tracked using a laser beam and a 3D digital camera. Another goal was to compare rigor developments of the 2 species of farmed fish, and whether perimortem stress affected the appearance of the fillets. Some significant changes in fillet size and shape were found (length, width, area, roundness, height) between unstressed and stressed fish during the course of rigor mortis as well as after ice storage (postrigor). However, the observed irreversible stress-related changes were small and would hardly mean anything for postrigor fish processors or consumers. The cod were less stressed (as defined by muscle biochemistry) than the salmon after the 2 species had been subjected to similar stress bouts. Consequently, the difference between the rigor courses of unstressed and stressed fish was more extreme in the case of salmon. However, the maximal whole fish rigor strength was judged to be about the same for both species. Moreover, the reductions in fillet area and length, as well as the increases in width, were basically of similar magnitude for both species. In fact, the increases in fillet roundness and cross-section height were larger for the cod. We conclude that the computer vision method can be used effectively for automated monitoring of changes in 2D and 3D shape and size of fish fillets during rigor mortis and ice storage. In addition, it can be used for grading of fillets according to uniformity in size and shape, as well as measurement of

  1. Climate induced temperature effects on growth performance, fecundity and recruitment in marine fish: developing a hypothesis for cause and effect relationships in Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) and common eelpout ( Zoarces viviparus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pörtner, H. O.; Berdal, B.; Blust, R.; Brix, O.; Colosimo, A.; De Wachter, B.; Giuliani, A.; Johansen, T.; Fischer, T.; Knust, R.; Lannig, G.; Naevdal, G.; Nedenes, A.; Nyhammer, G.; Sartoris, F. J.; Serendero, I.; Sirabella, P.; Thorkildsen, S.; Zakhartsev, M.

    2001-12-01

    Effects of global warming on animal distribution and performance become visible in many marine ecosystems. The present study was designed to develop a concept for a cause and effect understanding with respect to temperature changes and to explain ecological findings based on physiological processes. The concept is based on a wide comparison of invertebrate and fish species with a special focus on recent data obtained in two model species of fish. These fish species are both characterized by northern and southern distribution limits in the North Atlantic: eelpout ( Zoarces viviparus), as a typical non-migrating inhabitant of the coastal zone and the cod ( Gadus morhua), as a typical inhabitant of the continental shelf with a high importance for fisheries. Mathematical modelling demonstrates a clear significant correlation between climate induced temperature fluctuations and the recruitment of cod stocks. Growth performance in cod is optimal at temperatures close to 10°C, regardless of the population investigated in a latitudinal cline. However, temperature specific growth rates decrease at higher latitudes. Also, fecundity is less in White Sea than in North and Baltic Sea cod or eelpout populations. These findings suggest that a cold-induced shift in energy budget occurs which is unfavorable for growth performance and fecundity. Thermal tolerance limits shift depending on latitude and are characterized by oxygen limitation at both low or high temperatures. Oxygen supply to tissues is optimized at low temperature by a shift in hemoglobin isoforms and oxygen binding properties to lower affinities and higher unloading potential. Protective stimulation of heat shock protein synthesis was not observed. According to a recent model of thermal tolerance the downward shift of tolerance limits during cold adaptation is associated with rising mitochondrial densities and, thus, aerobic capacity and performance in the cold, especially in eurythermal species. At the same time

  2. The hypoxia avoidance behaviour of juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) depends on the provision and pressure level of an O2 refuge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Neill A.; Skjaeraasen, Jon E.; Nilsen, Trygve

    2011-01-01

    to a critically low level, i.e. 4.3 kPa-a point where cod can no longer regulate O(2) consumption. Under these conditions, cod did not avoid any level of hypoxia and fish swimming speed also remained unchanged. In contrast, strong avoidance reactions were exhibited in a second experiment when fish were again...... morhua L.) were exposed to a range of O(2) choices in a 2-way choice chamber at 11.4 degrees C over two different experiments. Cod in the first experiment were allowed access to a fixed O(2) refuge (fully air-saturated seawater) whilst oxygen pressure (PO(2)) on the other side was reduced in steps...... exposed to 4.3 kPa but the safety, i.e. PO(2), of the refuge was reduced. Fish not only spent less time at 4.3 kPa as a result of fewer sampling visits but they also swam at considerably slower speeds. The presence of an avoidance response was thus strongly related to refuge PO(2) and it is unlikely...

  3. Exophiala angulospora causes systemic inflammation in atlantic cod Gadus morhua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjessing, Mona Cecilie; Davey, Marie; Kvellestad, Agnar; Vrålstad, Trude

    2011-10-06

    Species of Exophiala are opportunistic fungal pathogens that may infect a broad range of warm- and cold-blooded animals, including salmonids and Atlantic cod. In the present study, we observed abnormal swimming behaviour and skin pigmentation and increased mortality in cod kept in an indoor tank. Necropsy revealed foci of different sizes with a greyish to brownish colour in internal organs of diseased fish. The foci consisted of ramifying darkly pigmented fungal hyphae surrounded by distinct layers of inflammatory cells, including macrophage-like cells. In the inner layer with many hyphae, the macrophage-like cells were dead. We observed no apparent restriction of fungal growth by the inflammatory response. A darkly pigmented fungus was repeatedly isolated in pure culture from foci of diseased fish and identified as Exophiala angulospora using morphological and molecular characters. This species has not been previously reported to cause disease in cod, but has been reported as an opportunistic pathogen of both marine and freshwater fish. Based on the morphology and sequence analysis presented here, we conclude that E. angulospora caused the observed chronic multifocal inflammation in internal organs of cod, leading to severe disease and mortality.

  4. Structure of chymotrypsin variant B from Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Asgeirsson, B; Thórólfsson, M

    1996-01-01

    The amino-acid sequence of chymotrypsin variant B isolated from the pyloric caeca of Atlantic cod has been elucidated. The characterization of the primary structure is based on N-terminal Edman degradation and mass spectrometry of the native protein and enzymatically derived peptides. Chymotrypsi...... autolysis sites, cod variant B only contains a single autolysis site. The three-dimensional structures of the A- and B-variants of cod has been modelled on the known crystal structure of bovine alpha-chymotrypsin showing almost superimposable structures....

  5. Effect of produced water on cod (Gadus morhua) immune responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamoutene, D.; Mabrouk, G.; Samuelson, S.; Mansour, A.; Lee, K. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Maritimes Region, Ocean Sciences Division; Volkoff, H.; Parrish, C. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Mathieu, A. [Oceans Ltd., St. John' s, NL (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Studies have shown that produced water (PW) discharged from North Sea offshore platforms affects the biota at greater distances from operational platforms than originally presumed. According to PW dispersion simulations, dilution by at least 240 times occurs within 50-100 m, and up to 9000 times by 20 km from the discharge. In this study, the effect of PW on cod immunity was investigated by exposing fish to 0, 100 ppm (x 10,000 dilution) or 200 ppm (x 500) of PW for 76 days. Immune responses were evaluated at the end of the exposure. Fish from the 3 groups were injected with Aeromonas salmonicida lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Blood cell observation and flow cytometry were used to investigate the serum cortisol levels and gill histology along with ratios and respiratory burst (RB) responses of both circulating and head-kidney white blood cells (WBCs). The study revealed that baseline immunity and stress response were not affected by PW, other than an irritant-induced change in gill cells found in treated cod. In all groups, LPS injection resulted in a pronounced decrease in RB of head-kidney cells and an increase in serum cortisol and protein levels. However, the group exposed to 200 ppm of PW exhibited the most significant changes. LPS injection was also shown to influence WBC ratios, but further studies are needed to determine if this impact is stronger in fish exposed to PW. This study suggested an effect of PW on cod immunity after immune challenge with LPS.

  6. Selective haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) trawling: Avoiding cod (Gadus morhua) bycatch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Holst, René; Madsen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The critical condition of the North Sea cod stocks has resulted in restrictions on not only cod, but also haddock and other species that are caught together with cod. Thus full exploitation of the haddock stock is unachievable unless cod can be excluded from the haddock catch. We designed a selec...... dependent: smaller cod escaped the trawl in greater numbers than did larger individuals. Whiting, saithe. lemon sole, and plaice were included in the analysis. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  7. Ingestion of bacteria by cod (Gadus morhua L.) larvae. In: The propagation of cod Gadus morhua L.: an international symposium, Arendal, 14 - 17 June 1983

    OpenAIRE

    Olafsen, Jan A.

    1984-01-01

    The uptake of Rhodamine-labelled bacteria by cod larvae was demonstrated using a fluorescent microscopy technique, which allowed a quick estimate of bacterial uptake and gut clearance. Live or heat-killed bacteria, isolated from cod-eggs, were rapidly ingested by larvae at yolk-sac and older stages. A substantial uptake could be seen after 15 min exposure, and eventually the bacteria became densely packed in the digestive tract. Some morphological details in the develo...

  8. Factors determining variations in otolith microincrement width of demersal juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Mosegaard, Henrik; Hinrichsen, H.H.

    2003-01-01

    by comparison with laboratory-reared individuals, and to investigate the factors determining variation in these increments. The different increment-width patterns were identified with a method based on the widths of consecutive increments. Otolith increment widths of juvenile cod were found to be highly...

  9. Conserving marine biodiversity: insights from life-history trait candidate genes in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Therkildsen, Nina Overgaard; Meldrup, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    Recent technological developments have facilitated an increased focus on identifying genomic regions underlying adaptive trait variation in natural populations, and it has been advocated that this information should be important for designating population units for conservation. In marine fishes...... are under selection in natural populations of Atlantic cod. Furthermore, we find that patterns of variation in outlier markers do not align with those observed at selectively neutral markers, and that outlier markers identify conservation units on finer geographical scales than those revealed when analysing...... only neutral markers. Accordingly, results also suggest that information about adaptive genetic variation will be useful for targeted conservation and management in this and other marine species...

  10. Prediction of vertical distribution and ambient development temperature of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua L., eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Jarre, Astrid

    1997-01-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) model was established to predict the vertical distribution of Baltic cod eggs. Data from vertical distribution sampling in the Bornholm Basin over the period 1986-1995 were used to train and test the network, while data sets from sampling in 1996 were used...... for validation. The model explained 82% of the variance between observed and predicted relative frequencies of occurrence of the eggs in relation to salinity, temperature and oxygen concentration; The ANN fitted all observations satisfactorily except for one sampling date, where an exceptional hydrographic...... situation was observed. Mean ambient temperatures, calculated from the predicted vertical distributions of the eggs and used for the computation of egg developmental times, were overestimated by 0.05 degrees C on average. This corresponds to an error in prediction of egg developmental time of less than 1%...

  11. Prediction of vertical distribution and ambient development temperature of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua L., eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Jarre, Astrid

    1997-01-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) model was established to predict the vertical distribution of Baltic cod eggs. Data from vertical distribution sampling in the Bornholm Basin over the period 1986-1995 were used to train and test the network, while data sets from sampling in 1996 were used...... for validation. The model explained 82% of the variance between observed and predicted relative frequencies of occurrence of the eggs in relation to salinity, temperature and oxygen concentration; The ANN fitted all observations satisfactorily except for one sampling date, where an exceptional hydrographic...

  12. Historic changes in length distributions of three Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks: Evidence of growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedäng, Henrik; Hornborg, Sara

    2017-08-01

    Understanding how combinations of fishing effort and selectivity affect productivity is central to fisheries research. We investigate the roles of fishing regulation in comparison with ecosystem status for Baltic Sea cod stock productivity, growth performance, and population stability. This case study is interesting because three cod populations with different exploitation patterns and stock status are located in three adjacent but partially, ecologically different areas. In assessing stock status, growth, and productivity, we use survey information and rather basic stock parameters without relying on age readings. Because there is an urgent interest of better understanding of the current development of the Eastern Baltic cod stock, we argue that our approach represents partly a novel way of interpreting monitoring information together with catch data in a simplified yet more informative way. Our study reports how the Eastern and Western Baltic cod have gone toward more truncated size structures between 1991 and 2016, in particular for the Eastern Baltic cod, whereas the Öresund cod show no trend. We suggest that selective fishing may disrupt fish population dynamic stability and that lower natural productivity might amplify the effects of selective fishing. In support of earlier findings on a density-dependent growth of Eastern Baltic cod, management is advised to acknowledge that sustainable exploitation levels for Eastern Baltic cod are much more limited than perceived in regular assessments. Of more general importance, our results emphasize the need to embrace a more realistic view on what ecosystems can produce regarding tractable fish biomass to facilitate a more ecosystem-based fisheries management.

  13. Degradation of ATP and glycogen in cod ( Gadus morhua ) muscle during freezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappeln, Gertrud; Jessen, Flemming

    2001-01-01

    Changes in ATP, IMP, lactate and glycogen contents in the muscle of cod were followed during freezing at temperatures of -20C and -45C. ATP degradation was accompanied by a corresponding increase in IMP content. Simultaneous measurement of temperature showed that at both freezing rates......, the greatest decrease in ATP content was observed when the temperature reached -0.8C. Glycolysis occurred during freezing of cod as indicated by an increase in lactate content. The changes found in all measured metabolites were more pronounced when freezing was performed at a slow rate compared to a fast rate...

  14. Productivity responses of a widespread marine piscivore, Gadus morhua, to oceanic thermal extremes and trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantzouni, Irene; MacKenzie, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Climate change will have major consequences for population dynamics and life histories of marine biota as it progresses in the twenty-first century. These impacts will differ in magnitude and direction for populations within individual marine species whose geographical ranges span large gradients...

  15. Stage-specific mortality of Baltic cod ( Gadus morhua L.) eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Grønkjær, P.

    2000-01-01

    A study on cod egg mortality was carried out in the Bornholm Basin (southern central Baltic Sea) toward the end of July 1996. An initial egg aggregation marked by a satellite-tracked drifter buoy was sampled repeatedly over an Ii-day period; profiles of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen...... were concurrently recorded. Three replicate estimates of mortality were obtained for each pair of subsequent developmental stages from newly spawned eggs to early larvae. A consistent pattern of stage-specific mortality coincided well with previous experimental observations. Average daily mortality...... rates were 7.2% (eggs IA/IB), 38.7% (eggs (IB/II), 25.6% (eggs II/III), 40.0% (eggs III/IV), and 42.3% (eggs IV/early larvae). The cumulative mortality until hatch amounted to 99.9%. Results from hydrodynamic modelling, however, indicated that the drifter's trajectory was influenced by wind stress...

  16. Bacterial Colonization of Cod (Gadus morhua L.) and Halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) Eggs in Marine Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Geir Høvik; Olafsen, Jan A.

    1989-01-01

    Aquaculture has brought about increased interest in mass production of marine fish larvae. Problems such as poor egg quality and mass mortality of fish larvae have been prevalent. The intensive incubation techniques that often result in bacterial overgrowth on fish eggs could affect the commensal relationship between the indigenous microflora and opportunistic pathogens and subsequently hamper egg development, hatching, larval health, and ongrowth. Little information about the adherent microf...

  17. Glycolysis and ATP degradation in cod ( Gadus morhua ) at subzero temperatures in relation to thaw rigor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappeln, Gertrud; Jessen, Flemming

    2001-01-01

    Glycolysis was shown to occur during freezing of cod of decrease in glycogen and an increase in lactate. In addition, the ATP content decreased during freezing. Synthesis of ATP was measured as degradation of glycogen. During storage at -9 and - 12 degreesC it was found that degradation of ATP...

  18. Antioxidant activity of cod (Gadus morhua) protein hydrolysates: Fractionation and characterisation of peptide fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin Habebullah, Sabeena; Andersen, Lisa Lystbæk; Otte, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to characterise peptide fractions (>5 kDa, 3–5 kDa and fractions were dominated by Ala, Gly, Glu and Ser. The total amino acid composition had high proportions of Lys, Ala...... and Glu. The 3–5 kDa and fractions were further fractionated by size exclusion chromatography. All sub-fractions showed high Fe2+ chelating activity. The DPPH radical-scavenging activity of the 3–5 kDa fraction was exerted mainly by one sub-fraction dominated by peptides with masses below 600 Da....... The DPPH radical-scavenging activity of the fraction was exerted by sub-fractions with low molecular weight. The highest reducing power was found in a sub-fraction containing peptides rich in Arg, Tyr and Phe. Both free amino acids and low molecular weight peptides thus seemed to contribute...

  19. Prey exoskeletons influence the course of gastric evacuation in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couturier, C. S.; Andersen, N. G.; Audet, C.

    2013-01-01

    species, Pandalus borealis, Pandalus montagui and Eualus macilentus, and the crab Chionoecetes opilio, were evacuated from the stomach at different rates. The duration of all stages increased with increasing ash (and carbonate) content of the fresh prey. Thickness, chemical composition and morphology...... of the prey exoskeleton all affected gastric evacuation: duration of initial delay, overall evacuation rate and a decreased evacuation rate at the end of the process. The power exponential function (PEF), with its shape parameter, described the course of evacuation for these prey types well, especially...

  20. Effect of catch location, season and quality on value of Icelandic cod (Gadus morhua) products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margeirsson, Sveinn; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Jonsson, Gudmundur R.

    2006-01-01

    In this book, scientists from various disciplines address the advances in seafood research with respect to quality, safety, consumer's demands and processing of wild and farmed fish. The nutritional properties of marine lipids and lipid oxidation from model systems to seafood are presented. Several...... contributions on the effects of natural anti-oxidants to prevent oxidation are also included. Effects of dietary factors on muscle tissue quality, pre-rigor processing and brining of farmed cod are covered. The development of rigor mortis and the quality of muscle in relation to commercial and experimental...... slaughter techniques are also discussed. Consumer's knowledge, perception and need for information about seafood are discussed. Topics such as shelf life and microbial quality of seafood are covered in a range of contributions. Inactivation of micro organisms or biopreservation of seafood are included...

  1. The effect of carbon dioxide on growth of juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moran, Damian; Støttrup, Josianne

    2011-01-01

    A trial was undertaken to investigate how exposure to graded hypercapnia affected the growth performance of juvenile (15-80 g) Atlantic cod. Juveniles were grown at 20‰ salinity and 10 °C for 55 days under three hypercapnic regimes: low (2 ± 0.9 mg L−1 CO2, 0.6 mm Hg, 1000 μatm), medium (8 ± 0.5 mg...... experiments using marine fish species. The test concentrations were recalculated from the reported carbonate chemistry conditions, and indicated that the CO2 concentration effect threshold may have been overestimated in two of these studies. Our study suggests that juvenile Atlantic cod are more susceptible...

  2. Geolocation of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) using Hidden Markov Models and behavioural switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Wæver; Righton, David; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro

    2008-01-01

    provides access to the probability distribution of the position of the fish that in turn provides a range of useful descriptive statistics, such as the path of the most probable movement. We compare the method with existing alternatives and discuss its potential in making population inference from archival...... patterns in depth measurements when a fish spends a prolonged period of time at the seabed with a tidal database. Each day, the method provides a nonparametric probability distribution of the position of a tagged fish and therefore avoids enforcing a particular distribution, such as a Gaussian distribution...

  3. Evaluation of chemical markers for age validation of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua otoliths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Stötera

    2015-11-01

    Baltic cod were intraperitoneally injected with the different chemicals and kept for 47 days in netpens. The lowest mortality and best ring formation was observed at 100mg/kg cod wet weight compared to 50 and 25mg/kg wet weight (TET only. Preliminary analysis suggests that the simultaneous injection of TET and STR decreases the visibility of TET-rings. This is probably due to a binding interaction between both markers in the body of the fish, so that less TET is bound in the otolith. The use of tetracycline hydrochloride in the concentrations of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg fish were considered the most appropriate to mark Baltic cod for age validation in large-scale mark-recapture experiments. TET and STR should not be injected together.

  4. Fathers modify thermal reaction norms for hatching success in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlke, Flemming T.; Politis, Sebastian Nikitas; Butts, Ian

    2016-01-01

    hatching success significantly decreased towards thermal extremes. However, half-sibling families varied in their response to different incubation temperatures as indicated by significant paternity × temperature interactions and crossing of reaction norms. The influence of paternity itself was highly...... survival among half-sibling families and temperature treatments was observed during blastula and gastrulation stages (until 100% epiboly), while almost no mortality occurred during subsequent development and throughout the hatching period. The observed magnitude of genetic variation underlying thermal...

  5. Effect of produced water on feeding and metabolism of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkoff, H.; Parrish, C. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Hamoutene, D.; Mabrouk, G.; Samuelson, S.; Mansour, A.; Lee, K. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Maritimes Region, Ocean Sciences Division

    2007-07-01

    This paper addressed concerns regarding potentially detrimental cumulative effects of waste products from oil industry activities on marine organisms around production sites. The metabolic capacities, feeding and digestive physiology of fish have been shown to change with environmental parameters, which could impact the growth and health status of fish populations. In this study, the effects of produced water (PW) on feeding and metabolism of Atlantic cod was investigated by exposing fish to 0.100 ppm (x 10,000 PW dilution) or 200 ppm (x 500 dilution) of PW for 76 days. Throughout the experiment, food intake and mean weight were monitored. In addition, serum lipids, metabolites and gene expression of a brain appetite regulating factor were measured at the end of the experiment. No significant differences were observed in weight gain or food intake between the 3 groups of fish. Serum metabolites and neuropeptide Y expression remained unchanged between groups. The study is ongoing to complete comparative measurements of whole blood fatty acid profiles in plasma. The preliminary results indicate that feeding and metabolism in cod is not affected by produced water.

  6. Using data storage tags to link otolith macrostructure in Baltic cod Gadus morhua with environmental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Nielsen, Birgitte; Mosegaard, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    of a strontium chloride solution. Based on environmental conditions experienced, fish were classified into different behavioural types: non-reproducing 'non-spawner', and 'spawner' undertaking spawning migrations. Otolith opacity, an indicator of otolith and fish somatic growth and condition, was examined...... in relation to these environmental drivers. Temperature was the only environmental variable with a significant effect, overlaying a strong size-related effect. The temperature effect was not uniform across behavioural types and spawning periods. Opacity showed a negative correlation with temperature......We examined otolith opacity of Baltic cod in relation to environmental conditions in order to evaluate the formation mechanisms of seasonal patterns used in age determination. Adult fish were tagged with data storage tags (DSTs) and a permanent mark was induced in the otoliths by injection...

  7. Stock recruitment relationships for cod ( Gadus morhua L.) in the central Baltic Sea incorporating environmental variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarre, Astrid; Wieland, Kai; MacKenzie, Brian

    2000-01-01

    of investigations on recruitment, which were continued through a partial recovery of the stock in the mid-1990s. The principal factors influencing recruitment and recognized at present are: (i) the volume of water with temperature, oxygen and salinity conditions which meet the minimum requirements for successful......Recruitment of central/eastern Baltic cod critically depends on favourable oceanographic conditions in the deeper basins of the Baltic Sea creating a suitable habitat for the development of early life stages. The decline in the size of the spawning stock since the mid-1980s initiated a series...

  8. Mapping the spawning grounds of North Sea cod ( Gadus morhua ) by direct and indirect means

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, C.J.; Taylor, M.; Dickey-Collas, M.

    2008-01-01

    Despite recent evidence for sub-stock structuring, North Sea cod are assessed as a single unit. As a consequence, knowledge of sub-stock trends is poor. In particular, there are no recent evaluations of which spawning grounds are active. Here we report results from the first ichthyoplankton survey...

  9. Mapping the spawning grounds of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) by direct and indirect means

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, C.J.; Taylor, M.; Dickey-Collas, M.; Fossum, P.; Kraus, G.; Rohlf, N.; Damme, van C.J.G.; Bolle, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite recent evidence for sub-stock structuring, North Sea cod are assessed as a single unit. As a consequence, knowledge of sub-stock trends is poor. In particular, there are no recent evaluations of which spawning grounds are active. Here we report results from the first ichthyoplankton survey

  10. Mapping the spawning grounds of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) by direct and indirect means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Clive J; Taylor, Martin; Dickey-Collas, Mark; Fossum, Petter; Kraus, Gerd; Rohlf, Norbert; Munk, Peter; van Damme, Cindy J G; Bolle, Loes J; Maxwell, David L; Wright, Peter J

    2008-07-07

    Despite recent evidence for sub-stock structuring, North Sea cod are assessed as a single unit. As a consequence, knowledge of sub-stock trends is poor. In particular, there are no recent evaluations of which spawning grounds are active. Here we report results from the first ichthyoplankton survey to cover the whole North Sea. Also, this survey, conducted in 2004, was the first to make extensive use of DNA-based molecular methods to unambiguously identify early developmental stage cod eggs. We compare the findings from the plankton survey with estimated egg production inferred from the distribution of mature cod in contemporaneous trawl surveys. Results from both approaches were in general agreement and showed hot spots of egg production around the southern and eastern edges of the Dogger Bank, in the German Bight, the Moray Firth and to the east of the Shetlands. These areas broadly coincide with known spawning locations from the period 1940 to 1970. We were, however, unable to directly detect significant numbers of cod eggs at the historic spawning ground off Flamborough (northeast coast of England). The results demonstrate that most of the major spawning grounds of cod in the North Sea are still active but that some localized populations may have been reduced to the point where it is now difficult to detect the presence of eggs in the plankton.

  11. Linking lipid dynamics with the reproductive cycle in Baltic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjbek, Maria; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    2012-01-01

    ovaries and decreased in late maturing and spawning fish, most likely due to their antioxidant protection activity. The fatty acid composition of cod liver reflected its clupeid prey. The ratio of 18:1n-9 to DHA was almost twice as high in sprat as in herring and indicated the ratio of sprat and herring...... with cod ovarian development in the central Baltic Sea, and may be associated with the delay in spawning and affect egg and larval survival; however, this needs further verification in experimental studies....

  12. Temperature, paternity and asynchronous hatching influence early developmental characteristics of larval Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Politis, Sebastian Nikitas; Dahlke, Flemming T.; Butts, Ian A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Offspring, especially during early development, are influenced by both intrinsic properties endowed to them by their parents, extrinsic environmental factors as well as the interplay between genes and the environment. We investigated the effects of paternity (P), temperature (T), and asynchronous...

  13. Paternal effects on early life history traits in Northwest Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroll, M.-M.; Peck, M.A.; Butts, Ian A.E.

    2013-01-01

    It is important to understand parental effects on early life history of fish as manifested, for example, in individual fitness of offspring. Immediately after fertilization, parental contributions (both genetic and non-genetic) to embryos will affect larval ontogeny, physiology, morphology...... and survival. In marine fish, rates of natural mortality are highest during early life and are negatively correlated with rates of growth and body size. In these early life stages (eggs, larvae, young juveniles) subtle differences in mortality can cause large differences in recruitment and year-class success...... and can serve as important sources of variation during early life stages in fishes. Overall, these findings have implications for furthering the understanding of recruitment variability and can be used to optimize reproductive output for the aquaculture industry. In addition, the data suggests...

  14. Walking the cod: an investigation into the relative robustness of cod, Gadus morhua, skeletal elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K.G. Jones

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple experiment is described which details what happens to the bones of cod when they are walked on by a man. The pattern of fragmentation for various elements is illustrated and an index of robustness proposed for those elements in a cod skeleton most frequently recovered from archaeological sites.

  15. Extrusion of Contracaecum osculatum nematode larvae from the liver of cod (Gadus morhua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, S; Barlaup, L; Mohammadkarami, A; Al-Jubury, A; Chen, D; Kania, P W; Buchmann, K

    2017-10-01

    Baltic cod livers have during recent years been found increasingly and heavily infected with third-stage larvae of Contracaecum osculatum. The infections are associated with an increasing population of grey seals which are final hosts for the parasite. Heavy worm burdens challenge utilization and safety of the fish liver products, and technological solutions for removal of worms are highly needed. We investigated the attachment of the worm larvae in liver tissue by use of histochemical techniques and found that the cod host encapsulates the worm larvae in layers of host cells (macrophages, fibroblasts) supported by enclosures of collagen and calcium. A series of incubation techniques, applying compounds targeting molecules in the capsule, were then tested for their effect to induce worm escape/release reactions. Full digestion solutions comprising pepsin, NaCl, HCl and water induced a fast escape of more than 60% of the worm larvae within 20 min and gave full release within 65 min but the liver tissue became highly dispersed. HCl alone, in concentrations of 48 and 72 mM, triggered a corresponding release of worm larvae with minor effect on liver integrity. A lower HCl concentration of 24 mM resulted in 80% release within 35 min. Water and physiological saline had no effect on worm release, and 1% pepsin in water elicited merely a weak escape reaction. In addition to the direct effect of acid on worm behaviour it is hypothesised that the acid effect on calcium carbonate in the encapsulation, with subsequent release of reaction products, may contribute to activation of C. osculatum larvae and induce escape reactions. Short-term pretreatment of infected cod liver and possibly other infected fish products, using low acid concentrations is suggested as part of a technological solution for worm clearance as low acid concentrations had limited macroscopic effect on liver integrity within 35 min.

  16. Individual behaviour of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) in relation to sex and reproductive state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte; Hüssy, Karin; Neuenfeldt, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    between sexes in the timing of the onset of migration and the duration of migration from feeding grounds to the spawning area. While there was no significant difference in duration of the spawning period between females and males, the histological indices suggest that females finish spawning before males...... of the spawning period differs between sexes, as does the level of activity during spawning events. Not all individuals followed the general pattern; a considerable number of individuals were found to spawn in shallow water in the Arkona Basin, and juvenile fish undertook the migration without spawning...

  17. Why is age determination of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) so difficult?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin

    2010-01-01

    to a consistent pattern the following year, and overlap was not influenced by sex or fish size. The results suggest that otolith opacity in Baltic cod is not associated with seasonal patterns in daily increment structure and that traditional age determination based on otolith opacity yields highly uncertain...

  18. Analysing migrations of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in the north‐east Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuenfeldt, S.; Righton, D.; Neat, F.

    2013-01-01

    The application of data storage tags bears the potential for a quantum leap in the research on fish migrations, because not only first-capture and recapture positions are known, but at least theoretically, the migration path during the period at large can be reconstructed. Position, however, cannot...

  19. Degradation of ATP and glycogen in cod ( Gadus morhua ) muscle during freezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappeln, Gertrud; Jessen, Flemming

    2001-01-01

    , the greatest decrease in ATP content was observed when the temperature reached -0.8C. Glycolysis occurred during freezing of cod as indicated by an increase in lactate content. The changes found in all measured metabolites were more pronounced when freezing was performed at a slow rate compared to a fast rate...

  20. Male reproductive competition in spawning aggregations of cod ( Gadus morhua , L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkevold, Dorte; Hansen, Michael Møller; Loeschcke, V.

    2002-01-01

    Reproductive competition may lead to a large skew in reproductive success among individuals. Very few studies have analysed the paternity contribution of individual males in spawning aggregations of fish species with huge census population sizes. We quantified the variance in male reproductive...... success in spawning aggregations of cod under experimental conditions over an entire spawning season. Male reproductive success was estimated by microsatellite-based parentage analysis of offspring produced in six separate groups of spawning cod. In total, 1340 offspring and 102 spawnings distributed...... across a spawning season were analysed. Our results show that multiple males contributed sperm to most spawnings but that paternity frequencies were highly skewed among males, with larger males on average siring higher proportions of offspring. It was further indicated that male reproductive success...

  1. Prediction of selectivity from morphological conditions: Methodology and a case study on cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Bent; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Frandsen, Rikke

    2009-01-01

    The FISHSELECT methodology. tools, and software were developed and used to measure the morphological parameters that determine the ability of cod to penetrate different mesh types, sizes, and openings. The shape of one cross-section at the cod's head was found to explain 97.6% of the mesh...

  2. Fishing gear-induced skin ulcerations in Baltic cod, Gadus morhua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellergaard, Stig; Bagge, O.

    1998-01-01

    In 1982 a high prevalence of skin ulcerations was observed in Baltic cod in the vicinity of the Danish island of Bornholm. In March the prevalence varied from G to 13%, and in May it had increased to between 26 and 48%. The ulcerations had a sequential development. The initial stage appeared...... from the nets, combined with bilateral occurrence of the ulcers, strongly indicates that the skin ulcers were induced by the fishing gear. Features of the pathology could be linked to the temporary retention of cod in trawl meshes....

  3. Growth pattern and growth dependent mortality of larval and pelagic juvenile North Sea cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rune; Munk, Peter

    2004-01-01

    and May 2001), and larval/juvenile growth history from each of the sampling sequences was outlined. Growth rate was estimated by fitting a Laird-Gompertz equation to lengths-at-age, and we found the mean specific growth rate in length at age 20 d was 3.2% d(-1), declining to 1.9% d(-1) at an age of 90 d....... Otolith radius and larval standard length were highly correlated, and otolith growth was used as a measure of larval somatic growth. The larvae were divided into 3 groups dependent on their hatch-date, and for each hatch group, the same period of past growth was compared between fish sampled in April...... and May. A 2-way repeated-measurement ANOVA revealed a significant higher past growth of fish sampled in May in 2 of the 3 hatch-groups, implying a higher mortality of the slow growing larvae. Additionally, otolith size at age differed significantly between the April and May sampling of the oldest larvae...

  4. Using otolith microstructure to analyse growth of juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Mosegaard, Henrik; Hinrichsen, H.H.

    2003-01-01

    to fish age. At both localities, fish that hatched early in the season spent a shorter time in the pelagic stage than late-hatched fish. However, significant differences in growth rate during the pelagic stage were observed, where fish captured on the slope grew faster. On the bank, individuals with fast...... otolith growth rates before settling continued to grow fast after settling. On the slope, no relationship between growth before and after settling was found. These results indicate that the different settling habitats occupied by juvenile Baltic cod have different potential for settling and nursery areas....

  5. Simulations on the prediction of cod (Gadus morhua) freshness from an intelligent packaging sensor concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heising, J.K.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Dekker, M.

    2015-01-01

    A non-destructive method that monitors changes in the freshness status of packed cod fillets has potential for the development of an intelligent packaging concept. The method is based on monitoring volatile compounds that dissolve and dissociate in the sensing aqueous phase. A mathematical model was

  6. Extrusion of Contracaecum osculatum nematode larvae from the liver of cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, S.; Barlaup, L.; Mohammadkarami, A.

    2017-01-01

    Baltic cod livers have during recent years been found increasingly and heavily infected with third-stage larvae of Contracaecum osculatum. The infections are associated with an increasing population of grey seals which are final hosts for the parasite. Heavy worm burdens challenge utilization...

  7. Early life of an inshore population of West Greenlandic cod Gadus morhua: spatial and temporal aspects of growth and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swalethorp, Rasmus; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Thompson, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes that affect fish larval survival and recruitment is a fundamental tenant of fisheries science. Small, isolated fjords are ideal study systems for elucidating early life history processes, as population dynamics are well traced in these partially closed systems. We exam...

  8. Early life of key fish species, capelin Mallotus villosus and Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malanski, Evandro

    for the fish larvae during the summer. The duration of the productive season is of great importance for the early life of fish. The present thesis investigates the diets of capelin and cod in the subarctic Kapisigdlit, as well as the feeding of non-commercial larval fish in the entire Godthåbsfjord system...... species were found in the area, and 3 main assemblages were identified according to their similarities, which are related to the hydrographic zones. Fish larvae may benefit from the estuarine circulation to distribute themselves from the spawning areas through the Godthåbsfjord. The diet of the larval...... fish species varied markedly along the fjord. Prey size preferences of fish larvae were positively correlated to their mouth sizes. American plaice and sandeel were probably do not compete for food with other fish species since these, contrary to other species, had high preference for microplankton...

  9. Large effective population size and temporal genetic stability in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, Nina Overgaard; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Swain, Douglas P.

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, many commercial fish stocks have experienced dramatic declines due to overfishing. Such fisheries-induced population reductions could potentially erode the genetic diversity of marine fish populations. Based on analyses of DNA extracted from archived and contemporary samples, this paper...

  10. Biomarker candidate discovery in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) continuously exposed to North Sea produced water from egg to fry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohne-Kjersem, Anneli; Bache, Nicolai; Meier, Sonnich

    2010-01-01

    were able to compare the induced changes by PW to the mode of action of oestrogens. Changes in the proteome in response to exposure in whole cod fry (approximately 80 days post-hatching, dph) were detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and image analysis and identified by MALDI-ToF-ToF mass...... spectrometry, using a newly developed cod EST database and the NCBI database. Many of the protein changes occurred at low levels (0.01% and 0.1% PW) of exposure, indicating putative biological responses at lower levels than previously detected. Using discriminant analysis, we identified a set of protein...... changes that may be useful as biomarker candidates of produced water (PW) and oestradiol exposure in Atlantic cod fry. The biomarker candidates discovered in this study may, following validation, prove effective as diagnostic tools in monitoring exposure and effects of discharges from the petroleum...

  11. Larval and small juvenile cod Gadus morhua concentrated in the highly productive areas of a shelf break front

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Larsson, P.O.; Danielsen, D.

    1995-01-01

    describe the identified nursery areas of larvae/juveniles and analyse the connection between the distribution of cod and hydrographical (frontal) characteristics of the areas. A total area of 67000 km(2) was covered by stations in a 10 x 10 nautical mile grid. Salinity, temperature, NO3+NO2 and chlorophyll...... part of the investigation area, and within the zone of the front we observed enhanced primary production and abundance of both phyto- and zooplankton. The distribution of larval and juvenile cod was also related to the hydrography, the abundance of cod peaked within a restricted zone...

  12. Effects of amino acid supplementations on metabolic and physiological parameters in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Marcelino; Herves, María Antonia; Giráldez, Inmaculada; Skar, Kristin; Mogren, Hanne; Mortensen, Atle; Puvanendran, Velmurugu

    2017-04-01

    The effects of tryptophan (Trp) and phenylalanine (Phe) diet supplementation on the stress and metabolism of the Atlantic cod have been studied. Fish were fed diet supplemented with Trp or Phe or control diet for 1 week. At the end of the feeding trial, fish were subjected to air exposure or heat shock. Following samples of blood, liver and muscle were taken from the fish and were analyzed for stress and metabolic indicators. After an air exposure, plasma cortisol levels in fish fed with Trp and Phe diets were lower compared to the fish fed the control diet. Diets containing both amino acids increased significantly the liver transaminase activities in juvenile cod. During thermal stress, high Trp contents had significant effects on fructose biphosphatase activity though Phe did not. Overall, activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase, and phosphofructokinase increased significantly for both amino acid diets. For the thermal stress, fish had the highest values of those activities for the 3Trp diet. Trp content in the diet had significant effects on the transaminase activity in muscle during air stress compared to fish fed control and Phe diets. Muscle alanine transaminase activity for thermal stress in fish fed any diet was not significantly different from the control. Both Trp and Phe supplementations reduced the stress markers in the cod; hence, they could be used as additives for the stress attenuation. However, they also raised the activity of key enzymes in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, mainly the Trp diets.

  13. New species in the genus Francisella (Gammaproteobacteria; Francisellaceae); Francisella piscicida sp. nov. isolated from cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottem, Karl F; Nylund, Are; Karlsbakk, Egil

    2007-01-01

    A, lipoprotein TUL4 (LpnA), malate dehydrogenase and hypothetical lipoprotein (LpnB) sequences. A comparison between GM2212 and the type strain of Francisella philomiragia were performed by DNA-DNA hybridization and fatty acid analysis. The DNA-DNA hybridization showed a 70% similarity. The fatty acid analysis...

  14. A model-based evaluation of Marine Protected Areas: the example of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Gerd; Pelletier, Dominique; Dubreuil, Julien

    2009-01-01

    The eastern Baltic cod stock collapsed as a consequence of climate-driven adverse hydrographic conditions and over fishing and has remained at historically low levels. Spatio-temporal fishing closures [Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)] have been implemented since 1995, to protect and restore......, combining an age-structured population module with a multifleet exploitation module and a management module in a single model environment. The model is parameterized based on (i) the large amount of biological knowledge available for cod and (ii) an analysis of existing spatially disaggregated fishery data...

  15. Reproduction of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua (Actinopterygii: Gadiformes: Gadidae), in the Gotland Basin: Causes of annual variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plikshs, Maris; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Elferts, D.

    2015-01-01

    observations during 1969–1995 on four stations in each of two transects. The oceanographic monitoring and demersal trawl research survey data from 1974–2012 have been used in analyses. Results. The sufficient reproduction conditions in the southern Gotland Basin persisted only until 1981. In later decades...... reproduction volume concept can be used as an ecological indicator for egg survival probability in the Gotland Basin. However, it is too premature to re-define the concept of the suitable reproduction volume because it is applicable only to the Gotland spawning ground...

  16. The effect of temperature and body size on metabolic scope of activity in juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Behrens, Jane; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2015-01-01

    Changes in ambient temperature affect the physiology and metabolism and thus the distribution of fish. In this study we used intermittent flow respirometry to determine the effect of temperature (2, 5, 10, 15 and 20 °C) and wet body mass (BM) (~30–460 g) on standard metabolic rate (SMR, mg O2 h−1...

  17. The third serine proteinase with chymotrypsin specificity isolated from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is a type-II elastase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgeirsson, B; Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Thórólfsson, M

    1998-01-01

    -Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide, but inactive against the typical elastase substrates succinyl-Ala-Ala-Ala-p-nitroanilide and orcein-elastin. Comparison of the kinetic properties of the cod elastase C with bovine chymotrypsin and cod chymotrypsin variants A and B, using succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide, showed a lower catalytic...

  18. An estrogen-responsive plasma protein expression signature in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) revealed by SELDI-TOF MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mari Mæland; Meyer, Sonnich; Larsen, Bodil Katrine

    2011-01-01

    Compound-specific protein expression signatures( PESs) can be revealed by proteomic techniques. The SELDI-TOF MS approach is advantageous due to its simplicity and high-throughput capacity,however, there are concerns regarding the reproducibility of this method. The aim of this study was to define...

