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Sample records for future violent eruption

  1. Ozone depletion following future volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Klobas, J.; Wilmouth, David M.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Anderson, James G.; Salawitch, Ross J.

    2017-07-01

    While explosive volcanic eruptions cause ozone loss in the current atmosphere due to an enhancement in the availability of reactive chlorine following the stratospheric injection of sulfur, future eruptions are expected to increase total column ozone as halogen loading approaches preindustrial levels. The timing of this shift in the impact of major volcanic eruptions on the thickness of the ozone layer is poorly known. Modeling four possible climate futures, we show that scenarios with the smallest increase in greenhouse gas concentrations lead to the greatest risk to ozone from heterogeneous chemical processing following future eruptions. We also show that the presence in the stratosphere of bromine from natural, very short-lived biogenic compounds is critically important for determining whether future eruptions will lead to ozone depletion. If volcanic eruptions inject hydrogen halides into the stratosphere, an effect not considered in current ozone assessments, potentially profound reductions in column ozone would result.

  2. Reduced cooling following future volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopcroft, Peter O.; Kandlbauer, Jessy; Valdes, Paul J.; Sparks, R. Stephen J.

    2017-11-01

    Volcanic eruptions are an important influence on decadal to centennial climate variability. Large eruptions lead to the formation of a stratospheric sulphate aerosol layer which can cause short-term global cooling. This response is modulated by feedback processes in the earth system, but the influence from future warming has not been assessed before. Using earth system model simulations we find that the eruption-induced cooling is significantly weaker in the future state. This is predominantly due to an increase in planetary albedo caused by increased tropospheric aerosol loading with a contribution from associated changes in cloud properties. The increased albedo of the troposphere reduces the effective volcanic aerosol radiative forcing. Reduced sea-ice coverage and hence feedbacks also contribute over high-latitudes, and an enhanced winter warming signal emerges in the future eruption ensemble. These findings show that the eruption response is a complex function of the environmental conditions, which has implications for the role of eruptions in climate variability in the future and potentially in the past.

  3. The violent Strombolian eruption of 10 ka Pelado shield volcano, Sierra Chichinautzin, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Merino, A.; Guilbaud, M.-N.; Roberge, J.

    2018-03-01

    Pelado volcano is a typical example of an andesitic Mexican shield with a summital scoria cone. It erupted ca. 10 ka in the central part of an elevated plateau in what is today the southern part of Mexico City. The volcano forms a roughly circular, 10-km wide lava shield with two summital cones, surrounded by up to 2.7-m thick tephra deposits preserved up to a distance of 3 km beyond the shield. New cartographic, stratigraphic, granulometric, and componentry data indicate that Pelado volcano was the product of a single, continuous eruption marked by three stages. In the early stage, a > 1.5-km long fissure opened and was active with mild explosive activity. Intermediate and late stages were mostly effusive and associated with the formation of a 250-m high lava shield. Nevertheless, during these stages, the emission of lava alternated and/or coexisted with highly explosive events that deposited a widespread tephra blanket. In the intermediate stage, multiple vents were active along the fissure, but activity was centered at the main cone during the late stage. The final activity was purely effusive. The volcano emitted > 0.9 km3 dense-rock equivalent (DRE) of tephra and up to 5.6 km3 DRE of lavas. Pelado shares various features with documented "violent Strombolian" eruptions, including a high fragmentation index, large dispersal area, occurrence of plate tephra, high eruptive column, and simultaneous explosive and effusive activity. Our results suggest that the associated hazards (mostly tephra fallout and emplacement of lava) would seriously affect areas located up to 25 km from the vent for fallout and 5 km from the vent for lava, an important issue for large cities built near or on potentially active zones, such as Mexico City.

  4. Predicting violent behavior: The role of violence exposure and future educational aspirations during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Sarah A; Heinze, Justin E; Choe, Daniel Ewon; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2015-10-01

    Few researchers have explored future educational aspirations as a promotive factor against exposure to community violence in relation to adolescents' violent behavior over time. The present study examined the direct and indirect effect of exposure to community violence prior to 9th grade on attitudes about violence and violent behavior in 12th grade, and violent behavior at age 22 via 9th grade future educational aspirations in a sample of urban African American youth (n = 681; 49% male). Multi-group SEM was used to test the moderating effect of gender. Exposure to violence was associated with lower future educational aspirations. For boys, attitudes about violence directly predicted violent behavior at age 22. For boys, future educational aspirations indirectly predicted less violent behavior at age 22. Implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The 1723 A.D. violent strombolian and phreatomagmatic eruption at Volcan Irazu, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, Guillermo E.; Schminke, Hans-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    The deposits exposed at the top of the Volcan Irazu are analyzed and compared with the account of the Spanish governor Don Diego de la Haya, about the Volcan Irazu eruption from February 16 to December 11, 1723. The research has incurred chemical analyzes, obtained by x-ray fluorescence, analysis of pellets, measured by spectrometers, and the use of the Oxiquant analysis program with calibration of standards and international certificates. The eruption has started with the increase of a small magmatic batch of basaltic andesite, which has led to a rapid initial contact and a final eruption due to the contrasting density and temperature of the two magmas. The deposits are interpreted as the strombolian type. The composition of the magma is observed without alteration during the eruption. The eruption is accompanied by tectonic volcano tremors that have facilitated the interaction of magma gas and water. A new eruption projected at this intensity could cause great losses in agriculture, industry, infrastructure and airplanes [es

  6. The Uwekahuna Ash Member of the Puna Basalt: product of violent phreatomagmatic eruptions at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, between 2800 and 2100 14C years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurisin, D.; Lockwood, J.P.; Casadevall, T.J.; Rubin, M.

