WorldWideScience

Sample records for g1 smooth connection

  1. Differential topology of complex surfaces elliptic surfaces with p g=1 smooth classification

    CERN Document Server

    Morgan, John W

    1993-01-01

    This book is about the smooth classification of a certain class of algebraicsurfaces, namely regular elliptic surfaces of geometric genus one, i.e. elliptic surfaces with b1 = 0 and b2+ = 3. The authors give a complete classification of these surfaces up to diffeomorphism. They achieve this result by partially computing one of Donalson's polynomial invariants. The computation is carried out using techniques from algebraic geometry. In these computations both thebasic facts about the Donaldson invariants and the relationship of the moduli space of ASD connections with the moduli space of stable bundles are assumed known. Some familiarity with the basic facts of the theory of moduliof sheaves and bundles on a surface is also assumed. This work gives a good and fairly comprehensive indication of how the methods of algebraic geometry can be used to compute Donaldson invariants.

  2. Betulinic Acid Inhibits Growth of Cultured Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells In Vitro by Inducing G1 Arrest and Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Kumar Vadivelu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Betulinic acid is a widely available plant-derived triterpene which is reported to possess selective cytotoxic activity against cancer cells of neuroectodermal origin and leukemia. However, the potential of betulinic acid as an antiproliferative and cytotoxic agent on vascular smooth muscle (VSMC is still unclear. This study was carried out to demonstrate the antiproliferative and cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid on VSMCs using 3-[4,5-dimethylthizol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay, flow cytometry cell cycle assay, BrdU proliferation assay, acridine orange/propidium iodide staining, and comet assay. Result from MTT and BrdU assays indicated that betulinic acid was able to inhibit the growth and proliferation of VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 of 3.8 μg/mL significantly (P<0.05. Nevertheless, betulinic acid exhibited G1 cell cycle arrest in flow cytometry cell cycle profiling and low level of DNA damage against VSMC in acridine orange/propidium iodide and comet assay after 24 h of treatment. In conclusion, betulinic acid induced G1 cell cycle arrest and dose-dependent DNA damage on VSMC.

  3. Smoothing of Grid-connected Wind-Diesel Power Output Using Energy Capacitor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel A. Elbaset

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a small hybrid power system consists of two types of power generation; wind turbine and diesel generation, DG connected to power distribution system. The fluctuations like random nature of wind power, turbulent wind, and sudden changes in load demand create imbalances in power distribution that can affect the frequency and the voltage in the power system. So, addition of Energy capacitor System, ECS is useful for compensation of fluctuating power, since it is capable of controlling both active and reactive power simultaneously and can smooth the output power flow. Hence, this paper proposes herein a dynamic model and simulation of a grid connected wind/DG based-ECS with power flow controllers between load and generation. Moreover, the paper presents a study to analyze the leveling of output fluctuation of wind power with the installation of ECS. To control the power exchanged between the ECS system and the AC grid, a load Following Control, LFC based supervisor is proposed with the aim to minimize variations of the power generated by the diesel generator. The interesting performance of the proposed supervisor is shown with the help of simulations. The computer simulation program is confirmed on a realistic circuit model which implemented in the Simulink environment of Matlab and works as if on line.

  4. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Building Roofs from Airborne LiDAR Data Based on a Layer Connection and Smoothness Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A new approach for three-dimensional (3-D reconstruction of building roofs from airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR data is proposed, and it includes four steps. Building roof points are first extracted from LiDAR data by using the reversed iterative mathematic morphological (RIMM algorithm and the density-based method. The corresponding relations between points and rooftop patches are then established through a smoothness strategy involving “seed point selection, patch growth, and patch smoothing.” Layer-connection points are then generated to represent a layer in the horizontal direction and to connect different layers in the vertical direction. Finally, by connecting neighboring layer-connection points, building models are constructed with the second level of detailed data. The key contributions of this approach are the use of layer-connection points and the smoothness strategy for building model reconstruction. Experimental results are analyzed from several aspects, namely, the correctness and completeness, deviation analysis of the reconstructed building roofs, and the influence of elevation to 3-D roof reconstruction. In the two experimental regions used in this paper, the completeness and correctness of the reconstructed rooftop patches were about 90% and 95%, respectively. For the deviation accuracy, the average deviation distance and standard deviation in the best case were 0.05 m and 0.18 m, respectively; and those in the worst case were 0.12 m and 0.25 m. The experimental results demonstrated promising correctness, completeness, and deviation accuracy with satisfactory 3-D building roof models.

  5. Extracellular acidification induces connective tissue growth factor production through proton-sensing receptor OGR1 in human airway smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Shinichi; Ishizuka, Tamotsu; Yamada, Hidenori; Kamide, Yosuke; Hisada, Takeshi; Ichimonji, Isao; Aoki, Haruka; Yatomi, Masakiyo; Komachi, Mayumi; Tsurumaki, Hiroaki; Ono, Akihiro; Koga, Yasuhiko; Dobashi, Kunio; Mogi, Chihiro; Sato, Koichi; Tomura, Hideaki; Mori, Masatomo; Okajima, Fumikazu

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The involvement of extracellular acidification in airway remodeling was investigated. → Extracellular acidification alone induced CTGF production in human ASMCs. → Extracellular acidification enhanced TGF-β-induced CTGF production in human ASMCs. → Proton-sensing receptor OGR1 was involved in acidic pH-stimulated CTGF production. → OGR1 may play an important role in airway remodeling in asthma. -- Abstract: Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation, hyper-responsiveness and remodeling. Extracellular acidification is known to be associated with severe asthma; however, the role of extracellular acidification in airway remodeling remains elusive. In the present study, the effects of acidification on the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a critical factor involved in the formation of extracellular matrix proteins and hence airway remodeling, were examined in human airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). Acidic pH alone induced a substantial production of CTGF, and enhanced transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-induced CTGF mRNA and protein expression. The extracellular acidic pH-induced effects were inhibited by knockdown of a proton-sensing ovarian cancer G-protein-coupled receptor (OGR1) with its specific small interfering RNA and by addition of the G q/11 protein-specific inhibitor, YM-254890, or the inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP 3 ) receptor antagonist, 2-APB. In conclusion, extracellular acidification induces CTGF production through the OGR1/G q/11 protein and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced Ca 2+ mobilization in human ASMCs.

  6. Extracellular acidification induces connective tissue growth factor production through proton-sensing receptor OGR1 in human airway smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzaki, Shinichi [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi 371-8511 (Japan); Ishizuka, Tamotsu, E-mail: tamotsui@showa.gunma-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi 371-8511 (Japan); Yamada, Hidenori; Kamide, Yosuke; Hisada, Takeshi; Ichimonji, Isao; Aoki, Haruka; Yatomi, Masakiyo [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi 371-8511 (Japan); Komachi, Mayumi [Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512 (Japan); Tsurumaki, Hiroaki; Ono, Akihiro; Koga, Yasuhiko [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi 371-8511 (Japan); Dobashi, Kunio [Gunma University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Maebashi 371-8511 (Japan); Mogi, Chihiro; Sato, Koichi; Tomura, Hideaki [Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512 (Japan); Mori, Masatomo [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi 371-8511 (Japan); Okajima, Fumikazu [Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512 (Japan)

    2011-10-07

    Highlights: {yields} The involvement of extracellular acidification in airway remodeling was investigated. {yields} Extracellular acidification alone induced CTGF production in human ASMCs. {yields} Extracellular acidification enhanced TGF-{beta}-induced CTGF production in human ASMCs. {yields} Proton-sensing receptor OGR1 was involved in acidic pH-stimulated CTGF production. {yields} OGR1 may play an important role in airway remodeling in asthma. -- Abstract: Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation, hyper-responsiveness and remodeling. Extracellular acidification is known to be associated with severe asthma; however, the role of extracellular acidification in airway remodeling remains elusive. In the present study, the effects of acidification on the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a critical factor involved in the formation of extracellular matrix proteins and hence airway remodeling, were examined in human airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). Acidic pH alone induced a substantial production of CTGF, and enhanced transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta}-induced CTGF mRNA and protein expression. The extracellular acidic pH-induced effects were inhibited by knockdown of a proton-sensing ovarian cancer G-protein-coupled receptor (OGR1) with its specific small interfering RNA and by addition of the G{sub q/11} protein-specific inhibitor, YM-254890, or the inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) receptor antagonist, 2-APB. In conclusion, extracellular acidification induces CTGF production through the OGR1/G{sub q/11} protein and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced Ca{sup 2+} mobilization in human ASMCs.

  7. Smooth manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, Rajnikant

    2014-01-01

    This book offers an introduction to the theory of smooth manifolds, helping students to familiarize themselves with the tools they will need for mathematical research on smooth manifolds and differential geometry. The book primarily focuses on topics concerning differential manifolds, tangent spaces, multivariable differential calculus, topological properties of smooth manifolds, embedded submanifolds, Sard’s theorem and Whitney embedding theorem. It is clearly structured, amply illustrated and includes solved examples for all concepts discussed. Several difficult theorems have been broken into many lemmas and notes (equivalent to sub-lemmas) to enhance the readability of the book. Further, once a concept has been introduced, it reoccurs throughout the book to ensure comprehension. Rank theorem, a vital aspect of smooth manifolds theory, occurs in many manifestations, including rank theorem for Euclidean space and global rank theorem. Though primarily intended for graduate students of mathematics, the book ...

  8. Measurements of reactivity of reactor G1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernot, J.; Koechlin, J.C.; Portes, L.; Teste du Bailler, A.

    1957-01-01

    The various methods used during the physical study of the reactor G1 to determine the variations of the effective multiplication factor consecutive to a given change in the geometry of the multiplying medium, are presented and discussed. The comparison of the results obtained by these various methods has allowed their validity to be tested and precise conditions of use to be given. In the first part are presented the principles used and their ranges of validity. In the second part the experimental results are given, together with some indications on their comparison with theoretical estimations. (author) [fr

  9. Classification of smooth Fano polytopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øbro, Mikkel

    A simplicial lattice polytope containing the origin in the interior is called a smooth Fano polytope, if the vertices of every facet is a basis of the lattice. The study of smooth Fano polytopes is motivated by their connection to toric varieties. The thesis concerns the classification of smooth...... Fano polytopes up to isomorphism. A smooth Fano -polytope can have at most vertices. In case of vertices an explicit classification is known. The thesis contains the classification in case of vertices. Classifications of smooth Fano -polytopes for fixed exist only for . In the thesis an algorithm...... for the classification of smooth Fano -polytopes for any given is presented. The algorithm has been implemented and used to obtain the complete classification for ....

  10. Surface smoothness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tummala, Sudhakar; Dam, Erik B.

    2010-01-01

    accuracy, such novel markers must therefore be validated against clinically meaningful end-goals such as the ability to allow correct diagnosis. We present a method for automatic cartilage surface smoothness quantification in the knee joint. The quantification is based on a curvature flow method used....... We demonstrate that the fully automatic markers eliminate the time required for radiologist annotations, and in addition provide a diagnostic marker superior to the evaluated semi-manual markers....

  11. Reactor G1: high power experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laage, F. de; Teste du Baillet, A.; Veyssiere, A.; Wanner, G.

    1957-01-01

    The experiments carried out in the starting-up programme of the reactor G1 comprised a series of tests at high power, which allowed the following points to be studied: 1- Effect of poisoning by Xenon (absolute value, evolution). 2- Temperature coefficients of the uranium and graphite for a temperature distribution corresponding to heating by fission. 3- Effect of the pressure (due to the coiling system) on the reactivity. 4- Calibration of the security rods as a function of their position in the pile (1). 5- Temperature distribution of the graphite, the sheathing, the uranium and the air leaving the canals, in a pile running normally at high power. 6- Neutron flux distribution in a pile running normally at high power. 7- Determination of the power by nuclear and thermodynamic methods. These experiments have been carried out under two very different pile conditions. From the 1. to the 15. of August 1956, a series of power increases, followed by periods of stabilisation, were induced in a pile containing uranium only, in 457 canals, amounting to about 34 tons of fuel. A knowledge of the efficiency of the control rods in such a pile has made it possible to measure with good accuracy the principal effects at high temperatures, that is, to deal with points 1, 2, 3, 5. Flux charts giving information on the variations of the material Laplacian and extrapolation lengths in the reflector have been drawn up. Finally the thermodynamic power has been measured under good conditions, in spite of some installation difficulties. On September 16, the pile had its final charge of 100 tons. All the canals were loaded, 1,234 with uranium and 53 (i.e. exactly 4 per cent of the total number) with thorium uniformly distributed in a square lattice of 100 cm side. Since technical difficulties prevented the calibration of the control rods, the measurements were limited to the determination of the thermodynamic power and the temperature distributions (points 5 and 7). This report will

  12. Smooth Mailing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    In fundraising today, a wealth of communications tools makes it increasingly easier to contact prospective donors--but is it getting harder to really connect with them? Do the new tools work as well as the old ones? In the second decade of online marketing, all the tools of the trade are subject to scrutiny. Direct mail has been a mainstay of the…

  13. Measurements of reactivity of reactor G1; Mesures de reactivite sur reacteur G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernot, J; Koechlin, J C; Portes, L; Teste du Bailler, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    The various methods used during the physical study of the reactor G1 to determine the variations of the effective multiplication factor consecutive to a given change in the geometry of the multiplying medium, are presented and discussed. The comparison of the results obtained by these various methods has allowed their validity to be tested and precise conditions of use to be given. In the first part are presented the principles used and their ranges of validity. In the second part the experimental results are given, together with some indications on their comparison with theoretical estimations. (author) [French] Nous exposons et discutons diverses methodes utilisees, lors de l'etude physique du reacteur G1, pour determiner les variations du facteur de multiplication effectif consecutives a un changement donne dans la geometrie du milieu multiplicateur. La comparaison des resultats obtenus par diverses methodes nous a permis de tester leur validite et d'en preciser les conditions d'emploi. Dans une premiere partie, nous exposons les principes utilises et leurs domaines de validite. Dans une seconde partie nous donnons les resultats experimentaux obtenus avec quelques indications sur leur comparaison avec les estimations theoriques. (auteur)

  14. Reduced hepatic tumor incidence in cyclin G1-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Rugaard; Factor, Valentina M; Fantozzi, Anna

    2003-01-01

    found that the p53 levels in the cyclin G1-deficient mice are 2-fold higher that in wild-type mice. Moreover, we showed that treatment of mice with the alkylating agent 1,4-bis[N,N'-di(ethylene)-phosphamide]piperazine (Dipin), followed by partial hepatectomy, decreased G1-S transition in cyclin G1-null...

  15. 26 CFR 301.6503(g)-1 - Suspension pending correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension pending correction. 301.6503(g)-1 Section 301.6503(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... Collection § 301.6503(g)-1 Suspension pending correction. The running of the periods of limitations provided...

  16. 26 CFR 1.514(g)-1 - Business lease indebtedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....514(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.514(g)-1... to cases such as the following: Example 1. A university pledges some of its investment securities...

  17. Smooth functions statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, V.I.

    2006-03-01

    To describe the topological structure of a real smooth function one associates to it the graph, formed by the topological variety, whose points are the connected components of the level hypersurface of the function. For a Morse function, such a graph is a tree. Generically, it has T triple vertices, T + 2 endpoints, 2T + 2 vertices and 2T + 1 arrows. The main goal of the present paper is to study the statistics of the graphs, corresponding to T triple points: what is the growth rate of the number φ(T) of different graphs? Which part of these graphs is representable by the polynomial functions of corresponding degree? A generic polynomial of degree n has at most (n - 1) 2 critical points on R 2 , corresponding to 2T + 2 = (n - 1) 2 + 1, that is to T = 2k(k - 1) saddle-points for degree n = 2k

  18. Bla g 1 allergen levels in Zagreb area household dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prester, Ljerka; Macan, Jelena

    2011-03-01

    Cockroach allergy is a health problem in many parts of the world. In urban environments, indoor exposure to cockroach allergens involves a risk of asthma. The aim of this study was to measure the mass fraction of Bla g 1, a major allergen of the German cockroach (Blatella germanica) in 30 house samples, collected at random from Zagreb area households, Croatia. Dust samples were collected on cellulose filters by vacuuming living rooms floors. After extraction, Bla g 1 was detected using the commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only four of the thirty households had detectable Bla g 1 levels, and only in one was its concentration higher than 2.0 U g(-1), the threshold associated with sensitisation. The Bla g 1 ELISA proved highly sensitive, with the detection limit of 0.12 U g(-1). The within- and between-assay imprecision was 8.9 % and 14.4 %, respectively, and accuracy 85 % to 120 %. Low Bla g 1 levels in the household dust support previously reported low prevalence of skin sensitisation to B. germanica among Zagreb residents. Further monitoring should reveal if there are differences in cockroach allergen exposure and sensitisation between households from other geographic areas in Croatia.

  19. Rapid biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticides by Stenotrophomonas sp. G1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Shuyan; Chen, Yao; Wang, Daosheng; Shi, Taozhong; Wu, Xiangwei; Ma, Xin; Li, Xiangqiong; Hua, Rimao; Tang, Xinyun; Li, Qing X.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Stenotrophomonas sp. G1 was isolated from chlorpyrifos contaminated sludge. • Strain G1 is closest to Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila. • Strain G1 can efficiently degrade 8 organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). • Intracellular methyl parathion hydrolase is responsible for the OP degradation. • Three factors were orthogonally optimized for degradation of methyl parathion. - Abstract: Organophosphorus insecticides have been widely used, which are highly poisonous and cause serious concerns over food safety and environmental pollution. A bacterial strain being capable of degrading O,O-dialkyl phosphorothioate and O,O-dialkyl phosphate insecticides, designated as G1, was isolated from sludge collected at the drain outlet of a chlorpyrifos manufacture plant. Physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis suggested that strain G1 belongs to the genus Stenotrophomonas. At an initial concentration of 50 mg/L, strain G1 degraded 100% of methyl parathion, methyl paraoxon, diazinon, and phoxim, 95% of parathion, 63% of chlorpyrifos, 38% of profenofos, and 34% of triazophos in 24 h. Orthogonal experiments showed that the optimum conditions were an inoculum volume of 20% (v/v), a substrate concentration of 50 mg/L, and an incubation temperature in 40 °C. p-Nitrophenol was detected as the metabolite of methyl parathion, for which intracellular methyl parathion hydrolase was responsible. Strain G1 can efficiently degrade eight organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and is a very excellent candidate for applications in OP pollution remediation

  20. Rapid biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticides by Stenotrophomonas sp. G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Shuyan; Chen, Yao [Key Laboratory of Agri-food Safety of Anhui Province, Lab of Quality & Safety and Risk Assessment for Agro-products on Storage and Preservation (Hefei), Ministry of Agriculture, School of Resource and Environment, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Wang, Daosheng [School of Life Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Shi, Taozhong; Wu, Xiangwei; Ma, Xin; Li, Xiangqiong [Key Laboratory of Agri-food Safety of Anhui Province, Lab of Quality & Safety and Risk Assessment for Agro-products on Storage and Preservation (Hefei), Ministry of Agriculture, School of Resource and Environment, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Hua, Rimao, E-mail: rimaohua@ahau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Agri-food Safety of Anhui Province, Lab of Quality & Safety and Risk Assessment for Agro-products on Storage and Preservation (Hefei), Ministry of Agriculture, School of Resource and Environment, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Tang, Xinyun [School of Life Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Li, Qing X. [Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1955 East–West Road, Honolulu, HI 957822 (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Stenotrophomonas sp. G1 was isolated from chlorpyrifos contaminated sludge. • Strain G1 is closest to Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila. • Strain G1 can efficiently degrade 8 organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). • Intracellular methyl parathion hydrolase is responsible for the OP degradation. • Three factors were orthogonally optimized for degradation of methyl parathion. - Abstract: Organophosphorus insecticides have been widely used, which are highly poisonous and cause serious concerns over food safety and environmental pollution. A bacterial strain being capable of degrading O,O-dialkyl phosphorothioate and O,O-dialkyl phosphate insecticides, designated as G1, was isolated from sludge collected at the drain outlet of a chlorpyrifos manufacture plant. Physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis suggested that strain G1 belongs to the genus Stenotrophomonas. At an initial concentration of 50 mg/L, strain G1 degraded 100% of methyl parathion, methyl paraoxon, diazinon, and phoxim, 95% of parathion, 63% of chlorpyrifos, 38% of profenofos, and 34% of triazophos in 24 h. Orthogonal experiments showed that the optimum conditions were an inoculum volume of 20% (v/v), a substrate concentration of 50 mg/L, and an incubation temperature in 40 °C. p-Nitrophenol was detected as the metabolite of methyl parathion, for which intracellular methyl parathion hydrolase was responsible. Strain G1 can efficiently degrade eight organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and is a very excellent candidate for applications in OP pollution remediation.

  1. Semigroup Method on a MX/G/1 Queueing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alim Mijit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By using the Hille-Yosida theorem, Phillips theorem, and Fattorini theorem in functional analysis we prove that the MX/G/1 queueing model with vacation times has a unique nonnegative time-dependent solution.

  2. The M/G/1 queue with permanent customers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.; Cohen, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The authors examine an M/G/1 FCFS (first come, first served) queue with two types of customers: ordinary customers, who arrive according to a Poisson process, and permanent customers, who immediately return to the end of the queue after having received a service. The influence of the permanent

  3. Nonparametric inference from the M/G/1 workload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted; Pitts, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    Consider an M/G/1 queue with unknown service-time distribution and unknown traffic intensity ρ. Given systematically sampled observations of the workload, we construct estimators of ρ and of the service-time distribution function, and we study asymptotoic properties of these estimators....

  4. Nonparametric inference from the M/G/1 workload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted; Pitts, Susan M.

    Consider an M/G/1 queue with unknown service-time distribution and unknown traffic intensity $\\rho$. Given systematically sampled observations of the workload, we construct estimators of $\\rho$ and of the service-time distribution function, and we study asymptotic properties of these estimators....

  5. 26 CFR 1.167(g)-1 - Basis for depreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Basis for depreciation. 1.167(g)-1 Section 1.167... for depreciation. The basis upon which the allowance for depreciation is to be computed with respect... property at that time, is the basis for computing depreciation. [T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11402, Nov. 26, 1960...

  6. 26 CFR 31.3121(g)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... agricultural labor: (i) The cultivation of the soil; (ii) The raising, shearing, feeding, caring for, training... mushrooms, or in connection with the hatching of poultry constitute agricultural labor only if such services...

  7. Bayesian Exponential Smoothing.

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, C.S.; Snyder, R.D.; Shami, R.S.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a Bayesian version of the exponential smoothing method of forecasting is proposed. The approach is based on a state space model containing only a single source of error for each time interval. This model allows us to improve current practices surrounding exponential smoothing by providing both point predictions and measures of the uncertainty surrounding them.

  8. Smooth polyhedral surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Gü nther, Felix; Jiang, Caigui; Pottmann, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    Polyhedral surfaces are fundamental objects in architectural geometry and industrial design. Whereas closeness of a given mesh to a smooth reference surface and its suitability for numerical simulations were already studied extensively, the aim of our work is to find and to discuss suitable assessments of smoothness of polyhedral surfaces that only take the geometry of the polyhedral surface itself into account. Motivated by analogies to classical differential geometry, we propose a theory of smoothness of polyhedral surfaces including suitable notions of normal vectors, tangent planes, asymptotic directions, and parabolic curves that are invariant under projective transformations. It is remarkable that seemingly mild conditions significantly limit the shapes of faces of a smooth polyhedral surface. Besides being of theoretical interest, we believe that smoothness of polyhedral surfaces is of interest in the architectural context, where vertices and edges of polyhedral surfaces are highly visible.

  9. Smooth polyhedral surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Günther, Felix

    2017-03-15

    Polyhedral surfaces are fundamental objects in architectural geometry and industrial design. Whereas closeness of a given mesh to a smooth reference surface and its suitability for numerical simulations were already studied extensively, the aim of our work is to find and to discuss suitable assessments of smoothness of polyhedral surfaces that only take the geometry of the polyhedral surface itself into account. Motivated by analogies to classical differential geometry, we propose a theory of smoothness of polyhedral surfaces including suitable notions of normal vectors, tangent planes, asymptotic directions, and parabolic curves that are invariant under projective transformations. It is remarkable that seemingly mild conditions significantly limit the shapes of faces of a smooth polyhedral surface. Besides being of theoretical interest, we believe that smoothness of polyhedral surfaces is of interest in the architectural context, where vertices and edges of polyhedral surfaces are highly visible.

  10. Design principles of the yeast G1/S switch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Yang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark of the G1/S transition in budding yeast cell cycle is the proteolytic degradation of the B-type cyclin-Cdk stoichiometric inhibitor Sic1. Deleting SIC1 or altering Sic1 degradation dynamics increases genomic instability. Certain key facts about the parts of the G1/S circuitry are established: phosphorylation of Sic1 on multiple sites is necessary for its destruction, and both the upstream kinase Cln1/2-Cdk1 and the downstream kinase Clb5/6-Cdk1 can phosphorylate Sic1 in vitro with varied specificity, cooperativity, and processivity. However, how the system works as a whole is still controversial due to discrepancies between in vitro, in vivo, and theoretical studies. Here, by monitoring Sic1 destruction in real time in individual cells under various perturbations to the system, we provide a clear picture of how the circuitry functions as a switch in vivo. We show that Cln1/2-Cdk1 sets the proper timing of Sic1 destruction, but does not contribute to its destruction speed; thus, it acts only as a trigger. Sic1's inhibition target Clb5/6-Cdk1 controls the speed of Sic1 destruction through a double-negative feedback loop, ensuring a robust all-or-none transition for Clb5/6-Cdk1 activity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the degradation of a single-phosphosite mutant of Sic1 is rapid and switch-like, just as the wild-type form. Our mathematical model confirms our understanding of the circuit and demonstrates that the substrate sharing between the two kinases is not a redundancy but a part of the design to overcome the trade-off between the timing and sharpness of Sic1 degradation. Our study provides direct mechanistic insight into the design features underlying the yeast G1/S switch.

  11. Smooth halos in the cosmic web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaite, José

    2015-01-01

    Dark matter halos can be defined as smooth distributions of dark matter placed in a non-smooth cosmic web structure. This definition of halos demands a precise definition of smoothness and a characterization of the manner in which the transition from smooth halos to the cosmic web takes place. We introduce entropic measures of smoothness, related to measures of inequality previously used in economy and with the advantage of being connected with standard methods of multifractal analysis already used for characterizing the cosmic web structure in cold dark matter N-body simulations. These entropic measures provide us with a quantitative description of the transition from the small scales portrayed as a distribution of halos to the larger scales portrayed as a cosmic web and, therefore, allow us to assign definite sizes to halos. However, these ''smoothness sizes'' have no direct relation to the virial radii. Finally, we discuss the influence of N-body discreteness parameters on smoothness

  12. Smooth halos in the cosmic web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaite, José, E-mail: jose.gaite@upm.es [Physics Dept., ETSIAE, IDR, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Pza. Cardenal Cisneros 3, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-04-01

    Dark matter halos can be defined as smooth distributions of dark matter placed in a non-smooth cosmic web structure. This definition of halos demands a precise definition of smoothness and a characterization of the manner in which the transition from smooth halos to the cosmic web takes place. We introduce entropic measures of smoothness, related to measures of inequality previously used in economy and with the advantage of being connected with standard methods of multifractal analysis already used for characterizing the cosmic web structure in cold dark matter N-body simulations. These entropic measures provide us with a quantitative description of the transition from the small scales portrayed as a distribution of halos to the larger scales portrayed as a cosmic web and, therefore, allow us to assign definite sizes to halos. However, these ''smoothness sizes'' have no direct relation to the virial radii. Finally, we discuss the influence of N-body discreteness parameters on smoothness.

  13. Measurement of the proton spin structure function g1p

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pussieux, T.

    1994-10-01

    In order to check the Bjorken sum rule and confirm the EMC surprising conclusion on the spin structure of the proton, the measurement of the spin structure function of the proton has been performed by the Spin Muon Collaboration via the polarized muon nucleon deep inelastic scattering. The results of the 1993 run are presented within a kinematical range of 0.003 2 = 10 GeV 2 . The first moment of the polarized spin structure function g 1 p is found to be two standard deviations below the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule. Assuming SU(3) for hyperons β decays, the quark spin contribution to the proton spin is extracted. Combining all available data on proton, neutron and deuton, The Bjorken sum rule is confirmed within 10%. (author). 25 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Smoothness of limit functors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Let S be a scheme. Assume that we are given an action of the one dimen- sional split torus Gm,S on a smooth affine S-scheme X. We consider the limit (also called attractor) subfunctor Xλ consisting of points whose orbit under the given action. 'admits a limit at 0'. We show that Xλ is representable by a smooth ...

  15. ATP binding cassette G1-dependent cholesterol efflux during inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Maria C; Ji, Ailing; Jahangiri, Anisa; Vaughan, Ashley M; de Beer, Frederick C; van der Westhuyzen, Deneys R; Webb, Nancy R

    2011-02-01

    ATP binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) mediates the transport of cellular cholesterol to HDL, and it plays a key role in maintaining macrophage cholesterol homeostasis. During inflammation, HDL undergoes substantial remodeling, acquiring lipid changes and serum amyloid A (SAA) as a major apolipoprotein. In the current study, we investigated whether remodeling of HDL that occurs during acute inflammation impacts ABCG1-dependent efflux. Our data indicate that lipid free SAA acts similarly to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in mediating sequential efflux from ABCA1 and ABCG1. Compared with normal mouse HDL, acute phase (AP) mouse HDL containing SAA exhibited a modest but significant 17% increase in ABCG1-dependent efflux. Interestingly, AP HDL isolated from mice lacking SAA (SAAKO mice) was even more effective in promoting ABCG1 efflux. Hydrolysis with Group IIA secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)-IIA) significantly reduced the ability of AP HDL from SAAKO mice to serve as a substrate for ABCG1-mediated cholesterol transfer, indicating that phospholipid (PL) enrichment, and not the presence of SAA, is responsible for alterations in efflux. AP human HDL, which is not PL-enriched, was somewhat less effective in mediating ABCG1-dependent efflux compared with normal human HDL. Our data indicate that inflammatory remodeling of HDL impacts ABCG1-dependent efflux independent of SAA.

  16. Reactor G1: high power experiments; Experiences a forte puissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laage, F de; Teste du Baillet, A; Veyssiere, A; Wanner, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Retel, H [Societe Rateau, D.E.A. (France)

    1957-07-01

    The experiments carried out in the starting-up programme of the reactor G1 comprised a series of tests at high power, which allowed the following points to be studied: 1- Effect of poisoning by Xenon (absolute value, evolution). 2- Temperature coefficients of the uranium and graphite for a temperature distribution corresponding to heating by fission. 3- Effect of the pressure (due to the coiling system) on the reactivity. 4- Calibration of the security rods as a function of their position in the pile (1). 5- Temperature distribution of the graphite, the sheathing, the uranium and the air leaving the canals, in a pile running normally at high power. 6- Neutron flux distribution in a pile running normally at high power. 7- Determination of the power by nuclear and thermodynamic methods. These experiments have been carried out under two very different pile conditions. From the 1. to the 15. of August 1956, a series of power increases, followed by periods of stabilisation, were induced in a pile containing uranium only, in 457 canals, amounting to about 34 tons of fuel. A knowledge of the efficiency of the control rods in such a pile has made it possible to measure with good accuracy the principal effects at high temperatures, that is, to deal with points 1, 2, 3, 5. Flux charts giving information on the variations of the material Laplacian and extrapolation lengths in the reflector have been drawn up. Finally the thermodynamic power has been measured under good conditions, in spite of some installation difficulties. On September 16, the pile had its final charge of 100 tons. All the canals were loaded, 1,234 with uranium and 53 (i.e. exactly 4 per cent of the total number) with thorium uniformly distributed in a square lattice of 100 cm side. Since technical difficulties prevented the calibration of the control rods, the measurements were limited to the determination of the thermodynamic power and the temperature distributions (points 5 and 7). This report will

  17. Revealed smooth nontransitive preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Tvede, Mich

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, we are concerned with the behavioural consequences of consumers having nontransitive preference relations. Data sets consist of finitely many observations of price vectors and consumption bundles. A preference relation rationalizes a data set provided that for every observed...... consumption bundle, all strictly preferred bundles are more expensive than the observed bundle. Our main result is that data sets can be rationalized by a smooth nontransitive preference relation if and only if prices can normalized such that the law of demand is satisfied. Market data sets consist of finitely...... many observations of price vectors, lists of individual incomes and aggregate demands. We apply our main result to characterize market data sets consistent with equilibrium behaviour of pure-exchange economies with smooth nontransitive consumers....

  18. Generalizing smooth transition autoregressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chini, Emilio Zanetti

    We introduce a variant of the smooth transition autoregression - the GSTAR model - capable to parametrize the asymmetry in the tails of the transition equation by using a particular generalization of the logistic function. A General-to-Specific modelling strategy is discussed in detail, with part......We introduce a variant of the smooth transition autoregression - the GSTAR model - capable to parametrize the asymmetry in the tails of the transition equation by using a particular generalization of the logistic function. A General-to-Specific modelling strategy is discussed in detail......, with particular emphasis on two different LM-type tests for the null of symmetric adjustment towards a new regime and three diagnostic tests, whose power properties are explored via Monte Carlo experiments. Four classical real datasets illustrate the empirical properties of the GSTAR, jointly to a rolling...

  19. Smooth Phase Interpolated Keying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Deva K.

    2007-01-01

    Smooth phase interpolated keying (SPIK) is an improved method of computing smooth phase-modulation waveforms for radio communication systems that convey digital information. SPIK is applicable to a variety of phase-shift-keying (PSK) modulation schemes, including quaternary PSK (QPSK), octonary PSK (8PSK), and 16PSK. In comparison with a related prior method, SPIK offers advantages of better performance and less complexity of implementation. In a PSK scheme, the underlying information waveform that one seeks to convey consists of discrete rectangular steps, but the spectral width of such a waveform is excessive for practical radio communication. Therefore, the problem is to smooth the step phase waveform in such a manner as to maintain power and bandwidth efficiency without incurring an unacceptably large error rate and without introducing undesired variations in the amplitude of the affected radio signal. Although the ideal constellation of PSK phasor points does not cause amplitude variations, filtering of the modulation waveform (in which, typically, a rectangular pulse is converted to a square-root raised cosine pulse) causes amplitude fluctuations. If a power-efficient nonlinear amplifier is used in the radio communication system, the fluctuating-amplitude signal can undergo significant spectral regrowth, thus compromising the bandwidth efficiency of the system. In the related prior method, one seeks to solve the problem in a procedure that comprises two major steps: phase-value generation and phase interpolation. SPIK follows the two-step approach of the related prior method, but the details of the steps are different. In the phase-value-generation step, the phase values of symbols in the PSK constellation are determined by a phase function that is said to be maximally smooth and that is chosen to minimize the spectral spread of the modulated signal. In this step, the constellation is divided into two groups by assigning, to information symbols, phase values

  20. Anti-smooth muscle antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003531.htm Anti-smooth muscle antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Anti-smooth muscle antibody is a blood test that detects the presence ...

  1. Smooth functors vs. differential forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreiber, U.; Waldorf, K.

    2011-01-01

    We establish a relation between smooth 2-functors defined on the path 2-groupoid of a smooth manifold and differential forms on this manifold. This relation can be understood as a part of a dictionary between fundamental notions from category theory and differential geometry. We show that smooth

  2. Histone H1 interphase phosphorylation becomes largely established in G1 or early S phase and differs in G1 between T-lymphoblastoid cells and normal T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gréen Anna

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone H1 is an important constituent of chromatin, and is involved in regulation of its structure. During the cell cycle, chromatin becomes locally decondensed in S phase, highly condensed during metaphase, and again decondensed before re-entry into G1. This has been connected to increasing phosphorylation of H1 histones through the cell cycle. However, many of these experiments have been performed using cell-synchronization techniques and cell cycle-arresting drugs. In this study, we investigated the H1 subtype composition and phosphorylation pattern in the cell cycle of normal human activated T cells and Jurkat T-lymphoblastoid cells by capillary electrophoresis after sorting of exponentially growing cells into G1, S and G2/M populations. Results We found that the relative amount of H1.5 protein increased significantly after T-cell activation. Serine phosphorylation of H1 subtypes occurred to a large extent in late G1 or early S phase in both activated T cells and Jurkat cells. Furthermore, our data confirm that the H1 molecules newly synthesized during S phase achieve a similar phosphorylation pattern to the previous ones. Jurkat cells had more extended H1.5 phosphorylation in G1 compared with T cells, a difference that can be explained by faster cell growth and/or the presence of enhanced H1 kinase activity in G1 in Jurkat cells. Conclusion Our data are consistent with a model in which a major part of interphase H1 phosphorylation takes place in G1 or early S phase. This implies that H1 serine phosphorylation may be coupled to changes in chromatin structure necessary for DNA replication. In addition, the increased H1 phosphorylation of malignant cells in G1 may be affecting the G1/S transition control and enabling facilitated S-phase entry as a result of relaxed chromatin condensation. Furthermore, increased H1.5 expression may be coupled to the proliferative capacity of growth-stimulated T cells.

  3. Exponential smoothing weighted correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, F.; Di Matteo, T.; Aste, T.

    2012-06-01

    In many practical applications, correlation matrices might be affected by the "curse of dimensionality" and by an excessive sensitiveness to outliers and remote observations. These shortcomings can cause problems of statistical robustness especially accentuated when a system of dynamic correlations over a running window is concerned. These drawbacks can be partially mitigated by assigning a structure of weights to observational events. In this paper, we discuss Pearson's ρ and Kendall's τ correlation matrices, weighted with an exponential smoothing, computed on moving windows using a data-set of daily returns for 300 NYSE highly capitalized companies in the period between 2001 and 2003. Criteria for jointly determining optimal weights together with the optimal length of the running window are proposed. We find that the exponential smoothing can provide more robust and reliable dynamic measures and we discuss that a careful choice of the parameters can reduce the autocorrelation of dynamic correlations whilst keeping significance and robustness of the measure. Weighted correlations are found to be smoother and recovering faster from market turbulence than their unweighted counterparts, helping also to discriminate more effectively genuine from spurious correlations.

  4. Analysis of the G1 arrest position of senescent WI38 cells by quinacrine dihydrochloride nuclear fluorescence: evidence for a late G1 arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, S.D.; Cristofalo, V.J.

    1986-01-01

    Senescence of the human diploid fibroblast-like cell line, W138, is characterized by a loss of proliferative activity and an arrest of cells with a 2C DNA content (G1 or G0). To examine the specific region within G1 in which senescent cells arrest, senescent cells were stained with quinacrine dihydrochloride (QDH) and their nuclear fluorescence was compared with that of young cultures arrested in early and late G1 by serum deprivation and hydroxyurea exposure, respectively. Release of these G1-arrested young cultures from their blocking conditions and timing the kinetics of their entry into the S phase by autoradiographic detection of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation revealed that serum-deprived cells entered the S phase within 15-18h, whereas hydroxyurea-exposed cells entered the S phase within 1.5h, thus confirming their relative G1-arrest positions. QDH-stained, serum-deprived and hydroxyurea-exposed young cells exhibited relative nuclear fluorescence intensities of 51.7 and 23.9, respectively. Senescent cells exhibited a relative nuclear fluorescence intensity of 17.4, closely resembling the fluorescence of young cultures arrested in late G1 by hydroxyurea exposure. These data support the concept that senescent cells are arrested from further progression in the cell cycle in late G1

  5. The protein source in embryo culture media influences birthweight: a comparative study between G1 v5 and G1-PLUS v5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinliang; Li, Ming; Chen, Lixue; Liu, Ping; Qiao, Jie

    2014-07-01

    Does protein source or human serum albumin (HSA) in embryo culture media influence the subsequent birthweight? A significant difference was observed in gestational age- and gender-adjusted birthweight (Z scores) and the proportion of large-for-gestational age (LGA) babies between embryos cultured in G1 v5 and those cultured in G1-PLUS v5 media. It has been reported that the birthweights of singletons born from embryos cultured in Vitrolife are significantly higher than those cultured in the Cook group of media, and that G1-PLUS (Vitrolife, Gothenburg, Sweden) is associated with increased birth and placenta weights compared with Medicult ISMI. This study was a retrospective analysis of neonatal birthweights, and included 1097 singletons born from fresh embryo transfer cycles at the Center for Reproductive Medicine of Peking University Third Hospital between January 2011 and August 2012. The number of singletons born from G1 v5 culture media was 489, and the number of singletons born from G1-PLUS v5 media was 608. Patients media groups. The absolute birthweights for singletons resulting from G1-PLUS v5 were not different from singletons resulting from G1 v5 (3375.9 ± 479.6 g versus 3333.2 ± 491.6 g, respectively; P = 0.14). However the Z scores for singletons from embryos cultured in G1-PLUS v5 were significantly higher than for singletons cultured in G1 v5 (0.28 ± 1.12 versus 0.09 ± 1.15, respectively; P = 0.04), and more LGA babies were born from G1-PLUS v5 culture compared with G1 v5 (16.8 versus 12.1%, respectively; P = 0.03) culture. Finally, multiple linear regression analysis suggested that female weight (P = 0.00), male height (P = 0.04), gestational age at birth (P = 0.00), infant gender (P = 0.00) and culture media (P = 0.04) all had significant effects on the birthweights of singleton newborns. This study was limited by its retrospective design. Our study suggests that protein source/HSA has a significant effect on birthweights of singleton newborns

  6. Cytometry of chromatin bound Mcm6 and PCNA identifies two states in G1 that are separated functionally by the G1 restriction point1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobberger James W

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytometric measurements of DNA content and chromatin-bound Mcm2 have demonstrated bimodal patterns of expression in G1. These patterns, the replication licensing function of Mcm proteins, and a correlation between Mcm loading and cell cycle commitment for cells re-entering the cell cycle, led us to test the idea that cells expressing a defined high level of chromatin-bound Mcm6 in G1 are committed - i.e., past the G1 restriction point. We developed a cell-based assay for tightly-bound PCNA (PCNA* and Mcm6 (Mcm6*, DNA content, and a mitotic marker to clearly define G1, S, G2, and M phases of the cell cycle. hTERT-BJ1, hTERT-RPE-1, and Molt4 cells were extracted with Triton X-100 followed by methanol fixation, stained with antibodies and DAPI, then measured by cytometry. Results Bivariate analysis of cytometric data demonstrated complex patterns with distinct clustering for all combinations of the 4 variables. In G1, cells clustered in two groups characterized by low and high Mcm6* expression. Serum starvation and release experiments showed that residence in the high group was in late G1, just prior to S phase. Kinetic experiments, employing serum withdrawal, and stathmokinetic analysis with aphidicolin, mimosine or nocodazole demonstrated that cells with high levels of Mcm6* cycled with the committed phases of the cell cycle (S, G2, and M. Conclusions A multivariate assay for Mcm6*, PCNA*, DNA content, and a mitotic marker provides analysis capable of estimating the fraction of pre and post-restriction point G1 cells and supports the idea that there are at least two states in G1 defined by levels of chromatin bound Mcm proteins.

  7. Observations on the electronic equipment employed for making measurements on the pile G1; Observations sur le materiel electronique utilise pour les mesures sur la pile G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ailloud, J; Belin, P; Meunier, A; Tarabella, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    The electronic apparatus employed during the manipulations carried out on the pile G1 is briefly described, with the aim of putting on record the inconveniences encountered in the course of the operation of this equipment. (author) [French] On decrit succinctement l'appareillage electronique utilise durant les manipulations effectuees sur la pile G1, dans le but de noter les inconvenients rencontres au cours de l'exploitation de cet appareillage. (auteur)

  8. SmoothMoves : Smooth pursuits head movements for augmented reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esteves, Augusto; Verweij, David; Suraiya, Liza; Islam, Rasel; Lee, Youryang; Oakley, Ian

    2017-01-01

    SmoothMoves is an interaction technique for augmented reality (AR) based on smooth pursuits head movements. It works by computing correlations between the movements of on-screen targets and the user's head while tracking those targets. The paper presents three studies. The first suggests that head

  9. Identification, expression and phylogenetic analysis of EgG1Y162 from Echinococcus granulosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengbo; Ma, Xiumin; Zhu, Yuejie; Wang, Hongying; Liu, Xianfei; Zhu, Min; Ma, Haimei; Wen, Hao; Fan, Haining; Ding, Jianbing

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was to clone, identify and analyze the characteristics of egG1Y162 gene from Echinococcus granulosus. Methods: Genomic DNA and total RNAs were extracted from four different developmental stages of protoscolex, germinal layer, adult and egg of Echinococcus granulosus, respectively. Fluorescent quantitative PCR was used for analyzing the expression of egG1Y162 gene. Prokaryotic expression plasmid of pET41a-EgG1Y162 was constructed to express recombinant His-EgG1Y162 antigen. Western blot analysis was performed to detect antigenicity of EgG1Y162 antigen. Gene sequence, amino acid alignment and phylogenetic tree of EgG1Y162 were analyzed by BLAST, online Spidey and MEGA4 software, respectively. Results: EgG1Y162 gene was expressed in four developmental stages of Echinococcus granulosus. And, egG1Y162 gene expression was the highest in the adult stage, with the relative value of 19.526, significantly higher than other three stages. Additionally, Western blot analysis revealed that EgG1Y162 recombinant protein had good reaction with serum samples from Echinococcus granulosus infected human and dog. Moreover, EgG1Y162 antigen was phylogenetically closest to EmY162 antigen, with the similarity over 90%. Conclusion: Our study identified EgG1Y162 antigen in Echinococcus granulosus for the first time. EgG1Y162 antigen had a high similarity with EmY162 antigen, with the genetic differences mainly existing in the intron region. And, EgG1Y162 recombinant protein showed good antigenicity. PMID:25337206

  10. Identification, expression and phylogenetic analysis of EgG1Y162 from Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengbo; Ma, Xiumin; Zhu, Yuejie; Wang, Hongying; Liu, Xianfei; Zhu, Min; Ma, Haimei; Wen, Hao; Fan, Haining; Ding, Jianbing

    2014-01-01

    This study was to clone, identify and analyze the characteristics of egG1Y162 gene from Echinococcus granulosus. Genomic DNA and total RNAs were extracted from four different developmental stages of protoscolex, germinal layer, adult and egg of Echinococcus granulosus, respectively. Fluorescent quantitative PCR was used for analyzing the expression of egG1Y162 gene. Prokaryotic expression plasmid of pET41a-EgG1Y162 was constructed to express recombinant His-EgG1Y162 antigen. Western blot analysis was performed to detect antigenicity of EgG1Y162 antigen. Gene sequence, amino acid alignment and phylogenetic tree of EgG1Y162 were analyzed by BLAST, online Spidey and MEGA4 software, respectively. EgG1Y162 gene was expressed in four developmental stages of Echinococcus granulosus. And, egG1Y162 gene expression was the highest in the adult stage, with the relative value of 19.526, significantly higher than other three stages. Additionally, Western blot analysis revealed that EgG1Y162 recombinant protein had good reaction with serum samples from Echinococcus granulosus infected human and dog. Moreover, EgG1Y162 antigen was phylogenetically closest to EmY162 antigen, with the similarity over 90%. Our study identified EgG1Y162 antigen in Echinococcus granulosus for the first time. EgG1Y162 antigen had a high similarity with EmY162 antigen, with the genetic differences mainly existing in the intron region. And, EgG1Y162 recombinant protein showed good antigenicity.

  11. Application and expression of HSV gG1 protein from a recombinant strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hua; Yan, Huishen; Huang, Tao; Li, Guocai; Gong, Weijuan; Jiao, Hongmei; Chen, Hongju; Ji, Mingchun

    2010-11-01

    According to the homologous sequence of glycoprotein G1 (gG1) genes from different strains of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a pair of primers was designed to amplify the gG1 gene fragment by PCR. Both the PCR product and the pGEX-4T-1 vector were digested with EcoR I and Sal I. The gG1 gene fragment was subcloned into the digested pGEX-4T-1 vector to construct a recombinant plasmid (pGEX-4T-1-gG1). The resultant plasmid was identified by dual-enzyme digestion and sequence analysis, and then transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 for expression under the induction of isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactoside (IPTG). The expressed GST-gG1 fragment was detected by SDS-PAGE and purified by affinity chromatography. The properties of GST-gG1 fragment were evaluated by immunoblot analysis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on the GST-gG1 fragment were used for determining IgG or IgM to HSV-1. The GST-gG1 fragment-specific ELISA was also compared with ELISA with whole-HSV-1 antigen and commercial ELISA kits. The gG1-specific IgG and IFN-γ producing CD8+ T cells were induced in mice immunized with the GST-gG1 fragment. These results indicated that the GST-gG1 fragment could be used for replacing whole-virus antigen to detect IgM and IgG to HSV-1 in human sera, which provided a strategy for developing vaccines to protect HSV-1 infection using gG1 fragment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The DNA Replication Checkpoint Directly Regulates MBF-Dependent G1/S Transcription▿

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Chaitali; Patel, Prasanta K.; Rosebrock, Adam; Oliva, Anna; Leatherwood, Janet; Rhind, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    The DNA replication checkpoint transcriptionally upregulates genes that allow cells to adapt to and survive replication stress. Our results show that, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the replication checkpoint regulates the entire G1/S transcriptional program by directly regulating MBF, the G1/S transcription factor. Instead of initiating a checkpoint-specific transcriptional program, the replication checkpoint targets MBF to maintain the normal G1/S transcriptional program du...

  13. Smoothness in Binomial Edge Ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Damadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study some geometric properties of the algebraic set associated to the binomial edge ideal of a graph. We study the singularity and smoothness of the algebraic set associated to the binomial edge ideal of a graph. Some of these algebraic sets are irreducible and some of them are reducible. If every irreducible component of the algebraic set is smooth we call the graph an edge smooth graph, otherwise it is called an edge singular graph. We show that complete graphs are edge smooth and introduce two conditions such that the graph G is edge singular if and only if it satisfies these conditions. Then, it is shown that cycles and most of trees are edge singular. In addition, it is proved that complete bipartite graphs are edge smooth.

  14. Immunoglobulin G1 Allotype Influences Antibody Subclass Distribution in Response to HIV gp140 Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Kratochvil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibody subclasses exhibit extensive polymorphisms (allotypes that could potentially impact the quality of HIV-vaccine induced B cell responses. Allotypes of immunoglobulin (Ig G1, the most abundant serum antibody, have been shown to display altered functional properties in regard to serum half-life, Fc-receptor binding and FcRn-mediated mucosal transcytosis. To investigate the potential link between allotypic IgG1-variants and vaccine-generated humoral responses in a cohort of 14 HIV vaccine recipients, we developed a novel protocol for rapid IgG1-allotyping. We combined PCR and ELISA assays in a dual approach to determine the IgG1 allotype identity (G1m3 and/or G1m1 of trial participants, using human plasma and RNA isolated from PBMC. The IgG1-allotype distribution of our participants mirrored previously reported results for caucasoid populations. We observed elevated levels of HIV gp140-specific IgG1 and decreased IgG2 levels associated with the G1m1-allele, in contrast to G1m3 carriers. These data suggest that vaccinees homozygous for G1m1 are predisposed to develop elevated Ag-specific IgG1:IgG2 ratios compared to G1m3-carriers. This elevated IgG1:IgG2 ratio was further associated with higher FcγR-dimer engagement, a surrogate for potential antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP function. Although preliminary, these results suggest that IgG1 allotype may have a significant impact on IgG subclass distribution in response to vaccination and associated Fc-mediated effector functions. These results have important implications for ongoing HIV vaccine efficacy studies predicated on engagement of FcγR-mediated cellular functions including ADCC and ADCP, and warrant further investigation. Our novel allotyping protocol provides new tools to determine the potential impact of IgG1 allotypes on vaccine efficacy.

  15. Smooth quantile normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Stephanie C; Okrah, Kwame; Paulson, Joseph N; Quackenbush, John; Irizarry, Rafael A; Bravo, Héctor Corrada

    2018-04-01

    Between-sample normalization is a critical step in genomic data analysis to remove systematic bias and unwanted technical variation in high-throughput data. Global normalization methods are based on the assumption that observed variability in global properties is due to technical reasons and are unrelated to the biology of interest. For example, some methods correct for differences in sequencing read counts by scaling features to have similar median values across samples, but these fail to reduce other forms of unwanted technical variation. Methods such as quantile normalization transform the statistical distributions across samples to be the same and assume global differences in the distribution are induced by only technical variation. However, it remains unclear how to proceed with normalization if these assumptions are violated, for example, if there are global differences in the statistical distributions between biological conditions or groups, and external information, such as negative or control features, is not available. Here, we introduce a generalization of quantile normalization, referred to as smooth quantile normalization (qsmooth), which is based on the assumption that the statistical distribution of each sample should be the same (or have the same distributional shape) within biological groups or conditions, but allowing that they may differ between groups. We illustrate the advantages of our method on several high-throughput datasets with global differences in distributions corresponding to different biological conditions. We also perform a Monte Carlo simulation study to illustrate the bias-variance tradeoff and root mean squared error of qsmooth compared to other global normalization methods. A software implementation is available from https://github.com/stephaniehicks/qsmooth.

  16. Experience gained in two years operation of G1; Experience acquise au cours de deux ans de fonctionnement du reacteur G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de, Rouville; Pascal, [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Scalliet, [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1958-07-01

    Technical specifications in respect of the first plutonium generating graphite reactor, the G1 at Marcoule, were stated in a paper read at the first Geneva Conference in 1955. We shall not therefore deal further with the technical characteristics of G1 in the present note, but rather propose to define - in the characteristic fields we think will be of major interest to foreign specialists - the results obtained in two and a half years operation since G1 first became critical on january 7, 1956. (author)Fren. [French] Les caracteristiques techniques du premier reacteur plutonigene, au graphite, de Marcoule, G1, ont ete donnees dans une communication presentee a la premiere conference de Geneve, en 1955. Nous n'y reviendrons donc pas dans la presente note qui a pour objet de faire le point, dans quelques domaines caracteristiques, qui nous ont paru les plus susceptibles d'interesser les specialistes etrangers, des resultats obtenus et des experiences faites au cours des deux annees et demi de fonctionnement du reacteur qui ont suivi sa divergence, le 7 janvier 1956. (auteur)

  17. Natural uranium-graphite system. Critial experiments on the G1 reactor; Systeme uranium naturel-graphite. Experiences critiques sur le reacteur G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, A P; Tanguy, P; Teste du Bailler, A; Zaleski, C P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    A number of experiments have been performed during the start up period of the G1 (1956) and G2 (1958) reactors in Marcoule, both on their lattices and on different lattices (hollow rods, clusters, under moderated lattices). The first chapter gives a thorough description of the two reactors. The second chapter deals with buckling measurements, both absolute (flux plots) and relative by the method of progressive substitution. The experimental results are summarised in Table VI. The third chapter contains a number of other measurements performed on G1. (author)Fren. [French] Le demarrage des reacteurs G1 (1956) et G2 (1958) de Marcoule nous a permis d'effectuer une serie d'experiences tant sur les reseaux de ces piles que sur des reseaux differents (elements tubulaires ou divises, reseaux sous-moderes, etc...). Dans une premiere partie, nous donnons une description detaillee des deux reacteurs. Dans la deuxieme partie, relative aux mesures de laplaciens, nous decrivons d'abord les mesures absolues de laplaciens (cartes de flux), puis les mesures relatives effectuees par la methode originale de remplacement progressif. Les resultats experimentaux sont rassembles dans le tableau VI. Dans la troisieme partie, nous rappelons un certain nombre d'autres mesures effectuees sur G1. (auteur)

  18. A note on negative customers, GI/G/1 workload, and risk processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Boucherie; O.J. Boxma (Onno); K. Sigman

    1996-01-01

    textabstractRecently the workload distribution in the M/G/1 queue with work removal has been analysed, and has been shown to exhibit a generalized Pollaczek-Khintchine form. The latter result is explained in this note by transforming the model into a standard GI/G/1 queue. Some extensions are also

  19. A hyperactive transcriptional state marks genome reactivation at the mitosis–G1 transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Chris C.-S.; Bartman, Caroline R.; Huang, Peng; Ginart, Paul; Stonestrom, Aaron J.; Keller, Cheryl A.; Face, Carolyne; Jahn, Kristen S.; Evans, Perry; Sankaranarayanan, Laavanya; Giardine, Belinda; Hardison, Ross C.; Raj, Arjun; Blobel, Gerd A.

    2016-01-01

    During mitosis, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and many transcription factors dissociate from chromatin, and transcription ceases globally. Transcription is known to restart in bulk by telophase, but whether de novo transcription at the mitosis–G1 transition is in any way distinct from later in interphase remains unknown. We tracked Pol II occupancy genome-wide in mammalian cells progressing from mitosis through late G1. Unexpectedly, during the earliest rounds of transcription at the mitosis–G1 transition, ∼50% of active genes and distal enhancers exhibit a spike in transcription, exceeding levels observed later in G1 phase. Enhancer–promoter chromatin contacts are depleted during mitosis and restored rapidly upon G1 entry but do not spike. Of the chromatin-associated features examined, histone H3 Lys27 acetylation levels at individual loci in mitosis best predict the mitosis–G1 transcriptional spike. Single-molecule RNA imaging supports that the mitosis–G1 transcriptional spike can constitute the maximum transcriptional activity per DNA copy throughout the cell division cycle. The transcriptional spike occurs heterogeneously and propagates to cell-to-cell differences in mature mRNA expression. Our results raise the possibility that passage through the mitosis–G1 transition might predispose cells to diverge in gene expression states. PMID:27340175

  20. A hyperactive transcriptional state marks genome reactivation at the mitosis-G1 transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Chris C-S; Bartman, Caroline R; Huang, Peng; Ginart, Paul; Stonestrom, Aaron J; Keller, Cheryl A; Face, Carolyne; Jahn, Kristen S; Evans, Perry; Sankaranarayanan, Laavanya; Giardine, Belinda; Hardison, Ross C; Raj, Arjun; Blobel, Gerd A

    2016-06-15

    During mitosis, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and many transcription factors dissociate from chromatin, and transcription ceases globally. Transcription is known to restart in bulk by telophase, but whether de novo transcription at the mitosis-G1 transition is in any way distinct from later in interphase remains unknown. We tracked Pol II occupancy genome-wide in mammalian cells progressing from mitosis through late G1. Unexpectedly, during the earliest rounds of transcription at the mitosis-G1 transition, ∼50% of active genes and distal enhancers exhibit a spike in transcription, exceeding levels observed later in G1 phase. Enhancer-promoter chromatin contacts are depleted during mitosis and restored rapidly upon G1 entry but do not spike. Of the chromatin-associated features examined, histone H3 Lys27 acetylation levels at individual loci in mitosis best predict the mitosis-G1 transcriptional spike. Single-molecule RNA imaging supports that the mitosis-G1 transcriptional spike can constitute the maximum transcriptional activity per DNA copy throughout the cell division cycle. The transcriptional spike occurs heterogeneously and propagates to cell-to-cell differences in mature mRNA expression. Our results raise the possibility that passage through the mitosis-G1 transition might predispose cells to diverge in gene expression states. © 2016 Hsiung et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  1. Triangular M/G/1-type and tree-like QBD Markov chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Houdt, B.; Leeuwaarden, van J.S.H.

    2009-01-01

    In applying matrix-analytic methods to M/G/1-type and tree-like QBD Markov chains, it is crucial to determine the solution to a (set of) nonlinear matrix equation(s). This is usually done via iterative methods. We consider the highly structured subclass of triangular M/G/1-type and tree-like QBD

  2. Global and local asymptotics for the busy period of an M/G/1 queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denisov, D.E.; Shneer, V.

    2010-01-01

    We consider an M/G/1 queue with subexponential service times. We give a simple derivation of the global and local asymptotics for the busy period. Our analysis relies on the explicit formula for the joint distribution for the number of customers and the length of the busy period of an M/G/1 queue.