  19. Multi-decadal responses of a cod (Gadus morhua) population to human-induced trophic changes, fishing, and climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; MacKenzie, Brian; Köster, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    to changes in fish populations can be analyzed with empirical data. In this study we investigate how climate variability and multiple human impacts (fishing, marine mammal hunting, eutrophication) have affected multi-decadal scale dynamics of cod in the Baltic Sea during the 20th century.We document...... significant climate-driven variations in cod recruitment production at multi-annual timescales, which had major impacts on population dynamics and the yields to commercial fisheries. We also quantify the roles of marine mammal predation, eutrophication, and exploitation on the development of the cod...

  20. Preferred temperature of juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua with different haemoglobin genotypes at normoxia and moderate hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, M.F.; Steffensen, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    .2+/-1.5 degrees C while HbI-1 cod preferred 15.4+/-1.1 degrees C, and this preference was significant. The effect of hypoxia (35% oxygen saturation) on the preferred temperature was also measured. Previous studies showed that the preferred temperature of fish decreases during hypoxia, and this was the case for Hb......I-1 cod, which preferred 9.8+/-1.8 degrees C during hypoxia, whereas HbI-2 cod did not show this effect. The results indicate that environmental temperature changes will lead to a distributional change in the different haemoglobin types of Atlantic cod, global warming providing an advantage for HbI-1...... cod. However, since HbI-1 cod prefer a low temperature under hypoxic conditions, a combination of increased water temperature and hypoxia could be unfavourable for Atlantic cod stocks....

  1. Quantifying environmental heterogeneity : habitat size necessary for successful development of cod Gadus morhua eggs in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Plikshs, M.

    2000-01-01

    ) of reproductive volumes among the areas to identify spatial differences. The results of 2 independent volume-estimation methods are comparable, indicating that highly significant differences exist among the sites, and that the westernmost spawning ground, Bornholm Basin, has on average the highest reproductive...... volume and the lowest variability among the 4 sites. These findings may be useful in evaluating how spatial and temporal variability in environmental conditions affect egg hatching success and possibly recruitment in the Baltic stock....

  2. THE EFFECT OF HYPOXIA ON THE MAXIMUM MATABOLIC RATE AND SPECIFIC DYNAMIC ACTION IN ATLANTIC COD Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2010-01-01

    John Fleng Steffensen' and Anders Drud Jordan Aquaculture 2010 - San Diego - Physiological Insights Towards Improving Fish Culture. Hypoxia is an increasing problem in coastal near areas and estuaries. Hypoxia can also be a problem in aquaculture systems with a high degree of recirculating water...... reduced the Scope for Activity by 55 % in nonnoxia. In hypoxia the effect was more pronounced with a 69 % reduction of the scope for activity. In conclusion hypoxia prolong the postabsorptive state of fi sh by limiting the peak metabolic rate, causing that less food is assimilated over a certain period...

  3. Microgeographical population structure and adaptation in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua: spatio-temporal insights from gene-associated DNA markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Nina Aagaard; Hemmer-Hansen, Jakob; Loeschcke, V.

    2011-01-01

    levels of genetic differentiation. Interestingly, these loci were identical to loci previously found to display signals of adaptive evolution on larger spatial scales. Analysis of historical samples revealed long-term temporally stable patterns of both neutral and adaptive divergence between some...

  4. Reconstructing historical stock development of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the eastern Baltic Sea before the beginning of intensive exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Köster, Fritz; MacKenzie, Brian

    2008-01-01

    mortality before the 1940s was below 0.2, but reached moderate levels during the Second World War. The stock size before the war may be considered as a reference level of biomass at low fishing impact, providing important information for the management of fisheries and the Baltic ecosystem....

  5. Effect of bottom type on catch rates of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) in surveys with commercial fishing vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Pedersen, Eva Maria; Olesen, Hans Jakob

    2009-01-01

    were substantially higher on gravel or stone bottom and at ship wrecks than on sand bottom. The difference in the catch rates between the two bottom categories at paired stations within a short distance was highly significant for all the three fishing methods. Similarly, average CPUE for most surveys...

  6. An abundance estimate of ling ( Molva molva ) and cod ( Gadus morhua ) in the Skagerrak and the northeastern North Sea, 1872

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, R.T.; Cooper, A.B.; Holm, P.

    2007-01-01

    that long-term, historical abundance estimates are relevant to the determination of biomass reference points in fisheries management. Situated within the field of historical ecology, this paper presents findings on the abundance of ling and cod in 1872. Calculations are based on historical CPUE and catch...

  7. Improving the size- and species selectivity of cod (Gadus morhua) in demersal mixed-species trawl fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm

    reduce the catch of cod without simultaneously reduce the catch of the target species. To optimise the trade-off between discard and loss of marketable catch, solutions have to be specific to particular fisheries or populations of fish. Papers 1 and 3 provide specific examples of how size- and species...

  8. The Effects of Temperature, Hypoxia and Hypercapnia on the Metabolism of Atlantic Cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tirsgård, Bjørn

    in the water conditions affecting their performance, growth and reproduction. Variations in the water conditions between years and due to climatic changes, affects the survival rate, population dynamic and bio-energetic distribution of the Atlantic cod (Hansson et al., 1996; Essington et al., 2001...... into bio-energetic models used to predict survival, growth and reproduction rates and cod stock dynamics. Furthermore, due to the growing interest of the continuing global increase in atmospheric and oceanic CO2 levels (ICES, 2010), and the rapid expansion of fish farming in land-based recirculated...... important for bio-energetic models (Werner et al., 1996; Leising and Franks, 1999; Werner et al., 2001; Lough et al., 2005). The temperature effect on the metabolism of Atlantic cod larvae however have received little attention (Laurence, 1978; Finn et al., 2002; Peck and Buckley, 2008), likely due...

  9. Electrical stunning of farmed Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L.: a comparison of an industrial and experimental method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Digre, H.; Erikson, U.; Misimi, E.; Lambooij, E.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2010-01-01

    An industrial and experimental electrical method for stunning farmed Atlantic cod in air and seawater (SW), respectively, were compared. The impacts of sedation with AQUI-S™ and exercise to exhaustion before electrical stunning were also assessed to monitor the possible depletion of rested muscle

  10. Characterization of Francisella sp., GM2212, the first Francisella isolate from marine fish, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottem, Karl F; Nylund, Are; Karlsbakk, Egil

    2007-01-01

    from F. tularensis and F. philomiragia. GM2212(T) is catalase-positive, indole positive, oxidase-negative, do not produce H(2)S in Triple Sugar Iron agar, and does not hydrolyze gelatin, is resistant to erythromycin and susceptible to ceftazidime, the latter five characteristics separating it from F...

  11. Slave to the rhythm: seasonal signals in otolith microchemistry reveal age of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Gröger, J.; Heidemann, F.

    2016-01-01

    Annual growth zones in cod otoliths from the eastern Baltic stock are less discrete than in other cod stocks leading to biased age reading, which recently led to a failure of age-based assessment in the eastern Baltic cod stock. In this study, we explored the applicability of minor and trace elem...

  12. Effect of netting direction and number of meshes around on size selection in the codend for Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienbeck, Harald; Herrmann, Bent; Moderhak, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    We investigated experimentally the effect that turning the netting direction 90° (T90) and halving the number of meshes around in the circumference in a diamond mesh codend had on size selection of Baltic cod. The results generally agreed with predictions of a previous simulation-based study. Both...... modifications had a significant positive effect on the size selection of cod. The best selection results were obtained for a codend in which both factors were applied together. For that codend, very little between-haul variation in cod size selection was detected, especially compared to the reference codend...

  13. Oceanographic influences on the distribution of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua , during spawning in the Bornholm Basin of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Lehmann, K.M.; St. John, Michael

    1998-01-01

    proportion of males to females. On the basin slopes, aggregations of cod were found near the bottom. These individuals were mainly immature and maturing stages with an increasing proportion of females to males with size. Salinity and oxygen conditions were found to be the major factors influencing...... the vertical and horizontal distribution of adult cod. Abundance of immature cod was also positively related to decreasing bottom depths. The effect of temperature was minor. The observed size- and sex-dependent spawning aggregation patterns, in association with habitat volume and stock size, may influence cod......The Baltic Sea is a stratified, semi-enclosed sea typified by a low-salinity surface layer and a deep saline layer of varying volume, salinity, temperature and oxygen concentration. The relationships between these oceanographic factors and the distribution of Baltic cod are presented, utilizing...

  14. Chronic CO2 exposure markedly increases the incidence of cataracts in juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moran, Damian; Tubbs, Lincoln; Støttrup, Josianne G.

    2012-01-01

    A study was undertaken to test the affect of chronic exposure to elevated dissolved carbon dioxide on juvenile Atlantic cod. The CO2 treatment concentrations were designated as low (1–2mgL−1, 1000μatm), medium (8mgL−1, 3500μatm) and high (18mgL−1, 8500μatm), and the fish were reared at 10°C and 2...

  15. Improving the size- and species selectivity of cod (Gadus morhua) in demersal mixed-species trawl fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm

    have been published in scientific journals and Paper 3 has been submitted to Fisheries Research. This review will take a broader perspective and will examine the capturing process, which is the basis for the selection process. Moreover, it discusses the existing methods and knowledge in the fields...... different species, including cod, are caught together. Demersal trawling is the predominant fishing method in Denmark, as measured by both catch value and volume. Demersal trawls also account for the highest discard rates of juvenile fish, including cod. The focus of this work was on improving......, and openings. The results show that the morphology-based simulations of size selectivity of cod can be used to explain a large part of both the within-haul and the between-haul variations previously reported from sea trials. The method can further predict the selection parameters (L50 and SR) for cod...

  16. Regional changes in vertebra morphology during ontogeny reflect the life history of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjelldal, Per G; Totland, Geir K; Hansen, Tom; Kryvi, Harald; Wang, Xiyuan; Søndergaard, Jens L; Grotmol, Sindre

    2013-01-01

    This study examined vertebra formation, morphology, regional characters, and bending properties of the vertebral column of Atlantic cod throughout its life cycle (0–6 years). The first structure to form was the foremost neural arch, 21 days post hatching (dph), and the first vertebra centrum to form – as a chordacentrum – was the 3rd centrum at 28 dph. Thereafter, the notochord centra developed in a regular sequence towards the head and caudal fin. All vertebrae were formed within 50 dph. The vertebral column consisted of 52 (± 2) vertebrae (V) and could be divided into four distinct regions: (i) the cervical region (neck) (V1 and V2), characterized by short vertebra centra, prominent neural spines and absence of articulations with ribs; (ii) the abdominal region (trunk) (V3–V19), characterized by vertebrae with wing-shaped transverse processes (parapophyses) that all articulate with a rib; (iii) the caudal region (tail) (V20–V40), where the vertebra centra have haemal arches with prominent haemal spines; (iv) the ural region (V41 to the last vertebra), characterized by broad neural and haemal spines, providing sites of origin for muscles inserting on the fin rays – lepidotrichs – of the tail fin. The number of vertebrae in the cervical, abdominal and caudal regions was found to be constant, whereas in the ural region, numbers varied from 12 to 15. Geometric modelling based on combination of vertebra lengths, diameters and intervertebral distances showed an even flexibility throughout the column, except in the ural region, where flexibility increased. Throughout ontogeny, the vertebra centra of the different regions followed distinct patterns of growth; the relative length of the vertebrae increased in the cervical and abdominal regions, and decreased in the caudal and ural regions with increasing age. This may reflect changes in swimming mode with age, and/or that the production of large volumes of gametes during sexual maturation requires a significant increase in abdominal cavity volume. PMID:23587057

  17. Estimating the impact of petroleum substances on survival in ealry life stages of cod (Gadus morhua) using the Dynamic Energy Budget theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, T.C.; Nordtug, T.; Tamis, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the impact of accidental oil-spills on cod fisheries a model framework is developed in which a Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model is applied to assess mortality caused by petroleum substances in early life stages. In this paper we report on a literature search and DEB analyses, aiming for

  18. Characterization of Volatile Compounds in Chilled Cod (Gadus morhua) fillets by gas chromatography and detection of quality indicators by an electronic nose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olafsdottir, G.; Jonsdottir, R.; Lauzon, H.L.; Luten, J.B.; Kristbergsson, K.

    2005-01-01

    Volatile compounds in cod fillets packed in Styrofoam boxes were analyzed during chilled storage (0.5 C) by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry and GC-olfactometry to screen potential quality indicators present in concentrations high enough for detection by an electronic nose. Photobacterium

  19. The Ontogeny and Brain Distribution Dynamics of the Appetite Regulators NPY, CART and pOX in Larval Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Hoang T M D; Angotzi, Anna Rita; Ebbesson, Lars O E; Karlsen, Ørjan; Rønnestad, Ivar

    2016-01-01

    Similar to many marine teleost species, Atlantic cod undergo remarkable physiological changes during the early life stages with concurrent and profound changes in feeding biology and ecology. In contrast to the digestive system, very little is known about the ontogeny and the localization of the centers that control appetite and feed ingestion in the developing brain of fish. We examined the expression patterns of three appetite regulating factors (orexigenic: neuropeptide Y, NPY; prepro-orexin, pOX and anorexigenic: cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, CART) in discrete brain regions of developing Atlantic cod using chromogenic and double fluorescent in situ hybridization. Differential temporal and spatial expression patterns for each appetite regulator were found from first feeding (4 days post hatch; dph) to juvenile stage (76 dph). Neurons expressing NPY mRNA were detected in the telencephalon (highest expression), diencephalon, and optic tectum from 4 dph onward. CART mRNA expression had a wider distribution along the anterior-posterior brain axis, including both telencephalon and diencephalon from 4 dph. From 46 dph, CART transcripts were also detected in the olfactory bulb, region of the nucleus of medial longitudinal fascicle, optic tectum and midbrain tegmentum. At 4 and 20 dph, pOX mRNA expression was exclusively found in the preoptic region, but extended to the hypothalamus at 46 and 76 dph. Co-expression of both CART and pOX genes were also observed in several hypothalamic neurons throughout larval development. Our results show that both orexigenic and anorexigenic factors are present in the telencephalon, diencephalon and mesencephalon in cod larvae. The telencephalon mostly contains key factors of hunger control (NPY), while the diencephalon, and particularly the hypothalamus may have a more complex role in modulating the multifunctional control of appetite in this species. As the larvae develop, the overall progression in temporal and spatial complexity of NPY, CART and pOX mRNAs expression might be correlated to the maturation of appetite control regulation. These observations suggest that teleost larvae continue to develop the regulatory networks underlying appetite control after onset of exogenous feeding.

  20. Combination of genetics and spatial modelling highlights the sensitivity of cod (Gadus morhua) population diversity in the North Sea to distributions of fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heath, Michael R.; Culling, Mark A.; Crozier, Walter W.

    2014-01-01

    Conserving genetic diversity in animal populations is important for sustaining their ability to respond to environmental change. However, the “between-population” component of genetic diversity (biocomplexity) is threatened in many exploited populations, particularly marine fish, where harvest ma...

  1. Localisation of nursery areas based on comparative analyses of the horizontal and vertical distribution patterns of juvenile Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Lundgren, Bo; Kristensen, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    Baltic cod are determined, and their nursery areas are localised according to the environmental factors affecting them. Comparative statistical analyses of biological, hydrographic and hydroacoustic data are carried out based on standard ICES demersal trawl surveys and special integrated trawl...... and acoustic research surveys. Horizontal distribution maps for the 2001–2010 cohorts of juvenile cod are further generated by applying a statistical log-Gaussian Cox process model to the standard trawl survey data. The analyses indicate size-dependent horizontal and distinct vertical and diurnal distribution...... in deep sea localities down to a 100 m depth and at oxygen concentrations between 2–4 ml O2.l−1. The vertical, diurnally stratified and repeated trawling and hydroacoustic target strength-depth distributions obtained from the special surveys show juvenile cod concentrations in frontal zone water layers...

  2. The Ontogeny and Brain Distribution Dynamics of the Appetite Regulators NPY, CART and pOX in Larval Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang T M D Le

    Full Text Available Similar to many marine teleost species, Atlantic cod undergo remarkable physiological changes during the early life stages with concurrent and profound changes in feeding biology and ecology. In contrast to the digestive system, very little is known about the ontogeny and the localization of the centers that control appetite and feed ingestion in the developing brain of fish. We examined the expression patterns of three appetite regulating factors (orexigenic: neuropeptide Y, NPY; prepro-orexin, pOX and anorexigenic: cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, CART in discrete brain regions of developing Atlantic cod using chromogenic and double fluorescent in situ hybridization. Differential temporal and spatial expression patterns for each appetite regulator were found from first feeding (4 days post hatch; dph to juvenile stage (76 dph. Neurons expressing NPY mRNA were detected in the telencephalon (highest expression, diencephalon, and optic tectum from 4 dph onward. CART mRNA expression had a wider distribution along the anterior-posterior brain axis, including both telencephalon and diencephalon from 4 dph. From 46 dph, CART transcripts were also detected in the olfactory bulb, region of the nucleus of medial longitudinal fascicle, optic tectum and midbrain tegmentum. At 4 and 20 dph, pOX mRNA expression was exclusively found in the preoptic region, but extended to the hypothalamus at 46 and 76 dph. Co-expression of both CART and pOX genes were also observed in several hypothalamic neurons throughout larval development. Our results show that both orexigenic and anorexigenic factors are present in the telencephalon, diencephalon and mesencephalon in cod larvae. The telencephalon mostly contains key factors of hunger control (NPY, while the diencephalon, and particularly the hypothalamus may have a more complex role in modulating the multifunctional control of appetite in this species. As the larvae develop, the overall progression in temporal and spatial complexity of NPY, CART and pOX mRNAs expression might be correlated to the maturation of appetite control regulation. These observations suggest that teleost larvae continue to develop the regulatory networks underlying appetite control after onset of exogenous feeding.

  3. The responses of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) to ultrasound-emitting predators: stress, behavioural changes or debilitation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack, H.B.; Malte, H.; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2008-01-01

    A previous study has reported that Atlantic cod can be conditioned to detect ultrasonic sound pulses of high intensity. This capability has been proposed as a mean for detection and avoidance of echolocating toothed whales that emit intense ultrasonic clicks. In this study, we use acoustic...... exposed to ultrasonic clicks and echosounder pulses with received levels of more than 204 dB re. 1 µPa (pp) did not elicit flight responses as seen in ultrasound detecting Alosinae. Furthermore, we tested the debilitating effects of high intensity ultrasound on swimming cod with no detected changes...... playbacks to test the hypotheses that unconditioned cod can detect and respond to intense ultrasound from toothed whales and from echosounders. Intense ultrasound exposure of 210 dB re. 1µPa (pp) did not cause a short-term stress response in the form of bradycardia in unconditioned cod. Free-swimming cod...

  4. [Assessment of production of eggs of Eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) on the basis of long-term ichthyoplankton data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaseva, E M

    2011-01-01

    Proceeding from long-term data on the numbers of eggs of cod in ichthyoplankton, the total annual production of cod eggs at four main spawning grounds of the Baltic Sea was calculated. It was shown that the long-term fluctuations of cod egg production were positively related to the dynamics of the volume of waters coming to the Baltic Sea in years of the North Sea advections. It is suggested that this dependence was determined by a set of adaptations providing the extension of cod reproduction upon the improvement of the environment.

  5. Recent trends in the abundance of plaice Pleuronectes platessa and cod Gadus morhua in shallow coastal waters of the Northeastern Atlantic continental shelf – a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutz, Jörg; Støttrup, Josianne Gatt; Stenberg, Claus

    2016-01-01

    of the southern distribution boundary in the Bay of Biscay and deepening of stocks in the North Sea. In contrast, no trend in shallow water abundance of plaice similar to a decline in deep-water stocks during the 1970s and their slow recovery during the 2000s is apparent in the Skagerrak/Kattegat. Although......Shallow, near-shore water habitats on the continental shelf of the Northeast Atlantic have been productive fishing areas in the past. Here, we review the present knowledge about (i) recent trends in the abundance of plaice and cod in these habitats and (ii) hypotheses regarding the factors...... responsible for any trends. At present, only a few studies exist on the trends of abundance of plaice or cod, namely from the Bay of Biscay, the North Sea and the Skagerrak/Kattegat. They suggest a declining abundance in coastal, shallow areas and – at least for plaice – a latitudinal gradient with an erosion...

  6. A nuclear DNA basis for shelf- and bank scale population structure in northwest Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua ) : Labrador to Georges Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Taggart, C.T.; Cook, D.

    1998-01-01

    by the associated oceanographic features and processes that conceivably form the template for the evolution of the structure. We suggest that bathymetric and hydrodynamic structure represents a rational starting point for developing hypotheses to examine the processes that lead to the genetic structuring of marine...

  7. Effect of high pressure processing on the preservation of frozen and re-thawed sliced cod (Gadus morhua) and salmon (Salmo salar) fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Cécilia; de Lamballerie, Marie; Pottier, Laurence

    2018-01-01

    Cod and salmon are both widely found in the seafood market, but those products are easily spoiled. This work reports on the investigation of the effects of three moderate pressure values (150, 300 and 450 MPa) applied for 5 min at 20°C on crude sliced cod and salmon fillets. It was found that high pressure processing (HPP) significantly reduced the microbial load during refrigerated storage for up to 14 days. As expected, the most effective treatment was 450 MPa because it inhibited microbial growth. This process affected the hardness, lightness, lipid oxidation, protein denaturation and oxidation. The fish muscle composition (lipid amount and protein profile) played a main role in the changes promoted by pressure. HPP permits the shelf life of the raw product at 4°C to be increased with minimal changes in the organoleptic characteristics and to enable crude consumption.

  8. Hydrolysis of Marine Cod (Gadus Morhua) Head - Utilization of rest raw material from cod for production of ingredients for human consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Meldstad, Fataneh

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the possibility of utilizing frozen marine cod head for further processing into high-quality and high-yield fish protein hydrolysates. The project included determination of the effect of mincing versus whole head, frozen storage and thawing methods on the composition and yield of FPH. The results show that freezing and thawing of cod head lead to small changes in the composition of raw material and consequently the resulting ...

  9. A Comparison of the Effects of Packaging Containing Nano ZnO or Polylysine on the Microbial Purity and Texture of Cod (Gadus morhua) Fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizielińska, Małgorzata; Kowalska, Urszula; Jarosz, Michał; Sumińska, Patrycja

    2018-01-01

    Portions of fresh Baltic cod fillets were packed into cellulose boxes (control samples), which were covered with Methyl Hydroxypropyl Celluloses (MHPC) coating with 2% polylysine. The cellulose boxes had square PE films and were enclosed in MHPC coating containing ZnO nanoparticles. The cod fillets were stored at 5 °C and examined after 72 h and 144 h storage times. Results obtained in this study showed that the textural parameters of the cod fillets increased, with both Springiness and Cohesiveness found greater after 144 h of storage for all analysed packaging materials. The Gumminess of fillets increased after storage, but the lowest increase was noted in cod samples that were stored in boxes containing PE films with ZnO nanoparticles. It was found that water loss from the cod fillets in these boxes was also lowest. The Adhesiveness of the fish samples stored in boxes devoid of active coatings also increased. In contrast to the packaging material devoid of active coatings, the storage of fillets in active coating boxes resulted in a decrease of adhesiveness. Microbial analysis showed that packaging material containing nano-ZnO was found to be more active against mesophilic and psychotropic bacterial cells than the coatings with polylysine after 72 h and 144 h of storage. PMID:29534544

  10. A Comparison of the Effects of Packaging Containing Nano ZnO or Polylysine on the Microbial Purity and Texture of Cod (Gadus morhua Fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Mizielińska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Portions of fresh Baltic cod fillets were packed into cellulose boxes (control samples, which were covered with Methyl Hydroxypropyl Celluloses (MHPC coating with 2% polylysine. The cellulose boxes had square PE films and were enclosed in MHPC coating containing ZnO nanoparticles. The cod fillets were stored at 5 °C and examined after 72 h and 144 h storage times. Results obtained in this study showed that the textural parameters of the cod fillets increased, with both Springiness and Cohesiveness found greater after 144 h of storage for all analysed packaging materials. The Gumminess of fillets increased after storage, but the lowest increase was noted in cod samples that were stored in boxes containing PE films with ZnO nanoparticles. It was found that water loss from the cod fillets in these boxes was also lowest. The Adhesiveness of the fish samples stored in boxes devoid of active coatings also increased. In contrast to the packaging material devoid of active coatings, the storage of fillets in active coating boxes resulted in a decrease of adhesiveness. Microbial analysis showed that packaging material containing nano-ZnO was found to be more active against mesophilic and psychotropic bacterial cells than the coatings with polylysine after 72 h and 144 h of storage.

  11. Model-supported estimation of mortality rates in Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L. larvae: the varying impact of 'critical periods'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinrichsen Hans-Harald

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in the survival-rate during the larval phase may strongly influence the recruitment level in marine fish species. During the larval phase different 'critical periods' are discussed, e.g. the hatching period and the first-feeding period. No such information was available for the Baltic cod stock, a commercially important stock showing reproduction failure during the last years. We calculated field-based mortality rates for larval Baltic cod during these phases using basin-wide abundance estimates from two consecutive surveys. Survey information was corrected by three dimensional hydrodynamic model runs. Results The corrections applied for transport were of variable impact, depending on the prevailing circulation patterns. Especially at high wind forcing scenarios, abundance estimates have the potential to be biased without accounting for transport processes. In May 1988 mortality between hatch and first feeding amounted to approximately 20% per day. Mortality rates during the onset of feeding were considerably lower with only 7% per day. In August 1991 the situation was vice versa: Extremely low mortality rates of 0.08% per day were calculated between hatch and first feeding, while the period between the onset of feeding to the state of an established feeder was more critical with mortality rates of 22% per day. Conclusions Mortality rates during the different proposed 'critical periods' were found to be highly variable. Survival rates of Baltic cod are not only influenced by a single 'critical period', but can be limited at different points during the larval phase, depending on several biotic and abiotic factors.

  12. Modelling gastric evacuation without meal size as a variable. A model applicable for the estimation of daily ration of cod (Gadus morhua L.) in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Temming, Axel; Andersen, Niels Gerner

    1994-01-01

    S=stomach content, T=time after ingestion, R and B=constants. This model allows for various curve shapes, including linear (B=O) and exponential (B=1), and the curve shape (B) was estimated from the data. Meal size was included in the model by modifying the constant R=R′ × MD, with M=meal size...... in weight and D=constant. When meal size was included in the model, the resulting B values were strongly dependent on the food type and the estimated D values were negatively correlated with B: capelin, B=1.37, D= -1.16; herring, B=0.84, D= -0.57; and prawn, B=0.35, D= -0.14. When meal size was excluded...

  13. Annual and spatial variability in endo- and ectoparasite infections of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua Linnaeus, 1758) larvae, post-larvae and juveniles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Bahlool, Qusay Z. M.; Skovgaard, Alf

    2014-01-01

    A parasitological investigation was performed on a total of 5380 Atlantic cod larvae, post-larvae and small juveniles sampled from the North Sea during a period of five years. The copepod Caligus elongatus (Von Nordmann, 1832) and the nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802) were found ...

  14. Effects of on-board storage and electrical stunning of wild cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) on brain and heart activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Digre, H.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Aursand, I.G.; Grimso, L.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Cod and haddock captured with commercial trawling gear were taken immediately after landing on deck to on-board storage in dry bins for measuring brain and heart activity, and behaviour. Other groups were first stored in holding tanks and then electrically stunned with a prototype "dry stunner". For

  15. Endogenous proteolytic enzymes--a study of their impact on cod (Gadus morhua) muscle proteins and textural properties in a fermented product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Rustad, Turid; Xu, Yanshun; Jiang, Qixing; Xia, Wenshui

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate endogenous proteolytic activities in a cod product and their impact on muscle proteins and textural properties during fermentation and storage. The result of specific proteolytic activities showed that cathepsins, especially cathepsin B, had the highest activities during fermentation and storage. SDS-PAGE indicated more degradation of myofibrillar proteins by cathepsin L than other proteases and that the hydrolysis by cathepsins was pronounced in the last stage of fermentation. Texture analysis showed that cathepsins had a negative impact on gel strength and this impact increased in the last stage of fermentation. However the product still had a firm texture. During storage (4 °C) for one week, no significant changes were seen in the gel strength. In conclusion, cathepsins had more impact on muscle proteins and textural properties than other proteases during fermentation but had little impact on gel strength during storage at 4 °C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Intestinal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  17. Amebiasis intestinal Intestinal amebiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIO CÉSAR GÓMEZ

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica es el patógeno intestinal más frecuente en nuestro medio -después de Giardia lamblia-, una de las principales causas de diarrea en menores de cinco años y la cuarta causa de muerte en el mundo debida a infección por protozoarios. Posee mecanismos patogénicos complejos que le permiten invadir la mucosa intestinal y causar colitis amebiana. El examen microscópico es el método más usado para su identificación pero la existencia de dos especies morfológicamente iguales, una patógena ( E. histolytica y una no patógena ( Entamoeba dispar, ha llevado al desarrollo de otros métodos de diagnóstico. El acceso al agua potable y los servicios sanitarios adecuados, un tratamiento médico oportuno y el desarrollo de una vacuna, son los ejes para disminuir la incidencia y mortalidad de esta entidad.Entamoeba histolytica is the most frequent intestinal pathogen seen in our country, after Giardia lamblia, being one of the main causes of diarrhea in children younger than five years of age, and the fourth leading cause of death due to infection for protozoa in the world. It possesses complex pathogenic mechanisms that allow it to invade the intestinal mucosa, causing amoebic colitis. Microscopy is the most used method for its identification, but the existence of two species morphologically identical, the pathogen one ( E. histolytica, and the non pathogen one ( E. dispar, have taken to the development of other methods of diagnosis. The access to drinkable water and appropriate sanitary services, an opportune medical treatment, and the development of a vaccine are the axes to diminish the incidence and mortality of this entity.

  18. Intestinal Lymphangiectasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview of Crohn Disease Additional Content Medical News Intestinal Lymphangiectasia (Idiopathic Hypoproteinemia) By Atenodoro R. Ruiz, Jr., MD, ... Overview of Malabsorption Bacterial Overgrowth Syndrome Celiac Disease Intestinal ... Intolerance Short Bowel Syndrome Tropical Sprue Whipple ...

  19. Intestinal Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colostomy ) is required to relieve an obstruction. Understanding Colostomy In a colostomy, the large intestine (colon) is cut. The part ... 1 What Causes Intestinal Strangulation? Figure 2 Understanding Colostomy Gastrointestinal Emergencies Overview of Gastrointestinal Emergencies Abdominal Abscesses ...

  20. Genome Sequences of Shewanella baltica and Shewanella morhuae Strains Isolated from the Gastrointestinal Tract of Freshwater Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Daniel; Gram, Lone; Dailey, Frank E

    2018-06-21

    We present here the genome sequences of Shewanella baltica strain CW2 and Shewanella morhuae strain CW7, isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of Salvelinus namaycush (lean lake trout) and Coregonus clupeaformis (whitefish), respectively. These genome sequences provide insights into the niche adaptation of these specific species in freshwater systems. Copyright © 2018 Castillo et al.

  1. Intestinal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrochers, André; Anderson, David E

    2016-11-01

    A wide variety of disorders affecting the intestinal tract in cattle may require surgery. Among those disorders the more common are: intestinal volvulus, jejunal hemorrhage syndrome and more recently the duodenal sigmoid flexure volvulus. Although general principles of intestinal surgery can be applied, cattle has anatomical and behavior particularities that must be known before invading the abdomen. This article focuses on surgical techniques used to optimize outcomes and discusses specific disorders of small intestine. Diagnoses and surgical techniques presented can be applied in field conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Intestine transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeja Pintar

    2011-02-01

    Conclusion: Intestine transplantation is reserved for patients with irreversible intestinal failure due to short gut syndrome requiring total paranteral nutrition with no possibility of discontinuation and loss of venous access for patient maintenance. In these patients complications of underlying disease and long-term total parenteral nutrition are present.

  3. Intestinal leiomyoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most often found when a person has an upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy or colonoscopy for another reason. Rarely, these tumors can cause bleeding, blockage or rupture of the intestines If this ...

  4. Small Intestine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Crohn's disease Infections Intestinal cancer Intestinal obstruction Irritable bowel syndrome Ulcers, such as peptic ulcer Treatment of disorders of the small intestine depends on the cause.

  5. Genetic variation and local differences in Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus around Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, A; Nagata, N; Sato, A; Narimatsu, Y; Nadiatul, H H; Kawata, M

    2017-01-01

    The population structure of the Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus was examined using 15 microsatellite loci and mitochondrial DNA (ND2 region). In total, 274 individuals were sampled from 16 locations around Japan to estimate the level of genetic differentiation and effective population size (N e ). Pairwise F ST , analysis of molecular variance and Bayesian clustering analysis suggested the presence of two genetically distinct groups in waters around Japan, with a higher N e value in the eastern group than in the western group. A possible factor that restricts gene flow between groups may be related to the water temperature differences in the south-western part of the Sea of Japan, where the Tsushima Warm Current flows around the area inhabited by the western group, which may limit migration between the west and east. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. Substitution of fish oil with camelina oil and inclusion of camelina meal in diets fed to Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and their effects on growth, tissue lipid classes, and fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixson, S M; Parrish, C C

    2014-03-01

    Developing a commercially relevant Atlantic cod aquaculture industry will require improvements in feed sustainability. Camelina oil and meal are potential replacements of fish oil and fish meal in aquaculture feeds. Camelina oil is high in 18:3ω3 (30%), with an ω3/ω6 ratio > 1. Camelina meal has a considerable crude protein level (38%), which includes significant amounts of methionine and phenylalanine. Four diets were tested; each diet was fed to triplicate tanks (3 tanks per diet) of Atlantic cod (14.4 g/fish; 70 fish per tank) for 13 wk. The diets included a fish oil/fish meal control (FO) and three diets which replaced 100% of fish oil with camelina oil: one diet contained fish meal (100CO), another solvent extracted fish meal (100COSEFM), and another had fish meal partially reduced by 15% inclusion of camelina meal (100CO15CM). Growth was measured (length and weight) and tissue samples were collected for lipid analysis (muscle, liver, brain, gut, spleen, skin, and carcass) at wk 0 (before feeding the experimental diet) and at wk 13. Cod fed camelina oil had a lower (P replacement of fish oil with camelina oil, plus solvent extracted fish meal had an overarching effect on the entire fatty acid profile of the whole animal. Fatty acid mass balance calculations indicated that cod fed 100COSEFM elongated 13% of 18:3ω3 to 20:3ω3 and oxidized the remaining 87%, whereas cod fed fish oil showed a much lower (P meal caused the greatest change in cod lipid composition and utilization.

  7. Injection-salting and cold-smoking of farmed atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) at different stages of Rigor Mortis: effect on physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, L; Birkeland, S; Tobiassen, T; Joensen, S; Larsen, R

    2008-10-01

    Processing of fish is generally conducted postrigor, but prerigor processing is associated with some potential advantages. The aim of this study was to study how 5 processing regimes of cold-smoked cod and salmon conducted at different stages of rigor influenced yield, fillet shrinkage, and gaping. Farmed cod and salmon was filleted, salted by brine injection of 25% NaCl, and smoked for 2 h at different stages of rigor. Filleting and salting prerigor resulted in increased fillet shrinkage and less increase in weight during brine injection, which in turn was correlated to the salt content of the fillet. These effects were more pronounced in cod fillets when compared to salmon. Early processing reduced fillet gaping and fillets were evaluated as having a firmer texture. In a follow-up trial with cod, shrinkage and weight gain during injection was studied as an effect of processing time postmortem. No changes in weight gain were observed for fillets salted the first 24 h postmortem; however, by delaying the processing 12 h postmortem, the high and rapid shrinking of cod fillets during brine injection was halved.

  8. A review of the evidence for genetic structure of cod ( Gadus morhua ) populations in the NW Atlantic and population affinities of larval cod off Newfoundland and the Gulf of St. Lawrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Taggart, C.T.; Cook, D.

    1999-01-01

    , ecological, and oceanographic information, when assessing the genetic structure of highly abundant, widely distributed, and high gene-flow marine fish species. We highlight the role that oceanographic features (e.g., gyre-like systems) and known spatio-temporal differences in spawning time may play...... fish species. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved...

  9. Shewanella hafniensis sp. nov. and Shewanella morhuae sp. nov., isolated from marine fish of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Satomi, M.; Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Gram, Lone

    2006-01-01

    Two novel species belonging to the genus Shewanella are described on the basis of their phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences and levels of DNA-DNA hybridization. A total of 47 strains belonging to two novel Gram-negative, psychrotolerant, H2S-produ...... species, Shewanella hafniensis sp. nov. (type strain P010T=ATCC BAA-1207T=NBRC 100975T) and Shewanella morhuae sp. nov. (type strain U1417T=ATCC BAA-1205T=NBRC 100978T), are described....

  10. INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, G. H.; Stone, H. B.; Bernheim, B. M.

    1913-01-01

    Closed duodenal loops may be made in dogs by ligatures placed just below the pancreatic duct and just beyond the duodenojejunal junction, together with a posterior gastro-enterostomy. These closed duodenal loop dogs die with symptoms like those of patients suffering from volvulus or high intestinal obstruction. This duodenal loop may simulate closely a volvulus in which there has been no vascular disturbance. Dogs with closed duodenal loops which have been washed out carefully survive a little longer on the average than animals with unwashed loops. The duration of life in the first instance is one to three days, with an average of about forty-eight hours. The dogs usually lose considerable fluid by vomiting and diarrhea. A weak pulse, low blood pressure and temperature are usually conspicuous in the last stages. Autopsy shows more or less splanchnic congestion which may be most marked in the mucosa of the upper small intestine. The peritoneum is usually clear and the closed loop may be distended with thin fluid, or collapsed, and contain only a small amount of pasty brown material. The mucosa of the loop may show ulceration and even perforation, but in the majority of cases it is intact and exhibits only a moderate congestion. Simple intestinal obstruction added to a closed duodenal loop does not modify the result in any manner, but it may hasten the fatal outcome. The liver plays no essential role as a protective agent against this poison, for a dog with an Eck fistula may live three days with a closed loop. A normal dog reacts to intraportal injection and to intravenous injection of the toxic substance in an identical manner. Drainage of this loop under certain conditions may not interfere with the general health over a period of weeks or months. Excision of the part of the duodenum included in this loop causes no disturbance. The material from the closed duodenal loops contains no bile, pancreatic juice, gastric juice, or split products from the food. It can be

  11. Intestinal myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U S Udgaonkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Intestinal myiasis is a condition when the fly larvae inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and are passed out in faeces. This type of infestation results when eggs or larvae of the fly, deposited on food are inadvertently taken by man. They survive the unfavourable conditions within the gastrointestinal tract and produce disturbances, which may vary from mild to severe. The condition is not uncommon and is often misdiagnosed as pinworm infestation. Correct diagnosis by the clinical microbiologist is important to avoid unnecessary treatment. Materials and Methods: We had 7 cases of intestinal myiasis. In 2 cases the larvae were reared to adult fly in modified meat and sand medium (developed by Udgaonkar. This medium is simple and can be easily prepared in the laboratory. Results: Of the 7 larvae, 5 were Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis, 1 Megaselia species and 1 was identified as Muscina stabulans. Conclusions: S. haemorrhoidalis was the commonest maggot involved. A high index of suspicion is required for clinical diagnosis when the patient complains of passing wriggling worms in faeces for a long period without any response to antihelminthics. The reason for long duration of illness and recurrence of infestation is baffling. The nearest to cure was colonic wash. We feel prevention is of utmost importance, which is to avoid eating food articles with easy access to flies.

  12. Intestinal myiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udgaonkar, U S; Dharamsi, R; Kulkarni, S A; Shah, S R; Patil, S S; Bhosale, A L; Gadgil, S A; Mohite, R S

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal myiasis is a condition when the fly larvae inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and are passed out in faeces. This type of infestation results when eggs or larvae of the fly, deposited on food are inadvertently taken by man. They survive the unfavourable conditions within the gastrointestinal tract and produce disturbances, which may vary from mild to severe. The condition is not uncommon and is often misdiagnosed as pinworm infestation. Correct diagnosis by the clinical microbiologist is important to avoid unnecessary treatment. We had 7 cases of intestinal myiasis. In 2 cases the larvae were reared to adult fly in modified meat and sand medium (developed by Udgaonkar). This medium is simple and can be easily prepared in the laboratory. Of the 7 larvae, 5 were Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis, 1 Megaselia species and 1 was identified as Muscina stabulans. S. haemorrhoidalis was the commonest maggot involved. A high index of suspicion is required for clinical diagnosis when the patient complains of passing wriggling worms in faeces for a long period without any response to antihelminthics. The reason for long duration of illness and recurrence of infestation is baffling. The nearest to cure was colonic wash. We feel prevention is of utmost importance, which is to avoid eating food articles with easy access to flies.