    1995-01-01

    Kilauea volcano's reputation for relatively gentle effusive eruptions belies a violent geologic past, including several large phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions that are recorded by Holocene pyroclastic deposits which mantle Kilauea's summit area and the southeast flank of adjacent Mauna Loa volcano. The most widespread of these deposits is the Uwekahuna Ash Member, a basaltic surge and fall deposit emplaced during two or more eruptive episodes separated by a few decades to several centuries. It is infered that the eruptions which produced the Uwekahuna were driven by water interacting with a fluctuating magma column. The volume, extent and character of the Uwekahuna deposits underscore the hazards posed by relatively infrequent but potentially devastating explosive eruptions at Kilauea, as well as at other basaltic volcanoes. -from Authors

  7. Violent Explosive Eruptions in the Ararat Valley, Armenia and Associated Volcanic Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliksetian, Khachatur; Savov, Ivan; Connor, Charles; Gevorgyan, Hripsime; Connor, Laura; Navasardyan, Gevorg; Manucharyan, Davit; Jrbashyan, Ruben; Ghukasyan, Yura

    2016-04-01

    The Anatolian-Armenian-Iranian volcanically active orogenic plateau is located in the collision zone between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. The majority of regional geodynamic and petrologic models of collision-related magmatism use the model proposed by Keskin (2003), where volcanism is driven by Neo-Tethyan slab break-off, however an updated model by Neill et al. (2015) and Skolbeltsyn et al.(2014) comprise break-off of two slabs. One of the significant (and understudied) features of the regionally extensive collision zone volcanism is the diversity of eruption styles and also the presence of large number of highly explosive (Plinian) eruptions with VEI≥5 during the Middle-Upper Pleistocene. Geological records of the Ararat depression include several generations of thick low aspect ratio Quaternary ignimbrites erupted from Aragats volcano, as well as up to 3 m thick ash and pumice fall deposit from the Holocene-historically active Ararat volcano. The Ararat tephra fall deposit is studied at 12 newly discovered outcrops covering an area ˜1000 km2. It is noteworthy, that the Ararat tephra deposits are loose and unwelded and observed only in cross-sections in small depressions or in areas where they were rapidly covered by younger, colluvium deposits, presumably of Holocene age. Therefore, the spatial extent of the explosive deposits of Ararat is much bigger but not well preserved due to rapid erosion. Whole rock elemental, isotope (Sr, Nd) and mineral chemistry data demonstrate significant difference in the magma sources of the large Aragats and Ararat stratovolcanoes. Lavas and pyroclastic products of Aragats are high K calc-alkaline, and nearly always deprived from H2O rich phases such as amphibole. In contrasts lavas and pyroclastic products from Ararat are medium K calc-alkaline and volatile-rich (>4.6 wt% H2O and amphibole bearing) magmas. Here we shall attempt to reveal possible geochemical triggers of explosive eruptions in these volcanoes and assess

  8. Thinking about the future as a way to succeed in the present: a longitudinal study of future orientation and violent behaviors among African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Sarah A; Zimmerman, Marc A; Bauermeister, José A

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has linked higher levels of hopelessness about one's future to violent behavior during adolescence; however, little is known about this relationship over time for adolescents. Using growth curve modeling, we tested the association between future orientation and violent behavior across the high school years of adolescence in a sample of African American youth (n = 681). Variation based on demographic characteristics (i.e., sex, SES, previous violence) was explored. At baseline, differences in violent behavior varied by demographic characteristics. Overall, violent behavior decreased with age. Higher levels of future orientation were associated with greater decreases in violent behavior over time. Demographic characteristics were not associated with change in violent behavior overtime. Our findings suggest that future orientation can act as a promotive factor for at risk African American youth. Interventions that help support the development of future goals and aspirations could play a vital role in violence prevention efforts.

  9. Assessing the impact of a future volcanic eruption on decadal predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illing, Sebastian; Kadow, Christopher; Pohlmann, Holger; Timmreck, Claudia

    2018-06-01

    The likelihood of a large volcanic eruption in the future provides the largest uncertainty concerning the evolution of the climate system on the timescale of a few years, but also an excellent opportunity to learn about the behavior of the climate system, and our models thereof. So the following question emerges: how predictable is the response of the climate system to future eruptions? By this we mean to what extent will the volcanic perturbation affect decadal climate predictions and how does the pre-eruption climate state influence the impact of the volcanic signal on the predictions? To address these questions, we performed decadal forecasts with the MiKlip prediction system, which is based on the MPI-ESM, in the low-resolution configuration for the initialization years 2012 and 2014, which differ in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) phase. Each forecast contains an artificial Pinatubo-like eruption starting in June of the first prediction year and consists of 10 ensemble members. For the construction of the aerosol radiative forcing, we used the global aerosol model ECHAM5-HAM in a version adapted for volcanic eruptions. We investigate the response of different climate variables, including near-surface air temperature, precipitation, frost days, and sea ice area fraction. Our results show that the average global cooling response over 4 years of about 0.2 K and the precipitation decrease of about 0.025 mm day-1 is relatively robust throughout the different experiments and seemingly independent of the initialization state. However, on a regional scale, we find substantial differences between the initializations. The cooling effect in the North Atlantic and Europe lasts longer and the Arctic sea ice increase is stronger in the simulations initialized in 2014. In contrast, the forecast initialized in 2012 with a negative PDO shows a prolonged cooling in the North Pacific basin.