  3. Inhibition of G1-phase arrest induced by ionizing radiation in hematopoietic cells by overexpression of genes involved in the G1/S-phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epperly, M.; Berry, L.; Halloran, A.; Greenberger, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    D-type cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk-4) are likely involved in regulating passage of cells through the G 1 phase of the cell cycle. A decrease in the proportion of cells in G 1 , a relatively radiation-sensitive phase of the cell cycle, should result in increased resistance to ionizing radiation; however, the effect of such overexpression on X-ray-induced G 1 -phase arrest is not known. Radiation survival curves were obtained at a dose rate of either 8 cGy/min or 1 Gy/min for subclones of the IL-3-dependent hematopoietic progenitor cell line 32D cl 3 expressing transgenes for either cyclin-D1, D2 or D3 or cdk-4. We compared the results to those with overexpression of the transgene for Bcl-2, whose expression enhances radiation survival and delays apoptosis. Cells overexpressing transgenes for each D-type cyclin or Bcl-2 had an increased number of cells in S phase compared to parent line 32D cl 3; however, overexpression of cdk-4 had no effect on cell cycle distribution. Cell death resulting from withdrawal of IL-3 was not affected by overexpression of D2, cdk-4 or Bcl-2. Flow cytometry 24 h after 5 Gy irradiation demonstrated that overexpression of each G 1 -phase regulatory transgene decreased the proportion of cells at the G 1 /S-phase border. Western analysis revealed induction of cyclin-D protein levels by irradiation, but no change in the D O , but a significant increase in the rvec n for cyclin-D or cdk-4 transgene-overexpressing clones at 1 Gy/min (P 1 /S-phase arrest. 31 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Role of HLA-G1 in trophoblast cell proliferation, adhesion and invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Feng, E-mail: jiangfeng1161@163.com [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, 569 Xinsi Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an 710038 (China); Zhao, Hongxi [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, 569 Xinsi Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an 710038 (China); Wang, Li [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100853 (China); Guo, Xinyu [Assisted Reproductive Center, General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Guangzhou 510010 (China); Wang, Xiaohong; Yin, Guowu [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, 569 Xinsi Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an 710038 (China); Hu, Yunsheng [Department of Orthopedics, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China); Li, Yi [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, 569 Xinsi Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an 710038 (China); Yao, Yuanqing, E-mail: yuanqingyaoxa@163.com [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2015-02-27

    Trophoblast cells are important in embryo implantation and fetomaternal tolerance. HLA-G is specifically expressed at the maternal–fetal interface and is a regulator in pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to detect the effect of HLA-G1 on trophoblast cell proliferation, adhesion, and invasion. Human trophoblast cell lines (JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells) were infected with HLA-G1-expressing lentivirus. After infection, HLA-G1 expression of the cells was detected by western blotting. Cell proliferation was detected by the BrdU assay. The cell cycle and apoptosis of JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells was measured by flow cytometry (FCM). The invasion of the cells under different conditions was detected by the transwell invasion chamber assay. HLA-G1 didn't show any significant influence on the proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion, and invasion of trophocytes in normal culture conditions. However, HLA-G1 inhibited JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells invasion induced by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) under normal oxygen conditions. In conditions of hypoxia, HLA-G1 couldn't inhibit the induction of cell invasion by HGF. HLA-G1 is not an independent factor for regulating the trophocytes. It may play an indirect role in embryo implantation and formation of the placenta. - Highlights: • HLA-G1 could not influence trophocytes under normal conditions. • HLA-G1 inhibited cell invasion induced by HGF under normal oxygen condition. • HLA-G1 could not influence cell invasion under hypoxia conditions.

  5. Global phylogeography and genetic diversity of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto genotype G1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkar, Liina; Laurimäe, Teivi; Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Andresiuk, Vanessa; Balkaya, Ibrahim; Casulli, Adriano; Gasser, Robin B; van der Giessen, Joke; González, Luis Miguel; Haag, Karen L; Zait, Houria; Irshadullah, Malik; Jabbar, Abdul; Jenkins, David J; Kia, Eshrat Beigom; Manfredi, Maria Teresa; Mirhendi, Hossein; M'rad, Selim; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; Pierangeli, Nora Beatriz; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco; Rehbein, Steffen; Sharbatkhori, Mitra; Simsek, Sami; Soriano, Silvia Viviana; Sprong, Hein; Šnábel, Viliam; Umhang, Gérald; Varcasia, Antonio; Saarma, Urmas

    2018-05-19

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) is the major cause of human cystic echinococcosis worldwide and is listed among the most severe parasitic diseases of humans. To date, numerous studies have investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of E. granulosus s.s. in various geographic regions. However, there has been no global study. Recently, using mitochondrial DNA, it was shown that E. granulosus s.s. G1 and G3 are distinct genotypes, but a larger dataset is required to confirm the distinction of these genotypes. The objectives of this study were to: (i) investigate the distinction of genotypes G1 and G3 using a large global dataset; and (ii) analyse the genetic diversity and phylogeography of genotype G1 on a global scale using near-complete mitogenome sequences. For this study, 222 globally distributed E. granulosus s.s. samples were used, of which 212 belonged to genotype G1 and 10 to G3. Using a total sequence length of 11,682 bp, we inferred phylogenetic networks for three datasets: E. granulosus s.s. (n = 222), G1 (n = 212) and human G1 samples (n = 41). In addition, the Bayesian phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses were performed. The latter yielded several strongly supported diffusion routes of genotype G1 originating from Turkey, Tunisia and Argentina. We conclude that: (i) using a considerably larger dataset than employed previously, E. granulosus s.s. G1 and G3 are indeed distinct mitochondrial genotypes; (ii) the genetic diversity of E. granulosus s.s. G1 is high globally, with lower values in South America; and (iii) the complex phylogeographic patterns emerging from the phylogenetic and geographic analyses suggest that the current distribution of genotype G1 has been shaped by intensive animal trade. Copyright © 2018 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of HLA-G1 in trophoblast cell proliferation, adhesion and invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Feng; Zhao, Hongxi; Wang, Li; Guo, Xinyu; Wang, Xiaohong; Yin, Guowu; Hu, Yunsheng; Li, Yi; Yao, Yuanqing

    2015-01-01

    Trophoblast cells are important in embryo implantation and fetomaternal tolerance. HLA-G is specifically expressed at the maternal–fetal interface and is a regulator in pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to detect the effect of HLA-G1 on trophoblast cell proliferation, adhesion, and invasion. Human trophoblast cell lines (JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells) were infected with HLA-G1-expressing lentivirus. After infection, HLA-G1 expression of the cells was detected by western blotting. Cell proliferation was detected by the BrdU assay. The cell cycle and apoptosis of JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells was measured by flow cytometry (FCM). The invasion of the cells under different conditions was detected by the transwell invasion chamber assay. HLA-G1 didn't show any significant influence on the proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion, and invasion of trophocytes in normal culture conditions. However, HLA-G1 inhibited JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells invasion induced by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) under normal oxygen conditions. In conditions of hypoxia, HLA-G1 couldn't inhibit the induction of cell invasion by HGF. HLA-G1 is not an independent factor for regulating the trophocytes. It may play an indirect role in embryo implantation and formation of the placenta. - Highlights: • HLA-G1 could not influence trophocytes under normal conditions. • HLA-G1 inhibited cell invasion induced by HGF under normal oxygen condition. • HLA-G1 could not influence cell invasion under hypoxia conditions

  7. Synthesis and characterization of supramolecule self-assembly polyami-doamine (PAMAM G1-G1 NH2, CO2H end group Megamer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Louie

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Supramolecule self-assembly polyamidoamine (PAMAM dendrimer refers to the chemical sys-tems made up of a discrete number of assembled molecular subunits or components. These strat-egies involve the covalent assembly of hierarchical components reactive monomers, branch cells or dendrons around atomic or molecular cores according to divergent/convergent dendritic branching principles, systematic filling of space around a core with shells (layers of branch cells. The polydispersity index (PDI for the supramolecule megamer are pretty closed to one, are in agreement with the Poisson probability distribution. Polyamidoamine (PAMAM den-drimer G1-G1 that it was PAMAM Megamer NH2, COOH end groupsynthesized and character-ized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMRspectra and GelPermeation Chromatography (GPC.

  8. Final COMPASS results on the spin-dependent structure functions $g_1^p$ and $g_1^d$ in the deep-inelastic and nonperturbative regions

    CERN Document Server

    Badelek, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    This paper summarizes the COMPASS Collaboration legacy on measurements of the proton and deuteron spin-dependent structure functions, $g_1^p$ and $g_1^d$ at $Q^2 1$ (GeV/c)$^2$. In both regions and at the lowest measured $x, g^d_1 (x)$ is consistent with zero while $g^p_1 (x)$ is positive. This is the first time that the spin effects are observed at such low values of $x$. The NLO QCD fit of $g_1$ world data gives well constrained quark helicity distributions; gluons are poorly determined. Quark helicity contribution to nucleon spin is $0.26 < \\Delta \\Sigma < 0.36$. From the COMPASS data alone the Bjorken sum rule is verified to $9\\%$ accuracy and the extracted flavour-singlet axial charge is $a_0 (Q^2 = 3 (\\text{GeV/}c)^2) = 0.32 \\pm 0.02_{stat.} \\pm 0.04_{syst.} \\pm 0.05_{evol.}$.

  9. Moments of the Spin Structure Functions g1p and g1d for 0.05 < Q2 < 3.0 GeV2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prok, Yelena; Bosted, Peter; Burkert, Volker; Deur, Alexandre; Dharmawardane, Kahanawita; Dodge, Gail; Griffioen, Keith; Kuhn, Sebastian; Minehart, Ralph; Adams, Gary; Amaryan, Moscov; Amaryan, Moskov; Anghinolfi, Marco; Asryan, G.; Audit, Gerard; Avagyan, Harutyun; Baghdasaryan, Hovhannes; Baillie, Nathan; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Baltzell, Nathan; Barrow, Steve; Battaglieri, Marco; Beard, Kevin; Bedlinskiy, Ivan; Bektasoglu, Mehmet; Bellis, Matthew; Benmouna, Nawal; Berman, Barry; Biselli, Angela; Blaszczyk, Lukasz; Boyarinov, Sergey; Bonner, Billy; Bouchigny, Sylvain; Bradford, Robert; Branford, Derek; Briscoe, William; Brooks, William; Bultmann, S.; Bueltmann, Stephen; Butuceanu, Cornel; Calarco, John; Careccia, Sharon; Carman, Daniel; Casey, Liam; Cazes, Antoine; Chen, Shifeng; Cheng, Lu; Cole, Philip; Collins, Patrick; Coltharp, Philip; Cords, Dieter; Corvisiero, Pietro; Crabb, Donald; Crede, Volker; Cummings, John; Dale, Daniel; Dashyan, Natalya; De Masi, Rita; De Vita, Raffaella; De Sanctis, Enzo; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Denizli, Haluk; Dennis, Lawrence; Dhuga, Kalvir; Dickson, Richard; Djalali, Chaden; Doughty, David; Dugger, Michael; Dytman, Steven; Dzyubak, Oleksandr; Egiyan, Hovanes; Egiyan, Kim; Elfassi, Lamiaa; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Eugenio, Paul; Fatemi, Renee; Fedotov, Gleb; Feldman, Gerald; Fersch, Robert; Feuerbach, Robert; Forest, Tony; Fradi, Ahmed; Funsten, Herbert; Garcon, Michel; Gavalian, Gagik; Gevorgyan, Nerses; Gilfoyle, Gerard; Giovanetti, Kevin; Girod, Francois-Xavier; Goetz, John; Golovach, Evgeny; Gothe, Ralf; Guidal, Michel; Guillo, Matthieu; Guler, Nevzat; Guo, Lei; Gyurjyan, Vardan; Hadjidakis, Cynthia; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hakobyan, Hayk; Hanretty, Charles; Hardie, John; Hassall, Neil; Heddle, David; Hersman, F.; Hicks, Kenneth; Hleiqawi, Ishaq; Holtrop, Maurik; Huertas, Marco; Hyde, Charles; Ilieva, Yordanka; Ireland, David; Ishkhanov, Boris; Isupov, Evgeny; Ito, Mark; Jenkins, David; Jo, Hyon-Suk; Johnstone, John; Joo, Kyungseon; Juengst, Henry; Kalantarians, Narbe; Keith, Christopher; Kellie, James; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Kim, Kui; Kim, Kyungmo; Kim, Wooyoung; Klein, Andreas; Klein, Franz; Klusman, Mike; Kossov, Mikhail; Krahn, Zebulun; Kramer, Laird; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kuhn, Joachim; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Viacheslav; Lachniet, Jeff; Laget, Jean; Langheinrich, Jorn; Lawrence, Dave; Lima, Ana; Livingston, Kenneth; Lu, Haiyun; Lukashin, K.; MacCormick, Marion; Marchand, Claude; Markov, Nikolai; Mattione, Paul; McAleer, Simeon; McKinnon, Bryan; McNabb, John; Mecking, Bernhard; Mestayer, Mac; Meyer, Curtis; Mibe, Tsutomu; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Mirazita, Marco; Miskimen, Rory; Mokeev, Viktor; Morand, Ludyvine; Moreno, Brahim; Moriya, Kei; Morrow, Steven; Moteabbed, Maryam; Mueller, James; Munevar Espitia, Edwin; Mutchler, Gordon; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Nasseripour, Rakhsha; Niccolai, Silvia; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Niczyporuk, Bogdan; Niroula, Megh; Niyazov, Rustam; Nozar, Mina; O' Rielly, Grant; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ostrovidov, Alexander; Park, Kijun; Pasyuk, Evgueni; Paterson, Craig; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Philips, Sasha; Pierce, J.; Pivnyuk, Nikolay; Pocanic, Dinko; Pogorelko, Oleg; Popa, Iulian; Pozdnyakov, Sergey; Preedom, Barry; Price, John; Procureur, Sebastien; Protopopescu, Dan; Qin, Liming; Raue, Brian; Riccardi, Gregory; Ricco, Giovanni; Ripani, Marco; Ritchie, Barry; Rosner, Guenther; Rossi, Patrizia; Rowntree, David; Rubin, Philip; Sabatie, Franck; Salamanca, Julian; Salgado, Carlos; Santoro, Joseph; Sapunenko, Vladimir; Schumacher, Reinhard; Seely, Mikell; Serov, Vladimir; Sharabian, Youri; Sharov, Dmitri; Shaw, Jeffrey; Shvedunov, Nikolay; Skabelin, Alexander; Smith, Elton; Smith, Lee; Sober, Daniel; Sokhan, Daria; Stavinskiy, Aleksey; Stepanyan, Samuel; Stepanyan, Stepan; Stokes, Burnham; Stoler, Paul; Strakovski, Igor; Strauch, Steffen; Suleiman, Riad; Taiuti, Mauro; Tedeschi, David; Tkabladze, Avtandil; Tkachenko, Svyatoslav; Todor, Luminita; Ungaro, Maurizio; V

    2009-02-01

    The spin structure functions $g_1$ for the proton and the deuteron have been measured over a wide kinematic range in $x$ and \\Q2 using 1.6 and 5.7 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons incident upon polarized NH$_3$ and ND$_3$ targets at Jefferson Lab. Scattered electrons were detected in the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer, for $0.05 < Q^2 < 5 $\\ GeV$^2$ and $W < 3$ GeV. The first moments of $g_1$ for the proton and deuteron are presented -- both have a negative slope at low \\Q2, as predicted by the extended Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule. The first result for the generalized forward spin polarizability of the proton $\\gamma_0^p$ is also reported, and shows evidence of scaling above $Q^2$ = 1.5 GeV$^2$. Although the first moments of $g_1$ are consistent with Chiral Perturbation Theory (\\ChPT) calculations up to approximately $Q^2 = 0.06$ GeV$^2$, a significant discrepancy is observed between the $\\gamma_0^p$ data and \\ChPT\\ for $\\gamma_0^p$,even at the lowest \\Q2.

  10. Final COMPASS results on the spin-dependent structure functions $g_1^p$ and $g_1^d$ in the deep-inelastic and nonperturbative regions

    CERN Document Server

    Badelek, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarizes the COMPASS Collaboration legacy on measurements of the proton and deuteron spin-dependent structure functions, $g_1^p$ and $g_1^d$ at $Q^2 1$ (GeV/c)$^2$. In both regions and at the lowest measured $x, g^d_1 (x)$ is consistent with zero while $g^p_1 (x)$ is positive. This is the first time that the spin effects are observed at such low values of $x$. The NLO QCD fit of $g_1$ world data gives well constrained quark helicity distributions; gluons are poorly determined. Quark helicity contribution to nucleon spin is $0.26 < \\Delta \\Sigma < 0.36$. From the COMPASS data alone the Bjorken sum rule is verified to $9\\%$ accuracy and the extracted flavour-singlet axial charge is $a_0 (Q^2 = 3 (\\text{GeV/}c)^2) = 0.32 \\pm 0.02_{stat.} \\pm 0.04_{syst.} \\pm 0.05_{evol.}$.

  11. A Novel Roscovitine Derivative Potently Induces G(1)-Phase Arrest in Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-BB-Activated Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sroka, I. M.; Heiss, E.H.; Havlíček, Libor; Totzke, F.; Aristei, Y.; Pechan, P.; Kubbutat, M.H.G.; Strnad, Miroslav; Dirsch, V.M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 2 (2010), s. 255-261 ISSN 0026-895X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Grant - others:_(XE) LSHB-CT-2004-503467 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES * DRUG-ELUTING STENTS * CYC202 R-ROSCOVITINE Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 4.725, year: 2010

  12. Redox-mediated bypass of restriction point via skipping of G1pm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greene James J

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that cancer cells bypass the restriction point, R, and undergo uncontrolled cell proliferation. Hypothesis and evidence We suggest here that fibrosarcoma cells enter G1ps directly from M, skipping G1pm, hence bypassing R, in response to redox modulation. Evidence is presented from the published literature that demonstrate a shortening of the cycle period of transformed fibroblasts (SV-3T3 compared to the nontransformed 3T3 fibroblasts, corresponding to the duration of G1pm in the 3T3 fibroblasts. Evidence is also presented that demonstrate that redox modulation can induce the CUA-4 fibroblasts to bypass R, resulting in a cycle period closely corresponding to the cycle period of fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080. Conclusion The evidence supports our hypothesis that a low internal redox potential can cause fibrosarcoma cells to skip the G1pm phase of the cell cycle.

  13. The regulation of ras-raf signaling pathway on G1 phase of the irradiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Dehuang; Dong Bo; Liu Nongle; Wen Gengyun; Luo Qingliang; Mao Bingzhi

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the way of ras-raf signaling pathway which regulate the G 1 phase in irradiated KG-1 cells. Methods: Blocked the GM-CSF signaling pathway by transfected DN-ras and then momentary transfected cyclin D1 into irradiated KG-1 cells, the effects of cyclin D1 on G 1 phase was examined. Results: The irradiated KG-1 cells transfected DN-ras can't recover form G 1 phase arrest even though the GM-CSF was given,momentary transfected cyclin D1 promote the irradiated KG-1 cells from G 1 arrest. Conclusion: Activation of ras-raf signaling pathway regulate the cell cycle of the irradiated KG-1 cells through promotion the expression of the cyclin D1

  14. Modelling M/G/1 queueing systems with server vacations using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simple numerical examples are also provided to illustrate the func- ... M/G/1/N queueing systems with server vacations under a limited service discipline ...... system contents in a discrete-time non-preemptive priority queue with general service.

  15. Measurement of the Proton and Deuteron Spin Structure Function g1 in the Resonance Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, K.; Akagi, T.; Perry Anthony; Antonov, R.; Arnold, R.G.; Todd Averett; Band, H.R.; Bauer, J.M.; Borel, H.; Peter Bosted; Vincent Breton; Button-Shafer, J.; Jian-Ping Chen; T.E. Chupp; J. Clendenin; C. Comptour; K.P. Coulter; G. Court; Donald Crabb; M. Daoudi; Donal Day; F.S. Dietrich; James Dunne; H. Dutz; R. Erbacher; J. Fellbaum; Andrew Feltham; Helene Fonvieille; Emil Frlez; D. Garvey; R. Gearhart; Javier Gomez; P. Grenier; Keith Griffioen; S. Hoeibraten; Emlyn Hughes; Charles Hyde-Wright; J.R. Johnson; D. Kawall; Andreas Klein; Sebastian Kuhn; M. Kuriki; Richard Lindgren; T.J. Liu; R.M. Lombard-Nelsen; Jacques Marroncle; Tomoyuki Maruyama; X.K. Maruyama; James Mccarthy; Werner Meyer; Zein-Eddine Meziani; Ralph Minehart; Joseph Mitchell; J. Morgenstern; Gerassimos Petratos; R. Pitthan; Dinko Pocanic; C. Prescott; R. Prepost; P. Raines; Brian Raue; D. Reyna; A. Rijllart; Yves Roblin; L. Rochester; Stephen Rock; Oscar Rondon-Aramayo; Ingo Sick; Lee Smith; Tim Smith; M. Spengos; F. Staley; P. Steiner; S. St. Lorant; L.M. Stuart; F. Suekane; Z.M. Szalata; Huabin Tang; Y. Terrien; Tracy Usher; Dieter Walz; Frank Wesselmann; J.L. White; K. Witte; C. Young; Brad Youngman; Haruo Yuta; G. Zapalac; Benedikt Zihlmann; Zimmermann, D.

    1997-01-01

    We have measured the proton and deuteron spin structure functions g 1 p and g 1 d in the region of the nucleon resonances for W 2 2 and Q 2 ≅ 0.5 and Q 2 ≅ 1.2 GeV 2 by inelastically scattering 9.7 GeV polarized electrons off polarized 15 NH 3 and 15 ND 3 targets. We observe significant structure in g 1 p in the resonance region. We have used the present results, together with the deep-inelastic data at higher W 2 , to extract Γ(Q 2 ) (triple b ond) ∫ 0 1 g 1 (x,Q 2 ) dx. This is the first information on the low-Q 2 evolution of Gamma toward the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn limit at Q 2 = 0

  16. Evaluation of the hydrometer for testing immunoglobulin G1 concentrations in Holstein colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, L C; Gay, C C; Hancock, D D; Besser, T E

    1994-06-01

    Hydrometer measurement in globulin and IgG1 concentration measured by the radial immunodiffusion technique were compared for 915 samples of first milking colostrum from Holstein cows. Least squares analysis of the relationship between hydrometer measurement and IgG1 concentration was improved by log transformation of IgG1 concentration and resulted in a significant linear relationship between hydrometer measurement and log10 IgG1 concentration; r2 = .469. At 50 mg of globulin/ml of colostrum, the recommended hydrometer cutoff point for colostrum selection, the sensitivity of the hydrometer as a test of IgG1 concentration in Holstein colostrum was 26%, and the negative predictive value was 67%. The negative predictive value and sensitivity of the hydrometer as a test of IgG1 in Holstein colostrum was improved, and the cost of misclassification of colostrum was minimized, when the cutoff point for colostrum selection was increased above the recommended 50 mg/ml.

  17. Ureter smooth muscle cell orientation in rat is predominantly longitudinal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spronck, Bart; Merken, Jort J; Reesink, Koen D; Kroon, Wilco; Delhaas, Tammo

    2014-01-01

    In ureter peristalsis, the orientation of the contracting smooth muscle cells is essential, yet current descriptions of orientation and composition of the smooth muscle layer in human as well as in rat ureter are inconsistent. The present study aims to improve quantification of smooth muscle orientation in rat ureters as a basis for mechanistic understanding of peristalsis. A crucial step in our approach is to use two-photon laser scanning microscopy and image analysis providing objective, quantitative data on smooth muscle cell orientation in intact ureters, avoiding the usual sectioning artifacts. In 36 rat ureter segments, originating from a proximal, middle or distal site and from a left or right ureter, we found close to the adventitia a well-defined longitudinal smooth muscle orientation. Towards the lamina propria, the orientation gradually became slightly more disperse, yet the main orientation remained longitudinal. We conclude that smooth muscle cell orientation in rat ureter is predominantly longitudinal, though the orientation gradually becomes more disperse towards the proprial side. These findings do not support identification of separate layers. The observed longitudinal orientation suggests that smooth muscle contraction would rather cause local shortening of the ureter, than cause luminal constriction. However, the net-like connective tissue of the ureter wall may translate local longitudinal shortening into co-local luminal constriction, facilitating peristalsis. Our quantitative, minimally invasive approach is a crucial step towards more mechanistic insight into ureter peristalsis, and may also be used to study smooth muscle cell orientation in other tube-like structures like gut and blood vessels.

  18. Ureter smooth muscle cell orientation in rat is predominantly longitudinal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Spronck

    Full Text Available In ureter peristalsis, the orientation of the contracting smooth muscle cells is essential, yet current descriptions of orientation and composition of the smooth muscle layer in human as well as in rat ureter are inconsistent. The present study aims to improve quantification of smooth muscle orientation in rat ureters as a basis for mechanistic understanding of peristalsis. A crucial step in our approach is to use two-photon laser scanning microscopy and image analysis providing objective, quantitative data on smooth muscle cell orientation in intact ureters, avoiding the usual sectioning artifacts. In 36 rat ureter segments, originating from a proximal, middle or distal site and from a left or right ureter, we found close to the adventitia a well-defined longitudinal smooth muscle orientation. Towards the lamina propria, the orientation gradually became slightly more disperse, yet the main orientation remained longitudinal. We conclude that smooth muscle cell orientation in rat ureter is predominantly longitudinal, though the orientation gradually becomes more disperse towards the proprial side. These findings do not support identification of separate layers. The observed longitudinal orientation suggests that smooth muscle contraction would rather cause local shortening of the ureter, than cause luminal constriction. However, the net-like connective tissue of the ureter wall may translate local longitudinal shortening into co-local luminal constriction, facilitating peristalsis. Our quantitative, minimally invasive approach is a crucial step towards more mechanistic insight into ureter peristalsis, and may also be used to study smooth muscle cell orientation in other tube-like structures like gut and blood vessels.

  19. Cyclin G1 inhibits the proliferation of mouse endometrial stromal cell in decidualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Qian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine stromal cell decidualization is a dynamic physiological process in which cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis are orchestrated and occur in a temporal and cell-specific manner. This process is important for successful embryo implantation. Many cell-cycle regulators are involved in decidualization. The protein cyclin G1 is a unique regulator of the cell cycle with dual functions in cell proliferation. It was reported that cyclin G1 is expressed in mouse uterine stromal cells during the period of peri-implantation. To prove the function of cyclin G1 in mouse uterine stromal cells during this period, immunohistochemistry was used to stain mouse uterine tissues on days 4-8 of pregnancy. The results showed obvious spatial and temporal expression of cyclin G1 in uterine stromal cells, and that it is expressed in the cells of the primary decidual zone (PDZ on day 5 and secondary decidual zone (SDZ on days 6 and 7, when the stromal cells experienced active proliferation and differentiation was initiated. Applying the decidualization model of cultured primary stromal cells in vitro, we further revealed that the expression of cyclin G1 is associated with decidualization of stromal cells induced by medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA and estradiol-17β (E2. RNA interference was used for the knockdown of cyclin G1 in the induced decidual cells. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that the proportion of cells in the S stage was increased, and decreased in the G2/M phase. Our study indicates that cyclin G1, as a negative regulator of the cell cycle, plays an important role in the process of decidualization in mouse uterine stromal cells by inhibiting cell-cycle progression.

  20. Measurement of the thermal utilisation factor of the reactor G1; Mesure du facteur d'utilisation thermique du reacteur G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roullier, F; Schmitt, A P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    The thermal utilisation factor of the lattice of the reactor G1 has been measured by applying the autoradiographic technique to thin detectors irradiated in the cell. The experimental apparatus is described, and the results compared with those obtained by calculation based on various formulae. The results of the study of the thermal flux distribution in a cell containing a thorium rod of the same diameter as the uranium rods in the lattice are also given. The precision of the measurements is discussed. Value found: f diameter 26 = 0.8949 {+-} 0,005. (author) [French] Le facteur d'utilisation thermique du reseau du reacteur G1 a ete mesure en appliquant la technique de l'autoradiographie a des detecteurs minces irradies dans la cellule. Les dispositifs experimentaux sont decrits et les resultats sont compares a ceux obtenus par le calcul a partir de diverses formules. Les resultats de l'etude de la distribution du flux thermique dans une cellule contenant une barre de thorium de meme diametre que les barres d'uranium du reseau sont egalement indiques. La precision des mesures est discutee. Valeur trouvee: f diametre 26 = 0,8949 {+-} 0,005. (author)

  1. Selection of G1 Phase Yeast Cells for Synchronous Meiosis and Sporulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, David T

    2017-01-01

    Centrifugal elutriation is a procedure that allows the fractionation of cell populations based upon their size and shape. This allows cells in distinct cell cycle stages can be captured from an asynchronous population. The technique is particularly helpful when performing an experiment to monitor the progression of cells through the cell cycle or meiosis. Yeast sporulation like gametogenesis in other eukaryotes initiates from the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Conveniently, S. cerevisiae arrest in G1 phase when starved for nutrients and so withdrawal of nitrogen and glucose allows cells to abandon vegetative growth in G1 phase before initiating the sporulation program. This simple starvation protocol yields a partial synchronization that has been used extensively in studies of progression through meiosis and sporulation. By using centrifugal elutriation it is possible to isolate a homogeneous population of G1 phase cells and induce them to sporulate synchronously, which is beneficial for investigating progression through meiosis and sporulation. An additionally benefit of this protocol is that cell populations can be isolated based upon size and both large and small cell populations can be tested for progression through meiosis and sporulation. Here we present a protocol for purification of G1 phase diploid cells for examining synchronous progression through meiosis and sporulation.

  2. Non-smooth dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    The book provides a self-contained introduction to the mathematical theory of non-smooth dynamical problems, as they frequently arise from mechanical systems with friction and/or impacts. It is aimed at applied mathematicians, engineers, and applied scientists in general who wish to learn the subject.

  3. Panel Smooth Transition Regression Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González, Andrés; Terasvirta, Timo; Dijk, Dick van

    We introduce the panel smooth transition regression model. This new model is intended for characterizing heterogeneous panels, allowing the regression coefficients to vary both across individuals and over time. Specifically, heterogeneity is allowed for by assuming that these coefficients are bou...

  4. Smoothing type buffer memory device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podorozhnyj, D.M.; Yashin, I.V.

    1990-01-01

    The layout of the micropower 4-bit smoothing type buffer memory device allowing one to record without counting the sequence of input randomly distributed pulses in multi-channel devices with serial poll, is given. The power spent by a memory cell for one binary digit recording is not greater than 0.15 mW, the device dead time is 10 mus

  5. Covariances of smoothed observational data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondrák, Jan; Čepek, A.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 40, 5-6 (2000), s. 42-44 ISSN 1210-2709 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/98/1104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : digital filter * smoothing * estimation of uncertainties Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  6. Income smoothing by Dutch hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boterenbrood, D.R.

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that hospitals manage their earnings. However, these findings might be influenced by methodological issues. In this study, I exploit specific features of Dutch hospitals to study income smoothing while limiting these methodological issues. The managers of Dutch hospitals have the

  7. Is there a hard gluonic contribution to the first moment of g1?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodwin, G.T.; Qiu, Jianwei

    1990-01-01

    We show that the size of the hard gluonic contribution to the first moment of the proton's spin-dependent structure function g 1 is entirely a matter of the convention used in defining the quark distributions. If the UV regulator for the spin-dependent quark distributions respects the gauge invariance of Green's functions (allows shifts of loop momenta) and respects the analyticity structure of the unregulated distributions, then the hard gluonic contribution to the first moment of g 1 vanishes. This is the case, for example, in dimensional regularization. By relaxing the requirement that the regulator allow shifts of loop moments, we are able to obtain a nonvanishing hard gluonic contribution to the first moment of g 1 . However, the first moments of the resulting quark distributions correspond to matrix elements that are either gauge variant or involve nonlocal operators and, hence, have no analogue in the standard operator-product expansion. 11 refs., 2 figs

  8. Cdk phosphorylation of the Ste11 transcription factor constrains differentiation-specific transcription to G1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerulff, Søren; Andersen, Nicoline Resen; Borup, Mia Trolle

    2007-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells normally differentiate from G(1); here we investigate the mechanism preventing expression of differentiation-specific genes outside G(1). In fission yeast, induction of the transcription factor Ste11 triggers sexual differentiation. We find that Ste11 is only active in G(1) when...... Cdk activity is low. In the remaining part of the cell cycle, Ste11 becomes Cdk-phosphorylated at Thr 82 (T82), which inhibits its DNA-binding activity. Since the ste11 gene is autoregulated and the Ste11 protein is highly unstable, this Cdk switch rapidly extinguishes Ste11 activity when cells enter...... S phase. When we mutated T82 to aspartic acid, mimicking constant phosphorylation, cells no longer underwent differentiation. Conversely, changing T82 to alanine rendered Ste11-controlled transcription constitutive through the cell cycle, and allowed mating from S phase with increased frequency...

  9. Hydroxyurea does not prevent synchronized G1 Chinese hamster cells from entering the DNA synthetic period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, R.A.; Tobey, R.A.; Hildebrand, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    Using very high concentrations of radioactively labeled thymidine, we show that synchronized G 1 cells treated with hydroxyurea entered the DNA synthetic period at a time and rate indistinguishable from that of untreated cells, although the rate of DNA synthesis was greatly reduced in the drug-treated cultures. The DNA synthesized in the presence of hydroxyurea was less than or equal to 1 x 10 7 daltons, all of which could be chased into bulk DNA of approximately 3.5 x 10 8 daltons within 3 hr after removal of hydroxyurea. Hydroxyurea synchronized cells are apparently not blocked at the G 1 /S boundary but in the S phase itself

  10. Measurement of the temperature of the neutrons in reactor G1; Mesure de la temperature des neutrons dans la pile G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raievski, V; Sautiez, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    A precise experimental method has been adapted to the analysis of the spectrum of neutrons in the thermal region. This method uses the technique of modulation applied to a beam of neutrons issuing from a characteristic point in the pile. The analysis of the spectrum is made by adjusting, by the method of least squares, an analytical form to the experimental results. In this report are given the results obtained with a beam from the centre of the moderator of G1. The spectrum of this beam essentially represents the spectrum of the neutrons in the moderator. The most probable velocity was determined by means of Maxwell's functions. The measurements were made of different moderator temperatures between 304 deg. K and 435 deg. K. (author) [French] Une methode experimentale precise a ete mise au point pour l'analyse du spectre des neutrons dans le domaine thermique. Cette methode utilise la technique de la modulation appliquee a un faisceau de neutrons issu d'un point caracteristique de la pile. L'analyse du spectre est faite en ajustant par la methode des moindres carres une forme analytique aux resultats experimentaux. Dans ce rapport, on donne les resultats obtenus sur un faisceau du centre du moderateur de G1. Le spectre de ce faisceau represente convenablement le spectre des neutrons dans le moderateur. On s'est limite ici a une fonction de Maxwell dont on a recherche la vitesse la plus probable. Les mesures ont ete faites avec une temperature du moderateur variant entre 304 deg. K et 435 deg. K. (auteur)

  11. Intermittent Smoothing Approaches for Wind Power Output: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jabir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is one of the most common types of renewable energy resource. Due to its sustainability and environmental benefits, it is an emerging source for electric power generation. Rapid and random changes of wind speed makes it an irregular and inconsistent power source when connected to the grid, causing different technical problems in protection, power quality and generation dispatch control. Due to these problems, effective intermittent smoothing approaches for wind power output are crucially needed to minimize such problems. This paper reviews various intermittent smoothing approaches used in smoothing the output power fluctuations caused by wind energy. Problems associated with the inclusion of wind energy resources to grid are also briefly reviewed. From this review, it has been found that battery energy storage system is the most suitable and effective smoothing approach, provided that an effective control strategy is available for optimal utilization of battery energy system. This paper further demonstrates different control strategies built for battery energy storage system to obtain the smooth output wind power.

  12. The DNA replication checkpoint directly regulates MBF-dependent G1/S transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Chaitali; Patel, Prasanta K; Rosebrock, Adam; Oliva, Anna; Leatherwood, Janet; Rhind, Nicholas

    2008-10-01

    The DNA replication checkpoint transcriptionally upregulates genes that allow cells to adapt to and survive replication stress. Our results show that, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the replication checkpoint regulates the entire G(1)/S transcriptional program by directly regulating MBF, the G(1)/S transcription factor. Instead of initiating a checkpoint-specific transcriptional program, the replication checkpoint targets MBF to maintain the normal G(1)/S transcriptional program during replication stress. We propose a mechanism for this regulation, based on in vitro phosphorylation of the Cdc10 subunit of MBF by the Cds1 replication-checkpoint kinase. Replacement of two potential phosphorylation sites with phosphomimetic amino acids suffices to promote the checkpoint transcriptional program, suggesting that Cds1 phosphorylation directly regulates MBF-dependent transcription. The conservation of MBF between fission and budding yeast, and recent results implicating MBF as a target of the budding yeast replication checkpoint, suggests that checkpoint regulation of the MBF transcription factor is a conserved strategy for coping with replication stress. Furthermore, the structural and regulatory similarity between MBF and E2F, the metazoan G(1)/S transcription factor, suggests that this checkpoint mechanism may be broadly conserved among eukaryotes.

  13. Sojourn times in the M/G/1 FB queue with light-tailed service times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R.H. Mandjes (Michel); M. Nuyens

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe asymptotic decay rate of the sojourn time of a customer in the stationary M/G/1 queue under the Foreground-Background (FB) service discipline is studied. The FB discipline gives service to those customers that have received the least service so far. We prove that for light-tailed

  14. The Remaining Service Time Upon Reaching a High Level in M/G/1 Queues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Nicola, V.F.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.

    The distribution of the remaining service time upon reaching some target level in an M/G/1 queue is of theoretical as well as practical interest. In general, this distribution depends on the initial level as well as on the target level, say, B. Two initial levels are of particular interest, namely,

  15. The spin dependent structure function g1 of the deuteron and the proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klostermann, L.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis presents a study on the spin structure of the nucleon, via deep inelastic scattering (DIS) of polarised nuons on polarised proton and deuterium targets. The work was done in the Spin Muon Collaboration (SMC) at CERN in Geneva. From the asymmetry in the scattering cross section for nucleon and lepton spins parallel and anti-parallel, one con determine the spin dependent structure function g 1 , which contains information on the quark and gluon spin distribution functions. The interpretation in the frame work of the quark parton model (QPM) of earlier results on g 1 p by the European Muon Collaboration (EMC), gave an indication that only a small fraction of the proton spin, compatible with zero, is carried by the spins of the constituent quarks. The SMC was set up to check this unexpected result with improved accuracy, and to combine measurements of g 1 p and g 1 d to test a fundamental sum rule in quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the Bjorken sum rule. (orig./WL)

  16. Analysis of an M/G/1 queue with customer impatience and an adaptive arrival process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.; Prabhu, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    We study an M/G/1 queue with impatience and an adaptive arrival process. The rate of the arrival process changes according to whether an incoming customer is accepted or rejected. We analyse two different models for impatience : (i) based on workload, and (ii) based on queue length. For the

  17. Solid-phase synthesis and biological activity of a thioether analogue of conotoxin G1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Jon; Grunnet, Morten; Jespersen, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    of two isomers, which were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the muscular nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The two isomers were found to have IC(50) values (inhibitory activities) of 144 microM and 48 microM, compared to 0.18 microM for native conotoxin G1....

  18. The M/G/1 queue with quasi-restricted accessibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.; Perry, D.; Stadje, W.; Zacks, S.

    2009-01-01

    We consider single-server queues of the M/G/1 kind with a special kind of partial customer rejection called quasi-restricted accessibility (QRA). Under QRA, the actual service time assigned to an arriving customer depends on his service requirement, say x, the current workload, say w, and a

  19. 26 CFR 1.430(g)-1 - Valuation date and valuation of plan assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the adjusted fair market value of plan assets, assets that are added to a plan as a result of a plan... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Certain Stock Options § 1.430(g)-1 Valuation date and.... Paragraph (c) of this section describes rules regarding the determination of the asset value for purposes of...

  20. Apparatus of irradiation of steel test pieces in the Marcoule pile G 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinot, R.; Wallet, Ph.

    1960-01-01

    Test pieces of steel were irradiated in the reactor G1 at Marcoule, in convectors replacing fuel elements, and in vertical channels in furnace-heated containers. The apparatus designed for this irradiation is described: containers, converter-rods, suspension fixtures and clamps, temperature measurement devices, lead castles and unloading set-ups. (author) [fr

  1. Human IgG1 antibodies suppress angiogenesis in a target-independent manner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogdanovich, Sasha; Kim, Younghee; Mizutani, Takeshi; Yasuma, Reo; Tudisco, Laura; Cicatiello, Valeria; Bastos-Carvalho, Ana; Kerur, Nagaraj; Hirano, Yoshio; Baffi, Judit Z; Tarallo, Valeria; Li, Shengjian; Yasuma, Tetsuhiro; Arpitha, Parthasarathy; Fowler, Benjamin J; Wright, Charles B; Apicella, Ivana; Greco, Adelaide; Brunetti, Arturo; Ruvo, Menotti; Sandomenico, Annamaria; Nozaki, Miho; Ijima, Ryo; Kaneko, Hiroki; Ogura, Yuichiro; Terasaki, Hiroko; Ambati, Balamurali K; Leusen, Jeanette HW; Langdon, Wallace Y; Clark, Michael R; Armour, Kathryn L; Bruhns, Pierre; Verbeek, J Sjef; Gelfand, Bradley D; De Falco, Sandro; Ambati, Jayakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant angiogenesis is implicated in diseases affecting nearly 10% of the world's population. The most widely used anti-angiogenic drug is bevacizumab, a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody that targets human VEGFA. Although bevacizumab does not recognize mouse Vegfa, it inhibits angiogenesis in

  2. The Hot Stellar Content and HB morphology of the massive globular cluster G1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, R.

    2010-09-01

    We propose to obtain deep WFC3 imagery of the Local Group's most luminous globular cluster, G1. Our primary aim is to define the hot stellar content and the extent of what appears to be a multimodal horizontal branch, analogous to those known in Omega Cen and NGC 2808. G1 is 40 kpc distant in the M31, and it would have been highly unlikely that collision with a giant molecular clould would be responsible for the complex populations which must therefore be the result of self-enrichment. We will obtain data very similar to those obtained for the known Galactic multimodal globular clusters NGC 6388 and 6441, and compare the stellar distribution on the horizontal branch with models. We can constrain the fraction of helium-enriched stars, if present, and search for supra-horizontal branch and other anomalous hot, evolved, stars. Parallel ACS observations will be the deepest ever obtained in the adjacnt field to G1, and will help to constrain whether G1 was the nucleus of a now disrupted galaxy.

  3. Sojourn times in the M/G/1 FB queue with light-tailed service times.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandjes, M.R.H.; Nuijens, M.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT The asymptotic decay rate of the sojourn time of a customer in the stationary M/G/1 queue under the Foreground-Background (FB) service discipline is studied. The FB discipline gives service to those customers that have received the least service so far. We prove that for lighttailed service

  4. 26 CFR 1.45G-1 - Railroad track maintenance credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES Rules for Computing Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.45G-1 Railroad track... extensions) Federal income tax return for the taxable year the RTMC is claimed. Paragraph (b) of this section..., accounting and bookkeeping, marketing, legal services; janitorial services; office building rental; banking...

  5. Heavy-traffic analysis for the GI/G/1 queue with heavy-tailed distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.J. Boxma (Onno); J.W. Cohen

    1997-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a $GI/G/1$ queue in which the service time distribution and/or the interarrival time distribution has a heavy tail, i.e., a tail behaviour like $t^{-nu$ with $1

  6. Sojourn time asymptotics in the M/G/1 processor sharing queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P. Zwart (Bert); O.J. Boxma (Onno)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractWe show for the M/G/1 processor sharing queue that the service time distribution is regularly varying of index $-nu$, $nu$ non-integer, iff the sojourn time distribution is regularly varying of index $-nu $. This result is derived from a new expression for the Laplace-Stieltjes transform

  7. Cdk2 Inhibition Prolongs G1 Phase Progression in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koledová, Z.; Rašková-Kafková, L.; Calábková, L.; Kryštof, Vladimír; Doležel, P.; Divoký, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2010), s. 181-193 ISSN 1547-3287 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : embryonic stem cells * cell cycle * G1 phase Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.791, year: 2010

  8. The DNA Replication Checkpoint Directly Regulates MBF-Dependent G1/S Transcription▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Chaitali; Patel, Prasanta K.; Rosebrock, Adam; Oliva, Anna; Leatherwood, Janet; Rhind, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    The DNA replication checkpoint transcriptionally upregulates genes that allow cells to adapt to and survive replication stress. Our results show that, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the replication checkpoint regulates the entire G1/S transcriptional program by directly regulating MBF, the G1/S transcription factor. Instead of initiating a checkpoint-specific transcriptional program, the replication checkpoint targets MBF to maintain the normal G1/S transcriptional program during replication stress. We propose a mechanism for this regulation, based on in vitro phosphorylation of the Cdc10 subunit of MBF by the Cds1 replication-checkpoint kinase. Replacement of two potential phosphorylation sites with phosphomimetic amino acids suffices to promote the checkpoint transcriptional program, suggesting that Cds1 phosphorylation directly regulates MBF-dependent transcription. The conservation of MBF between fission and budding yeast, and recent results implicating MBF as a target of the budding yeast replication checkpoint, suggests that checkpoint regulation of the MBF transcription factor is a conserved strategy for coping with replication stress. Furthermore, the structural and regulatory similarity between MBF and E2F, the metazoan G1/S transcription factor, suggests that this checkpoint mechanism may be broadly conserved among eukaryotes. PMID:18662996

  9. Nonparametric estimation of the stationary M/G/1 workload distribution function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted

    2005-01-01

    In this paper it is demonstrated how a nonparametric estimator of the stationary workload distribution function of the M/G/1-queue can be obtained by systematic sampling the workload process. Weak convergence results and bootstrap methods for empirical distribution functions for stationary associ...

  10. Energy transport, polar amplification, and ITCZ shifts in the GeoMIP G1 ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Russotto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The polar amplification of warming and the ability of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ to shift to the north or south are two very important problems in climate science. Examining these behaviors in global climate models (GCMs running solar geoengineering experiments is helpful not only for predicting the effects of solar geoengineering but also for understanding how these processes work under increased carbon dioxide (CO2. Both polar amplification and ITCZ shifts are closely related to the meridional transport of moist static energy (MSE by the atmosphere. This study examines changes in MSE transport in 10 fully coupled GCMs in experiment G1 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP, in which the solar constant is reduced to compensate for the radiative forcing from abruptly quadrupled CO2 concentrations. In G1, poleward MSE transport decreases relative to preindustrial conditions in all models, in contrast to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5 abrupt4xCO2 experiment, in which poleward MSE transport increases. We show that since poleward energy transport decreases rather than increases, and local feedbacks cannot change the sign of an initial temperature change, the residual polar amplification in the G1 experiment must be due to the net positive forcing in the polar regions and net negative forcing in the tropics, which arise from the different spatial patterns of the simultaneously imposed solar and CO2 forcings. However, the reduction in poleward energy transport likely plays a role in limiting the polar warming in G1. An attribution study with a moist energy balance model shows that cloud feedbacks are the largest source of uncertainty regarding changes in poleward energy transport in midlatitudes in G1, as well as for changes in cross-equatorial energy transport, which are anticorrelated with ITCZ shifts.

  11. Abnormal G1 arrest in the cell lines from LEC strain rats after X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, M.; Uehara, K.; Kirisawa, R.; Endoh, D.; Arai, S.; Okui, T.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of X-irradiation of cell lines from LEC and WKAH strain rats on a progression o cell cycle was investigated. When WKAH rat ells were exposed to 5 Gy of X-rays and their cell cycle distribution was determined by a flow cytometer, the proportion of S-phase cells decrease and that of G2/M-phase cells in creased at 8 hr post-irradiation. At 18 and 24 hr post-irradiation, approximately 80% of the cells appeared in the G1 phase. On the contrary, the proportion of S-phase cells increased and that of G1-phase cells decreased in LEC rats during 8-24 hr post-irradiation, compared with that at 0 hr post-irradiation. Thus, radiation-induced delay in the progression from the G1 phase to S phase (G1 arrest) was observed inWKAH rat cells but not in LEC rat cells. In the case of WKAH rat cells, the intensities of the bands of p53 protein increased at 1 and 2 hr after X-irradiation at 5 Gy, compared with those of un-irradiated cells and at 0 hr post-irradiation. In contrast, the intensities of the bands were faint and did not significantly increase in LEC rat ells during 0-6 hr incubation after X-irradiation. Present results suggested that the radioresistant DNA synthesis in LEC rat cells is thought to be due to the abnormal G1 arrest following X-irradiation

  12. Exchange rate smoothing in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Karádi, Péter

    2005-01-01

    The paper proposes a structural empirical model capable of examining exchange rate smoothing in the small, open economy of Hungary. The framework assumes the existence of an unobserved and changing implicit exchange rate target. The central bank is assumed to use interest rate policy to obtain this preferred rate in the medium term, while market participants are assumed to form rational expectations about this target and influence exchange rates accordingly. The paper applies unobserved varia...

  13. Modeling ERBB receptor-regulated G1/S transition to find novel targets for de novo trastuzumab resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thieffry Denis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In breast cancer, overexpression of the transmembrane tyrosine kinase ERBB2 is an adverse prognostic marker, and occurs in almost 30% of the patients. For therapeutic intervention, ERBB2 is targeted by monoclonal antibody trastuzumab in adjuvant settings; however, de novo resistance to this antibody is still a serious issue, requiring the identification of additional targets to overcome resistance. In this study, we have combined computational simulations, experimental testing of simulation results, and finally reverse engineering of a protein interaction network to define potential therapeutic strategies for de novo trastuzumab resistant breast cancer. Results First, we employed Boolean logic to model regulatory interactions and simulated single and multiple protein loss-of-functions. Then, our simulation results were tested experimentally by producing single and double knockdowns of the network components and measuring their effects on G1/S transition during cell cycle progression. Combinatorial targeting of ERBB2 and EGFR did not affect the response to trastuzumab in de novo resistant cells, which might be due to decoupling of receptor activation and cell cycle progression. Furthermore, examination of c-MYC in resistant as well as in sensitive cell lines, using a specific chemical inhibitor of c-MYC (alone or in combination with trastuzumab, demonstrated that both trastuzumab sensitive and resistant cells responded to c-MYC perturbation. Conclusion In this study, we connected ERBB signaling with G1/S transition of the cell cycle via two major cell signaling pathways and two key transcription factors, to model an interaction network that allows for the identification of novel targets in the treatment of trastuzumab resistant breast cancer. Applying this new strategy, we found that, in contrast to trastuzumab sensitive breast cancer cells, combinatorial targeting of ERBB receptors or of key signaling intermediates does not

  14. Smooth surfaces from rational bilinear patches

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Ling; Wang, Jun; Pottmann, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Smooth freeform skins from simple panels constitute a challenging topic arising in contemporary architecture. We contribute to this problem area by showing how to approximate a negatively curved surface by smoothly joined rational bilinear patches

  15. The spin-dependent structure function g1 of the deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueltmann, S.

    1996-01-01

    Results on the spin-dependent structure function g 1 d of the deuteron measured by the Spin Muon Collaboration at CERN are presented. They are based on deep-inelastic scattering of 190 GeV polarized muons off a polarized deuteron target in the kinematic range of 0.003 ≤ x Bj ≤ 0.7 and 1 GeV 2 ≤ Q 2 ≤ 60 GeV 2 . The structure function is found to be negative for small values of x Bj , while the proton structure function g 1 p measured earlier by the SMC is positive over the whole x Bj -range. The Bjorken sum rule is in good agreement with the first moments of the structure functions, while the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule is violated by more than three standard deviations for the deuteron measurement. (author)

  16. The MAP, M/G1,G2/1 queue with preemptive priority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong Dae Choi

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the MAP, M/G1,G2/1 queue with preemptive resume priority, where low priority customers arrive to the system according to a Markovian arrival process (MAP and high priority customers according to a Poisson process. The service time density function of low (respectively: high priority customers is g1(x (respectively: g2(x. We use the supplementary variable method with Extended Laplace Transforms to obtain the joint transform of the number of customers in each priority queue, as well as the remaining service time for the customer in service in the steady state. We also derive the probability generating function for the number of customers of low (respectively, high priority in the system just after the service completion epochs for customers of low (respectively, high priority.

  17. Rare Coumarins Induce Apoptosis, G1 Cell Block and Reduce RNA Content in HL60 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widelski Jarosław

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The rare coumarins stenocarpin, stenocarpin isobutyrate, oficinalin, oficinalin isobutyrate, 8-methoxypeucedanin and the known xanthotoxin, isoimperatorin, bergapten, peucedanin and 8–methoxyisoimperatorin were isolated from Peucedanum luxurians Tamamsch. (Apiaceae and identified by means of spectral data (1D and 2D NMR. Their immunomodulating activity was evaluated by flow cytometry and their influence on HL60 cells as well as on PHA-stimulated PBLs was tested. All tested coumarins induce apoptosis (maximal in the 48 h culture and decrease cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner, especially in HL60 cells. They also induce partial G1 block, but only in HL60 cells (at 100 µM concentrations. Dose-dependent reduction of RNA content was also found in G1 cells treated by the coumarins. All of the tested coumarins also possessed immunomodulatory activities. Bergapten and xanthotoxin were found to be the best candidates for further evaluation as anti-cancer drugs.

  18. Multilevel processor-sharing algorithm for M/G/1 systems with priorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yassouridis, A.; Koller, R.

    1983-01-01

    The well-known multilevel processor-sharing algorithm for M/G/1 systems without priorities is extended to M/G/1 systems with priority classes. The average response time t/sub j/(x) and the average waiting time w/sub j/(x) for a j-class job, which requires a total service of x sec, are analytically calculated. Some figures demonstrate how the priority classes and the total number of different levels affect the behaviour of the functions t/sub j/(x) and w/sub j/(x). In addition, the foreground-background algorithm with priorities, which is not yet covered in the literature, is treated as a special case of the multilevel processor-sharing algorithm. 8 references.

  19. Recuperation of the energy released in the G-1, an air-cooled graphite reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambadal, P.; Pascal, M.

    1955-01-01

    The CEA (in his five-year setting plan) has objective among others, the realization of the two first french reactors moderated with graphite. The construction of the G-1 reactor in Marcoule, first french plutonic core, is achieved so that it will diverge in the beginning of 1956 and reach its full power in the beginning of the second semester of the same year. In this report we will detail the specificities of the reactor and in particular its cooling and energy recuperation system. The G-1 reactor being essentially intended to allow the french technicians to study the behavior of an energy installation supply taking its heat in a nuclear source as early as possible. (M.B.) [fr

  20. Differential regulation of the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks in G1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlow, Jacqueline H; Lisby, Michael; Rothstein, Rodney

    2008-01-01

    -induced breaks are recognized by Rfa1 only after the cell enters S phase. This difference is dependent on the DNA end-binding Yku70/Yku80 complex. Cell-cycle regulation is also observed in the DNA damage checkpoint response. Specifically, the 9-1-1 complex is required in G1 cells to recruit the Ddc2 checkpoint...... protein to damaged DNA, while, upon entry into S phase, the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc28 and the 9-1-1 complex both serve to recruit Ddc2 to foci. Together, these results demonstrate that the DNA repair machinery distinguishes between different types of damage in G1, which translates into different modes...

  1. Beta1 integrins regulate chondrocyte rotation, G1 progression, and cytokinesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aszodi, Attila; Hunziker, Ernst B; Brakebusch, Cord

    2003-01-01

    Beta1 integrins are highly expressed on chondrocytes, where they mediate adhesion to cartilage matrix proteins. To assess the functions of beta1 integrin during skeletogenesis, we inactivated the beta1 integrin gene in chondrocytes. We show here that these mutant mice develop a chondrodysplasia...... of various severity. beta1-deficient chondrocytes had an abnormal shape and failed to arrange into columns in the growth plate. This is caused by a lack of motility, which is in turn caused by a loss of adhesion to collagen type II, reduced binding to and impaired spreading on fibronectin, and an abnormal F......-actin organization. In addition, mutant chondrocytes show decreased proliferation caused by a defect in G1/S transition and cytokinesis. The G1/S defect is, at least partially, caused by overexpression of Fgfr3, nuclear translocation of Stat1/Stat5a, and up-regulation of the cell cycle inhibitors p16 and p21...

  2. Measurement of the Polarized Structure Function $g_1^p$ at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, R.D.; Forte, S.; Hughes, V.W.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Ridolfi, G.; Ball, Richard D.; Deshpande, Abhay; Forte, Stefano; Hughes, Vernon W.; Lichtenstadt, Jechiel; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    1996-01-01

    We present estimates of possible data on spin-dependent asymmetries in inclusive scattering of high energy polarized electrons by high energy polarized protons at HERA, including statistical errors, and discuss systematic uncertainties. We show that these data would shed light on the small x behaviour of the polarized structure function g_1, and would reduce substantially the uncertainty on the determination of the polarized gluon distribution.

  3. Temperature duality on Riemann surface and cosmological solutions for genus g = 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Jun; Wang Shunjin

    1999-01-01

    A bosonic string model at finite temperature on the gravitation g μν and the dilaton φ background field is examined. Moreover, the duality relation of energy momentum tensor on high genus Riemann surface is derived. At the same time, the temperature duality invariance for the action of string gas matter is proved in 4-D Robertson-Walker metric, the string cosmological solutions and temperature duality of the equations of motion for genus g = 1 and 2 are also investigated

  4. The MX/G/1 queue with queue length dependent service times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong Dae Choi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We deal with the MX/G/1 queue where service times depend on the queue length at the service initiation. By using Markov renewal theory, we derive the queue length distribution at departure epochs. We also obtain the transient queue length distribution at time t and its limiting distribution and the virtual waiting time distribution. The numerical results for transient mean queue length and queue length distributions are given.

  5. NONUNIFORM EXPANSION OF THE YOUNGEST GALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANT G1.9+0.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Green, David A.; Hwang, Una; Petre, Robert; Krishnamurthy, Kalyani; Willett, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    We report measurements of the X-ray expansion of the youngest Galactic supernova remnant, G1.9+0.3, using Chandra observations in 2007, 2009, and 2011. The measured rates strongly deviate from uniform expansion, decreasing radially by about 60% along the X-ray bright SE-NW axis from 0.84% ± 0.06% yr –1 to 0.52% ± 0.03% yr –1 . This corresponds to undecelerated ages of 120-190 yr, confirming the young age of G1.9+0.3 and implying a significant deceleration of the blast wave. The synchrotron-dominated X-ray emission brightens at a rate of 1.9% ± 0.4% yr –1 . We identify bright outer and inner rims with the blast wave and reverse shock, respectively. Sharp density gradients in either the ejecta or ambient medium are required to produce the sudden deceleration of the reverse shock or the blast wave implied by the large spread in expansion ages. The blast wave could have been decelerated recently by an encounter with a modest density discontinuity in the ambient medium, such as may be found at a wind termination shock, requiring strong mass loss in the progenitor. Alternatively, the reverse shock might have encountered an order-of-magnitude density discontinuity within the ejecta, such as may be found in pulsating delayed-detonation Type Ia models. We demonstrate that the blast wave is much more decelerated than the reverse shock in these models for remnants at ages similar to G1.9+0.3. Similar effects may also be produced by dense shells possibly associated with high-velocity features in Type Ia spectra. Accounting for the asymmetry of G1.9+0.3 will require more realistic three-dimensional Type Ia models

  6. A next-to-leading order QCD analysis of the spin structure function $g_1$

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067425; Arik, E; Badelek, B; Bardin, G; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Betev, L; Birsa, R; De Botton, N R; Bradamante, Franco; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Bültmann, S; Burtin, E; Crabb, D; Cranshaw, J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Dalla Torre, S; Van Dantzig, R; Derro, B R; Deshpande, A A; Dhawan, S K; Dulya, C M; Eichblatt, S; Fasching, D; Feinstein, F; Fernández, C; Forthmann, S; Frois, Bernard; Gallas, A; Garzón, J A; Gilly, H; Giorgi, M A; von Goeler, E; Görtz, S; Gracia, G; De Groot, N; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Haft, K; Von Harrach, D; Hasegawa, T; Hautle, P; Hayashi, N; Heusch, C A; Horikawa, N; Hughes, V W; Igo, G; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kabuss, E M; Kageya, T; Karev, A G; Kessler, H J; Ketel, T; Kiryluk, J; Kiselev, Yu F; Krämer, Dietrich; Krivokhizhin, V G; Kröger, W; Kukhtin, V V; Kurek, K; Kyynäräinen, J; Lamanna, M; Landgraf, U; Le Goff, J M; Lehár, F; de Lesquen, A; Lichtenstadt, J; Litmaath, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Marie, F; Martin, A; Martino, J; Matsuda, T; Mayes, B W; McCarthy, J S; Medved, K S; Meyer, W T; Van Middelkoop, G; Miller, D; Miyachi, Y; Mori, K; Moromisato, J H; Nassalski, J P; Naumann, Lutz; Niinikoski, T O; Oberski, J; Ogawa, A; Ozben, C; Pereira, H; Perrot-Kunne, F; Peshekhonov, V D; Piegia, R; Pinsky, L; Platchkov, S K; Pló, M; Pose, D; Postma, H; Pretz, J; Puntaferro, R; Rädel, G; Rijllart, A; Reicherz, G; Roberts, J; Rodríguez, M; Rondio, Ewa; Sabo, I; Saborido, J; Sandacz, A; Savin, I A; Schiavon, R P; Schiller, A; Sichtermann, E P; Simeoni, F; Smirnov, G I; Staude, A; Steinmetz, A; Stiegler, U; Stuhrmann, H B; Szleper, M; Tessarotto, F; Thers, D; Tlaczala, W; Tripet, A; Ünel, G; Velasco, M; Vogt, J; Voss, Rüdiger; Whitten, C; Windmolders, R; Willumeit, R; Wislicki, W; Witzmann, A; Ylöstalo, J; Zanetti, A M; Zaremba, K; Zhao, J

    1998-01-01

    We present a next-to-leading order QCD analysis of the presently available data on the spin structure function $g_1$ including the final data from the Spin Muon Collaboration (SMC). We present resu lts for the first moments of the proton, deuteron and neutron structure functions, and determine singlet and non-singlet parton distributions in two factorization schemes. We also test the Bjor ken sum rule and find agreement with the theoretical prediction at the level of 10\\%.

  7. Calcium dynamics in vascular smooth muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Amberg, Gregory C.; Navedo, Manuel F.