  13. [Adult intestinal malrotation associated with intestinal volvulus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando-Almudí, Ernesto; Cerdán-Pascual, Rafael; Vallejo-Bernad, Cristina; Martín-Cuartero, Joaquín; Sánchez-Rubio, María; Casamayor-Franco, Carmen

    Intestinal malrotation is a congenital anomaly of the intestinal rotation and fixation, and usually occurs in the neonatal age. Description of a clinical case associated with acute occlusive symptoms. A case of intestinal malrotation is presented in a previously asymptomatic woman of 46 years old with an intestinal obstruction, with radiology and surgical findings showing an absence of intestinal rotation. Intestinal malrotation in adults is often asymptomatic, and is diagnosed as a casual finding during a radiological examination performed for other reasons. Infrequently, it can be diagnosed in adults, associated with an acute abdomen. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  14. Intestinal Ostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambe, Peter C; Kurz, Nadja Rebecca; Nitschke, Claudia; Odeh, Siad F; Möslein, Gabriela; Zirngibl, Hubert

    2018-03-16

    About 100 000 ostomy carriers are estimated to live in Germany today. The creation of an ostomy represents a major life event that can be associated with impaired quality of life. Optimal ostomy creation and proper ostomy care are crucially important determinants of the success of treatment and of the patients' quality of life. This article is based on pertinent publications retrieved by a selective search in PubMed, GoogleScholar, and Scopus, and on the authors' experience. Intestinal stomata can be created using either the small or the large bowel. More than 75% of all stomata are placed as part of the treatment of colorectal cancer. The incidence of stoma-related complications is reported to be 10-70%. Skin irritation, erosion, and ulceration are the most common early complications, with a combined incidence of 25-34%, while stoma prolapse is the most common late complication, with an incidence of 8-75%. Most early complications can be managed conservatively, while most late complications require surgical revision. In 19% of cases, an ostomy that was initially planned to be temporary becomes permanent. Inappropriate stoma location and inadequate ostomy care are the most common causes of early complications. Both surgical and patient-related factors influence late complications. Every step from the planning of a stoma to its postoperative care should be discussed with the patient in detail. Preoperative marking is essential for an optimal stoma site. Optimal patient management with the involvement of an ostomy nurse increases ostomy acceptance, reduces ostomy-related complications, and improves the quality of life of ostomy carriers.

  15. Intestinal tract diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.S.

    1985-01-01

    Roentgenoanatomy and physiology of the small intestine are described. Indications for radiological examinations and their possibilities in the diagnosis of the small intestine diseases are considered.Congenital anomalies and failures in the small intestine development, clinical indications and diagnosis methods for the detection of different aetiology enteritis are described. Characteristics of primary malabsorption due to congenital or acquired inferiority of the small intestine, is provided. Radiological picture of intestinal allergies is described. Clinical, morphological, radiological pictures of Crohn's disease are considered in detail. Special attention is paid to the frequency of primary and secondary tuberculosis of intestinal tract. The description of clinical indications and frequency of benign and malignant tumours of the small intestine, methods for their diagnosis are given. Radiological pictures of parasitogenic and rare diseases of the small intestine are presented. Changes in the small intestine as a result of its reaction to pathological processes, developing in other organs and systems of the organism, are described

  16. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying in bed for long periods of time (bedridden). Taking drugs that slow intestinal movements. These include ... be tried: Colonoscopy may be used to remove air from the large intestine. Fluids can be given ...

  17. Quality control of fresh sweet corn in controlled freezing-point storage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... preservation technology in subzero non-frozen tempera- ture range to ... method for sweet corn which possessed high respiration rate and sugar ..... to extend the shelf life of fresh cod (Gadus morhua) loins. J. Food Sci.

  18. Gastric and intestinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Theresa W; Hedlund, Cheryl S

    2003-09-01

    Gastric surgery is commonly performed to remove foreign bodies and correct gastric dilatation-volvulus and is less commonly performed to treat gastric ulceration or erosion, neoplasia, and benign gastric outflow obstruction. Intestinal surgery, although commonly performed by veterinarians, should never be considered routine. The most common procedures of the small intestinal tract performed in dogs and cats include enterotomy and resection/anastomosis. Surgery of the large intestine is indicated for lesions causing obstruction, perforations, colonic inertia, or chronic inflammation.

  19. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Hasan M.; Al-Arayedh, Ghadeer G.; Mohamed, Afaf M.

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL) is a rare disease characterized by dilatation of intestinal lymphatics. It can be classified as primary or secondary according to the underlying etiology. The clinical presentations of IL are pitting edema, chylous ascites, pleural effusion, acute appendicitis, diarrhea, lymphocytopenia, malabsorption, and intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis is made by intestinal endoscopy and biopsies. Dietary modification is the mainstay in the management of IL with a variable response. Here we report 2 patients with IL in Bahrain who showed positive response to dietary modification. PMID:26837404

  20. Intestinal parasites and tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Alonso Cedeño-Burbano

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: The available evidence was insufficient to affirm that intestinal parasites predispose to developing tuberculous. The studies carried out so far have found statistically insignificant results.

  1. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, N; Ganesh, R; Sankar, Janani; Sathiyasekaran, Malathi

    2009-10-01

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare disease of intestinal lymphatics presenting with hypoproteinemia, bilateral lower limb edema, ascites, and protein losing enteropathy. We report a series of 4 children from Chennai, India presenting with anasarca, recurrent diarrhea, hypoproteinemia and confirmatory features of PIL on endoscopy and histopathology.

  2. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Dušan Đ.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia is a disease which leads to protein losing enteropathy. Tortous, dilated lymphatic vessels in the intestinal wall and mesenterium are typical features of the disease. Clinical manifestations include malabsorption, diarrhea, steatorrhea, edema and effusions. Specific diet and medication are required for disease control. Case report. A 19-year old male patient was hospitalized due to diarrhea, abdominal swelling, weariness and fatigue. Physical examination revealed growth impairment, ascites, and lymphedema of the right hand and forearm. Laboratory assessment indicated iron deficiency anaemia, lymphopenia, malabsorption, inflammatory syndrome, and urinary infection. Enteroscopy and video capsule endoscopy demonstrated dilated lymphatic vessels in the small intestine. The diagnosis was confirmed by intestinal biopsy. The patient was put on high-protein diet containing medium-chain fatty acids, somatotropin and suportive therapy. Conclusion. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare disease, usually diagnosed in childhood. Early recognition of the disease and adequate treatment can prevent development of various complications.

  3. [Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Dugan D j; Spuran, Milan; Alempijević, Tamara; Krstić, Miodrag; Djuranović, Srdjan; Kovacević, Nada; Damnjanović, Svetozar; Micev, Marjan

    2011-03-01

    Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia is a disease which leads to protein losing enteropathy. Tortuous, dilated lymphatic vessels in the intestinal wall and mesenterium are typical features of the disease. Clinical manifestations include malabsorption, diarrhea, steatorrhea, edema and effusions. Specific diet and medication are required for disease control. A 19-year old male patient was hospitalized due to diarrhea, abdominal swelling, weariness and fatigue. Physical examination revealed growth impairment, ascites, and lymphedema of the right hand and forearm. Laboratory assessment indicated iron deficiency anaemia, lymphopenia, malabsorption, inflammatory syndrome, and urinary infection. Enteroscopy and video capsule endoscopy demonstrated dilated lymphatic vessels in the small intestine. The diagnosis was confirmed by intestinal biopsy. The patient was put on high-protein diet containing medium-chain fatty acids, somatotropin and supportive therapy. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare disease, usually diagnosed in childhood. Early recognition of the disease and adequate treatment can prevent development of various complications.

  4. Purification of Alaskan Walleye Pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus and New Zealand Hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae Liver Oil Using Short Path Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex C. M. Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial health effects of a diet rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA have been extensively researched in recent years. Marine oils are an important dietary source of n-3 LC-PUFA, being especially rich in two of the most important fatty acids of this class, EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid; 20:5n-3 and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid; 22:6n-3. Oils rich in n-3 LC-PUFA are prone to oxidation that leads to loss of product quality. Alaskan pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus Pallas, 1814 and New Zealand’s hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae Hector, 1871 are the highest volume fisheries of their respective countries. Both produce large quantities of fishery byproducts, in particular crude or unrefined n-3 LC-PUFA containing oils. Presently these oils are used as ingredients for animal feed, and only limited quantities are used as human nutritional products. The aim of this research was to investigate the applicability of short path distillation for the purification of pollock and hoki oil to produce purified human-grade fish oil to meet quality specifications. Pollock and hoki oils were subjected to short path distillation and a significant decrease in free fatty acids and lipid oxidation (peroxide and para-anisidine values products was observed. Purified oils met the Global Organization for EPA and DHA Omega-3 (GOED standard for edible fish oils.

  5. Purification of Alaskan walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) and New Zealand hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae) liver oil using short path distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alex C M; Miller, Matthew R

    2014-05-22

    The beneficial health effects of a diet rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) have been extensively researched in recent years. Marine oils are an important dietary source of n-3 LC-PUFA, being especially rich in two of the most important fatty acids of this class, EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid; 20:5n-3) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid; 22:6n-3). Oils rich in n-3 LC-PUFA are prone to oxidation that leads to loss of product quality. Alaskan pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus Pallas, 1814) and New Zealand's hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae Hector, 1871) are the highest volume fisheries of their respective countries. Both produce large quantities of fishery byproducts, in particular crude or unrefined n-3 LC-PUFA containing oils. Presently these oils are used as ingredients for animal feed, and only limited quantities are used as human nutritional products. The aim of this research was to investigate the applicability of short path distillation for the purification of pollock and hoki oil to produce purified human-grade fish oil to meet quality specifications. Pollock and hoki oils were subjected to short path distillation and a significant decrease in free fatty acids and lipid oxidation (peroxide and para-anisidine values) products was observed. Purified oils met the Global Organization for EPA and DHA Omega-3 (GOED) standard for edible fish oils.

  6. Effects of chilled storage and cryopreservation on sperm characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in Pacific cod Gadus microcephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueying; Shi, Xuehui; Liu, Yifan; Yu, Daode; Guan, Shuguang; Liu, Qinghua; Li, Jun

    2016-07-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of chilled storage and cryopreservation on sperm motion characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in the Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus. Sperm motility and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (Gr), and lipid peroxidation (measured via malondialdehyde (MDA) content) were determined after the milt was stored at 4°C for 12 h, cryopreserved without cryoprotectant in 12% propylene glycol (PG), cryopreserved in 12% PG+0.1 mol/L trehalose, or cryopreserved in 12% PG spermatozoa but centrifuged to decant the supernatant prior to cryopreservation (only sperm cells were cryopreserved). After chilled storage or cryopreservation, the SOD, CAT and GPx activities were reduced in sperm cells and increased in seminal plasma in almost all treatments; sperm motility parameters were also decreased. However, the addition of trehalose into the cryoprotectant could significantly improve the postthaw sperm quality as revealed by the sperm average path velocity. This improvement might be attributed to the function of trehalose in scavenging reactive oxygen species. Chilled storage and cryopreservation had significant effects on sperm motion characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in the Pacific cod.

  7. Intestinal failure in childhood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insulin influences intestinal structure and absorptive function.36 The favourable effect of .... lipid emulsions, micronutrients provison and cyclic infusion.3 The guidelines on PN .... Classification, epidemiology and aetiology. Best Pract Res Clin ...

  8. Intestinal Permeability: The Basics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvar Bjarnason

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors review some of the more fundamental principles underlying the noninvasive assessment of intestinal permeability in humans, the choice of test markers and their analyses, and the practical aspects of test dose composition and how these can be changed to allow the specific assessment of regional permeability changes and other intestinal functions. The implications of increased intestinal permeability in the pathogenesis of human disease is discussed in relation to findings in patients with Crohn’s disease. A common feature of increased intestinal permeability is the development of a low grade enteropathy, and while quantitatively similar changes may be found in Crohn’s disease these seem to predict relapse of disease. Moreover, factors associated with relapse of Crohn’s disease have in common an action to increase intestinal permeability. While increased intestinal permeability does not seem to be important in the etiology of Crohn’s disease it may be a central mechanism in the clinical relapse of disease.

  9. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Hugh James; Nimmo, Michael

    2011-02-15

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia in the adult may be characterized as a disorder with dilated intestinal lacteals causing loss of lymph into the lumen of the small intestine and resultant hypoproteinemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia and reduced number of circulating lymphocytes or lymphopenia. Most often, intestinal lymphangiectasia has been recorded in children, often in neonates, usually with other congenital abnormalities but initial definition in adults including the elderly has become increasingly more common. Shared clinical features with the pediatric population such as bilateral lower limb edema, sometimes with lymphedema, pleural effusion and chylous ascites may occur but these reflect the severe end of the clinical spectrum. In some, diarrhea occurs with steatorrhea along with increased fecal loss of protein, reflected in increased fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin levels, while others may present with iron deficiency anemia, sometimes associated with occult small intestinal bleeding. Most lymphangiectasia in adults detected in recent years, however, appears to have few or no clinical features of malabsorption. Diagnosis remains dependent on endoscopic changes confirmed by small bowel biopsy showing histological evidence of intestinal lymphangiectasia. In some, video capsule endoscopy and enteroscopy have revealed more extensive changes along the length of the small intestine. A critical diagnostic element in adults with lymphangiectasia is the exclusion of entities (e.g. malignancies including lymphoma) that might lead to obstruction of the lymphatic system and "secondary" changes in the small bowel biopsy. In addition, occult infectious (e.g. Whipple's disease from Tropheryma whipplei) or inflammatory disorders (e.g. Crohn's disease) may also present with profound changes in intestinal permeability and protein-losing enteropathy that also require exclusion. Conversely, rare B-cell type lymphomas have also been described even decades following initial

  10. 3-4 gadus vecu bērnu sociālo prasmju sekmēšana lomu rotaļās

    OpenAIRE

    Cine, Annija Kristiāna

    2017-01-01

    Kvalifikācijas darba temats: 3-4 gadus vecu bērnu sociālo prasmju sekmēšana lomu rotaļās. Darba izvirzītais mērķis ir noskaidrot lomu rotaļu ietekmi uz bērnu sociālo prasmju attīstību. Mērķa sasniegšanai tika izvirzīti šādi uzdevumi: •analizēt pedagoģijas un psiholoģijas literatūras autoru atziņas par sociālo prasmju sekmēšanu 3-4 gadus veciem bērniem; •izzināt pedagoģisko un psiholoģisko literatūru par rotaļu nozīmi bērnu sociālo prasmju sekmēšanā; •noskaidrot galvenos sociālo prasmju sekmē...

  11. Diagnosis of intestinal and extra intestinal amoebiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Myriam Consuelo; Quiroz, Damian Arnoldo; Pinilla, Analida Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The objective is to carry out a review of the national and international literature as of the XXth century in order to update the advances for the diagnosis of complex odd Entamoeba histolytic / Entamoeba dispar and that of intestinal and extra intestinal amoebiasis that may be of use to the scientific community. As well as to unify the diagnostic criteria of this parasitosis known as a public health problem, and as a consequence of that, optimize the quality of population care. Data source: there was a systematic search for the scientific literature Publisher in Spanish and English since 1960 until today, this selection started on the first semester of 2006 until 2007, in the development of the line on intestinal and extra-intestinal amoebiasis of the Medical School of the National University of Colombia. A retrospective search process was carried out, systematically reviewing the most relevant articles as well as the products of this research line. In deciding how to make this article, there was a continuous search in different data bases such as Medline, SciELO and other bases in the library of the National University of Colombia, as well as other classical books related to the subject. For that purpose the terms amoebiasis, odd Entamoeba histolytic, Entamoeba, diagnosis, epidemiology, dysentery, amoebic liver abscess, were used. Studies selection: titles and abstracts were reviewed to select the original publications and the most representative ones related to this article's subject. Data extraction: the articles were classified according to the subject, the chronology and the authors according to the scientific contribution to solve the problem. Synthesis of the data: in the fi rst instance, a chronological critical analysis was carried out to order and synthesize the progress made in the diagnosis until confirmation of the experts' agreements in the field of amoebiasis was obtained throughout the world. Conclusion: this article summarizes what has taken place

  12. Small intestine diverticuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomakov, P.; Risov, A.

    1991-01-01

    The routine method of contrast matter passage applied to 850 patients with different gastrointestinal diseases proved inefficient to detect any small-intestinal diverticuli. The following modiffications of the method have been tested in order to improve the diagnostic possibilities of the X-ray: study at short intervals, assisted passage, enteroclysm, pharmacodynamic impact, retrograde filling of the ileum by irrigoscopy. Twelve diverticuli of the small-intestinal loops were identified: 5 Meckel's diverticuli, 2 solitary of which one of the therminal ileum, 2 double diverticuli and 1 multiple diverticulosis of the jejunum. The results show that the short interval X-ray examination of the small intestines is the method of choice for identifying local changes in them. The solitary diverticuli are not casuistic scarcity, its occurrence is about 0.5% at purposeful X-ray investigation. The assisted passage method is proposed as a method of choice for detection of the Meckel's diverticulum. 5 figs., 3 tabs. 18 refs

  13. Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeon, Kyung Mo; Seo, Jeong Kee; Lee, Yong Seok [Seoul National University Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-03-15

    Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome is a rare clinical condition in which impaired intestinal peristalsis causes recurrent symptoms of bowel obstruction in the absence of a mechanical occlusion. This syndrome may involve variable segments of small or large bowel, and may be associated with urinary bladder retention. This study included 6 children(3 boys and 3 girls) of chronic intestinal obstruction. Four were symptomatic at birth and two were of the ages of one month and one year. All had abdominal distension and deflection difficulty. Five had urinary bladder distension. Despite parenteral nutrition and surgical intervention(ileostomy or colostomy), bowel obstruction persisted and four patients expired from sepses within one year. All had gaseous distension of small and large bowel on abdominal films. In small bowel series, consistent findings were variable degree of dilatation, decreased peristalsis(prolonged transit time) and microcolon or microrectum. This disease entity must be differentiated from congenital megacolon, ileal atresia and megacystis syndrome.

  14. Small Intestinal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munot, Khushboo; Kotler, Donald P

    2016-06-01

    Small intestinal infections are extremely common worldwide. They may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in etiology. Most are foodborne or waterborne, with specific etiologies differing by region and with diverse pathophysiologies. Very young, very old, and immune-deficient individuals are the most vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from small intestinal infections. There have been significant advances in diagnostic sophistication with the development and early application of molecular diagnostic assays, though these tests have not become mainstream. The lack of rapid diagnoses combined with the self-limited nature of small intestinal infections has hampered the development of specific and effective treatments other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are not indicated in the absence of an etiologic diagnosis, and not at all in the case of some infections.

  15. Small intestine aspirate and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003731.htm Small intestine aspirate and culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection ...

  16. Intestinal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abdominal X-ray of patients 1, 3 and 4 demonstrated dilated small bowel loops with fluid levels in keeping with intestinal ... myxoid/vascular pattern characterised by a variable admixture of capillary-calibre blood vessels, .... in the present study had a past history of abdominal trauma or surgery. Ancillary histopathological ...

  17. Human Intestinal Spirochaetosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    Human intestinal spirochaetosis is a condition of the colon that is characterized by the presence of spirochaetes attached to the mucosal cells of the colon. These spirochaetes belong to the family Brachyspiraceae and two species are known to occur in humans: Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira

  18. Intestinal health in carnivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen-Plantinga, Esther A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge on the influence of gastro-intestinal (GI) microbiota on the health status of humans and animals is rapidly expanding. A balanced microbiome may provide multiple benefits to the host, like triggering and stimulation of the immune system, acting as a barrier against possible pathogenic

  19. Intestinal Complications of IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... localized pocket of pus caused by infection from bacteria. More common in Crohn’s than in colitis, an abscess may form in the intestinal wall—sometimes causing it to bulge out. Visible abscesses, such as those around the anus, look like boils and treatment often involves lancing. Symptoms of ...

  20. Intestinal volvulus in cetaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begeman, L; St Leger, J A; Blyde, D J; Jauniaux, T P; Lair, S; Lovewell, G; Raverty, S; Seibel, H; Siebert, U; Staggs, S L; Martelli, P; Keesler, R I

    2013-07-01

    Intestinal volvulus was recognized as the cause of death in 18 cetaceans, including 8 species of toothed whales (suborder Odontoceti). Cases originated from 11 institutions from around the world and included both captive (n = 9) and free-ranging (n = 9) animals. When the clinical history was available (n = 9), animals consistently demonstrated acute dullness 1 to 5 days prior to death. In 3 of these animals (33%), there was a history of chronic gastrointestinal illness. The pathological findings were similar to those described in other animal species and humans, and consisted of intestinal volvulus and a well-demarcated segment of distended, congested, and edematous intestine with gas and bloody fluid contents. Associated lesions included congested and edematous mesentery and mesenteric lymph nodes, and often serofibrinous or hemorrhagic abdominal effusion. The volvulus involved the cranial part of the intestines in 85% (11 of 13). Potential predisposing causes were recognized in most cases (13 of 18, 72%) but were variable. Further studies investigating predisposing factors are necessary to help prevent occurrence and enhance early clinical diagnosis and management of the condition.

  1. Small intestinal motility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smout, André J. P. M.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the past year, many studies were published in which new and relevant information on small intestinal motility in humans and laboratory animals was obtained. RECENT FINDINGS: Although the reported findings are heterogeneous, some themes appear to be particularly interesting and

  2. [Intrauterine intestinal volvulus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawrych, Elzbieta; Chojnacka, Hanna; Wegrzynowski, Jerzy; Rajewska, Justyna

    2009-07-01

    Intrauterine intestinal volvulus is an extremely rare case of acute congenital intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis is usually possible in the third trimester of a pregnancy. Fetal midgut volvulus is most likely to be recognized by observing a typical clockwise whirlpool sign during color Doppler investigation. Multiple dilated intestinal loops with fluid levels are usually visible during the antenatal ultrasound as well. Physical and radiographic findings in the newborn indicate intestinal obstruction and an emergency surgery is required. The authors describe intrauterine volvulus in 3 female newborns in which surgical treatment was individualized. The decision about primary or delayed anastomosis after resection of the gangrenous part of the small bowel was made at the time of the surgery and depended on the general condition of the newborn, as well as presence or absence of meconium peritonitis. Double loop jejunostomy was performed in case of two newborns, followed by a delayed end-to-end anastomosis. In case of the third newborn, good blood supply of the small intestine after untwisting and 0.25% lignocaine injections into mesentery led to the assumption that the torsion was not complete and ischemia was reversible. In the two cases of incomplete rotation the cecum was sutured to the left abdominal wall to prevent further twisting. The postoperative course was uneventful and oral alimentation caused no problems. Physical development of all these children has been normal (current age: 1-2 years) and the parents have not observed any disorders or problems regarding passage of food through the alimentary canal. Prompt antenatal diagnosis of this surgical emergency and adequate choice of intervention may greatly reduce mortality due to intrauterine volvulus.

  3. Small intestinal transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M

    2012-02-03

    The past few years have witnessed a considerable shift in the clinical status of intestinal transplantation. A great deal of experience has been gained at the most active centers, and results comparable with those reported at a similar stage in the development of other solid-organ graft programs are now being achieved by these highly proficient transplant teams. Rejection and its inevitable associate, sepsis, remain ubiquitous, and new immunosuppressant regimes are urgently needed; some may already be on the near horizon. The recent success of isolated intestinal grafts, together with the mortality and morbidity attendant upon the development of advanced liver disease related to total parenteral nutrition, has prompted the bold proposal that patients at risk for this complication should be identified and should receive isolated small bowel grafts before the onset of end-stage hepatic failure. The very fact that such a suggestion has begun to emerge reflects real progress in this challenging field.

  4. Lipo sarcoma in small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Iglesias, J.; Pineyro Gutierrez, A.; Taroco Medeiros, L.; Fein Kolodny, C.; Navarrete Pedocchi, H.

    1987-01-01

    A case is presented by primitive liposarcoma in small intestine , an extensive bibliographical review foreigner and national in this case. It detach the exceptional of the intestinal topography of the liposarcomas; and making stress in the relative value of the computerized tomography and ultrasonography in the diagnose of the small intestine tumors . As well as in the sarcomas of another topography, chemo and radiotherapy associated to the exeresis surgery, it can be of benefit [es

  5. Classification of photobacteria associated with spoilage of fish products by numerical taxanomy and pyrolysis mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Paw; Manfio, G.P.; Goodfellow, M.

    1997-01-01

    , from spoiled products and by using a specific detection method. The data were analysed using the similarity coefficient and the unweighted pair-group with arithmetic averages algorithm. In addition twenty-six of the fish isolates and five reference strains were analysed by Curie-point pyrolysis mass...... sub-groups. One sub-group of psychrotolerant P. phosphoreum strains, which was selected in modified atmosphere packed fish stored at low temperature, was also highlighted using each of the methods. The importance of classifying food spoilage bacteria has been shown and a simple key generated......Forty strains of luminous and non-luminous Photobacterium phosphoreum isolates from cod (Gadus morhua) and seven reference strains of psychrotolerant and mesophilic photobacteria were examined for 156 unit characters in a numerical taxonomic study. The fish strains were isolated from the intestines...

  6. Intestinal parasites : associations with intestinal and systemic inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zavala, Gerardo A; García, Olga P; Camacho, Mariela; Ronquillo, Dolores; Campos-Ponce, Maiza; Doak, Colleen; Polman, Katja; Rosado, Jorge L

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Evaluate associations between intestinal parasitic infection with intestinal and systemic inflammatory markers in school-aged children with high rates of obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma concentrations of CRP, leptin, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 were measured as systemic inflammation markers and

  7. A baseline study on levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, non-ortho and mono-ortho PCBs, non-dioxin-like PCBs and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) from different parts of the Barents Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julshamn, Kaare; Duinker, Arne; Berntssen, Marc; Nilsen, Bente M.; Frantzen, Sylvia; Nedreaas, Kjell; Maage, Amund

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Livers of cod from the Barents Sea have been analysed for dioxins, PCBs and PBDEs. • The overall mean concentration of dioxins and DL-PCBs was 14.2 ng TEQ WHO-2005 /kg ww. • The concentrations of dioxins and DL-PCBs varied between 1.0 and 151 ng TEQ/kg ww. • 20% of the samples had concentrations higher than 20 ng TEQ/kg ww. • The highest concentrations of dioxins and PCB were found in samples from the east area of the Barents Sea. -- Abstract: This study is one of several baseline studies on commercially important Norwegian wild fish species that will provide information concerning metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and food safety. The cod liver is a traditional food product in Norway and a potential source for POPs in the diet. The concentrations of dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs), non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs, PCB 6 ) and polybrominated flame retardants (PBDEs) were determined in the liver of 784 individual Northeast Arctic cod caught at 32 positions in the Barents Sea in the period from 2009–2010. In addition, muscle samples from 30 individual cod were analysed for the same substances. The mean concentration of the sum of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs for all samples was 14.2 ng TEQ who-2005 /kg ww with a variation between 1.0 and 151 ng TEQ/kg ww. The concentrations of POPs in the fillet samples were very low

  8. Small Intestine Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of small intestine cancer. Other types of small intestine cancer are sarcomas, carcinoid tumors, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and lymphomas. Find evidence-based information on small intestine cancer treatment, research, and statistics.

  9. Hippo signalling directs intestinal fate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    le Bouteiller, Marie Catherine M; Jensen, Kim Bak

    2015-01-01

    Hippo signalling has been associated with many important tissue functions including the regulation of organ size. In the intestinal epithelium differing functions have been proposed for the effectors of Hippo signalling, YAP and TAZ1. These are now shown to have a dual role in the intestinal...

  10. [Treatment of children with intestinal failure: intestinal rehabilitation, home parenteral nutrition or small intestine transplantation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelis, E.G.; Oers, H.A. van; Escher, J.C.; Damen, G.M.; Rings, E.H.; Tabbers, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal failure is characterised by inadequate absorption of food or fluids, which is caused by insufficient bowel surface area or functioning. Children with chronic intestinal failure are dependent on parenteral nutrition (PN), which can be provided at home (HPN). In the Netherlands, HPN for

  11. Intestinal transplantation: The anesthesia perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Aparna

    2016-04-01

    Intestinal transplantation is a complex and challenging surgery. It is very effective for treating intestinal failure, especially for those patients who cannot tolerate parenteral nutrition nor have extensive abdominal disease. Chronic parental nutrition can induce intestinal failure associated liver disease (IFALD). According to United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) data, children with intestinal failure affected by liver disease secondary to parenteral nutrition have the highest mortality on a waiting list when compared with all candidates for solid organ transplantation. Intestinal transplant grafts can be isolated or combined with the liver/duodenum/pancreas. Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) has defined intestinal donor criteria. Living donor intestinal transplant (LDIT) has the advantages of optimal timing, short ischemia time and good human leukocyte antigen matching contributing to lower postoperative complications in the recipient. Thoracic epidurals provide excellent analgesia for the donors, as well as recipients. Recipient management can be challenging. Thrombosis and obstruction of venous access maybe common due to prolonged parenteral nutrition and/or hypercoaguability. Thromboelastography (TEG) is helpful for managing intraoperative product therapy or thrombosis. Large fluid shifts and electrolyte disturbances may occur due to massive blood loss, dehydration, third spacing etc. Intestinal grafts are susceptible to warm and cold ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Post-reperfusion syndrome is common. Cardiac or pulmonary clots can be monitored with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. Vasopressors maybe used to ensure stable hemodynamics. Post-intestinal transplant patients may need anesthesia for procedures such as biopsies for surveillance of rejection, bronchoscopy, endoscopy, postoperative hemorrhage, anastomotic leaks, thrombosis of grafts etc. Asepsis

  12. Impact of Intestinal Microbiota on Intestinal Luminal Metabolome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mitsuharu; Kibe, Ryoko; Ooga, Takushi; Aiba, Yuji; Kurihara, Shin; Sawaki, Emiko; Koga, Yasuhiro; Benno, Yoshimi

    2012-01-01

    Low–molecular-weight metabolites produced by intestinal microbiota play a direct role in health and disease. In this study, we analyzed the colonic luminal metabolome using capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry with time-of-flight (CE-TOFMS) —a novel technique for analyzing and differentially displaying metabolic profiles— in order to clarify the metabolite profiles in the intestinal lumen. CE-TOFMS identified 179 metabolites from the colonic luminal metabolome and 48 metabolites were present in significantly higher concentrations and/or incidence in the germ-free (GF) mice than in the Ex-GF mice (p metabolome and a comprehensive understanding of intestinal luminal metabolome is critical for clarifying host-intestinal bacterial interactions. PMID:22724057

  13. Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiradfar, Mehran; Shojaeian, Reza; Dehghanian, Paria; Hajian, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a multisystemic disorder in which impaired intestinal motor activity causes recurrent symptoms of intestinal obstruction in the absence of mechanical occlusion, associated with bladder distention without distal obstruction of the urinary tract. MMIHS and prune belly syndrome may overlap in most of the clinical features and discrimination of these two entities is important because the prognosis, management and consulting with parents are completely different. MMIHS outcome is very poor and in this article we present two neonates with MMIHS that both died in a few days. PMID:23729700

  14. Antibiotic concentrations in intestinal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmborg, A S

    1985-01-01

    The concentrations in the intestinal mucosa after the initial dose of cefoxitin, piperacillin and clindamycin have been studied. The antibiotics were given at the induction of anesthesia as prophylaxis to patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. The concentrations of the antibiotics in serum and intestinal mucosa taken during the operation were determined by the microbiological agar diffusion method. Therapeutic concentrations in intestinal mucosa were maintained during the major part of the operation period. The mean mucosa/serum concentration ratios were for cefoxitin 0.4, for piperacillin 0.5 and for clindamycin 1.2.

  15. INFANTS’ INTESTINAL COLICS. MODERN DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Ursova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes modern data on infants’ intestinal colics. Peculiarities of nutrition, intestinal microbiocenose in healthy infants, methods of colcs’ correction are discussed. Author describes the principles of probiotics choice based on their clinical effectiveness in infants. Milk formula «Nan Comfort» can be useful in prophylaxis and treatment of functional disorders of gastrointestinal tract in children.Key words: infants, gastrointestinal tract, anatomy, physiology, intestinal colics, nutrition, probiotics.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (2: 125–131

  16. Fish, fishing, and pollutant reduction in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Almesjö, L.; Hansson, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is heavily polluted yet supports major Commercial fisheries for cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat (Sprattus sprattus). Emissions of persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT, were high during the 1960s and 1970s, and conc......The Baltic Sea is heavily polluted yet supports major Commercial fisheries for cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat (Sprattus sprattus). Emissions of persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT, were high during the 1960s and 1970s...

  17. pHj, contractility and Ca-balance under hypercapnic acidosis in the myocardium of different vertebrate species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gesser, H; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    1982-01-01

    The influence of hypercapnic acidosis upon the heart was examined in four vertebrate species. The CO2 in the tissue bath was increased from 2.7 to 15% at 12 degrees C for flounder (Platichthys flesus) and cod (Gadus morhua) and from 3 to 13% at 22 degrees C for turtle (Pseudemys scripta) and rain......The influence of hypercapnic acidosis upon the heart was examined in four vertebrate species. The CO2 in the tissue bath was increased from 2.7 to 15% at 12 degrees C for flounder (Platichthys flesus) and cod (Gadus morhua) and from 3 to 13% at 22 degrees C for turtle (Pseudemys scripta...

  18. Intestinal Failure (Short Bowel Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at the beginning to maintain nutrition and good hydration although it is hoped that the small intestine ... life. For more information or to locate a pediatric gastroenterologist in your area please visit our website ...

  19. INTESTINAL INTUSSUSCEPTION DUE TO CONCURRENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Hymenolepis nana and Dentostomella ... worms (H. nana and D. translucida) were observed in the lumen of the intestine with severe cellular infiltration .... helminthosis and Balantidosis in Red monkey (Erythrocebus patas) in Ibadan Nigeria Nigerian ...

  20. Telescoping Intestine in an Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldoon Shaheen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Protrusion of a bowel segment into another (intussusception produces severe abdominal pain and culminates in intestinal obstruction. In adults, intestinal obstruction due to intussusception is relatively rare phenomenon, as it accounts for minority of intestinal obstructions in this population demographic. Organic lesion is usually identifiable as the cause of adult intussusceptions, neoplasms account for the majority. Therefore, surgical resection without reduction is almost always necessary and is advocated as the best treatment of adult intussusception. Here, we describe a rare case of a 44-year-old male with a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma involving the terminal ileum, which had caused ileocolic intussusception and subsequently developed intestinal obstruction requiring surgical intervention. This case emphasizes the importance of recognizing intussusception as the initial presentation for bowel malignancy.

  1. Intestinal actinomycosis: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, C.M.; Labrunie, E.; Pannaim, V.L.N.; Santos, A.A.S. dos; Pereira, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    Intestinal actinomycosis: a case report. The authors describe a case of intestinal actinomycosis, which was manisfestated by abdominal mass and suggested, clinical and radiologically, a bowel carcinoma. They discuss the pathogenesis, and the clinical and radiological manisfestations of this disease, and its differential diagnosis. This is an infrequent disease which must be considered whenever suggestive clinical aspects are associated with a radiological ''malignant pattern'' of a bowel lesion. (author) [pt

  2. Parenteral Nutrition and Intestinal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielawska, Barbara; Allard, Johane P

    2017-05-06

    Severe short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a major cause of chronic (Type 3) intestinal failure (IF) where structural and functional changes contribute to malabsorption and risk of micronutrient deficiencies. Chronic IF may be reversible, depending on anatomy and intestinal adaptation, but most patients require long-term nutritional support, generally in the form of parenteral nutrition (PN). SBS management begins with dietary changes and pharmacologic therapies taking into account individual anatomy and physiology, but these are rarely sufficient to avoid PN. New hormonal therapies targeting intestinal adaptation hold promise. Surgical options for SBS including intestinal transplant are available, but have significant limitations. Home PN (HPN) is therefore the mainstay of treatment for severe SBS. HPN involves chronic administration of macronutrients, micronutrients, fluid, and electrolytes via central venous access in the patient's home. HPN requires careful clinical and biochemical monitoring. Main complications of HPN are related to venous access (infection, thrombosis) and metabolic complications including intestinal failure associated liver disease (IFALD). Although HPN significantly impacts quality of life, outcomes are generally good and survival is mostly determined by the underlying disease. As chronic intestinal failure is a rare disease, registries are a promising strategy for studying HPN patients to improve outcomes.

  3. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia: Minireview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, Sachin B; Hinge (Ingle), Chitra R

    2014-01-01

    Primary idiopathic intestinal lymphangiectasia is an unusual disease featured by the presence of dilated lymphatic channels which are located in the mucosa, submucosa or subserosa leading to protein loosing enteropathy.Most often affected were children and generally diagnosed before third year of life but may be rarely seen in adults too. Bilateral pitting oedema of lower limb is the main clinical manifestation mimicking the systemic disease and posing a real diagnostic dilemma to the clinicians to differentiate it from other common systemic diseases like Congestive cardiac failure, Nephrotic Syndrome, Protein Energy Malnutrition, etc. Diagnosis can be made on capsule endoscopy which can localise the lesion but unable to take biopsy samples. Thus, recently double-balloon enteroscopy and biopsy in combination can be used as an effective diagnostic tool to hit the correct diagnosis. Patients respond dramatically to diet constituting low long chain triglycerides and high protein content with supplements of medium chain triglyceride. So early diagnosis is important to prevent untoward complications related to disease or treatment for the sake of accurate pathological diagnosis. PMID:25325063

  4. [Malaria and intestinal protozoa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Marcos, Gerardo; Cuadros-González, Juan

    2016-03-01

    Malaria is life threatening and requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. Incidence and mortality are being reduced in endemic areas. Clinical features are unspecific so in imported cases it is vital the history of staying in a malarious area. The first line treatments for Plasmodium falciparum are artemisinin combination therapies, chloroquine in most non-falciparum and intravenous artesunate if any severity criteria. Human infections with intestinal protozoa are distributed worldwide with a high global morbid-mortality. They cause diarrhea and sometimes invasive disease, although most are asymptomatic. In our environment populations at higher risk are children, including adopted abroad, immune-suppressed, travelers, immigrants, people in contact with animals or who engage in oral-anal sex. Diagnostic microscopic examination has low sensitivity improving with antigen detection or molecular methods. Antiparasitic resistances are emerging lately. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  5. Haemorrhage and intestinal lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilia M. Pizzini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of coeliac disease is around 1% in general population but this is often unrecognised. The classical presentation of adult coeliac disease is characterized by diarrhoea and malabsorption syndrome, but atypical presentations are probably more common and are characterized by iron deficiency anaemia, weight loss, fatigue, infertility, arthralgia, peripheral neuropathy and osteoporosis. Unusual are the coagulation disorders (prevalence 20% and these are due to vitamin K malabsorption (prolonged prothrombin time. Clinical case: A 64-year-old man was admitted to our Department for an extensive spontaneous haematoma of the right leg. He had a history of a small bowel resection for T-cell lymphoma, with a negative follow-up and he didn’t report any personal or familiar history of bleeding. Laboratory tests showed markedly prolonged prothrombin (PT and partial-thromboplastin time (PTT, corrected by mixing studies, and whereas platelet count and liver tests was normal. A single dose (10 mg of intravenous vitamin K normalized the PT. Several days before the patient had been exposed to a superwarfarin pesticide, but diagnostic tests for brodifacoum, bromadiolone or difenacoum were negative. Diagnosis of multiple vitamin K-dependent coagulationfactor deficiencies (II, VII, IX, X due to intestinal malabsorption was made and coeliac disease was detected. Therefore the previous lymphoma diagnosis might be closely related to coeliac disease. Conclusions: A gluten free diet improves quality of life and restores normal nutritional and biochemical status and protects against these complications.

  6. Adult intestinal failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, J., E-mail: Jdavidson@doctors.org.u [Salford Royal Hospital, Salford (United Kingdom); Plumb, A.; Burnett, H. [Salford Royal Hospital, Salford (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    Intestinal failure (IF) is the inability of the alimentary tract to digest and absorb sufficient nutrition to maintain normal fluid balance, growth, and health. It commonly arises from disease affecting the mesenteric root. Although severe IF is usually managed in specialized units, it lies at the end of a spectrum with degrees of nutritional compromise being widely encountered, but commonly under-recognized. Furthermore, in the majority of cases, the initial enteric insult occurs in non-specialist IF centres. The aim of this article is to review the common causes of IF, general principles of its management, some commoner complications, and the role of radiology in the approach to a patient with severe IF. The radiologist has a crucial role in helping provide access for feeding solutions (both enteral and parenteral) and controlling sepsis (via drainage of collections) in an initial restorative phase of treatment, whilst simultaneously mapping bowel anatomy and quality, and searching for disease complications to assist the clinicians in planning a later, restorative phase of therapy.