  10. Potential impact on water resources from future volcanic eruptions at Long Valley, Mono County, California, U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopson, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    Earthquakes, ground deformation, and increased geothermal activity at Long Valley caldera after mid-1980 suggest the possibility of a volcanic eruption in the near future. An eruption there could have serious consequences for the City of Los Angeles, depending on the magnitude and volume of materials ejected because surface water in Mono Basin plus surface and groundwater in Owens Valley accounts for about 80% of its water supply. Eruptions of moderate to very large magnitude could impede the supply of water from this area for several days, weeks, or even years by discharging small to large volumes of volcanic ash and causing lahars. Soon after an eruption, water quality would likely be affected by the accumulation of organic debris and microorganisms in surface waters

  11. Late Holocene Eruptive History of Popocatepetl Volcano, Mexico: Implications for Future Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, M.

    1995-01-01

    Detailed mapping of the strata around the Popocatepetl Volcano in central Mexico indicates that there have been major eruptions every 1000 to 2000 years. The last two of these destroyed pre- Columbian cities in the area, and a similar level of eruption today might require evacuation of as many as 30 million people.

  12. Mechanism of human tooth eruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Human eruption is a unique developmental process in the organism. The aetiology or the mechanism behind eruption has never been fully understood and the scientific literature in the field is extremely sparse. Human and animal tissues provide different possibilities for eruption analyses, briefly ...... keeps this new theory in mind. Understanding the aetiology of the eruption process is necessary for treating deviant eruption courses....... to insight into the aetiology behind eruption. A new theory on the eruption mechanism is presented. Accordingly, the mechanism of eruption depends on the correlation between space in the eruption course, created by the crown follicle, eruption pressure triggered by innervation in the apical root membrane......, and the ability of the periodontal ligament to adapt to eruptive movements. Animal studies and studies on normal and pathological eruption in humans can support and explain different aspects in the new theory. The eruption mechanism still needs elucidation and the paper recommends that future research on eruption...

  13. Volatile emissions from Cascade cinder cone eruptions: Implications for future hazard assessments in the Central and Southern Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, L. K.; Wallace, P. J.; Cashman, K. V.

    2012-12-01

    the Central Oregon Cascades are (averages from each cone): 700-1190 ppm S; 480-1115 ppm Cl; 120-280 ppm F; and for Northern California: 620-1100 ppm S; 305-445 ppm Cl; 130-240 ppm F. Maximum values for the two regions are 1610 ppm S, 1490 ppm Cl, and 440 ppm F. The majority of studies on health hazards from inhalation or ingestion of volcanic aerosols are centered on livestock; therefore not much is known of the effects on humans. This emphasizes the importance of such a study in a volcanically active region. Levels of volcanic aerosols are considered "hazardous" and to "pose a hazardous risk" to surrounding agricultural and residential communities if concentrations are elevated above World Health Organization (WHO) or Occupational Safety and Health Administration maximum exposure limits (OSHA) (SO2: 7 ppm for a 24-hr period; HCl: 5 ppm for a 24-hr period; HF: 3 ppm for a 10-hr period). By assessing volatile concentrations from past eruptions we can better constrain the probable volatile hazards future cinder cone eruptions pose to surrounding agricultural and residential communities near the Cascades.

  14. Volcanic precursors in light of eruption mechanisms at Vesuvius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Scandone

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Vesuvius entered a quiescent stage after the eruption of March-April 1944. The eruption was not much different or larger than other before, like for example the one of 1906, but it occurred at the end of a long period during which it was observed a decreasing trend of explosivity of eruptions [Scandone et al. 2008]. The parallel increase in the frequency of slow effusive eruptions, with respect to violent strombolian eruptions, point out to a process of average slower rate of magma ascent possibly due to a progressive sealing of the ascent path of magma to the surface. The small caldera collapse following the 1944 explosive phase effectively sealed the upper conduit, and since then the volcano entered a quiescence stage that was unusual with respect to the pattern of activity of the previous 300 years when the maximum repose time had been of 7 years (after the eruption of 1906. Most of the uncertainty on the duration of the present stage and character of a future renewal of activity derives by the basic questions regarding the nature of the current repose: due to a diminished supply of magma, related with structural condition or a sealing of the upper ascent path to the surface? Possibly the variation of structural conditions caused average slower ascent rates of magma favoring its cooling in the upper part of the crust, and effectively sealing the ascent path.

  15. Violent Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard; Søgaard, Thomas Friis

    2015-01-01

    ” plays a critical role in relation to Bugkalot men’s construction of hegemonic masculinity and the sustaining of complex egalitarian relations. The Bugkalot have a notoriously violent history; until the late 1970s more than half of the adult men engaged in ritual killings. While most Bugkalot men has...... that can also be used in other contexts to understand how men construct hegemonic masculinity by strategically adopting the interspace of civility and violence.......This article explores the social significance of violence as potentiality and performance among former headhunters. Taking its outset in an ethnographic study of violence and masculinity among the Philippine people known as the Bugkalot, we explore how violence as “performed violent potentiality...

  16. Violent potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard; Friis Søgaard, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    as ‘performed violent potentiality’ plays a critical role in relation to Bugkalot men’s construction of hegemonic masculinity and the sustaining of complex egalitarian relations. The Bugkalot have a notoriously violent history; until the late 1970s more than half of the adult men engaged in ritual killings...... provide general insights that can also be used in other contexts to understand how men construct hegemonic masculinity by strategically adopting the interspace of civility and violence.......This article explores the social significance of violence as potentiality and performance among former headhunters engaged in ritual killings. Taking its outset in an ethnographic study of violence and masculinity among the Philippine people known as the Bugkalot, we explore how violence...