    2013-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells are ultimately responsible for determining vascular luminal diameter and blood flow. Dynamic changes in intracellular calcium are a critical mechanism regulating vascular smooth muscle contractility. Processes influencing intracellular calcium are therefore important regulators of vascular function with physiological and pathophysiological consequences. In this review we discuss the major dynamic calcium signals identified and characterized in vascular smooth muscle cells....

  8. multiscale smoothing in supervised statistical learning

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optimum level of smoothing is chosen based on the entire training sample, while a good choice of smoothing parameter may also depend on the observation to be classified. One may like to assess the strength of evidence in favor of different competing class at different scale of smoothing. In allows only one single ...

  9. A SAS IML Macro for Loglinear Smoothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Tim; von Davier, Alina

    2011-01-01

    Polynomial loglinear models for one-, two-, and higher-way contingency tables have important applications to measurement and assessment. They are essentially regarded as a smoothing technique, which is commonly referred to as loglinear smoothing. A SAS IML (SAS Institute, 2002a) macro was created to implement loglinear smoothing according to…

  10. Irradiated graphite studies prior to decommissioning of G1, G2 and G3 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonal, J.P.; Vistoli, J.Ph.; Combes, C.

    2005-01-01

    G1 (46 MW th ), G2 (250 MW th ) and G3 (250 MW th ) are the first French plutonium production reactors owned by CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique). They started to be operated in 1956 (G1), 1959 (G2) and 1960 (G3); their final shutdown occurred in 1968, 1980 and 1984 respectively. Each reactor used about 1200 tons of graphite as moderator, moreover in G2 and G3, a 95 tons graphite wall is used to shield the rear side concrete from neutron irradiation. G1 is an air cooled reactor operated at a graphite temperature ranging from 30 C to 230 C; G2 and G3 are CO 2 cooled reactors and during operation the graphite temperature is higher (140 C to 400 C). These reactors are now partly decommissioned, but the graphite stacks are still inside the reactors. The graphite core radioactivity has decreased enough so that a full decommissioning stage may be considered. Conceming this decommissioning, the studies reported here are: (i) stored energy in graphite, (ii) graphite radioactivity measurements, (iii) leaching of radionuclide ( 14 C, 36 Cl, 63 Ni, 60 Co, 3 H) from graphite, (iv) chlorine diffusion through graphite. (authors)

  11. Tet1 is required for Rb phosphorylation during G1/S phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Shengsong; Zhu, Ziqi; Wang, Yiqin; Wang, Yanru; Xu, Longxia; Chen, Xuemei; Xu, Qing; Zhang, Qimin; Zhao, Xin; Yu, Yi; Wu, Denglong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Tet1 was required for NIT3T3 proliferation. •Tet1 depletion inhibited G1-S entry. •Cyclin D1 accumulation and Rb phosphorylation was blocked by Tet1 knockdown. -- Abstract: DNA methylation plays an important role in many biological processes, including regulation of gene expression, maintenance of chromatin conformation and genomic stability. TET-family proteins convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), which indicates that these enzymes may participate in DNA demethylation. The function of TET1 has not yet been well characterized in somatic cells. Here, we show that depletion of Tet1 in NIH3T3 cells inhibits cell growth. Furthermore, Tet1 knockdown blocks cyclin D1 accumulation in G1 phase, inhibits Rb phosphorylation and consequently delays entrance to G1/S phase. Taken together, this study demonstrates that Tet1 is required for cell proliferation and that this process is mediated through the Rb pathway

  12. Control of G1 in the developing Drosophila eye: rca1 regulates Cyclin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X; Zavitz, K H; Thomas, B J; Lin, M; Campbell, S; Zipursky, S L

    1997-01-01

    In the developing eye of Drosophila melanogaster, cells become synchronized in the G1 phase of the cell cycle just prior to the onset of cellular differentiation and morphogenesis. In roughex (rux) mutants, cells enter S phase precociously because of ectopic activation of a Cyclin A/Cdk complex in early G1. This leads to defects in cell fate and pattern formation, and results in abnormalities in the morphology of the adult eye. A screen for dominant suppressors of the rux eye phenotype led to the identification of mutations in cyclin A, string (cdc25), and new cell cycle genes. One of these genes, regulator of cyclin A (rca1), encodes a novel protein required for both mitotic and meiotic cell cycle progression. rca1 mutants arrest in G2 of embryonic cell cycle 16 with a phenotype very similar to cyclin A loss of function mutants. Expression of rca1 transgenes in G1 or in postmitotic neurons promotes Cyclin A protein accumulation and drives cells into S phase in a Cyclin A-dependent fashion.

  13. Dux4 induces cell cycle arrest at G1 phase through upregulation of p21 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Zhaoxia; Jin, Suqin; Hao, Hongjun; Zheng, Lemin; Zhou, Boda; Zhang, Wei; Lv, He; Yuan, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dux4 induced TE671 cell proliferation defect and G1 phase arrest. • Dux4 upregulated p21 expression without activating p53. • Silencing p21 rescued Dux4 mediated proliferation defect and cell cycle arrest. • Sp1 binding site was required for Dux4-induced p21 promoter activation. - Abstract: It has been implicated that Dux4 plays crucial roles in development of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy. But the underlying myopathic mechanisms and related down-stream events of this retrogene were far from clear. Here, we reported that overexpression of Dux4 in a cell model TE671 reduced cell proliferation rate, and increased G1 phase accumulation. We also determined the impact of Dux4 on p53/p21 signal pathway, which controls the checkpoint in cell cycle progression. Overexpression of Dux4 increased p21 mRNA and protein level, while expression of p53, phospho-p53 remained unchanged. Silencing p21 rescued Dux4 mediated proliferation defect and cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we demonstrated that enhanced Dux4 expression increased p21 promoter activity and elevated expression of Sp1 transcription factor. Mutation of Sp1 binding site decreased dux4 induced p21 promoter activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed the Dux4-induced binding of Sp1 to p21 promoter in vivo. These results suggest that Dux4 might induce proliferation inhibition and G1 phase arrest through upregulation of p21

  14. Preferential radiosensitization of G1 checkpoint--deficient cells by methylxanthines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, Kenneth J.; Wiens, Linda W.; Demers, G. William; Galloway, Denise A.; Le, Tiep; Rice, Glenn C.; Bianco, James A.; Singer, Jack W.; Groudine, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a checkpoint-based strategy for preferential radiosensitization of human tumors with deficient and/or mutant p53. Methods and Materials: A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines differing in their expression of the p53 tumor suppressor gene were produced by transduction with the E6 oncogene from human papilloma virus type 16. The cells expressing E6 (E6+) lack a G1 arrest in response to ionizing radiation, are deficient in p53 and p21 expression, and exhibit a fivefold greater clonogenic survival following 10 Gy radiation. Results: Postirradiation incubation with millimolar concentrations of the methylxanthine pentoxifylline (PTX) results in preferential radiosensitization of the E6+ cells compared to the LXSN+ vector transduced controls. There is a threefold sensitization of the LXSN+ cells and a 15-fold sensitization of the E6+ cells, which results in equal clonogenic survival of the two lines. Flow cytometry reveals PTX abrogation of the radiation induced G2 arrest for both cell lines. PTX also prolongs G1 transit for both cell lines. Preliminary results are presented using a novel methylxanthine, lisofylline (LSF), which has similar cell cycle effects on G1 and G2 and achieves differential radiosensitization at micromolar concentrations that are sustainable in humans. Conclusions: This checkpoint-based strategy is a promising approach for achieving preferential radiosensitization of p53- tumors relative to p53+ normal tissues

  15. Influence of Thermal Treatment on the Characteristics of Major Oyster Allergen Cra g 1 (Tropomyosin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lei; Li, Guoming; Gu, Ruizeng; Cai, Muyi; Lu, Jun

    2018-04-15

    Shellfish, including oysters, often cause allergic reactions in adults. Thermal treatment is one of the most common technologies to deal with seafood, which may affect biological properties. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of heating on conformation and potential allergenicity of oyster-derived tropomyosin (Cra g 1). SDS-PAGE showed that there was an apparent band at 35KD of raw tropomyosin after purification and more significant polymers appeared in heated protein. Interestingly, the obviously changes in the intensity of CD signal and ANS-binding fluorescence were observed especially in the case of roasted form, which was associated with an increase in antibody reactivity. The degree of IgE binding of this treatment was demonstrated in the order roasted>boiled > raw. Furthermore, sequence alignment and amino acid composition revealed that Cra g 1 shared relatively high homology to tropomyosins from other shellfish and was abundant in lysine that was apt to be modified by reducing sugars during heating. Heated Cra g 1 produces higher IgE reactivity than raw one, owing to denaturation and formation of polymers. These findings will benefit more diagnosis and management of potential allergenicity due to shellfish. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Two pathways of DNA double-strand break repair in G1 cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazunov, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    The G1 cells of the diploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevislae are known to be capable of a slow repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) during holding the cells in a non-nutrient medium. In the present paper, it has been shown that S. cerevislae cells γ-irradiated in the G1 phase of cell cycle are capable of fast repair of DNA DSB; this process is completed within 30-40 min of holding the cells in water at 28 deg C. For this reason, the kinetics of DNA DSB repair during holding the cells in a non-nutrient medium are biphasic, i.e., the first, ''fast'' phase is completed within 30-40 min; wheras the second, ''slow'' one, within 48 h. Mutations rad51, rad52, rad54 and rad55 inhibit the fast repair of DNA DSB, whereas mutations rad50, rad53 and rad57 do not practically influence this process. It has been shown that the observed fast and slow repair of DNA DSB in the G1 diploid cells of S, cerevislae are separate pathways of DNA DSB repair in yeast

  17. Clinical reactivity of celery cultivars in allergic patients: Role of Api g 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dölle, S; Welter, S; Ruppel, E; Lehmann, K; Schwarz, D; Jensen-Jarolim, E; Zieglmayer, P; Franken, P; Worm, M

    2018-04-01

    Celery (Apium graveolens L.) is a vegetable consumed world-wide. Celery stalks and celeriac roots are often ingredients in convenient food products like spice blends and soups. In this study, we examined the allergenicity of distinct celeriac cultivars. Sixteen celery-allergic patients were identified using a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. Ten different celeriac cultivars were used for skin prick testing in the patients. Two cultivars were further applied for oral food challenges; their protein composition was analysed by immunoblotting, and contents of major allergen Api g 1 were quantified. From the 10 investigated celeriac cultivars, two cultivars elicited significantly different skin reactivity ("Anita": 5.0 [2.0-12.0] mm vs "Prinz": 7.0 [3.0-9.5] mm; P = .047). Moreover, "Anita" induced fewer symptoms after a controlled oral-celeriac challenge in 14 patient (P Api g 1 in "Prinz" than in "Anita." Taken together, the data from this study suggest that cultivar Anita is better tolerated in celery-allergic patients than "Prinz." Differences in the protein expression profile between the cultivars, particularly the different content of Api g 1, could cause the different allergenicity. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Measurement of the form factor ratio g1/f1 in LAMBDA beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innes, W.R.

    1974-01-01

    The beta decay of 306 polarized lambdas was observed. The lambdas, which had a mean polarization of 70 percent, were produced by a 1.06 GeV/c π minus beam incident on a CH 2 target. The lambda decay particle trajectories were measured with a solenoidal magnetic spectrometer utilizing spark chambers with magnetostrictive readout. The beta decays were differentiated from other decay modes with an isobutane threshold Cherenkov counter. Using only information which depended upon the polarization, g 1 /f 1 was found to be 0.44- 0 . 13 +0 . 20 . Using only information independent of the polarization, g 1 /f 1 was found to be 0.62- 0 . 13 +0 . 17 . Combining all information yielded a value for g 1 /f 1 of 0.56- 0 . 11 +0 . 13 . Although these results taken by themselves are consistent with the Cabbibo theory prediction of 0.69, when combined with previous experiments there is a possibly significant discrepancy in the polarization dependent results. (U.S.)

  19. Dux4 induces cell cycle arrest at G1 phase through upregulation of p21 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Zhaoxia; Jin, Suqin; Hao, Hongjun [Department of Neurology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034 (China); Zheng, Lemin [The Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences of Education Ministry, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Molecular Biology and Regulatory Peptides of Health Ministry, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhou, Boda [The Department of Cardiology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Wei; Lv, He [Department of Neurology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034 (China); Yuan, Yun, E-mail: yuanyun2002@sohu.com [Department of Neurology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034 (China)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Dux4 induced TE671 cell proliferation defect and G1 phase arrest. • Dux4 upregulated p21 expression without activating p53. • Silencing p21 rescued Dux4 mediated proliferation defect and cell cycle arrest. • Sp1 binding site was required for Dux4-induced p21 promoter activation. - Abstract: It has been implicated that Dux4 plays crucial roles in development of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy. But the underlying myopathic mechanisms and related down-stream events of this retrogene were far from clear. Here, we reported that overexpression of Dux4 in a cell model TE671 reduced cell proliferation rate, and increased G1 phase accumulation. We also determined the impact of Dux4 on p53/p21 signal pathway, which controls the checkpoint in cell cycle progression. Overexpression of Dux4 increased p21 mRNA and protein level, while expression of p53, phospho-p53 remained unchanged. Silencing p21 rescued Dux4 mediated proliferation defect and cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we demonstrated that enhanced Dux4 expression increased p21 promoter activity and elevated expression of Sp1 transcription factor. Mutation of Sp1 binding site decreased dux4 induced p21 promoter activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed the Dux4-induced binding of Sp1 to p21 promoter in vivo. These results suggest that Dux4 might induce proliferation inhibition and G1 phase arrest through upregulation of p21.

  20. 17 CFR 270.17g-1 - Bonding of officers and employees of registered management investment companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... employees of registered management investment companies. 270.17g-1 Section 270.17g-1 Commodity and... ACT OF 1940 § 270.17g-1 Bonding of officers and employees of registered management investment companies. (a) Each registered management investment company shall provide and maintain a bond which shall...

  1. The persistence of active smooth muscle in the female rat cervix through pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferland, David J; Darios, Emma S; Watts, Stephanie W

    2015-02-01

    A controversy exists as to whether functional smooth muscle exists in the cervix before and during pregnancy, potentially continuous with the uterus. We hypothesized that cervical smooth muscle persists through pregnancy and is functional. Uteri and cervices were taken from female virgin, 11 day, and 20 day (near labor) pregnant rats. All experiments used the uterus as a positive control. Three different smooth muscle proteins (smooth muscle α-actin, SM-22α, and calponin-1) allowed immunohistochemical detection of the continuous nature of the smooth muscle from the vagina, cervix, and uterus. Tissues were also hung in isolated tissue baths for the measurement of isometric smooth muscle contraction. Uterine and cervical homogenates were also used in Western analyses to measure protein expression. Immunohistochemistry revealed there to be smooth muscle as validated by an expression of all 3 markers in the cervix. This smooth muscle was continuous with that of the vagina and uterus. Smooth muscle α-actin was detected in virgin tissue (291.3 ± 32.2 arbitrary densitometry units/β-actin), day 11 (416.8 ± 19.5), and day 20 pregnant tissue (293.0 ± 34.4). The virgin, day 11, and day 20 cervices contracted 2.18 ± 0.24 g, 1.46 ± 0.08 g, and 3.88 ± 0.49 g (respectively) to depolarizing KCl. Cervices contracted at day 20 to the cholinergic muscarinic agonist carbamylcholine (maximum, 133% ± 18.2% KCl contraction, n = 4). These findings strongly support that smooth muscle is present in the cervix through pregnancy and continuous with the uterus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Annex I.G. Demolition of the G1 stack at Marcoule by toppling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The G1 stack at Marcoule was constructed during the first half of 1956 as a ventilation outlet for the G1 reactor, which is cooled by air. After the G1 reactor was decommissioned, the G1 stack served as a ventilation outlet for two new nuclear facilities on the site. Being no longer in compliance with regulations and having many inadequacies and uncertainties in terms of the prestressed concrete, the stack posed a potential damage risk in extreme wind or in the event of an earthquake. In 1994 it was decided that a new stack would be built to act as an outlet for the existing nuclear facilities, and that the old one would be demolished. The G1 stack was 100 m in height, 10 m in diameter and constructed with 24 vertically stacked concrete rings consisting of nine prefabricated sections, each 3.6 m in height. It was capped by a metal deflector (about 6 m in height and weighing 50 t). The inside consisted of nine semicircular tubes constructed of steel sheet metal weighing 120 t. The base of the stack consisted of the foundation, a plate and a base plate which were constructed at the site. The barrel sections were prefabricated. Construction lasted from January 1956 to June 1956. At the base, the cylindrical portion of the stack widened to form three feet extending to a depth of 7.5 m. The base plate of the stack was formed onsite to the height of 16.7 m and then prestressed using cables. A repair carried out in 1964 included adding a concrete lining of the initial rings of the cylinder up to a level of 22.1 m. Additional prestressing with the base plate and repair of the horizontal and vertical prestressing of the barrel were also carried out, leaving only 22 rings and 43 visible cables. The total mass of the stack was 2170 t, including: - Concrete: cylinder 800 t, base plate 1200 t; - Steel: internal structures 120 t, deflector 50 t. The main radiological risk was the presence of traces of tritium. The radioactive inventory for the entire stack was estimated in 2000

  3. Identification of herpesvirus proteins that contribute to G1/S arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladino, Patrick; Marcon, Edyta; Greenblatt, Jack; Frappier, Lori

    2014-04-01

    Lytic infection by herpesviruses induces cell cycle arrest at the G1/S transition. This appears to be a function of multiple herpesvirus proteins, but only a minority of herpesvirus proteins have been examined for cell cycle effects. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the viral proteins that contribute to G1/S arrest, we screened a library of over 200 proteins from herpes simplex virus type 1, human cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) for effects on the G1/S interface, using HeLa fluorescent, ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (Fucci) cells in which G1/S can be detected colorimetrically. Proteins from each virus were identified that induce accumulation of G1/S cells, predominantly tegument, early, and capsid proteins. The identification of several capsid proteins in this screen suggests that incoming viral capsids may function to modulate cellular processes. The cell cycle effects of selected EBV proteins were further verified and examined for effects on p53 and p21 as regulators of the G1/S transition. Two EBV replication proteins (BORF2 and BMRF1) were found to induce p53 but not p21, while a previously uncharacterized tegument protein (BGLF2) was found to induce p21 protein levels in a p53-independent manner. Proteomic analyses of BGLF2-interacting proteins identified interactions with the NIMA-related protein kinase (NEK9) and GEM-interacting protein (GMIP). Silencing of either NEK9 or GMIP induced p21 without affecting p53 and abrogated the ability of BGLF2 to further induce p21. Collectively, these results suggest multiple viral proteins contribute to G1/S arrest, including BGLF2, which induces p21 levels likely by interfering with the functions of NEK9 and GMIP. Most people are infected with multiple herpesviruses, whose proteins alter the infected cells in several ways. During lytic infection, the viral proteins block cell proliferation just before the cellular DNA replicates. We used a novel screening method to identify proteins

  4. Comparison of some nonlinear smoothing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, P.R.; Dillon, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    Due to the poor quality of many nuclear medicine images, computer-driven smoothing procedures are frequently employed to enhance the diagnostic utility of these images. While linear methods were first tried, it was discovered that nonlinear techniques produced superior smoothing with little detail suppression. We have compared four methods: Gaussian smoothing (linear), two-dimensional least-squares smoothing (linear), two-dimensional least-squares bounding (nonlinear), and two-dimensional median smoothing (nonlinear). The two dimensional least-squares procedures have yielded the most satisfactorily enhanced images, with the median smoothers providing quite good images, even in the presence of widely aberrant points

  5. Connecting Grammaticalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård-Sørensen, Jens; Heltoft, Lars; Schøsler, Lene

    morphological, topological and constructional paradigms often connect to form complex paradigms. The book introduces the concept of connecting grammaticalisation to describe the formation, restructuring and dismantling of such complex paradigms. Drawing primarily on data from Germanic, Romance and Slavic...

  6. The H,G_1,G_2 photometric system with scarce observational data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penttilä, A.; Granvik, M.; Muinonen, K.; Wilkman, O.

    2014-07-01

    The H,G_1,G_2 photometric system was officially adopted at the IAU General Assembly in Beijing, 2012. The system replaced the H,G system from 1985. The 'photometric system' is a parametrized model V(α; params) for the magnitude-phase relation of small Solar System bodies, and the main purpose is to predict the magnitude at backscattering, H := V(0°), i.e., the (absolute) magnitude of the object. The original H,G system was designed using the best available data in 1985, but since then new observations have been made showing certain features, especially near backscattering, to which the H,G function has troubles adjusting to. The H,G_1,G_2 system was developed especially to address these issues [1]. With a sufficient number of high-accuracy observations and with a wide phase-angle coverage, the H,G_1,G_2 system performs well. However, with scarce low-accuracy data the system has troubles producing a reliable fit, as would any other three-parameter nonlinear function. Therefore, simultaneously with the H,G_1,G_2 system, a two-parameter version of the model, the H,G_{12} system, was introduced [1]. The two-parameter version ties the parameters G_1,G_2 into a single parameter G_{12} by a linear relation, and still uses the H,G_1,G_2 system in the background. This version dramatically improves the possibility to receive a reliable phase-curve fit to scarce data. The amount of observed small bodies is increasing all the time, and so is the need to produce estimates for the absolute magnitude/diameter/albedo and other size/composition related parameters. The lack of small-phase-angle observations is especially topical for near-Earth objects (NEOs). With these, even the two- parameter version faces problems. The previous procedure with the H,G system in such circumstances has been that the G-parameter has been fixed to some constant value, thus only fitting a single-parameter function. In conclusion, there is a definitive need for a reliable procedure to produce

  7. Electron histochemical and autoradiographic studies of vascular smooth muscle cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameyama, Kohji; Aida, Takeo; Asano, Goro

    1982-01-01

    The authors have studied the vascular smooth muscle cell in the aorta and the arteries of brain, heart in autopsied cases, cholesterol fed rabbits and canine through electron histochemical and autoradiographic methods, using 3 H-proline and 3 H-thymidine. The vascular changes are variable presumably due to the functional and morphological difference of vessels. Aging, pathological condition and physiological requirement induce the disturbances of vascular functions as contractility. According to various pathological conditions, the smooth muscle cell altered their shape, surface properties and arrangement of subcellular organelles including changes in number. The morphological features of arteries during aging is characterized by the thickening of endothelium and media. Decreasing cellularity and increasing collagen contents in media. The autoradiographic and histochemical observations using periodic acid methenamine silver (PAM) and ruthenium red stains demonstrated that the smooth muscle cell is a connective tissue synthetic cell. The PAM impregnation have proved that the small bundle of microfilaments become associated with small conglomerate of collagen and elastic fibers. Cytochemical examination will provide sufficient evidence to establish the contribution of subcellular structure. The acid phosphatase play an important role in vascular disease and they are directly involved in cellular lipid metabolism in cholesterol fed animals, and the activity of Na-K ATPase on the plasma membrane may contribute to the regulation of vascular blood flow and vasospasms. Direct injury and subsequent abnormal contraction of smooth muscle cell may initiate increased permeability of plasma protein and lipid in the media layer and eventually may developed and enhance arteriosclerosis. (author)

  8. Smooth random change point models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, Ardo; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela; Matthews, Fiona E

    2011-03-15

    Change point models are used to describe processes over time that show a change in direction. An example of such a process is cognitive ability, where a decline a few years before death is sometimes observed. A broken-stick model consists of two linear parts and a breakpoint where the two lines intersect. Alternatively, models can be formulated that imply a smooth change between the two linear parts. Change point models can be extended by adding random effects to account for variability between subjects. A new smooth change point model is introduced and examples are presented that show how change point models can be estimated using functions in R for mixed-effects models. The Bayesian inference using WinBUGS is also discussed. The methods are illustrated using data from a population-based longitudinal study of ageing, the Cambridge City over 75 Cohort Study. The aim is to identify how many years before death individuals experience a change in the rate of decline of their cognitive ability. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Calcium signaling in smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill-Eubanks, David C; Werner, Matthias E; Heppner, Thomas J; Nelson, Mark T

    2011-09-01

    Changes in intracellular Ca(2+) are central to the function of smooth muscle, which lines the walls of all hollow organs. These changes take a variety of forms, from sustained, cell-wide increases to temporally varying, localized changes. The nature of the Ca(2+) signal is a reflection of the source of Ca(2+) (extracellular or intracellular) and the molecular entity responsible for generating it. Depending on the specific channel involved and the detection technology employed, extracellular Ca(2+) entry may be detected optically as graded elevations in intracellular Ca(2+), junctional Ca(2+) transients, Ca(2+) flashes, or Ca(2+) sparklets, whereas release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores may manifest as Ca(2+) sparks, Ca(2+) puffs, or Ca(2+) waves. These diverse Ca(2+) signals collectively regulate a variety of functions. Some functions, such as contractility, are unique to smooth muscle; others are common to other excitable cells (e.g., modulation of membrane potential) and nonexcitable cells (e.g., regulation of gene expression).

  10. Partial combustion of a fuel cartridge in reactor G1; Combustion partielle d'une cartouche de combustible dans le reacteur G 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Rouville; Leduc,; Segot, [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    On the 26 october 1956, after having stopped a few days, the G1 reactor was started up again. The burst slug system gave a first warning at 19 h 07 on loading side, a second one at 19 h 13 on unloading side, and so on others. Ath 15 the Control Engineer ordered a quick decrease of power and then, made it rise again from 2 to 5 MW, to find out, with accuracy, the failing channel. Soon after, in order to avoid any exterior contamination, scanning had to be stopped and a {gamma} ray detecting system outside the burst slug piping system, found out the damaged element in the channel 19-13. The health stations recording showed that the highest experienced measures were still notably lower than the maxima permissible levels. The methodical examination and the unloading of the damaged channel lasted three weeks. On the loading side, bare uranium billets could be seen on a magnesia powder bed. On the unloading side, the can was undamaged, but the element's end was hanging inside the gap of the inlet air. Pushed back, about 30 cm (12 in.), on the loading side, the element got blocked up. After several tests, while argon was still being injected, working staff being kept under strict protection conditions, a countersink tube was operating like the one used for drilling. The channel was cleaned up by sucking up, without, however, avoiding slight contamination in the building of the reactor. On the 7 december 1956, the reactor had a divergence at 2 MW, the first since the fault. A hundred or so channels were still giving a background, therefore making the burst slug system inefficient for those channels. Systematical brushing and sucking up were not able to reduce it beyond a certain level. It forced the reactor to operate during several months with 56 unloaded semi-channels. At last, in june 1957, two handling allowed the reactor to operate in a satisfactory way: removal of 1 mm-thickness of graphite, by re-reaming 54 semi-channels and setting on the burst slug detection

  11. Caffeine inhibits cell proliferation by G0/G1 phase arrest in JB6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takashi; He, Zhiwei; Ma, Wei-Ya; Schmid, Patricia C; Bode, Ann M; Yang, Chung S; Dong, Zigang

    2004-05-01

    Caffeine is a major biologically active constituent in coffee and tea. Because caffeine has been reported to inhibit carcinogenesis in UVB-exposed mice, the cancer-preventing effect of caffeine has attracted considerable attention. In the present study, the effect of caffeine in quiescent (G0 phase) cells was investigated. Pretreatment with caffeine suppressed cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner 36 h after addition of fetal bovine serum as a cell growth stimulator. Analysis by flow cytometry showed that caffeine suppressed cell cycle progression at the G0/G1 phase, i.e., 18 h after addition of fetal bovine serum, the percentages of cells in G0/G1 phase in 1 mM caffeine-treated cells and in caffeine-untreated cells were 61.7 and 29.0, respectively. The percentage of cells in G0/G1 phase at 0 h was 75.5. Caffeine inhibited phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein at Ser780 and Ser807/Ser811, the sites where retinoblastoma protein has been reported to be phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (cdk4). Furthermore, caffeine inhibited the activation of the cyclin D1-cdk4 complex in a dose-dependent manner. However this compound did not directly inhibit the activity of this complex. In addition, caffeine did not affect p16INK4 or p27Kip1 protein levels, but inhibited the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta. Our results showed that caffeine suppressed the progression of quiescent cells into the cell cycle. The inhibitory mechanism may be due to the inhibition of cell growth signal-induced activation of cdk4, which may be involved in the inhibition of carcinogenesis in vivo.

  12. Families of Smooth Rational Curves of Small Degree on the Fano Variety of Degree 5 of Main Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Omelkova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider some families of smooth rational curves of degree 2, 3 and 4 on a smooth Fano threefold X which is a linear section of the Grassmanian G(1, 4 under the Pl¨ucker embedding. We prove that these families are irreducible. The proof of the irreducibility of the families of curves of degree d is based on the study of degeneration of a rational curve of degree d into a curve which decomposes into an irreducible rational curve of degree d−1 and a projective line intersecting transversally at a point. We prove that the Hilbert scheme of curves of degree d on X is smooth at the point corresponding to such a reducible curve. Then calculations in the framework of deformation theory show that such a curve varies into a smooth rational curve of degree d. Thus, the set of reducible curves of degree d of the above type lies in the closure of a unique component of the Hilbert scheme of smooth rational curves of degree d on X. From this fact and the irreducibility of the Hilbert scheme of smooth rational curves of degree d on the Grassmannian G(1, 4 one deduces the irreducibility of the Hilbert scheme of smooth rational curves of degree d on a general Fano threefold X.

  13. THE ABSENCE OF RADIO EMISSION FROM THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller-Jones, J. C. A. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Wrobel, J. M. [NRAO Domenici Science Operations Center, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Sivakoff, G. R.; Heinke, C. O.; Miller, R. E. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Room 238 CEB, Edmonton, AB T6G 2G7 (Canada); Plotkin, R. M. [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Di Stefano, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Greene, J. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 71712 (United States); Ho, L. C. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Joseph, T. D.; Maccarone, T. J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield SO17 IBJ (United Kingdom); Kong, A. K. H., E-mail: james.miller-jones@curtin.edu.au [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-10

    The detections of both X-ray and radio emission from the cluster G1 in M31 have provided strong support for existing dynamical evidence for an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) of mass (1.8 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun} at the cluster center. However, given the relatively low significance and astrometric accuracy of the radio detection, and the non-simultaneity of the X-ray and radio measurements, this identification required further confirmation. Here we present deep, high angular resolution, strictly simultaneous X-ray and radio observations of G1. While the X-ray emission (L{sub X} = 1.74{sup +0.53}{sub -0.44} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 36} (d/750 kpc){sup 2} erg s{sup -1} in the 0.5-10 keV band) remained fully consistent with previous observations, we detected no radio emission from the cluster center down to a 3{sigma} upper limit of 4.7 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1}. Our favored explanation for the previous radio detection is flaring activity from a black hole low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB). We performed a new regression of the 'Fundamental Plane' of black hole activity, valid for determining black hole mass from radio and X-ray observations of sub-Eddington black holes, finding log M{sub BH} = (1.638 {+-} 0.070)log L{sub R} - (1.136 {+-} 0.077)log L{sub X} - (6.863 {+-} 0.790), with an empirically determined uncertainty of 0.44 dex. This constrains the mass of the X-ray source in G1, if a black hole, to be <9.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} M{sub Sun} at 95% confidence, suggesting that it is a persistent LMXB. This annuls what was previously the most convincing evidence from radiation for an IMBH in the Local Group, though the evidence for an IMBH in G1 from velocity dispersion measurements remains unaffected by these results.

  14. M/G/1/K system with push-out scheme under vacation policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Kasahara

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider an M/G/1/K system with push-out scheme and multiple vacations. This model is particularly important in situations where it is essential to provide short waiting times to messages which are selected for service. We analyze the behavior of two types of messages: one that succeeds in transmission and the other that fails. We derive the Laplace-Stieltjes transform of the waiting time distribution for the message which is eventually served. Finally, we show some numerical results including the comparisons between the push-out and the ordinary blocking models.

  15. Analysis of Rca1 function at the G1-S transition in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Querings, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    Tight control of APC/C-Cdh1Fzr activity is essential for progression through mitosis and establishment of the G1 phase. Rca1 is a nuclear protein that inhibits the APC/C-Cdh1Fzr complex during G2 to allow cyclin accumulation and subsequent entry into mitosis. In this thesis, a localisation study of Rca1 was performed revealing that a nuclear localisation sequence (NLS) and other domains in the protein mediate efficient nuclear accumulation. Besides its function in G2, Rca1 expression can prom...

  16. Modelling M/G/1 queueing systems with server vacations using stochastic Petri nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ramanath

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The theory of non-Markovian stochastic Petri nets is employed in this paper to derive an alternative method for studying the steady state behaviour of the M/G/1 vacation queueing system with a limited service discipline. Three types of vacation schemes are considered, and sytems with both a finite population and those with an infinite population (but finite capacity are considered. Simple numerical examples are also provided to illustrate the functionality of the methods and some useful performance measures for the system are obtained.

  17. The kernel G1(x,x') and the quantum equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccatto, H.; Foussats, A.; Giacomini, H.; Zandron, O.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, it is re-examined the formulation of the quantum equivalence principle (QEP) and its compatibility with the conditions which must be fulfilled by the kernel G 1 (x,x') is discussed. It is also determined the base of solutions which give the particle model in a curved space-time in terms of Cauchy's data for such a kernel. Finally, it is analyzed the creation of particles in this model by studying the time evolution of creation and annihilation operators. This method is an alternative to one that uses Bogoliubov's transformation as a mechanism of creation. (author)

  18. Modeling and Optimization of M/G/1-Type Queueing Networks: An Efficient Sensitivity Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Tang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model for M/G/1-type queueing networks with multiple user applications and limited resources is established. The goal is to develop a dynamic distributed algorithm for this model, which supports all data traffic as efficiently as possible and makes optimally fair decisions about how to minimize the network performance cost. An online policy gradient optimization algorithm based on a single sample path is provided to avoid suffering from a “curse of dimensionality”. The asymptotic convergence properties of this algorithm are proved. Numerical examples provide valuable insights for bridging mathematical theory with engineering practice.

  19. Cellular shear stiffness reflects progression of arsenic-induced transformation during G1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Alexandra; Eldridge, Will J; Jakobsen, Nina Munkholt

    2017-01-01

    epithelial cells were exposed to sodium arsenite to initiate early stages of transformation. Exposed cells were cultured in soft agar to further transformation and select for clonal populations exhibiting anchorage independent growth. Shear stiffness of various cell populations in G1 was assessed using...... reduced stiffness relative to control clonal lines, which were cultured in soft agar but did not receive arsenic treatment. The relative standard deviation of the stiffness of Arsenic clones was reduced compared to control clones, as well as to the arsenic exposed cell population. Cell stiffness...

  20. Strategies for a centralized single product multiclass M/G/1 make-to-stock queue

    OpenAIRE

    Abouee-Mehrizi, Hossein; Balcıoğlu, Ahmet Barış; Balcioglu, Ahmet Baris; Baron, Opher

    2012-01-01

    Make-to-stock queues are typically investigated in the M/M/1 settings. For centralized single-item systems with backlogs, the multilevel rationing (MR) policy is established as optimal and the strict priority (SP) policy is a practical compromise, balancing cost and ease of implementation. However, the optimal policy is unknown when service time is general, i.e., for M/G/1 queues. Dynamic programming, the tool commonly used to investigate the MR policy in make-to-stock queues, is less practic...

  1. Analysis of Repairable Geo/G/1 Queues with Negative Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doo Ho Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider discrete-time Geo/G/1 queues with negative customers and a repairable server. The server is subject to failure due to a negative customer arrival. As soon as a negative customer arrives at a system, the server fails and one positive (ordinary customer is forced to leave. At a failure instant, the server is turned off and the repair process immediately begins. We construct the mathematical model and present the probability generating functions of the system size distribution and the FCFS sojourn time distribution. Finally, some numerical examples are given to show the influence of negative customer arrival on the performance measures of the system.

  2. Imaging Potential Evaluation of Fab Derived from the Anti-EGFRvIII Monoclonal Antibody 4G1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Shen; He, Yujia; He, Yanqiong; Wang, Liang; Jia, Jianhua; Shan, Xiaomin; Liu, Shuang; Tang, Min; Peng, Zhiping; Liu, Xujie

    2018-05-31

    As one of the most crucial epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) variants, EGFRvIII can be detected in various tumors but rarely in normal tissues, making it an ideal target for prognosis, diagnosis or immune therapy. The recently developed anti-EGFRvIII monoclonal antibody (mAb), 4G1, has been validated as a promising molecular probe to detect EGFRvIII expression in tumors by single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography imaging. To overcome shortcomings associated with the whole antibody, including long-term retention, circulation and enhanced permeability and retention effects, the Fab fragment of 4G1 (Fab-4G1) was generated, labeled with 131 I and evaluated in vitro and in vivo to test its potential application in molecular imaging. Whole mAb 4G1 was first digested by immobilized ficin and then purified through a protein A column to generate the Fab fragment, Fab-4G1. Next, SDS-PAGE, Western blot, indirect fluorescence assay, flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were performed to verify molecular weight, specificity and affinity of Fab-4G1. Finally, biodistribution planar gamma imaging was performed by injection of 131 I-labeled Fab-4G1 into xenografted EGFRvIII-overexpressed tumors in nude mice. Parallel studies were also performed with intact 4G1. The molecular weight of Fab was determined to be 35-40 kDa by SDS-PAGE. In vitro tests confirmed both intact 4G1 and Fab-4G1 specifically bound EGFRvIII but not wild-type EGFR, and Fab-4G1 showed decreased affinity. Compared to 131 I-4G1, biodistribution studies showed lower tumor uptake of 131 I-Fab-4G1 at all time points, but much faster elimination in all normal organs. As for planar gamma imaging, 131 I-Fab-4G1 and 31 I-4G1 showed similar imaging effect at 2 h after injection of tracer, while 131 I-Fab-4G1 was eliminated more quickly with time, suggesting radiolabeled Fab-4G1 could be potentially used for imaging of EGFRvIII-positive tumors at early time points. Radiolabeled

  3. Solution structures of α-conotoxin G1 determined by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardi, A.; Galdes, A.; Florance, J.; Maniconte, D.

    1989-01-01

    Two-dimensional NMR data have been used to generate solution structures of α-conotoxin G1, a potent peptide antagonist of the acetylcholine receptor. Structural information was obtained in the form of proton-proton internuclear distance constraints, and initial structures were produced with a distance geometry algorithm. Energetically more favorable structures were generated by using the distance geometry structures as input for a constrained energy minimization program. The results of both of these calculations indicate that the overall backbone conformation of the molecule is well-defined by the NMR data whereas the side-chain conformations are generally less well-defined. The main structural features derived from the NMR data were the presence of tight turns centered on residues Pro 5 and Arg 9 . The solution structures are compared with previous proposed models of conotoxin G1, and the NMR data are interpreted in conjunction with chemical modification studies and structural properties of other antagonists of the acetylcholine receptor to gain insight into structure-activity relationships in these peptide toxins

  4. The importance of G1/S-border and mitosis in the fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliakis, G.; Nuesse, M.

    1983-01-01

    The ability of synchronized Ehrlich ascites tumour cells to repair PLD was measured by introducing delays in their progression through the cell cycle either in the same phase as that where the irradiation was given or in a subsequent phase. Cells were incubated for this purpose either in balanced salt solution which nonspecifically delayed progression in all cell cycle phases or with 0.5 μg/ml aphidicolin which delayed cells in S-phase. Cells which had been delayed in their progression through the cell cycle were able to repair PLD irrespective of the phase at which they were held. In cases where the delay in the progression through the cell cycle was introduced in a phase subsequent to that of the exposure to irradiation, repair of PLD was observed only if the cells had not passed the G1/S-border or mitosis. Based on these results, the importance of G1/S-border and mitosis in the fixation of PLD is suggested. (orig.)

  5. Lensing smoothing of BAO wiggles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dio, Enea Di, E-mail: enea.didio@oats.inaf.it [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy)

    2017-03-01

    We study non-perturbatively the effect of the deflection angle on the BAO wiggles of the matter power spectrum in real space. We show that from redshift z ∼2 this introduces a dispersion of roughly 1 Mpc at BAO scale, which corresponds approximately to a 1% effect. The lensing effect induced by the deflection angle, which is completely geometrical and survey independent, smears out the BAO wiggles. The effect on the power spectrum amplitude at BAO scale is about 0.1 % for z ∼2 and 0.2 % for z ∼4. We compare the smoothing effects induced by the lensing potential and non-linear structure formation, showing that the two effects become comparable at z ∼ 4, while the lensing effect dominates for sources at higher redshifts. We note that this effect is not accounted through BAO reconstruction techniques.

  6. Radial smoothing and closed orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnod, L.; Cornacchia, M.; Wilson, E.

    1983-11-01

    A complete simulation leading to a description of one of the error curves must involve four phases: (1) random drawing of the six set-up points within a normal population having a standard deviation of 1.3 mm; (b) random drawing of the six vertices of the curve in the sextant mode within a normal population having a standard deviation of 1.2 mm. These vertices are to be set with respect to the axis of the error lunes, while this axis has as its origins the positions defined by the preceding drawing; (c) mathematical definition of six parabolic curves and their junctions. These latter may be curves with very slight curvatures, or segments of a straight line passing through the set-up point and having lengths no longer than one LSS. Thus one gets a mean curve for the absolute errors; (d) plotting of the actually observed radial positions with respect to the mean curve (results of smoothing)

  7. New Ways in Teaching Connected Speech. New Ways Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Connected speech is based on a set of rules used to modify pronunciations so that words connect and flow more smoothly in natural speech (hafta versus have to). Native speakers of English tend to feel that connected speech is friendlier, more natural, more sympathetic, and more personal. Is there any reason why learners of English would prefer to…

  8. Cell cycle arrest in plants: what distinguishes quiescence, dormancy and differentiated G1?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velappan, Yazhini; Signorelli, Santiago; Considine, Michael J

    2017-10-17

    Quiescence is a fundamental feature of plant life, which enables plasticity, renewal and fidelity of the somatic cell line. Cellular quiescence is defined by arrest in a particular phase of the cell cycle, typically G1 or G2; however, the regulation of quiescence and proliferation can also be considered across wider scales in space and time. As such, quiescence is a defining feature of plant development and phenology, from meristematic stem cell progenitors to terminally differentiated cells, as well as dormant or suppressed seeds and buds. While the physiology of each of these states differs considerably, each is referred to as 'cell cycle arrest' or 'G1 arrest'. Here the physiology and molecular regulation of (1) meristematic quiescence, (2) dormancy and (3) terminal differentiation (cell cycle exit) are considered in order to determine whether and how the molecular decisions guiding these nuclear states are distinct. A brief overview of the canonical cell cycle regulators is provided, and the genetic and genomic, as well as physiological, evidence is considered regarding two primary questions: (1) Are the canonical cell cycle regulators superior or subordinate in the regulation of quiescence? (2) Are these three modes of quiescence governed by distinct molecular controls? Meristematic quiescence, dormancy and terminal differentiation are each predominantly characterized by G1 arrest but regulated distinctly, at a level largely superior to the canonical cell cycle. Meristematic quiescence is intrinsically linked to non-cell-autonomous regulation of meristem cell identity, and particularly through the influence of ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis, in partnership with reactive oxygen species, abscisic acid and auxin. The regulation of terminal differentiation shares analogous features with meristematic quiescence, albeit with specific activators and a greater role for cytokinin signalling. Dormancy meanwhile appears to be regulated at the level of chromatin

  9. Doing smooth pursuit paradigms in Windows 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda

    predict strengths or deficits in perception and attention. However, smooth pursuit movements have been difficult to study and very little normative data is available for smooth pursuit performance in children and adults. This poster describes the challenges in setting up a smooth pursuit paradigm...... in Windows 7 with live capturing of eye movements using a Tobii TX300 eye tracker. In particular, the poster describes the challenges and limitations created by the hardware and the software...

  10. The Pseudomonas syringae type III effector HopG1 targets mitochondria, alters plant development, and suppresses plant innate immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Anna; Guo, Ming; Li, Guangyong; Elowsky, Christian; Clemente, Thomas E.; Alfano, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae uses a type III protein secretion system to inject type III effectors into plant cells. Primary targets of these effectors appear to be effector-triggered immunity (ETI) and pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). The type III effector HopG1 is a suppressor of ETI that is broadly conserved in bacterial plant pathogens. Here we show that HopG1 from P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 also suppresses PTI. Interestingly, HopG1 localizes to plant mitochondria, suggesting that its suppression of innate immunity may be linked to a perturbation of mitochondrial function. While HopG1 possesses no obvious mitochondrial signal peptide, its N-terminal two-thirds was sufficient for mitochondrial localization. A HopG1-GFP fusion lacking HopG1’s N-terminal 13 amino acids was not localized to the mitochondria reflecting the importance of the N-terminus for targeting. Constitutive expression of HopG1 in Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) dramatically alters plant development resulting in dwarfism, increased branching and infertility. Constitutive expression of HopG1 in planta leads to reduced respiration rates and an increased basal level of reactive oxygen species. These findings suggest that HopG1’s target is mitochondrial and that effector/target interaction promotes disease by disrupting mitochondrial functions. PMID:19863557

  11. A Discrete-Time Geo/G/1 Retrial Queue with Two Different Types of Vacations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze a discrete-time Geo/G/1 retrial queue with two different types of vacations and general retrial times. Two different types of vacation policies are investigated in this model, one of which is nonexhaustive urgent vacation during serving and the other is normal exhaustive vacation. For this model, we give the steady-state analysis for the considered queueing system. Firstly, we obtain the generating functions of the number of customers in our model. Then, we obtain the closed-form expressions of some performance measures and also give a stochastic decomposition result for the system size. Moreover, the relationship between this discrete-time model and the corresponding continuous-time model is also investigated. Finally, some numerical results are provided to illustrate the effect of nonexhaustive urgent vacation on some performance characteristics of the system.

  12. Disruption of Netrin G1 by a balanced chromosome translocation in a girl with Rett syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Isabella; Freude, Kristine; Kübart, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    with different C-termini: one membrane bound through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor and the other soluble. The membrane-bound protein isoform would be affected by the breakpoint, whereas the soluble form would remain intact. Our results suggest that the central nervous system is sensitive to NTNG1...... hybridisations, utilizing probes derived from breakpoint spanning BACs, detected several aberrant fragments specific for the patient. Sequence analysis of the cloned junction fragment indicated that on chromosome 1 the predominantly brain-expressed Netrin G1 (NTNG1) gene is disrupted, whereas on chromosome 7...... there was no indication for a truncated gene. The chromosome 1 breakpoint lies within the 3' part of NTNG1 and affects alternatively spliced transcripts, suggesting that the phenotype in this patient is the result of disturbed NTNG1 expression. In silico translation of the NTNG1 splice variants predicted protein isoforms...

  13. Simulation Research on Vehicle Active Suspension Controller Based on G1 Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gen; Li, Hang; Zhang, Shuaiyang; Luo, Qiuhui

    2017-09-01

    Based on the order relation analysis method (G1 method), the optimal linear controller of vehicle active suspension is designed. The system of the main and passive suspension of the single wheel vehicle is modeled and the system input signal model is determined. Secondly, the system motion state space equation is established by the kinetic knowledge and the optimal linear controller design is completed with the optimal control theory. The weighting coefficient of the performance index coefficients of the main passive suspension is determined by the relational analysis method. Finally, the model is simulated in Simulink. The simulation results show that: the optimal weight value is determined by using the sequence relation analysis method under the condition of given road conditions, and the vehicle acceleration, suspension stroke and tire motion displacement are optimized to improve the comprehensive performance of the vehicle, and the active control is controlled within the requirements.

  14. Parafibromin inhibits cancer cell growth and causes G1 phase arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chun; Kong Dong; Tan, M.-H.; Pappas, Donald L.; Wang, P.-F.; Chen, Jindong; Farber, Leslie; Zhang Nian; Koo, H.-M.; Weinreich, Michael; Williams, Bart O.; Teh, B.T.

    2006-01-01

    The HRPT2 (hereditary hyperparathyroidism type 2) tumor suppressor gene encodes a ubiquitously expressed 531 amino acid protein termed parafibromin. Inactivation of parafibromin predisposes one to the development of HPT-JT syndrome. To date, the role of parafibromin in tumorigenesis is largely unknown. Here, we report that parafibromin is a nuclear protein that possesses anti-proliferative properties. We show that overexpression of parafibromin inhibits colony formation and cellular proliferation, and induces cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. Moreover, HPT-JT syndrome-derived mutations in HRPT2 behave in a dominant-negative manner by abolishing the ability of parafibromin to suppress cell proliferation. These findings suggest that parafibromin has a critical role in cell growth, and mutations in HRPT2 can directly inhibit this role

  15. Flavor singlet contribution to the structure function g1 at small-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, J.; Ryskin, M.G.

    1996-02-01

    The singlet contribution to the g 1 (x, Q 2 ) structure function are calculated in the double-logarithmic approximation of perturbative QCD in the region x s ln 2 (1/x)) k which are not included in the GLAP evolution equations are shown to give a power-like rise at small-x which is much stronger than the extrapolation of the GLAP expressions. The dominant contribution is due to the gluons which, in contrast to the unpolarized case, mix with the fermions also in the region x<<1. The two main reasons why the small-x behavior of the double logarithmic approximation is so much stronger than the usual GLAP evolution are: the larger kinematical region of integration (in particular, no ordering in transverse momentum) and the contributions from non-ladder diagrams. (orig.)

  16. Phytotoxic eremophilane sesquiterpenes from the coprophilous fungus Penicillium sp. G1-a14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Valle, Paulina; Figueroa, Mario; Mata, Rachel

    2015-02-27

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of an extract from the grain-based culture of the coprophilous fungus Penicillium sp. G1-a14 led to the isolation of a new eremophilane-type sesquiterpene, 3R,6R-dihydroxy-9,7(11)-dien-8-oxoeremophilane (1), along with three known analogues, namely, isopetasol (2), sporogen AO-1 (3), and dihydrosporogen AO-1 (4). The structure of 1 was elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Assignment of absolute configuration at the stereogenic centers of 1 was achieved using ECD spectroscopy combined with time-dependent density functional theory calculations. Sporogen AO-1 (3) and dihydrosporogen AO-1 (4) caused significant inhibition of radicle growth against Amaranthus hypochondriacus (IC50 = 0.17 mM for both compounds) and Echinochloa crus-galli (IC50 = 0.17 and 0.30 mM, respectively).

  17. Human anti-rhesus D IgG1 antibody produced in transgenic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouquin, Thomas; Thomsen, Mads; Nielsen, Leif Kofoed

    2002-01-01

    antigen, which is responsible for alloimmunization of RhD- mothers carrying an RhD+ fetus. Anti-RhD extracted from plants specifically reacted with RhD+ cells in antiglobulin technique, and elicited a respiratory burst in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Plant-derived antibody had equivalent......Transgenic plants represent an alternative to cell culture systems for producing cheap and safe antibodies for diagnostic and therapeutic use. To evaluate the functional properties of a 'plantibody', we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing full-length human IgG1 against the Rhesus D...... properties to CHO cell-produced anti-RhD antibody, indicating its potential usefulness in diagnostic and therapeutic programs....

  18. Investigations on the discrete Gi(G)1 queue with and without loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gergely, T.; Toeroek, T.L.

    1975-12-01

    A comprehensive discussion of the method for investigating queuing systems characterized by random variables of integer values is given. Specially the discrete GI(G)1 queuing systems are considered. The first part of the paper takes a short summary on the theory of discrete stochastic processes. In the second part the properties of the fundamental characteristics of the queuing system as the busy period, the waiting time and the output processes are discussed. In the last section some remarks are added to show the direction of further investigations. To demonstrated the simplicity of the relations verified in the paper some computed examples are presented in the appendix. The computations were performed with a mini-computer of 8K words memory. (Sz.Z.)

  19. Income and Consumption Smoothing among US States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent; Yosha, Oved

    within regions but not between regions. This suggests that capital markets transcend regional barriers while credit markets are regional in their nature. Smoothing within the club of rich states is accomplished mainly via capital markets whereas consumption smoothing is dominant within the club of poor...... states. The fraction of a shock to gross state products smoothed by the federal tax-transfer system is the same for various regions and other clubs of states. We calculate the scope for consumption smoothing within various regions and clubs, finding that most gains from risk sharing can be achieved...

  20. Preliminary stratigraphic and petrologic characterization of core samples from USW-G1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, A.C.; Carroll, P.R.

    1981-11-01

    Tuffs of the Nevada Test Site are currently under investigation to determine their potential for long-term storage of radioactive waste. As part of this program, hole USW-G1 was drilled to a depth of 6000 ft below the surface, in the central part of the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Petrographic study of the USW-G1 core is presented in this report and shows the tuffs (which generally were variably welded ash flows) are partly recrystallized to a variety of secondary minerals. The important alteration products are zeolites (heulandite, clinoptilolite, mordenite and analcime), smectite clays with minor interstratified illite, albite, micas, potassium feldspar, and various forms of silica. Iijima's zeolite zones I through IV of burial metamorphism can be recognized in the core. Zeolites are first observed at about the 1300-ft depth, and the high-temperature boundary of zeolite stability in this core occurs at about 4350 ft. Analcime persists, either metastably or as a retrograde mineral, deeper in the core. The oxidation state of Fe-Ti oxide minerals, through most of the core, increases as the degree of welding decreases, but towards the bottom of the hole, reducing conditions generally prevail. Four stratigraphic units transected by the core may be potentially favorable sites for a waste repository. These four units, in order of increasing depth in the core, are (1) the lower cooling unit of the Topopah Spring Member, (2) cooling unit II of the Bullfrog Member, (3) the upper part of the Tram tuff, and (4) the Lithic-rich tuff

  1. First detection of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) in dogs in central Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Rihab Ali; Daugschies, Arwid; Gawlowska, Sandra; Elnahas, Ayman; Kern, Peter; Bashir, Sofia; Ali, Mohammed Sir Alkhatim; Osman, Amin; Romig, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Eighty-four stray dogs shot as a part of a governmental rabies control program in two neighboring towns of central Sudan were examined for the presence of Echinococcus spp. and other intestinal helminths. Echinococcus worms were identified to species level by PCR and gene sequencing. For comparative reasons, rectal content of the necropsied dogs was examined for helminth eggs and subjected to copro-PCR for Echinococcus. At necropsy, 51.2% (43/84) of the dogs harbored Echinococcus canadensis (G6/7) worms with worm burdens ranging from 22,000 to 80,000. Dipylidiun caninum was found in 53.6% of the dogs. At coproscopy, taeniid eggs were found in 37 of the 43 dogs which were positive for Echinococcus at necropsy, but none in the 41 necropsy-negative dogs. In addition, 58% of the rectal samples contained eggs of Toxocara spp., 34.5% eggs of Trichuris spp. (34.5%), and 26% eggs of Ancylostoma caninum. Copro-PCR gave positive results for E. canadensis with 97.5% (39/40) of nonhibiting samples from the necropsy positive dogs; the one remaining dog tested positive for E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1), whose partial cox1 and nad1 sequences showed a 100% identity with various reference sequences of the G1 genotype. 100% of 38 non-inhibited samples taken from the necropsy-negative dogs were also negative in copro-PCR. This is the first study which combines prevalence and genetic identification of Echinococcus spp. in dogs of Sudan. Together with a recent report from cattle, it confirms the autochthonous presence, at low level, of E. granulosus sensu stricto in Central Sudan.

  2. Preliminary stratigraphic and petrologic characterization of core samples from USW-G1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, A.C.; Carroll, P.R. (eds.)

    1981-11-01

    Tuffs of the Nevada Test Site are currently under investigation to determine their potential for long-term storage of radioactive waste. As part of this program, hole USW-G1 was drilled to a depth of 6000 ft below the surface, in the central part of the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Petrographic study of the USW-G1 core is presented in this report and shows the tuffs (which generally were variably welded ash flows) are partly recrystallized to a variety of secondary minerals. The important alteration products are zeolites (heulandite, clinoptilolite, mordenite and analcime), smectite clays with minor interstratified illite, albite, micas, potassium feldspar, and various forms of silica. Iijima`s zeolite zones I through IV of burial metamorphism can be recognized in the core. Zeolites are first observed at about the 1300-ft depth, and the high-temperature boundary of zeolite stability in this core occurs at about 4350 ft. Analcime persists, either metastably or as a retrograde mineral, deeper in the core. The oxidation state of Fe-Ti oxide minerals, through most of the core, increases as the degree of welding decreases, but towards the bottom of the hole, reducing conditions generally prevail. Four stratigraphic units transected by the core may be potentially favorable sites for a waste repository. These four units, in order of increasing depth in the core, are (1) the lower cooling unit of the Topopah Spring Member, (2) cooling unit II of the Bullfrog Member, (3) the upper part of the Tram tuff, and (4) the Lithic-rich tuff.

  3. The impact of geoengineering on vegetation in experiment G1 of the GeoMIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glienke, Susanne; Irvine, Peter J.; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2015-10-01

    Solar Radiation Management (SRM) has been proposed as a mean to partly counteract global warming. The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) has simulated the climate consequences of a number of SRM techniques. Thus far, the effects on vegetation have not yet been thoroughly analyzed. Here the vegetation response to the idealized GeoMIP G1 experiment from eight fully coupled Earth system models (ESMs) is analyzed, in which a reduction of the solar constant counterbalances the radiative effects of quadrupled atmospheric CO2 concentrations (abrupt4 × CO2). For most models and regions, changes in net primary productivity (NPP) are dominated by the increase in CO2, via the CO2 fertilization effect. As SRM will reduce temperatures relative to abrupt4 × CO2, in high latitudes this will offset increases in NPP. In low latitudes, this cooling relative to the abrupt4 × CO2 simulation decreases plant respiration while having little effect on gross primary productivity, thus increasing NPP. In Central America and the Mediterranean, generally dry regions which are expected to experience increased water stress with global warming, NPP is highest in the G1 experiment for all models due to the easing of water limitations from increased water use efficiency at high-CO2 concentrations and the reduced evaporative demand in a geoengineered climate. The largest differences in the vegetation response are between models with and without a nitrogen cycle, with a much smaller CO2 fertilization effect for the former. These results suggest that until key vegetation processes are integrated into ESM predictions, the vegetation response to SRM will remain highly uncertain.

  4. Potential Energy and Emission Benefits of Vehicle Automation and Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Driving behavior greatly impacts vehicle tailpipe emissions. Connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technologies are designed to smooth driving and relieve traffic congestion and are therefore expected to reduce fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions...

  5. Making Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pien, Cheng Lu; Dongsheng, Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Effective teaching includes enabling learners to make connections within mathematics. It is easy to accord with this statement, but how often is it a reality in the mathematics classroom? This article describes an approach in "connecting equivalent" fractions and whole number operations. The authors illustrate how a teacher can combine a common…

  6. Smooth horizons and quantum ripples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovnev, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    Black holes are unique objects which allow for meaningful theoretical studies of strong gravity and even quantum gravity effects. An infalling and a distant observer would have very different views on the structure of the world. However, a careful analysis has shown that it entails no genuine contradictions for physics, and the paradigm of observer complementarity has been coined. Recently this picture was put into doubt. In particular, it was argued that in old black holes a firewall must form in order to protect the basic principles of quantum mechanics. This AMPS paradox has already been discussed in a vast number of papers with different attitudes and conclusions. Here we want to argue that a possible source of confusion is the neglect of quantum gravity effects. Contrary to widespread perception, it does not necessarily mean that effective field theory is inapplicable in rather smooth neighbourhoods of large black hole horizons. The real offender might be an attempt to consistently use it over the huge distances from the near-horizon zone of old black holes to the early radiation. We give simple estimates to support this viewpoint and show how the Page time and (somewhat more speculative) scrambling time do appear. (orig.)

  7. Smooth horizons and quantum ripples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovnev, Alexey [Saint Petersburg State University, High Energy Physics Department, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-15

    Black holes are unique objects which allow for meaningful theoretical studies of strong gravity and even quantum gravity effects. An infalling and a distant observer would have very different views on the structure of the world. However, a careful analysis has shown that it entails no genuine contradictions for physics, and the paradigm of observer complementarity has been coined. Recently this picture was put into doubt. In particular, it was argued that in old black holes a firewall must form in order to protect the basic principles of quantum mechanics. This AMPS paradox has already been discussed in a vast number of papers with different attitudes and conclusions. Here we want to argue that a possible source of confusion is the neglect of quantum gravity effects. Contrary to widespread perception, it does not necessarily mean that effective field theory is inapplicable in rather smooth neighbourhoods of large black hole horizons. The real offender might be an attempt to consistently use it over the huge distances from the near-horizon zone of old black holes to the early radiation. We give simple estimates to support this viewpoint and show how the Page time and (somewhat more speculative) scrambling time do appear. (orig.)

  8. Local Transfer Coefficient, Smooth Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Kukreja

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Naphthalene sublimation technique and the heat/mass transfer analogy are used to determine the detailed local heat/mass transfer distributions on the leading and trailing walls of a twopass square channel with smooth walls that rotates about a perpendicular axis. Since the variation of density is small in the flow through the channel, buoyancy effect is negligible. Results show that, in both the stationary and rotating channel cases, very large spanwise variations of the mass transfer exist in he turn and in the region immediately downstream of the turn in the second straight pass. In the first straight pass, the rotation-induced Coriolis forces reduce the mass transfer on the leading wall and increase the mass transfer on the trailing wall. In the turn, rotation significantly increases the mass transfer on the leading wall, especially in the upstream half of the turn. Rotation also increases the mass transfer on the trailing wall, more in the downstream half of the turn than in the upstream half of the turn. Immediately downstream of the turn, rotation causes the mass transfer to be much higher on the trailing wall near the downstream corner of the tip of the inner wall than on the opposite leading wall. The mass transfer in the second pass is higher on the leading wall than on the trailing wall. A slower flow causes higher mass transfer enhancement in the turn on both the leading and trailing walls.