  7. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (Waldmann's disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignes, Stéphane; Bellanger, Jérôme

    2008-02-22

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare disorder characterized by dilated intestinal lacteals resulting in lymph leakage into the small bowel lumen and responsible for protein-losing enteropathy leading to lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. PIL is generally diagnosed before 3 years of age but may be diagnosed in older patients. Prevalence is unknown. The main symptom is predominantly bilateral lower limb edema. Edema may be moderate to severe with anasarca and includes pleural effusion, pericarditis or chylous ascites. Fatigue, abdominal pain, weight loss, inability to gain weight, moderate diarrhea or fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies due to malabsorption may also be present. In some patients, limb lymphedema is associated with PIL and is difficult to distinguish lymphedema from edema. Exsudative enteropathy is confirmed by the elevated 24-h stool alpha1-antitrypsin clearance. Etiology remains unknown. Very rare familial cases of PIL have been reported. Diagnosis is confirmed by endoscopic observation of intestinal lymphangiectasia with the corresponding histology of intestinal biopsy specimens. Videocapsule endoscopy may be useful when endoscopic findings are not contributive. Differential diagnosis includes constrictive pericarditis, intestinal lymphoma, Whipple's disease, Crohn's disease, intestinal tuberculosis, sarcoidosis or systemic sclerosis. Several B-cell lymphomas confined to the gastrointestinal tract (stomach, jejunum, midgut, ileum) or with extra-intestinal localizations were reported in PIL patients. A low-fat diet associated with medium-chain triglyceride supplementation is the cornerstone of PIL medical management. The absence of fat in the diet prevents chyle engorgement of the intestinal lymphatic vessels thereby preventing their rupture with its ensuing lymph loss. Medium-chain triglycerides are absorbed directly into the portal venous circulation and avoid lacteal overloading. Other inconsistently effective

  8. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (Waldmann's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellanger Jérôme

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL is a rare disorder characterized by dilated intestinal lacteals resulting in lymph leakage into the small bowel lumen and responsible for protein-losing enteropathy leading to lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. PIL is generally diagnosed before 3 years of age but may be diagnosed in older patients. Prevalence is unknown. The main symptom is predominantly bilateral lower limb edema. Edema may be moderate to severe with anasarca and includes pleural effusion, pericarditis or chylous ascites. Fatigue, abdominal pain, weight loss, inability to gain weight, moderate diarrhea or fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies due to malabsorption may also be present. In some patients, limb lymphedema is associated with PIL and is difficult to distinguish lymphedema from edema. Exsudative enteropathy is confirmed by the elevated 24-h stool α1-antitrypsin clearance. Etiology remains unknown. Very rare familial cases of PIL have been reported. Diagnosis is confirmed by endoscopic observation of intestinal lymphangiectasia with the corresponding histology of intestinal biopsy specimens. Videocapsule endoscopy may be useful when endoscopic findings are not contributive. Differential diagnosis includes constrictive pericarditis, intestinal lymphoma, Whipple's disease, Crohn's disease, intestinal tuberculosis, sarcoidosis or systemic sclerosis. Several B-cell lymphomas confined to the gastrointestinal tract (stomach, jejunum, midgut, ileum or with extra-intestinal localizations were reported in PIL patients. A low-fat diet associated with medium-chain triglyceride supplementation is the cornerstone of PIL medical management. The absence of fat in the diet prevents chyle engorgement of the intestinal lymphatic vessels thereby preventing their rupture with its ensuing lymph loss. Medium-chain triglycerides are absorbed directly into the portal venous circulation and avoid lacteal overloading. Other

  9. Isotopic identification of intestinal strangulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.C.; Selby, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    A small series of eleven dogs prepared with a strangulating segment of jejunum demonstrated that a radionuclide, 99 mTc-labelled albumin, concentrates in the lumen and bowel wall of the affected intestinal segment. Modern scanning equipment accurately localized the strangulating loop. This technique has the potential of identifying patients with intestinal obstruction, in whom strangulation is a factor, prior to the development of impaired arterial inflow and frank gangrene. These findings confirmed earlier obstructions that were reported when nuclear scanning instrumentation was less sophisticated. Identification of patients at risk for intestinal strangulation requires a high index of suspicion. Excruciating cramping abdominal pain out of proportion to physical findings, roentgenogram evidence, and laboratory studies should alert the physician to the possibility of intestinal ischemia and closed loop obstruction. Radionuclide scanning in such cases may be of assistance in defining or excluding the diagnosis of a strangulating mechanism. The test is simple, relatively economical, and represents a low risk procedure to patients. It would have no place when the classic physical and laboratory findings of intestinal infarction are present

  10. Intestinal circulation during inhalation anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tverskoy, M.; Gelman, S.; Fowler, K.C.; Bradley, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of inhalational agents on the intestinal circulation in an isolated loop preparation. Sixty dogs were studied, using three intestinal segments from each dog. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. A mixture of 86 Rb and 9-microns spheres labeled with 141 Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A very strong and significant correlation was found between rubidium clearance and microsphere entrapment (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001). Nitrous oxide anesthesia was accompanied by a higher vascular resistance (VR), lower flow (F), rubidium clearance (Cl-Rb), and microspheres entrapment (Cl-Sph) than pentobarbital anesthesia, indicating that the vascular bed in the intestinal segment was constricted and flow (total and nutritive) decreased. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia were accompanied by a much lower arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO 2 ) and oxygen uptake than pentobarbital or nitrous oxide. Compared with pentobarbital, enflurane anesthesia was not accompanied by marked differences in VR, F, Cl-Rb, and Cl-Sph; halothane at 2 MAC decreased VR and increased F and Cl-Rb while isoflurane increased VR and decreased F. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg . kg-1) abolished isoflurane-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that the increase in VR was mediated via circulating catecholamines

  11. [Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (Waldmann's disease)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignes, S; Bellanger, J

    2017-08-31

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL), Waldmann's disease, is a rare disorder of unknown etiology characterized by dilated intestinal lacteals leading to lymph leakage into the small-bowel lumen and responsible for protein-losing enteropathy leading to lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. PIL is generally diagnosed before 3 years of age but may be diagnosed in older patients. The main symptom is bilateral lower limb edema. Edema may be moderate to severe including pleural effusion, pericarditis or ascites. Protein-losing enteropathy is confirmed by the elevated 24-h stool α1-antitrypsin clearance and diagnosis by endoscopic observation of intestinal lymphangiectasia with the corresponding histology of biopsies. Videocapsule endoscopy may be useful when endoscopic findings are not contributive. Several B-cell lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract or with extra-intestinal localizations were reported in PIL patients. A long-term strictly low-fat diet associated with medium-chain triglyceride and liposoluble vitamin supplementation is the cornerstone of PIL medical management. Octreotide, a somatostatin analog, have been proposed with an inconsistent efficacy in association with diet. Surgical small-bowel resection is useful in the rare cases with segmental and localized intestinal lymphangiectasia. A prolonged clinical and biological follow-up is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Parenteral nutrition in intestinal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurkchubasche AG

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Arlet G Kurkchubasche,1 Thomas J Herron,2 Marion F Winkler31Department of Surgery and Pediatrics, 2Department of Surgery, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, 3Department of Surgery/Nutritional Support Service, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Intestinal failure is a consequence of extensive surgical resection resulting in anatomic loss and/or functional impairment in motility or absorptive capacity. The condition is clinically characterized by the inability to maintain fluid, energy, protein, electrolyte, or micronutrient balance when on a conventionally accepted, normal diet. Parenteral nutrition (PN is the cornerstone of management until intestinal adaptation returns the patient to a PN-independent state. Intestinal length, residual anatomic segments and motility determine the need for and duration of parenteral support. The goals of therapy are to provide sufficient nutrients to enable normal growth and development in children, and support a healthy functional status in adults. This review addresses indications for PN, the formulation of the PN solution, patient monitoring, and considerations for prevention of PN-associated complications. With the ultimate goal of achieving enteral autonomy, the important role of diet, pharmacologic interventions, and surgery is discussed.Keywords: intestinal failure, short-bowel syndrome, parenteral nutrition, home nutrition support, intestinal rehabilitation

  13. Small intestinal sulphoxidation of albendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, C; Alvarez, A I; Redondo, P; Voces, J; Del Estal, J L; Prieto, J G

    1995-05-01

    1. The in vitro sulphoxidation of Albendazole (ABZ) by rat intestinal microsomes has been examined. The results revealed intestinal sulphoxidation of ABZ by intestinal microsomes in a NADPH-dependent enzymatic system. The kinetic constants for sulphoxidase activity were Vmax = 46 pmol/min/mg protein and Michaelis constant Km = 6.8 microM. 2. The possible effect of inducers (Arochlor 1254 and ABZ pretreatment) and inhibitors (erythromycin, methimazole, carbon monoxide and fenbendazole), was also studied. In rat pretreated with Arochlor 1254, Vmax was 52 pmol/min/mg protein, whereas oral administration of ABZ increased the intestinal sulphoxidation of the drug, Vmax being 103 pmol/min/mg protein. 3. Erythromycin did not change the enzymatic bioconversion of ABZ, but methimazole and carbon monoxide inhibited the enzyme activity by approximately 60 and 30% respectively. Fenbendazole (a structural analogue of ABZ) was a competitive inhibitor of the sulphoxidation process, characterized by a Ki or 69 microM. 4. These data demonstrate that the intestinal enzymes contributing to the initial sulphoxidation of ABZ may be similar to the hepatic enzymes involved in the biotransformation process by the P450 and FMO systems, a conclusion that needs to be further established.

  14. Isotopic identification of intestinal strangulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.C.; Selby, J.B.

    1982-12-01

    A small series of eleven dogs prepared with a strangulating segment of jejunum demonstrated that a radionuclide, /sup 99/mTc-labelled albumin, concentrates in the lumen and bowel wall of the affected intestinal segment. Modern scanning equipment accurately localized the strangulating loop. This technique has the potential of identifying patients with intestinal obstruction, in whom strangulation is a factor, prior to the development of impaired arterial inflow and frank gangrene. These findings confirmed earlier obstructions that were reported when nuclear scanning instrumentation was less sophisticated. Identification of patients at risk for intestinal strangulation requires a high index of suspicion. Excruciating cramping abdominal pain out of proportion to physical findings, roentgenogram evidence, and laboratory studies should alert the physician to the possibility of intestinal ischemia and closed loop obstruction. Radionuclide scanning in such cases may be of assistance in defining or excluding the diagnosis of a strangulating mechanism. The test is simple, relatively economical, and represents a low risk procedure to patients. It would have no place when the classic physical and laboratory findings of intestinal infarction are present.

  15. Intestinal Microbiota Influences Non-intestinal Related Autoimmune Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opazo, Maria C.; Ortega-Rocha, Elizabeth M.; Coronado-Arrázola, Irenice; Bonifaz, Laura C.; Boudin, Helene; Neunlist, Michel; Bueno, Susan M.; Kalergis, Alexis M.; Riedel, Claudia A.

    2018-01-01

    The human body is colonized by millions of microorganisms named microbiota that interact with our tissues in a cooperative and non-pathogenic manner. These microorganisms are present in the skin, gut, nasal, oral cavities, and genital tract. In fact, it has been described that the microbiota contributes to balancing the immune system to maintain host homeostasis. The gut is a vital organ where microbiota can influence and determine the function of cells of the immune system and contributes to preserve the wellbeing of the individual. Several articles have emphasized the connection between intestinal autoimmune diseases, such as Crohn's disease with dysbiosis or an imbalance in the microbiota composition in the gut. However, little is known about the role of the microbiota in autoimmune pathologies affecting other tissues than the intestine. This article focuses on what is known about the role that gut microbiota can play in the pathogenesis of non-intestinal autoimmune diseases, such as Grave's diseases, multiple sclerosis, type-1 diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorders. Furthermore, we discuss as to how metabolites derived from bacteria could be used as potential therapies for non-intestinal autoimmune diseases. PMID:29593681

  16. Intestinal Microbiota Influences Non-intestinal Related Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Opazo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The human body is colonized by millions of microorganisms named microbiota that interact with our tissues in a cooperative and non-pathogenic manner. These microorganisms are present in the skin, gut, nasal, oral cavities, and genital tract. In fact, it has been described that the microbiota contributes to balancing the immune system to maintain host homeostasis. The gut is a vital organ where microbiota can influence and determine the function of cells of the immune system and contributes to preserve the wellbeing of the individual. Several articles have emphasized the connection between intestinal autoimmune diseases, such as Crohn's disease with dysbiosis or an imbalance in the microbiota composition in the gut. However, little is known about the role of the microbiota in autoimmune pathologies affecting other tissues than the intestine. This article focuses on what is known about the role that gut microbiota can play in the pathogenesis of non-intestinal autoimmune diseases, such as Grave's diseases, multiple sclerosis, type-1 diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorders. Furthermore, we discuss as to how metabolites derived from bacteria could be used as potential therapies for non-intestinal autoimmune diseases.

  17. Gintonin absorption in intestinal model systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Hwan Lee

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study shows that gintonin could be absorbed in the intestine through transcellular and paracellular diffusion, and active transport. In addition, the lipid component of gintonin might play a key role in its intestinal absorption.

  18. Therapeutic hypothermia reduces intestinal ischemia/reperfusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The detached intestinal epithelial cells in hypothermia group showed ... of apoptosis than those in normothermia group at 4 h (17.30 ± 2.56 vs. ... intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury, which could be attenuated by therapeutic hypothermia.

  19. Update on small intestinal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tesori, Valentina; Puglisi, Maria Ausiliatrice; Lattanzi, Wanda; Gasbarrini, Giovanni Battista; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Among somatic stem cells, those residing in the intestine represent a fascinating and poorly explored research field. Particularly, somatic stem cells reside in the small intestine at the level of the crypt base, in a constant balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Aim of the present review is to delve into the mechanisms that regulate the delicate equilibrium through which intestinal stem cells orchestrate intestinal architecture. To this aim, special focus will be addressed to id...

  20. Intestinal epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coskun, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium has a strategic position as a protective physical barrier to luminal microbiota and actively contributes to the mucosal immune system. This barrier is mainly formed by a monolayer of specialized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) that are crucial in maintaining intestinal...... of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Understanding the role of the intestinal epithelium in IBD pathogenesis might contribute to an improved knowledge of the inflammatory processes and the identification of potential therapeutic targets....

  1. Exercise and the gastro-intestinal tract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on perfonnance and me value of cardiovascular training in improving performance in aerobic sports is well recognised. The role of me gastro-intestinal tracr, bom as a limiting and sustaining facror in aerobic exercises, is less well appreciared. Gastro-intestinal symptoms. The spectrum of gastro-intestinal effecrs of exercise ...

  2. The mucosal firewalls against commensal intestinal microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Andrew J; Slack, Emma; Geuking, Markus B; McCoy, Kathy D

    2009-07-01

    Mammals coexist with an extremely dense microbiota in the lower intestine. Despite the constant challenge of small numbers of microbes penetrating the intestinal surface epithelium, it is very unusual for these organisms to cause disease. In this review article, we present the different mucosal firewalls that contain and allow mutualism with the intestinal microbiota.

  3. INTESTINAL PERMEABILITY IN PEDIATRIC GASTROENTEROLOGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANELBURG, RM; UIL, JJ; DEMONCHY, JGR; HEYMANS, HSA

    1992-01-01

    The role of the physiologic barrier function of the small bowel and its possible role in health and disease has attracted much attention over the past decade. The intestinal mucosal barrier for luminal macromolecules and microorganism is the result of non-immunologic and immunologic defense

  4. Drug Transporters in the Intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente

    2016-01-01

    to the intestinal exsorptive DTs. An example is the API sulfasalazine, which is a substrate for breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)/ABCG2. Sulfasalazine absorption is found to increase when human volunteers are administered high concentrations together with the inhibitor and spice curcumin. In conclusion...

  5. Radiology of the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueber, E.; Engelbrecht, V.

    1998-01-01

    The book presents the state of the art in radiology of the small intestine, discussing diagnostic fundamentals in the general, introductory chapter and continuing with the specific modalities available and applicable for diagnostic evaluation of the various symptoms and lesions. (orig./CB) [de

  6. Circadian disorganization alters intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin M Voigt

    Full Text Available Intestinal dysbiosis and circadian rhythm disruption are associated with similar diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the overlap, the potential relationship between circadian disorganization and dysbiosis is unknown; thus, in the present study, a model of chronic circadian disruption was used to determine the impact on the intestinal microbiome. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent once weekly phase reversals of the light:dark cycle (i.e., circadian rhythm disrupted mice to determine the impact of circadian rhythm disruption on the intestinal microbiome and were fed either standard chow or a high-fat, high-sugar diet to determine how diet influences circadian disruption-induced effects on the microbiome. Weekly phase reversals of the light:dark (LD cycle did not alter the microbiome in mice fed standard chow; however, mice fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet in conjunction with phase shifts in the light:dark cycle had significantly altered microbiota. While it is yet to be established if some of the adverse effects associated with circadian disorganization in humans (e.g., shift workers, travelers moving across time zones, and in individuals with social jet lag are mediated by dysbiosis, the current study demonstrates that circadian disorganization can impact the intestinal microbiota which may have implications for inflammatory diseases.

  7. Milk products and intestinal health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meer, R; Bovee-Oudenhoven, IMJ; Sesink, ALA; Kleibeuker, JH

    Milk products may improve intestinal health by means of the cytoprotective effects of their high calcium phosphate (CaPi) content. We hypothesized that this cytoprotection may increase host defenses against bacterial infections as well as decrease colon cancer risk. This paper summarizes our studies

  8. Hirschsprung's disease - Postsurgical intestinal dysmotility

    OpenAIRE

    Romaneli, Mariana Tresoldi das Neves; Ribeiro, Antonio Fernando; Bustorff-Silva, Joaquim Murray; de Carvalho, Rita Barbosa; Lomazi, Elizete Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To describe the case of an infant with Hirschsprung's disease presenting as total colonic aganglionosis, which, after surgical resection of the aganglionic segment persisted with irreversible functional intestinal obstruction; discuss the difficulties in managing this form of congenital aganglionosis and discuss a plausible pathogenetic mechanism for this case. Case description: The diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease presenting as total colonic aganglionosis was establi...

  9. Intestinal Volvulus in Idiopathic Steatorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, H. A.; Kinnear, D. G.; Cameron, D. G.

    1963-01-01

    Volvulus of the intestine has recently been observed in three patients with idiopathic steatorrhea in relapse. Two patients gave a history of intermittent abdominal pain, distension and obstipation. Radiographic studies during these attacks revealed obstruction at the level of the sigmoid colon. Reduction under proctoscopic control was achieved in one instance, spontaneous resolution occurring in the other. The third patient presented as a surgical emergency and underwent operative reduction of a small intestinal volvulus. Persistence of diarrhea and weight loss postoperatively led to further investigation and a diagnosis of idiopathic steatorrhea. In all cases, treatment resulted in clinical remission with a coincident disappearance of obstructive intestinal symptoms. The pathogenesis of volvulus in sprue is poorly understood. Atonicity and dilatation of the bowel and stretching of the mesentery likely represent important factors. The symptoms of recurrent abdominal pain and distension in idiopathic steatorrhea necessitate an increased awareness of intestinal volvulus as a complication of this disease. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Figs. 4 and 5Fig. 6 PMID:13998948

  10. Diversity of insect intestinal microflora

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrázek, Jakub; Štrosová, Lenka; Fliegerová, Kateřina; Kott, T.; Kopečný, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2008), s. 229-233 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/06/0974 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : insect intestinal microflora Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.172, year: 2008

  11. Microcontainers for Intestinal Drug Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tentor, Fabio; Mazzoni, Chiara; Keller, Stephan Sylvest

    Among all the drug administration routes, the oral one is the most preferred by the patients being less invasive, faster and easier. Oral drug delivery systems designed to target the intestine are produced by powder technology and capsule formulations. Those systems including micro- and nano...

  12. Prenatal intestinal volvulus: look for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouikh, Taieb; Mottet, Nicolas; Cabrol, Christelle; Chaussy, Yann

    2016-12-21

    Intestinal volvulus is a life-threatening emergency requiring prompt surgical management. Prenatal intestinal volvulus is rare, and most are secondary to intestinal atresia, mesenteric defect or without any underlying cause. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is known to cause digestive tract disorders. After birth, 10-15% of newborns with CF may develop intestinal obstruction within a few days of birth because of meconial ileus. 1 This obstruction is a result of dehydrated thickened meconium obstructing the intestinal lumen. We report two cases of fetuses with prenatal diagnosis of segmental volvulus in whom CF was diagnosed. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  13. A etiological factors in mechanical intestinal obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, S.; Khan, H.; Khan, I.A.; Ghaffar, S.; Rehman, Z.U.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Intestinal obstruction occurs when the normal flow of intestinal contents is interrupted. The most frequent causes of intestinal obstruction are postoperative adhesions and hernias, which cause extrinsic compression of the intestine. Less frequently, tumours or strictures of the bowel can cause intrinsic blockage. Objective of the study was to find out the various a etiological factors of mechanical intestinal obstruction and to evaluate the morbidity and mortality in adult patients presenting to Surgical 'A' unit of Ayub teaching hospital with mechanical intestinal obstruction. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2009 to September, 2009. All patients presenting with intestinal obstruction and were above the age of 12 years were included in the study. Patients with non-mechanical obstruction were excluded from the study and those who responded to conservative measures were also excluded. Results: A total of 36 patients with age ranging from 12 to 80 years (Mean age 37.72+-19.74 years) and male to female ratio of 1.77:1, were treated for mechanical intestinal obstruction. The most common cause for mechanical intestinal obstruction was adhesions (36.1%). Intestinal tuberculosis was the second most common cause (19.4%), while hernias and sigmoid volvulus affected 13.9% patients each. Malignancies were found in 5.6% cases. Conclusion: Adhesions and Tuberculosis are the leading causes of mechanical intestinal obstruction in Pakistan. Although some patients can be treated conservatively, a substantial portion requires immediate surgical intervention. (author)

  14. Intestinal perfusion in the study of intestinal absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.J.

    1976-01-01

    Several techniques for studying absorption by means of intestinal perfusion have been developed. While the principle is simple, the practice is complicated by absorption of the solvent and by excretion of fluid into the lumen. To improve reliability a ''marker'' is incorporated into the system; it should behave as nearly as possible like the nutrient of interest, except that it should be unabsorbable. A great many markers, including several labelled with radionuclides, have been developed for use with numerous nutrients, and perfusion methods using double or triple tubes or occlusive balloons have been tested. The perfusion technique is too complicated for routine diagnostic use, but it offers at present the only possibility of studying the function of defined sections of the small intestine in the intact human. (author)

  15. The CT signs of intestinal volvulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Jiansong; Wang Zufei; Xu Zhaolong; Lv Guijian; Xu Min; Zhao Zhongwei; Su Jinliang; Zhou Limin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To improve the accuracy rate of spiral CT diagnosing intestinal volvulus. Methods: To analysis the CT findings of 9 cases of intestinal volvulus proved by operation, the main reconstruction techniques were multiplanar reformation (MPR) and sliding thin-slab maximum intensity projection (STS-MIP). Results: All the 9 cases were diagnosed accurately, the main signs were 'whirlpool' of intestine (6 cases) and vessels (9 cases),'target loop' (2 cases),'beak'(6 cases). Conclusion: 'Whirlpool' of vessels is a specific sign to diagnose intestinal volvulus, 'target loop', reduced enhancement of intestinal wall and ascites are the reliable signs to strangulated intestinal obstruction. Spiral CT and reconstructions have important value to diagnose the intestinal volvulus. (authors)

  16. Quantifying predation on Baltic cod early life stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Schaber, Matthias; Eero, Margit

    2017-01-01

    Predation on cod (Gadus morhua) eggs by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus) is known to be one of the processes influencing reproductive success of the eastern Baltic cod and has been reported to have contributed to lack of recovery of the stock in the 1990s. This study quanti...

  17. Depletion rates of gastrointestinal content in common goby (Pomatoschistus microps (Kr.))

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Gerner

    1984-01-01

    Relatively complicated surgery is a necessity when implanting sensors internally in fish in order to measure physiological variables at specific locations. A surgical procedure from implanting transmitters with remote sensors into the body cavity of cod (Gadus morhua L.) is presented. The method ...

  18. Bay-scale population structure in coastal Atlantic cod in Labrador and Newfoundland, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Wroblewski, J.S.; Taggart, C.T.

    2000-01-01

    Polymorphisms at five microsatellite DNA loci provide evidence that Atlantic cod Gadus morhua inhabiting Gilbert Bay, Labrador are genetically distinguishable from offshore cod on the north- east Newfoundland shelf and from inshore cod in Trinity Bay, Newfoundland. Antifreeze activity in the bloo...

  19. Mixed function oxidase dependent biotransformation of polychlorinated biphenyls by different species of fish from the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrtens, G.; Laturnus, F.

    1999-01-01

    Mixed function oxidase (MFO) dependent biotransformation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was measured in three different fish species from the North Sea. Liver microsomes of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), dab (Limanda limanda) and cod (Gadus morhua) were isolated and incubated with different....... Biotransformations were also species dependent. The flatfish dab and plaice exhibited higher metabolic rates than cod (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  20. Regime shifts, resilience and recovery of a cod stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Diekmann, Rabea; Möllmann, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In the North and Baltic seas Atlantic cod Gadus morhua stocks collapsed as part or one of the major factors inducing large-scale ecosystem regime shifts. Determining the relative contribution of overfishing and climate variability in causing these shifts has proven difficult. While facing similar...

  1. Variability in frontal zone formation and distribution of gadoid fish larvae at the shelf break in the northeastern North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Larsson, P.O.; Danielssen, D.S.

    1999-01-01

    by CTD casts, and the abundance of fish larvae was measured by depth integrating tows of a 2 m ring net. Five species of gadoid larvae and small juveniles were found in the area: cod Gadus morhua, whiting Merlangius merlangus, haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus, Norway pout Trisopterus esmarki and saithe...

  2. Hypoxic areas, density-dependence and food limitation drive the body condition of a heavily exploited marine fish predator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casini, Michele; Käll, Filip; Hansson, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Investigating the factors regulating fish condition is crucial in ecology and the management of exploited fish populations. The body condition of cod (Gadus morhua) in the Baltic Sea has dramatically decreased during the past two decades, with large implications for the fishery relying on this re...

  3. The effects of pre-salting methods on salt and water distribution of heavily salted cod, as analyzed by 1H and 23Na MRI, 23Na NMR, low-field NMR and physicochemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðjónsdóttir, María; Traoré, Amidou; Jónsson, Ásbjörn

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different pre-salting methods (brine injection with salt with/without polyphosphates, brining and pickling) on the water and salt distribution in dry salted Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) fillets was studied with proton and sodium NMR and MRI methods, supported by physicochemical analy...

  4. Levels of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) flame retardants in animals representing different trophic levels of the North Sea food web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, J.P.; Lewis, W.E.; Tjoen-A-Choy, M.R.; Allchin, C.R.; Law, R.J.; Boer, de J.

    2002-01-01

    The levels of individual PBDE congeners were investigated in the invertebrate species whelk (Buccinum undatum), seastar (Asterias rubens), and hermit crab (Pagurus bernhardus), the gadoid fish species whiting (Merlangius merlangus) and cod (Gadus morhua), and the marine mammal species harbor seal

  5. Eastern Baltic cod in distress: biological changes and challenges for stock assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Hjelm, Joakim; Behrens, Jane

    2015-01-01

    The eastern Baltic (EB) cod (Gadus morhua) stock was depleted and overexploited for decades until the mid-2000s, when fishing mortality rapidly declined and biomass started to increase, as shown by stock assessments. These positive developments were partly assigned to effective management measure...

  6. Influence of twin and multi-rig trawl systems on CPUE in the Danish Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feekings, Jordan P.; Berg, Casper Willestofte; Krag, Ludvig Ahm

    2016-01-01

    analyse catchrates of four target species, Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus), cod (Gadus morhua), plaice (Pleuronectesplatessa) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), to try and understand how the use of multi-rig trawlshave altered catch rates within the Danish demersal trawl fishery over the last 16...

  7. Rationale for restocking the Eastern Baltic cod stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne; Overton, Julia Lynne; Paulsen, Helge

    2008-01-01

    The Danish Institute for Fisheries Research and Bornholm's Salmon Hatchery examined the potential for restocking Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) in the eastern Baltic Sea. This cod population has adapted to the unique brackish water conditions where successful spawning depends on regular i...

  8. Novel biodiversity baselines outpace models of fish distribution in Arctic waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Jørgen Schou; Bonsdorff, Erik; Byrkjedal, Ingvar

    2016-01-01

    During a recent marine biological expedition to the Northeast Greenland shelf break (latitudes 74–77 °N), we made the first discovery of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), beaked redfish (Sebastes mentella) and capelin (Mallotus villosus). Our novel observations shift the distribution range of Atlantic...

  9. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 301 - 350 of 503 ... Vol 25, No 2 (2005), Modelling of hydropower systems of Ghana at low level conditions of Akosombo dam, Abstract PDF. DM Obeng, YAK Fiagbe. Vol 27, No 2 (2007), Molecular responce of Atlantic cod's (Gadus morhua L.) cypia, prolactin and Zona radiata genes upon exposure to polychlorinated ...

  10. Mixed fisheries management: protecting the weakest link

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batsleer, J.; Poos, J.J.; Marchal, P.; Vermard, Y.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.

    2013-01-01

    North Sea cod Gadus morhua stock is outside safe biological limits, and total allowable catch (TAC) management has proved ineffective to rebuild the stock. The European Commission is considering the imposition of a discard ban to preserve vulnerable and economically important fish stocks. We

  11. The Contributions of Human Mini-Intestines to the Study of Intestinal Physiology and Pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huimin; Hasan, Nesrin M; In, Julie G; Estes, Mary K; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Zachos, Nicholas C; Donowitz, Mark

    2017-02-10

    The lack of accessibility to normal and diseased human intestine and the inability to separate the different functional compartments of the intestine even when tissue could be obtained have held back the understanding of human intestinal physiology. Clevers and his associates identified intestinal stem cells and established conditions to grow "mini-intestines" ex vivo in differentiated and undifferentiated conditions. This pioneering work has made a new model of the human intestine available and has begun making contributions to the understanding of human intestinal transport in normal physiologic conditions and the pathophysiology of intestinal diseases. However, this model is reductionist and lacks many of the complexities of normal intestine. Consequently, it is not yet possible to predict how great the advances using this model will be for understanding human physiology and pathophysiology, nor how the model will be modified to include multiple other intestinal cell types and physical forces necessary to more closely approximate normal intestine. This review describes recent studies using mini-intestines, which have readdressed previously established models of normal intestinal transport physiology and newly examined intestinal pathophysiology. The emphasis is on studies with human enteroids grown either as three-dimensional spheroids or two-dimensional monolayers. In addition, comments are provided on mouse studies in cases when human studies have not yet been described.

  12. Ultrasonographic Demonstration of Intestinal Obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Hoo; Choi, Hyae Seoun; Kim, S. K.; Han, S.U.; Park, K. S.; Park, H. N.

    1982-01-01

    The cardinal feature of intestinal obstruction is the intraluminal fluid accumulation within the bowel segments. The presence of air simply makes it easier to find dilated fluid-filled bowel loop on plain radiographic films. Distended fluid-filed loop, however, may be obscure on X-ray film when gas is absent, secondary to vomiting, or to cessation of air swallowing. furthermore, in closed loop obstruction, air cannot enter the involved bowel, and thereby in this situation gray scale ultrasonography may be a useful device in making a rapid diagnosis. By sonographic confirmations of intestinal obstruction, a tonic, fluid-filled bowel loops usually were revealed as multiple, circular or cylindrical cystic structures with a finely irregular wall. Valvulae connivente sexhibit a characteristic key-board appearance when they project into the fluid-filled lumen

  13. The intestinal microenvironment in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Katherine T; Ford, Mandy L; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2017-10-01

    The gastrointestinal tract has long been hypothesized to function as "the motor" of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. The gastrointestinal microenvironment is comprised of a single cell layer epithelia, a local immune system, and the microbiome. These three components of the intestine together play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis during times of health. However, the gastrointestinal microenvironment is perturbed during sepsis, resulting in pathologic changes that drive both local and distant injury. In this review, we seek to characterize the relationship between the epithelium, gastrointestinal lymphocytes, and commensal bacteria during basal and pathologic conditions and how the intestinal microenvironment may be targeted for therapeutic gain in septic patients. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Colon in acute intestinal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Alfredo; Buccigrossi, Vittoria; Armellino, Carla

    2009-04-01

    The colon is actively implicated in intestinal infections not only as a target of enteric pathogens and their products but also as a target organ for treatment. In the presence of diarrhea, both of osmotic and secretory nature, the colon reacts with homeostatic mechanisms to increase ion absorption. These mechanisms can be effectively exploited to decrease fluid discharge. A model of intestinal infections using rotavirus (RV) in colonic cells was set up and used to define a dual model of secretory and osmotic diarrhea in sequence. Using this model, antidiarrheal drugs were tested, namely zinc and the enkephalinase inhibitor racecadotril. Zinc was able to decrease the enterotoxic activity responsible for secretory diarrhea. It also inhibited the cytotoxic effect of RV. The mechanism of zinc was related at least in part to the activation of MAPK activity, but also a direct antiviral effect was observed. Racecadotril showed a potent and selective inhibition of active secretion, being particularly effective in the first phase of RV diarrhea. The use of drugs active at the colonic level, therefore, offers effective options to treat intestinal infections in childhood. In addition, the colon is the natural site of colonic microflora, a target of probiotic therapy, which is the first line of approach recommended by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition to treat infectious diarrhea.

  15. Radiological manifestations of intestinal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jae Hoon

    1974-01-01

    Radiological findings of 87 cases of intestinal tuberculosis are analyzed and presented. The diagnosis was based on histopathology in 29 cases, and on clinical ground and radiological findings in 58 cases. The radio of male and female patients was 4:6, and peak incidence is between 10 and 30. Abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, fever and general weakness are frequent symptoms, and tenderness of abdomen, ascites with abdominal distension, malnutrition and emaciation are frequent signs of the patients. Laboratory investigation reveal anemia, raised ESR, hypoalbuminaemia and positive occult blood reaction in the stool in most of the patients. Chest film show activity pulmonary tuberculosis in only 1/3 patients. There is no pathognomonic radiological findings in intestinal tuberculosis and their manifestations are protean, and differentiation from other inflammatory diseases and malignant tumors in gastrointestinal tract is very difficult on radiological ground alone. However, in patients with complaining vague abdominal symptoms and signs, the radiological diagnosis is most certain means in the decision of existence of organic lesion and suggestion of tuberculosis in the gastrointestinal tract and its extent as yet. Multiplicity of the lesion, involvement of adjacent organ such as peritoneum or mesenteric lymph nodes, typical nodularity or irregularity of mesenteric border and existence of active pulmonary tuberculosis are the suggestive findings of intestinal tuberculosis. In the diagnosis of inflammatory disease or malignant tumor of gastrointestinal tract, the possibility of tuberculosis should be borne in mind, and vice versa

  16. INTESTINAL MICROBIOTA IN DIGESTIVE DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Friche PASSOS

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND In recent years, especially after the development of sophisticated metagenomic studies, research on the intestinal microbiota has increased, radically transforming our knowledge about the microbiome and its association with health maintenance and disease development in humans. Increasing evidence has shown that a permanent alteration in microbiota composition or function (dysbiosis can alter immune responses, metabolism, intestinal permeability, and digestive motility, thereby promoting a proinflammatory state. Such alterations can mainly impair the host’s immune and metabolic functions, thus favoring the onset of diseases such as diabetes, obesity, digestive, neurological, autoimmune, and neoplastic diseases. This comprehensive review is a compilation of the available literature on the formation of the complex intestinal ecosystem and its impact on the incidence of diseases such as obesity, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and digestive neoplasms. CONCLUSION: Alterations in the composition and function of the gastrointestinal microbiota (dysbiosis have a direct impact on human health and seem to have an important role in the pathogenesis of several gastrointestinal diseases, whether inflammatory, metabolic, or neoplastic ones.

  17. Radiological manifestations of intestinal tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Jae Hoon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    Radiological findings of 87 cases of intestinal tuberculosis are analyzed and presented. The diagnosis was based on histopathology in 29 cases, and on clinical ground and radiological findings in 58 cases. The radio of male and female patients was 4:6, and peak incidence is between 10 and 30. Abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, fever and general weakness are frequent symptoms, and tenderness of abdomen, ascites with abdominal distension, malnutrition and emaciation are frequent signs of the patients. Laboratory investigation reveal anemia, raised ESR, hypoalbuminaemia and positive occult blood reaction in the stool in most of the patients. Chest film show activity pulmonary tuberculosis in only 1/3 patients. There is no pathognomonic radiological findings in intestinal tuberculosis and their manifestations are protean, and differentiation from other inflammatory diseases and malignant tumors in gastrointestinal tract is very difficult on radiological ground alone. However, in patients with complaining vague abdominal symptoms and signs, the radiological diagnosis is most certain means in the decision of existence of organic lesion and suggestion of tuberculosis in the gastrointestinal tract and its extent as yet. Multiplicity of the lesion, involvement of adjacent organ such as peritoneum or mesenteric lymph nodes, typical nodularity or irregularity of mesenteric border and existence of active pulmonary tuberculosis are the suggestive findings of intestinal tuberculosis. In the diagnosis of inflammatory disease or malignant tumor of gastrointestinal tract, the possibility of tuberculosis should be borne in mind, and vice versa.

  18. [Intestinal parasitic diseases in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mare, Anca; Man, A; Toma, Felicia; Székely, Edit; Lôrinczi, Lilla; Sipoş, Anca

    2007-01-01

    To compare the incidence of intestinal parasitosis between children with residence in urban and rural areas: to compare the efficacy of parasitologic diagnostic methods. In our study we included two lots of children. The first lot consisted in 74 children from rural areas from which we collected 44 samples of feces and 55 samples for the "Scotch tape" test. The second lot consisted in 214 children from urban areas from which we collected 44 samples of feces. We examined each sample of feces by three different methods. The study was performed between April to June 2006. The incidence of intestinal parasitosis increases in children from urban areas towards rural areas, and in children between 5 and 10 years. Ascariasis is the most frequent disease in both urban and rural areas. By examination of each fecal sample by three different methods, the number of positive cases increased. The residence in rural areas and age between 5 to 10 years are risk factors for intestinal parasitosis. The "Scotch tape" test was more efficient in Enterobius vermicularis infection than the methods performed from feces. We recommend using at the same time three diagnostic methods for feces examination to improve the diagnostic sensibility.

  19. An intestinal Trojan horse for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Haisheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

    2015-03-14

    The intestinal epithelium forms an essential element of the mucosal barrier and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological response to different enteric disorders and diseases. As a major enteric dysfunction of the intestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease is a genetic disease which results from the inappropriate and exaggerated mucosal immune response to the normal constituents in the mucosal microbiota environment. An intestine targeted drug delivery system has unique advantages in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. As a new concept in drug delivery, the Trojan horse system with the synergy of nanotechnology and host cells can achieve better therapeutic efficacy in specific diseases. Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of encapsulating DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles into primary isolated intestinal stem cells to form an intestinal Trojan horse for gene regulation therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept intestinal Trojan horse will have a wide variety of applications in the diagnosis and therapy of enteric disorders and diseases.

  20. Epidermal Growth Factor and Intestinal Barrier Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor (EGF is a 53-amino acid peptide that plays an important role in regulating cell growth, survival, migration, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. In addition, EGF has been established to be an effective intestinal regulator helping to protect intestinal barrier integrity, which was essential for the absorption of nutrients and health in humans and animals. Several researches have demonstrated that EGF via binding to the EGF receptor and subsequent activation of Ras/MAPK, PI3K/AKT, PLC-γ/PKC, and STATS signal pathways regulates intestinal barrier function. In this review, the relationship between epidermal growth factor and intestinal development and intestinal barrier is described, to provide a better understanding of the effects of EGF on intestine development and health.

  1. Intestinal epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet eCoskun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium has a strategic position as a protective physical barrier to luminal microbiota and actively contributes to the mucosal immune system. This barrier is mainly formed by a monolayer of specialized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs that are crucial in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Therefore, dysregulation within the epithelial layer can increase intestinal permeability, lead to abnormalities in interactions between IECs and immune cells in underlying lamina propria, and disturb the intestinal immune homeostasis, all of which are linked to the clinical disease course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Understanding the role of the intestinal epithelium in IBD pathogenesis might contribute to an improved knowledge of the inflammatory processes and the identification of potential therapeutic targets.

  2. The effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Eiichi [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Hosokawa, Masaya [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Faculty of Human Sciences, Tezukayama Gakuin University, Osaka (Japan); Harada, Norio; Yamane, Shunsuke; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Toyoda, Kentaro; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Fujita, Yoshihito; Fukuda, Kazuhito [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Tsukiyama, Katsushi; Yamada, Yuichiro [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Geriatric Medicine, Akita University School of Medicine, Akita (Japan); Seino, Yutaka [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Kansai Electric Power Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Inagaki, Nobuya, E-mail: inagaki@metab.kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); CREST of Japan Science and Technology Cooperation (JST), Kyoto (Japan)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway. {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility. {yields} The GIP-receptor-mediated action in intestine does not involve in GLP-1-mediated pathway. -- Abstract: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is released from the small intestine upon meal ingestion and increases insulin secretion from pancreatic {beta} cells. Although the GIP receptor is known to be expressed in small intestine, the effects of GIP in small intestine are not fully understood. This study was designed to clarify the effect of GIP on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility. Intestinal glucose absorption in vivo was measured by single-pass perfusion method. Incorporation of [{sup 14}C]-glucose into everted jejunal rings in vitro was used to evaluate the effect of GIP on sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT). Motility of small intestine was measured by intestinal transit after oral administration of a non-absorbed marker. Intraperitoneal administration of GIP inhibited glucose absorption in wild-type mice in a concentration-dependent manner, showing maximum decrease at the dosage of 50 nmol/kg body weight. In glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor-deficient mice, GIP inhibited glucose absorption as in wild-type mice. In vitro examination of [{sup 14}C]-glucose uptake revealed that 100 nM GIP did not change SGLT-dependent glucose uptake in wild-type mice. After intraperitoneal administration of GIP (50 nmol/kg body weight), small intestinal transit was inhibited to 40% in both wild-type and GLP-1 receptor-deficient mice. Furthermore, a somatostatin receptor antagonist, cyclosomatostatin, reduced the inhibitory effect of GIP on both intestinal transit and glucose absorption in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility through a somatostatin

  3. The effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Eiichi; Hosokawa, Masaya; Harada, Norio; Yamane, Shunsuke; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Toyoda, Kentaro; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Fujita, Yoshihito; Fukuda, Kazuhito; Tsukiyama, Katsushi; Yamada, Yuichiro; Seino, Yutaka; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway. → Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility. → The GIP-receptor-mediated action in intestine does not involve in GLP-1-mediated pathway. -- Abstract: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is released from the small intestine upon meal ingestion and increases insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells. Although the GIP receptor is known to be expressed in small intestine, the effects of GIP in small intestine are not fully understood. This study was designed to clarify the effect of GIP on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility. Intestinal glucose absorption in vivo was measured by single-pass perfusion method. Incorporation of [ 14 C]-glucose into everted jejunal rings in vitro was used to evaluate the effect of GIP on sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT). Motility of small intestine was measured by intestinal transit after oral administration of a non-absorbed marker. Intraperitoneal administration of GIP inhibited glucose absorption in wild-type mice in a concentration-dependent manner, showing maximum decrease at the dosage of 50 nmol/kg body weight. In glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor-deficient mice, GIP inhibited glucose absorption as in wild-type mice. In vitro examination of [ 14 C]-glucose uptake revealed that 100 nM GIP did not change SGLT-dependent glucose uptake in wild-type mice. After intraperitoneal administration of GIP (50 nmol/kg body weight), small intestinal transit was inhibited to 40% in both wild-type and GLP-1 receptor-deficient mice. Furthermore, a somatostatin receptor antagonist, cyclosomatostatin, reduced the inhibitory effect of GIP on both intestinal transit and glucose absorption in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway rather

  4. Update on small intestinal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesori, Valentina; Puglisi, Maria Ausiliatrice; Lattanzi, Wanda; Gasbarrini, Giovanni Battista; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2013-08-07

    Among somatic stem cells, those residing in the intestine represent a fascinating and poorly explored research field. Particularly, somatic stem cells reside in the small intestine at the level of the crypt base, in a constant balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Aim of the present review is to delve into the mechanisms that regulate the delicate equilibrium through which intestinal stem cells orchestrate intestinal architecture. To this aim, special focus will be addressed to identify the integrating signals from the surrounding niche, supporting a model whereby distinct cell populations facilitate homeostatic vs injury-induced regeneration.