  17. Assessment of the potential respiratory hazard of volcanic ash from future Icelandic eruptions: A study of archived basaltic to rhyolitic ash samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damby, David; Horwell, Claire J.; Larsen, Gudrun; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Tomatis, Maura; Fubini, Bice; Donaldson, Ken

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundThe eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull (2010) and Grímsvötn (2011), Iceland, triggered immediate, international consideration of the respiratory health hazard of inhaling volcanic ash, and prompted the need to estimate the potential hazard posed by future eruptions of Iceland’s volcanoes to Icelandic and Northern European populations. MethodsA physicochemical characterization and toxicological assessment was conducted on a suite of archived ash samples spanning the spectrum of past eruptions (basaltic to rhyolitic magmatic composition) of Icelandic volcanoes following a protocol specifically designed by the International Volcanic Health Hazard Network. ResultsIcelandic ash can be of a respirable size (up to 11.3 vol.% < 4 μm), but the samples did not display physicochemical characteristics of pathogenic particulate in terms of composition or morphology. Ash particles were generally angular, being composed of fragmented glass and crystals. Few fiber-like particles were observed, but those present comprised glass or sodium oxides, and are not related to pathogenic natural fibers, like asbestos or fibrous zeolites, thereby limiting concern of associated respiratory diseases. None of the samples contained cristobalite or tridymite, and only one sample contained quartz, minerals of interest due to the potential to cause silicosis. Sample surface areas are low, ranging from 0.4 to 1.6 m2 g−1, which aligns with analyses on ash from other eruptions worldwide. All samples generated a low level of hydroxyl radicals (HO•), a measure of surface reactivity, through the iron-catalyzed Fenton reaction compared to concurrently analyzed comparative samples. However, radical generation increased after ‘refreshing’ sample surfaces, indicating that newly erupted samples may display higher reactivity. A composition-dependent range of available surface iron was measured after a 7-day incubation, from 22.5 to 315.7 μmol m−2, with mafic samples releasing more iron

  18. Assessment of the potential respiratory hazard of volcanic ash from future Icelandic eruptions: a study of archived basaltic to rhyolitic ash samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damby, David E; Horwell, Claire J; Larsen, Gudrun; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Tomatis, Maura; Fubini, Bice; Donaldson, Ken

    2017-09-11

    The eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull (2010) and Grímsvötn (2011), Iceland, triggered immediate, international consideration of the respiratory health hazard of inhaling volcanic ash, and prompted the need to estimate the potential hazard posed by future eruptions of Iceland's volcanoes to Icelandic and Northern European populations. A physicochemical characterization and toxicological assessment was conducted on a suite of archived ash samples spanning the spectrum of past eruptions (basaltic to rhyolitic magmatic composition) of Icelandic volcanoes following a protocol specifically designed by the International Volcanic Health Hazard Network. Icelandic ash can be of a respirable size (up to 11.3 vol.% fiber-like particles were observed, but those present comprised glass or sodium oxides, and are not related to pathogenic natural fibers, like asbestos or fibrous zeolites, thereby limiting concern of associated respiratory diseases. None of the samples contained cristobalite or tridymite, and only one sample contained quartz, minerals of interest due to the potential to cause silicosis. Sample surface areas are low, ranging from 0.4 to 1.6 m 2  g -1 , which aligns with analyses on ash from other eruptions worldwide. All samples generated a low level of hydroxyl radicals (HO • ), a measure of surface reactivity, through the iron-catalyzed Fenton reaction compared to concurrently analyzed comparative samples. However, radical generation increased after 'refreshing' sample surfaces, indicating that newly erupted samples may display higher reactivity. A composition-dependent range of available surface iron was measured after a 7-day incubation, from 22.5 to 315.7 μmol m -2 , with mafic samples releasing more iron than silicic samples. All samples were non-reactive in a test of red blood cell-membrane damage. The primary particle-specific concern is the potential for future eruptions of Iceland's volcanoes to generate fine, respirable material and, thus, to

  19. SOLAR ERUPTION AND LOCAL MAGNETIC PARAMETERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeongwoo; Chae, Jongchul [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Liu, Chang; Jing, Ju [Space Weather Research Laboratory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    It is now a common practice to use local magnetic parameters such as magnetic decay index for explaining solar eruptions from active regions, but there can be an alternative view that the global properties of the source region should be counted as a more important factor. We discuss this issue based on Solar Dynamics Observatory observations of the three successive eruptions within 1.5 hr from the NOAA active region 11444 and the magnetic parameters calculated using the nonlinear force-free field model. Two violent eruptions occurred in the regions with relatively high magnetic twist number (0.5–1.5) and high decay index (0.9–1.1) at the nominal height of the filament (12″) and otherwise a mild eruption occurred, which supports the local-parameter paradigm. Our main point is that the time sequence of the eruptions did not go with these parameters. It is argued that an additional factor, in the form of stabilizing force, should operate to determine the onset of the first eruption and temporal behaviors of subsequent eruptions. As supporting evidence, we report that the heating and fast plasma flow continuing for a timescale of an hour was the direct cause for the first eruption and that the unidirectional propagation of the disturbance determined the timing of subsequent eruptions. Both of these factors are associated with the overall magnetic structure rather than local magnetic properties of the active region.