  9. Turn stability in beta-hairpin peptides: Investigation of peptides containing 3:5 type I G1 bulge turns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandl, Tamas; Cochran, Andrea G; Skelton, Nicholas J

    2003-02-01

    The turn-forming ability of a series of three-residue sequences was investigated by substituting them into a well-characterized beta-hairpin peptide. The starting scaffold, bhpW, is a disulfide-cyclized 10-residue peptide that folds into a stable beta-hairpin with two antiparallel strands connected by a two-residue reverse turn. Substitution of the central two residues with the three-residue test sequences leads to less stable hairpins, as judged by thiol-disulfide equilibrium measurements. However, analysis of NMR parameters indicated that each molecule retains a significant folded population, and that the type of turn adopted by the three-residue sequence is the same in all cases. The solution structure of a selected peptide with a PDG turn contained an antiparallel beta-hairpin with a 3:5 type I + G1 bulge turn. Analysis of the energetic contributions of individual turn residues in the series of peptides indicates that substitution effects have significant context dependence, limiting the predictive power of individual amino acid propensities for turn formation. The most stable and least stable sequences were also substituted into a more stable disulfide-cyclized scaffold and a linear beta-hairpin scaffold. The relative stabilities remained the same, suggesting that experimental measurements in the bhpW context are a useful way to evaluate turn stability for use in protein design projects. Moreover, these scaffolds are capable of displaying a diverse set of turns, which can be exploited for the mimicry of protein loops or for generating libraries of reverse turns.

  10. Stratigraphy and structure of volcanic rocks in drill hole USW-G1, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spengler, R.W.; Byers, F.M. Jr.; Warner, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    Detailed subsurface studies in connection with the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations program are being conducted to investigate the stratigraphic and structural features of volcanic rocks underlying Yucca Mountain, a volcanic highland situated along the western boundary of the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. As part of this continuing effort, drill hole USW-G1 was cored from 292 ft to a depth of 6000 ft from March to August 1980. The stratigraphic section is composed of thick sequences of ash-flow tuff and volcanic breccia interbedded with subordinate amounts of fine- to coarse-grained volcaniclastic rocks. All rocks are of Tertiary age and vary in composition from rhyolite to dacite. The 3005-ft level in the drill hole represents a significant demarcation between unaltered and altered volcanic rocks. For the most part, tuff units above 3005 ft appear devitrified and show little secondary alteration except within tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills, where the rock contains 60 to 80% zeolites. Below 3005 ft, most rocks show intermittent to pervasive alteration to clay minerals and zeolites. Examination of core for structural features revealed the presence of 61 shear fractures, 528 joints, and 4 conspicuous fault zones. Shear fractures mainly occurred in the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff, flow breccia, and near fault zones. Nearly 88% of shear and joint surfaces show evidence of coatings. Approximately 40% of the fractures were categorized as completely healed. Rock quality characteristics as defined by the core index indicate that greater amounts of broken and lost core are commonly associated with (1) the densely welded zone of the Topopah Spring, (2) highly silicified zones, and (3) fault zones

  11. 26 CFR 1.1402(g)-1 - Treatment of certain remuneration erroneously reported as net earnings from self-employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reported as net earnings from self-employment. 1.1402(g)-1 Section 1.1402(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... self-employment. (a) General rule. If an amount is erroneously paid as self-employment tax, for any... self-employment income on a return filed on or before the due date prescribed for filing such return...

  12. The Drosophila mitochondrial translation elongation factor G1 contains a nuclear localization signal and inhibits growth and DPP signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Trivigno

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the human mitochondrial elongation factor G1 (EF-G1 are recessive lethal and cause death shortly after birth. We have isolated mutations in iconoclast (ico, which encodes the highly conserved Drosophila orthologue of EF-G1. We find that EF-G1 is essential during fly development, but its function is not required in every tissue. In contrast to null mutations, missense mutations exhibit stronger, possibly neomorphic phenotypes that lead to premature death during embryogenesis. Our experiments show that EF-G1 contains a secondary C-terminal nuclear localization signal. Expression of missense mutant forms of EF-G1 can accumulate in the nucleus and cause growth and patterning defects and animal lethality. We find that transgenes that encode mutant human EF-G1 proteins can rescue ico mutants, indicating that the underlying problem of the human disease is not just the loss of enzymatic activity. Our results are consistent with a model where EF-G1 acts as a retrograde signal from mitochondria to the nucleus to slow down cell proliferation if mitochondrial energy output is low.

  13. The Drosophila mitochondrial translation elongation factor G1 contains a nuclear localization signal and inhibits growth and DPP signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivigno, Catherine; Haerry, Theodor E

    2011-02-25

    Mutations in the human mitochondrial elongation factor G1 (EF-G1) are recessive lethal and cause death shortly after birth. We have isolated mutations in iconoclast (ico), which encodes the highly conserved Drosophila orthologue of EF-G1. We find that EF-G1 is essential during fly development, but its function is not required in every tissue. In contrast to null mutations, missense mutations exhibit stronger, possibly neomorphic phenotypes that lead to premature death during embryogenesis. Our experiments show that EF-G1 contains a secondary C-terminal nuclear localization signal. Expression of missense mutant forms of EF-G1 can accumulate in the nucleus and cause growth and patterning defects and animal lethality. We find that transgenes that encode mutant human EF-G1 proteins can rescue ico mutants, indicating that the underlying problem of the human disease is not just the loss of enzymatic activity. Our results are consistent with a model where EF-G1 acts as a retrograde signal from mitochondria to the nucleus to slow down cell proliferation if mitochondrial energy output is low.

  14. Smoothed Analysis of Local Search Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Bodo; Dehne, Frank; Sack, Jörg-Rüdiger; Stege, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Smoothed analysis is a method for analyzing the performance of algorithms for which classical worst-case analysis fails to explain the performance observed in practice. Smoothed analysis has been applied to explain the performance of a variety of algorithms in the last years. One particular class of

  15. Altered G1 checkpoint control determines adaptive survival responses to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothman, David A.; Meyers, Mark; Odegaard, Eric; Wang, Meizhi

    1996-01-01

    Adaptive survival responses (ASRs) are observed when cells become more resistant to a high dose of a cytotoxic agent after repeated low dose exposures to that agent or another genotoxic agent. Confluent (G 0 /G 1 ) human normal (GM2936B, GM2937A, AG2603, IMR-90), cancer-prone (XPV2359), and neoplastic (U1-Mel, HEp-2, HTB-152) cells were primed with repeated low doses of X-rays (ranging from 0.05-10 cGy/day for 4 days), then challenged with a high dose (290-450 cGy) on day 5. U1-Mel and HEp-2 cells showed greater than 2-fold transient survival enhancement when primed with 1-10 cGy. ASRs in U1-Mel or HEp-2 cells were blocked by cycloheximide or actinomycin D. Increases in cyclins A and D1 mRNAs were noted in primed compared to unirradiated U1-Mel and HEp-2 cells; however, only cyclin A protein levels increased. Cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein levels were constitutively elevated in HEp-2 and U1-Mel cells, compared to the other human normal and neoplastic cells examined, and were not altered by low or high doses of radiation. Low dose primed U1-Mel cells entered S-phase 4-6 h faster than unprimed U1-Mel cells upon low-density replating. Similar responses in terms of survival recovery, transcript and protein induction, and altered cell cycle regulation were not observed in the other human normal, cancer-prone or neoplastic cells examined. We hypothesize that only certain human cells can adapt to ionizing radiation by progressing to a point later in G 1 (the A point) where DNA repair processes and radioresistance can be induced. ASRs in human cells correlated well with constitutively elevated levels of PCNA and cyclin D1, as well as inducibility of cyclin A. We propose that a protein complex composed of cyclin D1, PCNA, and possibly cyclin A may play a role in cell cycle regulation and DNA repair, which determine ASRs in human cells

  16. Assessment of smoothed spectra using autocorrelation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanski, P.; Kowalska, E.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, data and signal smoothing became almost standard procedures in the spectrometric and chromatographic methods. In radiometry, the main purpose to apply smoothing is minimisation of the statistical fluctuation and avoid distortion. The aim of the work was to find a qualitative parameter, which could be used, as a figure of merit for detecting distortion of the smoothed spectra, based on the linear model. It is assumed that as long as the part of the raw spectrum removed by the smoothing procedure (v s ) will be of random nature, the smoothed spectrum can be considered as undistorted. Thanks to this feature of the autocorrelation function, drifts of the mean value in the removed noise vs as well as its periodicity can be more easily detected from the autocorrelogram than from the original data

  17. Mediators on human airway smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, C; Johnson, P; Anticevich, S; Ammit, A; McKay, K; Hughes, M; Black, J

    1997-01-01

    1. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness in asthma may be due to several abnormalities, but must include alterations in the airway smooth muscle responsiveness and/or volume. 2. Increased responsiveness of airway smooth muscle in vitro can be induced by certain inflammatory cell products and by induction of sensitization (atopy). 3. Increased airway smooth muscle growth can also be induced by inflammatory cell products and atopic serum. 4. Mast cell numbers are increased in the airways of asthmatics and, in our studies, in airway smooth muscle that is sensitized and hyperresponsive. 5. We propose that there is a relationship between mast cells and airway smooth muscle cells which, once an allergic process has been initiated, results in the development of critical features in the lungs in asthma.

  18. About Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen S Rockland

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the attention attracted by connectomics, one can lose sight of the very real questions concerning What are connections? In the neuroimaging community, structural connectivity is ground truth and underlying constraint on functional or effective connectivity. It is referenced to underlying anatomy; but, as increasingly remarked, there is a large gap between the wealth of human brain mapping and the relatively scant data on actual anatomical connectivity. Moreover, connections have typically been discussed as pairwise, point x projecting to point y (or: to points y and z, or more recently, in graph theoretical terms, as nodes or regions and the interconnecting edges. This is a convenient shorthand, but tends not to capture the richness and nuance of basic anatomical properties as identified in the classic tradition of tracer studies. The present short review accordingly revisits connectional weights, heterogeneity, reciprocity, topography, and hierarchical organization, drawing on concrete examples. The emphasis is on presynaptic long-distance connections, motivated by the intention to probe current assumptions and promote discussions about further progress and synthesis.

  19. Intragenic origins due to short G1 phases underlie oncogene-induced DNA replication stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macheret, Morgane; Halazonetis, Thanos D

    2018-03-01

    Oncogene-induced DNA replication stress contributes critically to the genomic instability that is present in cancer. However, elucidating how oncogenes deregulate DNA replication has been impeded by difficulty in mapping replication initiation sites on the human genome. Here, using a sensitive assay to monitor nascent DNA synthesis in early S phase, we identified thousands of replication initiation sites in cells before and after induction of the oncogenes CCNE1 and MYC. Remarkably, both oncogenes induced firing of a novel set of DNA replication origins that mapped within highly transcribed genes. These ectopic origins were normally suppressed by transcription during G1, but precocious entry into S phase, before all genic regions had been transcribed, allowed firing of origins within genes in cells with activated oncogenes. Forks from oncogene-induced origins were prone to collapse, as a result of conflicts between replication and transcription, and were associated with DNA double-stranded break formation and chromosomal rearrangement breakpoints both in our experimental system and in a large cohort of human cancers. Thus, firing of intragenic origins caused by premature S phase entry represents a mechanism of oncogene-induced DNA replication stress that is relevant for genomic instability in human cancer.

  20. Echinococcus canadensis (G7) and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) in swine of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, D U; Botton, S A; Tonin, A A; Azevedo, M I; Graichen, D A S; Noal, C B; de la Rue, M L

    2014-05-28

    The cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important zoonotic disease caused by the parasite Echinococcus spp. In Brazil, this parasite is present in Rio Grande do Sul (RS) state, border with Argentina and Uruguay, causing several damages to human and animal health. This study aimed to identify Echinococcus spp. in hydatid cysts of swine and evaluate the similarity of the genotypes through the phylogenetic analysis. A total of 3,101,992 swine were slaughtered in the central/northern region of RS/Brazil, during 2008-2012. Five isolates were characterized as hydatid cyst by molecular analysis, based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox-I). The genotypes E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1) (n=2) and E. canadensis (G7) (n=3) were identified in the hydatid cysts. The swine represents a potential intermediate host for different genotypes of Echinococcus spp., besides it can contribute to the perpetuation of the parasite's life cycle in rural areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Serum-induced G0/G1 transition in chemically transformed 3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, H.E.; Buchou, T.; Mester, J.

    1987-01-01

    Quiescent, chemically transformed (benzo-a-pyrene) BALB/c 3T3 cells (BP A31) enter the cell division cycle when exposed to complete medium containing 10% fetal calf serum (FCS); the number of cells recruited is a function of the duration of serum exposure. The recruitment of cells by short (<4 h) serum pulses is not inhibited by simultaneous exposure to cycloheximide (CH), and therefore the initial commitment does not require protein synthesis. The cells enter S phase with a constant delay following the removal of CH, even if CH exposure has been continued for as long as 20 h after the end of the serum pulse. The cell recruitment by serum pulses was inhibited by 5,6-dichloro-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-benzimidazole (DRB), an inhibitor of cytoplasmic mRNA accumulation. These data suggest that serum exposure produces a stable memory that is necessary and sufficient for the eventual progression through G1 to S phase that occurs when protein synthesis is resumed after the removal of CH; this memory probably consists of mRNA species that are induced by serum and that are stable in the absence of protein synthesis. Unexpectedly, pretreatment of quiescent BP A31 cells with CH (8-24 h) dramatically increased the fraction of the total cell population that is recruited by a serum pulse of fixed duration

  2. Screening of recombinant glycosyltransferases reveals the broad acceptor specificity of stevia UGT-76G1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitte, Griet; Walmagh, Maarten; Diricks, Margo; Lepak, Alexander; Gutmann, Alexander; Nidetzky, Bernd; Desmet, Tom

    2016-09-10

    UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are a promising class of biocatalysts that offer a sustainable alternative for chemical glycosylation of natural products. In this study, we aimed to characterize plant-derived UGTs from the GT-1 family with an emphasis on their acceptor promiscuity and their potential application in glycosylation processes. Recombinant expression in E. coli provided sufficient amounts of enzyme for the in-depth characterization of the salicylic acid UGT from Capsella rubella (UGT-SACr) and the stevia UGT from Stevia rebaudiana (UGT-76G1Sr). The latter was found to have a remarkably broad specificity with activities on a wide diversity of structures, from aliphatic and branched alcohols, over small phenolics to larger flavonoids, terpenoids and even higher glycoside compounds. As an example for its industrial potential, the glycosylation of curcumin was thoroughly evaluated. Under optimized conditions, 96% of curcumin was converted within 24h into the corresponding curcumin β-glycosides. In addition, the reaction was performed in a coupled system with sucrose synthase from Glycine max, to enable the cost-efficient (re)generation of UDP-Glc from sucrose as abundant and renewable resource. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. TGFβ lengthens the G1 phase of stem cells in aged mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daynac, Mathieu; Pineda, Jose R; Chicheportiche, Alexandra; Gauthier, Laurent R; Morizur, Lise; Boussin, François D; Mouthon, Marc-André

    2014-12-01

    Neurogenesis decreases during aging causing a progressive cognitive decline but it is still controversial whether proliferation defects in neurogenic niches result from a loss of neural stem cells or from an impairment of their progression through the cell cycle. Using an accurate fluorescence-activated cell sorting technique, we show that the pool of neural stem cells is maintained in the subventricular zone of middle-aged mice while they have a reduced proliferative potential eventually leading to the subsequent decrease of their progeny. In addition, we demonstrate that the G1 phase is lengthened during aging specifically in activated stem cells, but not in transit-amplifying cells, and directly impacts on neurogenesis. Finally, we report that inhibition of TGFβ signaling restores cell cycle progression defects in stem cells. Our data highlight the significance of cell cycle dysregulation in stem cells in the aged brain and provide an attractive foundation for the development of anti-TGFβ regenerative therapies based on stimulating endogenous neural stem cells. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  4. Data fitting by G1 rational cubic Bézier curves using harmony search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najihah Mohamed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A metaheuristic algorithm, called Harmony Search (HS is implemented for data fitting by rational cubic Bézier curves. HS is a derivative-free real parameter optimization algorithm, and draws an inspiration from the musical improvisation process of searching for a perfect state of harmony. HS is suitable for multivariate non-linear optimization problem. It is mainly achieved by data fitting using rational cubic Bézier curves with G1 continuity for every joint of segments of the whole data sets. This approach has significant contributions in making the technique automated. HS is used to optimize positions of middle points and values of the shape parameters. Test outline images and comparative experimental analysis are presented to show effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. Statistical testing between HS and two other different metaheuristic algorithms is used in the analysis on several outline images. All of the algorithms improvised a near optimal solution but the result that is obtained by the HS is better than the results of the other two algorithms.

  5. Antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis C (G1 in Russia: cost and effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rudakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotype 1 HCV treatment in Russia assume as bitherapy (pegylated interferon – PG plus ribavirin – RBV as three therapy based on HCV protease inhibitor such as telaprevir (TLV, boceprevir (BCV or simeprevir (SMV plus PG/RBV. Medical technologies characterize neither clinical effectiveness, safety profile nor cost-effectiveness so it’s crucial to assess different costs related antiviral regimens. Three therapy costs for naïve patients including TLV, BCV, SMV are higher bitherapy 2,6; 2,5; 3,1 times accordingly. Similar TLV and BCV effectiveness for naïve patients defines TLV or BCV as the preferable 1-st line regimen, depending on regional features of pricing. SMV and TLV efficacy is similar among naïve patients and ralapsers but SMV is affordable for partially responders and non-responders after previous bitherapy. SMV cost is 1,4 times higher vs TLV but SMV has improved tolerability, less drug-drug interactions and shorter course. Insufficient bitherapy effectiveness for G1 HCV (SVR 24 – 39%-55% is required repeated course of three therapy for half of patient population. The first line regimen based on innovation will improve clinical outcomes for more patients and provide cost saving vs previous bitherapy based on PG/RBV. 

  6. Extracellular matrix-dependent myosin dynamics during G1-S phase cell cycle progression in hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadriraju, Kiran; Hansen, Linda K.

    2004-01-01

    Cell spreading and proliferation are tightly coupled in anchorage-dependent cells. While adhesion-dependent proliferation signals require an intact actin cytoskeleton, and some of these signals such as ERK activation have been characterized, the role of myosin in spreading and cell cycle progression under different extracellular matrix (ECM) conditions is not known. Studies presented here examine changes in myosin activity in freshly isolated hepatocytes under ECM conditions that promote either proliferation (high fibronectin density) or growth arrest (low fibronectin density). Three different measures were obtained and related to both spreading and cell cycle progression: myosin protein levels and association with cytoskeleton, myosin light chain phosphorylation, and its ATPase activity. During the first 48 h in culture, corresponding with transit through G1 phase, there was a six-fold increase in both myosin protein levels and myosin association with actin cytoskeleton. There was also a steady increase in myosin light chain phosphorylation and ATPase activity with spreading, which did not occur in non-spread, growth-arrested cells on low density of fibronectin. Myosin-inhibiting drugs blocked ERK activation, cyclin D1 expression, and S phase entry. Overexpression of the cell cycle protein cyclin D1 overcame both ECM-dependent and actomyosin-dependent inhibition of DNA synthesis, suggesting that cyclin D1 is a key event downstream of myosin-dependent cell cycle regulation

  7. Barium ionization mechanisms in the CRRES G-1 and G-11b releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunton, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    The G-11b chemical release experiment form the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) was conducted in darkness below the solar UV terminator to test the Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) hypothesis. The Quadrupole Ion Mass Spectrometer (QIMS) aboard CRRES measured fluxes of barium ions from this darkness release that were only a factor of ten smaller than the G-1 release measurements in full sunlight. Possible mechanisms for this significant barium ionization in darkness include CIV, charge exchange with O + , collisional ionization and associative ionization. The authors have evaluated the relative contributions of the collisional mechanisms by constructing a simple model of barium ions from the darkness release seem to be consistent with recent measurements of the charge transfer cross section. A collective plasma ionization mechanism such as CIV does not seem to necessary in order to explain the large barium ion fluxes observed. However, QIMS could only detect barium ions formed several seconds after the initial detonation of the release canister. A CIV process could still have occurred very early in the expansion of the barium neutral cloud and the mass spectrometer would not have detected these ions

  8. Inhibition of G0/G1 Switch 2 Ameliorates Renal Inflammation in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Matsunaga

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a global health problem, and novel therapies to treat CKD are urgently needed. Here, we show that inhibition of G0/G1 switch 2 (G0s2 ameliorates renal inflammation in a mouse model of CKD. Renal expression of chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 (Ccl2 was increased in response to p65 activation in the kidneys of wild-type 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6Nx mice. Moreover, 5/6Nx Clk/Clk mice, which carry homozygous mutations in the gene encoding circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK, did not exhibit aggravation of apoptosis or induction of F4/80-positive cells. The renal expression of G0s2 in wild-type 5/6Nx mice was important for the transactivation of Ccl2 by p65. These pathologies were ameliorated by G0s2 knockdown. Furthermore, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of G0s2 expression was identified by high-throughput chemical screening, and the inhibitor suppressed renal inflammation in 5/6Nx mice. These findings indicated that G0s2 inhibitors may have applications in the treatment of CKD.

  9. Internet Connectivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Internet Connectivity. BSNL, SIFY, HCL in Guwahati; only BSNL elsewhere in NE (local player in Shillong). Service poor; All vendors lease BW from BSNL.

  10. Mathematics Connection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MATHEMATICS CONNECTION aims at providing a forum topromote the development of Mathematics Education in Ghana. Articles that seekto enhance the teaching and/or learning of mathematics at all levels of theeducational system are welcome.

  11. HR Connect

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — HR Connect is the USAID HR personnel system which allows HR professionals to process HR actions related to employee's personal and position information. This system...

  12. SUN1 silencing inhibits cell growth through G0/G1 phase arrest in lung adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang W

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Weiyi Huang,* Haihua Huang,* Lei Wang, Jiong Hu, Weifeng Song Department of Oncology, The First People’s Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Cytoskeleton is critical for carcinoma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Sad-1 and UNC-84 domain containing 1 (SUN1 is one of the core linkers of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton. However, the functions of SUN1 in lung adenocarcinoma are largely unknown.Methods: In this study, we first transduced the lentivirus delivering the short hairpin RNA (shRNA against SUN1 to lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549 and 95D cells with high efficiency. After lentivirus infection, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to detect the expressions of SUN1 mRNA and protein. The cell proliferation and colony formation were detected by MTT assay and colony formation assay, respectively. The cell distribution in the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry.Results: Both mRNA and protein levels of SUN1 were significantly decreased in A549 and 95D cells after lentivirus infection, as indicated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Next, we found that cell proliferation and colony formation were markedly reduced in SUN1 silenced cells. Moreover, suppression of SUN1 led to cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. Furthermore, Cyclin D1, CDK6, and CDK2 expressions were obviously reduced in A549 cells after SUN1 silencing.Conclusion: These results suggest that SUN1 plays an essential role in proliferation of lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and may be used as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma in the future. Keywords: SUN1, lung cancer, proliferation

  13. The impact of geoengineering on vegetation in experiment G1 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Peter; Glienke, Susanne; Lawrence, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Solar Radiation Management (SRM) has been proposed as a means to partly counteract global warming. The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) simulated the climate consequences of a number of SRM techniques, but the effects on vegetation have not yet been thoroughly studied. Here, the vegetation response to the idealized GeoMIP G1 experiment is analyzed, in which a reduction of the solar constant counterbalances the radiative effects of quadrupled atmospheric CO2 concentrations; the results from eight fully coupled earth system models (ESMs) are included. For most models and regions, changes in net primary productivity (NPP) are dominated by the increase in CO2, via the CO2 fertilization effect. As SRM will lower temperatures, in high latitudes this will reverse gains in NPP from the lifting of temperature limitations. In low latitudes this cooling relative to the 4xCO2 simulation decreases plant respiration whilst having little effect on gross primary productivity, increasing NPP. Despite reductions in precipitation in most regions in response to SRM, runoff and NPP increase in many regions including those previously highlighted as potentially being at risk of drought under SRM. This is due to simultaneous reductions in evaporation and increases in water use efficiency by plants due to higher CO2 concentrations. The relative differences between models in the vegetation response are substantially larger than the differences in their climate responses. The largest differences between models are for those with and without a nitrogen-cycle, with a much smaller CO2 fertilization effect for the former. These results suggest that until key vegetation processes are integrated into ESM predictions, the vegetation response to SRM will remain highly uncertain.

  14. An Immunoglobulin G1 Monoclonal Antibody Highly Specific to the Wall of Cryptosporidium Oocysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, C.; Vesey, G.; Slade, M.; Ferrari, B.; Veal, D. A.; Williams, K.

    2000-01-01

    The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in drinking water is critically dependent on the quality of immunofluorescent reagents. Experiments were performed to develop a method for producing highly specific antibodies to Cryptosporidium oocysts that can be used for water testing. BALB/c mice were immunized with six different antigen preparations and monitored for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM responses to the surface of Cryptosporidium oocysts. One group of mice received purified oocyst walls, a second group received a soluble protein preparation extracted from the outside of the oocyst wall, and the third group received whole inactivated oocysts. Three additional groups were immunized with sequentially prepared oocyst extracts to provide for a comparison of the immune response. Mice injected with the soluble protein extract demonstrated an IgG response to oocysts surface that was not seen in the whole-oocyst group. Mice injected with whole oocysts showed an IgM response only, while mice injected with purified oocyst walls showed little increase in IgM or IgG levels. Of the additional reported preparations only one, BME (2-mercaptoethanol treated), produced a weak IgM response to the oocyst wall. A mouse from the soluble oocyst extract group yielding a high IgG response was utilized to produce a highly specific IgG1 monoclonal antibody (Cry104) specific to the oocyst surface. Comparative flow cytometric analysis indicated that Cry104 has a higher avidity and specificity to oocysts in water concentrates than other commercially available antibodies. PMID:10973448

  15. Modelling of aflatoxin G1 reduction by kefir grain using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Farzaneh; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Rezaei, Karamatollah; Rahmani, Anosheh

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) is one of the main toxic contaminants in pistachio nuts and causes potential health hazards. Hence, AFG1 reduction is one of the main concerns in food safety. Kefir-grains contain symbiotic association of microorganisms well known for their aflatoxin decontamination effects. In this study, a central composite design (CCD) using response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to develop a model in order to predict AFG1 reduction in pistachio nuts by kefir-grain (already heated at 70 and 110°C). The independent variables were: toxin concentration (X1: 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 ng/g), kefir-grain level (X2: 5, 10, 20, 10 and 25%), contact time (X3: 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h), and incubation temperature (X4: 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60°C). There was a significant reduction in AFG1 (p kefir-grain used. The variables including X1, X3 and the interactions between X2-X4 as well as X3-X4 have significant effects on AFG1 reduction. The model provided a good prediction of AFG1 reduction under the assay conditions. Optimization was used to enhance the efficiency of kefir-grain on AFG1 reduction. The optimum conditions for the highest AFG1 reduction (96.8%) were predicted by the model as follows: toxin concentration = 20 ng/g, kefir-grain level = 10%, contact time = 6 h, and incubation temperature = 30°C which validated practically in six replications.

  16. The g0/g1 switch gene 2 is an important regulator of hepatic triglyceride metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinfang; Zhang, Yahui; Qian, Hang; Lu, Juan; Zhang, Zhifeng; Min, Xinwen; Lang, Mingjian; Yang, Handong; Wang, Nanping; Zhang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Factors that regulate the disposal of hepatic triglycerides contribute to the development of hepatic steatosis. G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0S2) is a target of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and plays an important role in regulating lipolysis in adipocytes. Therefore, we investigated whether G0S2 plays a role in hepatic lipid metabolism. Adenovirus-mediated expression of G0S2 (Ad-G0S2) potently induced fatty liver in mice. The liver mass of Ad-G0S2-infected mice was markedly increased with excess triglyceride content compared to the control mice. G0S2 did not change cellular cholesterol levels in hepatocytes. G0S2 was found to be co-localized with adipose triglyceride lipase at the surface of lipid droplets. Hepatic G0S2 overexpression resulted in an increase in plasma Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/Very-Low-density (VLDL) lipoprotein cholesterol level. Plasma High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and ketone body levels were slightly decreased in Ad-G0S2 injected mice. G0S2 also increased the accumulation of neutral lipids in cultured HepG2 and L02 cells. However, G0S2 overexpression in the liver significantly improved glucose tolerance in mice. Livers expressing G0S2 exhibited increased 6-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1-3-diazol-4-yl) amino)-6-deoxyglucose uptake compared with livers transfected with control adenovirus. Taken together, our results provide evidence supporting an important role for G0S2 as a regulator of triglyceride content in the liver and suggest that G0S2 may be a molecular target for the treatment of insulin resistance and other obesity-related metabolic disorders.

  17. Experimental investigation of smoothing by spectral dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regan, Sean P.; Marozas, John A.; Kelly, John H.; Boehly, Thomas R.; Donaldson, William R.; Jaanimagi, Paul A.; Keck, Robert L.; Kessler, Terrance J.; Meyerhofer, David D.; Seka, Wolf

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of smoothing rates for smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) of high-power, solid-state laser beams used for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research are reported. Smoothing rates were obtained from the intensity distributions of equivalent target plane images for laser pulses of varying duration. Simulations of the experimental data with the known properties of the phase plates and the frequency modulators are in good agreement with the experimental data. These results inspire confidence in extrapolating to higher bandwidths and other SSD configurations that may be suitable for ICF experiments and ultimately for direct-drive laser-fusion ignition. (c) 2000 Optical Society of America

  18. Bifurcations of non-smooth systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Fabiola; Olivar, Gerard; Osorio, Gustavo A.; Escobar, Carlos M.; Ferreira, Jocirei D.; Redondo, Johan M.

    2012-12-01

    Non-smooth systems (namely piecewise-smooth systems) have received much attention in the last decade. Many contributions in this area show that theory and applications (to electronic circuits, mechanical systems, …) are relevant to problems in science and engineering. Specially, new bifurcations have been reported in the literature, and this was the topic of this minisymposium. Thus both bifurcation theory and its applications were included. Several contributions from different fields show that non-smooth bifurcations are a hot topic in research. Thus in this paper the reader can find contributions from electronics, energy markets and population dynamics. Also, a carefully-written specific algebraic software tool is presented.

  19. New COMPASS results on the spin structure function $g_1^p$, and QCD fit

    CERN Document Server

    Wilfert, Malte

    2014-01-01

    The COMPASS experiment at CERN SPS has taken data with a polarised muon beam scattering off a polarised NH 3 target in 2011. The beam energy has been increased to 200 GeV compared to 160 GeV in 2007 and thus, higher values of Q 2 and lower values of x are reached. From these data the longitudinal double spin asymmetry A p 1 and the spin-dependent structure function g p 1 are extracted. The results are used in a NLO QCD fit to the world data to obtain the polarised parton distributions and also to test the Bjorken sum rule, connecting the integral of the non-singlet structure function with the ratio of the weak coupling constants

  20. Activity in mice of recombinant BCG-EgG1Y162 vaccine for Echinococcus granulosus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiumin; Zhao, Hui; Zhang, Fengbo; Zhu, Yuejie; Peng, Shanshan; Ma, Haimei; Cao, Chunbao; Xin, Yan; Yimiti, Delixiati; Wen, Hao; Ding, Jianbing

    2016-01-01

    Cystic hydatid disease is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus which is distributed worldwide. The disease is difficult to treat with surgery removal is the only cure treatment. In the high endemic areas, vaccination of humans is believed a way to protect communities from the disease. In this study we vaccinated BALB/c mice with rBCG-EgG1Y162, and then detected the level of IgG and IgE specifically against the recombinant protein by ELISA, rBCG-EgG1Y162 induced strong and specific cellular and humoral immune responses. In vitro study showed that rBCG-EgG1Y162 vaccine not only promote splenocytes proliferation but also active T cell. In addition, the rBCG-EgG1Y162 induced a protection in the mice against secondary infection of Echinococcus granulosus.

  1. Establishing Connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    Global law settings are characterised by a structural pre-eminence of connectivity norms, a type of norm which differs from coherency or possibility norms. The centrality of connectivity norms emerges from the function of global law, which is to increase the probability of transfers of condensed ...... and human rights can be understood as serving a constitutionalising function aimed at stabilising and facilitating connectivity. This allows for an understanding of colonialism and contemporary global governance as functional, but not as normative, equivalents.......Global law settings are characterised by a structural pre-eminence of connectivity norms, a type of norm which differs from coherency or possibility norms. The centrality of connectivity norms emerges from the function of global law, which is to increase the probability of transfers of condensed...... social components, such as economic capital and products, religious doctrines and scientific knowledge, from one legally structured context to another within world society. This was the case from colonialism and colonial law to contemporary global supply chains and human rights. Both colonial law...

  2. Endothelial ATP-binding cassette G1 in mouse endothelium protects against hemodynamic-induced atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Shanshan [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070 (China); Department of Pediatrics, Baodi District People’s Hospital of Tianjin City, Tianjin, 301800 (China); Wang, Jiaxing [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191 (China); Zhang, Xu; Shi, Ying; Li, Bochuan; Bao, Qiankun [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070 (China); Pang, Wei [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191 (China); Ai, Ding [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070 (China); Zhu, Yi [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070 (China); Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191 (China); He, Jinlong, E-mail: hejinlong@tmu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070 (China)

    2016-08-19

    Activated vascular endothelium inflammation under persistent hyperlipidemia is the initial step of atherogenesis. ATP-binding cassette G1 (ABCG1) is a crucial factor maintaining sterol and lipid homeostasis by transporting cholesterol efflux to high-density lipoprotein. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of ABCG1 in endothelial inflammation activation during early-stage atherogenesis in mice and the underlying mechanisms. Endothelial cell (EC)-specific ABCG1 transgenic (EC-ABCG1-Tg) mice were generated and cross-bred with low-density lipoprotein receptor–deficient (Ldlr{sup −/−}) mice. After a 4-week Western-type diet, the mice were sacrificed for assessing atherosclerosis. Human umbilical vein ECs were treated with different flows, and ABCG1 was adenovirally overexpressed to investigate the mechanism in vitro. Compared with Ldlr{sup −/−} mouse aortas, EC-ABCG1-Tg/Ldlr{sup −/−} aortas showed decreased early-stage lesions. Furthermore, the lesion area in the EC-ABCG1-Tg/Ldlr{sup −/−} mouse aortic arch but not thoracic aorta was significantly reduced, which suggests a protective role of ABCG1 under atheroprone flow. In vitro, overexpression of ABCG1 attenuated EC activation caused by oscillatory shear stress. Overexpression of ABCG1 blunted cholesterol-activated ECs in vitro. In exploring the mechanisms of ABCG1 attenuating endothelial inflammation, we found that ABCG1 inhibited oscillatory flow-activated nuclear factor kappa B and NLRP3 inflammasome in ECs. ABCG1 may play a protective role in early-stage atherosclerosis by reducing endothelial activation induced by oscillatory shear stress via suppressing the inflammatory response. - Highlights: • EC-ABCG1-Tg mice in a Ldlr{sup −/−} background showed decreased atherosclerosis. • Overexpression of ABCG1 in ECs decreased OSS-induced EC activation. • NLRP3 and NF-κB might be an underlying mechanism of ABCG1 protective role.

  3. On the electronic structure of 5g1 complexes of element 125: a quasi - relativistic MS-Xα study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhyoun, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Quasi-relativistic SCF Xα calculations are reported for the hypothetical complexes E0 2 2+ , EF 6 (E = element 125) and the 5f 1 ion Np0 2 2 + . The calculations indicate that the E complexes have a 5g 1 outer electronic configuration with good agreement with previous predictions. The ligand field energy diagram for G 1 system in 0 h symmetry in discussed in relation to the obtained X α results

  4. Final COMPASS results on the deuteron spin-dependent structure function g1d and the Bjorken sum rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Adolph

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Final results are presented from the inclusive measurement of deep-inelastic polarised-muon scattering on longitudinally polarised deuterons using a 6LiD target. The data were taken at 160 GeV beam energy and the results are shown for the kinematic range 1(GeV/c24GeV/c2 in the mass of the hadronic final state. The deuteron double-spin asymmetry A1d and the deuteron longitudinal-spin structure function g1d are presented in bins of x and Q2. Towards lowest accessible values of x, g1d decreases and becomes consistent with zero within uncertainties. The presented final g1d values together with the recently published final g1p values of COMPASS are used to again evaluate the Bjorken sum rule and perform the QCD fit to the g1 world data at next-to-leading order of the strong coupling constant. In both cases, changes in central values of the resulting numbers are well within statistical uncertainties. The flavour-singlet axial charge a0, which is identified in the MS‾ renormalisation scheme with the total contribution of quark helicities to the nucleon spin, is extracted at next-to-leading order accuracy from only the COMPASS deuteron data: a0(Q2=3(GeV/c2=0.32±0.02stat±0.04syst±0.05evol. Together with the recent results on the proton spin structure function g1p, the results on g1d constitute the COMPASS legacy on the measurements of g1 through inclusive spin-dependent deep inelastic scattering.

  5. On the measurability of the structure function g1(x,Q2) in ep collisions at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.

    1995-08-01

    The possibility is investigated to measure the polarized structure function g 1 (x, Q 2 ) in the collider mode of HERA operating with a polarized lepton and proton beam. The x dependence of g 1 can be measured at a statistical precision of ∝15% to 70% in the range 0.0005 2 > 2 at beam polarizations λ p ∝λ e =0.8 and L int =60 pb -1 . (orig.)

  6. Estimating the small-x exponent of the structure function g1NS from the Bjorken sum rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauf, Anke; Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Soff, Gerhard

    2002-01-01

    We present a new estimate of the exponent governing the small-x behavior of the nonsinglet structure function g 1 p-n derived under the assumption that the Bjorken sum rule is valid. We use the world wide average of α s and the NNNLO QCD corrections to the Bjorken sum rule. The structure function g 1 NS is found to be clearly divergent for small x

  7. Optimal Smoothing in Adaptive Location Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Mammen, Enno; Park, Byeong U.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper higher order performance of kernel basedadaptive location estimators are considered. Optimalchoice of smoothing parameters is discussed and it isshown how much is lossed in efficiency by not knowingthe underlying translation density.

  8. Smooth surfaces from rational bilinear patches

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Smooth freeform skins from simple panels constitute a challenging topic arising in contemporary architecture. We contribute to this problem area by showing how to approximate a negatively curved surface by smoothly joined rational bilinear patches. The approximation problem is solved with help of a new computational approach to the hyperbolic nets of Huhnen-Venedey and Rörig and optimization algorithms based on it. We also discuss its limits which lie in the topology of the input surface. Finally, freeform deformations based on Darboux transformations are used to generate smooth surfaces from smoothly joined Darboux cyclide patches; in this way we eliminate the restriction to surfaces with negative Gaussian curvature. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  9. FACT prevents the accumulation of free histones evicted from transcribed chromatin and a subsequent cell cycle delay in G1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Morillo-Huesca

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The FACT complex participates in chromatin assembly and disassembly during transcription elongation. The yeast mutants affected in the SPT16 gene, which encodes one of the FACT subunits, alter the expression of G1 cyclins and exhibit defects in the G1/S transition. Here we show that the dysfunction of chromatin reassembly factors, like FACT or Spt6, down-regulates the expression of the gene encoding the cyclin that modulates the G1 length (CLN3 in START by specifically triggering the repression of its promoter. The G1 delay undergone by spt16 mutants is not mediated by the DNA-damage checkpoint, although the mutation of RAD53, which is otherwise involved in histone degradation, enhances the cell-cycle defects of spt16-197. We reveal how FACT dysfunction triggers an accumulation of free histones evicted from transcribed chromatin. This accumulation is enhanced in a rad53 background and leads to a delay in G1. Consistently, we show that the overexpression of histones in wild-type cells down-regulates CLN3 in START and causes a delay in G1. Our work shows that chromatin reassembly factors are essential players in controlling the free histones potentially released from transcribed chromatin and describes a new cell cycle phenomenon that allows cells to respond to excess histones before starting DNA replication.

  10. A Meshfree Cell-based Smoothed Point Interpolation Method for Solid Mechanics Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guiyong; Liu Guirong

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of a weakened weak (W 2 ) formulation using a generalized gradient smoothing operation, this paper introduces a novel meshfree cell-based smoothed point interpolation method (CS-PIM) for solid mechanics problems. The W 2 formulation seeks solutions from a normed G space which includes both continuous and discontinuous functions and allows the use of much more types of methods to create shape functions for numerical methods. When PIM shape functions are used, the functions constructed are in general not continuous over the entire problem domain and hence are not compatible. Such an interpolation is not in a traditional H 1 space, but in a G 1 space. By introducing the generalized gradient smoothing operation properly, the requirement on function is now further weakened upon the already weakened requirement for functions in a H 1 space and G 1 space can be viewed as a space of functions with weakened weak (W 2 ) requirement on continuity. The cell-based smoothed point interpolation method (CS-PIM) is formulated based on the W 2 formulation, in which displacement field is approximated using the PIM shape functions, which possess the Kronecker delta property facilitating the enforcement of essential boundary conditions [3]. The gradient (strain) field is constructed by the generalized gradient smoothing operation within the cell-based smoothing domains, which are exactly the triangular background cells. A W 2 formulation of generalized smoothed Galerkin (GS-Galerkin) weak form is used to derive the discretized system equations. It was found that the CS-PIM possesses the following attractive properties: (1) It is very easy to implement and works well with the simplest linear triangular mesh without introducing additional degrees of freedom; (2) it is at least linearly conforming; (3) this method is temporally stable and works well for dynamic analysis; (4) it possesses a close-to-exact stiffness, which is much softer than the overly-stiff FEM model and

  11. Connected Traveler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    The Connected Traveler framework seeks to boost the energy efficiency of personal travel and the overall transportation system by maximizing the accuracy of predicted traveler behavior in response to real-time feedback and incentives. It is anticipated that this approach will establish a feedback loop that 'learns' traveler preferences and customizes incentives to meet or exceed energy efficiency targets by empowering individual travelers with information needed to make energy-efficient choices and reducing the complexity required to validate transportation system energy savings. This handout provides an overview of NREL's Connected Traveler project, including graphics, milestones, and contact information.

  12. Smooth embeddings with Stein surface images

    OpenAIRE

    Gompf, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    A simple characterization is given of open subsets of a complex surface that smoothly perturb to Stein open subsets. As applications, complex 2-space C^2 contains domains of holomorphy (Stein open subsets) that are exotic R^4's, and others homotopy equivalent to the 2-sphere but cut out by smooth, compact 3-manifolds. Pseudoconvex embeddings of Brieskorn spheres and other 3-manifolds into complex surfaces are constructed, as are pseudoconcave holomorphic fillings (with disagreeing contact and...

  13. Some splines produced by smooth interpolation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Segeth, Karel

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 319, 15 February (2018), s. 387-394 ISSN 0096-3003 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : smooth data approximation * smooth data interpolation * cubic spline Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 1.738, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0096300317302746?via%3Dihub

  14. Some splines produced by smooth interpolation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Segeth, Karel

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 319, 15 February (2018), s. 387-394 ISSN 0096-3003 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : smooth data approximation * smooth data interpolation * cubic spline Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 1.738, year: 2016 http://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S0096300317302746?via%3Dihub

  15. Optimal Smooth Consumption and Annuity Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Kenneth; Steffensen, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    We propose an optimization criterion that yields extraordinary consumption smoothing compared to the well known results of the life-cycle model. Under this criterion we solve the related consumption and investment optimization problem faced by individuals with preferences for intertemporal stabil...... stability in consumption. We find that the consumption and investment patterns demanded under the optimization criterion is in general offered as annuity benefits from products in the class of ‘Formula Based Smoothed Investment-Linked Annuities’....

  16. Making connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marion Duimel

    2007-01-01

    Original title: Verbinding maken; senioren en internet. More and more older people are finding their way to the Internet. Many people aged over 50 who have only recently gone online say that a new world has opened up for them. By connecting to the Internet they have the feeling that they

  17. CMS Connect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcas, J.; Bockelman, B.; Gardner, R., Jr.; Hurtado Anampa, K.; Jayatilaka, B.; Aftab Khan, F.; Lannon, K.; Larson, K.; Letts, J.; Marra Da Silva, J.; Mascheroni, M.; Mason, D.; Perez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Tiradani, A.

    2017-10-01

    The CMS experiment collects and analyzes large amounts of data coming from high energy particle collisions produced by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. This involves a huge amount of real and simulated data processing that needs to be handled in batch-oriented platforms. The CMS Global Pool of computing resources provide +100K dedicated CPU cores and another 50K to 100K CPU cores from opportunistic resources for these kind of tasks and even though production and event processing analysis workflows are already managed by existing tools, there is still a lack of support to submit final stage condor-like analysis jobs familiar to Tier-3 or local Computing Facilities users into these distributed resources in an integrated (with other CMS services) and friendly way. CMS Connect is a set of computing tools and services designed to augment existing services in the CMS Physics community focusing on these kind of condor analysis jobs. It is based on the CI-Connect platform developed by the Open Science Grid and uses the CMS GlideInWMS infrastructure to transparently plug CMS global grid resources into a virtual pool accessed via a single submission machine. This paper describes the specific developments and deployment of CMS Connect beyond the CI-Connect platform in order to integrate the service with CMS specific needs, including specific Site submission, accounting of jobs and automated reporting to standard CMS monitoring resources in an effortless way to their users.

  18. Dense-body aggregates as plastic structures supporting tension in smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Herrera, Ana M; Paré, Peter D; Seow, Chun Y

    2010-11-01

    The wall of hollow organs of vertebrates is a unique structure able to generate active tension and maintain a nearly constant passive stiffness over a large volume range. These properties are predominantly attributable to the smooth muscle cells that line the organ wall. Although smooth muscle is known to possess plasticity (i.e., the ability to adapt to large changes in cell length through structural remodeling of contractile apparatus and cytoskeleton), the detailed structural basis for the plasticity is largely unknown. Dense bodies, one of the most prominent structures in smooth muscle cells, have been regarded as the anchoring sites for actin filaments, similar to the Z-disks in striated muscle. Here, we show that the dense bodies and intermediate filaments formed cable-like structures inside airway smooth muscle cells and were able to adjust the cable length according to cell length and tension. Stretching the muscle cell bundle in the relaxed state caused the cables to straighten, indicating that these intracellular structures were connected to the extracellular matrix and could support passive tension. These plastic structures may be responsible for the ability of smooth muscle to maintain a nearly constant tensile stiffness over a large length range. The finding suggests that the structural plasticity of hollow organs may originate from the dense-body cables within the smooth muscle cells.

  19. Non-parametric smoothing of experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuketayev, A.T.; Pen'kov, F.M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Rapid processing of experimental data samples in nuclear physics often requires differentiation in order to find extrema. Therefore, even at the preliminary stage of data analysis, a range of noise reduction methods are used to smooth experimental data. There are many non-parametric smoothing techniques: interval averages, moving averages, exponential smoothing, etc. Nevertheless, it is more common to use a priori information about the behavior of the experimental curve in order to construct smoothing schemes based on the least squares techniques. The latter methodology's advantage is that the area under the curve can be preserved, which is equivalent to conservation of total speed of counting. The disadvantages of this approach include the lack of a priori information. For example, very often the sums of undifferentiated (by a detector) peaks are replaced with one peak during the processing of data, introducing uncontrolled errors in the determination of the physical quantities. The problem is solvable only by having experienced personnel, whose skills are much greater than the challenge. We propose a set of non-parametric techniques, which allows the use of any additional information on the nature of experimental dependence. The method is based on a construction of a functional, which includes both experimental data and a priori information. Minimum of this functional is reached on a non-parametric smoothed curve. Euler (Lagrange) differential equations are constructed for these curves; then their solutions are obtained analytically or numerically. The proposed approach allows for automated processing of nuclear physics data, eliminating the need for highly skilled laboratory personnel. Pursuant to the proposed approach is the possibility to obtain smoothing curves in a given confidence interval, e.g. according to the χ 2 distribution. This approach is applicable when constructing smooth solutions of ill-posed problems, in particular when solving

  20. The spin-dependent structure function $g_1(x)$ of the proton from polarized deep-inelastic muon scattering

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067425; Arvidson, A; Badelek, B; Bardin, G; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Betev, L; Birsa, R; De Botton, N R; Bradamante, Franco; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Bültmann, S; Burtin, E; Crabb, D; Cranshaw, J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Dalla Torre, S; Van Dantzig, R; Derro, B R; Deshpande, A A; Dhawan, S K; Dulya, C M; Eichblatt, S; Fasching, D; Feinstein, F; Fernández, C; Forthmann, S; Frois, Bernard; Gallas, A; Garzón, J A; Gilly, H; Giorgi, M A; Görtz, S; Gracia, G; De Groot, N; Haft, K; Von Harrach, D; Hasegawa, T; Hautle, P; Hayashi, N; Heusch, C A; Horikawa, N; Hughes, V W; Igo, G; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kabuss, E M; Kageya, T; Karev, A G; Ketel, T; Kiryluk, J; Kiselev, Yu F; Krivokhizhin, V G; Kröger, W; Kukhtin, V V; Kurek, K; Kyynäräinen, J; Lamanna, M; Landgraf, U; Le Goff, J M; Lehár, F; de Lesquen, A; Lichtenstadt, J; Litmaath, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Marie, F; Martin, A; Martino, J; Matsuda, T; Mayes, B W; McCarthy, J S; Medved, K S; Meyer, W T; Van Middelkoop, G; Miller, D; Miyachi, Y; Mori, K; Moromisato, J H; Nassalski, J P; Naumann, Lutz; Niinikoski, T O; Oberski, J; Ogawa, A; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Pereira, H; Perrot-Kunne, F; Peshekhonov, V D; Pinsky, L; Platchkov, S K; Pló, M; Pose, D; Postma, H; Pretz, J; Puntaferro, R; Rädel, G; Rijllart, A; Reicherz, G; Rodríguez, M; Rondio, Ewa; Roscherr, B; Sabo, I; Saborido, J; Sandacz, A; Savin, I A; Schiavon, R P; Schiller, A; Sichtermann, E P; Simeoni, F; Smirnov, G I; Staude, A; Steinmetz, A; Stiegler, U; Stuhrmann, H B; Szleper, M; Tessarotto, F; Thers, D; Tlaczala, W; Tripet, A; Ünel, G; Velasco, M; Vogt, J; Voss, Rüdiger; Whitten, C; Windmolders, R; Wislicki, W; Witzmann, A; Ylöstalo, J; Zanetti, A M; Zaremba, K

    1997-01-01

    We present a new measurement of the virtual photon proton asymmetry $A_1^{\\rm p}$ from deep inelastic scattering of polarized muons on polarized protons in the kinematic range $0.0008 1$ GeV$^{2}$. A perturbative QCD evolution in next-to-leading order is used to determine $g_1^{\\rm p}(x)$ at a constant $Q^2$. At $Q^{2} = 10$ GeV$^{2}$ we find, in the measured range, $\\int_{0.003}^{0.7} g_{1}^{\\rm p}(x){\\rm d}x = 0.139 \\pm 0.006~({\\rm stat})\\pm 0.008~({\\rm syst)} \\pm 0.006~({\\rm evol})$. The value of the first moment $\\Gamma_{1}^{\\rm p} = \\int_{0}^{1} g_{1}^{\\rm p}(x){\\rm d}x$ of $g_{1}^{\\rm p}$ depends on the approach used to describe the behaviour of $g_{1}^{\\rm p}$ at low $x$. We find that the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule is violated. With our published result for $\\Gamma_{1}^{\\rm d}$ we confirm the Bjorken sum rule with an accuracy of $\\approx 15\\%$ at the one standard deviation level.

  1. The spin structure function g1p of the proton and a test of the Bjorken sum rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Adolph

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available New results for the double spin asymmetry A1p and the proton longitudinal spin structure function g1p are presented. They were obtained by the COMPASS Collaboration using polarised 200 GeV muons scattered off a longitudinally polarised NH3 target. The data were collected in 2011 and complement those recorded in 2007 at 160 GeV, in particular at lower values of x. They improve the statistical precision of g1p(x by about a factor of two in the region x≲0.02. A next-to-leading order QCD fit to the g1 world data is performed. It leads to a new determination of the quark spin contribution to the nucleon spin, ΔΣ, ranging from 0.26 to 0.36, and to a re-evaluation of the first moment of g1p. The uncertainty of ΔΣ is mostly due to the large uncertainty in the present determinations of the gluon helicity distribution. A new evaluation of the Bjorken sum rule based on the COMPASS results for the non-singlet structure function g1NS(x,Q2 yields as ratio of the axial and vector coupling constants |gA/gV|=1.22±0.05 (stat.±0.10 (syst., which validates the sum rule to an accuracy of about 9%.

  2. The Spin Structure Function $g_1^{\\rm p}$ of the Proton and a Test of the Bjorken Sum Rule

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C.; Alexeev, M.G.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Buchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chang, W.C.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, I.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; M. Finger jr; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; von Hohenesche, N. du Fresne; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchey, E.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giordano, F.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grosse-Perdekamp, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hahne, D.; von Harrach, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Hsieh, C.Yu; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jorg, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kramer, M.; Kremser, P.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R.P.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Miyachi, Y.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W.D.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.C.; Pereira, F.; Pesek, M.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Rocco, E.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Rychter, A.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, C.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schonning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Selyunin, A.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Wolbeek, J. ter; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Veloso, J.; Virius, M.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.

    2016-02-10

    New results for the double spin asymmetry $A_1^{\\rm p}$ and the proton longitudinal spin structure function $g_1^{\\rm p}$ are presented. They were obtained by the COMPASS collaboration using polarised 200 GeV muons scattered off a longitudinally polarised NH$_3$ target. The data were collected in 2011 and complement those recorded in 2007 at 160\\,GeV, in particular at lower values of $x$. They improve the statistical precision of $g_1^{\\rm p}(x)$ by about a factor of two in the region $x\\lesssim 0.02$. A next-to-leading order QCD fit to the $g_1$ world data is performed. It leads to a new determination of the quark spin contribution to the nucleon spin, $\\Delta \\Sigma$ ranging from 0.26 to 0.36, and to a re-evaluation of the first moment of $g_1^{\\rm p}$. The uncertainty of $\\Delta \\Sigma$ is mostly due to the large uncertainty in the present determinations of the gluon helicity distribution. A new evaluation of the Bjorken sum rule based on the COMPASS results for the non-singlet structure function $g_1^{\\rm...

  3. Radiosensitization of NSCLC cells by EGFR inhibition is the result of an enhanced p53-dependent G1 arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriegs, Malte; Gurtner, Kristin; Can, Yildiz; Brammer, Ingo; Rieckmann, Thorsten; Oertel, Reinhard; Wysocki, Marek; Dorniok, Franziska; Gal, Andreas; Grob, Tobias J.; Laban, Simon; Kasten-Pisula, Ulla; Petersen, Cordula; Baumann, Michael; Krause, Mechthild; Dikomey, Ekkehard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: How EGF receptor (EGFR) inhibition induces cellular radiosensitization and with that increase in tumor control is still a matter of discussion. Since EGFR predominantly regulates cell cycle and proliferation, we studied whether a G1-arrest caused by EGFR inhibition may contribute to these effects. Materials and methods: We analyzed human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines either wild type (wt) or mutated in p53 (A549, H460, vs. H1299, H3122) and HCT116 cells (p21 wt and negative). EGFR was inhibited by BIBX1382BS, erlotinib or cetuximab; p21 was knocked down by siRNA. Functional endpoints analyzed were cell signaling, proliferation, G1-arrest, cell survival as well as tumor control using an A549 tumor model. Results: When combined with IR, EGFR inhibition enhances the radiation-induced permanent G1 arrest, though solely in cells with intact p53/p21 signaling. This increase in G1-arrest was always associated with enhanced cellular radiosensitivity. Strikingly, this effect was abrogated when cells were re-stimulated, suggesting the initiation of dormancy. In line with this, only a small non-significant increase in tumor control was observed for A549 tumors treated with fractionated RT and EGFR inhibition. Conclusion: For NSCLC cells increase in radiosensitivity by EGFR inhibition results from enhanced G1-arrest. However, this effect does not lead to improved tumor control because cells can be released from this arrest by re-stimulation

  4. Gendered Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the gendered nature of urban politics in Cape Town by focusing on a group of female, township politicians. Employing the Deleuzian concept of `wild connectivity', it argues that these politically entrepreneurial women were able to negotiate a highly volatile urban landscape...... by drawing on and operationalizing violent, male networks — from struggle activists' networks, to vigilante groups and gangs, to the police. The fact that they were women helped them to tap into and exploit these networks. At the same time, they were restricted by their sex, as their ability to navigate...... space also drew on quite traditional notions of female respectability. Furthermore, the article argues, the form of wild connectivity to an extent was a function of the political transition, which destabilized formal structures of gendered authority. It remains a question whether this form...

  5. Effect of smoothing on robust chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Amogh; Chen, Qingfei; Wang, Yan; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Do, Younghae

    2010-08-01

    In piecewise-smooth dynamical systems, situations can arise where the asymptotic attractors of the system in an open parameter interval are all chaotic (e.g., no periodic windows). This is the phenomenon of robust chaos. Previous works have established that robust chaos can occur through the mechanism of border-collision bifurcation, where border is the phase-space region where discontinuities in the derivatives of the dynamical equations occur. We investigate the effect of smoothing on robust chaos and find that periodic windows can arise when a small amount of smoothness is present. We introduce a parameter of smoothing and find that the measure of the periodic windows in the parameter space scales linearly with the parameter, regardless of the details of the smoothing function. Numerical support and a heuristic theory are provided to establish the scaling relation. Experimental evidence of periodic windows in a supposedly piecewise linear dynamical system, which has been implemented as an electronic circuit, is also provided.

  6. TAX SMOOTHING: TESTS ON INDONESIAN DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Kurniawan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the literature of public debt management by testing for tax smoothing behaviour in Indonesia. Tax smoothing means that the government smooths the tax rate across all future time periods to minimize the distortionary costs of taxation over time for a given path of government spending. In a stochastic economy with an incomplete bond market, tax smoothing implies that the tax rate approximates a random walk and changes in the tax rate are nearly unpredictable. For that purpose, two tests were performed. First, random walk behaviour of the tax rate was examined by undertaking unit root tests. The null hypothesis of unit root cannot be rejected, indicating that the tax rate is nonstationary and, hence, it follows a random walk. Second, the predictability of the tax rate was examined by regressing changes in the tax rate on its own lagged values and also on lagged values of changes in the goverment expenditure ratio, and growth of real output. They are found to be not significant in predicting changes in the tax rate. Taken together, the present evidence seems to be consistent with the tax smoothing, therefore provides support to this theory.

  7. Mean time for the development of large workloads and large queue lengths in the GI/G/1 queue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Knessl

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the GI/G/1 queue described by either the workload U(t (unfinished work or the number of customers N(t in the system. We compute the mean time until U(t reaches excess of the level K, and also the mean time until N(t reaches N0. For the M/G/1 and GI/M/1 models, we obtain exact contour integral representations for these mean first passage times. We then compute the mean times asymptotically, as K and N0→∞, by evaluating these contour integrals. For the general GI/G/1 model, we obtain asymptotic results by a singular perturbation analysis of the appropriate backward Kolmogorov equation(s. Numerical comparisons show that the asymptotic formulas are very accurate even for moderate values of K and N0.

  8. Precision measurements of g1 of the proton and of the deuteron with 6 GeV electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prok, Y.; Bosted, P.; Kvaltine, N.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Aghasyan, M.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Biselli, A. S.; Bono, J.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brock, J.; Brooks, W. K.; Bültmann, S.; Burkert, V. D.; Carlin, C.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crabb, D.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fersch, R.; Fleming, J. A.; Forest, T. A.; Garçon, M.; Garillon, B.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Girod, F. X.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guegan, B.; Guler, N.; Hafidi, K.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Ho, D.; Holtrop, M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jawalkar, S.; Jiang, X.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Kalantarians, N.; Keith, C.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Meekins, D.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moutarde, H.; Movsisyan, A.; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Peng, P.; Phillips, J. J.; Pierce, J.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Raue, B. A.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Simonyan, A.; Smith, C.; Smith, G.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vernarsky, B.; Vlassov, A. V.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Weinstein, L. B.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, B.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2014-08-01

    The inclusive polarized structure functions of the proton and deuteron, g1p and g1d, were measured with high statistical precision using polarized 6 GeV electrons incident on a polarized ammonia target in Hall B at Jefferson Laboratory. Electrons scattered at laboratory angles between 18 and 45 degrees were detected using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). For the usual deep inelastic region kinematics, Q2>1 GeV2 and the final-state invariant mass W >2 GeV, the ratio of polarized to unpolarized structure functions g1/F1 is found to be nearly independent of Q2 at fixed x. Significant resonant structure is apparent at values of W up to 2.3 GeV. In the framework of perturbative quantum chromodynamics, the high-W results can be used to better constrain the polarization of quarks and gluons in the nucleon, as well as high-twist contributions.