  5. Impaired neutrophil function in intestinal lymphangiectasia.

    OpenAIRE

    Bolton, R P; Cotter, K L; Losowsky, M S

    1986-01-01

    Impaired neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis were shown in three patients with intestinal lymphangiectasia. Abnormalities in cell associated and serum derived activity occurred, and possible mechanisms are suggested.

  6. Lymphangiectasia of small intestine presenting as intussusception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katoch Pervez

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Intussusception is defined as telescoping of a segment of gastrointestinal tract into an adjacent one. In small children, it is the commonest cause of intestinal obstruction. More than 90% of childhood intussusceptions are idiopathic. We report a rare case of localized small intestinal lymphangiectasia, presenting as intussusception in a 6-month-old male child. The child presented with features of acute intestinal obstruction for which he was later operated. The gross examination of excised ileocecal mass revealed intussusception. Histopathologic examination revealed lymphangiectasia of small intestine, which acted as a lead point for ileocecal intussusception. Postoperative period was uneventful.

  7. Lymphangiectasia of small intestine presenting as intussusception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoch, Pervez; Bhardwaj, Subhash

    2008-01-01

    Intussusception is defined as telescoping of a segment of gastrointestinal tract into an adjacent one. In small children, it is the commonest cause of intestinal obstruction. More than 90% of childhood intussusceptions are idiopathic. We report a rare case of localized small intestinal lymphangiectasia, presenting as intussusception in a 6-month-old male child. The child presented with features of acute intestinal obstruction for which he was later operated. The gross examination of excised ileocecal mass revealed intussusception. Histopathologic examination revealed lymphangiectasia of small intestine, which acted as a lead point for ileocecal intussusception. Postoperative period was uneventful.

  8. Bile acids in regulation of intestinal physiology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keating, Niamh

    2009-10-01

    In addition to their roles in facilitating lipid digestion and absorption, bile acids are recognized as important regulators of intestinal function. Exposure to bile acids can dramatically influence intestinal transport and barrier properties; in recent years, they have also become appreciated as important factors in regulating cell growth and survival. Indeed, few cells reside within the intestinal mucosa that are not altered to some degree by exposure to bile acids. The past decade saw great advances in the knowledge of how bile acids exert their actions at the cellular and molecular levels. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the role of bile acids in regulation of intestinal physiology.

  9. Intestinal Microbiota Signatures Associated With Histological Liver Steatosis in Pediatric-Onset Intestinal Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpela, K.; Mutanen, A.; Salonen, A.; Savilahti, E.; Vos, de W.M.; Pakarinen, M.P.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intestinal failure (IF)-associated liver disease (IFALD) is the major cause of mortality in IF. The link between intestinal microbiota and IFALD is unclear. METHODS: We compared intestinal microbiota of patients with IF (n = 23) with healthy controls (n = 58) using culture-independent

  10. Intestinal Lymphangiectasia Secondary to Neuroblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RM Reifen

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available An eight month-old infant presented with a 10-day history of vomiting and diarrhea, and a one-week history of swelling of the lower extremities. Laboratory evaluations revealed hypoproteinemia and lymphocytopenia due to protein-losing enteropathy. Peroral small bowel biopsy showed intestinal lymphangiectasia. Subsequent onset of unexplained ecchymosis and obstructive jaundice resulted in additional studies which revealed an omental neuroblastoma as the underlying etiology of the infant’s symptoms. This report emphasizes the importance of considering secondary, obstructive causes for lymphangiectasia and protein-losing enteropathy.

  11. Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts support in vitro and in vivo growth of human small intestinal epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Lahar

    Full Text Available The intestinal crypt-niche interaction is thought to be essential to the function, maintenance, and proliferation of progenitor stem cells found at the bases of intestinal crypts. These stem cells are constantly renewing the intestinal epithelium by sending differentiated cells from the base of the crypts of Lieberkühn to the villus tips where they slough off into the intestinal lumen. The intestinal niche consists of various cell types, extracellular matrix, and growth factors and surrounds the intestinal progenitor cells. There have recently been advances in the understanding of the interactions that regulate the behavior of the intestinal epithelium and there is great interest in methods for isolating and expanding viable intestinal epithelium. However, there is no method to maintain primary human small intestinal epithelium in culture over a prolonged period of time. Similarly no method has been published that describes isolation and support of human intestinal epithelium in an in vivo model. We describe a technique to isolate and maintain human small intestinal epithelium in vitro from surgical specimens. We also describe a novel method to maintain human intestinal epithelium subcutaneously in a mouse model for a prolonged period of time. Our methods require various growth factors and the intimate interaction between intestinal sub-epithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs and the intestinal epithelial cells to support the epithelial in vitro and in vivo growth. Absence of these myofibroblasts precluded successful maintenance of epithelial cell formation and proliferation beyond just a few days, even in the presence of supportive growth factors. We believe that the methods described here can be used to explore the molecular basis of human intestinal stem cell support, maintenance, and growth.

  12. Prematurity reduces functional adaptation to intestinal resection in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsholt, Lise; Thymann, Thomas; Qvist, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Background: Necrotizing enterocolitis and congenital gastrointestinal malformations in infants often require intestinal resection, with a subsequent risk of short bowel syndrome (SBS). We hypothesized that immediate intestinal adaptation following resection of the distal intestine with placement ...

  13. Bioactive Milk for Intestinal Maturation in Preterm Neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanqi

    The fetal small intestine grows dramatically fast during the second and third trimester of human pregnancy. Many intestinal functions are therefore affected by preterm birth, including gastrointestinal motility, digestive and absorptive function, mucosal barrier function, and the intestinal...

  14. Redistribution of intestinal microcirculatory oxygenation during acute hemodilution in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarte, Lothar A.; Fournell, Artur; van Bommel, Jasper; Ince, Can

    2005-01-01

    Acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) compromizes intestinal microcirculatory oxygenation; however, the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that contributors herein include redistribution of oxygen away from the intestines and shunting of oxygen within the intestines.

  15. Intestinal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, Rene; Haro, Elfa

    2002-01-01

    The paper present the diagnosic sensitivit of gastro esophagic scintigraphy (GCE) in children with suspiction of gastro esophagic reflux (RGE), as well as to evidence bronchial aspiratin in cases with suspected RGE. There was studied two groups of children: group A: Include 73 childs with documented diagnosis of RGE, by meas of cine esophagography. Group B: Include 22 children with symptoms of suspiction of. (The author)

  16. Lymphoma Caused by Intestinal Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuko L. Yamamoto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota and gut immune system must constantly communicate to maintain a balance between tolerance and activation: on the one hand, our immune system should protect us from pathogenic microbes and on the other hand, most of the millions of microbes in and on our body are innocuous symbionts and some can even be beneficial. Since there is such a close interaction between the immune system and the intestinal microbiota, it is not surprising that some lymphomas such as mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma have been shown to be caused by the presence of certain bacteria. Animal models played an important role in establishing causation and mechanism of bacteria-induced MALT lymphoma. In this review we discuss different ways that animal models have been applied to establish a link between the gut microbiota and lymphoma and how animal models have helped to elucidate mechanisms of microbiota-induced lymphoma. While there are not a plethora of studies demonstrating a connection between microbiota and lymphoma development, we believe that animal models are a system which can be exploited in the future to enhance our understanding of causation and improve prognosis and treatment of lymphoma.

  17. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Scott L; Lacy, Brian E

    2013-06-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIP) is a rare and serious disorder of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract characterized as a motility disorder with the primary defect of impaired peristalsis; symptoms are consistent with a bowel obstruction, although mechanical obstruction cannot be identified. CIP is classified as a neuropathy, myopathy, or mesenchymopathy; it is a neuropathic process in the majority of patients. The natural history of CIP is generally that of a progressive disorder, although occasional patients with secondary CIP note significant symptomatic improvement when the underlying disorder is identified and treated. Symptoms vary from patient to patient depending on the location of the luminal GI tract involved and the degree of involvement; however, the small intestine is nearly always involved. Common symptoms include dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, bloating, abdominal distension, constipation or diarrhea, and involuntary weight loss. Unfortunately, these symptoms are nonspecific, which can contribute to misdiagnosis or a delay in diagnosis and treatment. Since many of the symptoms and signs suggest a mechanical bowel obstruction, diagnostic tests typically focus on uncovering a mechanical obstruction, although routine tests do not identify an obstructive process. Nutrition supplementation is required for many patients with CIP due to symptoms of dysphagia, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. This review discusses the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with CIP, with an emphasis on nutrition assessment and treatment options for patients with nutrition compromise.

  18. Is nonoperative management of adhesive intestinal obstruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nonoperative management of adhesive intestinal obstruction gives good results in adults but there are scant studies on its outcome in children. This study reports outcomes and experiences with nonoperative and operative management of adhesive intestinal obstruction in children in a resource-poor country.

  19. A CLINICAL STUDY OF ADHESIVE INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Haricharan; Murali Krishna; Koti Reddy; Nara Hari

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Adhesive intestinal obstruction is an inevitable complication of abdominal surgeries. It has high morbidity with associated poor quality of life and predisposition to repeated hospitalization. Commonest cause of bowel obstruction in developed countries is postoperative adhesions with extrinsic compression of the intestine. Most of them can be managed conservatively. METHODS: A retrospective study of 30 patients admit...

  20. Intestinal lymphangiectasia mimicking primary peritoneal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steines, Jennifer C; Larson, Joshua H; Wilkinson, Neal; Kirby, Patricia; Goodheart, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia is an obstruction of the lymphatic system. We report on a patient with mesenteric adenopathy and an elevated CA125 level, which were suspicious for peritoneal carcinoma. Further evaluation and bowel resection identified intestinal lymphangiectasia. This disease should be considered in patients with mesenteric adenopathy and a small bowel mass. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Intestinal cholesterol secretion: future clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakulj, L.; Besseling, J.; Stroes, E. S. G.; Groen, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Together with the liver, the intestine serves as a homeostatic organ in cholesterol metabolism. Recent evidence has substantiated the pivotal role of the intestine in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). RCT is a fundamental antiatherogenic pathway, mediating the removal of cholesterol from tissues

  2. Intestinal cholesterol secretion : future clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakulj, L.; Besseling, J.; Stroes, E. S. G.; Groen, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Together with the liver, the intestine serves as a homeostatic organ in cholesterol metabolism. Recent evidence has substantiated the pivotal role of the intestine in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). RCT is a fundamental antiatherogenic pathway, mediating the removal of cholesterol from tissues

  3. Radiodiagnosis of diseases of the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Roentgenological image of diseases, development anomalies, various diseases of the small intestine is presented. Roentgenological semiotics of chronic enterocolotis, absorption failure syndrome, Crohn's disease, tuberculosis, abdominal actinomycosis, carcenoid, benign tumors, small intestine cancer, is given. To state final correct diagnosis a complex investigation, comprising angiography, computer tomography and ultrasound diagnosis, is necessary

  4. Ruminal and Intestinal Digestibility of Leucaena Foliage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pramote

    2013-12-30

    Dec 30, 2013 ... Keywords: Intestinal digestibility, protein fodder, mobile nylon bag, a three-step technique ... A potential strategy for increasing the quality and availability of feed for small ruminants in the dry ... to measure intestinal disappearance of DM and CP using the mobile bag method described by De Boer et al.

  5. Ectoparasites and intestinal helminths of speckled pigeon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ectoparasites and intestinal helminths of speckled pigeon ( Columba guinea Hartlaub and Finsch 1870) in Zaria, Nigeria. ... Science World Journal ... A total of 30 (20 males and 10 females) Speckled Pigeons trapped from the wild in Zaria and its environs, Nigeria, were examined for ectoparasites and intestinal helminths, ...

  6. Laparoscopic Treatment of Intestinal Malrotation in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, N.; Matthyssens, L.E.; Draaisma, J.M.T.; Blaauw, I. de; Wijnen, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Intestinal malrotation is a congenital intestinal rotation anomaly, which can be treated by either laparotomy or laparoscopy. Our hypothesis is that laparoscopic treatment leads to less small bowel obstruction because of the fewer adhesions in comparison to laparotomy, without increasing the

  7. Monozygotic twins with discordant intestinal rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Vance L.; Nwomeh, Benedict C.; Long, Frederick

    2006-01-01

    Previous case reports have suggested a strong concordance of intestinal malrotation among identical twins. This has led to the recommendation that the asymptomatic twin undergo screening when malrotation is discovered in the identical sibling. We present a case of monozygotic twins in which one twin presented with intestinal malrotation with midgut volvulus while the other twin was found to have normal gastrointestinal anatomy. (orig.)

  8. Monozygotic twins with discordant intestinal rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Vance L.; Nwomeh, Benedict C. [Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Columbus Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Long, Frederick [Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, Columbus Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Previous case reports have suggested a strong concordance of intestinal malrotation among identical twins. This has led to the recommendation that the asymptomatic twin undergo screening when malrotation is discovered in the identical sibling. We present a case of monozygotic twins in which one twin presented with intestinal malrotation with midgut volvulus while the other twin was found to have normal gastrointestinal anatomy. (orig.)

  9. Intestinal malrotation and volvulus in adult life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haak, Bastiaan W.; Bodewitz, Sander T.; Kuijper, Caroline F.; de Widt-Levert, Louise M.

    2014-01-01

    Midgut volvulus due to intestinal malrotation is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction when occurring in adult life. This paper documents the difficulties in reaching an early diagnosis. We describe the case of an 85-year-old man with non-specific abdominal complaints for 20 years, who presented

  10. Regional specialization within the intestinal immune system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowat, Allan M.; Agace, William Winston

    2014-01-01

    The intestine represents the largest compartment of the immune system. It is continually exposed to antigens and immunomodulatory agents from the diet and the commensal microbiota, and it is the port of entry for many clinically important pathogens. Intestinal immune processes are also increasingly...... implicated in controlling disease development elsewhere in the body. In this Review, we detail the anatomical and physiological distinctions that are observed in the small and large intestines, and we suggest how these may account for the diversity in the immune apparatus that is seen throughout...... the intestine. We describe how the distribution of innate, adaptive and innate-like immune cells varies in different segments of the intestine and discuss the environmental factors that may influence this. Finally, we consider the implications of regional immune specialization for inflammatory disease...

  11. Multispectral tissue characterization for intestinal anastomosis optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jaepyeong; Shademan, Azad; Le, Hanh N. D.; Decker, Ryan; Kim, Peter C. W.; Kang, Jin U.; Krieger, Axel

    2015-10-01

    Intestinal anastomosis is a surgical procedure that restores bowel continuity after surgical resection to treat intestinal malignancy, inflammation, or obstruction. Despite the routine nature of intestinal anastomosis procedures, the rate of complications is high. Standard visual inspection cannot distinguish the tissue subsurface and small changes in spectral characteristics of the tissue, so existing tissue anastomosis techniques that rely on human vision to guide suturing could lead to problems such as bleeding and leakage from suturing sites. We present a proof-of-concept study using a portable multispectral imaging (MSI) platform for tissue characterization and preoperative surgical planning in intestinal anastomosis. The platform is composed of a fiber ring light-guided MSI system coupled with polarizers and image analysis software. The system is tested on ex vivo porcine intestine tissue, and we demonstrate the feasibility of identifying optimal regions for suture placement.

  12. ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS: THERAPEUTICAL TACTICS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Surkov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute intestinal infections are quite common among children. Their clinical presentations include intoxication syndrome (drowsiness, low appetite, fever etc, infectious toxic syndrome (toxicosis with exicosis, neurotoxicosi, hypovolemic or infectious-toxic shockand diarrhea syndrome. Sometimes intestinal infections can be quite severe and even lethal. However disease duration and outcome depend on timelines and adequacy of prescribed treatment. Main guidelines of intestinal infections treatment include probiotics. That is why the right choice of probiotics is important for a pediatrician. The article contains basic information upon etiopathogenesis, classification, diagnostic criteria and acute pediatric intestinal infections treatment guidelines.Key words: acute intestinal infections, etiopathogenesis, diagnostic criteria, treatment, probiotics, children. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (6: 141–147

  13. [Neovagina with intestine: 13 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, A; Molina, E; Cerdá, J; Cañizo, A; Rodriguez, A; Laín, A; Fanjul, M; Vázquez, J

    2008-01-01

    The absence or hipoplasia vaginal can turn out to be isolated, associated with ambiguous genitalia, or as anatomical variant in a syndrome of sewer. The fundamental aim in the creation of a new vagina is: to obtain a good aesthetic result, to fulfil functional criteria (elasticity, sensibility, physiological inclination) and to improve the quality of life of the patients avoiding the use of molds and minimizing the morbidity of the zones donors. In this work let's sense beforehand our experience in the accomplishment of neovaginas with intestine. We analyze the clinical record of 13 patients treated surgically in the last ten years. We differentiate two groups according to the age, the diagnosis and the type of surgery: a) the first group of 8 patients present syndrome of insensibility to the androgens (4), syndrome of Rokitansky (2), extrofia of sewer (1) and mixed gonadal disgenesia (1). This group of patients were controlled in the adolescence by an average of age of 19 years (11-35 years), they fulfilling a neovagina with sigma; b) the second group of 5 patients with sewer (3), extrofia of sewer (1) and congenital suprarrenal hiperplasia (1). This group was controlled prematurely by a middle ages of one year (4 months-3 years). The intestinal segment used as neovagina was sigma (2), ileon (2) and rectum (1), and was performed during the surgical correction of her congenital malformation. Two patients have presented intestinal obstruction in the postoperatory immediate one. Four patients have needed removal of a small vaginal prolapse, and three have needed vaginal transitory expansions for introit stenosis. The long-term evolution has been favorable with an excellent aesthetic aspect. Four patients recount sexual fully satisfactory relations. We believe that the neovagina with sigma is at present the best option in patients with absence or hipoplasia vaginal. The advantages are the possibility of precocious and one time correction, a neovagina of dimensions and

  14. Laparoscopic intestinal derotation: original technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Mario; Federici, Orietta; Tarantino, Enrico; Corona, Francesco; Garofalo, Alfredo

    2009-06-01

    The intestinal derotation technique, introduced by Cattel and Valdoni 40 years ago, is carried out using a laparoscopic procedure, which is described here for the first time. The method is effective in the treatment of malign lesions of the III and IV duodenum and during laparoscopic subtotal colectomy with anastomosis between the ascending colon and the rectum. Ultimately, the procedure allows for the verticalization of the duodenal C and the anterior positioning of the mesenteric vessels, facilitating biopsy and resection of the III and IV duodenal portions and allowing anastomosis of the ascending rectum, avoiding both subtotal colectomy and the risk of torsion of the right colic loop. Although the procedure calls for extensive experience with advanced video-laparoscopic surgery, it is both feasible and repeatable. In our experience we have observed no mortality or morbidity.

  15. Diffused and sustained inhibitory effects of intestinal electrical stimulation on intestinal motility mediated via sympathetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaotuan; Yin, Jieyun; Wang, Lijie; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2014-06-01

    The aims were to investigate the energy-dose response effect of intestinal electrical stimulation (IES) on small bowel motility, to compare the effect of forward and backward IES, and to explore the possibility of using intermittent IES and mechanism of IES on intestinal motility. Five dogs implanted with a duodenal cannula and one pair of intestinal serosal electrodes were studied in five sessions: 1) energy-dose response study; 2) forward IES; 3) backward IES; 4) intermittent IES vs. continuous IES; 5) administration of guanethidine. The contractile activity and tonic pressure of the small intestine were recorded. The duration of sustained effect after turning off IES was manually calculated. 1) IES with long pulse energy dose dependently inhibited contractile activity and tonic pressure of the small intestine (p intestine depended on the energy of IES delivered (p intestine. 5) Guanethidine blocked the inhibitory effect of IES on intestinal motility. IES with long pulses inhibits small intestinal motility; the effect is energy-dose dependent, diffused, and sustained. Intermittent IES has the same efficacy as the continuous IES in inhibiting small intestinal motility. Forward and backward IES have similar inhibitory effects on small bowel motility. This IES-induced inhibitory effect is mediated via the sympathetic pathway. © 2013 International Neuromodulation Society.

  16. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Mitsiakos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia, first described by Waldmann et al. in 1961, is a rare congenital malformation of the lymphatics, presented with generalized edema, hypoproteinemia and lymphopenia. Diagnosis is based on endoscopy findings and pathology.We present here a case of a male neonate, second child of an indigenous woman, delivered by caesarean section. Prenatally, multiple cystic abdominal masses were identified by ultrasound. The patient was treated successfully with enterectomy and anastomosis. Histopathology revealed primary intestinal lymphangiectasia with no features of malignancy.Intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare pathology, which should be differentiated while exploring abdominal masses, hypoproteinemia and edema especially in neonates.

  17. Intestinal Leiomyositis: A Cause of Chronic Intestinal Pseudo?Obstruction in 6 Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Zacuto, A.C.; Pesavento, P.A.; Hill, S.; McAlister, A.; Rosenthal, K.; Cherbinsky, O.; Marks, S.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Intestinal leiomyositis is a suspected autoimmune disorder affecting the muscularis propria layer of the gastrointestinal tract and is a cause of chronic intestinal pseudo?obstruction in humans and animals. Objective To characterize the clinical presentation, histopathologic features, and outcome of dogs with intestinal leiomyositis in an effort to optimize treatment and prognosis. Animals Six client?owned dogs. Methods Retrospective case series. Medical records were reviewed to de...

  18. Interactions between the intestinal microbiota and innate lymphoid cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Vincent L; Kasper, Dennis L

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian intestine must manage to contain 100 trillion intestinal bacteria without inducing inappropriate immune responses to these microorganisms. The effects of the immune system on intestinal microorganisms are numerous and well-characterized, and recent research has determined that the microbiota influences the intestinal immune system as well. In this review, we first discuss the intestinal immune system and its role in containing and maintaining tolerance to commensal organisms. We next introduce a category of immune cells, the innate lymphoid cells, and describe their classification and function in intestinal immunology. Finally, we discuss the effects of the intestinal microbiota on innate lymphoid cells. PMID:24418741

  19. Experiencing sexuality after intestinal stoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Boccara de Paula

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Identify the Social Representations (SR of ostomized people in terms of sexuality after the stoma. METHODS: An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study using the Social Representation Theory with 15 ostomized people (8 females, mean age of 57.9 years, between August and September 2005. Data obtained from transcribed interviews were submitted to content analysis, resulting in the thematic unit "Giving new meaning to sexuality" and subthemes. RESULTS: The study demonstrated that the intestinal stoma interferes in the sexuality experience, showing that the meanings attributed to this experience are based on individual life stories, quality of personal relationships established in practice and perception of sexuality, despite the stoma. CONCLUSIONS: The Social Representations, in terms of experiencing sexuality after the stoma, are based on meanings attributed to the body, associated with daily life and present in the social imaginary. It is influenced by other factors, such as physiological changes resulting from the surgery and the fact of having or not a partner. Care taken during sexual practices provide greater security and comfort in moments of intimacy, resembling the closest to what ostomized people experienced before the stoma. The self-irrigation technique associated or not with the use of artificial occluder, has been attested by its users as a positive element that makes a difference in sexual practice after the stoma. The support to ostomized people should be comprehensive, not limited to technical care and disease, which are important, but not sufficient. The interdisciplinary health team should consider all aspects of the person, seeking a real meeting between subjects.OBJETIVO: Identificar as Representações Sociais (RS da pessoa estomizada intestinal sobre vivência da sexualidade após confecção do estoma. MÉTODOS: Estudo exploratório, descritivo, qualitativo do ponto de vista do referencial da Representa

  20. Intestinal Iron Homeostasis and Colon Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatrik M. Shah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths in industrialized countries. Understanding the mechanisms of growth and progression of CRC is essential to improve treatment. Iron is an essential nutrient for cell growth. Iron overload caused by hereditary mutations or excess dietary iron uptake has been identified as a risk factor for CRC. Intestinal iron is tightly controlled by iron transporters that are responsible for iron uptake, distribution, and export. Dysregulation of intestinal iron transporters are observed in CRC and lead to iron accumulation in tumors. Intratumoral iron results in oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, protein modification and DNA damage with consequent promotion of oncogene activation. In addition, excess iron in intestinal tumors may lead to increase in tumor-elicited inflammation and tumor growth. Limiting intratumoral iron through specifically chelating excess intestinal iron or modulating activities of iron transporter may be an attractive therapeutic target for CRC.

  1. Diversity and functions of intestinal mononuclear phagocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joeris, Thorsten; Müller-Luda, K; Agace, William Winston

    2017-01-01

    The intestinal lamina propria (LP) contains a diverse array of mononuclear phagocyte (MNP) subsets, including conventional dendritic cells (cDC), monocytes and tissue-resident macrophages (mφ) that collectively play an essential role in mucosal homeostasis, infection and inflammation. In the curr......The intestinal lamina propria (LP) contains a diverse array of mononuclear phagocyte (MNP) subsets, including conventional dendritic cells (cDC), monocytes and tissue-resident macrophages (mφ) that collectively play an essential role in mucosal homeostasis, infection and inflammation....... In the current review we discuss the function of intestinal cDC and monocyte-derived MNP, highlighting how these subsets play several non-redundant roles in the regulation of intestinal immune responses. While much remains to be learnt, recent findings also underline how the various populations of MNP adapt...

  2. Pterostilbene Prevents Intestinal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups as follows: Control group; intestinal .... excitation wavelength (485 nm) and emission wavelength (528 nm). The results ... Ethanolic phase of the tissue homogenate was extracted using ...

  3. Gastro-intestinal phytobezoars in Zimbabwean Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, C M; Gelfand, M

    1985-01-01

    The clinical features of 10 African patients with gastro-intestinal phytobezoars are described. These were similar to those described with persimmon bezoars and we postulate that the fruit of locally found trees, also of the genus Diospyros, are responsible.

  4. Intestinal Colonization Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Almagro-Moreno

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To cause the diarrheal disease cholera, Vibrio cholerae must effectively colonize the small intestine. In order to do so, the bacterium needs to successfully travel through the stomach and withstand the presence of agents such as bile and antimicrobial peptides in the intestinal lumen and mucus. The bacterial cells penetrate the viscous mucus layer covering the epithelium and attach and proliferate on its surface. In this review, we discuss recent developments and known aspects of the early stages of V. cholerae intestinal colonization and highlight areas that remain to be fully understood. We propose mechanisms and postulate a model that covers some of the steps that are required in order for the bacterium to efficiently colonize the human host. A deeper understanding of the colonization dynamics of V. cholerae and other intestinal pathogens will provide us with a variety of novel targets and strategies to avoid the diseases caused by these organisms.

  5. Epidemiology of small intestinal atresia in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Best, Kate E; Tennant, Peter W G; Addor, Marie-Claude

    2012-01-01

    The epidemiology of congenital small intestinal atresia (SIA) has not been well studied. This study describes the presence of additional anomalies, pregnancy outcomes, total prevalence and association with maternal age in SIA cases in Europe....

  6. Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome and intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), also called 'Ondine's curse', is characterised by an abnormal ventilatory response to progressive hypercapnia and sustained hypoxaemia. Neonates with this condition experience hypoventilation or apnoea while asleep. Patients may also have congenital intestinal aganglionosis (CIA), ...

  7. Mesenteric lipoma causing recurrent intestinal obstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-01-12

    Jan 12, 2013 ... vomiting, constipation, and central abdominal mass. ... Mesenteric lipoma may cause abdominal pain by complete intestinal .... Kaniklides C, Frykberg T, Lundkvist K. Pediatric mesenteric lipoma: An unusual cause of repeated ...

  8. Inflammasome in Intestinal Inflammation and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Nunes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The activation of specific cytosolic pathogen recognition receptors, the nucleotide-binding-oligomerization-domain- (NOD- like receptors (NLRs, leads to the assembly of the inflammasome, a multimeric complex platform that activates caspase-1. The caspase-1 pathway leads to the upregulation of important cytokines from the interleukin (IL-1 family, IL-1β, and IL-18, with subsequent activation of the innate immune response. In this review, we discuss the molecular structure, the mechanisms behind the inflammasome activation, and its possible role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases and intestinal cancer. Here, we show that the available data points towards the importance of the inflammasome in the innate intestinal immune response, being the complex involved in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis, correct intestinal barrier function and efficient elimination of invading pathogens.

  9. Neuroimmune regulation during intestinal development and homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique; Pachnis, Vassilis

    2017-02-01

    Interactions between the nervous system and immune system are required for organ function and homeostasis. Evidence suggests that enteric neurons and intestinal immune cells share common regulatory mechanisms and can coordinate their responses to developmental challenges and environmental aggressions. These discoveries shed light on the physiology of system interactions and open novel perspectives for therapy designs that target underappreciated neurological-immunological commonalities. Here we highlight findings that address the importance of neuroimmune cell units (NICUs) in intestinal development, homeostasis and disease.

  10. Non-Meckel Small Intestine Diverticulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamim Ejaz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis can have many manifestations and its management is not well-defined. We report 4 unselect cases of small intestine diverticulitis; all patients were seen by the same physician at the Emergency Center at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center between 1999 and 2014. The median age at diagnosis of these patients was 82 years (range, 76–87 years. All 4 patients presented with acute onset of abdominal pain, and computed tomography scans showed characteristics of small intestine diverticulitis unrelated to cancer. Most of the diverticula were found in the region of the duodenum and jejuno-ileal segments of the small intestine. The patients, even those with peripancreatic inflammation and localized perforation, were treated conservatively. Non-Meckel diverticulitis can be overlooked in the initial diagnosis because of the location of the diverticulosis, the age of the patient, and the rarity of the disease. Because patients with non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis can present with acute abdominal pain, non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute abdominal pain, and computed tomography scans can help identify the condition. Because of the rarity of non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis, few studies have been published, and the data are inconclusive about how best to approach these patients. Our experience with these 4 elderly patients indicates that non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis can be treated conservatively, which avoids the potential morbidity and mortality of a surgical approach.

  11. Spectrum of diseases in acute intestinal obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masud, M.; Khan, A.; Gondal, Z.I.; Adil, M.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the etiological spectrum of acute intestinal obstruction in our clinical setup Military Hospital Rawalpindi. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Surgical department of Military Hospital, Rawalpindi from Jul 2012 to Jul 2013, over a period of about 1 year. Material and Methods: A total of 120 patients with acute mechanical intestinal obstruction who underwent laparotomy were included in our study while those with non-mechanical intestinal obstruction like history of trauma and paralytic ileus were excluded from the study. All the patients were selected by non-probability purposive sampling technique. Emergency laparotomy was done and operative findings were recorded. Results: A total of 120 patients with mechanical intestinal obstruction were included in this study out of which 93 (69.17%) were female and remaining 27 (30.83%) were males. Male to female ratio was 1:2.24. Age range of patients was 22-85 years. Out of 120 patients operated for acute intestinal obstruction post-op adhesions were found in 37 (30.83%) patients followed by intestinal tuberculosis in 23 (19.17%) patients, obstructed inguinal hernias in 13 (10.83%), gut malignancies in 15 (12.5%) , Meckel's diverticulum with bands in 7 (5.83%), volvulus in 7 (5.83%), perforated appendix in 6 (5%), intussusception in 2 (1.7%), inflammatory bands in 5 (4.17%), trichobezoar and faecal impaction in 2 (1.7%) while in 3 (2.5%) patients no definite cause was found. Conclusion: Post-op adhesions are the commonest cause of mechanical intestinal obstruction in our setup followed by intestinal tuberculosis as second most common clinical pattern of presentation. (author)

  12. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F. S.; de Castro, Francisco Gomes; Miller, Wagner Peitl; de Lima, Raphael Rodrigues; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. PMID:27818542

  13. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F.S.; Castro, Francisco Gomes de; Miller, Wagner Peitl; Lima, Raphael Rodrigues de; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. (author)

  14. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F S; de Castro, Francisco Gomes; Miller, Wagner Peitl; de Lima, Raphael Rodrigues; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle

    2016-01-01

    To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation.

  15. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F.S.; Castro, Francisco Gomes de; Miller, Wagner Peitl; Lima, Raphael Rodrigues de; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle, E-mail: gabrielnicolodi@gmail.com [Hospital Sao Vicente - Funef, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. (author)

  16. Cytokine Tuning of Intestinal Epithelial Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Andrews

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The intestine serves as both our largest single barrier to the external environment and the host of more immune cells than any other location in our bodies. Separating these potential combatants is a single layer of dynamic epithelium composed of heterogeneous epithelial subtypes, each uniquely adapted to carry out a subset of the intestine’s diverse functions. In addition to its obvious role in digestion, the intestinal epithelium is responsible for a wide array of critical tasks, including maintaining barrier integrity, preventing invasion by microbial commensals and pathogens, and modulating the intestinal immune system. Communication between these epithelial cells and resident immune cells is crucial for maintaining homeostasis and coordinating appropriate responses to disease and can occur through cell-to-cell contact or by the release or recognition of soluble mediators. The objective of this review is to highlight recent literature illuminating how cytokines and chemokines, both those made by and acting on the intestinal epithelium, orchestrate many of the diverse functions of the intestinal epithelium and its interactions with immune cells in health and disease. Areas of focus include cytokine control of intestinal epithelial proliferation, cell death, and barrier permeability. In addition, the modulation of epithelial-derived cytokines and chemokines by factors such as interactions with stromal and immune cells, pathogen and commensal exposure, and diet will be discussed.

  17. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Cleve Nicolodi

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases, increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases, identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases, and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case. Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation.

  18. Lynch syndrome-related small intestinal adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Sun-Young; Lee, Eui-Jin; Kim, Mi-Ju; Chun, Sung Min; Bae, Young Kyung; Hong, Soon Uk; Choi, Jene; Kim, Joon Mee; Jang, Kee-Taek; Kim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Gwang Il; Jung, Soo Jin; Yoon, Ghilsuk; Hong, Seung-Mo

    2017-03-28

    Lynch syndrome is an autosomal-dominant disorder caused by defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes and is associated with increased risk of malignancies in multiple organs. Small-intestinal adenocarcinomas are common initial manifestations of Lynch syndrome. To define the incidence and characteristics of Lynch syndrome-related small-intestinal adenocarcinomas, meticulous familial and clinical histories were obtained from 195 patients with small-intestinal adenocarcinoma, and MMR protein immunohistochemistry, microsatellite instability, MLH1 methylation, and germline mutational analyses were performed. Lynch syndrome was confirmed in eight patients (4%), all of whom had synchronous/metachronous malignancies without noticeable familial histories. Small-intestinal adenocarcinomas were the first clinical manifestation in 37% (3/8) of Lynch syndrome patients, and second malignancies developed within 5 years in 63% (5/8). The patients with accompanying Lynch syndrome were younger (≤50 years; P=0.04) and more likely to have mucinous adenocarcinomas (P=0.003), and tended to survive longer (P=0.11) than those with sporadic cases. A meticulous patient history taking, MMR protein immunolabeling, and germline MMR gene mutational analysis are important for the diagnosis of Lynch syndrome-related small-intestinal adenocarcinomas. Identifying Lynch syndrome in patients with small-intestinal adenocarcinoma can be beneficial for the early detection and treatment of additional Lynch syndrome-related cancers, especially in patients who are young or have mucinous adenocarcinomas.

  19. Fecal markers of intestinal inflammation and intestinal permeability are elevated in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwiertz, Andreas; Spiegel, Jörg; Dillmann, Ulrich; Grundmann, David; Bürmann, Jan; Faßbender, Klaus; Schäfer, Karl-Herbert; Unger, Marcus M

    2018-02-12

    Intestinal inflammation and increased intestinal permeability (both possibly fueled by dysbiosis) have been suggested to be implicated in the multifactorial pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The objective of the current study was to investigate whether fecal markers of inflammation and impaired intestinal barrier function corroborate this pathogenic aspect of PD. In a case-control study, we quantitatively analyzed established fecal markers of intestinal inflammation (calprotectin and lactoferrin) and fecal markers of intestinal permeability (alpha-1-antitrypsin and zonulin) in PD patients (n = 34) and controls (n = 28, group-matched for age) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The study design controlled for potential confounding factors. Calprotectin, a fecal marker of intestinal inflammation, and two fecal markers of increased intestinal permeability (alpha-1-antitrypsin and zonulin) were significantly elevated in PD patients compared to age-matched controls. Lactoferrin, as a second fecal marker of intestinal inflammation, showed a non-significant trend towards elevated concentrations in PD patients. None of the four fecal markers correlated with disease severity, PD subtype, dopaminergic therapy, or presence of constipation. Fecal markers reflecting intestinal inflammation and increased intestinal permeability have been primarily investigated in inflammatory bowel disease so far. Our data indicate that calprotectin, alpha-1-antitrypsin and zonulin could be useful non-invasive markers in PD as well. Even though these markers are not disease-specific, they corroborate the hypothesis of an intestinal inflammation as contributing factor in the pathogenesis of PD. Further investigations are needed to determine whether calprotectin, alpha-1-antitrypsin and zonulin can be used to define PD subgroups and to monitor the effect of interventions in PD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 8 – 11 gadus vecu bērnu pašcieņas saistība ar vecāku audzināšanas stilu un tehnoferenci

    OpenAIRE

    Ērmane, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Ir izvirzīts pētījuma mērķis teorētiski un praktiski izpētīt 8 – 11 gadus vecu bērnu pašcieņas saistību ar vecāku audzināšanas stilu un tehnoferenci. Pētījumā ir viena hipotēze par to, ka pastāv saistība starp vecāku audzināšanas stilu, bērnu pašcieņu un tehoferenci. Pētījuma izlasi veido 15 bērni (M = 9,6 gadi; SD = 1,12; 8 meitenes un 7 zēni) un 30 vecāki (M = 36,8 gadi; SD = 5,74; 15 vīrieši un 15 sievietes). Ir izmantoti 3 instrumenti: Audzināšanas pieeju aptauja, Tehnoloģijas ierīču ieja...

  1. A new approach to predict human intestinal absorption using porcine intestinal tissue and biorelevant matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, J.; Steeg, E. van de; Grossouw, D.; Zeijdner, E.E.; Krul, C.A.M.; Verwei, M.; Wortelboer, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    A reliable prediction of the oral bioavailability in humans is crucial and of high interest for pharmaceutical and food industry. The predictive value of currently used in silico methods, in vitro cell lines, ex vivo intestinal tissue and/or in vivo animal studies for human intestinal absorption,

  2. The intestinal complement system in inflammatory bowel disease: Shaping intestinal barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sina, Christian; Kemper, Claudia; Derer, Stefanie

    2018-06-01

    The complement system is part of innate sensor and effector systems such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). It recognizes and quickly systemically and/or locally respond to microbial-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) with a tailored defense reaction. MAMP recognition by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and appropriate immune responses are of major importance for the maintenance of intestinal barrier function. Enterocytes highly express various complement components that are suggested to be pivotal for proper IEC function. Appropriate activation of the intestinal complement system seems to play an important role in the resolution of chronic intestinal inflammation, while over-activation and/or dysregulation may worsen intestinal inflammation. Mice deficient for single complement components suffer from enhanced intestinal inflammation mimicking the phenotype of patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) such as Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the mechanisms leading to complement expression in IECs seem to differ markedly between UC and CD patients. Hence, how IECs, intestinal bacteria and epithelial cell expressed complement components interact in the course of IBD still remains to be mostly elucidated to define potential unique patterns contributing to the distinct subtypes of intestinal inflammation observed in CD and UC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury augments intestinal mucosal injury and bacterial translocation in jaundiced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksek, Yunus Nadi; Kologlu, Murat; Daglar, Gül; Doganay, Mutlu; Dolapci, Istar; Bilgihan, Ayse; Dolapçi, Mete; Kama, Nuri Aydin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate local effects and degree of bacterial translocation related with intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat obstructive jaundice model. Thirty adult Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were divided into three groups; including Group 1 (jaundice group), Group 2 (jaundice-ischemia group) and Group 3 (ischemia group). All rats had 2 laparotomies. After experimental interventions, tissue samples for translocation; liver and ileum samples for histopathological examination, 25 cm of small intestine for mucosal myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde levels and blood samples for biochemical analysis were obtained. Jaundiced rats had increased liver enzyme levels and total and direct bilirubin levels (p<0.05). Intestinal mucosal myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde levels were found to be high in intestinal ischemia-reperfusion groups (p<0.05). Intestinal mucosal damage was more severe in rats with intestinal ischemia-reperfusion after bile duct ligation (p<0.05). Degree of bacterial translocation was also found to be significantly high in these rats (p<0.05). Intestinal mucosa is disturbed more severely in obstructive jaundice with the development of ischemia and reperfusion. Development of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion in obstructive jaundice increases bacterial translocation.