  20. VARIETIES OF VIOLENT BEHAVOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2014-08-01

    There is an implicit assumption of homogeneity across violent behaviors and offenders in the criminology literature. Arguing against this assumption, I draw on three distinct literatures [child abuse and neglect (CAN) and violence, violence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and CAN and PTSD] to provide a rationale for an examination of varieties of violent behaviors. I use data from my prospective cohort design study of the long-term consequences of CAN to define three varieties of violent offenders using age of documented cases of CAN, onset of PTSD, and first violent arrest in a temporally correct manner [CAN → to violence, CAN → PTSD → violence (PTSD first), and CAN → violence → PTSD (violence first)], and a fourth variety, violence only. The results illustrate meaningful heterogeneity in violent behavior and different developmental patterns and characteristics. There are three major implications: First, programs and policies that target violence need to recognize the heterogeneity and move away from a "one-size-fits-all" approach. Second, violence prevention policies and programs that target abused and neglected children are warranted, given the prominent role of CAN in the backgrounds of these violent offenders. Third, criminologists and others interested in violence need to attend to the role of PTSD, which is present in about one fifth (21 percent) of these violent offenders, and not relegate the study of these offenders to the psychiatric and psychological literatures.

  1. VARIETIES OF VIOLENT BEHAVOR*

    Science.gov (United States)

    WIDOM, CATHY SPATZ

    2014-01-01

    There is an implicit assumption of homogeneity across violent behaviors and offenders in the criminology literature. Arguing against this assumption, I draw on three distinct literatures [child abuse and neglect (CAN) and violence, violence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and CAN and PTSD] to provide a rationale for an examination of varieties of violent behaviors. I use data from my prospective cohort design study of the long-term consequences of CAN to define three varieties of violent offenders using age of documented cases of CAN, onset of PTSD, and first violent arrest in a temporally correct manner [CAN → to violence, CAN → PTSD → violence (PTSD first), and CAN → violence → PTSD (violence first)], and a fourth variety, violence only. The results illustrate meaningful heterogeneity in violent behavior and different developmental patterns and characteristics. There are three major implications: First, programs and policies that target violence need to recognize the heterogeneity and move away from a “one-size-fits-all” approach. Second, violence prevention policies and programs that target abused and neglected children are warranted, given the prominent role of CAN in the backgrounds of these violent offenders. Third, criminologists and others interested in violence need to attend to the role of PTSD, which is present in about one fifth (21 percent) of these violent offenders, and not relegate the study of these offenders to the psychiatric and psychological literatures. PMID:25505799

  2. Io - One of at Least Four Simultaneous Erupting Volcanic Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This photo of an active volcanic eruption on Jupiter's satellite Io was taken 1 hour, 52 minutes after the accompanying picture, late in the evening of March 4, 1979, Pacific time. On the limb of the satellite can be seen one of at least four simultaneous volcanic eruptions -- the first such activity ever observed on another celestial body. Seen against the limb are plume-like structures rising more than 60 miles (100 kilometers) above the surface. Several eruptions have been identified with volcanic structures on the surface of Io, which have also been identified by Voyager 1's infrared instrument as being abnormally hot -- several hundred degrees warmer than surrounding terrain. The fact that several eruptions appear to be occurring at the same time suggests that Io has the most active surface in the solar system and that volcanism is going on there essentially continuously. Another characteristic of the observed volcanism is that it appears to be extremely explosive, with velocities more than 2,000 miles an hour (at least 1 kilometer per second). That is more violent than terrestrial volcanoes like Etna, Vesuvius or Krakatoa.

  3. Understanding the effects of violent video games on violent crime

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, A. Scott; Engelstätter, Benjamin; Ward, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Psychological studies invariably find a positive relationship between violent video game play and aggression. However, these studies cannot account for either aggressive effects of alternative activities video game playing substitutes for or the possible selection of relatively violent people into playing violent video games. That is, they lack external validity. We investigate the relationship between the prevalence of violent video games and violent crimes. Our results are consistent with t...

  4. Adolescent Violent Victimization and Precocious Union Formation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Kuhl, Danielle; Warner, David F.; Wilczak, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This article bridges scholarship in criminology and family sociology by extending arguments about “precocious exits” from adolescence to consider early union formation as a salient outcome of violent victimization for youths. Research indicates that early union formation is associated with several negative outcomes; yet the absence of attention to union formation as a consequence of violent victimization is noteworthy. We address this gap by drawing on life course theory and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine the effect of violent victimization (“street” violence) on the timing of first co-residential union formation—differentiating between marriage and cohabitation—in young adulthood. Estimates from Cox proportional hazard models show that adolescent victims of street violence experience higher rates of first union formation, especially marriage, early in the transition to adulthood; however, this effect declines with age, as such unions become more normative. Importantly, the effect of violent victimization on first union timing is robust to controls for nonviolent delinquency, substance abuse, and violent perpetration. We conclude by discussing directions for future research on the association between violent victimization and coresidential unions with an eye toward the implications of such early union formation for desistance. PMID:24431471

  5. Adolescent Violent Victimization and Precocious Union Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C Kuhl, Danielle; Warner, David F; Wilczak, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    This article bridges scholarship in criminology and family sociology by extending arguments about "precocious exits" from adolescence to consider early union formation as a salient outcome of violent victimization for youths. Research indicates that early union formation is associated with several negative outcomes; yet the absence of attention to union formation as a consequence of violent victimization is noteworthy. We address this gap by drawing on life course theory and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine the effect of violent victimization ("street" violence) on the timing of first co-residential union formation-differentiating between marriage and cohabitation-in young adulthood. Estimates from Cox proportional hazard models show that adolescent victims of street violence experience higher rates of first union formation, especially marriage, early in the transition to adulthood; however, this effect declines with age, as such unions become more normative. Importantly, the effect of violent victimization on first union timing is robust to controls for nonviolent delinquency, substance abuse, and violent perpetration. We conclude by discussing directions for future research on the association between violent victimization and coresidential unions with an eye toward the implications of such early union formation for desistance.