  9. Precision measurements of g1 of the proton and the deuteron with 6 GeV electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prok, Yelena; Bosted, Peter; Kvaltine, Nicholas; Adhikari, Krishna; Adikaram-Mudiyanselage, Dasuni; Aghasyan, Mher; Amaryan, Moskov; Anderson, Mark; Anefalos Pereira, Sergio; Avagyan, Harutyun; Baghdasaryan, Hovhannes; Ball, Jacques; Baltzell, Nathan; Battaglieri, Marco; Biselli, Angela; Bono, Jason; Briscoe, William; Brock, Joseph; Brooks, William; Bueltmann, Stephen; Burkert, Volker; Carlin, Christopher; Carman, Daniel; Celentano, Andrea; Chandavar, Shloka; Colaneri, Luca; Cole, Philip; Contalbrigo, Marco; Cortes, Olga; Crabb, Donald; Crede, Volker; D' Angelo, Annalisa; Dashyan, Natalya; De Vita, Raffaella; De Sanctis, Enzo; Deur, Alexandre; Djalali, Chaden; Dodge, Gail; Doughty, David; Dupre, Raphael; El Alaoui, Ahmed; El Fassi, Lamiaa; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Fedotov, Gleb; Fegan, Stuart; Fersch, Robert; Fleming, Jamie; Forest, Tony; Garcon, Michel; Gevorgyan, Nerses; Ghandilyan, Yeranuhi; Gilfoyle, Gerard; Girod-Gard, Francois-Xavier; Giovanetti, Kevin; Goetz, John; Gohn, Wesley; Gothe, Ralf; Griffioen, Keith; Guegan, Baptiste; Guler, Nevzat; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hanretty, Charles; Harrison, Nathan; Hattawy, Mohammad; Hicks, Kenneth; Ho, Dao; Holtrop, Maurik; Ilieva, Yordanka; Ireland, David; Ishkhanov, Boris; Isupov, Evgeny; Jawalkar, Sucheta; Jiang, Xiaodong; Jo, Hyon-Suk; Joo, Kyungseon; Kalantarians, Narbe; Keith, Christopher; Keller, Daniel; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Kim, Andrey; Kim, Wooyoung; Klein, Andreas; Klein, Franz; Koirala, Suman; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kuhn, Sebastian; Kuleshov, Sergey; Lenisa, Paolo; Livingston, Kenneth; Lu, Haiyun; MacGregor, Ian; Markov, Nikolai; Mayer, Michael; McKinnon, Bryan; Meekins, David; Mineeva, Taisiya; Mirazita, Marco; Mokeev, Viktor; Montgomery, Rachel; MOUTARDE, Herve; Movsisyan, Aram; Munevar Espitia, Edwin; Munoz Camacho, Carlos; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Niccolai, Silvia; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ostrovidov, Alexander; Pappalardo, Luciano; Paremuzyan, Rafayel; Park, K; Peng, Peng; Phillips, J J; Pierce, Joshua; Pisano, Silvia; Pogorelko, Oleg; Pozdniakov, Serguei; Price, John; Procureur, Sebastien; Protopopescu, Dan; Puckett, Andrew; Raue, Brian; Rimal, Dipak; Ripani, Marco; Rizzo, Alessandro; Rosner, Guenther; Rossi, Patrizia; Roy, Priyashree; Sabatie, Franck; Saini, Mukesh; Salgado, Carlos; Schott, Diane; Schumacher, Reinhard; Seder, Erin; Sharabian, Youri; Simonyan, Ani; Smith, Claude; Smith, Gregory; Sober, Daniel; Sokhan, Daria; Stepanyan, Stepan; Stepanyan, Samuel; Strakovski, Igor; Strauch, Steffen; Sytnik, Valeriy; Taiuti, Mauro; Tang, Wei; Tkachenko, Svyatoslav; Ungaro, Maurizio; Vernarsky, Brian; Vlasov, Alexander; Voskanyan, Hakob; Voutier, Eric; Walford, Natalie; Watts, Daniel; Weinstein, Lawrence; Zachariou, Nicholas; Zana, Lorenzo; Zhang, Jixie; Zhao, Bo; Zhao, Zhiwen; Zonta, Irene

    2014-08-01

    The inclusive polarized structure functions of the proton and deuteron, g1p and g1d, were measured with high statistical precision using polarized 6 GeV electrons incident on a polarized ammonia target in Hall B at Jefferson Laboratory. Electrons scattered at lab angles between 18 and 45 degrees were detected using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). For the usual DIS kinematics, Q^2>1 GeV^2 and the final-state invariant mass W>2 GeV, the ratio of polarized to unpolarized structure functions g1/F1 is found to be nearly independent of Q^2 at fixed x. Significant resonant structure is apparent at values of W up to 2.3 GeV. In the framework of perturbative QCD, the high-W results can be used to better constrain the polarization of quarks and gluons in the nucleon, as well as high-twist contributions.

  10. Association of pKi-67 with satellite DNA of the human genome in early G1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, J M; Kill, I R; Lichter, P

    1998-01-01

    pKi-67 is a nucleolar antigen that provides a specific marker for proliferating cells. It has been shown previously that pKi-67's distribution varies in a cell cycle-dependent manner: it coats all chromosomes during mitosis, accumulates in nuclear foci during G1 phase (type I distribution) and localizes within nucleoli in late G1 S and G2 phase (type II distribution). Although no function has as yet been ascribed to pKi-67, it has been found associated with centromeres in G1. In the present study the distribution pattern of pKi-67 during G1 in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) was analysed in more detail. Synchronization experiments show that in very early G1 cells pKi-67 coincides with virtually all satellite regions analysed, i.e. with centromeric (alpha-satellite), telomeric (minisatellite) and heterochromatic blocks (satellite III) on chromosomes 1 and Y (type Ia distribution). In contrast, later in the G1 phase, a smaller fraction of satellite DNA regions are found collocalized with pKi-67 foci (type Ib distribution). When all pKi-67 becomes localized within nucleoli, even fewer satellite regions remain associated with the pKi-67 staining. However, all centromeric and short arm regions of the acrocentric chromosomes, which are in very close proximity to or even contain the rRNA genes, are collocalized with anti-pKi-67 staining throughout the remaining interphase of the cell cycle. Thus, our data demonstrate that during post-mitotic reformation and nucleogenesis there is a progressive decline in the fraction of specific satellite regions of DNA that remain associated with pKi-67. This may be relevant to nucleolar reformation following mitosis.

  11. Improvement of vascular function by acute and chronic treatment with the GPR30 agonist G1 in experimental diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-lin Li

    Full Text Available The G-protein coupled estrogen receptor 30 (GPR30 is a seven-transmembrane domain receptor that mediates rapid estrogen responses in a wide variety of cell types. This receptor is highly expressed in the cardiovascular system, and exerts vasodilatory effects. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of GPR30 on vascular responsiveness in diabetic ovariectomized (OVX rats and elucidate the possible mechanism involved. The roles of GPR30 were evaluated in the thoracic aorta and cultured endothelial cells. The GPR30 agonist G1 induced a dose-dependent vasodilation in the thoracic aorta of the diabetic OVX rats, which was partially attenuated by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor, nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME and the GPR30-selective antagonist G15. Dose-dependent vasoconstrictive responses to phenylephrine were attenuated significantly in the rings of the thoracic aorta following the acute G1 administration in the diabetic OVX rats. This effect of G1 was abolished partially by L-NAME and G15. The acute administration of G1 increased significantly the eNOS activity and the concentration of NO in the endothelial cells exposed to high glucose. G1 treatment induced an enhanced endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine (Ach in the diabetic OVX rats. Further examination revealed that G1 induced vasodilation in the diabetic OVX rats by increasing the phosphorylation of eNOS. These findings provide preliminary evidence that GPR30 activation leads to eNOS activation, as well as vasodilation, to a certain degree and has beneficial effects on vascular function in diabetic OVX rats.

  12. A novel single virus infection system reveals that influenza virus preferentially infects cells in g1 phase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuta Ueda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza virus attaches to sialic acid residues on the surface of host cells via the hemagglutinin (HA, a glycoprotein expressed on the viral envelope, and enters into the cytoplasm by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The viral genome is released and transported in to the nucleus, where transcription and replication take place. However, cellular factors affecting the influenza virus infection such as the cell cycle remain uncharacterized. METHODS/RESULTS: To resolve the influence of cell cycle on influenza virus infection, we performed a single-virus infection analysis using optical tweezers. Using this newly developed single-virus infection system, the fluorescence-labeled influenza virus was trapped on a microchip using a laser (1064 nm at 0.6 W, transported, and released onto individual H292 human lung epithelial cells. Interestingly, the influenza virus attached selectively to cells in the G1-phase. To clarify the molecular differences between cells in G1- and S/G2/M-phase, we performed several physical and chemical assays. Results indicated that: 1 the membranes of cells in G1-phase contained greater amounts of sialic acids (glycoproteins than the membranes of cells in S/G2/M-phase; 2 the membrane stiffness of cells in S/G2/M-phase is more rigid than those in G1-phase by measurement using optical tweezers; and 3 S/G2/M-phase cells contained higher content of Gb3, Gb4 and GlcCer than G1-phase cells by an assay for lipid composition. CONCLUSIONS: A novel single-virus infection system was developed to characterize the difference in influenza virus susceptibility between G1- and S/G2/M-phase cells. Differences in virus binding specificity were associated with alterations in the lipid composition, sialic acid content, and membrane stiffness. This single-virus infection system will be useful for studying the infection mechanisms of other viruses.

  13. Recuperation of the energy released in the G-1, an air-cooled graphite reactor core; Recuperation de l'energie degagee dans G 1 pile a graphite refroidie a l'air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambadal, P [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Pascal, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The CEA (in his five-year setting plan) has objective among others, the realization of the two first french reactors moderated with graphite. The construction of the G-1 reactor in Marcoule, first french plutonic core, is achieved so that it will diverge in the beginning of 1956 and reach its full power in the beginning of the second semester of the same year. In this report we will detail the specificities of the reactor and in particular its cooling and energy recuperation system. The G-1 reactor being essentially intended to allow the french technicians to study the behavior of an energy installation supply taking its heat in a nuclear source as early as possible. (M.B.) [French] Le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (dans le cadre du plan quinquennal) a entre autres objectifs, la realisation des deux premiers reacteurs francais moderes au graphite. La construction du reacteur G-1 a Marcoule, premiere pile plutonigene francaise, est realise afin qu'il puisse diverger au debut de 1956 et atteindre sa pleine puissance au debut du second semestre de la meme annee. Dans ce rapport nous detaillerons les specificites du reacteur et en particulier son systeme de refroidissement et de recuperation d'energie. Le reacteur G-1 etant essentielement destine a permettre aux techniciens francais d'etudier le plus tot possible le comportement d'une installation productrice d'energie empruntant sa chaleur a une source nucleaire. (M.B.)

  14. Base substitution mutations in uridinediphosphate-dependent glycosyltransferase 76G1 gene of Stevia rebaudiana causes the low levels of rebaudioside A: mutations in UGT76G1, a key gene of steviol glycosides synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong-Heng; Huang, Su-Zhen; Han, Yu-Lin; Yuan, Hai-Yan; Gu, Chun-Sun; Zhao, Yan-Hai

    2014-07-01

    Steviol glycosides, extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert) Bertoni, are calorie-free sugar substitute of natural origin with intensely sweet (Boileau et al., 2012). Stevioside and rebaudioside A are the two main kinds of the diterpenic glycosides. We analyzed the concentration of stevioside and rebaudioside A in Stevia leaves of about 500 samples (hybrid progenies) and discovered a mutation plant "Z05" with very low levels of rebaudioside A. Because UGT76G1, a uridinediphosphate-dependent glycosyltransferases, is responsible for the conversion from stevioside to rebaudioside A (Richman et al., 2005), so mutation identification was done by sequencing the candidate gene, UGT76G1. In this study molecular analysis of two strains revealed a heterozygotic nonsense mutation of c.389T > G (p.L121X) in UGT76G1. Meanwhile, we found some amino acid substitutions significant change the protein structure. And the difference of enzyme activity between two strains proved the lack of functionality of UGT76G1 of the mutation "Z05". So the nonsense mutation and amino acid substitution mutation resulted in the low levels of rebaudioside A. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Low x Double ln2(1/x) Resummation Effects at the Sum Rules for Nucleon Structure Function g1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziaja, B.

    2001-01-01

    We have estimated the contributions to the moments of polarized nucleon structure function g 1 (x,Q 2 ) coming from the region of the very low x (10 -5 2 (1/x) resummation. The Q 2 evolution of g 1 was described by the unified evolution equations incorporating both the leading order Altarelli-Parisi evolution at large and moderate x, and the double ln 2 (1/x) resummation at small x. The moments were obtained by integrating out the extrapolated nucleon structure function in the region 10 -5 < x<1. (author)

  16. Evaluation of Palm PCRTM G1-12 System: a portable battery-operated PCR thermal cycler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aminah Ahmed

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Polymerase chain reaction (PCR is the basis of recombinant and other molecular biological techniques. Availability of cheap and robust PCR platforms enables the tests to be performed easily, even in resource constrained settings. Herein we compared the efficacy of a portable thermal cycler ( Palm PCRTM G1-12 System for rapid DNA amplification against the standard Peltier-based thermal cycler using plasmid DNA and genomic DNA in single and multiplex PCR experiments. Our study revealed that the Palm PCRTM G1-12 System could be a portable DNA amplification system to conduct various molecular techniques, especially in places where resources are limited.

  17. Detection of IgG1 and IgG4 subtypes reactive against potato apyrase in schistosomiasis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila de Faria-Pinto

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we showed for the first time that the conserved domains within Schistosoma mansoni ATP diphosphohydrolase isoforms, shared with potato apyrase, possess epitopes for the IgG1 and IgG4 subtypes, as 24 (80% of the 30 schistosomiasis patients were seropositive for this vegetable protein. The analyses for each patient cured (n = 14 after treatment (AT with praziquantel revealed variable IgG1 and IgG4 reactivity against potato apyrase. Different antigenic epitopes shared between the vegetable and parasite proteins could be involved in susceptibility or resistance to S. mansoni AT with praziquantel and these possibilities should be explored.

  18. Lyapunov exponents and smooth ergodic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Barreira, Luis

    2001-01-01

    This book is a systematic introduction to smooth ergodic theory. The topics discussed include the general (abstract) theory of Lyapunov exponents and its applications to the stability theory of differential equations, stable manifold theory, absolute continuity, and the ergodic theory of dynamical systems with nonzero Lyapunov exponents (including geodesic flows). The authors consider several non-trivial examples of dynamical systems with nonzero Lyapunov exponents to illustrate some basic methods and ideas of the theory. This book is self-contained. The reader needs a basic knowledge of real analysis, measure theory, differential equations, and topology. The authors present basic concepts of smooth ergodic theory and provide complete proofs of the main results. They also state some more advanced results to give readers a broader view of smooth ergodic theory. This volume may be used by those nonexperts who wish to become familiar with the field.

  19. Multiple predictor smoothing methods for sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, Jon Craig; Storlie, Curtis B.

    2006-01-01

    The use of multiple predictor smoothing methods in sampling-based sensitivity analyses of complex models is investigated. Specifically, sensitivity analysis procedures based on smoothing methods employing the stepwise application of the following nonparametric regression techniques are described: (1) locally weighted regression (LOESS), (2) additive models, (3) projection pursuit regression, and (4) recursive partitioning regression. The indicated procedures are illustrated with both simple test problems and results from a performance assessment for a radioactive waste disposal facility (i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). As shown by the example illustrations, the use of smoothing procedures based on nonparametric regression techniques can yield more informative sensitivity analysis results than can be obtained with more traditional sensitivity analysis procedures based on linear regression, rank regression or quadratic regression when nonlinear relationships between model inputs and model predictions are present

  20. Adsorption on smooth electrodes: A radiotracer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice-Jackson, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    Adsorption on solids is a complicated process and in most cases, occurs as the early stage of other more complicated processes, i.e. chemical reactions, electrooxidation, electroreduction. The research reported here combines the electroanalytical method, cyclic voltammetry, and the use of radio-labeled isotopes, soft beta emitters, to study adsorption processes at smooth electrodes. The in-situ radiotracer method is highly anion (molecule) specific and provides information on the structure and composition of the electric double layer. The emphasis of this research was on studying adsorption processes at smooth electrodes of copper, gold, and platinum. The application of the radiotracer method to these smooth surfaces have led to direct in-situ measurements from which surface coverage was determined; anions and molecules were identified; and weak interactions of adsorbates with the surface of the electrodes were readily monitored. 179 refs

  1. Multiple predictor smoothing methods for sensitivity analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, Jon Craig; Storlie, Curtis B.

    2006-08-01

    The use of multiple predictor smoothing methods in sampling-based sensitivity analyses of complex models is investigated. Specifically, sensitivity analysis procedures based on smoothing methods employing the stepwise application of the following nonparametric regression techniques are described: (1) locally weighted regression (LOESS), (2) additive models, (3) projection pursuit regression, and (4) recursive partitioning regression. The indicated procedures are illustrated with both simple test problems and results from a performance assessment for a radioactive waste disposal facility (i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). As shown by the example illustrations, the use of smoothing procedures based on nonparametric regression techniques can yield more informative sensitivity analysis results than can be obtained with more traditional sensitivity analysis procedures based on linear regression, rank regression or quadratic regression when nonlinear relationships between model inputs and model predictions are present.

  2. Polarization beam smoothing for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothenberg, Joshua E.

    2000-01-01

    For both direct and indirect drive approaches to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) it is imperative to obtain the best possible drive beam uniformity. The approach chosen for the National Ignition Facility uses a random-phase plate to generate a speckle pattern with a precisely controlled envelope on target. A number of temporal smoothing techniques can then be employed to utilize bandwidth to rapidly change the speckle pattern, and thus average out the small-scale speckle structure. One technique which generally can supplement other smoothing methods is polarization smoothing (PS): the illumination of the target with two distinct and orthogonally polarized speckle patterns. Since these two polarizations do not interfere, the intensity patterns add incoherently, and the rms nonuniformity can be reduced by a factor of (√2). A number of PS schemes are described and compared on the basis of the aggregate rms and the spatial spectrum of the focused illumination distribution. The (√2) rms nonuniformity reduction of PS is present on an instantaneous basis and is, therefore, of particular interest for the suppression of laser plasma instabilities, which have a very rapid response time. When combining PS and temporal methods, such as smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD), PS can reduce the rms of the temporally smoothed illumination by an additional factor of (√2). However, it has generally been thought that in order to achieve this reduction of (√2), the increased divergence of the beam from PS must exceed the divergence of SSD. It is also shown here that, over the time scales of interest to direct or indirect drive ICF, under some conditions PS can reduce the smoothed illumination rms by nearly (√2) even when the PS divergence is much smaller than that of SSD. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  3. Some properties of the smoothed Wigner function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, F.; Claverie, P.

    1981-01-01

    Recently it has been proposed a modification of the Wigner function which consists in smoothing it by convolution with a phase-space gaussian function; this smoothed Wigner function is non-negative if the gaussian parameters Δ and delta satisfy the condition Δdelta > h/2π. We analyze in this paper the predictions of this modified Wigner function for the harmonic oscillator, for anharmonic oscillator and finally for the hydrogen atom. We find agreement with experiment in the linear case, but for strongly nonlinear systems, such as the hydrogen atom, the results obtained are completely wrong. (orig.)

  4. Cardiac, Skeletal, and smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Song-Young; Gifford, Jayson R; Andtbacka, Robert H I

    2014-01-01

    , skeletal, and smooth muscle was harvested from a total of 22 subjects (53±6 yrs) and mitochondrial respiration assessed in permeabilized fibers. Complex I+II, state 3 respiration, an index of oxidative phosphorylation capacity, fell progressively from cardiac, skeletal, to smooth muscle (54±1; 39±4; 15......±1 pmol•s(-1)•mg (-1), prespiration rates were normalized by CS (respiration...... per mitochondrial content), oxidative phosphorylation capacity was no longer different between the three muscle types. Interestingly, Complex I state 2 normalized for CS activity, an index of non-phosphorylating respiration per mitochondrial content, increased progressively from cardiac, skeletal...

  5. Smooth massless limit of field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fronsdal, C.

    1980-01-01

    The massless limit of Fierz-Pauli field theories, describing fields with fixed mass and spin interacting with external sources, is examined. Results are obtained for spins, 1, 3/2, 2 and 3 using conventional models, and then for all half-integral spins in a relatively model-independent manner. It is found that the massless limit is smooth provided that the sources satisfy certain conditions. In the massless limit these conditions reduce to the conservation laws required by internal consistency of massless field theory. Smoothness simply requires that quantities that vanish in the massless case approach zero in a certain well-defined manner. (orig.)

  6. Voltage harmonic elimination with RLC based interface smoothing filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekaran, K; Ramachandaramurthy, V K

    2015-01-01

    A method is proposed for designing a Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) with RLC interface smoothing filter. The RLC filter connected between the IGBT based Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) is attempted to eliminate voltage harmonics in the busbar voltage and switching harmonics from VSI by producing a PWM controlled harmonic voltage. In this method, the DVR or series active filter produces PWM voltage that cancels the existing harmonic voltage due to any harmonic voltage source. The proposed method is valid for any distorted busbar voltage. The operating VSI handles no active power but only harmonic power. The DVR is able to suppress the lower order switching harmonics generated by the IGBT based VSI. Good dynamic and transient results obtained. The Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) is minimized to zero at the sensitive load end. Digital simulations are carried out using PSCAD/EMTDC to validate the performance of RLC filter. Simulated results are presented. (paper)

  7. Cosmic Connections

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard

    2003-01-01

    A National Research Council study on connecting quarks with the cosmos has recently posed a number of the more important open questions at the interface between particle physics and cosmology. These questions include the nature of dark matter and dark energy, how the Universe began, modifications to gravity, the effects of neutrinos on the Universe, how cosmic accelerators work, and whether there are new states of matter at high density and pressure. These questions are discussed in the context of the talks presented at this Summer Institute.

  8. The TCP4 transcription factor of Arabidopsis blocks cell division in yeast at G1 → S transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Pooja; Padmanabhan, Bhavna; Bhat, Abhay; Sarvepalli, Kavitha; Sadhale, Parag P.; Nath, Utpal

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → TCP4 is a class II TCP transcription factor, that represses cell division in Arabidopsis. → TCP4 expression in yeast retards cell division by blocking G1 → S transition. → Genome-wide expression studies and Western analysis reveals stabilization of cell cycle inhibitor Sic1, as possible mechanism. -- Abstract: The TCP transcription factors control important aspects of plant development. Members of class I TCP proteins promote cell cycle by regulating genes directly involved in cell proliferation. In contrast, members of class II TCP proteins repress cell division. While it has been postulated that class II proteins induce differentiation signal, their exact role on cell cycle has not been studied. Here, we report that TCP4, a class II TCP protein from Arabidopsis that repress cell proliferation in developing leaves, inhibits cell division by blocking G1 → S transition in budding yeast. Cells expressing TCP4 protein with increased transcriptional activity fail to progress beyond G1 phase. By analyzing global transcriptional status of these cells, we show that expression of a number of cell cycle genes is altered. The possible mechanism of G1 → S arrest is discussed.

  9. The spin-dependent structure function $g_{1}(x)$ of the deuteron from polarized deep-inelastic muon scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, D; Adeva, B; Akdogan, T; Arik, E; Arvidson, A; Badelek, B; Ballintijn, M K; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Bardin, G; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Betev, L; Bird, I G; Birsa, R; Björkholm, P; Bonner, B E; De Botton, N R; Boutemeur, M; Bradamante, Franco; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Bültmann, S; Burtin, E; Cavata, C; Crabb, D; Cranshaw, J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Dalla Torre, S; Van Dantzig, R; Derro, B R; Deshpande, A A; Dhawan, S K; Dulya, C M; Dyring, A; Eichblatt, S; Faivre, Jean-Claude; Fasching, D; Feinstein, F; Fernández, C; Frois, Bernard; Gallas, A; Garzón, J A; Gaussiran, T; Giorgi, M A; von Goeler, E; Gómez, F; Gracia, G; De Groot, N; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Von Harrach, D; Hasegawa, T; Hautle, P; Hayashi, N; Heusch, C A; Horikawa, N; Hughes, V W; Igo, G; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kabuss, E M; Kageya, T; Kalinovskaya, L V; Karev, A G; Kessler, H J; Ketel, T; Kiryluk, J; Kishi, A; Kiselev, Yu F; Klostermann, L; Krämer, Dietrich; Krivokhizhin, V G; Kröger, W; Kukhtin, V V; Kurek, K; Kyynäräinen, J; Lamanna, M; Landgraf, U; Le Goff, J M; Lehár, F; de Lesquen, A; Lichtenstadt, J; Lindqvist, T; Litmaath, M; Loewe, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Marie, F; Martin, A; Martino, J; Matsuda, T; Mayes, B W; McCarthy, J S; Medved, K S; Van Middelkoop, G; Miller, D; Mori, K; Moromisato, J H; Nagaitsev, A P; Nassalski, J P; Naumann, Lutz; Niinikoski, T O; Oberski, J; Ogawa, A; Ozben, C; Parks, D P; Perrot-Kunne, F; Peshekhonov, V D; Piegaia, R; Pinsky, L; Platchkov, S K; Pló, M; Polec, J; Pose, D; Postma, H; Pretz, J; Puntaferro, R; Pussieux, T; Pyrlik, J; Rädel, G; Rijllart, A; Roberts, J B; Rock, S E; Rodríguez, M; Rondio, Ewa; Rosado, A; Sabo, I; Saborido, J; Sandacz, A; Savin, I A; Schiavon, R P; Schüler, K P; Seitz, R; Semertzidis, Y K; Sever, F; Shanahan, P; Sichtermann, E P; Simeoni, F; Smirnov, G I; Staude, A; Steinmetz, A; Steigler, U; Stuhrmann, H B; Szleper, M; Teichert, K M; Tessarotto, F; Tlaczala, W; Trentalange, S; Tripet, A; Ünel, G; Velasco, M; Vogt, J; Voss, Rüdiger; Weinstein, R; Whitten, C; Windmolders, R; Willumeit, R; Wislicki, W; Witzmann, A; Yañez, A; Ylöstalo, J; Zanetti, A M; Zaremba, K; Zhao, J

    1997-01-01

    We present a new measurement of the spin-dependent structure function $g_{1}^{\\rm d}$ of the deuteron from deep inelastic scattering of 190 GeV polarized muons on polarized deuterons. The results are combined with our previous measurements of $g_{1}^{\\rm d}$. A perturbative QCD evolution in next-to-leading order is used to compute $g_{1}^{\\rm d}(x)$ at a constant $Q^{2}$. At $Q^{2} = 10$ GeV$^{2}$, we obtain a first moment $\\Gamma_{1}^{\\rm d} = \\int_{0}^{1} g_{1}^{\\rm d}{\\rm d}x = 0.041 \\pm 0.008$, a flavour-singlet axial charge of the nucleon $a_{0} = 0.30 \\pm 0.08$, and an axial charge of the strange quark $a_{s} = -0.09 \\pm 0.03$. Using our earlier determination of $\\Gamma_{1}^{\\rm p}$, we obtain $\\Gamma_1^{\\rm p} - \\Gamma_1^{\\rm n} = 0.183 \\pm 0.035$ at $Q^2 = 10\\,\\mbox{GeV}^2$. This result is in agreement with the Bjorken sum rule which predicts $\\Gamma_1^{\\rm p} - \\Gamma_1^{\\rm n} = 0.186 \\pm 0.002$ at the same $Q^2$.

  10. Insensitive bounds for the moments of the sojourn time distribution in the M/G/1 processor-sharing queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, S.K.; Berg, J.L. van den; Boucherie, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the M/G/1 processor-sharing (PS) queue, in particular the sojourn time distribution conditioned on the initial job size. Although several expressions for the Laplace-Stieltjes transform (LST) are known, these expressions are not suitable for computational purposes. This paper

  11. Insensitive bounds for the moments of the sojourn time distribution in the M/G/1 processor-sharing queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, S.K.; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Boucherie, Richardus J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the M/G/1 processor-sharing (PS) queue and the sojourn time distribution conditioned on the initial job size. Although several expressions for the Laplace-Stieltjes transform (LST) are known, these expressions are not applicable for computational purposes. This paper derives

  12. Overexpression of DOC-1R inhibits cell cycle G1/S transition by repressing CDK2 expression and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Liu, Xing; Gao, Jinlan; Shi, Xiuyan; Hu, Xihua; Wang, Shusen; Luo, Yang

    2013-01-01

    DOC-1R (deleted in oral cancer-1 related) is a novel putative tumor suppressor. This study investigated DOC-1R antitumor activity and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Cell phenotypes were assessed using flow cytometry, BrdU incorporation and CDK2 kinase assays in DOC-1R overexpressing HeLa cells. In addition, RT-PCR and Western blot assays were used to detect underlying molecular changes in these cells. The interaction between DOC-1R and CDK2 proteins was assayed by GST pull-down and immunoprecipitation-Western blot assays. The data showed that DOC-1R overexpression inhibited G1/S phase transition, DNA replication and suppressed CDK2 activity. Molecularly, DOC-1R inhibited CDK2 expression at the mRNA and protein levels, and there were decreased levels of G1-phase cyclins (cyclin D1 and E) and elevated levels of p21, p27, and p53 proteins. Meanwhile, DOC-1R associated with CDK2 and inhibited CDK2 activation by obstructing its association with cyclin E and A. In conclusion, the antitumor effects of DOC-1R may be mediated by negatively regulating G1 phase progression and G1/S transition through inhibiting CDK2 expression and activation.

  13. G0/G1 switch gene-2 regulates human adipocyte lipolysis by affecting activity and localization of adipose triglyceride lipase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweiger, M.; Paar, M.; Eder, C.; Brandis, J.; Moser, E.; Gorkiewisz, G.; Grond, S.; Radner, F.P.W.; Cerk, I.; Cornaciu, I.; Oberer, M.; Kersten, A.H.; Zechner, R.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Lass, A.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrolysis of triglycerides in adipocytes, termed lipolysis, provides free fatty acids as energy fuel. Murine lipolysis largely depends on the activity of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL)5, which is regulated by two proteins annotated as comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) and G0/G1

  14. A heavy-traffic theorem for the GI/G/1 queue with a Pareto-type service time distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Cohen

    1997-01-01

    textabstractFor the $GI/G/1$-queueing model with traffic load $a<1$, service time distribution $B(t)$ and interarrival time distribution $A(t)$ holds, whenever for $t rightarrow infty$: $$ quad 1-B(t) sim frac{c{(t/ beta)^nu + {rm O ( {rm e^{-delta t ), quad c>0, quad 1< nu < 2, quad delta >

  15. Diagonal K-matrices and transfer matrix eigenspectra associated with the G(1)2 R-matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yung, C.M.; Batchelor, M.T.

    1995-01-01

    We find all the diagonal K-matrices for the R-matrix associated with the minimal representation of the exceptional affine algebra G (1) 2 . The corresponding transfer matrices are diagonalized with a variation of the analytic Bethe ansatz. We find many similarities with the case of the Izergin-Korepin R-matrix associated with the affine algebra A (2) 2 . ((orig.))

  16. The transient M/G/1/0 queue: some bounds and approximations for light traffic with application to reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ben Atkinson

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the transient analysis of the M/G/1/0 queue, for which Pn(t denotes the probability that there are no customers in the system at time t, given that there are n(n=0,1 customers in the system at time 0. The analysis, which is based upon coupling theory, leads to simple bounds on Pn(t for the M/G/1/0 and M/PH/1/0 queues and improved bounds for the special case M/Er/1/0. Numerical results are presented for various values of the mean arrival rate λ to demonstrate the increasing accuracy of approximations based upon the above bounds in light traffic, i.e., as λ→0. An important area of application for the M/G/1/0 queue is as a reliability model for a single repairable component. Since most practical reliability problems have λ values that are small relative to the mean service rate, the approximations are potentially useful in that context. A duality relation between the M/G/1/0 and GI/M/1/0 queues is also described.

  17. Insensitive bounds for the moments of the sojourn time distribution in the M/G/1 processor-sharing queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, S.K.; Cheung, S.K.; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Boucherie, Richardus J.

    This paper studies the M/G/1 processor-sharing (PS) queue, in particular the sojourn time distribution conditioned on the initial job size. Although several expressions for the Laplace-Stieltjes transform (LST) are known, these expressions are not suitable for computational purposes. This paper

  18. Joint distribution of sojourn time and queue length in the M/G/1 queue with (in)finite capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.

    1984-01-01

    For the M/G/1 queue we study the joint distribution of the number of customers x present immediately before an arrival epoch and of the residual service time ¿ of the customer in service at this epoch. The correlation coefficient (x, ¿) is shown to be positive (negative) when the service time

  19. Piperine causes G1 phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in melanoma cells through checkpoint kinase-1 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neel M Fofaria

    Full Text Available In this study, we determined the cytotoxic effects of piperine, a major constituent of black and long pepper in melanoma cells. Piperine treatment inhibited the growth of SK MEL 28 and B16 F0 cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. The growth inhibitory effects of piperine were mediated by cell cycle arrest of both the cell lines in G1 phase. The G1 arrest by piperine correlated with the down-regulation of cyclin D1 and induction of p21. Furthermore, this growth arrest by piperine treatment was associated with DNA damage as indicated by phosphorylation of H2AX at Ser139, activation of ataxia telangiectasia and rad3-related protein (ATR and checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1. Pretreatment with AZD 7762, a Chk1 inhibitor not only abrogated the activation of Chk1 but also piperine mediated G1 arrest. Similarly, transfection of cells with Chk1 siRNA completely protected the cells from G1 arrest induced by piperine. Piperine treatment caused down-regulation of E2F1 and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (Rb. Apoptosis induced by piperine was associated with down-regulation of XIAP, Bid (full length and cleavage of Caspase-3 and PARP. Furthermore, our results showed that piperine treatment generated ROS in melanoma cells. Blocking ROS by tiron protected the cells from piperine mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. These results suggest that piperine mediated ROS played a critical role in inducing DNA damage and activation of Chk1 leading to G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

  20. 16-dimensional smooth projective planes with large collineation groups

    OpenAIRE

    Bödi, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Erworben im Rahmen der Schweizer Nationallizenzen (http://www.nationallizenzen.ch) Smooth projective planes are projective planes defined on smooth manifolds (i.e. the set of points and the set of lines are smooth manifolds) such that the geometric operations of join and intersection are smooth. A systematic study of such planes and of their collineation groups can be found in previous works of the author. We prove in this paper that a 16-dimensional smooth projective plane which admits a ...

  1. An adaptive method for γ spectra smoothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Gang; Zhou Chunlin; Li Tiantuo; Han Feng; Di Yuming

    2001-01-01

    Adaptive wavelet method and multinomial fitting gliding method are used for smoothing γ spectra, respectively, and then FWHM of 1332 keV peak of 60 Co and activities of 238 U standard specimen are calculated. Calculated results show that adaptive wavelet method is better than the other

  2. Smoothness in Banach spaces. Selected problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fabian, Marián; Montesinos, V.; Zizler, Václav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 2 (2006), s. 101-125 ISSN 1578-7303 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/04/0090; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100190610 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : smooth norm * renorming * weakly compactly generated space Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  3. The Koch curve as a smooth manifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, Marcelo; Sniatycki, Jedrzej

    2008-01-01

    We show that there exists a homeomorphism between the closed interval [0,1] is contained in R and the Koch curve endowed with the subset topology of R 2 . We use this homeomorphism to endow the Koch curve with the structure of a smooth manifold with boundary

  4. on Isolated Smooth Muscle Preparation in Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samuel Olaleye

    ABSTRACT. This study investigated the receptor effects of methanolic root extract of ... Phytochemical Analysis: Photochemistry of the methanolic extract was ... mounted with resting tension 0.5g in an organ bath containing .... Effects of extra cellular free Ca2+ and 0.5mM ... isolated smooth muscle by high K+ on the other.

  5. PHANTOM: Smoothed particle hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Daniel J.; Wurster, James; Nixon, Chris; Tricco, Terrence S.; Toupin, Stéven; Pettitt, Alex; Chan, Conrad; Laibe, Guillaume; Glover, Simon; Dobbs, Clare; Nealon, Rebecca; Liptai, David; Worpel, Hauke; Bonnerot, Clément; Dipierro, Giovanni; Ragusa, Enrico; Federrath, Christoph; Iaconi, Roberto; Reichardt, Thomas; Forgan, Duncan; Hutchison, Mark; Constantino, Thomas; Ayliffe, Ben; Mentiplay, Daniel; Hirsh, Kieran; Lodato, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    Phantom is a smoothed particle hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics code focused on stellar, galactic, planetary, and high energy astrophysics. It is modular, and handles sink particles, self-gravity, two fluid and one fluid dust, ISM chemistry and cooling, physical viscosity, non-ideal MHD, and more. Its modular structure makes it easy to add new physics to the code.

  6. Data driven smooth tests for composite hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inglot, Tadeusz; Kallenberg, Wilbert C.M.; Ledwina, Teresa

    1997-01-01

    The classical problem of testing goodness-of-fit of a parametric family is reconsidered. A new test for this problem is proposed and investigated. The new test statistic is a combination of the smooth test statistic and Schwarz's selection rule. More precisely, as the sample size increases, an

  7. Full Waveform Inversion Using Nonlinearly Smoothed Wavefields

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Y.; Choi, Yun Seok; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Li, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The lack of low frequency information in the acquired data makes full waveform inversion (FWI) conditionally converge to the accurate solution. An initial velocity model that results in data with events within a half cycle of their location in the observed data was required to converge. The multiplication of wavefields with slightly different frequencies generates artificial low frequency components. This can be effectively utilized by multiplying the wavefield with itself, which is nonlinear operation, followed by a smoothing operator to extract the artificially produced low frequency information. We construct the objective function using the nonlinearly smoothed wavefields with a global-correlation norm to properly handle the energy imbalance in the nonlinearly smoothed wavefield. Similar to the multi-scale strategy, we progressively reduce the smoothing width applied to the multiplied wavefield to welcome higher resolution. We calculate the gradient of the objective function using the adjoint-state technique, which is similar to the conventional FWI except for the adjoint source. Examples on the Marmousi 2 model demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed FWI method to mitigate the cycle-skipping problem in the case of a lack of low frequency information.

  8. On the theory of smooth structures. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafei Deh Abad, A.

    1992-09-01

    In this paper we continue by introducing the concepts of substructures, quotient structures and tensor product, and examine some of their properties. By using the concept of tensor product, in the next paper, we will give another product for smooth structures which is a characterization of integral domains which are not fields. (author). 2 refs

  9. Full Waveform Inversion Using Nonlinearly Smoothed Wavefields

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Y.

    2017-05-26

    The lack of low frequency information in the acquired data makes full waveform inversion (FWI) conditionally converge to the accurate solution. An initial velocity model that results in data with events within a half cycle of their location in the observed data was required to converge. The multiplication of wavefields with slightly different frequencies generates artificial low frequency components. This can be effectively utilized by multiplying the wavefield with itself, which is nonlinear operation, followed by a smoothing operator to extract the artificially produced low frequency information. We construct the objective function using the nonlinearly smoothed wavefields with a global-correlation norm to properly handle the energy imbalance in the nonlinearly smoothed wavefield. Similar to the multi-scale strategy, we progressively reduce the smoothing width applied to the multiplied wavefield to welcome higher resolution. We calculate the gradient of the objective function using the adjoint-state technique, which is similar to the conventional FWI except for the adjoint source. Examples on the Marmousi 2 model demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed FWI method to mitigate the cycle-skipping problem in the case of a lack of low frequency information.

  10. Local smoothness for global optical flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakêt, Lars Lau

    2012-01-01

    by this technique and work on local-global optical flow we propose a simple method for fusing optical flow estimates of different smoothness by evaluating interpolation quality locally by means of L1 block match on the corresponding set of gradient images. We illustrate the method in a setting where optical flows...

  11. Interval Forecast for Smooth Transition Autoregressive Model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we propose a simple method for constructing interval forecast for smooth transition autoregressive (STAR) model. This interval forecast is based on bootstrapping the residual error of the estimated STAR model for each forecast horizon and computing various Akaike information criterion (AIC) function. This new ...

  12. Supplementary speed control for wind power smoothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de J.E.S.; Frunt, J.; Kechroud, A.; Kling, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    Wind fluctuations result in even larger wind power fluctuations because the power of wind is proportional to the cube of the wind speed. This report analyzes wind power fluctuations to investigate inertial power smoothing, in particular for the frequency range of 0.08 - 0.5 Hz. Due to the growing

  13. Apparatus of irradiation of steel test pieces in the Marcoule pile G 1; Dispositifs d'irradiation d'eprouvettes d'acier dans la pile G 1 de Marcoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinot, R.; Wallet, Ph. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Test pieces of steel were irradiated in the reactor G1 at Marcoule, in convectors replacing fuel elements, and in vertical channels in furnace-heated containers. The apparatus designed for this irradiation is described: containers, converter-rods, suspension fixtures and clamps, temperature measurement devices, lead castles and unloading set-ups. (author) [French] Des eprouvettes d'acier ont ete irradiees dans le reacteur G1 de Marcoule dans des convertisseurs mis a la place d'elements combustibles, et dans des canaux verticaux, en conteneurs chauffes par four. Nous decrivons l'appareillage etudie pour cette irradiation: conteneurs, barreaux-convertisseurs, dispositifs de suspension et d'amarrage, dispositifs de regulation et de mesure de temperature, chateaux de plomb et montages de defournement. (auteur)

  14. Apparatus of irradiation of steel test pieces in the Marcoule pile G 1; Dispositifs d'irradiation d'eprouvettes d'acier dans la pile G 1 de Marcoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinot, R; Wallet, Ph [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Test pieces of steel were irradiated in the reactor G1 at Marcoule, in convectors replacing fuel elements, and in vertical channels in furnace-heated containers. The apparatus designed for this irradiation is described: containers, converter-rods, suspension fixtures and clamps, temperature measurement devices, lead castles and unloading set-ups. (author) [French] Des eprouvettes d'acier ont ete irradiees dans le reacteur G1 de Marcoule dans des convertisseurs mis a la place d'elements combustibles, et dans des canaux verticaux, en conteneurs chauffes par four. Nous decrivons l'appareillage etudie pour cette irradiation: conteneurs, barreaux-convertisseurs, dispositifs de suspension et d'amarrage, dispositifs de regulation et de mesure de temperature, chateaux de plomb et montages de defournement. (auteur)

  15. Role of Smooth Muscle in Intestinal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Collins

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion that smooth muscle function is altered in inflammation is prompted by clinical observations of altered motility in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. While altered motility may reflect inflammation-induced changes in intrinsic or extrinsic nerves to the gut, changes in gut hormone release and changes in muscle function, recent studies have provided in vitro evidence of altered muscle contractility in muscle resected from patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease. In addition, the observation that smooth muscle cells are more numerous and prominent in the strictured bowel of IBD patients compared with controls suggests that inflammation may alter the growth of intestinal smooth muscle. Thus, inflammation is associated with changes in smooth muscle growth and contractility that, in turn, contribute to important symptoms of IBD including diarrhea (from altered motility and pain (via either altered motility or stricture formation. The involvement of smooth muscle in this context may be as an innocent bystander, where cells and products of the inflammatory process induce alterations in muscle contractility and growth. However, it is likely that intestinal muscle cells play a more active role in the inflammatory process via the elaboration of mediators and trophic factors, including cytokines, and via the production of collagen. The concept of muscle cells as active participants in the intestinal inflammatory process is a new concept that is under intense study. This report summarizes current knowledge as it relates to these two aspects of altered muscle function (growth and contractility in the inflamed intestine, and will focus on mechanisms underlying these changes, based on data obtained from animal models of intestinal inflammation.

  16. Places Connected:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    This paper argues that development assistance contributed to the globalization of the 20th century by financing truly global networks of people. By focusing on the networks financed by development assistance bound by the national histories of Denmark and Japan, I illustrate how the people who...... experiences of place, however, when it is often the same people who experience many different places? Along with many other so-called donors in the 1950s, Denmark and Japan chose to invest in the education of own and other nationals involved in development and thereby financed personal connections between...... individuals throughout the world. Development assistance , where there are two or three links only between a Bangladeshi farmer, a street child in Sao Paolo and the President of the United States, the Queen of Denmark, or a suburban house wife in Japan, who has never left the Osaka area, but mothered a United...

  17. Smoothing a Piecewise-Smooth: An Example from Plankton Population Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piltz, Sofia Helena

    2016-01-01

    In this work we discuss a piecewise-smooth dynamical system inspired by plankton observations and constructed for one predator switching its diet between two different types of prey. We then discuss two smooth formulations of the piecewise-smooth model obtained by using a hyperbolic tangent funct...... function and adding a dimension to the system. We compare model behaviour of the three systems and show an example case where the steepness of the switch is determined from a comparison with data on freshwater plankton....

  18. Towards canonical quantum gravity for G1 geometries in 2+1 dimensions with a Λ-term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christodoulakis, T; Doulis, G; Terzis, Petros A; Melas, E; Grammenos, Th; Papadopoulos, G O; Spanou, A

    2008-01-01

    The canonical analysis and subsequent quantization of the (2+1)-dimensional action of pure gravity plus a cosmological constant term is considered, under the assumption of the existence of one spacelike Killing vector field. The proper imposition of the quantum analogues of two linear (momentum) constraints reduces an initial collection of state vectors, consisting of all smooth functionals of the components (and/or their derivatives) of the spatial metric, to particular scalar smooth functionals. The demand that the midi-superspace metric (inferred from the kinetic part of the quadratic (Hamiltonian) constraint) must define on the space of these states an induced metric whose components are given in terms of the same states, which is made possible through an appropriate re-normalization assumption, severely reduces the possible state vectors to three unique (up to general coordinate transformations) smooth scalar functionals. The quantum analogue of the Hamiltonian constraint produces a Wheeler-DeWitt equation based on this reduced manifold of states, which is completely integrated

  19. Restoration of an object from its complex cross sections and surface smoothing of the object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agui, Takeshi; Arai, Kiyoshi; Nakajima, Masayuki

    1990-01-01

    In clinical medicine, restoring the surface of a three-dimensional object from its set of parallel cross sections obtained by CT or MRI is useful in diagnoses. A method of connecting a pair of contours on neighboring cross sections to each other by triangular patches is generally used for this restoration. This method, however, has the complexity of triangulation algorithm, and requires the numerous quantity of calculations when surface smoothing is executed. In our new method, the positions of sampling points are expressed in cylindrical coordinates. Sampling points including auxiliary points are extracted and connected using simple algorithm. Surface smoothing is executed by moving sampling points. This method extends the application scope of restoring objects by triangulation. (author)

  20. G1/S-regulated E2F-containing protein complexes bind to the mouse thymidine kinase gene promoter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Q P; Zhao, S; Levin, A H

    1994-01-01

    report that MT2 includes an E2F-like binding site (GTTCGCGGGCAAA), as shown by the following evidence. (i) MT2 bound specifically to an affinity-purified fusion human E2F protein. (ii) Both MT2 and an authentic E2F site (TTTCGCGCGCTTT) bound specifically to similar or identical nuclear protein complexes...... complexes were also investigated. Studies using specific antibodies revealed that p107, a retinoblastoma-like protein, was present in both E2F-G0/G1 and E2F.S, whereas cyclin E.cyclin A.cdk2 were only present in E2F.S complex(es). These data suggest that removal of the p107-containing E2F.G0/G1 complex...

  1. Evolutionarily conserved transcription factor Apontic controls the G1/S progression by inducing cyclin e during eye development

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Qingxin; Wang, Xianfeng; Ikeo, Kazuho; Hirose, Susumu; Gehring, Walter Jakob; Gojobori, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    During Drosophila eye development, differentiation initiates in the posterior region of the eye disk and progresses anteriorly as a wave marked by the morphogenetic furrow (MF), which demarcates the boundary between anterior undifferentiated cells and posterior differentiated photoreceptors. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of gene expression immediately before the onset of differentiation remains unclear. Here, we show that Apontic (Apt), which is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor, is expressed in the differentiating cells posterior to the MF. Moreover, it directly induces the expression of cyclin E and is also required for the G1-to-S phase transition, which is known to be essential for the initiation of cell differentiation at the MF. These observations identify a pathway crucial for eye development, governed by a mechanism in which Cyclin E promotes the G1-to-S phase transition when regulated by Apt.

  2. Mainstream cigarette smoke exposure alters cytochrome P4502G1 expression in F344 rat olfactory mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotchkiss, J.A.; Nikula, K.J.; Lewis, J.L.; Finch, G.L.; Belinsky, S.A.; Dahl, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    Inhalation of mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) by rats results in multifocal rhinitis, mucous hypersecretion, nasal epithelial hyperplasia and metaplasia, and focal olfactory mucosal atrophy. In humans, cigarette smoking causes long-term, dose-related alterations in olfactory function in both current and former smokers. An olfactory-specific cytochrome P450 has been identified in rabbits and rats. The presence of olfactory-specific P450s, as well as relatively high levels of other biotransformation enzymes, such as NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase, in the olfactory neuroepithelium suggest that these enzyme systems may play a role in olfaction. This hypothesis is strengthened by the observation that, in rats, the temporal gene activation of P4502G1 coincides with the postnatal increase in the sensitivity of olfactory response to odorants. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of MCS exposure on P4502G1 protein expression

  3. A novel peptide sansalvamide analogue inhibits pancreatic cancer cell growth through G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujiki, Michael B.; Milam, Ben; Ding Xianzhong; Roginsky, Alexandra B.; Salabat, M. Reza; Talamonti, Mark S.; Bell, Richard H.; Gu Wenxin; Silverman, Richard B.; Adrian, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    Patients with pancreatic cancer have little hope for cure because no effective therapies are available. Sansalvamide A is a cyclic depsipeptide produced by a marine fungus. We investigated the effect of a novel sansalvamide A analogue on growth, cell-cycle phases, and induction of apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. The sansalvamide analogue caused marked time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of DNA synthesis and cell proliferation of two human pancreatic cancer cell lines (AsPC-1 and S2-013). The analogue induced G0/G1 phase cell-cycle arrest and morphological changes suggesting induction of apoptosis. Apoptosis was confirmed by annexin V binding. This novel sansalvamide analogue inhibits growth of pancreatic cancer cells through G0/G1 arrest and induces apoptosis. Sansalvamide analogues may be valuable for the treatment of pancreatic cancer

  4. Molecular characterization of cystic echinococcosis: First record of G7 in Egypt and G1 in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam-Eldin, Yosra H; Abdel Aaty, Heba E; Ahmed, Mona A

    2015-12-01

    Few molecular studies have identified the current status of cystic echinococcosis in Egypt. The present study aimed to ascertain the genotype(s) of Echinococcus granulosus responsible for human hydatidosis in different Egyptian governorates (regions). Animal isolates were collected from 40 camels, 5 pigs and 44 sheep. 27 human isolates were included in the present study. Specific PCR was performed and followed by DNA sequencing for mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene and BLAST analysis.The sheep cysts were not hydatid cysts. G6 genotype (camel starin) predominates in human, camel and pig isolates. G7 genotype (pig strain) was detected in two human isolates and one pig isolate. G1 genotype (sheep strain) was detected in one human isolate from Yemen and in no animal isolates. This is the first record of G7 in Egypt and G1 in Yemen.

  5. Evolutionarily conserved transcription factor Apontic controls the G1/S progression by inducing cyclin e during eye development

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Qingxin

    2014-06-16

    During Drosophila eye development, differentiation initiates in the posterior region of the eye disk and progresses anteriorly as a wave marked by the morphogenetic furrow (MF), which demarcates the boundary between anterior undifferentiated cells and posterior differentiated photoreceptors. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of gene expression immediately before the onset of differentiation remains unclear. Here, we show that Apontic (Apt), which is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor, is expressed in the differentiating cells posterior to the MF. Moreover, it directly induces the expression of cyclin E and is also required for the G1-to-S phase transition, which is known to be essential for the initiation of cell differentiation at the MF. These observations identify a pathway crucial for eye development, governed by a mechanism in which Cyclin E promotes the G1-to-S phase transition when regulated by Apt.

  6. TopBP1 is required at mitosis to reduce transmission of DNA damage to G1 daughter cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rune Troelsgaard; Kruse, Thomas; Nilsson, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    mitotic entry. In early mitosis, TopBP1 marks sites of and promotes unscheduled DNA synthesis. Moreover, TopBP1 is required for focus formation of the structure-selective nuclease and scaffold protein SLX4 in mitosis. Persistent TopBP1 foci transition into 53BP1 nuclear bodies (NBs) in G1 and precise...... temporal depletion of TopBP1 just before mitotic entry induced formation of 53BP1 NBs in the next cell cycle, showing that TopBP1 acts to reduce transmission of DNA damage to G1 daughter cells. Based on these results, we propose that TopBP1 maintains genome integrity in mitosis by controlling chromatin...

  7. Crystal Structures of Glycosyltransferase UGT78G1 Reveal the Molecular Basis for Glycosylation and Deglycosylation of (Iso)flavonoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modolo, Luzia V.; Li, Lenong; Pan, Haiyun; Blount, Jack W.; Dixon, Richard A.; Wang, Xiaoqiang; (SRNF)

    2010-09-21

    The glycosyltransferase UGT78G1 from Medicago truncatula catalyzes the glycosylation of various (iso)flavonoids such as the flavonols kaempferol and myricetin, the isoflavone formononetin, and the anthocyanidins pelargonidin and cyanidin. It also catalyzes a reverse reaction to remove the sugar moiety from glycosides. The structures of UGT78G1 bound with uridine diphosphate or with both uridine diphosphate and myricetin were determined at 2.1 {angstrom} resolution, revealing detailed interactions between the enzyme and substrates/products and suggesting a distinct binding mode for the acceptor/product. Comparative structural analysis and mutagenesis identify glutamate 192 as a key amino acid for the reverse reaction. This information provides a basis for enzyme engineering to manipulate substrate specificity and to design effective biocatalysts with glycosylation and/or deglycosylation activity.

  8. An inhibitor of polyamine synthesis arrests cells at an earlier stage of G1 than does calcium deprivation.

    OpenAIRE

    Cheetham, B F

    1983-01-01

    Methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) completely inhibits the induction of thymidine kinase after serum stimulation of quiescent fibroblasts only if added within 3 h after serum, whereas calcium deprivation blocks this induction up to 12 h after serum stimulation. Experiments in which one of these blocks was imposed as the other was released confirmed that cells blocked by methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) are arrested at an earlier stage in G1 than cells blocked by calcium deprivation.

  9. An inhibitor of polyamine synthesis arrests cells at an earlier stage of G1 than does calcium deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, B F

    1983-01-01

    Methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) completely inhibits the induction of thymidine kinase after serum stimulation of quiescent fibroblasts only if added within 3 h after serum, whereas calcium deprivation blocks this induction up to 12 h after serum stimulation. Experiments in which one of these blocks was imposed as the other was released confirmed that cells blocked by methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) are arrested at an earlier stage in G1 than cells blocked by calcium deprivation. PMID:6843551

  10. Role of polyamines at the G1/S boundary and G2/M phase of the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Tomoko; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Saiki, Ryotaro; Okudaira, Hiroyuki; Tome, Mayuko; Higashi, Kyohei; Nakamura, Mizuho; Terui, Yusuke; Fujiwara, Kunio; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2013-06-01

    The role of polyamines at the G1/S boundary and in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle was studied using synchronized HeLa cells treated with thymidine or with thymidine and aphidicolin. Synchronized cells were cultured in the absence or presence of α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, plus ethylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (EGBG), an inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase. When polyamine content was reduced by treatment with DFMO and EGBG, the transition from G1 to S phase was delayed. In parallel, the level of p27(Kip1) was greatly increased, so its mechanism was studied in detail. Synthesis of p27(Kip1) was stimulated at the level of translation by a decrease in polyamine levels, because of the existence of long 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) in p27(Kip1) mRNA. Similarly, the transition from the G2/M to the G1 phase was delayed by a reduction in polyamine levels. In parallel, the number of multinucleate cells increased by 3-fold. This was parallel with the inhibition of cytokinesis due to an unusual distribution of actin and α-tubulin at the M phase. Since an association of polyamines with chromosomes was not observed by immunofluorescence microscopy at the M phase, polyamines may have only a minor role in structural changes of chromosomes at the M phase. In general, the involvement of polyamines at the G2/M phase was smaller than that at the G1/S boundary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) loads in cattle from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbinotti, Helier; Santos, Guilherme B; Badaraco, Jeferson; Arend, Ana C; Graichen, Daniel Ângelo S; Haag, Karen L; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2012-09-10

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) and Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) are haplotypes of the parasite formerly known as Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, which in its larval stage causes cystic hydatid disease, endemic in Southern Brazil. Epidemiological and molecular knowledge about the haplotypes occurring in a region is essential to control the spread of the disease. The aim of this work was to analyze the haplotype frequency and fertility of hydatid cysts in cattle from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Cysts were collected and classified according to their fertility status. DNA was extracted from protoscoleces and germinal layers and then used as template for the amplification of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene by PCR. Amplicons were purified and sequenced, and the sequences were analyzed for haplotype identification. A total of 638 fertile cysts collected in the last ten years were genotyped. On average, G1 (56.6%) was more frequent than G5 (43.4%). In lungs, the G5 haplotype exhibited a higher parasite load (52.8%), whereas in the liver, G1 was more frequent (90.4%). The analysis revealed an increase in the frequency of G5 haplotype cysts during the period of sampling, and an increase in the abundance of fertile cysts has also been observed in the last several years. Most infertile cysts were genotyped as G1. The possible factors involved in the increase in the proportion of E. ortleppi (G5) and the consequences of this increase are discussed. This study suggests that the proportion of E. ortleppi (G5) loads in cattle may be increasing overtime. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The hard X-ray view of the young supernova remnant G1.9+0.3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoglauer, Andreas; Reynolds, Stephen P.; An, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    NuSTAR observed G1.9+0.3, the youngest known supernova remnant in the Milky Way, for 350 ks and detected emission up to ~30 keV. The remnant's X-ray morphology does not change significantly across the energy range from 3 to 20 keV. A combined fit between NuSTAR and Chandra shows that the spectrum...

  13. Isolation and characterization of a monoclonal anti CK-2 alpha subunit antibody of the IgG1 subclass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt-Spaniol, I; Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    1992-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody was produced against the recombinant human alpha subunit of CK-2. The antibody was of the IgG1 subclass and it was isolated from serum-free cell culture media and purified by affinity chromatography on Protein G Sepharose. The antibody can be used to detect specifically the CK......-2 alpha subunit in immunoblots from tissue extracts. An ELISA detection test was also established which also allows the identification of the CK-2 alpha subunit....

  14. Detailed petrographic descriptions and microprobe data for tertiary silicic volcanic rocks in drill hole USW G-1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporuscio, F.A.; Warren, R.G.; Broxton, D.E.

    1985-12-01

    This report contains detailed petrographic descriptions of 74 thin sections from drill hole USW G-1 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These descriptions are keyed to the distinctions between devitrified, vitrophyre, vitric, and zeolitized intervals below the Topopah Spring Member repository horizon. The petrographic features of the zeolitized intervals down through the Crater Flat tuff, as well as the sorption properties determined from these intervals, suggest that these zeolite occurrences may each have comparable sorptive capability.

  15. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus through p53-dependent pathway causes cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pei; Wu, Haoyang; Huang, Jiali; Xu, Ying; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Qi; Xu, Xingang

    2018-05-22

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an enteropathogenic Alphacoronavirus, has caused enormous economic losses in the swine industry. p53 protein exists in a wide variety of animal cells, which is involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, cell differentiation and other biological functions. In this study, we investigated the effects of PEDV infection on the cell cycle of Vero cells and p53 activation. The results demonstrated that PEDV infection induces cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase in Vero cells, while UV-inactivated PEDV does not cause cell cycle arrest. PEDV infection up-regulates the levels of p21, cdc2, cdk2, cdk4, Cyclin A protein and down-regulates Cyclin E protein. Further research results showed that inhibition of p53 signaling pathway can reverse the cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase induced by PEDV infection and cancel out the up-regulation of p21 and corresponding Cyclin/cdk mentioned above. In addition, PEDV infection of the cells synchronized in various stages of cell cycle showed that viral subgenomic RNA and virus titer were higher in the cells released from G0/G1 phase synchronized cells than that in the cells released from the G1/S phase and G2/M phase synchronized or asynchronous cells after 18 h p.i.. This is the first report to demonstrate that the p53-dependent pathway plays an important role in PEDV induced cell cycle arrest and beneficially contributes to viral infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. MKP1 phosphatase mediates G1-specific dephosphorylation of H3Serine10P in response to DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ajit K.; Khan, Shafqat A.; Sharda, Asmita; Reddy, Divya V; Gupta, Sanjay, E-mail: sgupta@actrec.gov.in

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Reversible reduction of H3S10 phosphorylation after DNA damage is G1 phase specific. • Dynamic balance between MAP kinases, MKP1 and MSK1 regulate H3S10P during DDR. • MKP1 associates with chromatin bearing γH2AX in response to DNA damage. • Inhibition of MKP1 activity with specific inhibitor promotes radiation-induced cell death. - Abstract: Histone mark, H3S10 phosphorylation plays a dual role in a cell by maintaining relaxed chromatin for active transcription in interphase and condensed chromatin state in mitosis. The level of H3S10P has also been shown to alter on DNA damage; however, its cell cycle specific behavior and regulation during DNA damage response is largely unexplored. In the present study, we demonstrate G1 cell cycle phase specific reversible loss of H3S10P in response to IR-induced DNA damage is mediated by opposing activities of phosphatase, MKP1 and kinase, MSK1 of the MAP kinase pathway. We also show that the MKP1 recruits to the chromatin in response to DNA damage and correlates with the decrease of H3S10P, whereas MKP1 is released from chromatin during recovery phase of DDR. Furthermore, blocking of H3S10 dephosphorylation by MKP1 inhibition impairs DNA repair process and results in poor survival of WRL68 cells. Collectively, our data proposes a pathway regulating G1 cell cycle phase specific reversible reduction of H3S10P on IR induced DNA damage and also raises the possibility of combinatorial modulation of H3S10P with specific inhibitors to target the cancer cells in G1-phase of cell cycle.