  4. Plasma intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) concentrations increase following intestinal ischemia in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niewold, T.A.; Meinen, M.; Meulen, van der J.

    2004-01-01

    Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) is an intracellular epithelial protein in the intestinal mucosa of many animals. IFABP appears in the circulation following epithelial damage, and in humans, is proven to be a parameter for damage to the mucosa. In this paper, an ELISA test designed for

  5. Presentation of a nationwide multicenter registry of intestinal failure and intestinal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelis, E. G.; Roskott, A. M.; Dijkstra, G.; Wanten, G. J.; Serlie, M. J.; Tabbers, M. M.; Damen, G.; Olthof, E. D.; Jonkers, C. F.; Kloeze, J. H.; Ploeg, R. J.; Imhann, F.; Nieuwenhuijs, V. B.; Rings, E. H. H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Exact data on Dutch patients with chronic intestinal failure (CIF) and after intestinal transplantation (ITx) have been lacking. To improve standard care of these patients, a nationwide collaboration has been established. Objectives of this study were obtaining an up-to-date prevalence of CIF and

  6. Presentation of a nationwide multicenter registry of intestinal failure and intestinal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelis, E. G.; Roskott, A. M.; Dijkstra, G.; Wanten, G. J.; Serlie, M. J.; Tabbers, M. M.; Damen, G.; Olthof, E. D.; Jonkers, C. F.; Kloeze, J. H.; Ploeg, R. J.; Imhann, F.; Nieuwenhuijs, V. B.; Rings, E. H. H. M.

    Background & aims: Exact data on Dutch patients with chronic intestinal failure (CIF) and after intestinal transplantation (ITx) have been lacking. To improve standard care of these patients, a nationwide collaboration has been established. Objectives of this study were obtaining an up-to-date

  7. Presentation of a nationwide multicenter registry of intestinal failure and intestinal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelis, E.G.; Roskott, A.M.; Dijkstra, G.; Wanten, G.J.A.; Serlie, M.J.; Tabbers, M.M.; Damen, G.M.; Olthof, E.D.; Jonkers, C.F.; Kloeze, J.H.; Ploeg, R.J.; Imhann, F.; Nieuwenhuijs, V.B.; Rings, E.H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Exact data on Dutch patients with chronic intestinal failure (CIF) and after intestinal transplantation (ITx) have been lacking. To improve standard care of these patients, a nationwide collaboration has been established. Objectives of this study were obtaining an up-to-date

  8. [Myosin B ATPase activity of the intestinal smooth muscle in intestinal obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, H

    1983-06-01

    Intestinal smooth myosin B was prepared from muscle layers around the lesion in dogs with experimental colonic stenosis and in patients with congenital intestinal obstruction. Mg2+-ATPase activity of the myosin B was compared between the proximal dilated segment and distal segment to obstruction. Experimental colonic stenosis: In early period after surgery, proximal colons showed higher activity of myosin B ATPase than distal colons, decreasing to less than distal colon as time passed. Congenital intestinal obstruction: In three cases, whose atresia might have occurred at earlier period of gestation, proximal bowels showed less activity of myosin B ATPase than distal bowels. However, in two cases, whose atresia might have occurred at later period of gestation, and two cases with intestinal stenosis, proximal bowels indicated higher activity of myosin B ATPase than distal bowels. These data suggested that the contractibility of the proximal intestine was depending on the duration of obstruction, and it was depressed in the former patients and was accelerated in the latter patients. These results suggested that the extensive resection of dilated proximal bowel in the congenital atresia is not always necessary to obtain good postoperative intestinal dynamics at the operation of the atresial lesions which may be induced at later period of gestation. They also suggested that surgery for intestinal obstruction should be performed before the depression of intestinal contractibility to get good bowel function.

  9. Coagulation of sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, C A; Johnston, M G; Nelson, W

    1988-06-01

    We have determined the most suitable method for the automated analysis of the clotting parameters in sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph as defined by the Activated Partial Thromboplastin Times (APTT; measure of intrinsic coagulation pathway) and the Prothrombin Times (PT; measure of extrinsic coagulation pathway). As opposed to optical density systems, the use of a Fibro-System Fibrometer was found to provide the most consistent assessment of coagulation with the endpoint being the time to fibrin strand formation. We measured APTT in sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph of 59.78 +/- 7.69 seconds and 51.03 +/- 10.49 seconds respectively. These values were more prolonged than those obtained from sheep blood plasma but only in the case of intestinal lymph were the differences significant (p less than 0.025). Human blood APTT values were significantly less than both sheep blood (p less than 0.05) and sheep intestinal (p less than 0.001) and prefemoral lymph (p less than 0.01). PT values were found to be 21.56 +/- 1.14 seconds in intestinal and 22.00 +/- 1.88 seconds in prefemoral lymph. These values were also significantly greater than those obtained from sheep blood (both p less than 0.001). Human blood PTs were significantly less than both sheep blood (p less than 0.001) and intestinal and prefemoral lymph (both p less than 0.001). Measurement of APTT and PT values in intestinal lymph and PT determinations in prefemoral lymph were not affected by storage in the refrigerator or freezer. There was some indication that APTT values in prefemoral samples were susceptible to storage artifacts; however, the differences in coagulation times were not significant.

  10. Neonatal intestinal obstruction in Benin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osifo Osarumwense

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal obstruction is a life threatening condition in the newborn, with attendant high mortality rate especially in underserved subregion. This study reports the aetiology, presentation, and outcome of intestinal obstruction management in neonates. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of neonatal intestinal obstruction at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin, Nigeria, between January 2006-June 2008. Data were collated on a structured proforma and analysed for age, sex, weight, presentation, type/date of gestation/delivery, aetiology, clinical presentation, associated anomaly, treatment, and outcome. Results: There were 71 neonates, 52 were males and 19 were females (2.7:1. Their age range was between 12 hours and 28 days (mean, 7.9 ± 2.7 days and they weighed between 1.8 and 5.2 kg (average, 3.2 kg. The causes of intestinal obstruction were: Anorectal anomaly, 28 (39.4%; Hirschsprung′s disease, 8 (11.3%′ prematurity, 3 (4.2%; meconeum plug, 2 (2.8%; malrotation, 6 (8.5%; intestinal atresia, 8 (11.3%; necrotising enterocolitis (NEC, 4 (5.6%; obstructed hernia, 4 (5.6%; and spontaneous gut perforation, 3 (4.2%. Also, 27 (38% children had colostomy, 24 (33.8% had laparotomy, 9 (12.8% had anoplasty, while 11 (15.4% were managed nonoperatively. A total of 41 (57.7% neonates required incubator, 26 (36.6% needed total parenteral nutrition, while 15 (21.1% require d paediatric ventilator. Financial constraint, late presentation, presence of multiple anomalies, aspiration, sepsis, gut perforation, and bowel gangrene were the main contributors to death. Neonates with lower obstructions had a better outcome compared to those having upper intestinal obstruction ( P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Outcomes of intestinal obstruction are still poor in our setting; late presentation, financial constraints, poor parental motivation and lack of basic facilities were the major determinants of mortality.

  11. Intestinal Leiomyositis: A Cause of Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction in 6 Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacuto, A C; Pesavento, P A; Hill, S; McAlister, A; Rosenthal, K; Cherbinsky, O; Marks, S L

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal leiomyositis is a suspected autoimmune disorder affecting the muscularis propria layer of the gastrointestinal tract and is a cause of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in humans and animals. To characterize the clinical presentation, histopathologic features, and outcome of dogs with intestinal leiomyositis in an effort to optimize treatment and prognosis. Six client-owned dogs. Retrospective case series. Medical records were reviewed to describe signalment, clinicopathologic and imaging findings, histopathologic diagnoses, treatment, and outcome. All biopsy specimens were reviewed by a board-certified pathologist. Median age of dogs was 5.4 years (range, 15 months-9 years). Consistent clinical signs included vomiting (6/6), regurgitation (2/6), and small bowel diarrhea (3/6). Median duration of clinical signs before presentation was 13 days (range, 5-150 days). Diagnostic imaging showed marked gastric distension with dilated small intestines in 4/6 dogs. Full-thickness intestinal biopsies were obtained in all dogs by laparotomy. Histopathology of the stomach and intestines disclosed mononuclear inflammation, myofiber degeneration and necrosis, and fibrosis centered within the region of myofiber loss in the intestinal muscularis propria. All dogs received various combinations of immunomodulatory and prokinetic treatment, antimicrobial agents, antiemetics, and IV fluids, but none of the dogs showed a clinically relevant improvement with treatment. Median survival was 19 days after diagnosis (range, 3-270 days). Intestinal leiomyositis is a cause of intestinal pseudo-obstruction and must be diagnosed by full-thickness intestinal biopsy. This disease should be considered in dogs with acute and chronic vomiting, regurgitation, and small bowel diarrhea. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  12. Intestinal cytochromes P450 regulating the intestinal microbiota and its probiotic profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Elefterios Venizelos Bezirtzoglou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytochromes P450 (CYPs enzymes metabolize a large variety of xenobiotic substances. In this vein, a plethora of studies were conducted to investigate their role, as cytochromes are located in both liver and intestinal tissues. The P450 profile of the human intestine has not been fully characterized. Human intestine serves primarily as an absorptive organ for nutrients, although it has also the ability to metabolize drugs. CYPs are responsible for the majority of phase I drug metabolism reactions. CYP3A represents the major intestinal CYP (80% followed by CYP2C9. CYP1A is expressed at high level in the duodenum, together with less abundant levels of CYP2C8-10 and CYP2D6. Cytochromes present a genetic polymorphism intra- or interindividual and intra- or interethnic. Changes in the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug are associated with increased toxicity due to reduced metabolism, altered efficacy of the drug, increased production of toxic metabolites, and adverse drug interaction. The high metabolic capacity of the intestinal flora is due to its enormous pool of enzymes, which catalyzes reactions in phase I and phase II drug metabolism. Compromised intestinal barrier conditions, when rupture of the intestinal integrity occurs, could increase passive paracellular absorption. It is clear that high microbial intestinal charge following intestinal disturbances, ageing, environment, or food-associated ailments leads to the microbial metabolism of a drug before absorption. The effect of certain bacteria having a benefic action on the intestinal ecosystem has been largely discussed during the past few years by many authors. The aim of the probiotic approach is to repair the deficiencies in the gut flora and establish a protective effect. There is a tentative multifactorial association of the CYP (P450 cytochrome role in the different diseases states, environmental toxic effects or chemical exposures and nutritional status.

  13. Intestinal endocrine cells in radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietroletti, R.; Blaauwgeers, J.L.; Taat, C.W.; Simi, M.; Brummelkamp, W.H.; Becker, A.E.

    1989-01-01

    In this study, the intestinal endocrine cells were investigated in 13 surgical specimens affected by radiation enteritis. Endocrine cells were studied by means of Grimelius' silver staining and immunostaining for chromogranin, a general marker of endocrine cells. Positively stained cells were quantified by counting their number per unit length of muscularis mucosa. Results in radiation enteritis were compared with matched control specimens by using Student's t test. Chromogranin immunostaining showed a statistically significant increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis specimens compared with controls both in small and large intestine (ileum, 67.5 +/- 23.5 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 17.0 +/- 6.1 in controls; colon, 40.9 +/- 13.7 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 9.5 +/- 4.1 in controls--p less than 0.005 in both instances). Increase of endocrine cells was demonstrated also by Grimelius' staining; however, without reaching statistical significance. It is not clear whether or not the increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis reported in this study is caused by a hyperplastic response or by a sparing phenomenon. We should consider that increased endocrine cells, when abnormally secreting their products, may be involved in some of the clinical features of radiation enteropathy. In addition, as intestinal endocrine cells produce trophic substances to the intestine, their increase could be responsible for the raised risk of developing carcinoma of the intestine in long standing radiation enteritis

  14. Macrophages in intestinal homeostasis and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Calum C; Mowat, Allan McI

    2014-01-01

    The intestine contains the largest pool of macrophages in the body which are essential for maintaining mucosal homeostasis in the face of the microbiota and the constant need for epithelial renewal but are also important components of protective immunity and are involved in the pathology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, defining the biological roles of intestinal macrophages has been impeded by problems in defining the phenotype and origins of different populations of myeloid cells in the mucosa. Here, we discuss how multiple parameters can be used in combination to discriminate between functionally distinct myeloid cells and discuss the roles of macrophages during homeostasis and how these may change when inflammation ensues. We also discuss the evidence that intestinal macrophages do not fit the current paradigm that tissue-resident macrophages are derived from embryonic precursors that self-renew in situ, but require constant replenishment by blood monocytes. We describe our recent work demonstrating that classical monocytes constantly enter the intestinal mucosa and how the environment dictates their subsequent fate. We believe that understanding the factors that drive intestinal macrophage development in the steady state and how these may change in response to pathogens or inflammation could provide important insights into the treatment of IBD. PMID:24942685

  15. Tissue response after radiation exposure. Intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Kensuke; Tomita, Masanori; Yamauchi, Motohiro; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal syndrome followed by 'gut death' is due to intestinal disorders. This syndrome is induced by high-dose (>10 Gy) of ionizing radiation. Recovery from the gastrointestinal syndrome would depend on the number of survived clonogens and regeneration capability of crypts. These tissue alterations can be observed by high-dose radiation, however, cellular dynamics in crypts can be affected by low-dose radiation. For example, Potten et al. found that low-dose radiation induce apoptosis of intestinal stem cells, which produce all differentiated function cells. Recently, intestinal stem cells are characterized by molecular markers such as Lgr5. Since intestinal adenomas can be induced by deletion of Apc gene in Lgr5 + stem cells, it is widely recognized that Lgr5 + stem cells are the cell-of-origin of cancer. Duodenal Lgr5 + stem cells are known as radioresistant cells, however, we found that ionizing radiation significantly induces the turnover of colonic Lgr5 + stem cells. Combined with the knowledge of other radioresistant markers, stem-cell dynamics in tissue after irradiation are becoming clear. The present review introduces the history of gastrointestinal syndrome and intestinal stem cells, and discusses those future perspectives. (author)

  16. Small Intestinal Obstruction Caused by Anisakiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Takano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small intestinal anisakiasis is a rare disease that is very difficult to diagnose, and its initial diagnosis is often surgical. However, it is typically a benign disease that resolves with conservative treatment, and unnecessary surgery can be avoided if it is appropriately diagnosed. This case report is an example of small intestinal obstruction caused by anisakiasis that resolved with conservative treatment. A 63-year-old man admitted to our department with acute abdominal pain. A history of raw fish (sushi ingestion was recorded. Abdominal CT demonstrated small intestinal dilatation with wall thickening and contrast enhancement. Ascitic fluid was found on the liver surface and in the Douglas pouch. His IgE (RIST was elevated, and he tested positive for the anti-Anisakis antibodies IgG and IgA. Small intestinal obstruction by anisakiasis was highly suspected and conservative treatment was performed, ileus tube, fasting, and fluid replacement. Symptoms quickly resolved, and he was discharged on the seventh day of admission. Small intestinal anisakiasis is a relatively uncommon disease, the diagnosis of which may be difficult. Because it is a self-limiting disease that usually resolves in 1-2 weeks, a conservative approach is advisable to avoid unnecessary surgery.

  17. Measures to minimize small intestine injury in the irradiated pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, N.; Iba, G.; Smith, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    Small intestine injury causes long-term suffering and high mortality. Five of 187 of our patients had developed serious small intestine injury. Four patients had corrective surgery. Three patients died. All were women. Subsequently, all patients who received definitive pelvic irradiation had small intestine roentgenograms to determine its location and mobility. Female patients, thin patients, and elderly patients had larger amounts of small intestine in the whole pelvis, a deeper cul de sac, and a greater incidence of relatively immobile small intestine. Patients with relatively immobile small intestine in the treatment field may be predisposed to injury. There was no relationship of the incidence of relatively immobile small intestine to prior pelvic surgery. We used the findings from the small intestine roentgenograms to modify individually the radiotherapy regimen so as to minimize the risk for small intestine injury. Patients were placed in the prone position to displace the small intestine out of the treatment fields used for booster dose irradiation. The treatment field was modified to exclude the small intestine. The total tumor dose delivered was determined by expectations for cure vs complications. To date, none of the patients in this study group has developed small intestine injury. Cadaver studies showed the feasibility of elective shortening of the pelvic cul de sac. The small intestine can be displaced away from the bladder, prostate, or cervix. (U.S.)

  18. Transcriptome changes during intestinal cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadjali, Mehrdad; Seidelin, Jakob B; Olsen, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    The expression of 18149 genes have been analysed during the differentiation of the human intestinal cell line Caco-2. cDNA probes from undifferentiated and differentiated Caco-2 cells were separately hybridised to EST DNAs spotted in an array on a nylon membrane. A remarkable change in the transc......The expression of 18149 genes have been analysed during the differentiation of the human intestinal cell line Caco-2. cDNA probes from undifferentiated and differentiated Caco-2 cells were separately hybridised to EST DNAs spotted in an array on a nylon membrane. A remarkable change...... cells by performing reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on RNA extracted from laser dissected intestinal crypt and villi. In a screen of eight transcripts one - SART3 - was identified as a marker for human colonic crypts....

  19. Mucosal immunity to pathogenic intestinal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Lopez, Araceli; Behnsen, Judith; Nuccio, Sean-Paul; Raffatellu, Manuela

    2016-03-01

    The intestinal mucosa is a particularly dynamic environment in which the host constantly interacts with trillions of commensal microorganisms, known as the microbiota, and periodically interacts with pathogens of diverse nature. In this Review, we discuss how mucosal immunity is controlled in response to enteric bacterial pathogens, with a focus on the species that cause morbidity and mortality in humans. We explain how the microbiota can shape the immune response to pathogenic bacteria, and we detail innate and adaptive immune mechanisms that drive protective immunity against these pathogens. The vast diversity of the microbiota, pathogens and immune responses encountered in the intestines precludes discussion of all of the relevant players in this Review. Instead, we aim to provide a representative overview of how the intestinal immune system responds to pathogenic bacteria.

  20. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia with generalized warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon Jae; Song, Hyun Joo; Boo, Sun-Jin; Na, Soo-Young; Kim, Heung Up; Hyun, Chang Lim

    2015-07-21

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare protein-losing enteropathy with lymphatic leakage into the small intestine. Dilated lymphatics in the small intestinal wall and mesentery are observed in this disease. Laboratory tests of PIL patients revealed hypoalbuminemia, lymphocytopenia, hypogammaglobulinemia and increased stool α-1 antitrypsin clearance. Cell-mediated immunodeficiency is also present in PIL patients because of loss of lymphocytes. As a result, the patients are vulnerable to chronic viral infection and lymphoma. However, cases of PIL with chronic viral infection, such as human papilloma virus-induced warts, are rarely reported. We report a rare case of PIL with generalized warts in a 36-year-old male patient. PIL was diagnosed by capsule endoscopy and colonoscopic biopsy with histological tissue confirmation. Generalized warts were observed on the head, chest, abdomen, back, anus, and upper and lower extremities, including the hands and feet of the patient.

  1. Intestinal Failure: New Definition and Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Matthew; Diamond, Sarah; Hurt, Ryan T; Martindale, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Intestinal failure (IF) is a state in which the nutritional demands of the body are not met by the gastrointestinal absorptive surface. It is a long-recognized complication associated with short bowel syndrome, which results in malabsorption after significant resection of the intestine for many reasons or functional dysmotility. Etiologies have included Crohn's disease, vascular complications, and the effects of radiation enteritis, as well as the effects of intestinal obstruction, dysmotility, or congenital defects. While IF has been long-recognized, it has historically not been uniformly defined, which has made both recognition and management challenging. This review examines the previous definitions of IF as well as the newer definition and classification of IF and how it is essential to IF clinical guidelines.

  2. Seronegative Intestinal Villous Atrophy: A Diagnostic Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Martins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is the most important cause of intestinal villous atrophy. Seronegative intestinal villous atrophy, including those that are nonresponsive to a gluten-free diet, is a diagnostic challenge. In these cases, before establishing the diagnosis of seronegative celiac disease, alternative etiologies of atrophic enteropathy should be considered. Recently, a new clinical entity responsible for seronegative villous atrophy was described—olmesartan-induced sprue-like enteropathy. Herein, we report two uncommon cases of atrophic enteropathy in patients with arterial hypertension under olmesartan, who presented with severe chronic diarrhea and significant involuntary weight loss. Further investigation revealed intestinal villous atrophy and intraepithelial lymphocytosis. Celiac disease and other causes of villous atrophy were ruled out. Drug-induced enteropathy was suspected and clinical improvement and histologic recovery were verified after olmesartan withdrawal. These cases highlight the importance for clinicians to maintain a high index of suspicion for olmesartan as a precipitant of sprue-like enteropathy.

  3. Intestinal infarction: A complication of endovascular therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, Andrew; Butterfield, John S.; Sukumar, Sathi; Thompson, David; Roulson, Jo-An; Pritchard, Susan; Ashleigh, Raymond J.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents a rare case of intestinal infarction following endovascular therapy. A female patient who had undergone an internal carotid artery stenting procedure presented suddenly with abdominal pain. Radiological and clinical examinations at the time suggested a picture of intestinal ischaemia, in view of the patient's general conditions and co-existing morbidities surgical intervention was not considered to be an option. The patient died 4 days after the carotid stenting procedure, post-mortem examination revealed infarction of the ileum and caecum. The learning outcomes are if performing endovascular therapy in a patient with diffuse atherosclerotic disease early consideration of intestinal ischaemia should be given to any patient who presents with acute post-procedural abdominal pain

  4. [Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis complicated with intestinal volvulus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuenmayor, Carmen Elena; Gainza, Carlos; García, Maryori; Zambrano, Richard; Torres, Gledys; Hernández, Yohanys; García, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis is a rare condition in which multiple gas-filled cysts are found within the wall of the gastrointestinal tract either in the subserosa or submucosa. Its pathogenesis is uncertain and several pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed to explain its origin. The case of a male patient of 46 years with previous diagnosis of pneumatosis cystic intestinalis, who consulted for abdominal pain, vomiting and fever (39 °C) is presented. By the time of admission ther were signs of peritoneal irritation. The X-ray abdominal reported distension and intestinal hydro-air levels. Exploratory laparotomy was performed and revealed small bowel volvulus with strangulation of some intestinal segment. Histological diagnosis was pneumatosis cystic intestinalis complicated with Infarction trans-mural by intestinal volvulus. The patient evolved satisfactorily.

  5. Intestinal malrotation and catastrophic volvulus in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Henry Chong; Pickard, Sarah S; Sridhar, Sunita; Dutta, Sanjeev

    2012-07-01

    Intestinal malrotation in the newborn is usually diagnosed after signs of intestinal obstruction, such as bilious emesis, and corrected with the Ladd procedure. The objective of this report is to describe the presentation of severe cases of midgut volvulus presenting in infancy, and to discuss the characteristics of these cases. We performed a 7-year review at our institution and present two cases of catastrophic midgut volvulus presenting in the post-neonatal period, ending in death soon after the onset of symptoms. These two patients also had significant laboratory abnormalities compared to patients with more typical presentations resulting in favorable outcomes. Although most cases of intestinal malrotation in infancy can be treated successfully, in some circumstances, patients' symptoms may not be detected early enough for effective treatment, and therefore may result in catastrophic midgut volvulus and death. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiodiagnosis of early radiation intestinal changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volodina, G.I.; Abdulkhakova, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    X-ray examination of the colon in 102 patients and of the small intestine in 62 was performed during combined radiation therapy of cervical cancer and at different time after its discontinuation. Early radiation functional and morphological changes in the ileum and colon were detected. Radiation changes in the ileac mucosa were noted in 52% of the patients, changes of various degree in the rectal, sigmoid and cecal mucosa were noted in 41.2%. Moderate radiation changes in the ascending, descending and horizontal parts of the colon were noted in 10.7%. Early radiation intestinal injuries in the form of erosions and ulcers were revealed in 5.8% of the patients. In most of the patients radiation intestinal changes were without noticeable clinical manifestations. All these patients could be defined as a group at risk of developing late radiation changes

  7. Small Bowel Obstruction due to Intestinal Xanthomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Barrera-Herrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast majority of bowel obstruction is due to postoperative adhesions, malignancy, intestinal inflammatory disease, and hernias; however, knowledge of other uncommon causes is critical to establish a prompt treatment and decrease mortality. Xanthomatosis is produced by accumulation of cholesterol-rich foamy macrophages. Intestinal xanthomatosis is an uncommon nonneoplastic lesion that may cause small bowel obstruction and several cases have been reported in the English literature as obstruction in the jejunum. We report a case of small intestinal xanthomatosis occurring in a 51-year-old female who presented with one day of copious vomiting and intermittent abdominal pain. Radiologic images revealed jejunal loop thickening and inflammatory changes suggestive of foreign body obstruction, diagnostic laparoscopy found two strictures at the jejunum, and a pathologic examination confirmed a segmental small bowel xanthomatosis. This case illustrates that obstruction even without predisposing factors such as hyperlipidemia or lymphoproliferative disorders.

  8. Recent Advances in Intestinal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Laura R; Parameswaran, Narayanan

    2017-09-01

    The intestine is a dynamic organ with rapid stem cell division generating epithelial cells that mature and apoptose in 3-5 days. Rapid turnover maintains the epithelial barrier and homeostasis. Current insights on intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and their regulation are discussed here. The Lgr5+ ISCs maintain intestinal homeostasis by dividing asymmetrically, but also divide symmetrically to extinguish or replace ISCs. Following radiation or mucosal injury, reserve BMI1+ ISCs as well as other crypt cells can de-differentiate into Lgr5+ ISCs. ISC niche cells, including Paneth, immune and myofibroblast cells secrete factors that regulate ISC proliferation. Finally, several studies indicate that the microbiome metabolites regulate ISC growth. ISC cells can be plastic and integrate a complexity of environmental/niche cues to trigger or suppress proliferation as needed.

  9. Intestinal infarction: A complication of endovascular therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    England, Andrew [Department of Radiology, South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Southmoor Road, Wythenshawe, Manchester M23 9LT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: andrew.england@smtr.nhs.uk; Butterfield, John S. [Department of Radiology, South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Southmoor Road, Wythenshawe, Manchester M23 9LT (United Kingdom); Sukumar, Sathi [Department of Radiology, South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Southmoor Road, Wythenshawe, Manchester M23 9LT (United Kingdom); Thompson, David [Department of Radiology, South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Southmoor Road, Wythenshawe, Manchester M23 9LT (United Kingdom); Roulson, Jo-An [Department of Histopathology, South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Southmoor Road, Wythenshawe, Manchester M23 9LT (United Kingdom); Pritchard, Susan [Department of Histopathology, South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Southmoor Road, Wythenshawe, Manchester M23 9LT (United Kingdom); Ashleigh, Raymond J. [Department of Radiology, South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Southmoor Road, Wythenshawe, Manchester M23 9LT (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-15

    This report presents a rare case of intestinal infarction following endovascular therapy. A female patient who had undergone an internal carotid artery stenting procedure presented suddenly with abdominal pain. Radiological and clinical examinations at the time suggested a picture of intestinal ischaemia, in view of the patient's general conditions and co-existing morbidities surgical intervention was not considered to be an option. The patient died 4 days after the carotid stenting procedure, post-mortem examination revealed infarction of the ileum and caecum. The learning outcomes are if performing endovascular therapy in a patient with diffuse atherosclerotic disease early consideration of intestinal ischaemia should be given to any patient who presents with acute post-procedural abdominal pain.

  10. Intestinal Microbiota Signatures Associated With Histological Liver Steatosis in Pediatric-Onset Intestinal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, Katri; Mutanen, Annika; Salonen, Anne; Savilahti, Erkki; de Vos, Willem M; Pakarinen, Mikko P

    2017-02-01

    Intestinal failure (IF)-associated liver disease (IFALD) is the major cause of mortality in IF. The link between intestinal microbiota and IFALD is unclear. We compared intestinal microbiota of patients with IF (n = 23) with healthy controls (n = 58) using culture-independent phylogenetic microarray analysis. The microbiota was related to histological liver injury, fecal markers of intestinal inflammation, matrix metalloproteinase 9 and calprotectin, and disease characteristics. Overabundance of Lactobacilli, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria was observed in IF, whereas bacteria related to Clostridium clusters III, IV, and XIVa along with overall diversity and richness were reduced. Patients were segregated into 3 subgroups based on dominating bacteria: Clostridium cluster XIVa, Proteobacteria, and bacteria related to Lactobacillus plantarum. In addition to liver steatosis and fibrosis, Proteobacteria were associated with prolonged current parenteral nutrition (PN) as well as liver and intestinal inflammation. Lactobacilli were related to advanced steatosis and fibrosis mostly after weaning off PN without associated inflammation. In multivariate permutational analysis of variance, liver steatosis, bowel length, PN calories, and antibiotic treatment best explained the microbiota variation among patients with IF. Intestinal microbiota composition was associated with liver steatosis in IF and better predicted steatosis than duration of PN or length of the remaining intestine. Our results may be explained by a model in which steatosis is initiated during PN in response to proinflammatory lipopolysaccharides produced by Proteobacteria and progresses after weaning off PN, as the L plantarum group Lactobacilli becomes dominant and affects lipid metabolism by altering bile acid signaling.

  11. The effect of fucoidan on intestinal flora and intestinal barrier function in rats with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Meilan; Ji, Xinqiang; Liang, Hui; Liu, Ying; Wang, Bing; Sun, Lingling; Li, Weiwei

    2018-02-21

    Recent research studies have shown that the intestinal flora are related to the occurrence and progress of breast cancer. This study investigates the effect of fucoidan on intestinal flora and intestinal barrier function in rats with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancers. Sixty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the control group, the model group, and the F1 and F2 groups, which were fed fucoidan at concentrations of 200 and 400 mg per kg bw (body weight), respectively. Intestinal histopathological analysis was performed and 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing was used to provide an overview of the intestinal flora composition. The contents of d-lactic acid (d-LA), diamine oxidase (DAO) and endotoxin in plasma were detected by ELISA. Expression levels of the tight junction (TJ) proteins, phosphorylated p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 were measured using western blotting. Our results suggested that the intestinal wall of the model group was damaged. However, after fucoidan intervention, the villi were gradually restored. ELISA showed that the levels of plasma endotoxin, d-LA and DAO decreased in the F1 and F2 groups compared to those in the model group. Fucoidan treatment also increased the expressions of ZO-1, occludin, claudin-1 and claudin-8. Furthermore, the expression levels of phosphorylated p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 were upregulated in fucoidan treatment groups. The results of 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing indicated that fucoidan increased the diversity of the intestinal microbiota and induced changes in microbial composition, with the increased Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes phylum ratio. In conclusion, the supplement of fucoidan could improve the fecal microbiota composition and repair the intestinal barrier function. The study suggested the use of fucoidan as an intestinal flora modulator for potential prevention of breast cancer.

  12. Surface staining of small intestinal biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1977-01-01

    Small intestinal biopsies are most often by routine examined under a stereo-microscope, prior to embedding for histological examination. This is done in order to get a view of the appearance of the mucosal pattern, especially villus configuration. The distinctness of the surface pattern however......, is improved considerably if the biopsies are stained with Alcian Green and/or PAS before they are examined. In the present paper a detailed description is given of staining of small intestinal biopsies as whole mounts. The difference between the unstained and the stained biopsies is illustrated by a few...

  13. Translational control of an intestinal microvillar enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; Cowell, G M; Sjöström, H

    1986-01-01

    The rates of biosynthesis of adult and foetal pig small-intestinal aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) were compared to determine at which level the expression of the microvillar enzyme is developmentally controlled. In organ-cultured explants, the rate of biosynthesis of foetal aminopeptidase N is only...... about 3% of the adult rate. The small amount synthesized occurs in a high-mannose-glycosylated, membrane-bound, form that is processed to the mature, complex-glycosylated, form at a markedly slower rate than that of the adult enzyme. Extracts of total RNA from adult and foetal intestine contained...

  14. Persistently increased intestinal fraction of alkaline phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nathan, E; Baatrup, G; Berg, H

    1984-01-01

    Persistent elevation of the intestinal fraction of the alkaline phosphatase (API) as an isolated finding has to our knowledge not been reported previously. It was found in a boy followed during a period of 5.5 years. The only symptom was transient periodic fatigue observed at home, but not apparent...... during hospitalization. His blood type was O, RH+, Le (a-, b+) and he was a secretor of H-substance, which may be associated with rising API activity after fat-loading. In this case API was unchanged after fat-loading. Neither intestinal nor liver diseases were found, and no other cause for the elevated...

  15. Intestinal lymphangiectasia secondary to radiotherapy and chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.S.; Dundas, S.; Holdsworth, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    We report a case of intestinal lymphangiectasia secondary to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The patient also had small bowel bacterial overgrowth and pancreatic insufficiency. Lymphatic ectasia as a histological feature has been described previously in association with postradiotherapy malabsorption, but radiation-induced lymphangiectasia producing clinical manifestations has hitherto not been reported. Replacement of dietary long-chain fats with medium-chain triglycerides, pancreatic enzyme supplements, and a short course of oxytetracycline, resulted in dramatic clinical improvement. The possibility of intestinal lymphangiectasia should be borne in mind in patients with postradiotherapy malabsorption. A low serum albumin and lymphocyte count should draw attention to this possibility

  16. Intestinal Rotation Abnormalities and Midgut Volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Jacob C

    2017-02-01

    Rotation abnormalities may be asymptomatic or may be associated with obstruction caused by bands, midgut volvulus, or associated atresia or web. The most important goal of clinicians is to determine whether the patient has midgut volvulus with intestinal ischemia, in which case an emergency laparotomy should be done. If the patient is not acutely ill, the next goal is to determine whether the patient has a narrow-based small bowel mesentery. In general, the outcomes for children with a rotation abnormality are excellent, unless there has been midgut volvulus with significant intestinal ischemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationships between intestinal parasitosis and handedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslu, Hakan; Dane, Senol; Uyanik, M Hamidullah; Ayyildiz, Ahmet

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate if there is a possible relation between intestinal parasitosis and handedness in patients with suspected intestinal parasitosis. Hand preference was assessed on the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. Stool samples were examined microscopically for the presence of parasite. In the present study right-handers had many more helminth infections and left-handers had many more protozoon infections. Lower rate of helminth infections in the present study, and higher asthma incidences in the left-handed population in literature, may be associated with different immune machinery in left-handed people than in right-handed ones.

  18. Aplasia cutis congenita, skull defect, brain heterotopia, and intestinal lymphangiectasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonioli, Eugenio; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Spena, Gianantonio; Morcaldi, Guido; Di Stefano, Antonio; Serra, Giovanni; Bellini, Carlo

    2005-01-01

    We describe a female infant with a previously unreported combination of manifestations characterized by aplasia cutis, skull defect, brain heterotopia, mild congenital lymphedema, and intestinal lymphangiectasia. The association of intestinal lymphangiectasia and aplasia cutis, and the association

  19. Morphological development of the small intestine in White Roman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Customer

    2013-02-06

    Feb 6, 2013 ... intestine using the light microscope and scanning electron microscope in order to ... in morphology and structure of small intestinal segments in geese from ... in the multi-regression model (Steel and Torrie, 1960). RESULTS.

  20. Starved Guts: Morphologic and Functional Intestinal Changes in Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Suzanna; Feenstra, Marjon; Swain, Nathan; Cuesta, Melina; Bandsma, Robert H J

    2017-11-01

    Malnutrition contributes significantly to death and illness worldwide and especially to the deaths of children younger than 5 years. The relation between intestinal changes in malnutrition and morbidity and mortality has not been well characterized; however, recent research indicates that the functional and morphologic changes of the intestine secondary to malnutrition itself contribute significantly to these negative clinical outcomes and may be potent targets of intervention. The aim of this review was to summarize current knowledge of experimental and clinically observed changes in the intestine from malnutrition preclinical models and human studies. Limited clinical studies have shown villous blunting, intestinal inflammation, and changes in the intestinal microbiome of malnourished children. In addition to these findings, experimental data using various animal models of malnutrition have found evidence of increased intestinal permeability, upregulated intestinal inflammation, and loss of goblet cells. More mechanistic studies are urgently needed to improve our understanding of malnutrition-related intestinal dysfunction and to identify potential novel targets for intervention.

  1. Typhoid Intestinal Perforation: 24 Perforations in One Patient

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestinal perforation is a common cause of peritonitis necessitating emergency surgical intervention. Perforation ... Mortality rates of typhoid intestinal perforation (TIP) cases are ... may be obscured clinical features with resultant delays in.

  2. Case series of unusual causes intestinal obstruction in infants and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction Many of the causes of intestinal obstruction arise from ... In this work, we report eight unusual cases of intestinal ..... lymph is considered to be the result of an imbalance ... During fetal life, midgut communicates with the yolk sac.

  3. Diversity of human small intestinal Streptococcus and Veillonella populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Erkus, Oylum; Boekhorst, Jos; de Goffau, Marcus; Smid, Eddy J.; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    Molecular and cultivation approaches were employed to study the phylogenetic richness and temporal dynamics of Streptococcus and Veillonella populations in the small intestine. Microbial profiling of human small intestinal samples collected from four ileostomy subjects at four time points displayed

  4. Intestinal sclerosis with pseudo-obstruction in three dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R; Carpenter, J

    1984-04-01

    Intestinal sclerosis causing chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction was diagnosed in 3 dogs. The pseudo-obstruction was characterized by vomiting and weight loss of 2 weeks' to 3 months' duration. A patent intestinal lumen was determined by contrast radiography and verified at surgery. Intestinal biopsy revealed diffuse atrophy, fibrosis, and mononuclear cell infiltration of the tunica muscularis. Each dog was euthanatized because of a progressive, deteriorating clinical course.

  5. Intestinal candidiasis and antibiotic usage in children: case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The results of this study showed a high prevalence of intestinal candidiasis among children in Nsukka. Strong associations were observed between the presence of intestinal candidiasis and diarrhoea, age and use of antibiotics (p<0.001). Keywords: Intestinal candidiasis, children, antibiotic use, diarrhea ...

  6. Community and genomic analysis of the human small intestine microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogert, van den B.

    2013-01-01

    Our intestinal tract is densely populated by different microbes, collectively called microbiota, of which the majority are bacteria. Research focusing on the intestinal microbiota often use fecal samples as a representative of the bacteria that inhabit the end of the large intestine.

  7. Risks of intestinal helminthiasis in children living in orphanages in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risks of intestinal helminthiasis in children living in orphanages in Benin city, Nigeria. ... of intestinal helminthiasis (p = 0.016). Conclusion: Behavioural modification, good personal hygiene and provision of towels for each child living in the orphanage should be integral part of intestinal helminths control in orphanages.

  8. The small intestine microbiota, nutritional modulation and relevance for health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Aidy, Sahar; van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    The intestinal microbiota plays a profound role in human health and extensive research has been dedicated to identify microbiota aberrations that are associated with disease. Most of this work has been targeting the large intestine and fecal microbiota, while the small intestine microbiota may also

  9. Protective effect of salvianolic acid B against intestinal ischemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that SAB may protect the intestine by attenuating oxidative stress and inflammatory response and hence, may be potentially for treating IIRI. Keywords: Salvianolic acid B, Intestinal Ischemia-reperfusion, Antioxidants, Inflammation, Intestinal permeability ...

  10. burden of intestinal parasites amongst hiv/aids patients attending

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    ABSTRACT. Background: Intestinal parasitic infections cause severe diarrhea especially in debilitated subjects with clinical ... Regional Hospital, Entamoeba histolytica and other intestinal parasites represented a common burden. .... Attempt was made to go through all the fields of ..... Control of Intestinal parasite Infections.

  11. Thyroid hormone regulation of adult intestinal stem cells: Implications on intestinal development and homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guihong; Roediger, Julia; Shi, Yun-Bo

    2016-12-01

    Organ-specific adult stem cells are essential for organ homeostasis, tissue repair and regeneration. The formation of such stem cells often takes place during postembryonic development, a period around birth in mammals when plasma thyroid hormone concentration is high. The life-long self-renewal of the intestinal epithelium has made mammalian intestine a valuable model to study the function and regulation and adult stem cells. On the other hand, much less is known about how the adult intestinal stem cells are formed during vertebrate development. Here, we will review some recent progresses on this subject, focusing mainly on the formation of the adult intestine during Xenopus metamorphosis. We will discuss the role of thyroid hormone signaling pathway in the process and potential molecular conservations between amphibians and mammals as well as the implications in organ homeostasis and human diseases.

  12. Intestinal obstruction secondary to infantile polyarteritis nodosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyarteritis Nodosa (PAN) is a rare systemic necrotising vasculitis of medium and small-sized arteries. Patients typically present with systemic symptoms. Obstructive intestinal symptoms are described but usually resolve with treatment of the underlying vascular disease. We report a case of a one year old boy with multiple ...

  13. Peritoneal drainage for newborn intestinal perforation: primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: intestinal perforation in newborn, necrotizing enterocolitis, primary peritoneal drainage. Department of Surgery, Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech University. HSC, El Paso, Texas, USA. Correspondence to Donald E. Meier, MD, Department of Surgery, Paul L. Foster. School of Medicine, Texas Tech ...

  14. Performance, Nutrient Utilization and Intestinal Environment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance, nutrient utilization and intestinal environment of weaned rabbits fed diets supplemented with organic acids (acetic acid, citric acid and formic acid) were investigated with 24 (6-week old) rabbits in a completely randomized design. The control diet was not supplemented while others were supplemented ...