  6. Direct and vicarious violent victimization and juvenile delinquency: an application of general strain theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Hsu; Cochran, John K; Mieczkowski, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Using a national probability sample of adolescents (12–17), this study applies general strain theory to how violent victimization, vicarious violent victimization, and dual violent victimization affect juvenile violent/property crime and drug use. In addition, the mediating effect and moderating effect of depression, low social control, and delinquent peer association on the victimization–delinquency relationship is also examined. Based on SEM analyses and contingency tables, the results indicate that all three types of violent victimization have significant and positive direct effects on violent/property crime and drug use. In addition, the expected mediating effects and moderating effects are also found. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  7. DomeHaz, a Global Hazards Database: Understanding Cyclic Dome-forming Eruptions, Contributions to Hazard Assessments, and Potential for Future Use and Integration with Existing Cyberinfrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogburn, S. E.; Calder, E.; Loughlin, S.

    2013-12-01

    Dome-forming eruptions can extend for significant periods of time and can be dangerous; nearly all dome-forming eruptions have been associated with some level of explosive activity. Large Plinian explosions with a VEI ≥ 4 sometimes occur in association with dome-forming eruptions. Many of the most significant volcanic events of recent history are in this category. The 1902-1905 eruption of Mt. Pelée, Martinique; the 1980-1986 eruption of Mount St. Helens, USA; and the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines all demonstrate the destructive power of VEI ≥ 4 dome-forming eruptions. Global historical analysis is a powerful tool for decision-making as well as for scientific discovery. In the absence of monitoring data or a knowledge of a volcano's eruptive history, global analysis can provide a method of understanding what might be expected based on similar eruptions. This study investigates the relationship between large explosive eruptions and lava dome growth and develops DomeHaz, a global database of dome-forming eruptions from 1000 AD to present. It is currently hosted on VHub (https://vhub.org/groups/domedatabase/), a community cyberinfrastructure for sharing data, collaborating, and modeling. DomeHaz contains information about 367 dome-forming episodes, including duration of dome growth, duration of pauses in extrusion, extrusion rates, and the timing and magnitude of associated explosions. Data sources include the The Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program (GVP), Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, and all relevant published review papers, research papers, and reports. This database builds upon previous work (e.g Newhall and Melson, 1983) in light of newly available data for lava dome eruptions. There have been 46 new dome-forming eruptions, 13 eruptions that continued past 1982, 151 new dome-growth episodes, and 8 VEI ≥ 4 events since Newhall and Melson's work in 1983. Analysis using DomeHaz provides useful information regarding the

  8. Violent breaking wave impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredmose, Henrik; Peregrine, D.H.; Bullock, G.N.

    2009-01-01

    When an ocean wave breaks against a steep-fronted breakwater, sea wall or a similar marine structure, its impact on the structure can be very violent. This paper describes the theoretical studies that, together with field and laboratory investigations, have been carried out in order to gain a bet...

  9. On the likelihood of future eruptions in the Chilean Southern Volcanic Zone: interpreting the past century's eruption record based on statistical analyses Probabilidades de futuras erupciones en la Zona Volcánica del Sur de Chile: interpretación estadística de la serie temporal de erupciones del siglo pasado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Dzierma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A sequence of 150 explosive eruptions recorded during the past century at the Chilean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ is subjected to statistical time series analysis. The exponential, Weibull, and log-logistic distribution functions are fit to the eruption record, separately for literature-assigned volcanic exploslvlty indices (VEI ≥ 2 and VEI ≥ 3. Since statistical tests confirm the adequacy of all the fits to describe the data, all models are used to estimate the likelihood of future eruptions. Only small differences are observed between the different distribution functions with regard to the eruption forecast, whereby the log-logistic distribution predicts the lowest probabilities. There is a 50% probability for VEI ≥ 2 eruptions to occur in the SVZ within less than a year, and 90% probability to occur within the next 2-3 years. For the larger VEI ≥ 3 eruptions, the 50% probability is reached in 3-4 years, while the 90% level is reached in 9-11 years.Se presenta un análisis estadístico de la serie temporal de 150 erupciones volcánicas explosivas registradas durante el siglo pasado en la Zona Volcánica del Sur de Chile. Se modeló el conjunto de erupciones mediante la distribución exponencial, de Weibull y log-logística, restringiendo el análisis a erupciones de índice de explosividad volcánica (IEV mayores a 2 y 3, respectivamente. Como los modelos pasan las pruebas estadísticas, los tres modelos se aplican para estimar la probabilidad de erupciones futuras. Se observan solo diferencias menores entre las predicciones mediante los distintos modelos, con la distribución log-logística dando las probabilidades más bajas. Para erupciones de IEV ≥ 2, la probabilidad de producirse una erupción dentro de un año es más del 50%, creciendo al 90% en 2-3 años. Para erupciones más grandes, de IEV ≥ 3, el 50% de probabilidad se alcanza dentro de 3-4 años, y el 90% dentro de 9-11 años.