  17. Expression of CAR in SW480 and HepG2 cells during G1 is associated with cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osabe, Makoto; Sugatani, Junko; Takemura, Akiko; Yamazaki, Yasuhiro; Ikari, Akira; Kitamura, Naomi; Negishi, Masahiko; Miwa, Masao

    2008-01-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a transcription factor to regulate the expression of several genes related to drug-metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that CAR protein accumulates during G1 in human SW480 and HepG2 cells. After the G1/S phase transition, CAR protein levels decreased, and CAR was hardly detected in cells by the late M phase. CAR expression in both cell lines was suppressed by RNA interference-mediated suppression of CDK4. Depletion of CAR by RNA interference in both cells and by hepatocyte growth factor treatment in HepG2 cells resulted in decreased MDM2 expression that led to p21 upregulation and repression of HepG2 cell growth. Thus, our results demonstrate that CAR expression is an early G1 event regulated by CDK4 that contributes to MDM2 expression; these findings suggest that CAR may influence the expression of genes involved in not only the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous substances but also in the cell proliferation

  18. The Spin-dependent Structure Function of the Proton $g_{1}^p$ and a Test of the Bjorken Sum Rule

    CERN Document Server

    Alekseev, M.G.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Austregesilo, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, J.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Brona, G.; Burtin, E.; Bussa, M.P.; Chaberny, D.; Cotic, D.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Colantoni, M.; Crespo, M.L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Diaz, V.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dunnweber, W.; Efremov, A.; El Alaoui, A.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Friedrich, J.M.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gazda, R.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Heinsius, F.H.; Hermann, R.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Hoppner, Ch.; d'Hose, N.; Ilgner, C.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jasinski, P.; Jegou, G.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Kafer, W.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konopka, R.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kowalik, K.; Kramer, M.; Kral, A.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kuhn, R.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Lauser, L.; Le Goff, J.M.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Maggiora, A.; Maggiora, M.; Magnon, A.; Mallot, G.K.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Marroncle, J.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Massmann, F.; Matsuda, T.; Maximov, A.N.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Moinester, M.A.; Mutter, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nassalski, J.; Negrini, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Pawlukiewicz-Kaminska, B.; Perevalova, E.; Pesaro, G.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pontecorvo, G.; Pretz, J.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.F.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Richter, A.; Robinet, F.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, H.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schmitt, L.; Schluter, T.; Schopferer, S.; Schroder, W.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Siebert, H.W.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.N.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.I.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Takekawa, S.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Tkatchev, L.G.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.V.; Vossen, A.; Weitzel, Q.; Windmolders, R.; Wislicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zhao, J.; Zhuravlev, N.; Zvyagin, A.

    2010-01-01

    The inclusive double-spin asymmetry, $A_{1}^{p}$, has been measured at COMPASS in deepinelastic polarised muon scattering off a large polarised NH3 target. The data, collected in the year 2007, cover the range Q2 > 1 (GeV/c)^2, 0.004 < x < 0.7 and improve the statistical precision of g_{1}^{p}(x) by a factor of two in the region x < 0.02. The new proton asymmetries are combined with those previously published for the deuteron to extract the non-singlet spin-dependent structure function g_1^NS(x,Q2). The isovector quark density, Delta_q_3(x,Q2), is evaluated from a NLO QCD fit of g_1^NS. The first moment of Delta_q3 is in good agreement with the value predicted by the Bjorken sum rule and corresponds to a ratio of the axial and vector coupling constants g_A/g_V = 1.28+-0.07(stat)+-0.10(syst).

  19. On smoothness-asymmetric null infinities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valiente Kroon, Juan Antonio

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the existence of asymptotically Euclidean initial data sets for the vacuum Einstein field equations which would give rise (modulo an existence result for the evolution equations near spatial infinity) to developments with a past and a future null infinity of different smoothness. For simplicity, the analysis is restricted to the class of conformally flat, axially symmetric initial data sets. It is shown how the free parameters in the second fundamental form of the data can be used to satisfy certain obstructions to the smoothness of null infinity. The resulting initial data sets could be interpreted as those of some sort of (nonlinearly) distorted Schwarzschild black hole. Their developments would be that they admit a peeling future null infinity, but at the same time have a polyhomogeneous (non-peeling) past null infinity

  20. Smooth homogeneous structures in operator theory

    CERN Document Server

    Beltita, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Geometric ideas and techniques play an important role in operator theory and the theory of operator algebras. Smooth Homogeneous Structures in Operator Theory builds the background needed to understand this circle of ideas and reports on recent developments in this fruitful field of research. Requiring only a moderate familiarity with functional analysis and general topology, the author begins with an introduction to infinite dimensional Lie theory with emphasis on the relationship between Lie groups and Lie algebras. A detailed examination of smooth homogeneous spaces follows. This study is illustrated by familiar examples from operator theory and develops methods that allow endowing such spaces with structures of complex manifolds. The final section of the book explores equivariant monotone operators and Kähler structures. It examines certain symmetry properties of abstract reproducing kernels and arrives at a very general version of the construction of restricted Grassmann manifolds from the theory of loo...

  1. Does responsive pricing smooth demand shocks?

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal, Courty; Mario, Pagliero

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a unique pricing experiment, we investigate Vickrey’s conjecture that responsive pricing can be used to smooth both predictable and unpredictable demand shocks. Our evidence shows that increasing the responsiveness of price to demand conditions reduces the magnitude of deviations in capacity utilization rates from a pre-determined target level. A 10 percent increase in price variability leads to a decrease in the variability of capacity utilization rates between...

  2. The Smooth Muscle of the Artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    of vascular smooth muscle are contrac- tion, thereby mediating vaso constriction, and the synthesis of the extracellular proteins and polysaccharides ...of the monosaccharides turned out to be different for instance from cornea to aorta (229, 283). In the conditions yed (4 hours incubation at 37 degrees... polysaccharides only. This glyco- protein is not very rich in sugar components (- 5Z) (228, 284), but is a very acidic protein (286). Fig.66 shows

  3. Differential geometry bundles, connections, metrics and curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Taubes, Clifford Henry

    2011-01-01

    Bundles, connections, metrics and curvature are the 'lingua franca' of modern differential geometry and theoretical physics. This book will supply a graduate student in mathematics or theoretical physics with the fundamentals of these objects. Many of the tools used in differential topology are introduced and the basic results about differentiable manifolds, smooth maps, differential forms, vector fields, Lie groups, and Grassmanians are all presented here. Other material covered includes the basic theorems about geodesics and Jacobi fields, the classification theorem for flat connections, the

  4. Log canonical thresholds of smooth Fano threefolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheltsov, Ivan A; Shramov, Konstantin A

    2008-01-01

    The complex singularity exponent is a local invariant of a holomorphic function determined by the integrability of fractional powers of the function. The log canonical thresholds of effective Q-divisors on normal algebraic varieties are algebraic counterparts of complex singularity exponents. For a Fano variety, these invariants have global analogues. In the former case, it is the so-called α-invariant of Tian; in the latter case, it is the global log canonical threshold of the Fano variety, which is the infimum of log canonical thresholds of all effective Q-divisors numerically equivalent to the anticanonical divisor. An appendix to this paper contains a proof that the global log canonical threshold of a smooth Fano variety coincides with its α-invariant of Tian. The purpose of the paper is to compute the global log canonical thresholds of smooth Fano threefolds (altogether, there are 105 deformation families of such threefolds). The global log canonical thresholds are computed for every smooth threefold in 64 deformation families, and the global log canonical thresholds are computed for a general threefold in 20 deformation families. Some bounds for the global log canonical thresholds are computed for 14 deformation families. Appendix A is due to J.-P. Demailly.

  5. Smooth Nb surfaces fabricated by buffered electropolishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Andy T.; Mammosser, John; Phillips, Larry; Delayen, Jean; Reece, Charles; Wilkerson, Amy; Smith, David; Ike, Robert

    2007-01-01

    It was demonstrated that smooth Nb surfaces could be obtained through buffered electropolishing (BEP) employing an electrolyte consisting of lactic, sulfuric, and hydrofluoric acids. Parameters that control the polishing process were optimized to achieve a smooth surface finish. The polishing rate of BEP was determined to be 0.646 μm/min which was much higher than 0.381 μm/min achieved by the conventional electropolishing (EP) process widely used in the superconducting radio frequency (SRF) community. Root mean square measurements using a 3D profilometer revealed that Nb surfaces treated by BEP were an order of magnitude smoother than those treated by the optimized EP process. The chemical composition of the Nb surfaces after BEP was analyzed by static and dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) systems. SIMS results implied that the surface oxide structure of Nb might be more complicated than what usually believed and could be inhomogeneous. Preliminary results of BEP on Nb SRF single cell cavities and half-cells were reported. It was shown that smooth and bright surfaces could be obtained in 1800 s when the electric field inside a SRF cavity was uniform during a BEP process. This study showed that BEP is a promising technique for surface treatment on Nb SRF cavities to be used in particle accelerators

  6. Umbelliferone arrest cell cycle at G0/G1 phase and induces apoptosis in human oral carcinoma (KB) cells possibly via oxidative DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalakshmi, Annamalai; Sindhu, Ganapathy

    2017-08-01

    Umbelliferone (UMB) has widespread pharmacological activity, comprising anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-genotoxic and anti-immunomodulatory but the anticancer activity remains unknown in human oral carcinoma (HOC) KB cells. MTT assay determinations was revealed that treatment of KB cells with UMB, prevent and reduce the cell proliferation with the IC 50 - 200μM as well as induces loss of cell viability, morphology change and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in a concentration dependent manner. Acridine orange and ethidium bromide dual staining assay established that UMB induced apoptosis in KB cells in a dose dependent manner. Alkaline comet assay determination revealed UMB has the potential to increase oxidative DNA damage in KB cells through DNA tail formation significantly (pKB cells. Similarly, we observed increased DNA damage stimulated apoptotic morphological changes in UMB treated cells. Taken together, the present study suggests that UMB exhibits anticancer effect on KB cell line with the increased generation of intracellular ROS, triggered oxidative stress mediated depolarization of mitochondria, which contributes cell death via DNA damage as well as cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. The results have also provided us insight in the pharmacological backgrounds for the potential use of UMB, to target divergent pathways of cell survival and cell death. To conclude UMB could develop as a novel candidate for cancer chemoprevention and therapy, which is our future focus and to develop a connectivity map between in vivo and in vitro activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. TEAD4-YAP interaction regulates tumoral growth by controlling cell-cycle arrest at the G1 phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Shin; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Yamatoji, Masanobu; Nakashima, Dai; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Koide, Nao; Takahara, Toshikazu; Shimizu, Toshihiro; Iyoda, Manabu; Ogawara, Katsunori; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    TEA domain transcription factor 4 (TEAD4), which has critical functions in the process of embryonic development, is expressed in various cancers. However, the important role of TEAD4 in human oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) remain unclear. Here we investigated the TEAD4 expression level and the functional mechanism in OSCC using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, TEAD4 knockdown model was used to evaluate cellular proliferation, cell-cycle analysis, and the interaction between TEAD4 and Yes-associated protein (YAP) which was reported to be a transcription coactivator of cellular proliferation. In the current study, we found that TEAD4 expression increased significantly in vitro and in vivo and correlated with tumoral size in OSCC patients. TEAD4 knockdown OSCC cells showed decreased cellular proliferation resulting from cell-cycle arrest in the G1 phase by down-regulation of cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and up-regulation of CDK inhibitors. We also found that the TEAD4-YAP complex in the nuclei may be related closely to transcriptions of G1 arrest-related genes. Taken together, we concluded that TEAD4 might play an important role in tumoral growth and have potential to be a therapeutic target in OSCCs. - Highlights: • TEAD4 contributes to tumor progression in OSCCs. • TEAD4 knockdown results in cell-cycle arrest at the G1phase in OSCC cells. • In TEAD4 knockdown cells, the amount of YAP in the nucleus decreases. • Activation of the TEAD4-YAP complex is an important factor in OSCC tumor growth. • TEAD4 might be a critical biomarker and a therapeutic target for OSCCs.

  8. Determination of iridium at low levels (sub ng g-1) in geological materials by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcelli, Claudia Petronilho Ribeiro

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of the platinum group elements (PGE: Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir and Pt) in geological materials is difficult, due to the low concentrations of these elements (ng g -1 or sub ng g -1 ) and their heterogeneous distribution in many geological matrices. The determination of PGE has attracted great interest due not only to the increasing utilization of these elements in modern industry, but also to the information that these elements can provide on mantle processes. The determination of very low amounts of iridium is particularly important on account of some anomalous concentrations of iridium in sedimentary rock samples, related to the impact of an extraterrestrial object responsible for extinctions at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary. In the present paper, a radiochemical neutron activation method for the determination of iridium in geological materials is presented. The procedure consisted of thermal neutron irradiation of about 500 mg of the sample, followed by sintering with sodium peroxide, precipitation with tellurium and high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry with a hyper-pure Ge detector. The accuracy and precision of the procedure were evaluated by analysis of the certified reference material SARM-7 (South Africa Bureau of Standards) and W-1 (USGS). The detection limit for the analytical conditions employed was 0.004 ng g -1 . The procedure was applied to the reference materials TDB-1 and WGB-1 (CANMET), which present provisional values for Ir, and to the reference materials GXR-3, GXR-5 and GXR- 6 (USGS), which do not present information values for Ir. This work is a contribution to Ir values in these reference materials. As an example of application of the method to real samples, the developed procedure was employed in the determination of iridium in basalts from Parana basin, collected in Bom Guara do Sul, Santa Catarina, provided by the Geosciences Institute of the University of Campinas. (author)

  9. ABT-263 induces G1/G0-phase arrest, apoptosis and autophagy in human esophageal cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qing-Huan; Que, Fu-Chang; Gu, Chun-Ping; Zhong, De-Sheng; Zhou, Dan; Kong, Yi; Yu, Le; Liu, Shu-Wen

    2017-12-01

    Both the anti- and pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family are regulated by a conserved Bcl-2 homology (BH3) domain. ABT-263 (Navitoclax), a novel BH3 mimetic and orally bioavailable Bcl-2 family inhibitor with high affinity for Bcl-xL, Bcl-2 and Bcl-w has entered clinical trials for cancer treatment. But the anticancer mechanisms of ABT-263 have not been fully elucidated. In this study we investigated the effects of ABT-263 on human esophageal cancer cells in vitro and to explore its anticancer mechanisms. Treatment with ABT-263 dose-dependently suppressed the viability of 3 human esophageal cancer cells with IC 50 values of 10.7±1.4, 7.1±1.5 and 8.2±1.6 μmol/L, in EC109, HKESC-2 and CaES-17 cells, respectively. ABT-263 (5-20 μmol/L) dose-dependently induced G 1 /G 0 -phase arrest in the 3 cancer cell lines and induced apoptosis evidenced by increased the Annexin V-positive cell population and elevated levels of cleaved caspase 3, cleaved caspase 9 and PARP. We further demonstrated that ABT-263 treatment markedly increased the expression of p21 Waf1/Cip1 and decreased the expression of cyclin D1 and phospho-Rb (retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein) (Ser780) proteins that contributed to the G 1 /G 0 -phase arrest. Knockdown of p21 Waf1/Cip1 attenuated ABT-263-induced G 1 /G 0 -phase arrest. Moreover, ABT-263 treatment enhanced pro-survival autophagy, shown as the increased LC3-II levels and decreased p62 levels, which counteracted its anticancer activity. Our results suggest that ABT-263 exerts cytostatic and cytotoxic effects on human esophageal cancer cells in vitro and enhances pro-survival autophagy, which counteracts its anticancer activity.

  10. Nodular smooth muscle metaplasia in multiple peritoneal endometriosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Yoon, Gun; Ha, Sang Yun; Song, Sang Yong

    2015-01-01

    We report here an unusual presentation of peritoneal endometriosis with smooth muscle metaplasia as multiple protruding masses on the lateral pelvic wall. Smooth muscle metaplasia is a common finding in rectovaginal endometriosis, whereas in peritoneal endometriosis, smooth muscle metaplasia is uncommon and its nodular presentation on the pelvic wall is even rarer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of nodular smooth muscle metaplasia occurring in peritoneal endometriosis. A...

  11. On the Discrete-Time GeoX/G/1 Queues under N-Policy with Single and Multiple Vacations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung J. Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the discrete-time GeoX/G/1 queue under N-policy with single and multiple vacations. In this queueing system, the server takes multiple vacations and a single vacation whenever the system becomes empty and begins to serve customers only if the queue length is at least a predetermined threshold value N. Using the well-known property of stochastic decomposition, we derive the stationary queue-length distributions for both vacation models in a simple and unified manner. In addition, we derive their busy as well as idle-period distributions. Some classical vacation models are considered as special cases.

  12. Waiting time analysis for MX/G/1 priority queues with/without vacations under random order of service discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norikazu Kawasaki

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We study MX/G/1 nonpreemptive and preemptive-resume priority queues with/without vacations under random order of service (ROS discipline within each class. By considering the conditional waiting times given the states of the system, which an arbitrary message observes upon arrival, we derive the Laplace-Stieltjes transforms of the waiting time distributions and explicitly obtain the first two moments. The relationship for the second moments under ROS and first-come first-served disciplines extends the one found previously by Takacs and Fuhrmann for non-priority single arrival queues.

  13. Approximation of the steady state system state distribution of the M/G/1 retrial queue with impatient customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stihi Nadjet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For M/G/1 retrial queues with impatient customers, we review the results, concerning the steady state distribution of the system state, presented in the literature. Since the existing formulas are cumbersome (so their utilization in practice becomes delicate or the obtaining of these formulas is impossible, we apply the information theoretic techniques for estimating the above mentioned distribution. More concretely, we use the principle of maximum entropy which provides an adequate methodology for computing a unique estimate for an unknown probability distribution based on information expressed in terms of some given mean value constraints.

  14. Molecular basis for vulnerability to mitochondrial and oxidative stress in a neuroendocrine CRI-G1 cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Chandiramani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many age-associated disorders (including diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases are linked to mitochondrial dysfunction, which leads to impaired cellular bioenergetics and increased oxidative stress. However, it is not known what genetic and molecular pathways underlie differential vulnerability to mitochondrial dysfunction observed among different cell types.Starting with an insulinoma cell line as a model for a neuronal/endocrine cell type, we isolated a novel subclonal line (named CRI-G1-RS that was more susceptible to cell death induced by mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitors than the parental CRI-G1 line (renamed CRI-G1-RR for clarity. Compared to parental RR cells, RS cells were also more vulnerable to direct oxidative stress, but equally vulnerable to mitochondrial uncoupling and less vulnerable to protein kinase inhibition-induced apoptosis. Thus, differential vulnerability to mitochondrial toxins between these two cell types likely reflects differences in their ability to handle metabolically generated reactive oxygen species rather than differences in ATP production/utilization or in downstream apoptotic machinery. Genome-wide gene expression analysis and follow-up biochemical studies revealed that, in this experimental system, increased vulnerability to mitochondrial and oxidative stress was associated with (1 inhibition of ARE/Nrf2/Keap1 antioxidant pathway; (2 decreased expression of antioxidant and phase I/II conjugation enzymes, most of which are Nrf2 transcriptional targets; (3 increased expression of molecular chaperones, many of which are also considered Nrf2 transcriptional targets; (4 increased expression of β cell-specific genes and transcription factors that specify/maintain β cell fate; and (5 reconstitution of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.The molecular profile presented here will enable identification of individual genes or gene clusters that shape vulnerability to mitochondrial dysfunction and

  15. Arrest of irradiated G1, S, or G2 cells at mitosis using nocodazole promotes repair of potentially lethal damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliakis, G.; Nuesse, M.

    1984-01-01

    The ability of synchronized Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, irradiated in G1, S, and G2 phases, to repair potentially lethal damage when arrested at mitosis by using 0.4 μg/ml nocodazole, a specific inhibitor of microtubule polymerization, has been studied. Cells irradiated in these phases were found to repair potentially lethal damage at mitosis. The extent of this repair was similar to that observed for cells irradiated at the same stages in the cell cycle but allowed to repair potentially lethal damage by incubating in balanced salt solution for 6 hr after X irradiation

  16. Thermal analyses for a nuclear-waste repository in tuff using USW-G1 borehole data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.L.

    1982-10-01

    Thermal calculations using properties of tuffs obtained from the USW-G1 borehole, located near the SW margin of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), have been completed for a nuclear waste repository sited in welded tuff below the water table. The analyses considered two wasteforms, high level waste and spent fuel, emplaced at two different, gross thermal loadings, 50 and 75 kW/Acre (20.24 and 30.36 kW/ha). Calculations were made assuming that no boiling of the groundwater occurs; i.e., that the hydrostatic head potential was reestablished soon after waste emplacement. 23 figures, 2 tables

  17. A Fast Newton-Shamanskii Iteration for a Matrix Equation Arising from M/G/1-Type Markov Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chang Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the nonlinear matrix equations arising in the analysis of M/G/1-type and GI/M/1-type Markov chains, the minimal nonnegative solution G or R can be found by Newton-like methods. We prove monotone convergence results for the Newton-Shamanskii iteration for this class of equations. Starting with zero initial guess or some other suitable initial guess, the Newton-Shamanskii iteration provides a monotonically increasing sequence of nonnegative matrices converging to the minimal nonnegative solution. A Schur decomposition method is used to accelerate the Newton-Shamanskii iteration. Numerical examples illustrate the effectiveness of the Newton-Shamanskii iteration.

  18. Radial Basis Function Based Quadrature over Smooth Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    Radial Basis Functions φ(r) Piecewise Smooth (Conditionally Positive Definite) MN Monomial |r|2m+1 TPS thin plate spline |r|2mln|r| Infinitely Smooth...smooth surfaces using polynomial interpolants, while [27] couples Thin - Plate Spline interpolation (see table 1) with Green’s integral formula [29

  19. Smoothing-Norm Preconditioning for Regularizing Minimum-Residual Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Christian; Jensen, Toke Koldborg

    2006-01-01

    take into account a smoothing norm for the solution. This technique is well established for CGLS, but it does not immediately carry over to minimum-residual methods when the smoothing norm is a seminorm or a Sobolev norm. We develop a new technique which works for any smoothing norm of the form $\\|L...

  20. Neurophysiology and Neuroanatomy of Smooth Pursuit in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencer, Rebekka; Trillenberg, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Smooth pursuit eye movements enable us to focus our eyes on moving objects by utilizing well-established mechanisms of visual motion processing, sensorimotor transformation and cognition. Novel smooth pursuit tasks and quantitative measurement techniques can help unravel the different smooth pursuit components and complex neural systems involved…

  1. Comparative Diagnosis of Serum IgG1 and Coproantigen ELISA for Fasciolosis Detection of Goats in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Mendoza, Pedro; Hernández-Guzmán, Karina; Olivares-Pérez, Jaime; Sarracent-Pérez, Jorge; Zumaquero-Ríos, José

    2016-01-01

    The objective of present study was to determine the prevalence of natural caprine fasciolosis in the Mixteca region of Mexico using coproantigen and serum IgG1 ELISA tests for comparative purposes. A total of 1070 serum and faecal samples were analyzed for IgG1 antibodies and coproantigens, using ELISA with E/S products as antigen and a monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA. Prevalence of 73.46% was found using the serological ELISA and a percentage of 77.20 was found for coproantigen ELISA. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for serum ELISA were 86.7% and 96.4%, and for the coproantigen ELISA they were 93.1% and 97.8%, respectively. The seropositive samples were further categorized as low, medium, or high positivity. Results show a great proportion of low and medium positive goats when the serum ELISA test was used. Correlation coefficients between coproantigens and seropositivity were statistically significant (P < 0.01) for low seropositivity (r = 0.93) and medium seropositivity (r = 0.84). The accuracy of faecal antigen ELISA was higher compared to indirect ELISA serological test. Two ELISAs were shown to be useful for demonstrating the current status of F. hepatica infection in the endemic areas and can be employed in studies on epidemiology as well as anthelmintics treatment for preventing economic loss and the risk of transmission to humans. PMID:27563665

  2. Detection of patent infections of Echinococcus granulosus ("sheep-strain", G1) in naturally infected dogs in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherifi, Kurtesh; Rexhepi, Agim; Hamidi, Afrim; Behluli, Behlul; Zessin, Karl-Hans; Mathis, Alexander; Deplazes, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A survey was carried out to assess the occurrence of canine echinococcosis in naturally infected dogs in Kosovo. Using the flotation-ovassay technique, taeniid eggs were found in 23 (7.5%) out of a total of 305 dogs. Eggs from other helminths were detected as well: hookworms 139 (45.5%), Trichuris sp. 87 (28.5%), Toxocara sp. 42 (13.7%), Toxascaris leonina 21 (6.8%) and Dipylidium caninum eight (2.6%). From 21 of the 305 samples (6.9%), taeniids eggs could be collected. Using PCR primers specific for Echinococcus granulosus ("sheep strain", G1), four of these samples (1.3%) resulted positive. The E. granulosus isolates originated from each one stray dog, hunting dog, sheepdog and pet dog. A semi-quantitative analysis showed low to moderate egg counts (2-10 per 1 g faeces) in dogs positive for E. granulosus ("sheep strain", G1) whereas specimens with high (11-20) or very high numbers (> 20) of taeniid eggs were negative in the E. granulosus PCR. Using specific primers for the detection of E. multilocularis, all samples containing taeniid eggs were negative. This is the first report on identification of E. granulosus in dogs from Kosovo where human cystic echinococcosis is a significant medical problem.

  3. The polarised photon g1γ sum rule at the linear collider and high luminosity B factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The sum rule for the first moment of the polarised (virtual) photon structure function g 1 γ (x,Q 2 ;K 2 ) is revisited in the light of proposals for future e + e - colliders. The sum rule exhibits an array of phenomena characteristic of QCD: for real photons (K 2 =0) electromagnetic gauge invariance constrains the first moment to vanish; the limit for asymptotic photon virtuality (m ρ 2 -bar K 2 -bar Q 2 ) is governed by the electromagnetic U A (1) axial anomaly and the approach to asymptopia by the gluonic anomaly; for intermediate values of K 2 , it reflects the realisation of chiral symmetry and is determined by the off-shell radiative couplings of the pseudoscalar mesons; finally, like many polarisation phenomena in QCD, the first moment of g 1 γ involves the gluon topological susceptibility. In this paper, we review the original sum rule proposed by Narison, Shore and Veneziano and extend the relation with pseudoscalar mesons. The possibility of measuring the sum rule in future polarised e + e - colliders is then considered in detail, focusing on the International Linear Collider (ILC) and high luminosity B factories. We conclude that all the above features of the sum rule should be accessible at a polarised collider with the characteristics of SuperKEKB

  4. YOUNG REMNANTS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE AND THEIR PROGENITORS: A STUDY OF SNR G1.9+0.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Childs, Francesca; Soderberg, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    SNe Ia, with their remarkably homogeneous light curves and spectra, have been used as standardizable candles to measure the accelerating expansion of the universe. Yet, their progenitors remain elusive. Common explanations invoke a degenerate star (white dwarf) that explodes upon almost reaching the Chandrasekhar limit, by either steadily accreting mass from a companion star or violently merging with another degenerate star. We show that circumstellar interaction in young Galactic supernova remnants can be used to distinguish between these single and double degenerate (DD) progenitor scenarios. Here we propose a new diagnostic, the surface brightness index, which can be computed from theory and compared with Chandra and Very Large Array (VLA) observations. We use this method to demonstrate that a DD progenitor can explain the decades-long flux rise and size increase of the youngest known galactic supernova remnant (SNR), G1.9+0.3. We disfavor a single degenerate scenario for SNR G1.9+0.3. We attribute the observed properties to the interaction between a steep ejecta profile and a constant density environment. We suggest using the upgraded VLA, ASKAP, and MeerKAT to detect circumstellar interaction in the remnants of historical SNe Ia in the Local Group of galaxies. This may settle the long-standing debate over their progenitors

  5. Iso-suillin isolated from Suillus luteus, induces G1 phase arrest and apoptosis in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Ying; Yan, Yong-Xin; Zhao, Jun-Xia

    2014-01-01

    Iso-suillin, a natural product isolated from Suillus luteus, has been shown to inhibit the growth of some cancer cell lines. However, the molecular mechanisms of action of this compound are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate how iso-suillin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in a human hepatoma cell line (SMMC-7721). We demonstrated the effects of iso-suillin on cell proliferation and apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells, with no apparent toxicity in normal human lymphocytes, using colony formation assays and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) analysis. Western blotting was used to examine the expression of G1 phase-regulated and apoptosis-associated protein levels in iso-suillin treated SMMC-7721 cells. The results indicated that iso-suillin significantly decreased viability, induced G1 phase arrest and triggered apoptosis in SMMC-7721cells. Taken together, these results suggest the potential of iso-suillin as a candidate for liver cancer treatment.

  6. TopBP1 is required at mitosis to reduce transmission of DNA damage to G1 daughter cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Rune Troelsgaard; Kruse, Thomas; Nilsson, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Genome integrity is critically dependent on timely DNA replication and accurate chromosome segregation. Replication stress delays replication into G2/M, which in turn impairs proper chromosome segregation and inflicts DNA damage on the daughter cells. Here we show that TopBP1 forms foci upon mitotic entry. In early mitosis, TopBP1 marks sites of and promotes unscheduled DNA synthesis. Moreover, TopBP1 is required for focus formation of the structure-selective nuclease and scaffold protein SLX4 in mitosis. Persistent TopBP1 foci transition into 53BP1 nuclear bodies (NBs) in G1 and precise temporal depletion of TopBP1 just before mitotic entry induced formation of 53BP1 NBs in the next cell cycle, showing that TopBP1 acts to reduce transmission of DNA damage to G1 daughter cells. Based on these results, we propose that TopBP1 maintains genome integrity in mitosis by controlling chromatin recruitment of SLX4 and by facilitating unscheduled DNA synthesis. PMID:26283799

  7. p27Kip1 Is Required to Mediate a G1 Cell Cycle Arrest Downstream of ATM following Genotoxic Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica K Cassimere

    Full Text Available The DNA damage response (DDR is a coordinated signaling network that ensures the maintenance of genome stability under DNA damaging stress. In response to DNA lesions, activation of the DDR leads to the establishment of cell cycle checkpoints that delay cell-cycle progression and allow repair of the defects. The tumor suppressor p27Kip1 is a cyclin-CDK inhibitor that plays an important role in regulating quiescence in a variety of tissues. Several studies have suggested that p27Kip1 also plays a role in the maintenance of genomic integrity. Here we demonstrate that p27Kip1 is essential for the establishment of a G1 checkpoint arrest after DNA damage. We also uncovered that ATM phosphorylates p27Kip1 on a previously uncharacterized residue (Ser-140, which leads to its stabilization after induction of DNA double-strand breaks. Inhibition of this stabilization by replacing endogenous p27Kip1 with a Ser-140 phospho-mutant (S140A significantly sensitized cells to IR treatments. Our findings reveal a novel role for p27Kip1 in the DNA damage response pathway and suggest that part of its tumor suppressing functions relies in its ability to mediate a G1 arrest after the induction of DNA double strand breaks.

  8. BDE-47 and BDE-209 inhibit proliferation of Neuro-2a cells via inducing G1-phase arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongmei; Tang, Xuexi; Zhou, Bin; Xu, Ningning; Zhou, Zhongyuan; Fang, Kuan; Wang, You

    2017-03-01

    Cell proliferation is closely related to cell cycle which is strictly regulated by genes and regulatory proteins. In the present study, we comparatively analyzed the toxic effects of BDE-47 and BDE-209 on cell proliferation of Neuro-2a cells, and the possible mechanism was discussed. The results indicated that BDE-47 significantly inhibited the cell proliferation and the cell cycle were arrest at G1 phase, while BDE-209 had little effects on either cell proliferation or cell cycle. qRT-PCR and Western blot assay presented that BDE-47 up-regulated the gene expressions of p53 and p21, which down-regulated the expresseion of cyclinD1 and CDK2, and inhibited retinoblastoma protein (pRb) phosphorylation. This process could effectively arrest the cell cycle at G1 phase, which finally caused the inhibition on Neuro-2a cell proliferation. However, BDE-209 was only up-regulated the gene expressions of p53, also suggested to be involved in the inhibition on Neuro-2a cell proliferation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Mitotic catastrophe occurs in the absence of apoptosis in p53-null cells with a defective G1 checkpoint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis Fragkos

    Full Text Available Cell death occurring during mitosis, or mitotic catastrophe, often takes place in conjunction with apoptosis, but the conditions in which mitotic catastrophe may exhibit features of programmed cell death are still unclear. In the work presented here, we studied mitotic cell death by making use of a UV-inactivated parvovirus (adeno-associated virus; AAV that has been shown to induce a DNA damage response and subsequent death of p53-defective cells in mitosis, without affecting the integrity of the host genome. Osteosarcoma cells (U2OSp53DD that are deficient in p53 and lack the G1 cell cycle checkpoint respond to AAV infection through a transient G2 arrest. We found that the infected U2OSp53DD cells died through mitotic catastrophe with no signs of chromosome condensation or DNA fragmentation. Moreover, cell death was independent of caspases, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF, autophagy and necroptosis. These findings were confirmed by time-lapse microscopy of cellular morphology following AAV infection. The assays used readily revealed apoptosis in other cell types when it was indeed occurring. Taken together the results indicate that in the absence of the G1 checkpoint, mitotic catastrophe occurs in these p53-null cells predominantly as a result of mechanical disruption induced by centrosome overduplication, and not as a consequence of a suicide signal.

  10. Inhibition of PI3K by ZSTK474 suppressed tumor growth not via apoptosis but G0/G1 arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Shingo; Yoshimi, Hisashi; Okamura, Mutsumi; Mukai, Yumiko; Yamori, Takao

    2009-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) is a potential target in cancer therapy. Inhibition of PI3K is believed to induce apoptosis. We recently developed a novel PI3K inhibitor ZSTK474 with antitumor efficacy. In this study, we have examined the underlying mode of action by which ZSTK474 exerts its antitumor efficacy. In vivo, ZSTK474 effectively inhibited the growth of human cancer xenografts. In parallel, ZSTK474 treatment suppressed the expression of phospho-Akt, suggesting effective PI3K inhibition, and also suppressed the expression of nuclear cyclin D1 and Ki67, both of which are hallmarks of proliferation. However, ZSTK474 treatment did not increase TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells. In vitro, ZSTK474 induced marked G 0 /G 1 arrest, but did not increase the subdiploid cells or activate caspase, both of which are hallmarks of apoptosis. These results clearly indicated that inhibition of PI3K by ZSTK474 did not induce apoptosis but rather induced strong G 0 /G 1 arrest, which might cause its efficacy in tumor cells.

  11. Mineralogy of drill holes J-13, UE-25A No. 1, and USW G-1 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bish, D.L.; Chipera, S.J.

    1986-09-01

    The mineralogy of drill holes J-13, UE-25A No. 1, and USW G-1 was previously determined using qualitative and semiquantitative techniques, and most of the available data were neither complete nor accurate. New quantitative x-ray diffraction data were obtained for rocks from all three of these drill holes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These quantitative analyses employed both external and internal standard x-ray powder diffraction methods and permitted the precise determination of all phases commonly found in the tuffs at Yucca Mountain, including glass and opal-CT. These new data supplant previous analyses and include numerous additional phases. New findings of particular importance include better constraints on the distribution of the more soluble silica polymorphs, cristobalite and opal-CT. Opal-CT was associated solely with clinoptilolite-bearing horizons, and cristobalite disappearance coincided with the appearance of analcime in USW G-1. Unlike previous analyses, we identified significant amounts of smectite in drill hole J-13. We found no evidence to support previous reports of the occurrence of erionite or phillipsite in these drill holes

  12. An APC/C-Cdh1 Biosensor Reveals the Dynamics of Cdh1 Inactivation at the G1/S Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondracka, Andrej; Robbins, Jonathan A; Cross, Frederick R

    2016-01-01

    B-type cyclin-dependent kinase activity must be turned off for mitotic exit and G1 stabilization. B-type cyclin degradation is mediated by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C); during and after mitotic exit, APC/C is dependent on Cdh1. Cdh1 is in turn phosphorylated and inactivated by cyclin-CDK at the Start transition of the new cell cycle. We developed a biosensor to assess the cell cycle dynamics of APC/C-Cdh1. Nuclear exit of the G1 transcriptional repressor Whi5 is a known marker of Start; APC/C-Cdh1 is inactivated 12 min after Whi5 nuclear exit with little measurable cell-to-cell timing variability. Multiple phosphorylation sites on Cdh1 act in a redundant manner to repress its activity. Reducing the number of phosphorylation sites on Cdh1 can to some extent be tolerated for cell viability, but it increases variability in timing of APC/C-Cdh1 inactivation. Mutants with minimal subsets of phosphorylation sites required for viability exhibit striking stochasticity in multiple responses including budding, nuclear division, and APC/C-Cdh1 activity itself. Multiple cyclin-CDK complexes, as well as the stoichiometric inhibitor Acm1, contribute to APC/C-Cdh1 inactivation; this redundant control is likely to promote rapid and reliable APC/C-Cdh1 inactivation immediately following the Start transition.

  13. YOUNG REMNANTS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE AND THEIR PROGENITORS: A STUDY OF SNR G1.9+0.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Childs, Francesca; Soderberg, Alicia, E-mail: schakraborti@post.harvard.edu [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    SNe Ia, with their remarkably homogeneous light curves and spectra, have been used as standardizable candles to measure the accelerating expansion of the universe. Yet, their progenitors remain elusive. Common explanations invoke a degenerate star (white dwarf) that explodes upon almost reaching the Chandrasekhar limit, by either steadily accreting mass from a companion star or violently merging with another degenerate star. We show that circumstellar interaction in young Galactic supernova remnants can be used to distinguish between these single and double degenerate (DD) progenitor scenarios. Here we propose a new diagnostic, the surface brightness index, which can be computed from theory and compared with Chandra and Very Large Array (VLA) observations. We use this method to demonstrate that a DD progenitor can explain the decades-long flux rise and size increase of the youngest known galactic supernova remnant (SNR), G1.9+0.3. We disfavor a single degenerate scenario for SNR G1.9+0.3. We attribute the observed properties to the interaction between a steep ejecta profile and a constant density environment. We suggest using the upgraded VLA, ASKAP, and MeerKAT to detect circumstellar interaction in the remnants of historical SNe Ia in the Local Group of galaxies. This may settle the long-standing debate over their progenitors.

  14. Smooth and non-smooth travelling waves in a nonlinearly dispersive Boussinesq equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jianwei; Xu Wei; Lei Youming

    2005-01-01

    The dynamical behavior and special exact solutions of nonlinear dispersive Boussinesq equation (B(m,n) equation), u tt -u xx -a(u n ) xx +b(u m ) xxxx =0, is studied by using bifurcation theory of dynamical system. As a result, all possible phase portraits in the parametric space for the travelling wave system, solitary wave, kink and anti-kink wave solutions and uncountably infinite many smooth and non-smooth periodic wave solutions are obtained. It can be shown that the existence of singular straight line in the travelling wave system is the reason why smooth waves converge to cusp waves, finally. When parameter are varied, under different parametric conditions, various sufficient conditions guarantee the existence of the above solutions are given

  15. Human IgG1 Responses to Surface Localised Schistosoma mansoni Ly6 Family Members Drop following Praziquantel Treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain W Chalmers

    Full Text Available The heptalaminate-covered, syncytial tegument is an important anatomical adaptation that enables schistosome parasites to maintain long-term, intravascular residence in definitive hosts. Investigation of the proteins present in this surface layer and the immune responses elicited by them during infection is crucial to our understanding of host/parasite interactions. Recent studies have revealed a number of novel tegumental surface proteins including three (SmCD59a, SmCD59b and Sm29 containing uPAR/Ly6 domains (renamed SmLy6A SmLy6B and SmLy6D in this study. While vaccination with SmLy6A (SmCD59a and SmLy6D (Sm29 induces protective immunity in experimental models, human immunoglobulin responses to representative SmLy6 family members have yet to be thoroughly explored.Using a PSI-BLAST-based search, we present a comprehensive reanalysis of the Schistosoma mansoni Ly6 family (SmLy6A-K. Our examination extends the number of members to eleven (including three novel proteins and provides strong evidence that the previously identified vaccine candidate Sm29 (renamed SmLy6D is a unique double uPAR/Ly6 domain-containing representative. Presence of canonical cysteine residues, signal peptides and GPI-anchor sites strongly suggest that all SmLy6 proteins are cell surface-bound. To provide evidence that SmLy6 members are immunogenic in human populations, we report IgG1 (as well as IgG4 and IgE responses against two surface-bound representatives (SmLy6A and SmLy6B within a cohort of S. mansoni-infected Ugandan males before and after praziquantel treatment. While pre-treatment IgG1 prevalence for SmLy6A and SmLy6B differs amongst the studied population (7.4% and 25.3% of the cohort, respectively, these values are both higher than IgG1 prevalence (2.7% for a sub-surface tegumental antigen, SmTAL1. Further, post-treatment IgG1 levels against surface-associated SmLy6A and SmLy6B significantly drop (p = 0.020 and p < 0.001, respectively when compared to rising IgG

  16. ASIC PROTEINS REGULATE SMOOTH MUSCLE CELL MIGRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Grifoni, Samira C.; Jernigan, Nikki L.; Hamilton, Gina; Drummond, Heather A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate Acid Sensing Ion Channel (ASIC) protein expression and importance in cellular migration. We recently demonstrated Epithelial Na+ Channel (ENaC) proteins are required for vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration, however the role of the closely related ASIC proteins has not been addressed. We used RT-PCR and immunolabeling to determine expression of ASIC1, ASIC2, ASIC3 and ASIC4 in A10 cells. We used small interference RNA to silence indi...

  17. A smooth exit from eternal inflation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, S. W.; Hertog, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    The usual theory of inflation breaks down in eternal inflation. We derive a dual description of eternal inflation in terms of a deformed Euclidean CFT located at the threshold of eternal inflation. The partition function gives the amplitude of different geometries of the threshold surface in the no-boundary state. Its local and global behavior in dual toy models shows that the amplitude is low for surfaces which are not nearly conformal to the round three-sphere and essentially zero for surfaces with negative curvature. Based on this we conjecture that the exit from eternal inflation does not produce an infinite fractal-like multiverse, but is finite and reasonably smooth.

  18. On spaces of functions of smoothness zero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besov, Oleg V

    2012-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the new spaces B-bar p,q 0 of functions of smoothness zero defined on the n-dimensional Euclidean space R n or on a subdomain G of R n . These spaces are compared with the spaces B p,q 0 (R n ) and bmo(R n ). The embedding theorems for Sobolev spaces are refined in terms of the space B-bar p,q 0 with the limiting exponent. Bibliography: 8 titles.

  19. Smooth Nanowire/Polymer Composite Transparent Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Gaynor, Whitney; Burkhard, George F.; McGehee, Michael D.; Peumans, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Smooth composite transparent electrodes are fabricated via lamination of silver nanowires into the polymer poly-(4,3-ethylene dioxythiophene): poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The surface roughness is dramatically reduced compared to bare nanowires. High-efficiency P3HT:PCBM organic photovoltaic cells can be fabricated using these composites, reproducing the performance of cells on indium tin oxide (ITO) on glass and improving the performance of cells on ITO on plastic. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Workshop on advances in smooth particle hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingate, C.A.; Miller, W.A.

    1993-12-31

    This proceedings contains viewgraphs presented at the 1993 workshop held at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Discussed topics include: negative stress, reactive flow calculations, interface problems, boundaries and interfaces, energy conservation in viscous flows, linked penetration calculations, stability and consistency of the SPH method, instabilities, wall heating and conservative smoothing, tensors, tidal disruption of stars, breaking the 10,000,000 particle limit, modelling relativistic collapse, SPH without H, relativistic KSPH avoidance of velocity based kernels, tidal compression and disruption of stars near a supermassive rotation black hole, and finally relativistic SPH viscosity and energy.

  1. Smooth Nanowire/Polymer Composite Transparent Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Gaynor, Whitney

    2011-04-29

    Smooth composite transparent electrodes are fabricated via lamination of silver nanowires into the polymer poly-(4,3-ethylene dioxythiophene): poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The surface roughness is dramatically reduced compared to bare nanowires. High-efficiency P3HT:PCBM organic photovoltaic cells can be fabricated using these composites, reproducing the performance of cells on indium tin oxide (ITO) on glass and improving the performance of cells on ITO on plastic. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. 部件串联的Geometric/G/1可修排队系统费用模型%Parts Series' Geometric/G/1 Repairable Queueing System Cost Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石天林

    2008-01-01

    研究一个部件串联的离散时间Geometric/G/1可修排队系统的费用优化策略.考虑服务台的服务率是可控制的,顾客的到达时间和服务时间均服从几何分布,给出系统的费用参数模型,并结合数值计算实例分析了系统的各参数对系统的最优平均服务时间和最优费用的影响.

  3. Quantum key distribution with finite resources: Smooth Min entropy vs. Smooth Renyi entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertz, Markus; Abruzzo, Silvestre; Bratzik, Sylvia; Kampermann, Hermann; Bruss, Dagmar [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik III, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    We consider different entropy measures that play an important role in the analysis of the security of QKD with finite resources. The smooth min entropy leads to an optimal bound for the length of a secure key. Another bound on the secure key length was derived by using Renyi entropies. Unfortunately, it is very hard or even impossible to calculate these entropies for realistic QKD scenarios. To estimate the security rate it becomes important to find computable bounds on these entropies. Here, we compare a lower bound for the smooth min entropy with a bound using Renyi entropies. We compare these entropies for the six-state protocol with symmetric attacks.

  4. Variation of the material laplacian of G1 with the radius of the uranium bar; Variation du laplacien matiere de G1 avec le rayon du barreau d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanguy, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    In this report are described and interpreted some experiments, carried out in the pile G1 during a period of shut-down, which have made it possible to measure the variation of the material Laplacian of the lattice with the radius of the uranium bar. The variation of the reactivity of the pile is measured when an increasing number of fuel elements are progressively replaced in the central region by fuel elements of greater diameter; it is shown that, starting from measurements based on less than ten per cent of the total number of elements, the variation of reactivity corresponding to the replacement of all the elements can be determined; it is then easy to deduce the variations of the Laplacian. Results: the variations of the Laplacian with the uranium rod diameter are 0 (d. 26 mm), +0.065 {+-} 0.004 m{sup -2} (d. 28 mm) and +0.080 {+-} 0.008 m{sup -2} (d. 32 mm). (author) [French] Dans ce rapport sont decrites et interpretees des experiences realisees sur la pile G1 'froide', experiences qui ont permis de mesurer la variation du Laplacien matiere du reseau avec le rayon du barreau d'uranium. On mesure la variation de reactivite de la pile lorsqu'on remplace progressivement dans la region centrale un nombre croissant de cartouches par des cartouches de plus gros diametre; on montre qu'a partir de mesures portant sur moins de dix pour cent du nombre total de cartouches, on peut determiner la variation de reactivite qui correspondrait au remplacement de toutes les cartouches; il est facile d'en deduire les variations du Laplacien. Resultats: les variations du Laplacien en fonction du diametre du barreau d'uranium sont: 0 (d. 26 mm), +0.065 {+-} 0.004 m{sup -2} (d. 28 mm) and +0.080 {+-} 0.008 m{sup -2} (d. 32 mm). (auteur)

  5. A three-level support method for smooth switching of the micro-grid operation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yuanyang; Gong, Dongliang; Zhang, Jianzhou; Liu, Bin; Wang, Yun

    2018-01-01

    Smooth switching of micro-grid between the grid-connected operation mode and off-grid operation mode is one of the key technologies to ensure it runs flexible and efficiently. The basic control strategy and the switching principle of micro-grid are analyzed in this paper. The reasons for the fluctuations of the voltage and the frequency in the switching process are analyzed from views of power balance and control strategy, and the operation mode switching strategy has been improved targeted. From the three aspects of controller’s current inner loop reference signal, voltage outer loop control strategy optimization and micro-grid energy balance management, a three-level security strategy for smooth switching of micro-grid operation mode is proposed. From the three aspects of controller’s current inner loop reference signal tracking, voltage outer loop control strategy optimization and micro-grid energy balance management, a three-level strategy for smooth switching of micro-grid operation mode is proposed. At last, it is proved by simulation that the proposed control strategy can make the switching process smooth and stable, the fluctuation problem of the voltage and frequency has been effectively improved.

  6. Arterial wall mechanics as a function of heart rate: role of vascular smooth muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvucci, Fernando Pablo; Schiavone, Jonathan; Craiem, Damian; Barra, Juan Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    Vascular wall viscoelasticity can be evaluated using a first-order lumped model. This model consists of a spring with elastic constant E and a dashpot with viscous constant η. More importantly, this viscoelastic model can be fitted in-vivo measuring arterial pressure and diameter. The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of heart rate over E and η. In two anesthetized sheep, diameter in thoracic aorta and intravascular pressure has been registered. The right atrium was connected to a programmable stimulator through a pair of pace-maker wires to produce changes in stimulation heart rate (HR) from 80 to 160 bpm. Additionally, local activation of vascular smooth muscle was induced with phenylephrine. After converting pressure and diameter signals into stress and strain respectively, E y η were calculated in control state and during muscle activation. The elastic modulus E did not present significant changes with heart rate. The viscous modulus η decreased 49% with a two-fold acceleration in heart rate from 80 to 160 bpm. However, the product η HR remained stable. The viscous modulus η increased 39% with smooth muscle activation. No significant pressure changes were registered during the experiment. The contractile action of vascular smooth muscle could contribute to increasing arterial wall viscosity. The decrease of η when HR increased might be related to smooth muscle relaxation mediated by endothelium activity, which was stimulated by flow increase. We conclude that HR can modulate arterial wall viscoelasticity through endothelium-dependent mechanisms

  7. Isotropic Growth of Graphene toward Smoothing Stitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Mengqi; Tan, Lifang; Wang, Lingxiang; Mendes, Rafael G; Qin, Zhihui; Huang, Yaxin; Zhang, Tao; Fang, Liwen; Zhang, Yanfeng; Yue, Shuanglin; Rümmeli, Mark H; Peng, Lianmao; Liu, Zhongfan; Chen, Shengli; Fu, Lei

    2016-07-26

    The quality of graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition still has very great disparity with its theoretical property due to the inevitable formation of grain boundaries. The design of single-crystal substrate with an anisotropic twofold symmetry for the unidirectional alignment of graphene seeds would be a promising way for eliminating the grain boundaries at the wafer scale. However, such a delicate process will be easily terminated by the obstruction of defects or impurities. Here we investigated the isotropic growth behavior of graphene single crystals via melting the growth substrate to obtain an amorphous isotropic surface, which will not offer any specific grain orientation induction or preponderant growth rate toward a certain direction in the graphene growth process. The as-obtained graphene grains are isotropically round with mixed edges that exhibit high activity. The orientation of adjacent grains can be easily self-adjusted to smoothly match each other over a liquid catalyst with facile atom delocalization due to the low rotation steric hindrance of the isotropic grains, thus achieving the smoothing stitching of the adjacent graphene. Therefore, the adverse effects of grain boundaries will be eliminated and the excellent transport performance of graphene will be more guaranteed. What is more, such an isotropic growth mode can be extended to other types of layered nanomaterials such as hexagonal boron nitride and transition metal chalcogenides for obtaining large-size intrinsic film with low defect.

  8. Smooth Tubercle Bacilli: Neglected Opportunistic Tropical Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djaltou eAboubaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Smooth tubercle bacilli (STB including ‘‘Mycobacterium canettii’’ are members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC which cause non-contagious tuberculosis in human. This group comprises less than one hundred isolates characterized by smooth colonies and cordless organisms. Most STB isolates have been obtained from patients exposed to the Republic of Djibouti but seven isolates, including the three seminal ones obtained by Georges Canetti between 1968 and 1970, were recovered from patients in France, Madagascar, Sub-Sahara East Africa and French Polynesia. STB form a genetically heterogeneous group of MTBC organisms with large 4.48 ± 0.05 Mb genomes which may link Mycobacterium kansasii to MTBC organisms. Lack of inter-human transmission suggested a yet unknown environmental reservoir. Clinical data indicate a respiratory tract route of contamination and the digestive tract as an alternative route of contamination. Further epidemiological and clinical studies are warranted to elucidate areas of uncertainty regarding these unusual mycobacteria and the tuberculosis they cause.

  9. Snap evaporation of droplets on smooth topographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Gary G; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Élfego; Le Lirzin, Youen; Nourry, Anthony; Orme, Bethany V; Pradas, Marc; Ledesma-Aguilar, Rodrigo

    2018-04-11

    Droplet evaporation on solid surfaces is important in many applications including printing, micro-patterning and cooling. While seemingly simple, the configuration of evaporating droplets on solids is difficult to predict and control. This is because evaporation typically proceeds as a "stick-slip" sequence-a combination of pinning and de-pinning events dominated by static friction or "pinning", caused by microscopic surface roughness. Here we show how smooth, pinning-free, solid surfaces of non-planar topography promote a different process called snap evaporation. During snap evaporation a droplet follows a reproducible sequence of configurations, consisting of a quasi-static phase-change controlled by mass diffusion interrupted by out-of-equilibrium snaps. Snaps are triggered by bifurcations of the equilibrium droplet shape mediated by the underlying non-planar solid. Because the evolution of droplets during snap evaporation is controlled by a smooth topography, and not by surface roughness, our ideas can inspire programmable surfaces that manage liquids in heat- and mass-transfer applications.

  10. Relative stabilities of IgG1 and IgG4 Fab domains: Influence of the light–heavy interchain disulfide bond architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heads, James T; Adams, Ralph; D'Hooghe, Lena E; Page, Matt J T; Humphreys, David P; Popplewell, Andrew G; Lawson, Alastair D; Henry, Alistair J

    2012-01-01

    The stability of therapeutic antibodies is a prime pharmaceutical concern. In this work we examined thermal stability differences between human IgG1 and IgG4 Fab domains containing the same variable regions using the thermofluor assay. It was found that the IgG1 Fab domain is up to 11°C more stable than the IgG4 Fab domain containing the same variable region. We investigated the cause of this difference with the aim of developing a molecule with the enhanced stability of the IgG1 Fab and the biological properties of an IgG4 Fc. We found that replacing the seven residues, which differ between IgG1 CH1 and IgG4 CH1 domains, while retaining the native IgG1 light-heavy interchain disulfide (L–H) bond, did not affect thermal stability. Introducing the IgG1 type L–H interchain disulfide bond (DSB) into the IgG4 Fab resulted in an increase in thermal stability to levels observed in the IgG1 Fab with the same variable region. Conversely, replacement of the IgG1 L–H interchain DSB with the IgG4 type L–H interchain DSB reduced the thermal stability. We utilized the increased stability of the IgG1 Fab and designed a hybrid antibody with an IgG1 CH1 linked to an IgG4 Fc via an IgG1 hinge. This construct has the expected biophysical properties of both the IgG4 Fc and IgG1 Fab domains and may therefore be a pharmaceutically relevant format. PMID:22761163

  11. Minimum cost connection networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    In the present paper we consider the allocation of cost in connection networks. Agents have connection demands in form of pairs of locations they want to be connected. Connections between locations are costly to build. The problem is to allocate costs of networks satisfying all connection demands...

  12. CyclinG1 Amplification Enhances Aurora Kinase Inhibitor-Induced Polyploid Resistance and Inhibition of Bcl-2 Pathway Reverses the Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: CyclinG1 (CycG1 is frequently overexpressed in solid tumors and overexpression of CycG1 promotes cell survival upon paclitaxel exposure by inducing polyploidy. Whether and how CycG1 regulates polyploidization caused by small molecular targeted inhibitors remains unclear. Methods: Immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting were utilized to examine protein expression. Cell proliferation was measured by ATPlite assay, and cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were measured by flow cytometry and/or DNA fragmentation assays. Results: Overexpression of CycG1 in breast cancer cells caused apoptosis-resistant polyploidy upon treatment with Aurora kinase inhibitor, ZM447439 (ZM. Addition of ABT-263, a small-molecule BH3 mimetic, to ZM, produced a synergistic loss of cell viability with greater sustained tumor growth inhibition in breast cancer cell lines. Decrease of Mcl-1 and increase of NOXA caused by ZM treatment, were responsible for the synergy. Furthermore, CycG1 was highly expressed in Triple-Negative-Breast-Cancer patients treated with paclitaxel and was paralleled by decreased cell survival. Conclusion: CycG1 is a crucial factor in ZM-induced polyploidy resistance, and ABT-263/ZM combination hold therapeutic utility in the CycG1-amplified subset of breast cancer and CycG1, thus, is a promising target in breast cancer.

  13. On the Two-Moment Approximation of the Discrete-Time GI/G/1 Queue with a Single Vacation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doo Ho Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a discrete-time GI/G/1 queue in which the server takes exactly one vacation each time the system becomes empty. The interarrival times of arriving customers, the service times, and the vacation times are all generic discrete random variables. Under our study, we derive an exact transform-free expression for the stationary system size distribution through the modified supplementary variable technique. Utilizing obtained results, we introduce a simple two-moment approximation for the system size distribution. From this, approximations for the mean system size along with the system size distribution could be obtained. Finally, some numerical examples are given to validate the proposed approximation method.

  14. A short G1 phase imposes constitutive replication stress and fork remodelling in mouse embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahuja, Akshay K.; Jodkowska, Karolina; Teloni, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) represent a transient biological state, where pluripotency is coupled with fast proliferation. ESCs display a constitutively active DNA damage response (DDR), but its molecular determinants have remained elusive. Here we show in cultured ESCs and mouse embryos that H2AX...... these marks of replication stress do not impair the mitotic process and are rapidly lost at differentiation onset. Delaying the G1/S transition in ESCs allows formation of 53BP1 nuclear bodies and suppresses ssDNA accumulation, fork slowing and reversal in the following S-phase. Genetic inactivation of fork...... slowing and reversal leads to chromosomal breakage in unperturbed ESCs. We propose that rapid cell cycle progression makes ESCs dependent on effective replication-coupled mechanisms to protect genome integrity....

  15. Detailed mineralogical characterization of the Bullfrog and Tram members USW-G1, with emphasis on clay mineralogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bish, D.L.