  15. Intestinal tuberculosis presenting as acute abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Majeed, F.A.; Ahmed, M.; Khan, M.N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To study the outcome of intestinal tuberculosis presenting as acute abdomen. Study design: Descriptive Study. Place and Duration: Bolan Medical Complex Hospital (BMC) Quetta and Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Quetta from Nov 2003 to Nov 2005 from Bolan Medical Complex and from Nov 2005 to Nov 2006 in CMH Quetta. Material and Method: Thirty seven patients of acute abdomen presenting with intestinal obstruction were admitted; 28 from emergency department and 9 from out patient department. Twenty seven patients were from BMC and 10 from CMH Quetta. Patients were diagnosed as having abdominal tuberculosis on the basis of operative findings and histopathological reports. Results: Out of 37 patients presenting with acute abdomen due to intestinal obstruction, 54% were male and 46% were female with M: F ratio of 1: 1.2. Age of the patient ranged from 20 to 50 years, with maximum frequency between 30 to 40 years. Abdominal pain was the commonest presenting feature in all patients followed by constipation in 81.1% patients. Peritonism was seen in 27% patients. Different operative procedures performed were adhesionolysis 65.8%, segmental resection 7.9%, right hemicolectomy 10.5%, stricturoplasty 7.9% and ileostomy 1.3%. Mesenteric lymph node biopsy 40.8%. Conclusion: Intestinal tuberculosis is still a very important surgical problem in our country presenting as acute abdomen. A suspicion must always be kept during laparotomy and adequate tissue histopathology should supplement the diagnosis. (author)

  16. Knowledge based assessment of intestinal parasitic Infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an apparent lack of information on the risk and clinical symptoms of Intestinal Parasitic Infections (IPIs) among students attending boarding secondary schools in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. This questionnaire-based survey attempts to assess some behavioural habits, possible risk factor(s) as well as clinical symptoms ...

  17. characterization of intestinal microbiota in celiac children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F. Lahcene1*, A. Tir Touil Meddah1, K. Bouziane-Nedjadi2, B. Meddah1, A. Leke3

    2016-09-01

    Sep 1, 2016 ... In this study, 13 Samples of intestinal biopsy, ... Research Article. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0. International License. ... disease are caused by several factors among, the ingestion of gluten, and it has been suggested.

  18. Postoperative Adhesive Intestinal Obstruction from Gossypiboma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a case of 41.year.old female admitted with features of intestinal obstruction and had a previous history of hysterectomy performed 2 months back at another hospital. Pathologists must be aware of this entity and its proper reporting as the cases are liable to go to court. Surgeons must recognize the risk factors that ...

  19. Temporary intestinal ischemia for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lote, K.

    1983-01-01

    The most important determinant of cellular radiosensivity is the tissue oxygen content at the time of irradiation. The purpose of the present experimental work was to assess a new iscemia-inducing method in order to reduce normal tissue radiation damage during radiotherapy. Temporary ischemia was induced in a cat small intestine by degraded starch microspheres. Regional arterial and tissue blod flow immediately fell by 85% with subsequent normalization within 26 minutes after microsphere injection. No tendency of small vessel thrombosis caused by starch sphere embolization in combination with previous or current intestinal irradiation was detected. Starch sphere remenants were rapidly engulfed by, and persisted within tissue macrophages for 14 days without causing intestinal inflammatory reactions. In vitro studies showed that human platelets neither adhered to nor were aggregated by starch microspheres. The new method, wich occlude arteriolar vessels distal to the mesentric arterial arcades and thus largely excludes collateral blood flow, seems suited to provide effictive and selective feline small intestinal hypoxic radiation protection. This conclusion may also be valid in man

  20. Metabolic complications in the small intestine syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Rafael; Orozco, Reynaldo

    2000-01-01

    Metabolic complications in the syndrome of small intestine is presented in a patient of masculine sex, 27 years old, who consulted for a square of inflammation gingival, migraine, fever, anorexia and adinamia for three days, followed by maculopapular-eritematose eruption for 8 days, coincident with the ampicillin ingestion, and later on severe abdominal pain and diarrhea

  1. Lymphoid cells in chicken intestinal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P

    1975-01-01

    The intraepithelial lymphoid cells of chicken small intestine were studied by light microscopy using 1 mu Epon sections, and by electron microscopy. Three cell types were found: small lymphocytes, large lymphoid cells, and granular cells. These cells correspond to the theliolymphocytes and globule...

  2. Intestinal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour | Ntloko | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions. Surgery with tumour-free resection margins is the gold standard of care of adult and paediatric I-IMFTs. Heightened recognition of I-IMFT, albeit rare, as a cause of intestinal obstruction, including intussusception, is necessary for preoperative suspicion of I-IMFT. SAJS, VOL 49, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2011 ...

  3. Childhood malnutrition and the intestinal microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Anne V; Dinh, Duy M; Ward, Honorine D

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition contributes to almost half of all deaths in children under the age of 5 y, particularly those who live in resource-constrained areas. Those who survive frequently suffer from long-term sequelae including growth failure and neurodevelopmental impairment. Malnutrition is part of a vicious cycle of impaired immunity, recurrent infections, and worsening malnutrition. Recently, alterations in the gut microbiome have also been strongly implicated in childhood malnutrition. It has been suggested that malnutrition may delay the normal development of the gut microbiota in early childhood or force it toward an altered composition that lacks the required functions for healthy growth and/or increases the risk for intestinal inflammation. This review addresses our current understanding of the beneficial contributions of gut microbiota to human nutrition (and conversely the potential role of changes in that community to malnutrition), the process of acquiring an intestinal microbiome, potential influences of malnutrition on the developing microbiota, and the evidence directly linking alterations in the intestinal microbiome to childhood malnutrition. We review recent studies on the association between alterations in the intestinal microbiome and early childhood malnutrition and discuss them in the context of implications for intervention or prevention of the devastation caused by malnutrition.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A characteristic of X-linked inheritance is that fathers cannot pass X-linked traits to their sons. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction caused by ACTG2 gene mutations is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern , which means one copy of the altered ...

  5. Pig models on intestinal development and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lanmei; Yang, Huansheng; Li, Jianzhong; Li, Yali; Ding, Xueqing; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

    2017-12-01

    The gastrointestinal tract plays a vital role in nutrient supply, digestion, and absorption, and has a crucial impact on the entire organism. Much attention is being paid to utilize animal models to study the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal diseases in response to intestinal development and health. The piglet has a body size similar to that of the human and is an omnivorous animal with comparable anatomy, nutritional requirements, and digestive and associated inflammatory processes, and displays similarities to the human intestinal microbial ecosystem, which make piglets more appropriate as an animal model for human than other non-primate animals. Therefore, the objective of this review is to summarize key attributes of the piglet model with which to study human intestinal development and intestinal health through probing into the etiology of several gastrointestinal diseases, thus providing a theoretical and hopefully practical, basis for further studies on mammalian nutrition, health, and disease, and therapeutics. Given the comparable nutritional requirements and strikingly similar brain developmental patterns between young piglets and humans, the piglet has been used as an important translational model for studying neurodevelopmental outcomes influenced by pediatric nutrition. Because of similarities in anatomy and physiology between pigs and mankind, more emphasises are put on how to use the piglet model for human organ transplantation research.

  6. Behavioural actions of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloet, E.R.; Cottrell, G.A.; Veldhuis, H.D.; Rostene, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was studied on fear-motivated behaviours, exploration of a novel environment and on novelty and ACTH-induced grooming. VIP was administered via a plastic cannula into the lateral ventricle. Retention of a step-through passive avoidance task was

  7. Intestinal perforation caused by multiple magnet ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergul Corduk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple magnet ingestion is rare, but can cause serious gastrointestinal complications. We report a case of 7-year-old girl with multiple intestinal perforations caused by multiple magnet ingestion. The aim of this report is to draw attention to magnetic toys, results of magnet ingestion and the importance of timing of operation.

  8. Compartmentalization of Aquaporins in the Human Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendram V. Rajnarayanan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Improper localization of water channel proteins called aquaporins (AQP induce mucosal injury which is implicated in Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. The amino acid sequences of AQP3 and AQP10 are 79% similar and belong to the mammalian aquaglyceroporin subfamily. AQP10 is localized on the apical compartment of the intestinal epithelium called the glycocalyx while AQP3 is selectively targeted to the basolateral membrane. Despite the high sequence similarity and evolutionary relatedness, the molecular mechanism involved in the polarity, selective targeting and function of AQP3 and AQP10 in the intestine is largely unknown. Our hypothesis is that the differential polarity and selective targeting of AQP3 and AQP10 in the intestinal epithelial cells is influenced by amino acid signal motifs. We performed sequence and structural alignments to determine differences in signals for localization and posttranslational glycosylation. The basolateral sorting motif “YRLL” is present in AQP3 but absent in AQP10; while Nglycosylation signals are present in AQP10 but absent in AQP3. Furthermore, the C-terminal region of AQP3 is longer compared to AQP10. The sequence and structural differences between AQP3 and AQP10 provide insights into the differential compartmentalization and function of these two aquaporins commonly expressed in human intestines.

  9. Unusual cause of neonatal intestinal obstruction | Zikavska ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are many causes of intestinal obstruction in the neonatal age. The most common types are mechanical and result from congenital malformations of the gastrointestinal tract. However, functional disorders also occur. In some cases, diagnosis can be made prenatally but in others manifestation occurs after birth. The aim ...

  10. Intestinal helminth infections among pregnant Cameroonian women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminth infections in pregnant Cameroonian women and assess their anaemic status. Design: Longitudinal study. Setting: Buea Integrated Health Centre, Muea Health Centre, Mutengene Integrated Health Centre and the University of Buea Life Sciences ...

  11. Transcriptome changes during intestinal cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadjali, Mehrdad; Seidelin, Jakob B; Olsen, Jørgen Lillelund

    2002-01-01

    The expression of 18149 genes have been analysed during the differentiation of the human intestinal cell line Caco-2. cDNA probes from undifferentiated and differentiated Caco-2 cells were separately hybridised to EST DNAs spotted in an array on a nylon membrane. A remarkable change in the transc...

  12. Mucin dynamics in intestinal bacterial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara K Lindén

    Full Text Available Bacterial gastroenteritis causes morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. Murine Citrobacter rodentium infection is a model for gastroenteritis caused by the human pathogens enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli. Mucin glycoproteins are the main component of the first barrier that bacteria encounter in the intestinal tract.Using Immunohistochemistry, we investigated intestinal expression of mucins (Alcian blue/PAS, Muc1, Muc2, Muc4, Muc5AC, Muc13 and Muc3/17 in healthy and C. rodentium infected mice. The majority of the C. rodentium infected mice developed systemic infection and colitis in the mid and distal colon by day 12. C. rodentium bound to the major secreted mucin, Muc2, in vitro, and high numbers of bacteria were found in secreted MUC2 in infected animals in vivo, indicating that mucins may limit bacterial access to the epithelial surface. In the small intestine, caecum and proximal colon, the mucin expression was similar in infected and non-infected animals. In the distal colonic epithelium, all secreted and cell surface mucins decreased with the exception of the Muc1 cell surface mucin which increased after infection (p<0.05. Similarly, during human infection Salmonella St Paul, Campylobacter jejuni and Clostridium difficile induced MUC1 in the colon.Major changes in both the cell-surface and secreted mucins occur in response to intestinal infection.

  13. Intestinal obstruction in germ-free dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneghan, J B; Robinson, J W; Menge, H; Winistörfer, B

    1981-08-01

    Mechanical occlusions were created in the intestines of four germ-free dogs. At the time of the operation, a control loop of mid-intestine was perfused in vivo and then excised for examinations in vitro, which included the determination of the equilibrium uptake of phenylalanine and of beta-methyl-glucoside, the influx kinetics of phenylalanine and morphometric analysis of the mucosa by microdissection and stereological techniques. Seven days after establishment of the occlusion the abdomen was reopened, and loops above and below the occlusion were perfused, and then excised for the same tests in vitro. Unlike occluded loops of conventional dogs, the intestine of the germ-free animal above the occlusion does not secrete water and electrolytes into the lumen. Its transport properties in vitro do not differ from those of the control loop, and the morphometric analyses reveal only slight changes in villus structure. The loop below the obstruction undergoes marked atrophy, as has been observed in conventional dogs. The results suggest that the copious secretion that occurs above an intestinal obstruction in normal animals is due to the presence of an abundant bacterial population in the obstruction fluid.

  14. Intestinal endocrine cells in radiation enteritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietroletti, R.; Blaauwgeers, J. L.; Taat, C. W.; Simi, M.; Brummelkamp, W. H.; Becker, A. E.

    1989-01-01

    In this study, the intestinal endocrine cells were investigated in 13 surgical specimens affected by radiation enteritis. Endocrine cells were studied by means of Grimelius' silver staining and immunostaining for chromogranin, a general marker of endocrine cells. Positively stained cells were

  15. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and human intestinal health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miquel, S.; Martin, R.; Rossi, O.; Bermudez-Humaran, L.G.; Chatel, J.M.; Sokol, H.; Thomas, M.; Wells, J.M.; Langella, P.

    2013-01-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is the most abundant bacterium in the human intestinal microbiota of healthy adults, representing more than 5% of the total bacterial population. Over the past five years, an increasing number of studies have clearly described the importance of this highly metabolically

  16. Intestinal colonisation, microbiota and future probiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salminen, S.; Benno, Y.; Vos, de W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The human intestine is colonized by a large number of microorganisms, collectively termed microbiota, which support a variety of physiological functions. As the major part of the microbiota has not yet been cultured, molecular methods are required to determine microbial composition and the impact of

  17. Repairing organs : lessons from intestine and liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehart, Helmuth; Clevers, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The concept of organ regeneration has fascinated humanity from ancient mythology to modern science fiction. Recent advances offer the potential to soon bring such technology within the grasp of clinical medicine. Rapidly expanding insights into the intrinsic repair processes of the intestine and

  18. Intestinal Giardiasis Disguised as Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasite-associated colitis is quite rare in clinical practice of Ulcerative Colitis (UC. Here we reported an intestinal giardiasis case that has been diagnosed with UC. Further examination of stool revealed cysts of Giardia. This case completely responded to Albendazole. Giardiasis should be included for the differential diagnosis of UC.

  19. Repairing organs : lessons from intestine and liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehart, Helmuth; Clevers, Hans

    The concept of organ regeneration has fascinated humanity from ancient mythology to modern science fiction. Recent advances offer the potential to soon bring such technology within the grasp of clinical medicine. Rapidly expanding insights into the intrinsic repair processes of the intestine and

  20. Very late onset small intestinal B cell lymphoma associated with primary intestinal lymphangiectasia and diffuse cutaneous warts

    OpenAIRE

    Bouhnik, Y; Etienney, I; Nemeth, J; Thevenot, T; Lavergne-Slove, A; Matuchansky, C

    2000-01-01

    As only a handful of lymphoma cases have been reported in conjunction with primary intestinal lymphangiectasia, it is not yet clear if this association is merely fortuitous or related to primary intestinal lymphangiectasia induced immune deficiency. We report on two female patients, 50 and 58 years old, who developed small intestinal high grade B cell lymphoma a long time (45 and 40 years, respectively) after the initial clinical manifestations of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia. They pre...

  1. Fish oil enhances recovery of intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity in chronic rejection of intestinal transplant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiurong Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The intestinal chronic rejection (CR is the major limitation to long-term survival of transplanted organs. This study aimed to investigate the interaction between intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity in chronic rejection of intestinal transplantation, and to find out whether fish oil enhances recovery of intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The luminal and mucosal microbiota composition of CR rats were characterized by DGGE analysis at 190 days after intestinal transplant. The specific bacterial species were determined by sequence analysis. Furthermore, changes in the localization of intestinal TJ proteins were examined by immunofluorescent staining. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that gut microbiota in CR rats had a shift towards Escherichia coli, Bacteroides spp and Clostridium spp and a decrease in the abundance of Lactobacillales bacteria in the intestines. Fish oil supplementation could enhance the recovery of gut microbiota, showing a significant decrease of gut bacterial proportions of E. coli and Bacteroides spp and an increase of Lactobacillales spp. In addition, CR rats showed pronounced alteration of tight junction, depicted by marked changes in epithelial cell ultrastructure and redistribution of occuldin and claudins as well as disruption in TJ barrier function. Fish oil administration ameliorated disruption of epithelial integrity in CR, which was associated with an improvement of the mucosal structure leading to improved tight junctions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study have presented novel evidence that fish oil is involved in the maintenance of epithelial TJ integrity and recovery of gut microbiota, which may have therapeutic potential against CR in intestinal transplantation.

  2. Effects of Digested Onion Extracts on Intestinal Gene Expression: An Interspecies Comparison Using Different Intestine Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole J W de Wit

    Full Text Available Human intestinal tissue samples are barely accessible to study potential health benefits of nutritional compounds. Numbers of animals used in animal trials, however, need to be minimalized. Therefore, we explored the applicability of in vitro (human Caco-2 cells and ex vivo intestine models (rat precision cut intestine slices and the pig in-situ small intestinal segment perfusion (SISP technique to study the effect of food compounds. In vitro digested yellow (YOd and white onion extracts (WOd were used as model food compounds and transcriptomics was applied to obtain more insight into which extent mode of actions depend on the model. The three intestine models shared 9,140 genes which were used to compare the responses to digested onions between the models. Unsupervised clustering analysis showed that genes up- or down-regulated by WOd in human Caco-2 cells and rat intestine slices were similarly regulated by YOd, indicating comparable modes of action for the two onion species. Highly variable responses to onion were found in the pig SISP model. By focussing only on genes with significant differential expression, in combination with a fold change > 1.5, 15 genes showed similar onion-induced expression in human Caco-2 cells and rat intestine slices and 2 overlapping genes were found between the human Caco-2 and pig SISP model. Pathway analyses revealed that mainly processes related to oxidative stress, and especially the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway, were affected by onions in all three models. Our data fit with previous in vivo studies showing that the beneficial effects of onions are mostly linked to their antioxidant properties. Taken together, our data indicate that each of the in vitro and ex vivo intestine models used in this study, taking into account their limitations, can be used to determine modes of action of nutritional compounds and can thereby reduce the number of animals used in conventional nutritional intervention studies.

  3. Natural compound methyl protodioscin protects against intestinal inflammation through modulation of intestinal immune responses

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Rongli; Gilbert, Shila; Yao, Xinsheng; Vallance, Jefferson; Steinbrecher, Kris; Moriggl, Richard; Zhang, Dongsheng; Eluri, Madhu; Chen, Haifeng; Cao, Huiqing; Shroyer, Noah; Denson, Lee; Han, Xiaonan

    2015-01-01

    Dioscoreaceae, a kind of yam plant, has been recommended for treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions. However, the mechanisms are poorly defined. Methyl protodioscin (MPD) is one of the main bioactive components in Dioscoreaceae. Here, we aim to determine the mechanisms by which MPD ameliorates intestinal inflammation. Surgical intestinal specimens were collected from inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) patients to perform organ culture. Experimental colitis was induced in mice by dextran ...

  4. "5-6 gadus vecu bērnu sociālo prasmju sekmēšana sižeta-lomu rotaļās pirmsskolas izglītības iestādē"

    OpenAIRE

    Kusiņa, Linda

    2016-01-01

    „5-6 gadus vecu bērnu sociālo prasmju sekmēšana sižeta-lomu rotaļas pirmsskolas izglītības iestādē” Darba autore: Linda Kusiņa Zinātniskā vadītāja: Dr. paed., doc. Līga Āboltiņa Kursa darba apjoms: 58 lpp., 9 tabulas, 9 attēli, 15 pielikumi, izmantoti 28 literatūras avoti. Kvalifikācijas darbā ir veikt teorētiskais un praktiskais pētījums par iespēju izmantot sižeta lomu rotaļu 5-6 gadus vecu bērnu sociālo prasmju veicināšanā. Darbā tika analizēta literatūra par sociālās prasmēm, sižeta lomu...

  5. Transplante de intestino delgado Small intestine transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Henrique Ferreira Galvão

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Avanços da biotecnologia e o desenvolvimento de novas drogas imunossupressoras melhoraram os resultados do transplante de intestino delgado. Esse transplante é atualmente indicado para casos especiais da falência intestinal. OBJETIVO: A presente revisão realça os recentes desenvolvimentos na área do transplante de intestino delgado. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Mais de 600 publicações de transplante de intestino delgado foram revisadas. O desenvolvimento da pesquisa, novas estratégias de imunossupressão, monitorização do enxerto e do receptor, e avanços na técnica cirúrgica são discutidos. RESULTADOS: Realizaram-se cerca de 700 transplante de intestino delgado em 55 centros: 44% intestino-fígado, 41% enxerto intestinal isolado e 15% transplante multivisceral. Rejeição e infecção são as principais limitações desse transplante. Sobrevida de 5 anos na experiência internacional é de 46% para o transplante de intestino isolado, 43% para o intestino-fígado e de cerca de 30% para o transplante multivisceral. Sobrevidas prolongadas são mais freqüentes nos centros com maior experiência. Em série de 165 transplantes intestinais na Universidade de Pittsburgh, PA, EUA, foi relatada sobrevida do paciente maior do que 75% no primeiro ano, 54% em 5 anos e 42% em 10 anos. Mais de 90% desses pacientes assumem dieta oral irrestrita. CONCLUSÃO: O transplante de intestino delgado evoluiu de estratégia experimental para uma alternativa viável no tratamento da falência intestinal permanente. Promover o refinamento da terapia imunossupressora, do manejo e prevenção de infecções, da técnica cirúrgica e da indicação e seleção adequada dos pacientes é crucial para melhorar a sobrevida desse transplante.BACKGROUND: Significant progress has been made in clinical small bowel transplantation over the last decade mainly due advances in biotechnology and new immunosuppressive regiments. This transplantation has now been indicated

  6. [The complications of intestinal stoma in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaev, S V; Bykov, N I; Isaeva, A V; Kachanov, A V; Tovkan, E A; Filip'yeva, N V; Gerasimenko, I N

    To investigate the complications of intestinal stoma in children and to develop measures for decrease of their incidence. The study included 152 children with congenital and acquired gastrointestinal pathology requiring surgical treatment with the imposition of intestinal stoma. Atresia of intestinal tube was observed in 28 (18.4%) children, meconium ileus - in 10 (6.6%) cases, Hirschsprung's disease - in 11 (7.2%)cases, anorectal malformations - in 39 (25.7%) cases, multiple malformations - in 11 (7.2%) patients, necrotic enterocolitis - in 56 (36.8%) patients, other reasons - in 7 (4.6%) cases. The average age of patients was 12,3±7,2 days. There were 93 (61.2%) boys and 59 (38.8%) girls. Ileostomy, ileocolostomy and colostomy were made in 37 (24.3%), 46 (30.3%) and 69 (45.4%) cases respectively. Time of intestinal stoma function was 18-217 days. Early complications were dehiscence in the area of stoma in 4 (2.6%) children, evagination in 7 (4.6%) patients, marginal necrosis of stoma in 2 (1.3%) cases, retraction of stomy into abdominal cavity in 1 (0.6%) child and abdominal skin maceration in 8 (5.2%) patients. Remote complications included dermatitis around stomy in 35 (23.1%) children, stenosis of stoma in 9 (5.9%) cases, evagination of stoma in 12 (7.9%) patients. Also, 5 patients were unable to use the colostomy bag due to vicious overlaying of intestinal stoma. Using the colostomy bags «Coloplast» and skin care products around the stoma significantly reduced (pstoma depends on not only technical aspects but also obligatory care performance with timely correction of complications.

  7. Role of Smooth Muscle in Intestinal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Collins

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion that smooth muscle function is altered in inflammation is prompted by clinical observations of altered motility in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. While altered motility may reflect inflammation-induced changes in intrinsic or extrinsic nerves to the gut, changes in gut hormone release and changes in muscle function, recent studies have provided in vitro evidence of altered muscle contractility in muscle resected from patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease. In addition, the observation that smooth muscle cells are more numerous and prominent in the strictured bowel of IBD patients compared with controls suggests that inflammation may alter the growth of intestinal smooth muscle. Thus, inflammation is associated with changes in smooth muscle growth and contractility that, in turn, contribute to important symptoms of IBD including diarrhea (from altered motility and pain (via either altered motility or stricture formation. The involvement of smooth muscle in this context may be as an innocent bystander, where cells and products of the inflammatory process induce alterations in muscle contractility and growth. However, it is likely that intestinal muscle cells play a more active role in the inflammatory process via the elaboration of mediators and trophic factors, including cytokines, and via the production of collagen. The concept of muscle cells as active participants in the intestinal inflammatory process is a new concept that is under intense study. This report summarizes current knowledge as it relates to these two aspects of altered muscle function (growth and contractility in the inflamed intestine, and will focus on mechanisms underlying these changes, based on data obtained from animal models of intestinal inflammation.

  8. Determination of Intestine Inflammation Markers in Diagnostic Search in Children with Intestinal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Pavlenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Prevalence of bowel diseases in children is the second, trailing only the diseases of gastroduodenal zone and growing in recent years. Actual one is the problem of differential diagnosis of functional and inflammatory intestinal diseases using non-invasive methods on the prehospital stage and as a screening. Objective. Comparative analysis of fecal markers of the bowel inflammation (lactoferrine and calprotectine with endoscopy and morphology of intestinal mucosa in children. Matherials and methods. 49 children aged 6–18 years were examined. All patients underwent endoscopic and morphological study of the intestine, coprotest, determination of fecal markers of bowel inflammation (lactoferrin and calprotectine. Results. It is shown that in young children, the intestinal mucosa mainly hadn’t endoscopic changes, coprotest and morphological examination didn’t reveal the signs of inflammation, fecal intestinal inflammation markers were negative (p < 0.05. In the group of older children, moderate or marked catarrhal changes were found endoscopically, coprotest results were typical of inflammation in the intestines, it was morphologically proved the presence of chronic inflammation of the mucous membrane of the colon with signs of atrophy, the results of lactoferrin and calprotectine determination were positive (p < 0.05. Conclusion. The findings suggest that the evaluation of calprotectine and lactoferrin can be used in pediatric patients because of its non-invasiveness as diagnostic screening for the selection of patients for the further endoscopic examination and diagnostic search.

  9. Activated STAT5 Confers Resistance to Intestinal Injury by Increasing Intestinal Stem Cell Proliferation and Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shila Gilbert

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal epithelial stem cells (IESCs control the intestinal homeostatic response to inflammation and regeneration. The underlying mechanisms are unclear. Cytokine-STAT5 signaling regulates intestinal epithelial homeostasis and responses to injury. We link STAT5 signaling to IESC replenishment upon injury by depletion or activation of Stat5 transcription factor. We found that depletion of Stat5 led to deregulation of IESC marker expression and decreased LGR5+ IESC proliferation. STAT5-deficient mice exhibited worse intestinal histology and impaired crypt regeneration after γ-irradiation. We generated a transgenic mouse model with inducible expression of constitutively active Stat5. In contrast to Stat5 depletion, activation of STAT5 increased IESC proliferation, accelerated crypt regeneration, and conferred resistance to intestinal injury. Furthermore, ectopic activation of STAT5 in mouse or human stem cells promoted LGR5+ IESC self-renewal. Accordingly, STAT5 promotes IESC proliferation and regeneration to mitigate intestinal inflammation. STAT5 is a functional therapeutic target to improve the IESC regenerative response to gut injury.

  10. [Morphological changes of the intestine in experimental acute intestinal infection in the treatment of colloidal silver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polov'ian, E S; Chemich, N D; Moskalenko, R A; Romaniuk, A N

    2012-06-01

    At the present stage of infectionist practice in the treatment of acute intestinal infections caused by opportunistic microorganisms, colloidal silver is used with a particle size of 25 nm as an alternative to conventional causal therapy. In 32 rats, distributed in 4 groups of 8 animals each (intact; healthy, got colloidal silver; with a modeled acute intestinal infection in the basic treatment and with the addition of colloidal silver), histological examination was performed of small and large intestine of rats. Oral administration of colloidal silver at a dose of 0.02 mg/day to intact rats did not lead to changes in morphometric parameters compared to the norm, and during early convalescence in rats with acute intestinal infections were observed destructive and compensatory changes in the intestine, which depended on the treatment regimen. With the introduction of colloidal silver decreased activity of the inflammatory process and the severity of morphological changes in tissues of small and large intestine, indicating that the positive effect of study drug compared with baseline therapy.

  11. Precision cut intestinal slices are an appropriate ex vivo model to study NSAID-induced intestinal toxicity in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niu, Xiaoyu; de Graaf, Inge A. M.; van der Bij, Hendrik A.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used therapeutic agents, however, they are associated with a high prevalence of intestinal side effects. In this investigation, rat precision cut intestinal slices (PCIS) were evaluated as an ex vivo model to study NSAID-induced intestinal

  12. Alternative Functional In Vitro Models of Human Intestinal Epithelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L Kauffman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Physiologically relevant sources of absorptive intestinal epithelial cells are crucial for human drug transport studies. Human adenocarcinoma-derived intestinal cell lines, such as Caco-2, offer conveniences of easy culture maintenance and scalability, but do not fully recapitulate in vivo intestinal phenotypes. Additional sources of renewable physiologically relevant human intestinal cells would provide a much needed tool for drug discovery and intestinal physiology. We sought to evaluate and compare two alternative sources of human intestinal cells, commercially available primary human intestinal epithelial cells (hInEpCs and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC-derived intestinal cells to Caco-2, for use in in vitro transwell monolayer intestinal transport assays. To achieve this for iPSC-derived cells, our previously described 3-dimensional intestinal organogenesis method was adapted to transwell differentiation. Intestinal cells were assessed by marker expression through immunocytochemical and mRNA expression analyses, monolayer integrity through Transepithelial Electrical Resistance (TEER measurements and molecule permeability, and functionality by taking advantage the well-characterized intestinal transport mechanisms. In most cases, marker expression for primary hInEpCs and iPSC-derived cells appeared to be as good as or better than Caco-2. Furthermore, transwell monolayers exhibited high TEER with low permeability. Primary hInEpCs showed molecule efflux indicative of P-glycoprotein transport. Primary hInEpCs and iPSC-derived cells also showed neonatal Fc receptor-dependent binding of immunoglobulin G variants. Primary hInEpCs and iPSC-derived intestinal cells exhibit expected marker expression and demonstrate basic functional monolayer formation, similar to or better than Caco-2. These cells could offer an alternative source of human intestinal cells for understanding normal intestinal epithelial physiology and drug transport.

  13. Sensory quality criteria for five fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warm, Karin; Nielsen, Jette; Hyldig, Grethe

    2000-01-01

    Sensory profiling has been used to develop one sensory vocabulary for five fish species: cod (Gadus morhua), saithe (Pollachius virens), rainbow trout (Salmo gardineri), herring (Clupea harengus) and flounder (Platichthys flessus). A nine- member trained panel assessed 18 samples with variation i...... variation and by presenting references, panel discussions and interpreting plots from multivariate data analysis. The developed profile can be used as a sensory wheel for these species, and with minor changes it may be adapted to similar species......Sensory profiling has been used to develop one sensory vocabulary for five fish species: cod (Gadus morhua), saithe (Pollachius virens), rainbow trout (Salmo gardineri), herring (Clupea harengus) and flounder (Platichthys flessus). A nine- member trained panel assessed 18 samples with variation...

  14. Autophagy and tight junction proteins in the intestine and intestinal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-An A. Hu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium (IE forms an indispensible barrier and interface between the intestinal interstitium and the luminal environment. The IE regulates water, ion and nutrient transport while providing a barrier against toxins, pathogens (bacteria, fungi and virus and antigens. The apical intercellular tight junctions (TJ are responsible for the paracellular barrier function and regulate trans-epithelial flux of ions and solutes between adjacent cells. Increased intestinal permeability caused by defects in the IE TJ barrier is considered an important pathogenic factor for the development of intestinal inflammation, diarrhea and malnutrition in humans and animals. In fact, defects in the IE TJ barrier allow increased antigenic penetration, resulting in an amplified inflammatory response in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, necrotizing enterocolitis and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Conversely, the beneficial enhancement of the intestinal TJ barrier has been shown to resolve intestinal inflammation and apoptosis in both animal models of IBD and human IBD. Autophagy (self-eating mechanism is an intracellular lysosome-dependent degradation and recycling pathway essential for cell survival and homeostasis. Dysregulated autophagy has been shown to be directly associated with many pathological processes, including IBD. Importantly, the crosstalk between IE TJ and autophagy has been revealed recently. We showed that autophagy enhanced IE TJ barrier function by increasing transepithelial resistance and reducing the paracellular permeability of small solutes and ions, which is, in part, by targeting claudin-2, a cation-selective, pore-forming, transmembrane TJ protein, for lysosome (autophagy-mediated degradation. Interestingly, previous studies have shown that the inflamed intestinal mucosa in patients with active IBD has increased claudin-2 expression. In addition, inflammatory cytokines (for example, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6

  15. Regulation of intestinal homeostasis by innate immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayama, Hisako; Nishimura, Junichi; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2013-12-01

    The intestinal immune system has an ability to distinguish between the microbiota and pathogenic bacteria, and then activate pro-inflammatory pathways against pathogens for host defense while remaining unresponsive to the microbiota and dietary antigens. In the intestine, abnormal activation of innate immunity causes development of several inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Thus, activity of innate immunity is finely regulated in the intestine. To date, multiple innate immune cells have been shown to maintain gut homeostasis by preventing inadequate adaptive immune responses in the murine intestine. Additionally, several innate immune subsets, which promote Th1 and Th17 responses and are implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD, have recently been identified in the human intestinal mucosa. The demonstration of both murine and human intestinal innate immune subsets contributing to regulation of adaptive immunity emphasizes the conserved innate immune functions across species and might promote development of the intestinal innate immunity-based clinical therapy.

  16. Surgical management of radiation injury to the small intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swan, R.W.; Fowler, W.C. Jr., Boronow, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    Severe injury of the small intestine represents one of the most tragic complications of radiation of the pelvis and abdomen. Not uncommonly, patients die from the radiation or the treatment of its intestinal complications. More commonly, patients become intestinal cripples, secondary to chronic partial obstruction of the small intestine and malnutrition associated with the stagnant loop syndrome, as previously reported by one of us. Management results have been discouraging, usually because of a general lack of clinical recognition and understanding of radiation injury to the intestine. Medical management has not been satisfactory. It may provide temporary relief from symptoms, but not long-lasting. Surgical management, although frequently curative, has been associated with high death and morbidity rates. Many surgical procedures have been used in treating radiation injury to the small intestine. Generally, these fall into two categories: first, intestinal resection with primary anastomosis; and second, enteroenteric or enterocolic bypass. In the literature are reflected advocates for each method of surgical management.

  17. Intestinal mucus accumulation in a child with acutemyeloblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namık Özbek

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal mucus accumulation is a very rare situation observed in some solid tumors, intestinal inflammation, mucosal hyperplasia, elevated intestinal pressure, and various other diseases. However, it has never been described in acute myeloblastic leukemia. The pathogenesis of intestinal mucus accumulation is still not clear. Here, we report a 14-year-old girl with acute myeloblastic leukemia and febrile neutropenia in addition to typhlitis. She was also immobilized due to joint contractures of the lower extremities and had intestinal mucus accumulation, which was, at first, misdiagnosed as intestinal parasitosis. We speculate that typhlitis, immobilization and decreased intestinal motility due to usage of antiemetic drugs might have been the potential etiologic factors in this case. However, its impact on prognosis of the primary disease is unknown.

  18. [Intestinal transplant: in what phase are we?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés Moreno, A M; Ramos, E; Hernández, F; Encinas, J L; Leal, N; Gámez, M L; Martínez, L; Sarriá, J; Molina, M; Martínez-Ojinaga, E; Murcia, J; Frauca, E; Delgado, M; Prieto, G; López Santamaría, M; Tovar, J A

    2010-07-01

    To analyze the evolution of Small Bowel Transplantation program since the beginning of the program. [corrected] All children who underwent intestinal transplantation between 1997 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed: epidemiological data, status before transplant, surgical technique, immunosupression, results, survival and long.term quality of life were analysed. Fifty-two intestinal transplants were performed in 46 children (20 isolated bowel, 20 combined liver and intestine, and 12 multivisceral); median age was 32m (range 7m-19a); weight 12,3 kg (range 3,9-60); 31 had short gut syndrome, 8 dismotility, 5 intractable diarrhea, and two were miscellaneous. Intestinal adaptation was initially attempted in 26 patients, without success, 20 were directly listed for transplant. The modality of transplant was modified in 17 while listed. Baseline immunosupression consisted of tacrolimus and steroids, although 5 required conversion to Sirolimus later. Six died during the first month, due to sepsis/multiorganic failure (poor status at transplant); 13 died during the long-term follow-up. Acute rejection was seen in 20, chronic rejection in 3, PTLD in 8 (6 died) and GVHD in 5 patients (3 died). Overall survival after 5 years of follow-up is 65,2 % (51,7% for the graft). From 2006 to 2008, overall patient/graft survival at 6 m, 1 and 3 years after transplant is 88,7/84,1, 81,2/81,2 and 81,2/71,1%, respectively. After a median follw-up of 39 +/- 29 months, 27 patients are alive (59%), off TPN, (70% had their ostomy taken down), go to school, are scarcely hospitalized and enjoy a good quality of life. Intestinal transplantation has consolided itself as a good choice for irreversible intestinal failure, being feasible to achieve a normal life. Although overall survival diminishes over time, the center experience has improved the results. These patients need a very close follow-up, once transplant is over, in order to get an early diagnose of immunological complications.

  19. Mechanisms of Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction in Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoseph, Benyam P; Klingensmith, Nathan J; Liang, Zhe; Breed, Elise R; Burd, Eileen M; Mittal, Rohit; Dominguez, Jessica A; Petrie, Benjamin; Ford, Mandy L; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2016-07-01

    Intestinal barrier dysfunction is thought to contribute to the development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in sepsis. Although there are similarities in clinical course following sepsis, there are significant differences in the host response depending on the initiating organism and time course of the disease, and pathways of gut injury vary widely in different preclinical models of sepsis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the timecourse and mechanisms of intestinal barrier dysfunction are similar in disparate mouse models of sepsis with similar mortalities. FVB/N mice were randomized to receive cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham laparotomy, and permeability was measured to fluoresceinisothiocyanate conjugated-dextran (FD-4) six to 48 h later. Intestinal permeability was elevated following CLP at all timepoints measured, peaking at 6 to 12 h. Tight junction proteins claudin 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 13, and 15, Junctional Adhesion Molecule-A (JAM-A), occludin, and ZO-1 were than assayed by Western blot, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry 12 h after CLP to determine potential mechanisms underlying increases in intestinal permeability. Claudin 2 and JAM-A were increased by sepsis, whereas claudin-5 and occludin were decreased by sepsis. All other tight junction proteins were unchanged. A further timecourse experiment demonstrated that alterations in claudin-2 and occludin were detectable as early as 1 h after the onset of sepsis. Similar experiments were then performed in a different group of mice subjected to Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Mice with pneumonia had an increase in intestinal permeability similar in timecourse and magnitude to that seen in CLP. Similar changes in tight junction proteins were seen in both models of sepsis although mice subjected to pneumonia also had a marked decrease in ZO-1 not seen in CLP. These results indicate that two disparate, clinically relevant models of sepsis

  20. Intestinal Stem Cell Markers in the Intestinal Metaplasia of Stomach and Barrett's Esophagus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Gun Jang

    Full Text Available Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM is a highly prevalent preneoplastic lesion; however, the molecular mechanisms regulating its development remain unclear. We have previously shown that a population of cells expressing the intestinal stem cell (ISC marker LGR5 increases remarkably in IM. In this study, we further investigated the molecular characteristics of these LGR5+ cells in IM by examining the expression profile of several ISC markers. Notably, we found that ISC markers-including OLFM4 and EPHB2-are positively associated with the CDX2 expression in non-tumorous gastric tissues. This finding was confirmed in stomach lesions with or without metaplasia, which demonstrated that OLFM4 and EPHB2 expression gradually increased with metaplastic progression. Moreover, RNA in situ hybridization revealed that LGR5+ cells coexpress several ISC markers and remained confined to the base of metaplastic glands, reminiscent to that of normal intestinal crypts, whereas those in normal antral glands expressed none of these markers. Furthermore, a large number of ISC marker-expressing cells were diffusely distributed in gastric adenomas, suggesting that these markers may facilitate gastric tumorigenesis. In addition, Barrett's esophagus (BE-which is histologically similar to intestinal metaplasia-exhibited a similar distribution of ISC markers, indicating the presence of a stem cell population with intestinal differentiation potential. In conclusion, we identified that LGR5+ cells in gastric IM and BE coexpress ISC markers, and exhibit the same expression profile as those found in normal intestinal crypts. Taken together, these results implicate an intestinal-like stem cell population in the pathogenesis of IM, and provide an important basis for understanding the development and maintenance of this disease.

  1. Leaching of plastic additives to marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelmans, Albert A.; Besseling, Ellen; Foekema, Edwin M.