  10. Volcanic Eruptions and Climate: Outstanding Research Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, Alan

    2016-04-01

    volcanic eruptions change the probability of El Niño or La Niña in the years following the eruption? Are there decadal-scale oceanic responses that can provide long-term predictability? What was the contribution of volcanic eruptions to initiation and maintenance of the Little Ice Age? What are the observational needs for future volcanic eruptions that will help to improve forecasts, observe responses following volcanic eruptions, and better understand nucleation and growth of sulfate aerosols, which is important for evaluating suggestions for considering anthropogenic stratospheric clouds for climate engineering?

  11. VIOLENT FRAMES IN ACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; McGrath, Liam R.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2011-11-17

    We present a computational approach to radical rhetoric that leverages the co-expression of rhetoric and action features in discourse to identify violent intent. The approach combines text mining and machine learning techniques with insights from Frame Analysis and theories that explain the emergence of violence in terms of moral disengagement, the violation of sacred values and social isolation in order to build computational models that identify messages from terrorist sources and estimate their proximity to an attack. We discuss a specific application of this approach to a body of documents from and about radical and terrorist groups in the Middle East and present the results achieved.

  12. Schizophrenia and violent behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Martins Valença

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report the case of a woman who killed a child. After a forensic psychiatric appraisal to evaluate penal responsibility, she was considered not guilty by reason of insanity and mandatorily committed to the central forensic psychiatric hospital in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The patient received a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia, based on DSM-IV-TR. She was not in psychiatric treatment and showed psychotic symptoms before the violent behavior became manifest. The study of motivational factors in homicidal behavior may provide further knowledge for understanding, preventing and treating it in such cases.

  13. Will Teide erupt again?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Joan; Geyer, Adelina

    2016-04-01

    The quantification of hazard in volcanic systems characterised by long repose period is difficult because the lack of knowledge of the past volcanic history and also because in many cases volcanism is not perceived as a potential problem, being only regarded as an attraction for tourism or a source of economic benefit, thus hiding the need to conduct hazard assessment. Teide, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands), is not an exception to this general rule and, despite being one of the largest composite volcanoes in the World, it is generally considered as a non-active volcano by population, visitors and even by some scientists. However, geological and geophysical evidence, including a large diversity of monitoring signals recorded during last decades, as well as a simple comparison with similar volcanoes that have erupted in recent times after hundreds or even thousands of years of quiescence, recommend to consider Teide as an active volcano and to take the necessary precaution in an island with nearly one million of permanent inhabitants and nearly 5 millions of visitors per year. What is the potential of Teide to erupt again? is the question that relies behind the fact of considering it as active, and that needs to be answered first. Based on the current volcanological, petrological and geophysical knowledge We propose a conceptual model on the magma recharge mechanisms, structure of the plumbing system, and eruption triggers and dynamics of Teide volcano that helps to understand its behaviour and to anticipate future activity. Ramón y Cajal contract (RYC-2012-11024)

  14. When a victim becomes violent perpetrator: Violent victimization in childhood, violent criminal behavior in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevković Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous international research has identified that direct or indirect exposure to violent victimization in a familial context during childhood is a risk factor for violent criminal behavior of victimized children in adulthood. Studies of violent victimization of children in Serbia are rare, and are mostly directed at determining the prevalence, the main characteristics of or the immediate physical, psychological and behavioral consequences of victimization. Empirical analysis of the criminological consequences of early violent victimization in adulthood are an exception in scientific studies in Serbia. The aim of the paper is to present the results of research into the influence of early violent victimization on violent crime of adult men and women. After the introduction a brief overview of the worldwide research confirming the correlation between the experience of violent victimization and subsequent violent behavior is given. The results of the research conducted by the author will then be discussed. The results illustrate the possibility of predicting violent criminal behavior in adulthood based on indicators of direct and indirect victimization in childhood. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179044: Razvoj metodologije evidentiranja kriminaliteta kao osnova kreiranja efikasnih mera za njegovo suzbijanje i prevenciju

  15. Large explosive basaltic eruptions at Katla volcano, Iceland: Fragmentation, grain size and eruption dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmith, Johanne; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Holm, Paul Martin; Larsen, Guðrún

    2018-04-01

    Katla volcano in Iceland produces hazardous large explosive basaltic eruptions on a regular basis, but very little quantitative data for future hazard assessments exist. Here details on fragmentation mechanism and eruption dynamics are derived from a study of deposit stratigraphy with detailed granulometry and grain morphology analysis, granulometric modeling, componentry and the new quantitative regularity index model of fragmentation mechanism. We show that magma/water interaction is important in the ash generation process, but to a variable extent. By investigating the large explosive basaltic eruptions from 1755 and 1625, we document that eruptions of similar size and magma geochemistry can have very different fragmentation dynamics. Our models show that fragmentation in the 1755 eruption was a combination of magmatic degassing and magma/water-interaction with the most magma/water-interaction at the beginning of the eruption. The fragmentation of the 1625 eruption was initially also a combination of both magmatic and phreatomagmatic processes, but magma/water-interaction diminished progressively during the later stages of the eruption. However, intense magma/water interaction was reintroduced during the final stages of the eruption dominating the fine fragmentation at the end. This detailed study of fragmentation changes documents that subglacial eruptions have highly variable interaction with the melt water showing that the amount and access to melt water changes significantly during eruptions. While it is often difficult to reconstruct the progression of eruptions that have no quantitative observational record, this study shows that integrating field observations and granulometry with the new regularity index can form a coherent model of eruption evolution.