    1981-10-01

    The detailed mineralogy of the Bullfrog and Tram Members of the Crater Flat Tuff from drill hole USW-G1 has been examined, primarily to characterize fully the amounts and types of clay minerals in the tuffs and the possible effects clay minerals have on rock properties. Results of bulk sample x-ray diffraction analyses agree closely with previous determinations, although slightly higher clay mineral contents were found in this study. X-ray diffraction analysis of fine fractions revealed that the clay minerals in the tuffs are sodium-saturated montmorillonite-beidellites with typical layer charges and no high-charge layers. These smectites are found in virtually all samples of the Bullfrog and Tram, and there is no correlation between the amounts of smectites and the amounts of zeolite, quartz, and feldspar. Smectites are present in both welded and nonwelded horizons and are scarce in some zones with slight-to-absent welding

  16. Analysis of an M|G|1|R queue with batch arrivals and two hysteretic overload control policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaidamaka Yuliya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hysteretic control of arrivals is one of the most easy-to-implement and effective solutions of overload problems occurring in SIP-servers. A mathematical model of an SIP server based on the queueing system M[X]|G|1(L,H|(H,R with batch arrivals and two hysteretic loops is being analyzed. This paper proposes two analytical methods for studying performance characteristics related to the number of customers in the system. Two control policies defined by instants when it is decided to change the system’s mode are considered. The expression for an important performance characteristic of each policy (the mean time between changes in the system mode is presented. Numerical examples that allow comparison of the efficiency of both policies are given

  17. Phylogenetic relationships among Brazilian howler monkeys, genus Alouatta (Platyrrhini, Atelidae, based on g1-globin pseudogene sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maria Meireles

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Alouatta (howler monkeys is the most widely distributed of New World primates, and has been arranged in three species groups: the Central American Alouatta palliata group and the South American Alouatta seniculus and Alouatta caraya groups. While the latter is monotypic, the A. seniculus group encompasses at least three species (A. seniculus, A. belzebul and A. fusca. In the present study, approximately 600 base pairs of the g1-globin pseudogene were sequenced in the four Brazilian species (A. seniculus, A. belzebul, A. fusca and A. caraya. Maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods yielded phylogenetic trees with the same arrangement: {A. caraya [A. seniculus (A. fusca, A. belzebul]}. The most parsimonious tree had bootstrap values greater than 82% for all groupings, and strength of grouping values of at least 2, supporting the sister clade of A. fusca and A. belzebul. The study also confirmed the presence of a 150-base pair Alu insertion element and a 1.8-kb deletion in the g1-globin pseudogene in A. fusca, features found previously in the remaining three species. The cladistic classification based on molecular data agrees with those of morphological studies, with the monospecific A. caraya group being clearly differentiated from the A. seniculus group.Os guaribas, do gênero Alouatta, que são os primatas do Novo Mundo com maior distribuição geográfica, têm sido colocados em três grupos de espécies: o grupo Alouatta palliata da América central, e os grupos sulamericanos Alouatta seniculus e Alouatta caraya. Este último é monotípico, mas o grupo A. seniculus inclui pelo menos três espécies (A. seniculus, A. belzebul e A. fusca. Neste estudo, foram seqüenciados aproximadamente 600 pares de base do pseudogene globina g1 nas quatro espécies brasileiras (A. seniculus, A. belzebul, A. fusca e A. caraya. Os métodos de máxima parcimônia e máxima verossimilhança produziram árvores filogenéticas com o mesmo arranjo

  18. Age of G-1 PLUS v5 embryo culture medium is inversely associated with birthweight of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleijkers, Sander H M; van Montfoort, Aafke P A; Smits, Luc J M; Coonen, Edith; Derhaag, Josien G; Evers, Johannes L H; Dumoulin, John C M

    2015-06-01

    Does age of G-1 PLUS v5 embryo culture medium affect IVF outcome? Birthweight of singletons born after IVF showed an inverse association with age of the embryo culture medium, while no association was found between age of culture medium and fertilization rate, embryonic development or ongoing pregnancy. It has been reported that IVF culture media can deteriorate during storage, which suggests that the capacity of culture media to support optimal embryo development decreases over time. Some animal studies showed an effect of storage time on embryo development, in contrast to other studies, while the effect of aging culture medium on IVF outcome in humans is unknown. We used data on outcome of 1832 IVF/ICSI cycles with fresh embryo transfer, performed in the period 2008-2012 to evaluate the association of fertilization rate, embryonic development, ongoing pregnancy and birthweight of singletons with age of the culture medium (Vitrolife AB G-1 PLUS v5). Age of the culture medium was calculated by subtracting the production date from the date of ovum retrieval. Data analysis included linear regression and logistic regression on continuous and categorical outcomes, respectively. Age of the culture medium was not associated with fertilization rate (P = 0.543), early cleavage rate (P = 0.155), percentage of embryos containing four or more cells on Day 2 (P = 0.401), percentage of embryos containing eight or more cells on Day 3 (P = 0.175), percentage of embryos with multinucleated blastomeres (P = 0.527), or ongoing pregnancy (P = 0.729). However, birthweight of the newborn was inversely associated with age of the medium (β = -3.6 g, SE: 1.5 g, P = 0.021), after controlling for possible confounders (day of embryo transfer, number of transferred embryos, child's gender, gestational age at birth, parity, pregnancy complications, maternal smoking, height and weight, and paternal height and weight) and the association was not biased by year of treatment, time since first

  19. Smoothness without smoothing: why Gaussian naive Bayes is not naive for multi-subject searchlight studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev D S Raizada

    Full Text Available Spatial smoothness is helpful when averaging fMRI signals across multiple subjects, as it allows different subjects' corresponding brain areas to be pooled together even if they are slightly misaligned. However, smoothing is usually not applied when performing multivoxel pattern-based analyses (MVPA, as it runs the risk of blurring away the information that fine-grained spatial patterns contain. It would therefore be desirable, if possible, to carry out pattern-based analyses which take unsmoothed data as their input but which produce smooth images as output. We show here that the Gaussian Naive Bayes (GNB classifier does precisely this, when it is used in "searchlight" pattern-based analyses. We explain why this occurs, and illustrate the effect in real fMRI data. Moreover, we show that analyses using GNBs produce results at the multi-subject level which are statistically robust, neurally plausible, and which replicate across two independent data sets. By contrast, SVM classifiers applied to the same data do not generate a replication, even if the SVM-derived searchlight maps have smoothing applied to them. An additional advantage of GNB classifiers for searchlight analyses is that they are orders of magnitude faster to compute than more complex alternatives such as SVMs. Collectively, these results suggest that Gaussian Naive Bayes classifiers may be a highly non-naive choice for multi-subject pattern-based fMRI studies.

  20. The measurement of g1n polarized structure of the neutron by the E154 experiment at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incerti, Sebastien

    1998-01-01

    This thesis presents the precision measurement of the neutron polarized structure g 1 n performed by the E154 collaboration at the Standford Linear Accelerator Center, USA, in autumn 1995, using a 48.3 GeV polarized electron beam scattered off a polarized Helium 3 target. The scattered electrons were detected using two spectrometer arms, covering the deep inelastic scattering range: 0.0134 2 2 2 at an average value of Q 2 = 5 GeV 2 . Two electromagnetic calorimeters have been designed by the LPC in Clermont-Ferrand and the SphN-CEA in Saclay to measure the scattered electron energy and to eject the contaminating hadron background using, a cellular automaton and a neural network, widely described in this thesis. The analysis performed in Clermont-Ferrand and presented in this document led us to the integral on the measurement region of g 1 n equaling: - 0.34 ± 0.003 STAT ± 0.004 SYST ± 0.001 EVOL at Q 2 = 5 GeV 2 , where our data have been evolved to Q 2 = 5 GeV 2 using the next-to-leading order DGLAP evolution equations and a world parametrization of the polarized parton distributions. The Ellis and Jaffe sum rule is clearly violated. Using different low x extrapolations, our integral is compatible with the Bjorken sum rule. The quark contribution to the nucleon spin is ΔΣ = 29 ± 6 % in the M S-bar scheme and ΔΣ = 37 ± 7% in the AB scheme, at Q 2 = 5 GeV 2 . The gluon contribution seems to be positive and within the range: 0 < ΔG < 2. (author)

  1. Correlating the Impact of Well-Defined Oligosaccharide Structures on Physical Stability Profiles of IgG1-Fc Glycoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Apurva S; Toprani, Vishal M; Okbazghi, Solomon Z; Kim, Jae H; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Middaugh, C Russell; Tolbert, Thomas J; Volkin, David B

    2016-02-01

    As part of a series of articles in this special issue describing 4 well-defined IgG1-Fc glycoforms as a model system for biosimilarity analysis (high mannose-Fc, Man5-Fc, GlcNAc-Fc and N297Q-Fc aglycosylated), the focus of this work is comparisons of their physical properties. A trend of decreasing apparent solubility (thermodynamic activity) by polyethylene glycol precipitation (pH 4.5, 6.0) and lower conformational stability by differential scanning calorimetry (pH 4.5) was observed with reducing size of the N297-linked oligosaccharide structures. Using multiple high-throughput biophysical techniques, the physical stability of the Fc glycoproteins was then measured in 2 formulations (NaCl and sucrose) across a wide range of temperatures (10°C-90°C) and pH (4.0-7.5) conditions. The data sets were used to construct 3-index empirical phase diagrams and radar charts to visualize the regions of protein structural stability. Each glycoform showed improved stability in the sucrose (vs. salt) formulation. The HM-Fc and Man5-Fc displayed the highest relative stability, followed by GlcNAc-Fc, with N297Q-Fc being the least stable. Thus, the overall physical stability profiles of the 4 IgG1-Fc glycoforms also show a correlation with oligosaccharide structure. These data sets are used to develop a mathematical model for biosimilarity analysis (as described in a companion article by Kim et al. in this issue). Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Arctigenin, a natural lignan compound, induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimaitili, Aisha; Shu, Zunhua; Cheng, Xiaojiang; Kaheerman, Kadeer; Sikandeer, Alifu; Li, Weimin

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the anticancer potential of arctigenin, a natural lignan compound, in malignant gliomas. The U87MG and T98G human glioma cell lines were treated with various concentrations of arctigenin for 48 h and the effects of arctigenin on the aggressive phenotypes of glioma cells were assessed. The results demonstrated that arctigenin dose-dependently inhibited the growth of U87MG and T98G cells, as determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays. Arctigenin exposure also induced a 60-75% reduction in colony formation compared with vehicle-treated control cells. However, arctigenin was not observed to affect the invasiveness of glioma cells. Arctigenin significantly increased the proportion of cells in the G 0 /G 1 phase and reduced the number of cells in the S phase, as compared with the control group (Parctigenin increased the expression levels of p21, retinoblastoma and p53 proteins, and significantly decreased the expression levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 proteins. Additionally, arctigenin was able to induce apoptosis in glioma cells, coupled with increased expression levels of cleaved caspase-3 and the pro-apoptotic BCL2-associated X protein. Furthermore, arctigenin-induced apoptosis was significantly suppressed by the pretreatment of cells with Z-DEVD-FMK, a caspase-3 inhibitor. In conclusion, the results suggest that arctigenin is able to inhibit cell proliferation and may induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G 0 /G 1 phase in glioma cells. These results warrant further investigation of the anticancer effects of arctigenin in animal models of gliomas.

  3. cAMP promotes the synthesis in early G1 of gp115, a yeast glycoprotein containing glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandori, R; Popolo, L; Vai, M; Alberghina, L

    1990-08-25

    The glycoprotein gp115 (Mr = 115,000, pI 4.8-5) is localized in the plasma membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and maximally expressed during G1 phase. To gain insight on the mechanism regulating its synthesis, we have examined various conditions of cell proliferation arrest. We used pulse-labeling experiments with [35S]methionine and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis, which allow the detection of the well characterized 100-kDa precursor of gp115 (p100). In the cAMP-requiring mutant cyr1, p100 synthesis is active during exponential growth, shut off by cAMP removal, and induced when growth is restored by cAMP readdition. The inhibition of p100 synthesis also occurs in TS1 mutant cells (ras1ras2-ts1) shifted from 24 to 37 degrees C. During nitrogen starvation of rca1 cells, a mutant permeable to cAMP, p100 synthesis is also inhibited. cAMP complements the effect of ammonium deprivation, promoting p100 synthesis, even when added to cells which have already entered G0. Experiments with the bcy1 and cyr1bcy1 mutants have indicated the involvement of the cAMP-dependent protein kinases in the control of p100 synthesis. Moreover, the synthesis of p100 was unaffected in A364A cells, terminally arrested at START B by alpha-factor. These results indicate that the switch operating on p100 synthesis is localized in early G1 (START A) and is one of the multiple events controlled by the cAMP pathway.

  4. DISSECTING HABITAT CONNECTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    abstractConnectivity is increasingly recognized as an important element of a successful reserve design. Connectivity matters in reserve design to the extent that it promotes or hinders the viability of target populations. While conceptually straightforward, connectivity i...

  5. Mixed Connective Tissue Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixed connective tissue disease Overview Mixed connective tissue disease has signs and symptoms of a combination of disorders — primarily lupus, scleroderma and polymyositis. For this reason, mixed connective tissue disease ...

  6. Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Conditions Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... by Barbara Goldstein, MD (February 01, 2016) Undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) is a systemic autoimmune disease. This ...

  7. Supervised hub-detection for brain connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Liptrot, Matthew George; Reislev, Nina Linde

    2016-01-01

    , but can smooth discriminative signals in the population, degrading predictive performance. We present a novel hub-detection optimized for supervised learning that both clusters network nodes based on population level variation in connectivity and also takes the learning problem into account. The found......A structural brain network consists of physical connections between brain regions. Brain network analysis aims to find features associated with a parameter of interest through supervised prediction models such as regression. Unsupervised preprocessing steps like clustering are often applied...... hubs are a low-dimensional representation of the network and are chosen based on predictive performance as features for a linear regression. We apply our method to the problem of finding age-related changes in structural connectivity. We compare our supervised hub-detection (SHD) to an unsupervised hub...

  8. Prolonged early G1 arrest by selective CDK4/CDK6 inhibition sensitizes myeloma cells to cytotoxic killing through cell cycle–coupled loss of IRF4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiangao; Di Liberto, Maurizio; Jayabalan, David; Liang, Jun; Ely, Scott; Bretz, Jamieson; Shaffer, Arthur L.; Louie, Tracey; Chen, Isan; Randolph, Sophia; Hahn, William C.; Staudt, Louis M.; Niesvizky, Ruben; Moore, Malcolm A. S.

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and CDK6 by gain of function or loss of inhibition is common in human cancer, including multiple myeloma, but success in targeting CDK with broad-spectrum inhibitors has been modest. By selective and reversible inhibition of CDK4/CDK6, we have developed a strategy to both inhibit proliferation and enhance cytotoxic killing of cancer cells. We show that induction of prolonged early-G1 arrest (pG1) by CDK4/CDK6 inhibition halts gene expression in early-G1 and prevents expression of genes programmed for other cell-cycle phases. Removal of the early-G1 block leads to S-phase synchronization (pG1-S) but fails to completely restore scheduled gene expression. Consequently, the IRF4 protein required to protect myeloma cells from apoptosis is markedly reduced in pG1 and further in pG1-S in response to cytotoxic agents, such as the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. The coordinated loss of IRF4 and gain of Bim sensitize myeloma tumor cells to bortezomib-induced apoptosis in pG1 in the absence of Noxa and more profoundly in pG1-S in cooperation with Noxa in vitro. Induction of pG1 and pG1-S by reversible CDK4/CDK6 inhibition further augments tumor-specific bortezomib killing in myeloma xenografts. Reversible inhibition of CDK4/CDK6 in sequential combination therapy thus represents a novel mechanism-based cancer therapy. PMID:22718837

  9. Prolonged early G(1) arrest by selective CDK4/CDK6 inhibition sensitizes myeloma cells to cytotoxic killing through cell cycle-coupled loss of IRF4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiangao; Di Liberto, Maurizio; Jayabalan, David; Liang, Jun; Ely, Scott; Bretz, Jamieson; Shaffer, Arthur L; Louie, Tracey; Chen, Isan; Randolph, Sophia; Hahn, William C; Staudt, Louis M; Niesvizky, Ruben; Moore, Malcolm A S; Chen-Kiang, Selina

    2012-08-02

    Dysregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and CDK6 by gain of function or loss of inhibition is common in human cancer, including multiple myeloma, but success in targeting CDK with broad-spectrum inhibitors has been modest. By selective and reversible inhibition of CDK4/CDK6, we have developed a strategy to both inhibit proliferation and enhance cytotoxic killing of cancer cells. We show that induction of prolonged early-G(1) arrest (pG1) by CDK4/CDK6 inhibition halts gene expression in early-G(1) and prevents expression of genes programmed for other cell-cycle phases. Removal of the early-G(1) block leads to S-phase synchronization (pG1-S) but fails to completely restore scheduled gene expression. Consequently, the IRF4 protein required to protect myeloma cells from apoptosis is markedly reduced in pG1 and further in pG1-S in response to cytotoxic agents, such as the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. The coordinated loss of IRF4 and gain of Bim sensitize myeloma tumor cells to bortezomib-induced apoptosis in pG1 in the absence of Noxa and more profoundly in pG1-S in cooperation with Noxa in vitro. Induction of pG1 and pG1-S by reversible CDK4/CDK6 inhibition further augments tumor-specific bortezomib killing in myeloma xenografts. Reversible inhibition of CDK4/CDK6 in sequential combination therapy thus represents a novel mechanism-based cancer therapy.

  10. Smooth function approximation using neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Silvia; Stengel, Robert F

    2005-01-01

    An algebraic approach for representing multidimensional nonlinear functions by feedforward neural networks is presented. In this paper, the approach is implemented for the approximation of smooth batch data containing the function's input, output, and possibly, gradient information. The training set is associated to the network adjustable parameters by nonlinear weight equations. The cascade structure of these equations reveals that they can be treated as sets of linear systems. Hence, the training process and the network approximation properties can be investigated via linear algebra. Four algorithms are developed to achieve exact or approximate matching of input-output and/or gradient-based training sets. Their application to the design of forward and feedback neurocontrollers shows that algebraic training is characterized by faster execution speeds and better generalization properties than contemporary optimization techniques.

  11. Smooth driving of Moessbauer electromechanical transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga, A., E-mail: veiga@fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Mayosky, M. A. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Facultad de Ingenieria (Argentina); Martinez, N.; Mendoza Zelis, P.; Pasquevich, G. A.; Sanchez, F. H. [Instituto de Fisica La Plata, CONICET (Argentina)

    2011-11-15

    Quality of Moessbauer spectra is strongly related to the performance of source velocity modulator. Traditional electromechanical driving techniques demand hard-edged square or triangular velocity waveforms that introduce long settling times and demand careful driver tuning. For this work, the behavior of commercial velocity transducers and drive units was studied under different working conditions. Different velocity reference waveforms in constant-acceleration, constant-velocity and programmable-velocity techniques were tested. Significant improvement in spectrometer efficiency and accuracy was achieved by replacing triangular and square hard edges with continuous smooth-shaped transitions. A criterion for best waveform selection and synchronization is presented and attainable enhancements are evaluated. In order to fully exploit this driving technique, a compact microprocessor-based architecture is proposed and a suitable data acquisition system implementation is presented. System linearity and efficiency characterization are also shown.

  12. Smooth muscle cell phenotypic switching in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poittevin, Marine; Lozeron, Pierre; Hilal, Rose; Levy, Bernard I; Merkulova-Rainon, Tatiana; Kubis, Nathalie

    2014-06-01

    Disruption of cerebral blood flow after stroke induces cerebral tissue injury through multiple mechanisms that are not yet fully understood. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in blood vessel walls play a key role in cerebral blood flow control. Cerebral ischemia triggers these cells to switch to a phenotype that will be either detrimental or beneficial to brain repair. Moreover, SMC can be primarily affected genetically or by toxic metabolic molecules. After stroke, this pathological phenotype has an impact on the incidence, pattern, severity, and outcome of the cerebral ischemic disease. Although little research has been conducted on the pathological role and molecular mechanisms of SMC in cerebrovascular ischemic diseases, some therapeutic targets have already been identified and could be considered for further pharmacological development. We examine these different aspects in this review.

  13. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Coupled with Radiation Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susa, Hajime

    2006-04-01

    We have constructed a brand-new radiation hydrodynamics solver based upon Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, which works on a parallel computer system. The code is designed to investigate the formation and evolution of first-generation objects at z ≳ 10, where the radiative feedback from various sources plays important roles. The code can compute the fraction of chemical species e, H+, H, H-, H2, and H+2 by by fully implicit time integration. It also can deal with multiple sources of ionizing radiation, as well as radiation at Lyman-Werner band. We compare the results for a few test calculations with the results of one-dimensional simulations, in which we find good agreements with each other. We also evaluate the speedup by parallelization, which is found to be almost ideal, as long as the number of sources is comparable to the number of processors.

  14. Viscoplastic augmentation of the smooth cap model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwer, Leonard E.

    1994-01-01

    The most common numerical viscoplastic implementations are formulations attributed to Perzyna. Although Perzyna-type algorithms are popular, they have several disadvantages relating to the lack of enforcement of the consistency condition in plasticity. The present work adapts a relatively unknown viscoplastic formulation attributed to Duvaut and Lions and generalized to multi-surface plasticity by Simo et al. The attraction of the Duvaut-Lions formulation is its ease of numerical implementation in existing elastoplastic algorithms. The present work provides a motivation for the Duvaut-Lions viscoplastic formulation, derivation of the algorithm and comparison with the Perzyna algorithm. A simple uniaxial strain numerical simulation is used to compare the results of the Duvaut-Lions algorithm, as adapted to the ppercase[dyna3d] smooth cap model with results from a Perzyna algorithm adapted by Katona and Muleret to an implicit code. ((orig.))

  15. Contruction of a smoothed DEA frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello João Carlos Correia Baptista Soares de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the DEA multipliers model does not allow a unique solution for the weights. This is due to the absence of unique derivatives in the extreme-efficient points, which is a consequence of the piecewise linear nature of the frontier. In this paper we propose a method to solve this problem, consisting of changing the original DEA frontier for a new one, smooth (with continuous derivatives at every point and closest to the original frontier. We present the theoretical development for the general case, exemplified with the particular case of the BCC model with one input and one output. The 3-dimensional problem is briefly discussed. Some uses of the model are summarised, and one of them, a new Cross-Evaluation model, is presented.

  16. Biotransformation of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin G1 in peanut meal by anaerobic solid fermentation of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yujie; Kong, Qing; Chi, Chen; Shan, Shihua; Guan, Bin

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to explore the ability of anaerobic solid fermentation of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus to biotransform aflatoxins in peanut meal. The pH of the peanut meal was adjusted above 10, and then heated for 10 min at 100 °C, 115 °C and 121 °C. The S. thermophilus and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus were precultured together in MRS broth for 48 h at 37 °C. The heated peanut meal was mixed with precultured MRS broth containing 7.0×10(8) CFU/mL of S. thermophilus and 3.0×10(3) CFU/mL of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus with the ratio of 1 to 1 (weight to volume) and incubated in anaerobic jars at 37 °C for 3 days. The aflatoxin content in the peanut meal samples was determined by HPLC. The results showed that the peanut meal contained mainly aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) (10.5±0.64 μg/kg) and aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) (18.7±0.55 μg/kg). When heat treatment was combined with anaerobic solid fermentation, the biotransformation rate of aflatoxins in peanut meal could attain 100%. The cytotoxicity of fermented peanut meal to L929 mouse connective tissue fibroblast cells was determined by MTT assay and no significant toxicity was observed in the fermented peanut meal. Furthermore, heat treatment and anaerobic solid fermentation did not change the amino acid concentrations and profile in peanut meal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database (IPCD) is a nationwide data table of passenger transportation terminals, with data on the availability of connections...

  18. Diffusion tensor smoothing through weighted Karcher means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Owen; Chen, Jun; Paul, Debashis; Peng, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) quantifies the spatial distribution of water Diffusion at each voxel on a regular grid of locations in a biological specimen by Diffusion tensors– 3 × 3 positive definite matrices. Removal of noise from DTI is an important problem due to the high scientific relevance of DTI and relatively low signal to noise ratio it provides. Leading approaches to this problem amount to estimation of weighted Karcher means of Diffusion tensors within spatial neighborhoods, under various metrics imposed on the space of tensors. However, it is unclear how the behavior of these estimators varies with the magnitude of DTI sensor noise (the noise resulting from the thermal e!ects of MRI scanning) as well as the geometric structure of the underlying Diffusion tensor neighborhoods. In this paper, we combine theoretical analysis, empirical analysis of simulated DTI data, and empirical analysis of real DTI scans to compare the noise removal performance of three kernel-based DTI smoothers that are based on Euclidean, log-Euclidean, and affine-invariant metrics. The results suggest, contrary to conventional wisdom, that imposing a simplistic Euclidean metric may in fact provide comparable or superior noise removal, especially in relatively unstructured regions and/or in the presence of moderate to high levels of sensor noise. On the contrary, log-Euclidean and affine-invariant metrics may lead to better noise removal in highly structured anatomical regions, especially when the sensor noise is of low magnitude. These findings emphasize the importance of considering the interplay of sensor noise magnitude and tensor field geometric structure when assessing Diffusion tensor smoothing options. They also point to the necessity for continued development of smoothing methods that perform well across a large range of scenarios. PMID:25419264

  19. QRLs for tomato powdery mildew resisance (Oidium lycopersici) in Lycopersicon parviflorum G1.1601 colocalize with two qualitative powdery mildew resistance genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Y.; Huang, C.C.; Hulst, van der R.G.M.; Meijer-Dekens, R.G.; Bonnema, A.B.; Lindhout, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is susceptible to the powdery mildew Oidium lycopersici, but several wild relatives such as Lycopersicon parviflorum G1.1601 are completely resistant. An F-2 population from a cross of Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Moneymaker x Lycopersicon parviflorum G1.1601 was used

  20. Smoothing of Fused Spectral Consistent Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsson, Johannes; Aanæs, Henrik; Benediktsson, Jon Atli

    2006-01-01

    on satellite data. Additionally, most conventional methods are loosely connected to the image forming physics of the satellite image, giving these methods an ad hoc feel. Vesteinsson et al. (2005) proposed a method of fusion of satellite images that is based on the properties of imaging physics...

  1. NBPF1, a tumor suppressor candidate in neuroblastoma, exerts growth inhibitory effects by inducing a G1 cell cycle arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andries, Vanessa; Vandepoele, Karl; Staes, Katrien; Berx, Geert; Bogaert, Pieter; Van Isterdael, Gert; Ginneberge, Daisy; Parthoens, Eef; Vandenbussche, Jonathan; Gevaert, Kris; Roy, Frans van

    2015-01-01

    NBPF1 (Neuroblastoma Breakpoint Family, member 1) was originally identified in a neuroblastoma patient on the basis of its disruption by a chromosomal translocation t(1;17)(p36.2;q11.2). Considering this genetic defect and the frequent genomic alterations of the NBPF1 locus in several cancer types, we hypothesized that NBPF1 is a tumor suppressor. Decreased expression of NBPF1 in neuroblastoma cell lines with loss of 1p36 heterozygosity and the marked decrease of anchorage-independent clonal growth of DLD1 colorectal carcinoma cells with induced NBPF1 expression further suggest that NBPF1 functions as tumor suppressor. However, little is known about the mechanisms involved. Expression of NBPF was analyzed in human skin and human cervix by immunohistochemistry. The effects of NBPF1 on the cell cycle were evaluated by flow cytometry. We investigated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR the expression profile of a panel of genes important in cell cycle regulation. Protein levels of CDKN1A-encoded p21 CIP1/WAF1 were determined by western blotting and the importance of p53 was shown by immunofluorescence and by a loss-of-function approach. LC-MS/MS analysis was used to investigate the proteome of DLD1 colon cancer cells with induced NBPF1 expression. Possible biological interactions between the differentially regulated proteins were investigated with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool. We show that NBPF is expressed in the non-proliferative suprabasal layers of squamous stratified epithelia of human skin and cervix. Forced expression of NBPF1 in HEK293T cells resulted in a G1 cell cycle arrest that was accompanied by upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 CIP1/WAF1 in a p53-dependent manner. Additionally, forced expression of NBPF1 in two p53-mutant neuroblastoma cell lines also resulted in a G1 cell cycle arrest and CDKN1A upregulation. However, CDKN1A upregulation by NBPF1 was not observed in the DLD1 cells, which demonstrates that NBPF1 exerts cell

  2. Triptolide inhibits TGF-β1-induced cell proliferation in rat airway smooth muscle cells by suppressing Smad signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ming; Lv, Zhiqiang; Huang, Linjie [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Institute for Respiratory disease of Sun Yat-sen University, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510120 (China); Zhang, Wei [Department of Geratology, the Second People' s Hospital of Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518000 (China); Lin, Xiaoling; Shi, Jianting; Zhang, Wei; Liang, Ruiyun [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Institute for Respiratory disease of Sun Yat-sen University, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510120 (China); Jiang, Shanping, E-mail: shanpingjiang@126.com [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Institute for Respiratory disease of Sun Yat-sen University, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510120 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Background: We have reported that triptolide can inhibit airway remodeling in a murine model of asthma via TGF-β1/Smad signaling. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of triptolide on airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) proliferation and the possible mechanism. Methods: Rat airway smooth muscle cells were cultured and made synchronized, then pretreated with different concentration of triptolide before stimulated by TGF-β1. Cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay. Flow cytometry was used to study the influence of triptolide on cell cycle and apoptosis. Signal proteins (Smad2, Smad3 and Smad7) were detected by western blotting analysis. Results: Triptolide significantly inhibited TGF-β1-induced ASMC proliferation (P<0.05). The cell cycle was blocked at G1/S-interphase by triptolide dose dependently. No pro-apoptotic effects were detected under the concentration of triptolide we used. Western blotting analysis showed TGF-β1 induced Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation was inhibited by triptolide pretreatment, and the level of Smad7 was increased by triptolide pretreatment. Conclusions: Triptolide may function as an inhibitor of asthma airway remodeling by suppressing ASMCs proliferation via negative regulation of Smad signaling pathway. - Highlights: • In this study, rat airway smooth muscle cells were cultured and made synchronized. • Triptolide inhibited TGF-β1-induced airway smooth muscle cells proliferation. • Triptolide inhibited ASMCs proliferation via negative regulation of Smad signaling pathway.

  3. Bifurcation theory for finitely smooth planar autonomous differential systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Maoan; Sheng, Lijuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we establish bifurcation theory of limit cycles for planar Ck smooth autonomous differential systems, with k ∈ N. The key point is to study the smoothness of bifurcation functions which are basic and important tool on the study of Hopf bifurcation at a fine focus or a center, and of Poincaré bifurcation in a period annulus. We especially study the smoothness of the first order Melnikov function in degenerate Hopf bifurcation at an elementary center. As we know, the smoothness problem was solved for analytic and C∞ differential systems, but it was not tackled for finitely smooth differential systems. Here, we present their optimal regularity of these bifurcation functions and their asymptotic expressions in the finite smooth case.

  4. Impact of spectral smoothing on gamma radiation portal alarm probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, T.; Hamada, M.; Hengartner, N.

    2011-01-01

    Gamma detector counts are included in radiation portal monitors (RPM) to screen for illicit nuclear material. Gamma counts are sometimes smoothed to reduce variance in the estimated underlying true mean count rate, which is the 'signal' in our context. Smoothing reduces total error variance in the estimated signal if the bias that smoothing introduces is more than offset by the variance reduction. An empirical RPM study for vehicle screening applications is presented for unsmoothed and smoothed gamma counts in low-resolution plastic scintillator detectors and in medium-resolution NaI detectors. - Highlights: → We evaluate options for smoothing counts from gamma detectors deployed for portal monitoring. → A new multiplicative bias correction (MBC) is shown to reduce bias in peak and valley regions. → Performance is measured using mean squared error and detection probabilities for sources. → Smoothing with the MBC improves detection probabilities and the mean squared error.

  5. Six-term exact sequences for smooth generalized crossed products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriel, Olivier; Grensing, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We define smooth generalized crossed products and prove six-term exact sequences of Pimsner–Voiculescu type. This sequence may, in particular, be applied to smooth subalgebras of the quantum Heisenberg manifolds in order to compute the generators of their cyclic cohomology. Further, our results...... include the known results for smooth crossed products. Our proof is based on a combination of arguments from the setting of (Cuntz–)Pimsner algebras and the Toeplitz proof of Bott periodicity....

  6. Star Products with Separation of Variables Admitting a Smooth Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabegov, Alexander

    2012-08-01

    Given a complex manifold M with an open dense subset Ω endowed with a pseudo-Kähler form ω which cannot be smoothly extended to a larger open subset, we consider various examples where the corresponding Kähler-Poisson structure and a star product with separation of variables on (Ω, ω) admit smooth extensions to M. We give a simple criterion of the existence of a smooth extension of a star product and apply it to these examples.

  7. Star products with separation of variables admitting a smooth extension

    OpenAIRE

    Karabegov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Given a complex manifold $M$ with an open dense subset $\\Omega$ endowed with a pseudo-Kaehler form $\\omega$ which cannot be smoothly extended to a larger open subset, we consider various examples where the corresponding Kaehler-Poisson structure and a star product with separation of variables on $(\\Omega, \\omega)$ admit smooth extensions to $M$. We suggest a simple criterion of the existence of a smooth extension of a star product and apply it to these examples.

  8. Fast compact algorithms and software for spline smoothing

    CERN Document Server

    Weinert, Howard L

    2012-01-01

    Fast Compact Algorithms and Software for Spline Smoothing investigates algorithmic alternatives for computing cubic smoothing splines when the amount of smoothing is determined automatically by minimizing the generalized cross-validation score. These algorithms are based on Cholesky factorization, QR factorization, or the fast Fourier transform. All algorithms are implemented in MATLAB and are compared based on speed, memory use, and accuracy. An overall best algorithm is identified, which allows very large data sets to be processed quickly on a personal computer.

  9. Direct radiocarbon dates for Vindija G1 and Velika Pećina Late Pleistocene hominid remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred H.; Trinkaus, Erik; Pettitt, Paul B.; Karavanić, Ivor; Paunović, Maja

    1999-01-01

    New accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dates taken directly on human remains from the Late Pleistocene sites of Vindija and Velika Pećina in the Hrvatsko Zagorje of Croatia are presented. Hominid specimens from both sites have played critical roles in the development of current perspectives on modern human evolutionary emergence in Europe. Dates of ≈28 thousand years (ka) before the present (B.P.) and ≈29 ka B.P. for two specimens from Vindija G1 establish them as the most recent dated Neandertals in the Eurasian range of these archaic humans. The human frontal bone from Velika Pećina, generally considered one of the earliest representatives of modern humans in Europe, dated to ≈5 ka B.P., rendering it no longer pertinent to discussions of modern human origins. Apart from invalidating the only radiometrically based example of temporal overlap between late Neandertal and early modern human fossil remains from within any region of Europe, these dates raise the question of when early modern humans first dispersed into Europe and have implications for the nature and geographic patterning of biological and cultural interactions between these populations and the Neandertals. PMID:10535913

  10. A study on M/G/1 retrial G - queue with two phases of service, immediate feedback and working vacations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varalakshmi, M.; Chandrasekaran, V. M.; Saravanarajan, M. C.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we discuss about the steady state behaviour of M/G/1 retrial queueing system with two phases of services and immediate feedbacks under working vacation policy where the regular busy server is affected due to the arrival of negative customers. Upon arrival if the customer finds the server busy, breakdown or on working vacation it enters an orbit; otherwise the customer enters into the service area immediately. After service completion, the customer is allowed to make finite number of immediate feedback. The feedback service also consists of two phases. At the service completion epoch of a positive customer, if the orbit is empty the server goes for a working vacation. The server works at a lower service rate during working vacation (WV) period. Using the supplementary variable technique, we found out the steady state probability generating function for the system and in orbit. System performance measures and reliability measures are discussed. Finally, some numerical examples are presented to validate the analyticalresults.

  11. The G1/S Specific Cyclin D2 Is a Regulator of HIV-1 Restriction in Non-proliferating Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badia, Roger; Pujantell, Maria; Riveira-Muñoz, Eva; Puig, Teresa; Torres-Torronteras, Javier; Martí, Ramón; Clotet, Bonaventura; Ampudia, Rosa M.; Ballana, Ester

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are a heterogeneous cell population strongly influenced by differentiation stimuli that become susceptible to HIV-1 infection after inactivation of the restriction factor SAMHD1 by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK). Here, we have used primary human monocyte-derived macrophages differentiated through different stimuli to evaluate macrophage heterogeneity on cell activation and proliferation and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. Stimulation of monocytes with GM-CSF induces a non-proliferating macrophage population highly restrictive to HIV-1 infection, characterized by the upregulation of the G1/S-specific cyclin D2, known to control early steps of cell cycle progression. Knockdown of cyclin D2, enhances HIV-1 replication in GM-CSF macrophages through inactivation of SAMHD1 restriction factor by phosphorylation. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that cyclin D2 forms a complex with CDK4 and p21, a factor known to restrict HIV-1 replication by affecting the function of the downstream cascade that leads to SAMHD1 deactivation. Thus, we demonstrate that cyclin D2 acts as regulator of cell cycle proteins affecting SAMHD1-mediated HIV-1 restriction in non-proliferating macrophages. PMID:27541004

  12. Ponatinib promotes a G1 cell-cycle arrest of merlin/NF2-deficient human schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrilli, Alejandra M; Garcia, Jeanine; Bott, Marga; Klingeman Plati, Stephani; Dinh, Christine T; Bracho, Olena R; Yan, Denise; Zou, Bing; Mittal, Rahul; Telischi, Fred F; Liu, Xue-Zhong; Chang, Long-Sheng; Welling, D Bradley; Copik, Alicja J; Fernández-Valle, Cristina

    2017-05-09

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a genetic syndrome that predisposes individuals to multiple benign tumors of the central and peripheral nervous systems, including vestibular schwannomas. Currently, there are no FDA approved drug therapies for NF2. Loss of function of merlin encoded by the NF2 tumor suppressor gene leads to activation of multiple mitogenic signaling cascades, including platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and SRC in Schwann cells. The goal of this study was to determine whether ponatinib, an FDA-approved ABL/SRC inhibitor, reduced proliferation and/or survival of merlin-deficient human Schwann cells (HSC). Merlin-deficient HSC had higher levels of phosphorylated PDGFRα/β, and SRC than merlin-expressing HSC. A similar phosphorylation pattern was observed in phospho-protein arrays of human vestibular schwannoma samples compared to normal HSC. Ponatinib reduced merlin-deficient HSC viability in a dose-dependent manner by decreasing phosphorylation of PDGFRα/β, AKT, p70S6K, MEK1/2, ERK1/2 and STAT3. These changes were associated with decreased cyclin D1 and increased p27Kip1levels, leading to a G1 cell-cycle arrest as assessed by Western blotting and flow cytometry. Ponatinib did not modulate ABL, SRC, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), or paxillin phosphorylation levels. These results suggest that ponatinib is a potential therapeutic agent for NF2-associated schwannomas and warrants further in vivo investigation.

  13. Modifying effect of 5-fluoro-2-deoxyuridine and thymidine at G1 phase on radiation and chemically induced chromosome rearrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azatyan, R.A.; Voskanyan, A.Z.; Avakyan, V.A.; Akif'ev, A.P.

    1978-01-01

    The yield of structural chromosome mutations induced in Crepis capillaris seeds by X-rays and nitrogen mustard was studied as a function of treatment (at G 1 phase) with an inhibitor of unscheduled DNA synthesis, 5-fluoro-2-deoxyuridine (FdU), and its antagonist, thymidine. Air-dry seeds were irradiated at 10 krad and immediately placed in aqueous solutions of FdU, thymidine, or FdU + thymidine. Ionizing radiation induced only chromosome exchanges in the seeds. When EdU was used, the number of chromosome exchanges was the same although the fraction of simple and isolocus deletions was significantly greater than additive. The effect of FdU was manifested only after 10-hour incubation of the cells. Thymidine alone did not appreciably alter the frequency of radiation-induced aberrations. At the same time, the FdU + thymidine combination decreased the mutation yield i.e. was protective. Frequencies of the chromosome aberration in this experiment were the same as in the control

  14. The APC/C Coordinates Retinal Differentiation with G1 Arrest through the Nek2-Dependent Modulation of Wingless Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Torcato; Meghini, Francesco; Florio, Francesca; Kimata, Yuu

    2017-01-09

    The cell cycle is coordinated with differentiation during animal development. Here we report a cell-cycle-independent developmental role for a master cell-cycle regulator, the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C), in the regulation of cell fate through modulation of Wingless (Wg) signaling. The APC/C controls both cell-cycle progression and postmitotic processes through ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. Through an RNAi screen in the developing Drosophila eye, we found that partial APC/C inactivation severely inhibits retinal differentiation independently of cell-cycle defects. The differentiation inhibition coincides with hyperactivation of Wg signaling caused by the accumulation of a Wg modulator, Drosophila Nek2 (dNek2). The APC/C degrades dNek2 upon synchronous G1 arrest prior to differentiation, which allows retinal differentiation through local suppression of Wg signaling. We also provide evidence that decapentaplegic signaling may posttranslationally regulate this APC/C function. Thus, the APC/C coordinates cell-fate determination with the cell cycle through the modulation of developmental signaling pathways. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of the Expression of the RNA Binding Protein eIF4G1 and Its Clinicopathological Correlation with Serous Ovarian Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanfang Li

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the most lethal type of malignant tumor in gynecological cancers and is associated with a high percentage of late diagnosis and chemotherapy resistance. Thus, it is urgent to identify a tumor marker or a molecular target that allows early detection and effective treatment. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs are crucial in various cellular processes at the post-transcriptional level. The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 gamma, 1(eIF4G1, an RNA-binding protein, facilitates the recruitment of mRNA to the ribosome, which is a rate-limiting step during the initiation phase of protein synthesis. However, little is known regarding the characteristics of eIF4G1 expression and its clinical significance in ovarian cancer. Therefore, we propose to investigate the expression and clinicopathological significance of eIF4G1 in ovarian cancer patients.We performed Real-time PCR in 40 fresh serous ovarian cancer tissues and 27 normal ovarian surface epithelial cell specimens to assess eIF4G1mRNA expression. Immunohistochemistry (IHC was used to examine the expression of eIF4G1 at the protein level in 134 patients with serous ovarian cancer and 18 normal ovarian tissues. Statistical analysis was conducted to determine the correlation of the eIF4G1 protein levels with the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis in ovarian cancer.The expression of eIF4G1 was upregulated in serous ovarian cancer tissues at both the mRNA (P = 0.0375 and the protein (P = 0.0007 levels. The eIF4G1 expression was significantly correlated with the clinical tumor stage (P = 0.0004 and omentum metastasis (P = 0.024. Moreover, patients with low eIF4G1 protein expression had a longer overall survival time (P = 0.026.These data revealed that eIF4G1 is markedly expressed in serous ovarian cancer and that upregulation of the eIF4G1 protein expression is significantly associated with an advanced tumor stage. Besides, the patients with lower expression of eIF4G1 tend

  16. Loss of lysosomal membrane protein NCU-G1 in mice results in spontaneous liver fibrosis with accumulation of lipofuscin and iron in Kupffer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Y. Kong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Human kidney predominant protein, NCU-G1, is a highly conserved protein with an unknown biological function. Initially described as a nuclear protein, it was later shown to be a bona fide lysosomal integral membrane protein. To gain insight into the physiological function of NCU-G1, mice with no detectable expression of this gene were created using a gene-trap strategy, and Ncu-g1gt/gt mice were successfully characterized. Lysosomal disorders are mainly caused by lack of or malfunctioning of proteins in the endosomal-lysosomal pathway. The clinical symptoms vary, but often include liver dysfunction. Persistent liver damage activates fibrogenesis and, if unremedied, eventually leads to liver fibrosis/cirrhosis and death. We demonstrate that the disruption of Ncu-g1 results in spontaneous liver fibrosis in mice as the predominant phenotype. Evidence for an increased rate of hepatic cell death, oxidative stress and active fibrogenesis were detected in Ncu-g1gt/gt liver. In addition to collagen deposition, microscopic examination of liver sections revealed accumulation of autofluorescent lipofuscin and iron in Ncu-g1gt/gt Kupffer cells. Because only a few transgenic mouse models have been identified with chronic liver injury and spontaneous liver fibrosis development, we propose that the Ncu-g1gt/gt mouse could be a valuable new tool in the development of novel treatments for the attenuation of fibrosis due to chronic liver damage.

  17. Metabolism of methoxychlor by the P450-monooxygenase CYP6G1 involved in insecticide resistance of Drosophila melanogaster after expression in cell cultures of Nicotiana tabacum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joussen, Nicole; Schuphan, Ingolf; Schmidt, Burkhard

    2010-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP6G1 of Drosophila melanogaster was heterologously expressed in a cell suspension culture of Nicotiana tabacum. This in vitro system was used to study the capability of CYP6G1 to metabolize the insecticide methoxychlor (=1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)ethane, 1) against the background of endogenous enzymes of the corresponding non-transgenic culture. The Cyp6g1-transgenic cell culture metabolized 96% of applied methoxychlor (45.8 microg per assay) within 24 h by demethylation and hydroxylation mainly to trishydroxy and catechol methoxychlor (16 and 17%, resp.). About 34% of the metabolism and the distinct formation of trishydroxy and catechol methoxychlor were due to foreign enzyme CYP6G1. Furthermore, methoxychlor metabolism was inhibited by 43% after simultaneous addition of piperonyl butoxide (458 microg), whereas inhibition in the non-transgenic culture amounted to 92%. Additionally, the rate of glycosylation was reduced in both cultures. These results were supported by the inhibition of the metabolism of the insecticide imidacloprid (6; 20 microg, 24 h) in the Cyp6g1-transgenic culture by 82% in the presence of piperonyl butoxide (200 microg). Due to CYP6G1 being responsible for imidacloprid resistance of Drosophila or being involved in DDT resistance, it is likely that CYP6G1 conveys resistance to methoxychlor (1). Furthermore, treating Drosophila with piperonyl butoxide could weaken the observed resistance phenomena.

  18. Disease-associated extracellular loop mutations in the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor G1 (ADGRG1; GPR56) differentially regulate downstream signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Ayush; Hall, Randy A

    2017-06-09

    Mutations to the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor ADGRG1 (G1; also known as GPR56) underlie the neurological disorder bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria. Disease-associated mutations in G1 studied to date are believed to induce complete loss of receptor function through disruption of either receptor trafficking or signaling activity. Given that N-terminal truncation of G1 and other adhesion G protein-coupled receptors has been shown to significantly increase the receptors' constitutive signaling, we examined two different bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria-inducing extracellular loop mutations (R565W and L640R) in the context of both full-length and N-terminally truncated (ΔNT) G1. Interestingly, we found that these mutations reduced surface expression of full-length G1 but not G1-ΔNT in HEK-293 cells. Moreover, the mutations ablated receptor-mediated activation of serum response factor luciferase, a classic measure of Gα 12/13 -mediated signaling, but had no effect on G1-mediated signaling to nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) luciferase. Given these differential signaling results, we sought to further elucidate the pathway by which G1 can activate NFAT luciferase. We found no evidence that ΔNT activation of NFAT is dependent on Gα q/11 -mediated or β-arrestin-mediated signaling but rather involves liberation of Gβγ subunits and activation of calcium channels. These findings reveal that disease-associated mutations to the extracellular loops of G1 differentially alter receptor trafficking, depending on the presence of the N terminus, and differentially alter signaling to distinct downstream pathways. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. The Post-periapsis Evolution of Galactic Center Source G1: The Second Case of a Resolved Tidal Interaction with a Supermassive Black Hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witzel, G.; Sitarski, B. N.; Ghez, A. M.; Morris, M. R.; Hees, A.; Do, T.; Naoz, S.; Boehle, A.; Martinez, G.; Chappell, S.; Meyer, L.; Yelda, S.; Becklin, E. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Lu, J. R. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Schödel, R. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomia S/N, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Matthews, K., E-mail: witzel@astro.ucla.edu [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    We present new adaptive optics (AO) imaging and spectroscopic measurements of Galactic center source G1 from W. M. Keck Observatory. Our goal is to understand its nature and relationship to G2, which is the first example of a spatially resolved object interacting with a supermassive black hole (SMBH). Both objects have been monitored with AO for the past decade (2003–2014) and are comparatively close to the black hole ( a {sub min} ∼ 200–300 au) on very eccentric orbits ( e {sub G1} ∼ 0.99; e {sub G2} ∼ 0.96). While G2 has been tracked before and during periapsis passage ( T {sub 0} ∼ 2014.2), G1 has been followed since soon after emerging from periapsis ( T {sub 0} ∼ 2001.3). Our observations of G1 double the previously reported observational time baseline, which improves its orbital parameter determinations. G1's orbital trajectory appears to be in the same plane as that of G2 but with a significantly different argument of periapsis (Δ ω = 21° ± 4°). This suggests that G1 is an independent object and not part of a gas stream containing G2, as has been proposed. Furthermore, we show for the first time that (1) G1 is extended in the epochs closest to periapsis along the direction of orbital motion, and (2) it becomes significantly smaller over time (450 au in 2004 to less than 170 au in 2009). Based on these observations, G1 appears to be the second example of an object tidally interacting with an SMBH. G1's existence 14 yr after periapsis, along with its compactness in epochs further from the time of periapsis, suggest that this source is stellar in nature.

  20. The Rts1 regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A is required for control of G1 cyclin transcription and nutrient modulation of cell size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Artiles

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The key molecular event that marks entry into the cell cycle is transcription of G1 cyclins, which bind and activate cyclin-dependent kinases. In yeast cells, initiation of G1 cyclin transcription is linked to achievement of a critical cell size, which contributes to cell-size homeostasis. The critical cell size is modulated by nutrients, such that cells growing in poor nutrients are smaller than cells growing in rich nutrients. Nutrient modulation of cell size does not work through known critical regulators of G1 cyclin transcription and is therefore thought to work through a distinct pathway. Here, we report that Rts1, a highly conserved regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A, is required for normal control of G1 cyclin transcription. Loss of Rts1 caused delayed initiation of bud growth and delayed and reduced accumulation of G1 cyclins. Expression of the G1 cyclin CLN2 from an inducible promoter rescued the delayed bud growth in rts1Delta cells, indicating that Rts1 acts at the level of transcription. Moreover, loss of Rts1 caused altered regulation of Swi6, a key component of the SBF transcription factor that controls G1 cyclin transcription. Epistasis analysis revealed that Rts1 does not work solely through several known critical upstream regulators of G1 cyclin transcription. Cells lacking Rts1 failed to undergo nutrient modulation of cell size. Together, these observations demonstrate that Rts1 is a key player in pathways that link nutrient availability, cell size, and G1 cyclin transcription. Since Rts1 is highly conserved, it may function in similar pathways in vertebrates.

  1. Live imaging-based model selection reveals periodic regulation of the stochastic G1/S phase transition in vertebrate axial development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayu Sugiyama

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In multicellular organism development, a stochastic cellular response is observed, even when a population of cells is exposed to the same environmental conditions. Retrieving the spatiotemporal regulatory mode hidden in the heterogeneous cellular behavior is a challenging task. The G1/S transition observed in cell cycle progression is a highly stochastic process. By taking advantage of a fluorescence cell cycle indicator, Fucci technology, we aimed to unveil a hidden regulatory mode of cell cycle progression in developing zebrafish. Fluorescence live imaging of Cecyil, a zebrafish line genetically expressing Fucci, demonstrated that newly formed notochordal cells from the posterior tip of the embryonic mesoderm exhibited the red (G1 fluorescence signal in the developing notochord. Prior to their initial vacuolation, these cells showed a fluorescence color switch from red to green, indicating G1/S transitions. This G1/S transition did not occur in a synchronous manner, but rather exhibited a stochastic process, since a mixed population of red and green cells was always inserted between newly formed red (G1 notochordal cells and vacuolating green cells. We termed this mixed population of notochordal cells, the G1/S transition window. We first performed quantitative analyses of live imaging data and a numerical estimation of the probability of the G1/S transition, which demonstrated the existence of a posteriorly traveling regulatory wave of the G1/S transition window. To obtain a better understanding of this regulatory mode, we constructed a mathematical model and performed a model selection by comparing the results obtained from the models with those from the experimental data. Our analyses demonstrated that the stochastic G1/S transition window in the notochord travels posteriorly in a periodic fashion, with doubled the periodicity of the neighboring paraxial mesoderm segmentation. This approach may have implications for the characterization of

  2. Evolutionary changes in gene expression, coding sequence and copy-number at the Cyp6g1 locus contribute to resistance to multiple insecticides in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W R Harrop

    Full Text Available Widespread use of insecticides has led to insecticide resistance in many populations of insects. In some populations, resistance has evolved to multiple pesticides. In Drosophila melanogaster, resistance to multiple classes of insecticide is due to the overexpression of a single cytochrome P450 gene, Cyp6g1. Overexpression of Cyp6g1 appears to have evolved in parallel in Drosophila simulans, a sibling species of D. melanogaster, where it is also associated with insecticide resistance. However, it is not known whether the ability of the CYP6G1 enzyme to provide resistance to multiple insecticides evolved recently in D. melanogaster or if this function is present in all Drosophila species. Here we show that duplication of the Cyp6g1 gene occurred at least four times during the evolution of different Drosophila species, and the ability of CYP6G1 to confer resistance to multiple insecticides exists in D. melanogaster and D. simulans but not in Drosophila willistoni or Drosophila virilis. In D. virilis, which has multiple copies of Cyp6g1, one copy confers resistance to DDT and another to nitenpyram, suggesting that the divergence of protein sequence between copies subsequent to the duplication affected the activity of the enzyme. All orthologs tested conferred resistance to one or more insecticides, suggesting that CYP6G1 had the capacity to provide resistance to anthropogenic chemicals before they existed. Finally, we show that expression of Cyp6g1 in the Malpighian tubules, which contributes to DDT resistance in D. melanogaster, is specific to the D. melanogaster-D. simulans lineage. Our results suggest that a combination of gene duplication, regulatory changes and protein coding changes has taken place at the Cyp6g1 locus during evolution and this locus may play a role in providing resistance to different environmental toxins in different Drosophila species.

  3. Nuclear fusion-independent smooth muscle differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells induced by a smooth muscle environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Jack, Gregory S; Rao, Nagesh; Zuk, Patricia; Ignarro, Louis J; Wu, Benjamin; Rodríguez, Larissa V

    2012-03-01

    Human adipose-derived stem cells hASC have been isolated and were shown to have multilineage differentiation capacity. Although both plasticity and cell fusion have been suggested as mechanisms for cell differentiation in vivo, the effect of the local in vivo environment on the differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells has not been evaluated. We previously reported the in vitro capacity of smooth muscle differentiation of these cells. In this study, we evaluate the effect of an in vivo smooth muscle environment in the differentiation of hASC. We studied this by two experimental designs: (a) in vivo evaluation of smooth muscle differentiation of hASC injected into a smooth muscle environment and (b) in vitro evaluation of smooth muscle differentiation capacity of hASC exposed to bladder smooth muscle cells. Our results indicate a time-dependent differentiation of hASC into mature smooth muscle cells when these cells are injected into the smooth musculature of the urinary bladder. Similar findings were seen when the cells were cocultured in vitro with primary bladder smooth muscle cells. Chromosomal analysis demonstrated that microenvironment cues rather than nuclear fusion are responsible for this differentiation. We conclude that cell plasticity is present in hASCs, and their differentiation is accomplished in the absence of nuclear fusion. Copyright © 2011 AlphaMed Press.

  4. California serogroup GC (G1) glycoprotein is the principal determinant of pH-dependent cell fusion and entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plassmeyer, Matthew L.; Soldan, Samantha S.; Stachelek, Karen M.; Martin-Garcia, Julio; Gonzalez-Scarano, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    Members of the California serogroup of orthobunyaviruses, particularly La Crosse (LAC) and Tahyna (TAH) viruses, are significant human pathogens in areas where their mosquito vectors are endemic. Previous studies using wild-type LAC and TAH181/57, a highly neurovirulent strain with low neuroinvasiveness (Janssen, R., Gonzalez-Scarano, F., Nathanson, N., 1984. Mechanisms of bunyavirus virulence. Comparative pathogenesis of a virulent strain of La Crosse and an avirulent strain of Tahyna virus. Lab. Invest. 50 (4), 447-455), have demonstrated that the neuroinvasive phenotype maps to the M segment, the segment that encodes the two viral glycoproteins GN (G2) and GC (G1), as well as a non-structural protein NSm. To further define the role of GN and GC in fusion and entry, we prepared a panel of recombinant M segment constructs using LAC, TAH181/57, and V22F, a monoclonal-resistant variant of LAC with deficient fusion function. These M segment constructs were then tested in two surrogate assays for virus entry: a cell-to-cell fusion assay based on T7-luciferase expression, and a pseudotype transduction assay based on the incorporation of the bunyavirus glycoproteins on an MLV backbone. Both assays demonstrated that GC is the principal determinant of virus fusion and cell entry, and furthermore that the region delineated by amino acids 860-1442, corresponding to the membrane proximal two-thirds of GC, is key to these processes. These results, coupled with structural modeling suggesting homologies between the carboxy region of GC and Sindbis virus E1, suggest that the LAC GC functions as a type II fusion protein

  5. Novel mutation in forkhead box G1 (FOXG1) gene in an Indian patient with Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dhanjit Kumar; Jadhav, Vaishali; Ghattargi, Vikas C; Udani, Vrajesh

    2014-03-15

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the progressive loss of intellectual functioning, fine and gross motor skills and communicative abilities, deceleration of head growth, and the development of stereotypic hand movements, occurring after a period of normal development. The classic form of RTT involves mutation in MECP2 while the involvement of CDKL5 and FOXG1 genes has been identified in atypical RTT phenotype. FOXG1 gene encodes for a fork-head box protein G1, a transcription factor acting primarily as transcriptional repressor through DNA binding in the embryonic telencephalon as well as a number of other neurodevelopmental processes. In this report we have described the molecular analysis of FOXG1 gene in Indian patients with Rett syndrome. FOXG1 gene mutation analysis was done in a cohort of 34 MECP2/CDKL5 mutation negative RTT patients. We have identified a novel mutation (p. D263VfsX190) in FOXG1 gene in a patient with congenital variant of Rett syndrome. This mutation resulted into a frameshift, thereby causing an alteration in the reading frames of the entire coding sequence downstream of the mutation. The start position of the frameshift (Asp263) and amino acid towards the carboxyl terminal end of the protein was found to be well conserved across species using multiple sequence alignment. Since the mutation is located at forkhead binding domain, the resultant mutation disrupts the secondary structure of the protein making it non-functional. This is the first report from India showing mutation in FOXG1 gene in Rett syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Selumetinib suppresses cell proliferation, migration and trigger apoptosis, G1 arrest in triple-negative breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Lin, Shuchen; Tseng, Kuo-Fu; Han, Kun; Wang, Yaling; Gan, Zhi-Hua; Min, Da-Liu; Hu, Hai-Yan

    2016-10-21

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has aggressive progression with poor prognosis and ineffective treatments. Selumetinib is an allosteric, ATP-noncompetitive inhibitor of MEK1/2, which has benn known as effective antineoplastic drugs for several malignant tumors. We hypothesized that Selumetinib might be potential drug for TNBC and explore the mechanism. After treated with Selumetinib, the viability and mobility of HCC1937 and MDA-MB-231 were detected by MTT, tunnel, wound-healing assay, transwell assay and FCM methods. MiR array was used to analysis the change of miRs. We predicted and verified CUL1 is the target of miR-302a using Luciferase reporter assay. We also silenced the CUL1 by siRNA, to clarify whether CUL1 take part in the cell proliferation, migration and regulated its substrate TIMP1 and TRAF2. Moreover, after transfection, the antagomir of miR-302a and CUL1 over-expressed plasmid into HCC1937 and MDA-MB-231 cell accompanied with the Selumetinib treatment, we detected the proliferation and migration again. Selumetinib reduce the proliferation, migration, triggered apoptosis and G1 arrest in TNBC cell lines. In this process, the miR-302a was up-regulated and inhibited the CUL1 expression. The later negatively regulated the TIMP1 and TRAF2. As soon as we knockdown miR-302a and over-expression CUL1 in TNBC cells, the cytotoxicity of Selumetinib was reversed. MiR-302a targeted regulated the CUL1 expression and mediated the Selumetinib-induced cytotoxicity of triple-negative breast cancer.

  7. A haploid genetic screen identifies the G1/S regulatory machinery as a determinant of Wee1 inhibitor sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijink, Anne Margriet; Blomen, Vincent A; Bisteau, Xavier; Degener, Fabian; Matsushita, Felipe Yu; Kaldis, Philipp; Foijer, Floris; van Vugt, Marcel A T M

    2015-12-08

    The Wee1 cell cycle checkpoint kinase prevents premature mitotic entry by inhibiting cyclin-dependent kinases. Chemical inhibitors of Wee1 are currently being tested clinically as targeted anticancer drugs. Wee1 inhibition is thought to be preferentially cytotoxic in p53-defective cancer cells. However, TP53 mutant cancers do not respond consistently to Wee1 inhibitor treatment, indicating the existence of genetic determinants of Wee1 inhibitor sensitivity other than TP53 status. To optimally facilitate patient selection for Wee1 inhibition and uncover potential resistance mechanisms, identification of these currently unknown genes is necessary. The aim of this study was therefore to identify gene mutations that determine Wee1 inhibitor sensitivity. We performed a genome-wide unbiased functional genetic screen in TP53 mutant near-haploid KBM-7 cells using gene-trap insertional mutagenesis. Insertion site mapping of cells that survived long-term Wee1 inhibition revealed enrichment of G1/S regulatory genes, including SKP2, CUL1, and CDK2. Stable depletion of SKP2, CUL1, or CDK2 or chemical Cdk2 inhibition rescued the γ-H2AX induction and abrogation of G2 phase as induced by Wee1 inhibition in breast and ovarian cancer cell lines. Remarkably, live cell imaging showed that depletion of SKP2, CUL1, or CDK2 did not rescue the Wee1 inhibition-induced karyokinesis and cytokinesis defects. These data indicate that the activity of the DNA replication machinery, beyond TP53 mutation status, determines Wee1 inhibitor sensitivity, and could serve as a selection criterion for Wee1-inhibitor eligible patients. Conversely, loss of the identified S-phase genes could serve as a mechanism of acquired resistance, which goes along with development of severe genomic instability.