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that ingestion of microplastics by aquatic species leads to increased exposure to plastic additives. However, experimental data or model based evidence is lacking. Here we assess the potential of leaching of nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in the intestinal tracts of Arenicola marina (lugworm) and Gadus morhua (North Sea cod). We use a biodynamic model that allows calculations of the relative contribution of plastic ingestion to total exposure of aquatic species to chemicals residing in the ingested plastic. Uncertainty in the most crucial parameters is accounted for by probabilistic modeling. Our conservative analysis shows that plastic ingestion by the lugworm yields NP and BPA concentrations that stay below the lower ends of global NP and BPA concentration ranges, and therefore are not likely to constitute a relevant exposure pathway. For cod, plastic ingestion appears to be a negligible pathway for exposure to NP and BPA. - Highlights: • Uptake of plastic additives after plastic ingestion was modeled for worms and fish. • This was done for bisphenol A and nonylphenol. • Uncertainty was accounted for by Monte Carlo simulations. • It appeared that exposure by plastic ingestion was negligible for fish. • Plastic ingestion may occasionally be relevant for marine worms. - Leaching of nonylphenol and bisphenol A from ingested microplastic may be relevant for the lugworm, but is irrelevant for fish like cod

  2. Linking size and age at sexual maturation to body growth, productivity and recruitment of Atlantic cod stocks spanning the North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Trippel, E.A.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    2013-01-01

    Sexual maturation patterns of 22 North Atlantic stocks of cod (Gadus morhua) were examined and related to geographical distribution area, ambient water temperature, growth and surplus production. Four patterns were identified, i.e. sexual maturation early in life at small size, early in life...... Atlantic stocks. This comparative analysis suggests that maturation patterns relate to growth potential and surplus production whereas annual production of recruits per unit biomass appears unrelated to average size at sexual maturation...

  3. The effect of external dummy transmitters on oxygen consumption and performance of swimming Atlantic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhausen, M.F.; Andersen, Niels Gerner; Steffensen, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Decreased critical swimming speed and increased oxygen consumption (Mo-2) was found for externally tagged Atlantic cod Gadus morhua swimming at a high speed of 0 center dot 9 body length (total length, L-Gamma) s(-1). No difference was found in the standard metabolic rate, indicating...... that the higher Mo-2 for tagged cod was due to drag force rather than increased costs to keep buoyancy. (c) 2006 The Authors Journal compilation (c) 2006 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles....

  4. Developing Baltic cod recruitment models I : Resolving spatial and temporal dynamics of spawning stock and recruitment for cod, herring, and sprat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Möllmann, C.; Neuenfeldt, Stefan

    2001-01-01

    The Baltic Sea comprises a heterogeneous oceanographic environment influencing the spatial and temporal potential for reproductive success of cod (Gadus morhua) and sprat (Sprattus sprattus) in the different spawning basins. Hence, to quantify stock and recruitment dynamics, it is necessary......-disaggregated multispecies virtual population analyses (MSVPA) were performed for interacting species cod, herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat in the different subdivisions of the Central Baltic. The MSVPA runs revealed distinct spatial trends in population abundance, spawning biomass, recruitment, and predation...

  5. Intestinal transport and metabolism of bile acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Paul A.; Karpen, Saul J.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to their classical roles as detergents to aid in the process of digestion, bile acids have been identified as important signaling molecules that function through various nuclear and G protein-coupled receptors to regulate a myriad of cellular and molecular functions across both metabolic and nonmetabolic pathways. Signaling via these pathways will vary depending on the tissue and the concentration and chemical structure of the bile acid species. Important determinants of the size and composition of the bile acid pool are their efficient enterohepatic recirculation, their host and microbial metabolism, and the homeostatic feedback mechanisms connecting hepatocytes, enterocytes, and the luminal microbiota. This review focuses on the mammalian intestine, discussing the physiology of bile acid transport, the metabolism of bile acids in the gut, and new developments in our understanding of how intestinal metabolism, particularly by the gut microbiota, affects bile acid signaling. PMID:25210150

  6. Sexuality of people with intestinal ostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyelle Braga Rodrigues Cardoso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe the experience of sexuality and other everyday life aspects for people with intestinal ostomy. Methods: qualitative, descriptive study with ten participants of the Specialized Reference Unit who gave interviews with inductive content analysis. Results: the established themes were Physical, emotional and socio-cultural changes, Changes in the exercise of sexuality of people with intestinal ostomy and Importance of the interdisciplinary support of the new sexuality. These changes are linked to body image, the self-esteem and interpersonal relationships with the partner, family and friends, going beyond the visible with the emergence of fear, rejection, difficulty with new relationships, body shame, embarrassment by the collector equipment, fear of the sexual act causes damage to the stoma and difficult to talk about the condition. Conclusion: the ostomy condition requires adaptation process, requiring trained interdisciplinary team in physiological and psychosocial problems resulting from surgical and therapeutic adjuvant treatment, which hinder the sexuality of these individuals.

  7. [Intestinal volvulus due to yeyunal duplication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Iglesias, P; Carazo Palacios, M E; Lluna González, J; Ibáñez Pradas, V; Rodríguez Caraballo, L

    2014-10-01

    Duplications of the alimentary tract are congenital malformations. The ileum is the most commonly affected organ. A lot of duplications are incidentally diagnosed but most of patients present a combination of pain or complications such as obstructive symptoms, intestinal intussusception, perforation or volvulus. We report the case of a 6-years-old girl, with intermittent abdominal pain and vomits for two months long. Laboratory work was completely normal and in the radiology analysis (abdominal sonography and magnetic resonance) a cystic image with intestinal volvulus was observed. The patient underwent laparotomy, Ladd's procedure was done and the cyst was resected. In conclusion, if a patient is admitted with abdominal pain and obstructive symptoms, it is important to consider duplication of the alimentary tract as a possible diagnosis.

  8. Model prodrugs for the intestinal oligopeptide transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C U; Andersen, R; Brodin, Birger

    2001-01-01

    The human intestinal di/tri-peptide carrier, hPepT1, has been suggested as a target for increasing intestinal transport of low permeability compounds by creating prodrugs designed for the transporter. Model ester prodrugs using the stabilized dipeptides D-Glu-Ala and D-Asp-Ala as pro...... with a pH of approximately 6.0, but still release the model drug at the intercellular and blood pH of approximately 7.4. Even though benzyl alcohol is not a low molecular weight drug molecule, these results indicate that the dipeptide prodrug principle is a promising drug delivery concept. However......, the physico-chemical properties such as electronegativity, solubility, and log P of the drug molecule may also have an influence on the potential of these kinds of prodrugs. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether the model drug electronegativity, estimated as Taft substitution parameter...

  9. Prophylactic Ozone Administration Reduces Intestinal Mucosa Injury Induced by Intestinal Ischemia-Reperfusion in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozkan Onal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury is associated with mucosal damage and has a high rate of mortality. Various beneficial effects of ozone have been shown. The aim of the present study was to show the effects of ozone in ischemia reperfusion model in intestine. Material and Method. Twenty eight Wistar rats were randomized into four groups with seven rats in each group. Control group was administered serum physiologic (SF intraperitoneally (ip for five days. Ozone group was administered 1 mg/kg ozone ip for five days. Ischemia Reperfusion (IR group underwent superior mesenteric artery occlusion for one hour and then reperfusion for two hours. Ozone + IR group was administered 1 mg/kg ozone ip for five days and at sixth day IR model was applied. Rats were anesthetized with ketamine∖xyzlazine and their intracardiac blood was drawn completely and they were sacrificed. Intestinal tissue samples were examined under light microscope. Levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathioneperoxidase (GSH-Px, malondyaldehide (MDA, and protein carbonyl (PCO were analyzed in tissue samples. Total oxidant status (TOS, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC were analyzed in blood samples. Data were evaluated statistically by Kruskal Wallis test. Results. In the ozone administered group, degree of intestinal injury was not different from the control group. IR caused an increase in intestinal injury score. The intestinal epithelium maintained its integrity and decrease in intestinal injury score was detected in Ozone + IR group. SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT values were high in ozone group and low in IR. TOS parameter was highest in the IR group and the TAC parameter was highest in the ozone group and lowest in the IR group. Conclusion. In the present study, IR model caused an increase in intestinal injury.In the present study, ozone administration had an effect improving IR associated tissue injury. In the present study, ozone therapy

  10. Repairing organs: lessons from intestine and liver

    OpenAIRE

    Gehart Helmuth; Clevers Hans

    2015-01-01

    The concept of organ regeneration has fascinated humanity from ancient mythology to modern science fiction. Recent advances offer the potential to soon bring such technology within the grasp of clinical medicine. Rapidly expanding insights into the intrinsic repair processes of the intestine and liver have uncovered significant plasticity in epithelial tissues. Harnessing this knowledge researchers have recently created culture systems that enable the expansion of stem cells into transplantab...

  11. Salmonella Typhimurium infection in the porcine intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schauser, Kirsten; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Larsson, Lars-Inge

    2005-01-01

    The normal intestinal epithelium is renewed with a turnover rate of 3-5 days. During Salmonella infection increased cell loss is observed, possibly as a result of programmed cell death (PCD). We have, therefore, studied the effects of Salmonella Typhimurium infection on three elements involved...... in scattered epithelial cells and the number of positive cells increased with increasing times of exposure to Salmonella (P

  12. The intestinal microbiome of fish under starvation

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Jun Hong; Lin, Grace; Fu, Gui Hong; Wan, Zi Yi; Lee, May; Wang, Le; Liu, Xiao Jun; Yue, Gen Hua

    2014-01-01

    Background Starvation not only affects the nutritional and health status of the animals, but also the microbial composition in the host’s intestine. Next-generation sequencing provides a unique opportunity to explore gut microbial communities and their interactions with hosts. However, studies on gut microbiomes have been conducted predominantly in humans and land animals. Not much is known on gut microbiomes of aquatic animals and their changes under changing environmental conditions. To add...

  13. Liver Disease Secondary to Intestinal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassam Abu-Wasel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available IFALD is a common and potentially life-threatening condition for patients with SBS requiring long-term PN. There exists the potential for decreasing its incidence by optimizing the composition and the rate of infusion of parenteral solutions, by advocating a multidisciplinary approach, and by early referral for intestinal-liver transplantation to ensure long-term survival of patients with SBS.

  14. Radiobiology of intestinal epithelium stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplyannikova, O.A.

    1988-01-01

    After a single or three-fold whole body irradiation of mice with a dose of 4 Gy and the time interval for the proliferation to be restored (5 days or 3 weeks) the survival curve for stem cells of small intestine epithelium with regard to radiation dose was the same as that for non-preirradiated mice. This indicated that the proliferative potential of stem cells in these experimental conditions was not reduced

  15. Behaviour of intestinal lactase after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becciolini, A; Cariaggi, P; Gori, A [Florence Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Radiologia

    1975-08-01

    The behavior of intestinal lactase has been studied in rats after irradiation. The significant increase of activity is not immediate, but slowly and progressively starting from 4 hrs after irradiation. The modifications of the activity are slow and gradual also during the reduction phase. This disaccharase does not show a return to normal values even after three weeks. We suggest the hypothesis that the increase could be due to a modification of the normal synthesis of enzymes caused by irradiation.

  16. Protective effects of ischemic postconditioning on intestinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DING Jun-tao

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To explore the protective effects of two types of ischemic postconditioning (IP on intestinal mucosa barrier in rabbits with crush injury of the hind limb. Methods: This study was conducted between August and December 2008 in the Department of Trauma Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China. The model of crush injury to the hind limb of rabbits was firstly developed by a 25 kg object with the right hind limbs fixed by wooden splints, and then two types of IP were established, including occluding/opening the common iliac artery and vein alternatively (traditional IP, IP A and binding/loosening the proximum of the injured hind limb alternatively (modified IP, IP B. Thirty-six male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: IP A group, IP B group and control group, with 12 rabbits in each group. The serum levels of diamine oxidase (DAO and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP were detected at 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours after injury. Pathological changes of ileum were examined at 24 hours after injury. Results: The serum levels of I-FABP at 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours after injury in both IP A and IP B groups had a significant decrease, compared with control group. DAO levels also showed the same change trend at 2 and 6 hours after injury, but showed no significant difference between two IP groups. No difference in pathological changes of ileum was found among the three groups. Conclusions: IP can protect intestinal mucosa barrier function on the model of hind limb crush injury in rabbits. Meanwhile the modified IP B shows the same protection as the traditional IP A, and is worth applying in clinic. Key words: Ischemic postconditioning; Crush syndrome; Intestinal mucosa

  17. Wine consumption and intestinal redox homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorella Biasi

    2014-01-01

    Wine components have been proposed as an alternative natural approach to prevent or treat inflammatory bowel diseases. The difficulty remains to distinguish whether these positive properties are due only to polyphenols in wine or also to the alcohol intake, since many studies have reported ethanol to possess various beneficial effects. Our knowledge of the use of wine components in managing human intestinal inflammatory diseases is still quite limited, and further clinical studies may afford more solid evidence of their beneficial effects.

  18. Intestinal spirochetosis and colon diverticulosis Espiroquetose intestinal e diverticulose do cólon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Aurelho de Lima

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A case of intestinal spirochetosis in a 62-year-old white male is reported. The condition was characterized by chronic flatulence and episodes of intestinal hemorrhage, in addition to the evidence of hypotonic diverticular disease, with a large number of slender organisms in the colon epithelium and cryptae. Spirochetes were demonstrated by Whartin-Starry stain. The serologic tests for syphilis and HIV were positive. Spirochetosis was treated with penicillin G, and the patient remains free of intestinal complaints 20 months later.Um caso de espiroquetose intestinal é relatado em um homem branco de 62 anos. A condição foi caracterizada por flatulência crônica e episódios de hemorragia intestinal, além da evidência de doença diverticular hipotônica dos cólons, com numerosos organismos filamentosos no epitélio e nas criptas do cólon. Os espiroquetas foram demonstrados pela coloração de Whartin-Starry. Os testes sorológicos para sífilis e HIV foram positivos. A espiroquetose foi tratada com penicilina G e o paciente permanece sem queixas intestinais após 20 meses.

  19. [An experimental assessment of methods for applying intestinal sutures in intestinal obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmadudinov, M G

    1992-04-01

    The results of various methods used in applying intestinal sutures in obturation were studied. Three series of experiments were conducted on 30 dogs--resection of the intestine after obstruction with the formation of anastomoses by means of double-row suture (Albert--Shmiden--Lambert) in the first series (10 dogs), by a single-row suture after V. M. Mateshchuk [correction of Mateshuku] in the second series, and bu a single-row stretching suture suggested by the author in the third series. The postoperative complications and the parameters of physical airtightness of the intestinal anastomosis were studied in dynamics in the experimental animals. The results of the study: incompetence of the anastomosis sutures in the first series 6, in the second 4, and in the third series one. Adhesions occurred in all animals of the first and second series and in 2 of the third series. Six dogs of the first series died, 4 of the second, and one of the third. Study of the dynamics of the results showed a direct connection of the complications with the parameters of the physical airtightness of the anastomosis, and the last-named with the method of the intestinal suture. Relatively better results were noted in formation of the anastomosis by means of our suggested stretshing continuous suture passed through the serous, muscular, and submucous coats of the intestine.

  20. Foreign body-associated intestinal pyogranuloma resulting in intestinal obstruction in four dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazoglou, L G; Tontis, D; Loukopoulos, P; Patsikas, M N; Hermanns, W; Kouti, V; Timotheou, T; Liapis, I; Tziris, N; Rallis, T S

    2010-04-17

    Intestinal obstruction resulting from an intramural foreign body-associated pyogranuloma was diagnosed in four dogs. Vomiting and weight loss were the main clinical signs. On physical examination, a mass in the abdomen was detected in three dogs. Abdominal radiography demonstrated the presence of soft tissue opacity in three of the dogs and gas-filled dilated intestinal loops in all four dogs. Abdominal ultrasonography showed hyperkinetic fluid-filled dilated intestinal loops and a hypoechoic small intestinal mass in all the dogs. Exploratory coeliotomy confirmed the presence of a jejunal mass, which was removed by resection and anastomosis in all the dogs. In one of the dogs a linear foreign body was also found cranial to the mass and was removed through a separate enterotomy incision. The lesions were diagnosed as foreign body-associated intestinal pyogranulomas on histological examination. Three dogs recovered without complications, but the fourth showed signs of septic peritonitis four days after surgery and was euthanased at the owner's request. The other three dogs remained disease-free 12 to 42 months after surgery.

  1. Protein synthesis and intestinal flora in piglets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namioka, Shigeo

    1980-01-01

    Utilization of non-protein nitrogen (NPN) by the flora in piglet colon was studied by administration of 15 N-urea and 15 N-ammonium salt to aseptic piglets and to SPF piglets which had been acclimatized to a clean environment after settling of intestinal flora. Administration of 15 N-urea did not result in 15 N uptake by any tissue-constituting protein at any site of the aseptic piglets, almost all 15 N being excreted into the urine. In contrast, the tissue and skeletal muscle of the SPF piglets showed incorporated 15 N from urea. Urea was converted, by urease of the intestinal flora, into NH 3 , which was absorbed from the mucosa of the intestinal tract to reach the liver where it was synthesized into glutamic acid, followed by conversion into various amino acids. 15 N-ammonium administration produced a significant amount of 15 N even in the tissue protein of the aseptic piglets. After NPN administration, the liver protein-constituting amino acid fraction showed 15 N-labeling of almost all essential, as well as non-essential amino acids. Culture of colonic flora with 15 N-urea revealed 15 N-labeling of all amino acids that constituted bacterial cells, indicating the presence of urea recycling mediated by bacterial urease in single rumen animals.(Chiba, N.)

  2. Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa changes intestinal microbial profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Kun Lee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kiwifruit is high in pectic polysaccharides and dietary fiber. This study aimed to find out how the ingestion of kiwifruit will affect intestinal microbiota populations, namely Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium, and Enterococcus. Methods: Freeze dried kiwifruit (equivalent of two fresh kiwifruits was given to each of the six subjects daily for four days. Faecal samples were collected before, during and after kiwifruit consumption. The faecal bacteria were enumerated by qPCR and RT qPCR methods. Results: The effect of the kiwifruit on intestinal microbiota profile varied between individuals; in general, the kiwifruit demonstrated a prebiotic effect of promoting the content of faecal lactobacilli and bifidobacteria (as compared to the baselines of the same individual before consumption for as long as the fruit was consumed. The effect was however transient, the levels of the two bacteria returned near to that of the baselines upon cessation of consumption. Conclusion: Kiwifruit is a prebiotic in selectively enhancing the growth of intestinal lactic acid bacteria.

  3. Toxic amebic colitis coexisting with intestinal tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S. C.; Jeon, H. M.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, W. W.; Kim, K. W.; Oh, S. T.; Kim, E. K.; Chang, S. K.; Lee, E. J.

    2000-01-01

    A patient with a fulminant amebic colitis coexisting with intestinal tuberculosis had a sudden onset of crampy abdominal pain, mucoid diarrhea, anorexia, fever and vomiting with signs of positive peritoneal irritation. Fulminant amebic colitis occurring together with intestinal tuberculosis is an uncommon event and may present an interesting patho-etiological relationship. The diagnosis was proven by histopathologic examination of resected specimen. Subtotal colectomy including segmental resection of ileum, about 80 cm in length, followed by exteriorization of both ends, was performed in an emergency basis. Despite all measures, the patient died on the sixth postoperative day. The exact relationship of fulminant amebic colitis and intestinal tuberculosis is speculative but the possibility of a cause and effect relationship exists. Fulminant amebic colitis may readily be confused with other types of inflammatory bowel disease, such as idiopathic ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, perforated diverticulitis and appendicitis with perforation. This report draws attention to the resurgence of tuberculosis and amebiasis in Korea, and the need for the high degree of caution required to detect it. PMID:11194200

  4. Cholesterol esterase activity of human intestinal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponz de Leon, M.; Carubbi, F.; Di Donato, P.; Carulli, N.

    1985-01-01

    It has been suggested that cholesterol absorption in humans is dependent on bile acid pool composition and that expansion of the cholic acid pool size is followed by an increase of the absorption values. Similar observations were reported in rats. In the present study, therefore, the authors investigated some general properties of human intestinal cholesterol esterase, with particular emphasis on the effect of bile acids on this enzymatic activity. Twenty-nine segments of small intestine were taken during operations; the enzymatic activity was studied by using mucosal homogenate as a source of enzyme and oleic acid, cholesterol, and 14 C-labeled cholesterol as substrates. The time-activity relationship was linear within the first two hours; optimal pH for esterification ranged between 5 and 6.2. There was little difference between the esterifying activity of the jejunal and ileal mucosa. Esterification of cholesterol was observed with all the investigated fatty acids but was maximal with oleic acid. Bile acids did not affect cholesterol esterase activity when present in the incubation mixture at 0.1 and 1.0 mM; the enzymatic activity, however, was significantly inhibited when bile acids were added at 20 mM. In conclusion, this study has shown that the human intestinal mucosa possesses a cholesterol esterase activity; at variance with the rat, however, the human enzyme does not seem to be stimulated by trihydroxy bile acids

  5. Bioactivation of Phytoestrogens: Intestinal Bacteria and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landete, J M; Arqués, J; Medina, M; Gaya, P; de Las Rivas, B; Muñoz, R

    2016-08-17

    Phytoestrogens are polyphenols similar to human estrogens found in plants or derived from plant precursors. Phytoestrogens are found in high concentration in soya, flaxseed and other seeds, fruits, vegetables, cereals, tea, chocolate, etc. They comprise several classes of chemical compounds (stilbenes, coumestans, isoflavones, ellagitannins, and lignans) which are structurally similar to endogenous estrogens but which can have both estrogenic and antiestrogenic effects. Although epidemiological and experimental evidence indicates that intake of phytoestrogens in foods may be protective against certain chronic diseases, discrepancies have been observed between in vivo and in vitro experiments. The microbial transformations have not been reported so far in stilbenes and coumestans. However, isoflavones, ellagitanins, and lignans are metabolized by intestinal bacteria to produce equol, urolithins, and enterolignans, respectively. Equol, urolithin, and enterolignans are more bioavailable, and have more estrogenic/antiestrogenic and antioxidant activity than their precursors. Moreover, equol, urolithins and enterolignans have anti-inflammatory effects and induce antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities. The transformation of isoflavones, ellagitanins, and lignans by intestinal microbiota is essential to be protective against certain chronic diseases, as cancer, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and menopausal symptoms. Bioavailability, bioactivity, and health effects of dietary phytoestrogens are strongly determined by the intestinal bacteria of each individual.

  6. Biotin absorption by distal rat intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, B.B.; Rosenberg, I.H.

    1987-01-01

    We used the in vivo intestinal loop approach, with short (10-min) and long (3-h) incubations, to examine biotin absorption in proximal jejunum, distal ileum, cecum and proximal colon. In short-term studies, luminal biotin disappearance from rat ileum was about half that observed in the jejunum, whereas absorption by proximal colon was about 12% of that in the jejunum. In 3-h closed-loop studies, the absorption of 1.0 microM biotin varied regionally. Biotin absorption was nearly complete in the small intestine after 3 h; however, only about 15% of the dose had been absorbed in the cecum and 27% in the proximal colon after 3 h. Independent of site of administration, the major fraction of absorbed biotin was recovered in the liver; measurable amounts of radioactive biotin were also present in kidney and plasma. The results support the potential nutritional significance for the rat of biotin synthesized by bacteria in the distal intestine, by demonstrating directly an absorptive capability of mammalian large bowel for this vitamin

  7. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor and intestinal immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Bruno; Natividad, Jane M; Sokol, Harry

    2018-04-07

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix-(bHLH) superfamily of transcription factors, which are associated with cellular responses to environmental stimuli, such as xenobiotics and oxygen levels. Unlike other members of bHLH, AhR is the only bHLH transcription factor that is known to be ligand activated. Early AhR studies focused on understanding the role of AhR in mediating the toxicity and carcinogenesis properties of the prototypic ligand 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In recent years, however, it has become apparent that, in addition to its toxicological involvement, AhR is highly receptive to a wide array of endogenous and exogenous ligands, and that its activation leads to a myriad of key host physiological functions. In this study, we review the current understanding of the functions of AhR in the mucosal immune system with a focus on its role in intestinal barrier function and intestinal immune cells, as well as in intestinal homeostasis.

  8. Evolutionary insights into postembryonic development of adult intestinal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishizuya-Oka Atsuko

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the adult vertebrate intestine, multi-potent stem cells continuously generate all of the epithelial cells throughout the adulthood. While it has long been known that the frog intestine is formed via the development of adult intestinal stem cells during thyroid hormone (TH-dependent metamorphosis, the basic structure of the adult intestine is formed by birth in mammals and it is unclear if the subsequent maturation of the intestine involves any changes in the intestinal stem cells. Two recent papers showing that B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp1 regulates postnatal epithelial stem cell reprogramming during mouse intestinal maturation support the model that adult intestinal stem cells are developed during postembryonic development in mammals, in a TH-dependent process similar to intestinal remodeling during amphibian metamorphosis. Since the formation of the adult intestine in both mammals and amphibians is closely associated with the adaptation from aquatic to terrestrial life during the peak of endogenous TH levels, the molecular mechanisms by which the adult stem cells are developed are likely evolutionally conserved.

  9. Innate Lymphoid Cells in Intestinal Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremia, Alessandra; Arancibia-Cárcamo, Carolina V.

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the intestine that encompasses Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis. The cause of IBD is unknown, but the evidence suggests that an aberrant immune response toward the commensal bacterial flora is responsible for disease in genetically susceptible individuals. Results from animal models of colitis and human studies indicate a role for innate lymphoid cells (ILC) in the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation in IBD. ILC are a population of lymphocytes that are enriched at mucosal sites, where they play a protective role against pathogens including extracellular bacteria, helminthes, and viruses. ILC lack an antigen-specific receptor, but can respond to environmental stress signals contributing to the rapid orchestration of an early immune response. Several subsets of ILC reflecting functional characteristics of T helper subsets have been described. ILC1 express the transcription factor T-bet and are characterized by secretion of IFNγ, ILC2 are GATA3+ and secrete IL5 and IL13 and ILC3 depend on expression of RORγt and secrete IL17 and IL22. However, ILC retain a degree of plasticity depending on exposure to cytokines and environmental factors. IL23 responsive ILC have been implicated in the pathogenesis of colitis in several innate murine models through the production of IL17, IFNγ, and GM-CSF. We have previously identified IL23 responsive ILC in the human intestine and found that they accumulate in the inflamed colon and small bowel of patients with CD. Other studies have confirmed accumulation of ILC in CD with increased frequencies of IFNγ-secreting ILC1 in both the intestinal lamina propria and the epithelium. Moreover, IL23 driven IL22 producing ILC have been shown to drive bacteria-induced colitis-associated cancer in mice. Interestingly, our data show increased ILC accumulation in patients with IBD and primary sclerosing cholangitis, who carry an increased risk of

  10. Innate Lymphoid Cells in Intestinal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Geremia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the intestine that encompasses Crohn’s disease (CD and ulcerative colitis. The cause of IBD is unknown, but the evidence suggests that an aberrant immune response toward the commensal bacterial flora is responsible for disease in genetically susceptible individuals. Results from animal models of colitis and human studies indicate a role for innate lymphoid cells (ILC in the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation in IBD. ILC are a population of lymphocytes that are enriched at mucosal sites, where they play a protective role against pathogens including extracellular bacteria, helminthes, and viruses. ILC lack an antigen-specific receptor, but can respond to environmental stress signals contributing to the rapid orchestration of an early immune response. Several subsets of ILC reflecting functional characteristics of T helper subsets have been described. ILC1 express the transcription factor T-bet and are characterized by secretion of IFNγ, ILC2 are GATA3+ and secrete IL5 and IL13 and ILC3 depend on expression of RORγt and secrete IL17 and IL22. However, ILC retain a degree of plasticity depending on exposure to cytokines and environmental factors. IL23 responsive ILC have been implicated in the pathogenesis of colitis in several innate murine models through the production of IL17, IFNγ, and GM-CSF. We have previously identified IL23 responsive ILC in the human intestine and found that they accumulate in the inflamed colon and small bowel of patients with CD. Other studies have confirmed accumulation of ILC in CD with increased frequencies of IFNγ-secreting ILC1 in both the intestinal lamina propria and the epithelium. Moreover, IL23 driven IL22 producing ILC have been shown to drive bacteria-induced colitis-associated cancer in mice. Interestingly, our data show increased ILC accumulation in patients with IBD and primary sclerosing cholangitis, who carry an

  11. Neonatal Intestinal Obstruction-Four Year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rathore

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To study the aetiology and frequency, sex incidence, age of presentation, management and outcome of neonatal intestinal obstruction. Material and Methods: This prospective study of 316 neonates with intestinal obstruction was conducted over a period of 4 years from November 2009 to October 2013 at single institute. These cases were managed by various surgical procedures. Their epidemiology, day of presentation, associated anomalies and outcomes were studied. Results: A total of 316 neonates (277 males and 39 females were operated for intestinal obstruction. 268(84.81% neonates presented in the 1st week of life. Imperforate anus occurred in 206 (65.19%.Small bowel atresia accounted for23 (7.27% cases while duodenal atresia was seen in19 (6.01% patients. Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis and Malrotation each occurred in 14 (4.43% patients; Hirschsprung’s disease in 18(5.69%, Necrotising Enterocolitis in 12(3.79%, Meconium disease of newborn in 9(2.85% while colonic atresia was seen in one (0.3% patient. Colostomy was performed in 145(45.88%, Pouchostomy in 15(4.74% and Cutback anoplasty in 56(17.72% patients. Ramsted’s Pyloromyotomy in 13(4.11%% neonates, Laparoscopic Pyloromyotomy in 1(0.3%,Kimura’s Duodenoduodenostomy in 19(6.01% ,End to Back anastomosis in 24(7.59% , End to End anastomosis in 7(2.21% , Multiple anastomosis in 2(0.6% , Enterotomy with irrigation in 7(2.21% , Ladd’s procedure in 14(4.43% , ,Single stage transanal pull through in 8(2.53% , Ileostomy in 2(0.6% , Single stage Abdominoperineal pull through in 2(0.6%, Levelling colostomy in 6(1.89% ,Peritoneal drain insertion under Local anaesthesia in 5(1.58% . Overall mortality was 13.60%. Conclusion: Intestinal Obstruction is the most common surgical emergency in neonatal period. Early and accurate diagnosis is paramount for proper patient management. The etiology, mode of presentation, morbidity and outcome of surgery of intestinal obstruction in

  12. The Effect of DA-6034 on Intestinal Permeability in an Indomethacin-Induced Small Intestinal Injury Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Dong Shin; Lee, Oh Young; Lee, Kang Nyeong; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Hang Lak; Yoon, Byung Chul; Choi, Ho Soon

    2016-05-23

    DA-6034 has anti-inflammatory activities and exhibits cytoprotective effects in acute gastric injury models. However, explanations for the protective effects of DA-6034 on intestinal permeability are limited. This study sought to investigate the effect of DA-6034 on intestinal permeability in an indomethacin-induced small intestinal injury model and its protective effect against small intestinal injury. Rats in the treatment group received DA-6034 from days 0 to 2 and indomethacin from days 1 to 2. Rats in the control group received indomethacin from days 1 to 2. On the fourth day, the small intestines were examined to compare the severity of inflammation. Intestinal permeability was evaluated by using fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran. Western blotting was performed to confirm the association between DA-6034 and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. The inflammation scores in the treatment group were lower than those in the control group, but the difference was statistically insignificant. Hemorrhagic lesions in the treatment group were broader than those in the control group, but the difference was statistically insignificant. Intestinal permeability was lower in the treatment group than in the control group. DA-6034 enhanced extracellular signal-regulated kinase expression, and intestinal permeability was negatively correlated with ERK expression. DA-6034 may decrease intestinal permeability in an indomethacin-induced intestinal injury model via the ERK pathway.

  13. Kaiso overexpression promotes intestinal inflammation and potentiates intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(Min/+) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Christina C; Longo, Joseph; Mavor, Meaghan; Milosavljevic, Snezana B; Chaudhary, Roopali; Gilbreath, Ebony; Yates, Clayton; Daniel, Juliet M

    2015-09-01

    Constitutive Wnt/β-catenin signaling is a key contributor to colorectal cancer (CRC). Although inactivation of the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is recognized as an early event in CRC development, it is the accumulation of multiple subsequent oncogenic insults facilitates malignant transformation. One potential contributor to colorectal carcinogenesis is the POZ-ZF transcription factor Kaiso, whose depletion extends lifespan and delays polyp onset in the widely used Apc(Min/+) mouse model of intestinal cancer. These findings suggested that Kaiso potentiates intestinal tumorigenesis, but this was paradoxical as Kaiso was previously implicated as a negative regulator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. To resolve Kaiso's role in intestinal tumorigenesis and canonical Wnt signaling, we generated a transgenic mouse model (Kaiso(Tg/+)) expressing an intestinal-specific myc-tagged Kaiso transgene. We then mated Kaiso(Tg/+) and Apc(Min/+) mice to generate Kaiso(Tg/+):Apc(Min/+) mice for further characterization. Kaiso(Tg/+):Apc(Min/+) mice exhibited reduced lifespan and increased polyp multiplicity compared to Apc(Min/+) mice. Consistent with this murine phenotype, we found increased Kaiso expression in human CRC tissue, supporting a role for Kaiso in human CRC. Interestingly, Wnt target gene expression was increased in Kaiso(Tg/+):Apc(Min/+) mice, suggesting that Kaiso's function as a negative regulator of canonical Wnt signaling, as seen in Xenopus, is not maintained in this context. Notably, Kaiso(Tg/+):Apc(Min/+) mice exhibited increased inflammation and activation of NFκB signaling compared to their Apc(Min/+) counterparts. This phenotype was consistent with our previous report that Kaiso(Tg/+) mice exhibit chronic intestinal inflammation. Together our findings highlight a role for Kaiso in promoting Wnt signaling, inflammation and tumorigenesis in the mammalian intestine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Linfangiectasia intestinal e linfangite lipogranulomatosa em dois caninos Intestinal lymphangiectasia with lipogranulomatous lymphangitis in two dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Regina da Silva Ilha

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Relatam-se dois casos adicionais de linfangiectasia intestinal e linfangite lipogranulomatosa (LI/LL em caninos. Sinais clínicos manifestados pelos animais afetados incluíam diarréia crônica, perda de peso, dificuldade respiratória e anorexia. À necropsia, a mucosa do intestino delgado apresentava-se pálida, macia e com aspecto aveludado mais evidente conferido por vilosidades esbranquiçadas, alongadas, mais visíveis e densamente aglomeradas formando tufos. Na borda mesentérica da serosa intestinal, havia lesões arredondadas, lisas, elevadas, firmes, brancacentas, de 1-3mm de diâmetro, que também acompanhavam os vasos linfáticos mesentéricos que estavam salientes e distendidos por material espesso e esbranquiçado. Carcaças em mau estado corporal, edema subcutâneo e efusões cavitárias também foram observados. Microscopicamente, havia acentuada ectasia dos vasos quilíferos das vilosidades intestinais associada à presença de lipogranulomas intramurais ou mesentéricos. No presente estudo, o diagnóstico definitivo de LI/LL foi realizado através do exame histológico do intestino delgado e mesentério associado. Desconhece-se a prevalência dessa enfermidade em caninos no Brasil.Two additional cases of intestinal lymphangiectasia with lipogranulomatous lymphangitis (IL/LL in dogs are described. Clinical signs in the affected animals included chronic diarrhea, weight loss, labored breathing and anorexia. At necropsy, the mucosa of the small intestine was pale, soft and had numerous white, elongated villi clumped together in tufts giving the surface of the intestinal mucosa a pronounced velvety pattern. White, round, smooth, raised, firm, pinpoint lesions, varying from 1-3mm of diameter, were observed on the serosal surface of the small intestine on its mesenteric border and along prominent mesenteric lymphatic vessels distended with thick, chalky white paste. Thin carcasses. subcutaneous edema and cavitary effusions were also

  15. Intestinal Stem Cell Niche: The Extracellular Matrix and Cellular Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laween Meran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium comprises a monolayer of polarised columnar cells organised along the crypt-villus axis. Intestinal stem cells reside at the base of crypts and are constantly nourished by their surrounding niche for maintenance, self-renewal, and differentiation. The cellular microenvironment including the adjacent Paneth cells, stromal cells, smooth muscle cells, and neural cells as well as the extracellular matrix together constitute the intestinal stem cell niche. A dynamic regulatory network exists among the epithelium, stromal cells, and the matrix via complex signal transduction to maintain tissue homeostasis. Dysregulation of these biological or mechanical signals could potentially lead to intestinal injury and disease. In this review, we discuss the role of different intestinal stem cell niche components and dissect the interaction between dynamic matrix factors and regulatory signalling during intestinal stem cell homeostasis.

  16. Factors influencing physiological FDG uptake in the intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Seiei; Takahashi, Wakoh; Takagi, Shigeharu; Fujii, Hirofumi; Ide, Michiru; Shohtsu, Akira

    1998-01-01

    The intestine is a well-known site of physiological 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) accumulation in positron emission tomography (PET). To identify factors influencing physiological FDG uptake in the intestine, the intensity of FDG uptake was evaluated in a total of 1,068 healthy adults. Non-attenuation-corrected whole-body PET images were obtained for all subjects and visually evaluated. Subjects were then classified into two groups according to the intensity of intestinal FDG uptake. Sex, age, presence or absence of constipation, and serum glucose, hemoglobin A 1 c, and free fatty acid levels were compared between the two groups. High intestinal FDG uptake was observed at an overall rate of 11.0%. Sex (female), age, and bowel condition (constipation) were found to affect intestinal FDG uptake. The factors we identified lead to further questions the relationship between intestinal motility and glucose uptake that warrant further study. (author)

  17. Ultrasonography of small intestinal obstructions: a contemporary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, D A A; Froes, T R; Vilani, R G D O C; Guérios, S D; Obladen, A

    2011-09-01

    To assess the accuracy of intestinal ultrasound for diagnosis of intestinal obstruction in dogs and cats. A prospective clinical study was performed. Inclusion criteria were dogs and cats with clinical signs suggestive of gastrointestinal obstruction. Animals with no obstruction detected on ultrasound were excluded if they could not be monitored for 48 hours to confirm absence of obstruction. Sonographic diagnosis of small intestinal obstruction was based on identification of at least two findings suggestive of intestinal obstruction. Ninety-two patients suspected of having intestinal obstruction were included. Correct diagnosis of intestinal obstruction was made in 21 cases (23%), and in 68 (74%) this diagnosis was excluded. Interpretation of the images on prospective analysis had sensitivity, positive predictive, specificity and negative predictive values of 100%, 87.5%, 95.8% and 100%, respectively. Ultrasonography is an excellent method for investigation of animals with gastrointestinal disorders, and is particularly useful for excluding obstructive processes. © 2011 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  18. CT diagnosis of concealed rupture of intestine following abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Jiansong; Wei Tiemin; Wang Zufei; Zhao Zhongwei; Tu Jianfei; Fan Xiaoxi; Xu Min

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate CT findings of concealed rupture of intestine following abdominal trauma. Methods: CT findings of 11 cases with concealed rupture of intestine following abdominal trauma proved by surgery were identified retrospectively. Results: The main special signs included: (1) Free air in 4 cases, mainly around injured small bowel or under the diaphragm, or in the retroperitoneal space or and in the lump. (2) High density hematoma between the intestines or in the bowel wall (4 cases). (3) Bowel wall injury sign, demonstrated as low density of the injured intestinal wall, attenuated locally but relatively enhanced in neighbor wall on enhanced CT. (4) Lump around the injured bowel wall with obvious ring-shaped enhancement (4 cases). Other signs included: (1) Free fluid in the abdominal cavity or between the intestines with blurred borders. (2) Bowel obstruction. Conclusion: CT is valuable in diagnosing concealed rupture of intestine following abdominal trauma. (authors)

  19. Scintigraphic visualization of bacterial translocation in experimental strangulated intestinal obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeev, Yu.M.; Popov, M.V.; Salato, O.V.; Lishmanov, Yu.B.; Grigorev, E.G.; Aparcin, K.A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain scintigraphic images depicting translocation of 99m Tc-labelled Escherichia coli bacteria through the intestinal barrier and to quantify this process using methods of nuclear medicine. Thirty male Wistar rats (including 20 rats with modelled strangulated intestinal obstruction and 10 healthy rats) were used for bacterial scintigraphy. 99m Tc-labelled E. coli bacteria ( 99m Ts-E. coli) with an activity of 7.4-11.1 MBq were administered into a section of the small intestine. Scintigraphic visualization of bacterial translocation into organs and tissues of laboratory animals was recorded in dynamic (240 min) and static (15 min) modes. The number of labelled bacteria, which migrated through the intestinal barrier, was quantified by calculating the translocation index (TI). Control indicated no translocation of 99m Ts-E. coli administered into the intestine through the parietes of the small intestine's distal part in healthy animals. Animals with strangulated obstruction demonstrated different migration strength and routes of labelled bacteria from strangulated and superior to strangulation sections of the small intestine. 99m Ts-E. coli migrated from the strangulated loop into the peritoneal cavity later causing systemic bacteraemia through peritoneal resorption. The section of the small intestine, which was superior to the strangulation, demonstrated migration of labelled bacteria first into the portal and then into the systemic circulation. The strangulated section of the small intestine was the main source of bacteria dissemination since the number of labelled bacteria, which migrated from this section significantly, exceeded that of the area superior to the strangulation section of the small intestine (p = 0.0003). Bacterial scintigraphy demonstrated the possibility of visualizing migration routes of labelled bacteria and quantifying their translocation through the intestinal barrier. This approach to study bacterial

  20. A Revised Model for Dosimetry in the Human Small Intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Poston; Bhuiyan, Nasir U.; Redd, R. Alex; Neil Parham; Jennifer Watson

    2005-01-01

    A new model for an adult human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has been developed for use in internal dose estimations to the wall of the GIT and to the other organs and tissues of the body from radionuclides deposited in the lumenal contents of the five sections of the GIT. These sections were the esophasgus, stomach, small intestine, upper large intestine, and the lower large intestine. The wall of each section was separated from its lumenal contents