  8. ASIC proteins regulate smooth muscle cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoni, Samira C; Jernigan, Nikki L; Hamilton, Gina; Drummond, Heather A

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate Acid Sensing Ion Channel (ASIC) protein expression and importance in cellular migration. We recently demonstrated that Epithelial Na(+)Channel (ENaC) proteins are required for vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration; however, the role of the closely related ASIC proteins has not been addressed. We used RT-PCR and immunolabeling to determine expression of ASIC1, ASIC2, ASIC3 and ASIC4 in A10 cells. We used small interference RNA to silence individual ASIC expression and determine the importance of ASIC proteins in wound healing and chemotaxis (PDGF-bb)-initiated migration. We found ASIC1, ASIC2, and ASIC3, but not ASIC4, expression in A10 cells. ASIC1, ASIC2, and ASIC3 siRNA molecules significantly suppressed expression of their respective proteins compared to non-targeting siRNA (RISC) transfected controls by 63%, 44%, and 55%, respectively. Wound healing was inhibited by 10, 20, and 26% compared to RISC controls following suppression of ASIC1, ASIC2, and ASIC3, respectively. Chemotactic migration was inhibited by 30% and 45%, respectively, following suppression of ASIC1 and ASIC3. ASIC2 suppression produced a small, but significant, increase in chemotactic migration (4%). Our data indicate that ASIC expression is required for normal migration and may suggest a novel role for ASIC proteins in cellular migration.

  9. An implicit Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Charles E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2000-05-01

    An implicit version of the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) code SPHINX has been written and is working. In conjunction with the SPHINX code the new implicit code models fluids and solids under a wide range of conditions. SPH codes are Lagrangian, meshless and use particles to model the fluids and solids. The implicit code makes use of the Krylov iterative techniques for solving large linear-systems and a Newton-Raphson method for non-linear corrections. It uses numerical derivatives to construct the Jacobian matrix. It uses sparse techniques to save on memory storage and to reduce the amount of computation. It is believed that this is the first implicit SPH code to use Newton-Krylov techniques, and is also the first implicit SPH code to model solids. A description of SPH and the techniques used in the implicit code are presented. Then, the results of a number of tests cases are discussed, which include a shock tube problem, a Rayleigh-Taylor problem, a breaking dam problem, and a single jet of gas problem. The results are shown to be in very good agreement with analytic solutions, experimental results, and the explicit SPHINX code. In the case of the single jet of gas case it has been demonstrated that the implicit code can do a problem in much shorter time than the explicit code. The problem was, however, very unphysical, but it does demonstrate the potential of the implicit code. It is a first step toward a useful implicit SPH code.

  10. Fc receptors for mouse IgG1 on human monocytes: polymorphism and role in antibody-induced T cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tax, W J; Hermes, F F; Willems, R W; Capel, P J; Koene, R A

    1984-09-01

    In previous studies, it was shown that there is polymorphism in the mitogenic effect of mouse IgG1 monoclonal antibodies against the T3 antigen of human T cells. This polymorphism implies that IgG1 anti-T3 antibodies are not mitogenic for T cells from 30% of healthy individuals. The present results demonstrate that this polymorphism is caused by polymorphism of an Fc receptor for mouse IgG1, present on human monocytes. The Fc receptor for murine IgG1 could be detected by a newly developed rosetting assay on monocytes from all individuals responsive to the mitogenic effect of IgG1 anti-T3 antibodies. This Fc receptor was not detectable on monocytes from those individuals exhibiting no mitogenic responses to IgG1 anti-T3 monoclonal antibodies. Cross-linking of T3 antigens appears to be essential for antibody-induced mitosis of T cells, because mononuclear cells that did not proliferate in response to WT 31 (an IgG1 antibody against T3 antigen) showed a proliferative response to Sepharose beads coated with WT 31. The Fc receptor--if functionally present--may be involved in the cross-linking of T3 antigens through anti-T3 antibodies. Further evidence for the involvement of this Fc receptor in antibody-induced T cell proliferation was provided by inhibition studies. Immune complexes containing IgG1 antibodies were able to inhibit the proliferative response to IgG1 anti-T3 antibodies. This inhibition by immune complexes appears to be mediated through the monocyte Fc receptor for mouse IgG1. These findings are important for the interpretation of previously described inhibitory effects of anti-T cell monoclonal antibodies on T cell proliferation, and show that such inhibitory effects may be monocyte-mediated (via immune complexes) rather than caused by a direct involvement of the respective T cell antigens in T cell mitosis. The Fc receptor for mouse IgG1 plays a role in antibody-induced T cell proliferation. Its polymorphism may have important implications for the

  11. Numerical conformal mapping methods for exterior and doubly connected regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLillo, T.K. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States); Pfaltzgraff, J.A. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Methods are presented and analyzed for approximating the conformal map from the exterior of the disk to the exterior a smooth, simple closed curve and from an annulus to a bounded, doubly connected region with smooth boundaries. The methods are Newton-like methods for computing the boundary correspondences and conformal moduli similar to Fornberg`s method for the interior of the disk. We show that the linear systems are discretizations of the identity plus a compact operator and, hence, that the conjugate gradient method converges superlinearly.

  12. Minimum cost connection networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we consider the allocation of costs in connection networks. Agents have connection demands in form of pairs of locations they want to have connected. Connections between locations are costly to build. The problem is to allocate costs of networks satisfying all connection...... demands. We use a few axioms to characterize allocation rules that truthfully implement cost minimizing networks satisfying all connection demands in a game where: (1) a central planner announces an allocation rule and a cost estimation rule; (2) every agent reports her own connection demand as well...... as all connection costs; (3) the central planner selects a cost minimizing network satisfying reported connection demands based on the estimated costs; and, (4) the planner allocates the true costs of the selected network. It turns out that an allocation rule satisfies the axioms if and only if relative...

  13. Bandwidth selection in smoothing functions | Kibua | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... inexpensive and, hence, worth adopting. We argue that the bandwidth parameter is determined by two factors: the kernel function and the length of the smoothing region. We give an illustrative example of its application using real data. Keywords: Kernel, Smoothing functions, Bandwidth > East African Journal of Statistics ...

  14. Three-phase electric drive with modified electronic smoothing inductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Yash Veer; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a three-phase electric drive with a modified electronic smoothing inductor (MESI) having reduced size of passive components. The classical electronic smoothing inductor (ESI) is able to control a diode bridge output current and also reduce not only mains current harmonics...

  15. Smooth Maps of a Foliated Manifold in a Symplectic Manifold

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Let be a smooth manifold with a regular foliation F and a 2-form which induces closed forms on the leaves of F in the leaf topology. A smooth map f : ( M , F ) ⟶ ( N , ) in a symplectic manifold ( N , ) is called a foliated symplectic immersion if restricts to an immersion on each leaf of the foliation and further, the ...

  16. Classification of smooth structures on a homotopy complex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We classify, up to diffeomorphism, all closed smooth manifolds homeo- morphic to the complex projective n-space CPn, where n = 3 and 4. Let M2n be a closed smooth 2n-manifold homotopy equivalent to CPn. We show that, up to diffeo- morphism, M6 has a unique differentiable structure and M8 has at most two ...

  17. Classification of smooth structures on a homotopy complex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We classify, up to diffeomorphism, all closed smooth manifolds homeomorphic to the complex projective n -space C P n , where n = 3 and 4. Let M 2 n be a closed smooth 2 n -manifold homotopy equivalent to C P n . We show that, up to diffeomorphism, M 6 has a unique differentiable structure and M 8 has at most two ...

  18. Some asymptotic theory for variance function smoothing | Kibua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simple selection of the smoothing parameter is suggested. Both homoscedastic and heteroscedastic regression models are considered. Keywords: Asymptotic, Smoothing, Kernel, Bandwidth, Bias, Variance, Mean squared error, Homoscedastic, Heteroscedastic. > East African Journal of Statistics Vol. 1 (1) 2005: pp. 9-22 ...

  19. On smoothed analysis of quicksort and Hoare's find

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouz, Mahmoud; Kufleitner, Manfred; Manthey, Bodo; Zeini Jahromi, Nima; Ngo, H.Q.

    2009-01-01

    We provide a smoothed analysis of Hoare’s find algorithm and we revisit the smoothed analysis of quicksort. Hoare’s find algorithm – often called quickselect – is an easy-to-implement algorithm for finding the $k$-th smallest element of a sequence. While the worst-case number of comparisons that

  20. Investigation of angular and axial smoothing of PET data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daube-Witherspoon, M.E.; Carson, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Radial filtering of emission and transmission data is routinely performed in PET during reconstruction in order to reduce image noise. Angular smoothing is not typically done, due to the introduction of a non-uniform resolution loss; axial filtering is also not usually performed on data acquired in 2D mode. The goal of this paper was to assess the effects of angular and axial smoothing on noise and resolution. Angular and axial smoothing was incorporated into the reconstruction process on the Scanditronix PC2048-15B brain PET scanner. In-plane spatial resolution and noise reduction were measured for different amounts of radial and angular smoothing. For radial positions away from the center of the scanner, noise reduction and degraded tangential resolution with no loss of radial resolution were seen. Near the center, no resolution loss was observed, but there was also no reduction in noise for angular filters up to a 7 degrees FWHM. These results can be understood by considering the combined effects of smoothing projections across rows (angles) and then summing (backprojecting). Thus, angular smoothing is not optimal due to its anisotropic noise reduction and resolution degradation properties. However, uniform noise reduction comparable to that seen with radial filtering can be achieved with axial smoothing of transmission data. The axial results suggest that combined radial and axial transmission smoothing could lead to improved noise characteristics with more isotropic resolution degradation

  1. A Note on the Definition of a Smooth Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, Russell; Sadek, Jawad

    2005-01-01

    In many elementary calculus textbooks in use today, the definition of a "smooth curve" is slightly ambiguous from the students' perspective. Even when smoothness is defined carefully, there is a shortage of relevant exercises that would serve to elaborate on related subtle points which many students may find confusing. In this article, the authors…

  2. Smooth surfaces from bilinear patches: Discrete affine minimal surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Käferböck, Florian

    2013-06-01

    Motivated by applications in freeform architecture, we study surfaces which are composed of smoothly joined bilinear patches. These surfaces turn out to be discrete versions of negatively curved affine minimal surfaces and share many properties with their classical smooth counterparts. We present computational design approaches and study special cases which should be interesting for the architectural application. 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Dynamics of wetting on smooth and rough surfaces.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cazabat, A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The rate of spreading of non-volatile liquids on smooth and on rough surfaces was investigated. The radius of the wetted spot was found to agree with recently proposed scaling laws (t 1/10 for capillarity driven andt 1/8 for gravity driven spreading) when the surface was smooth. However, the

  4. Neurophysiology and Neuroanatomy of Smooth Pursuit: Lesion Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Smooth pursuit impairment is recognized clinically by the presence of saccadic tracking of a small object and quantified by reduction in pursuit gain, the ratio of smooth eye movement velocity to the velocity of a foveal target. Correlation of the site of brain lesions, identified by imaging or neuropathological examination, with defective smooth…

  5. Mechanisms of mechanical strain memory in airway smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak Rim; Hai, Chi-Ming

    2005-10-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that mechanical deformation of airway smooth muscle induces structural remodeling of airway smooth muscle cells, thereby modulating mechanical performance in subsequent contractions. This hypothesis implied that past experience of mechanical deformation was retained (or "memorized") as structural changes in airway smooth muscle cells, which modulated the cell's subsequent contractile responses. We termed this phenomenon mechanical strain memory. Preshortening has been found to induce attenuation of both force and isotonic shortening velocity in cholinergic receptor-activated airway smooth muscle. Rapid stretching of cholinergic receptor-activated airway smooth muscle from an initial length to a final length resulted in post-stretch force and myosin light chain phosphorylation that correlated significantly with initial length. Thus post-stretch muscle strips appeared to retain memory of the initial length prior to rapid stretch (mechanical strain memory). Cytoskeletal recruitment of actin- and integrin-binding proteins and Erk 1/2 MAPK appeared to be important mechanisms of mechanical strain memory. Sinusoidal length oscillation led to force attenuation during oscillation and in subsequent contractions in intact airway smooth muscle, and p38 MAPK appeared to be an important mechanism. In contrast, application of local mechanical strain to cultured airway smooth muscle cells induced local actin polymerization and cytoskeletal stiffening. It is conceivable that deep inspiration-induced bronchoprotection may be a manifestation of mechanical strain memory such that mechanical deformation from past breathing cycles modulated the mechanical performance of airway smooth muscle in subsequent cycles in a continuous and dynamic manner.

  6. Complete analysis of MAP/G/1/N queue with single (multiple vacation(s under limited service discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. C. Gupta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a finite-buffer single-server queue with Markovian arrival process (MAP where the server serves a limited number of customers, and when the limit is reached it goes on vacation. Both single- and multiple-vacation policies are analyzed and the queue length distributions at various epochs, such as pre-arrival, arbitrary, departure, have been obtained. The effect of certain model parameters on some important performance measures, like probability of loss, mean queue lengths, mean waiting time, is discussed. The model can be applied in computer communication and networking, for example, performance analysis of token passing ring of LAN and SVC (switched virtual connection of ATM.

  7. G0/G1 Switch Gene 2 controls adipose triglyceride lipase activity and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Laurens

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Recent data suggest that adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL plays a key role in providing energy substrate from triglyceride pools and that alterations of its expression/activity relate to metabolic disturbances in skeletal muscle. Yet little is known about its regulation. We here investigated the role of the protein G0/G1 Switch Gene 2 (G0S2, recently described as an inhibitor of ATGL in white adipose tissue, in the regulation of lipolysis and oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle. Methods: We first examined G0S2 protein expression in relation to metabolic status and muscle characteristics in humans. We next overexpressed and knocked down G0S2 in human primary myotubes to assess its impact on ATGL activity, lipid turnover and oxidative metabolism, and further knocked down G0S2 in vivo in mouse skeletal muscle. Results: G0S2 protein is increased in skeletal muscle of endurance-trained individuals and correlates with markers of oxidative capacity and lipid content. Recombinant G0S2 protein inhibits ATGL activity by about 40% in lysates of mouse and human skeletal muscle. G0S2 overexpression augments (+49%, p < 0.05 while G0S2 knockdown strongly reduces (−68%, p < 0.001 triglyceride content in human primary myotubes and mouse skeletal muscle. We further show that G0S2 controls lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation in a strictly ATGL-dependent manner. These metabolic adaptations mediated by G0S2 are paralleled by concomitant changes in glucose metabolism through the modulation of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase 4 (PDK4 expression (5.4 fold, p < 0.001. Importantly, downregulation of G0S2 in vivo in mouse skeletal muscle recapitulates changes in lipid metabolism observed in vitro. Conclusion: Collectively, these data indicate that G0S2 plays a key role in the regulation of skeletal muscle ATGL activity, lipid content and oxidative metabolism. Keywords: Lipid metabolism, Skeletal muscle, Lipolysis, Adipose triglyceride lipase

  8. Oleanolic acid induces mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis and G0/G1 phase arrest in gallbladder cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li HF

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Huai-Feng Li,1–3,* Xu-An Wang,1–3,* Shan-Shan Xiang,1–3,* Yun-Ping Hu,1–3 Lin Jiang,1–3 Yi-Jun Shu,1–3 Mao-Lan Li,1–3 Xiang-Song Wu,1–3 Fei Zhang,1–3 Yuan-Yuan Ye,1–3 Hao Weng,1–3 Run-Fa Bao,1–3 Yang Cao,1–3 Wei Lu,1–3 Qian Dong,1–3 Ying-Bin Liu1–3 1Department of General Surgery, 2Laboratory of General Surgery, 3Institute of Biliary Tract Disease, Xinhua Hospital, Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Oleanolic acid (OA, a naturally occurring triterpenoid, exhibits potential antitumor activity in many tumor cell lines. Gallbladder carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the biliary tract, and is a highly aggressive tumor with an extremely poor prognosis. Unfortunately, the effects of OA on gallbladder carcinoma are unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of OA on gallbladder cancer cells and the underlying mechanism. The results showed that OA inhibits proliferation of gallbladder cancer cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner on MTT and colony formation assay. A flow cytometry assay revealed apoptosis and G0/G1 phase arrest in GBC-SD and NOZ cells. Western blot analysis and a mitochondrial membrane potential assay demonstrated that OA functions through the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Moreover, this drug inhibited tumor growth in nude mice carrying subcutaneous NOZ tumor xenografts. These data suggest that OA inhibits proliferation of gallbladder cancer cells by regulating apoptosis and the cell cycle process. Thus, OA may be a promising drug for adjuvant chemotherapy in gallbladder carcinoma. Keywords: oleanolic acid, gallbladder carcinoma, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, mitochondrial pathway

  9. ON THE DERIVATIVE OF SMOOTH MEANINGFUL FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjo Zlobec

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The derivative of a function f in n variables at a point x* is one of the most important tools in mathematical modelling. If this object exists, it is represented by the row n-tuple f(x* = [∂f/∂xi(x*] called the gradient of f at x*, abbreviated: “the gradient”. The evaluation of f(x* is usually done in two stages, first by calculating the n partials and then their values at x = x*. In this talk we give an alternative approach. We show that one can characterize the gradient without differentiation! The idea is to fix an arbitrary row n-tuple G and answer the following question: What is a necessary and sufficient condition such that G is the gradient of a given f at a given x*? The answer is given after adjusting the quadratic envelope property introduced in [3]. We work with smooth, i.e., continuously differentiable, functions with a Lipschitz derivative on a compact convex set with a non-empty interior. Working with this class of functions is not a serious restriction. In fact, loosely speaking, “almost all” smooth meaningful functions used in modelling of real life situations are expected to have a bounded “acceleration” hence they belong to this class. In particular, the class contains all twice differentiable functions [1]. An important property of the functions from this class is that every f can be represented as the difference of some convex function and a convex quadratic function. This decomposition was used in [3] to characterize the zero derivative points. There we obtained reformulations and augmentations of some well known classic results on optimality such as Fermats extreme value theorem (known from high school and the Lagrange multiplier theorem from calculus [2, 3]. In this talk we extend the results on zero derivative points to characterize the relation G = f(x*, where G is an arbitrary n-tuple. Some special cases: If G = O, we recover the results on zero derivative points. For functions of a single

  10. Genetic diversity and phylogeography of highly zoonotic Echinococcus granulosus genotype G1 in the Americas (Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico) based on 8279bp of mtDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurimäe, Teivi; Kinkar, Liina; Andresiuk, Vanessa; Haag, Karen Luisa; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco; Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Garate, Teresa; Gonzàlez, Luis Miguel; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-11-01

    Echinococcus granulosus is a taeniid cestode and the etiological agent of an infectious zoonotic disease known as cystic echinococcosis (CE) or hydatid disease. CE is a serious public health concern in many parts of the world, including the Americas, where it is highly endemic in many regions. Echinococcus granulosus displays high intraspecific genetic variability and is divided into multiple genotypes (G1-G8, G10) with differences in their biology and etiology. Of these, genotype G1 is responsible for the majority of human and livestock infections and has the broadest host spectrum. However, despite the high significance to the public and livestock health, the data on genetic variability and regional genetic differences of genotype G1 in America are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability and phylogeography of G1 in several countries in America by sequencing a large portion of the mitochondrial genome. We analysed 8279bp of mtDNA for 52 E. granulosus G1 samples from sheep, cattle and pigs collected in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico, covering majority of countries in the Americas where G1 has been reported. The phylogenetic network revealed 29 haplotypes and a high haplotype diversity (Hd=0.903). The absence of phylogeographic segregation between different regions in America suggests the importance of animal transportation in shaping the genetic structure of E. granulosus G1. In addition, our study revealed many highly divergent haplotypes, indicating a long and complex evolutionary history of E. granulosus G1 in the Americas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Adaptively smoothed seismicity earthquake forecasts for Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Y. Kagan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a model for estimation of the probabilities of future earthquakes of magnitudes m ≥ 4.95 in Italy. This model is a modified version of that proposed for California, USA, by Helmstetter et al. [2007] and Werner et al. [2010a], and it approximates seismicity using a spatially heterogeneous, temporally homogeneous Poisson point process. The temporal, spatial and magnitude dimensions are entirely decoupled. Magnitudes are independently and identically distributed according to a tapered Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution. We have estimated the spatial distribution of future seismicity by smoothing the locations of past earthquakes listed in two Italian catalogs: a short instrumental catalog, and a longer instrumental and historic catalog. The bandwidth of the adaptive spatial kernel is estimated by optimizing the predictive power of the kernel estimate of the spatial earthquake density in retrospective forecasts. When available and reliable, we used small earthquakes of m ≥ 2.95 to reveal active fault structures and 29 probable future epicenters. By calibrating the model with these two catalogs of different durations to create two forecasts, we intend to quantify the loss (or gain of predictability incurred when only a short, but recent, data record is available. Both forecasts were scaled to five and ten years, and have been submitted to the Italian prospective forecasting experiment of the global Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP. An earlier forecast from the model was submitted by Helmstetter et al. [2007] to the Regional Earthquake Likelihood Model (RELM experiment in California, and with more than half of the five-year experimental period over, the forecast has performed better than the others.

  12. Nucleotide mismatches between the VP7 gene and the primer are associated with genotyping failure of a specific lineage from G1 rotavirus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinola Emilio E

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years it was reported that the accumulation of point mutations in VP4 and VP7 genes of rotavirus strains was the main cause of the failure of the G or P-typing. Failures in the correct genotyping of G1, G2, G8, G9 and G10 rotavirus strains were reported in the most commonly used reverse transcription (RT-PCR strategies. Collecting VP7 gene sequences of G1 rotavirus strains from databases we found that 74 (61.2 % out of 121 G1 strains from lineage I showed the four specific mismatches at the 5' end of the 9T1-1 primer, previously associated with the failure of G1-typing. Thus, a great percentage of the G1 strains from lineage I worldwide reported could not have been typed if the Das's RT-PCR strategy were used. This analysis shows that the failure on the detection of the G1 strains could be due to the diversification of rotavirus strains in phylogenetic lineages. Therefore, the use of different RT-PCR strategies with different primer binding locations on the VP7 gene or new typing methodologies -like microarrays procedures- could be a better option to avoid the failure of the G-typing of rotavirus strains detected during surveillance programs.

  13. Connected vehicle standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Connected vehicles have the potential to transform the way Americans travel by : allowing cars, buses, trucks, trains, traffic signals, smart phones, and other devices to : communicate through a safe, interoperable wireless network. A connected vehic...

  14. Hitchin's connection, Toeplitz operators, and symmetry invariant deformation quantization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the notion of a rigid family of Kähler structures on a symplectic manifold. We then prove that a Hitchin connection exists for any rigid holomorphic family of Kähler structures on any compact pre-quantizable symplectic manifold which satisfies certain simple topological constraints...... a mapping class group invariant formal quantization of the smooth symplectic leaves of the moduli space of flat SU(n)-connections on any compact surface....... quantization. Finally, these results are applied to the moduli space situation in which Hitchin originally constructed his connection. First we get a proof that the Hitchin connection in this case is the same as the connection constructed by Axelrod, Della Pietra, and Witten. Second we obtain in this way...

  15. Connecting to Everyday Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Smith, Rachel Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    construction and reproduction of cultural heritage creating novel connections between self and others and between past, present and future. We present experiences from a current research project, the Digital Natives exhibition, in which social media was designed as an integral part of the exhibition to connect...... focusing on the connections between audiences practices and the museum exhibition....

  16. Smooth pursuit eye movements and schizophrenia: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, J G; de Pablo, J; Gaviria, A M; Sepúlveda, E; Vilella, E

    2014-09-01

    To review the scientific literature about the relationship between impairment on smooth pursuit eye movements and schizophrenia. Narrative review that includes historical articles, reports about basic and clinical investigation, systematic reviews, and meta-analysis on the topic. Up to 80% of schizophrenic patients have impairment of smooth pursuit eye movements. Despite the diversity of test protocols, 65% of patients and controls are correctly classified by their overall performance during this pursuit. The smooth pursuit eye movements depend on the ability to anticipate the target's velocity and the visual feedback, as well as on learning and attention. The neuroanatomy implicated in smooth pursuit overlaps to some extent with certain frontal cortex zones associated with some clinical and neuropsychological characteristics of the schizophrenia, therefore some specific components of smooth pursuit anomalies could serve as biomarkers of the disease. Due to their sedative effect, antipsychotics have a deleterious effect on smooth pursuit eye movements, thus these movements cannot be used to evaluate the efficacy of the currently available treatments. Standardized evaluation of smooth pursuit eye movements on schizophrenia will allow to use specific aspects of that pursuit as biomarkers for the study of its genetics, psychopathology, or neuropsychology. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficient computation of smoothing splines via adaptive basis sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Ping

    2015-06-24

    © 2015 Biometrika Trust. Smoothing splines provide flexible nonparametric regression estimators. However, the high computational cost of smoothing splines for large datasets has hindered their wide application. In this article, we develop a new method, named adaptive basis sampling, for efficient computation of smoothing splines in super-large samples. Except for the univariate case where the Reinsch algorithm is applicable, a smoothing spline for a regression problem with sample size n can be expressed as a linear combination of n basis functions and its computational complexity is generally O(n3). We achieve a more scalable computation in the multivariate case by evaluating the smoothing spline using a smaller set of basis functions, obtained by an adaptive sampling scheme that uses values of the response variable. Our asymptotic analysis shows that smoothing splines computed via adaptive basis sampling converge to the true function at the same rate as full basis smoothing splines. Using simulation studies and a large-scale deep earth core-mantle boundary imaging study, we show that the proposed method outperforms a sampling method that does not use the values of response variables.

  18. Nodular smooth muscle metaplasia in multiple peritoneal endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Yoon, Gun; Ha, Sang Yun; Song, Sang Yong

    2015-01-01

    We report here an unusual presentation of peritoneal endometriosis with smooth muscle metaplasia as multiple protruding masses on the lateral pelvic wall. Smooth muscle metaplasia is a common finding in rectovaginal endometriosis, whereas in peritoneal endometriosis, smooth muscle metaplasia is uncommon and its nodular presentation on the pelvic wall is even rarer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of nodular smooth muscle metaplasia occurring in peritoneal endometriosis. As observed in this case, when performing laparoscopic surgery in order to excise malignant tumors of intra-abdominal or pelvic organs, it can be difficult for surgeons to distinguish the metastatic tumors from benign nodular pelvic wall lesions, including endometriosis, based on the gross findings only. Therefore, an intraoperative frozen section biopsy of the pelvic wall nodules should be performed to evaluate the peritoneal involvement by malignant tumors. Moreover, this report implies that peritoneal endometriosis, as well as rectovaginal endometriosis, can clinically present as nodular lesions if obvious smooth muscle metaplasia is present. The pathological investigation of smooth muscle cells in peritoneal lesions can contribute not only to the precise diagnosis but also to the structure and function of smooth muscle cells and related cells involved in the histogenesis of peritoneal endometriosis.

  19. Efficient computation of smoothing splines via adaptive basis sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Ping; Huang, Jianhua Z.; Zhang, Nan

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Biometrika Trust. Smoothing splines provide flexible nonparametric regression estimators. However, the high computational cost of smoothing splines for large datasets has hindered their wide application. In this article, we develop a new method, named adaptive basis sampling, for efficient computation of smoothing splines in super-large samples. Except for the univariate case where the Reinsch algorithm is applicable, a smoothing spline for a regression problem with sample size n can be expressed as a linear combination of n basis functions and its computational complexity is generally O(n3). We achieve a more scalable computation in the multivariate case by evaluating the smoothing spline using a smaller set of basis functions, obtained by an adaptive sampling scheme that uses values of the response variable. Our asymptotic analysis shows that smoothing splines computed via adaptive basis sampling converge to the true function at the same rate as full basis smoothing splines. Using simulation studies and a large-scale deep earth core-mantle boundary imaging study, we show that the proposed method outperforms a sampling method that does not use the values of response variables.

  20. The Smoothing Hypothesis, Stock Returns and Risk in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lopo Martinez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Income smoothing is defined as the deliberate normalization of income in order to reach a desired trend. If the smoothing causes more information to be reflected in the stock price, it is likely to improve the allocation of resources and can be a critical factor in investment decisions. This study aims to build metrics to determine the degree of smoothing in Brazilian public companies, to classify them as smoothing and non-smoothing companies and additionally to present evidence on the long-term relationship between the smoothing hypothesis and stock return and risk. Using the Economatica and CVM databases, this study focuses on 145 companies in the period 1998-2007. We find that Brazilian smoothers have a smaller degree of systemic risk than non-smoothers. In average terms, the beta of smoothers is significantly lower than non-smoothers. Regarding return, we find that the abnormal annualized returns of smoothers are significantly higher. We confirm differences in the groups by nonparametric and parametric tests in cross section or as time series, indicating that there is a statistically significant difference in performance in the Brazilian market between firms that do and do not engage in smoothing.

  1. Modeling the dispersion effects of contractile fibers in smooth muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtada, Sae-Il; Kroon, Martin; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.

    2010-12-01

    Micro-structurally based models for smooth muscle contraction are crucial for a better understanding of pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis, incontinence and asthma. It is meaningful that models consider the underlying mechanical structure and the biochemical activation. Hence, a simple mechanochemical model is proposed that includes the dispersion of the orientation of smooth muscle myofilaments and that is capable to capture available experimental data on smooth muscle contraction. This allows a refined study of the effects of myofilament dispersion on the smooth muscle contraction. A classical biochemical model is used to describe the cross-bridge interactions with the thin filament in smooth muscles in which calcium-dependent myosin phosphorylation is the only regulatory mechanism. A novel mechanical model considers the dispersion of the contractile fiber orientations in smooth muscle cells by means of a strain-energy function in terms of one dispersion parameter. All model parameters have a biophysical meaning and may be estimated through comparisons with experimental data. The contraction of the middle layer of a carotid artery is studied numerically. Using a tube the relationships between the internal pressure and the stretches are investigated as functions of the dispersion parameter, which implies a strong influence of the orientation of smooth muscle myofilaments on the contraction response. It is straightforward to implement this model in a finite element code to better analyze more complex boundary-value problems.

  2. Syntheses and modulations in the chromatin contents of histones H1/sup o/ and H1 during G1 and S phases in Chinese hamsters cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Anna, J.A.; Gurley, L.R.; Tobey, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Flow cytometry, conventional autoradiography, and autoradiography employing high concentrations of high specific activity [ 3 H]thymidine indicate that (1) treatment of Chinese hamster ovary (line CHO) cells with butyrate truly blocks cells in G 1 and (2) cells blocked in G 1 by isoleucine deprivation remain blocked in G 1 when they are released into complete medium containing butyrate. Measurements of H1/sup o/ content relative to core histones and H1/sup o/:H1 ratios indicate that H1/sup o/ is enhanced somewhat in G 1 cells arrested by isoleucine deprivation; however, (1) treatment with butyrate greatly increases the H1/sup o/ content in G 1 -blocked cells, and (2) the enhancement is very sensitive to butyrate concentration. Measurements of relative histone contents in the isolated chromatin of synchronized cultures also suggest that the acid-soluble content of histone H1 (relative to core histones) becomes greatly depleted in the isolated chromatin when synchronized cells are blocked in early S phase by sequential use of isoleucine deprivation and hydroxyurea blockade. We also have measured [ 3 H]lysine incorporation, various protein ratios, and relative rates of deposition of newly synthesized H1/sup o/, H1, and H4 onto chromatin during G 1 and S in the absence of butyrate. The results suggest a dynamic picture of chromatin organization in which (1) newly synthesized histone H1/sup o/ binds to chromatin during traverse of G 1 and S phases and (2) histone H1 dissociates from (or becomes loosely bound to) chromatin during prolonged early S-phase block with hydroxyurea

  3. Smooth solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhozhaev, S I

    2014-01-01

    We consider smooth solutions of the Cauchy problem for the Navier-Stokes equations on the scale of smooth functions which are periodic with respect to x∈R 3 . We obtain existence theorems for global (with respect to t>0) and local solutions of the Cauchy problem. The statements of these depend on the smoothness and the norm of the initial vector function. Upper bounds for the behaviour of solutions in both classes, which depend on t, are also obtained. Bibliography: 10 titles

  4. EXCHANGE-RATES FORECASTING: EXPONENTIAL SMOOTHING TECHNIQUES AND ARIMA MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezsi Eva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Exchange rates forecasting is, and has been a challenging task in finance. Statistical and econometrical models are widely used in analysis and forecasting of foreign exchange rates. This paper investigates the behavior of daily exchange rates of the Romanian Leu against the Euro, United States Dollar, British Pound, Japanese Yen, Chinese Renminbi and the Russian Ruble. Smoothing techniques are generated and compared with each other. These models include the Simple Exponential Smoothing technique, as the Double Exponential Smoothing technique, the Simple Holt-Winters, the Additive Holt-Winters, namely the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model.

  5. Electrochemically replicated smooth aluminum foils for anodic alumina nanochannel arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biring, Sajal; Tsai, K-T; Sur, Ujjal Kumar; Wang, Y-L

    2008-01-01

    A fast electrochemical replication technique has been developed to fabricate large-scale ultra-smooth aluminum foils by exploiting readily available large-scale smooth silicon wafers as the masters. Since the adhesion of aluminum on silicon depends on the time of surface pretreatment in water, it is possible to either detach the replicated aluminum from the silicon master without damaging the replicated aluminum and master or integrate the aluminum film to the silicon substrate. Replicated ultra-smooth aluminum foils are used for the growth of both self-organized and lithographically guided long-range ordered arrays of anodic alumina nanochannels without any polishing pretreatment

  6. Additional Smooth and Rough Water Trials of SKI-CAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    REPORT & PERIOD COVERED ADDITIONAL SMOOTH AND ROUGH WATER TRIALS OF FINAL SKI- CAT S. PERFORMING ORO. REPORT NUMSER 7. AUTHOR() I. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMUr...Identif by bloc membe) ’ " -Further tests of SKI- CAT were made in smooth and rough water. Smooth water results confirmed the performance results of...reductions in the accelerations and motions of SKI- CAT over against the head seasreut DD , +A ,3 1473 EDITION OF I NOVS IS OBSOLETE UNCIbSJFIED SIME 0102-014

  7. Smooth invariant densities for random switching on the torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtin, Yuri; Hurth, Tobias; Lawley, Sean D.; Mattingly, Jonathan C.

    2018-04-01

    We consider a random dynamical system obtained by switching between the flows generated by two smooth vector fields on the 2d-torus, with the random switchings happening according to a Poisson process. Assuming that the driving vector fields are transversal to each other at all points of the torus and that each of them allows for a smooth invariant density and no periodic orbits, we prove that the switched system also has a smooth invariant density, for every switching rate. Our approach is based on an integration by parts formula inspired by techniques from Malliavin calculus.

  8. Adaptive Smoothed Finite Elements (ASFEM) for history dependent material models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quak, W.; Boogaard, A. H. van den

    2011-01-01

    A successful simulation of a bulk forming process with finite elements can be difficult due to distortion of the finite elements. Nodal smoothed Finite Elements (NSFEM) are an interesting option for such a process since they show good distortion insensitivity and moreover have locking-free behavior and good computational efficiency. In this paper a method is proposed which takes advantage of the nodally smoothed field. This method, named adaptive smoothed finite elements (ASFEM), revises the mesh for every step of a simulation without mapping the history dependent material parameters. In this paper an updated-Lagrangian implementation is presented. Several examples are given to illustrate the method and to show its properties.

  9. Smoothing optimization of supporting quadratic surfaces with Zernike polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Lu, Jiandong; Liu, Rui; Ma, Peifu

    2018-03-01

    A new optimization method to get a smooth freeform optical surface from an initial surface generated by the supporting quadratic method (SQM) is proposed. To smooth the initial surface, a 9-vertex system from the neighbor quadratic surface and the Zernike polynomials are employed to establish a linear equation system. A local optimized surface to the 9-vertex system can be build by solving the equations. Finally, a continuous smooth optimization surface is constructed by stitching the above algorithm on the whole initial surface. The spot corresponding to the optimized surface is no longer discrete pixels but a continuous distribution.

  10. Network connectivity value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragicevic, Arnaud; Boulanger, Vincent; Bruciamacchie, Max; Chauchard, Sandrine; Dupouey, Jean-Luc; Stenger, Anne

    2017-04-21

    In order to unveil the value of network connectivity, we formalize the construction of ecological networks in forest environments as an optimal control dynamic graph-theoretic problem. The network is based on a set of bioreserves and patches linked by ecological corridors. The node dynamics, built upon the consensus protocol, form a time evolutive Mahalanobis distance weighted by the opportunity costs of timber production. We consider a case of complete graph, where the ecological network is fully connected, and a case of incomplete graph, where the ecological network is partially connected. The results show that the network equilibrium depends on the size of the reception zone, while the network connectivity depends on the environmental compatibility between the ecological areas. Through shadow prices, we find that securing connectivity in partially connected networks is more expensive than in fully connected networks, but should be undertaken when the opportunity costs are significant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cycling G1 CD34+/CD38+ cells potentiate the motility and engraftment of quiescent G0 CD34+/CD38-/low severe combined immunodeficiency repopulating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Tamara; Kahn, Joy; Kollet, Orit; Petit, Isabelle; Samira, Sarit; Shivtiel, Shoham; Ben-Hur, Herzl; Peled, Amnon; Piacibello, Wanda; Lapidot, Tsvee

    2005-04-01

    The mechanism of human stem cell expansion ex vivo is not fully understood. Furthermore, little is known about the mechanisms of human stem cell homing/repopulation and the role that differentiating progenitor cells may play in these processes. We report that 2- to 3-day in vitro cytokine stimulation of human cord blood CD34(+)-enriched cells induces the production of short-term repopulating, cycling G1 CD34(+)/CD38(+) cells with increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 secretion as well as increased migration capacity to the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and homing to the bone marrow of irradiated nonobese diabetic severe/combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice. These cycling G1 cells enhance SDF-1-mediated in vitro migration and in vivo homing of quiescent G0 CD34(+) cells, which is partially abrogated after inhibition of MMP-2/-9 activity. Moreover, the engraftment potential of quiescent G0 SCID repopulating cells (SRCs) is also increased by the cycling G1 CD34(+)/CD38(+) cells. This effect is significantly abrogated after incubation of cycling G1 cells with a neutralizing anti-CXCR4 antibody. Our data suggest synergistic interactions between accessory cycling G1 CD34(+)/CD38(+) committed progenitor cells and quiescent, primitive G0 CD34(+)/CD38(-/low) SRC/stem cells, the former increasing the motility and engraftment potential of the latter, partly via secretion of MMP-9.

  12. Derivatives of Multivariate Bernstein Operators and Smoothness with Jacobi Weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the modulus of smoothness, directional derivatives of multivariate Bernstein operators with weights are characterized. The obtained results partly generalize the corresponding ones for multivariate Bernstein operators without weights.

  13. Smooth surfaces from bilinear patches: Discrete affine minimal surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Kä ferbö ck, Florian; Pottmann, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by applications in freeform architecture, we study surfaces which are composed of smoothly joined bilinear patches. These surfaces turn out to be discrete versions of negatively curved affine minimal surfaces and share many properties

  14. Ensemble Kalman filtering with one-step-ahead smoothing

    KAUST Repository

    Raboudi, Naila F.; Ait-El-Fquih, Boujemaa; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    error statistics. This limits their representativeness of the background error covariances and, thus, their performance. This work explores the efficiency of the one-step-ahead (OSA) smoothing formulation of the Bayesian filtering problem to enhance

  15. Estimate of K-functionals and modulus of smoothness constructed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    functional and a modulus of smoothness for the Dunkl transform on Rd. Author Affiliations. M El Hamma1 R Daher1. Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences Aïn Chock, University of Hassan II, Casablanca, Morocco. Dates.

  16. Small Smooth Units ('Young' Lavas?) Abutting Lobate Scarps on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malliband, C. C.; Rothery, D. A.; Balme, M. R.; Conway, S. J.

    2018-05-01

    We have identified small units abutting, and so stratigraphy younger than, lobate scarps. This post dates the end of large scale smooth plains formation at the onset of global contraction. This elaborates the history of volcanism on Mercury.

  17. Carrier tracking by smoothing filter improves symbol SNR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomalaza-Raez, Carlos A.; Hurd, William J.

    1986-01-01

    The potential benefit of using a smoothing filter to estimate carrier phase over use of phase locked loops (PLL) is determined. Numerical results are presented for the performance of three possible configurations of the deep space network advanced receiver. These are residual carrier PLL, sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and finally sideband aiding with a Kalman smoother. The average symbol signal to noise ratio (SNR) after losses due to carrier phase estimation error is computed for different total power SNRs, symbol rates and symbol SNRs. It is found that smoothing is most beneficial for low symbol SNRs and low symbol rates. Smoothing gains up to 0.4 dB over a sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and the combined benefit of smoothing and sideband aiding relative to a residual carrier loop is often in excess of 1 dB.

  18. Carrier tracking by smoothing filter can improve symbol SNR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, W. J.; Pomalaza-Raez, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The potential benefit of using a smoothing filter to estimate carrier phase over use of phase locked loops (PLL) is determined. Numerical results are presented for the performance of three possible configurations of the deep space network advanced receiver. These are residual carrier PLL, sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and finally sideband aiding with a Kalman smoother. The average symbol signal to noise ratio (CNR) after losses due to carrier phase estimation error is computed for different total power SNRs, symbol rates and symbol SNRs. It is found that smoothing is most beneficial for low symbol SNRs and low symbol rates. Smoothing gains up to 0.4 dB over a sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and the combined benefit of smoothing and sideband aiding relative to a residual carrier loop is often in excess of 1 dB.

  19. Calcium-sensitivity of smooth muscle contraction in the isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sensitivity of smooth muscle contraction were studied in the isolated perfused rat tail artery, employing the activators noradrenaline (NA) (3ìM) sand potassium chloride (KC1) (100mM). Experiments were conduced in Ca2+ - buffered saline.

  20. Effects of contrast on smooth pursuit eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spering, Miriam; Kerzel, Dirk; Braun, Doris I; Hawken, Michael J; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2005-05-20

    It is well known that moving stimuli can appear to move more slowly when contrast is reduced (P. Thompson, 1982). Here we address the question whether changes in stimulus contrast also affect smooth pursuit eye movements. Subjects were asked to smoothly track a moving Gabor patch. Targets varied in velocity (1, 8, and 15 deg/s), spatial frequency (0.1, 1, 4, and 8 c/deg), and contrast, ranging from just below individual thresholds to maximum contrast. Results show that smooth pursuit eye velocity gain rose significantly with increasing contrast. Below a contrast level of two to three times threshold, pursuit gain, acceleration, latency, and positional accuracy were severely impaired. Therefore, the smooth pursuit motor response shows the same kind of slowing at low contrast that was demonstrated in previous studies on perception.

  1. Aging may negatively impact movement smoothness during stair negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, P C; Stirling, L; Xu, X; Chang, C C; Dennerlein, J T; Schiffman, J M

    2018-05-26

    Stairs represent a barrier to safe locomotion for some older adults, potentially leading to the adoption of a cautious gait strategy that may lack fluidity. This strategy may be characterized as unsmooth; however, stair negotiation smoothness has yet to be quantified. The aims of this study were to assess age- and task-related differences in head and body center of mass (COM) acceleration patterns and smoothness during stair negotiation and to determine if smoothness was associated with the timed "Up and Go" (TUG) test of functional movement. Motion data from nineteen older and twenty young adults performing stair ascent, stair descent, and overground straight walking trials were analyzed and used to compute smoothness based on the log-normalized dimensionless jerk (LDJ) and the velocity spectral arc length (SPARC) metrics. The associations between TUG and smoothness measures were evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficient (r). Stair tasks increased head and body COM acceleration pattern differences across groups, compared to walking (p < 0.05). LDJ smoothness for the head and body COM decreased in older adults during stair descent, compared to young adults (p ≤ 0.015) and worsened with increasing TUG for all tasks (-0.60 ≤ r ≤ -0.43). SPARC smoothness of the head and body COM increased in older adults, regardless of task (p < 0.001), while correlations showed improved SPARC smoothness with increasing TUG for some tasks (0.33 ≤ r ≤ 0.40). The LDJ outperforms SPARC in identifying age-related stair negotiation adaptations and is associated with performance on a clinical test of gait. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Some remarks on smooth renormings of Banach spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Petr Pavel; Russo, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 455, č. 2 (2017), s. 1272-1284 ISSN 0022-247X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-07378S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Fréchet smooth * approximation of norms * Ck-smooth norm Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.064, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022247X17305462?via%3Dihub

  3. Smooth maps of a foliated manifold in a symplectic manifold

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Let M be a smooth manifold with a regular foliation F and a 2-form ω which induces closed forms on the leaves of F in the leaf topology. A smooth map f : (M, F) −→ (N,σ) in a symplectic manifold (N,σ) is called a foliated symplectic immersion if f restricts to an immersion on each leaf of the foliation and further, the.

  4. Emergence of Double- and Triple-Gene Reassortant G1P[8] Rotaviruses Possessing a DS-1-Like Backbone after Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jere, Khuzwayo C; Chaguza, Chrispin; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Lowe, Jenna; Peno, Chikondi; Kumwenda, Benjamin; Nakagomi, Osamu; Tate, Jacqueline E; Parashar, Umesh D; Heyderman, Robert S; French, Neil; Cunliffe, Nigel A; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren

    2018-02-01

    To combat the high burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis, multiple African countries have introduced rotavirus vaccines into their childhood immunization programs. Malawi incorporated a G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix) into its immunization schedule in 2012. Utilizing a surveillance platform of hospitalized rotavirus gastroenteritis cases, we examined the phylodynamics of G1P[8] rotavirus strains that circulated in Malawi before (1998 to 2012) and after (2013 to 2014) vaccine introduction. Analysis of whole genomes obtained through next-generation sequencing revealed that all randomly selected prevaccine G1P[8] strains sequenced ( n = 32) possessed a Wa-like genetic constellation, whereas postvaccine G1P[8] strains ( n = 18) had a DS-1-like constellation. Phylodynamic analyses indicated that postvaccine G1P[8] strains emerged through reassortment events between human Wa- and DS-1-like rotaviruses that circulated in Malawi from the 1990s and hence were classified as atypical DS-1-like reassortants. The time to the most recent common ancestor for G1P[8] strains was from 1981 to 1994; their evolutionary rates ranged from 9.7 × 10 -4 to 4.1 × 10 -3 nucleotide substitutions/site/year. Three distinct G1P[8] lineages chronologically replaced each other between 1998 and 2014. Genetic drift was the likely driver for lineage turnover in 2005, whereas replacement in 2013 was due to reassortment. Amino acid substitution within the outer glycoprotein VP7 of G1P[8] strains had no impact on the structural conformation of the antigenic regions, suggesting that it is unlikely that they would affect recognition by vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies. While the emergence of DS-1-like G1P[8] rotavirus reassortants in Malawi was therefore likely due to natural genotype variation, vaccine effectiveness against such strains needs careful evaluation. IMPORTANCE The error-prone RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the segmented RNA genome predispose rotaviruses to genetic mutation and

  5. The transcription factor Swi4 is target for PKA regulation of cell size at the G1 to S transition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigoni, Loredana; Colombo, Sonia; Belotti, Fiorella; Alberghina, Lilia; Martegani, Enzo

    2015-08-03

    To investigate the specific target of PKA in the regulation of cell cycle progression and cell size we developed a new approach using the yeast strain GG104 bearing a deletion in adenylate cyclase gene and permeable to cAMP ( cyr1Δ, pde2Δ, msn2Δ, msn4Δ). In this strain the PKA activity is absent and can be activated by addition of cAMP in the medium, without any other change of the growth conditions. In the present work we show that the activation of PKA by exogenous cAMP in the GG104 strain exponentially growing in glucose medium caused a marked increase of cell size and perturbation of cell cycle with a transient arrest of cells in G1, followed by an accumulation of cells in G2/M phase with a minimal change in the growth rate. Deletion of CLN1 gene, but not of CLN2, abolished the transient G1 phase arrest. Consistently we found that PKA activation caused a transcriptional repression of CLN1 gene. Transcription of CLN1 is controlled by SBF and MBF dual-regulated promoter. We found that also the deletion of SWI4 gene abolished the transient G1 arrest suggesting that Swi4 is a target responsible for PKA modulation of G1/S phase transition. We generated a SWI4 allele mutated in the consensus site for PKA (Swi4(S159A)) and we found that expression of Swi4(S159A) protein in the GG104-Swi4Δ strain did not restore the transient G1 arrest induced by PKA activation, suggesting that Swi4 phosphorylation by PKA regulates CLN1 gene expression and G1/S phase transition.

  6. Cytokinetically quiescent (G0/G1) human multiple myeloma cells are susceptible to simultaneous inhibition of Chk1 and MEK1/2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Xin-Yan; Dai, Yun; Youssefian, Leena E; Chen, Shuang; Bodie, Wesley W; Takabatake, Yukie; Felthousen, Jessica; Almenara, Jorge A; Kramer, Lora B; Dent, Paul; Grant, Steven

    2011-11-10

    Effects of Chk1 and MEK1/2 inhibition were investigated in cytokinetically quiescent multiple myeloma (MM) and primary CD138(+) cells. Coexposure to the Chk1 and MEK1/2 inhibitors AZD7762 and selumetinib (AZD6244) robustly induced apoptosis in various MM cells and CD138(+) primary samples, but spared normal CD138(-) and CD34(+) cells. Furthermore, Chk1/MEK1/2 inhibitor treatment of asynchronized cells induced G(0)/G(1) arrest and increased apoptosis in all cell-cycle phases, including G(0)/G(1). To determine whether this regimen is active against quiescent G(0)/G(1) MM cells, cells were cultured in low-serum medium to enrich the G(0)/G(1) population. G(0)/G(1)-enriched cells exhibited diminished sensitivity to conventional agents (eg, Taxol and VP-16) but significantly increased susceptibility to Chk1 ± MEK1/2 inhibitors or Chk1 shRNA knock-down. These events were associated with increased γH2A.X expression/foci formation and Bim up-regulation, whereas Bim shRNA knock-down markedly attenuated lethality. Immunofluorescent analysis of G(0)/G(1)-enriched or primary MM cells demonstrated colocalization of activated caspase-3 and the quiescent (G(0)) marker statin, a nuclear envelope protein. Finally, Chk1/MEK1/2 inhibition increased cell death in the Hoechst-positive (Hst(+)), low pyronin Y (PY)-staining (2N Hst(+)/PY(-)) G(0) population and in sorted small side-population (SSP) MM cells. These findings provide evidence that cytokinetically quiescent MM cells are highly susceptible to simultaneous Chk1 and MEK1/2 inhibition.

  7. Vardenafil inhibiting parasympathetic function of tracheal smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fei-Peng; Chao, Pin-Zhir; Wang, Hsing-Won

    2018-07-01

    Levitra, a phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitor, is the trade name of vardenafil. Nowadays, it is applied to treatment of erectile dysfunction. PDE5 inhibitors are employed to induce dilatation of the vascular smooth muscle. The effect of Levitra on impotency is well known; however, its effect on the tracheal smooth muscle has rarely been explored. When administered for sexual symptoms via oral intake or inhalation, Levitra might affect the trachea. This study assessed the effects of Levitra on isolated rat tracheal smooth muscle by examining its effect on resting tension of tracheal smooth muscle, contraction caused by 10 -6  M methacholine as a parasympathetic mimetic, and electrically induced tracheal smooth muscle contractions. The results showed that adding methacholine to the incubation medium caused the trachea to contract in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of Levitra at doses of 10 -5  M or above elicited a significant relaxation response to 10 -6  M methacholine-induced contraction. Levitra could inhibit electrical field stimulation-induced spike contraction. It alone had minimal effect on the basal tension of the trachea as the concentration increased. High concentrations of Levitra could inhibit parasympathetic function of the trachea. Levitra when administered via oral intake might reduce asthma attacks in impotent patients because it might inhibit parasympathetic function and reduce methacholine-induced contraction of the tracheal smooth muscle. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  8. Myosin light chain kinase phosphorylation in tracheal smooth muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stull, J.T.; Hsu, L.C.; Tansey, M.G.; Kamm, K.E.

    1990-01-01

    Purified myosin light chain kinase from smooth muscle is phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and the multifunctional calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Because phosphorylation in a specific site (site A) by any one of these kinases desensitizes myosin light chain kinase to activation by Ca2+/calmodulin, kinase phosphorylation could play an important role in regulating smooth muscle contractility. This possibility was investigated in 32 P-labeled bovine tracheal smooth muscle. Treatment of tissues with carbachol, KCl, isoproterenol, or phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate increased the extent of kinase phosphorylation. Six primary phosphopeptides (A-F) of myosin light chain kinase were identified. Site A was phosphorylated to an appreciable extent only with carbachol or KCl, agents which contract tracheal smooth muscle. The extent of site A phosphorylation correlated to increases in the concentration of Ca2+/calmodulin required for activation. These results show that cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C do not affect smooth muscle contractility by phosphorylating site A in myosin light chain kinase. It is proposed that phosphorylation of myosin light chain kinase in site A in contracting tracheal smooth muscle may play a role in the reported desensitization of contractile elements to activation by Ca2+

  9. Stimulation of aortic smooth muscle cell mitogenesis by serotonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemecek, G.M.; Coughlin, S.R.; Handley, D.A.; Moskowitz, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Bovine aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro responded to 1 nM to 10 μM serotonin with increased incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine into DNA. The mitogenic effect of serotonin was half-maximal at 80 nM and maximal above 1 μM. At a concentration of 1 μM, serotonin stimulated smooth muscle cell mitogenesis to the same extent as human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) at 12 ng/ml. Tryptamine was ≅ 1/10th as potent as serotonin as a mitogen for smooth muscle cells. Other indoles that are structurally related to serotonin (D- and L-tryptophan, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, melatonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and 5-hydroxytryptophol) and quipazine were inactive. The stimulatory effect of serotonin on smooth muscle cell DNA synthesis required prolonged (20-24 hr) exposure to the agonist and was attenuated in the presence of serotonin D receptor antagonists. When smooth muscle cells were incubated with submaximal concentrations of serotonin and PDGF, synergistic rather than additive mitogenic responses were observed. These data indicate that serotonin has a significant mitogenic effect on smooth muscle cells in vitro, which appears to be mediated by specific plasma membrane receptors

  10. Measurement of the Deuteron Spin Structure Function g_1^d(x) for 1 (GeV/c)^2 < Q^2 < 40 (GeV/c)^2

    OpenAIRE

    E155 Collaboration

    1999-01-01

    New measurements are reported on the deuteron spin structure function g_1^d. These results were obtained from deep inelastic scattering of 48.3 GeV electrons on polarized deuterons in the kinematic range 0.01 < x < 0.9 and 1 < Q^2 < 40 (GeV/c)^2. These are the first high dose electron scattering data obtained using lithium deuteride (6Li2H) as the target material. Extrapolations of the data were performed to obtain moments of g_1^d, including Gamma_1^d, and the net quark polarization Delta Si...

  11. Passive Mobile Bandwidth Classification Using Short Lived TCP Connections

    OpenAIRE

    Michelinakis, Foivos; Kreitz, Gunnar; Petrocco, Riccardo; Zhang, Boxun; Widmer, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of multimedia content is moving from a residential environment to mobile phones. Optimizing Quality of Experience—smooth, quick, and high quality playback—is more difficult in this setting, due to the highly dynamic nature of wireless links. A key requirement for achieving this goal is estimating the available bandwidth of mobile devices. Ideally, this should be done quickly and with low overhead. One challenge is that the majority of connections on mobiles are short-lived TCP con...

  12. Handbook of networking & connectivity

    CERN Document Server

    McClain, Gary R

    1994-01-01

    Handbook of Networking & Connectivity focuses on connectivity standards in use, including hardware and software options. The book serves as a guide for solving specific problems that arise in designing and maintaining organizational networks.The selection first tackles open systems interconnection, guide to digital communications, and implementing TCP/IP in an SNA environment. Discussions focus on elimination of the SNA backbone, routing SNA over internets, connectionless versus connection-oriented networks, internet concepts, application program interfaces, basic principles of layering, proto

  13. 78 FR 55684 - ConnectED Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... tools move everything from homework assignments to testing into the cloud. The workshop will explore possible strategies to connect virtually all of our students to next-generation broadband in a timely, cost-effective way. It will also share promising practices, from NTIA's Broadband Technology Opportunities...

  14. The Connected Traveler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Stanley

    2017-04-24

    The Connected Traveler project is a multi-disciplinary undertaking that seeks to validate potential for transformative transportation system energy savings by incentivizing energy efficient travel behavior.

  15. Connections: All Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goals Recycling Green Purchasing Pollution Prevention Reusing Water Resources Environmental Management Plateau, and more... Connections Newsletter December 2016 December 2016 Science-themed gifts available at

  16. Effects of Piecewise Spatial Smoothing in 4-D SPECT Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wenyuan; Yang, Yongyi; King, Michael A.

    2014-02-01

    In nuclear medicine, cardiac gated SPECT images are known to suffer from significantly increased noise owing to limited data counts. Consequently, spatial (and temporal) smoothing has been indispensable for suppressing the noise artifacts in SPECT reconstruction. However, recently we demonstrated that the benefit of spatial processing in motion-compensated reconstruction of gated SPECT (aka 4-D) could be outweighed by its adverse effects on the myocardium, which included degraded wall motion and perfusion defect detectability. In this work, we investigate whether we can alleviate these adverse effects by exploiting an alternative spatial smoothing prior in 4-D based on image total variation (TV). TV based prior is known to induce piecewise smoothing which can preserve edge features (such as boundaries of the heart wall) in reconstruction. However, it is not clear whether such a property would necessarily be beneficial for improving the accuracy of the myocardium in 4-D reconstruction. In particular, it is unknown whether it would adversely affect the detectability of perfusion defects that are small in size or low in contrast. In our evaluation study, we first use Monte Carlo simulated imaging with 4-D NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) phantom wherein the ground truth is known for quantitative comparison. We evaluated the accuracy of the reconstructed myocardium using a number of metrics, including regional and overall accuracy of the myocardium, accuracy of the phase activity curve (PAC) of the LV wall for wall motion, uniformity and spatial resolution of the LV wall, and detectability of perfusion defects using a channelized Hotelling observer (CHO). For lesion detection, we simulated perfusion defects with different sizes and contrast levels with the focus being on perfusion defects that are subtle. As a preliminary demonstration, we also tested on three sets of clinical acquisitions. From the quantitative results, it was demonstrated that TV smoothing could

  17. Introduction to the theory of fiber bundles and connections I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socolvsky, M.

    1990-01-01

    In lectures 1 and 2 we discuss basic concepts of topology and differential geometry: definition of a topological space and of Hausdorff, compact, connected and paracompact spaces; topological groups and actions of groups on spaces; differentiable manifolds, tangent vectors and 1 forms; partitions of unity and Lie groups. In lecture 3 we present the concept of a fiber bundle and discuss vector bundles and principal bundles. The concept of a connection on a smooth vector bundle is defined in lecture 4, together with the associated concepts of curvature and parallel transport; as an illustration we present the Levi-Civita connection on a Riemannian manifold. Finally, in lecture 5 we define connections on principal bundles and present examples with the Lie groups U(1) and SU(2). For reasons of space the present article only includes lectures 1, 2 and 3. Lectures 4 and 5 will be published in a forthcoming paper. (Author)

  18. Repairability during G 1 phase of inducting lesions of sister chromatid exchange produced by mitomycin C in salivary gland cells of mice In Vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Vallejo, V.L.

    1991-01-01

    The repairability of the injuries that lead to the formation of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) produced by mitomycin C (MMC) with a dose of 2.1 mg/g in vivo, during the G 1 phase in the first cycle of cellular division (before the incorporation of BrdU [5-bromo-2 deoxyurine] to the DNA), as well as during the G 1 phase of the second cycle of cellular division (after the incorporation of BrdU) were analyzed. A 35.1% decrease in the frequency of SCE produced by Mitomycin C was observed, in the early G 1 phase of the first division, with respect to the frequency of SCE induced in the later G 1 phase. When Mitomycin C is given to cells whose DNA is substituted with BrdU in only one of the chain's filaments such decrease is not observed. The results suggest that the injuries caused by MMC, which give place to the SCE, in cells of the salivary glands of the mouse in vivo, are partially repaired only when induced in DNA which has not been substituted with BrdU. (Author)

  19. Optimization of chromatographic conditions for determination of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 by using liquid chromatography-mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhaningtyas, Dillani Putri; Aryana, Nurhani; Aristiawan, Yosi; Styarini, Dyah

    2017-11-01

    The optimization of instrument condition and chromatographic separation for analysis of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 using liquid chromatography tandem with mass spectrometer detector was conducted in the aim to provide more accurate and reliable analysis results. The aflatoxin known to be serious threat for human health as it is classified as the carcinogenic compounds. The aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 were selected due to its extensive contamination in various agricultural commodities. The best chromatographic separation was obtained using C-18 column with gradient elution of solvent 5 mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% formic acid in methanol at 7 minutes runtime analysis. The linearity of the detector showed satisfied results as the coefficient determination found to be 0.9994, 0.9996, 0.9998 and 0.9987 for aflatoxin B1, G1, B2, and G2 respectively in the range concentration from 1 to 20 ng/g. The quantifier ion selected for the aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 was m/z 285.1, 259, 243 and 313 respectively. The instrument precision at these quantifier ions also showed satisfied result with %RSD was around 3.4 to 6.8%. The optimized method present in this study can be used for further sample analysis.

  20. Operational behavior of the MAP/G/1 queue under N-policy with a single vacation and set-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Woo Lee

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the MAP/G/1 queue under N-policy with a single vacation and set-up. We derive the vector generating functions of the queue length at an arbitrary time and at departures in decomposed forms. We also derive the Laplace-Stieltjes transform of the waiting time. Computation algorithms for mean performance measures are provided.