  16. Sports Fans, Alcohol Use, and Violent Behavior: A Sociological Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowsky, Michael K

    2016-08-31

    This review makes four contributions to the sociological study of sports fans, alcohol use, and violent behavior. First, this article focuses explicitly on the relationship between alcohol use and violent behavior among sports fans. This is a worldwide social problem, yet it is quite understudied. Second, this article synthesizes the fragmented literature on alcohol use and violent behavior among sports fans. Third, this article identifies four broad sets of risk factors-sociocultural, event/venue, police, and crowd-that appear to be closely related to violent behavior among sports fans. Finally, to help explain the possible correlation between alcohol and violence among sports fans, this article draws upon the key understandings from the literature on alcohol and violence in wider society. The article concludes with suggestions for future research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Solar filament material oscillations and drainage before eruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Yi; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan; Hong, Junchao; Li, Haidong; Yang, Dan; Yang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Both large-amplitude longitudinal (LAL) oscillations and material drainage in a solar filament are associated with the flow of material along the filament axis, often followed by an eruption. However, the relationship between these two motions and a subsequent eruption event is poorly understood. We analyze a filament eruption using EUV imaging data captured by the Atmospheric Imaging Array on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Hα images from the Global Oscillation Network Group. Hours before the eruption, the filament was activated, with one of its legs undergoing a slow rising motion. The asymmetric activation inclined the filament relative to the solar surface. After the active phase, LAL oscillations were observed in the inclined filament. The oscillation period increased slightly over time, which may suggest that the magnetic fields supporting the filament evolve to be flatter during the slow rising phase. After the oscillations, a significant amount of filament material was drained toward one filament endpoint, followed immediately by the violent eruption of the filament. The material drainage may further support the change in magnetic topology prior to the eruption. Moreover, we suggest that the filament material drainage could play a role in the transition from a slow to a fast rise of the erupting filament.

  18. Eruptions from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    The Sun often exhibits outbursts, launching material from its surface in powerful releases of energy. Recent analysis of such an outburst captured on video by several Sun-monitoring spacecraft may help us understand the mechanisms that launch these eruptions.Many OutburstsSolar jets are elongated, transient structures that are thought to regularly release magnetic energy from the Sun, contributing to coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs), on the other hand, are enormous blob-like explosions, violently ejecting energy and mass from the Sun at incredible speeds.But could these two types of events actually be related? According to a team of scientists at the University of Science and Technology of China, they may well be. The team, led by Jiajia Liu, has analyzed observations of a coronal jet that they believe prompted the launch of a powerful CME.Observing an ExplosionGif of a movie of the CME, taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatorys Atmospheric Imaging Assembly at a wavelength of 304. The original movie can be found in the article. [Liu et al.]An army of spacecraft was on hand to witness the event on 15 Jan 2013 including the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO). The instruments on board these observatories captured the drama on the northern limb of the Sun as, at 19:32 UT, a coronal jet formed. Just eight minutes later, a powerful CME was released from the same active region.The fact that the jet and CME occurred in the same place at roughly the same time suggests theyre related. But did the initial motions of the CME blob trigger the jet? Or did the jet trigger the CME?Tying It All TogetherIn a recently published study, Liu and collaborators analyzed the multi-wavelength observations of this event to find the heights and positions of the jet and CME. From this analysis, they determined that the coronal jet triggered the release

  19. Violent video game effects on salivary cortisol, arousal, and aggressive thoughts in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentile, Douglas A.; Bender, Patrick K.; Anderson, Craig A.

    2017-01-01

    An experiment investigated the effects of violent content in video games on two physiological indicators of the fight-or-flight response (cortisol and cardiovascular changes) and on accessibility of aggressive thoughts in children. Participants played a randomly assigned violent or nonviolent video...... of aggressive thoughts. The cortisol findings in particular suggest that playing a violent video game may activate the sympathetic nervous system and elicit a fight-or-flight type response in children. Theoretical implications and future research are discussed....

  20. Are violent video games harmful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Guy; Starcevic, Vladan

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to revisit the controversial issue of the association of violent video games and aggressive behaviour. Several lines of evidence suggest that there is a link between exposure to violent video games and aggressive behaviour. However, methodological shortcomings of research conducted so far make several interpretations of this relationship possible. Thus, aggressive behaviour may be a consequence of playing violent video games, an expression of hostile traits that existed before exposure to these games, and/or it may be a result of several possible combinations of these and other factors. Mental health professionals need to be aware of these potentially negative effects of violent video games when assessing patients who present with aggression. There is a need for prospective, long-term studies similar to those evaluating the effects of television and film violence on children and adolescents.

  1. Environmental changes and violent conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernauer, Thomas; Böhmelt, Tobias; Koubi, Vally

    2012-01-01

    This letter reviews the scientific literature on whether and how environmental changes affect the risk of violent conflict. The available evidence from qualitative case studies indicates that environmental stress can contribute to violent conflict in some specific cases. Results from quantitative large-N studies, however, strongly suggest that we should be careful in drawing general conclusions. Those large-N studies that we regard as the most sophisticated ones obtain results that are not robust to alternative model specifications and, thus, have been debated. This suggests that environmental changes may, under specific circumstances, increase the risk of violent conflict, but not necessarily in a systematic way and unconditionally. Hence there is, to date, no scientific consensus on the impact of environmental changes on violent conflict. This letter also highlights the most important challenges for further research on the subject. One of the key issues is that the effects of environmental changes on violent conflict are likely to be contingent on a set of economic and political conditions that determine adaptation capacity. In the authors' view, the most important indirect effects are likely to lead from environmental changes via economic performance and migration to violent conflict. (letter)

  2. Magma viscosity estimation based on analysis of erupted products. Potential assessment for large-scale pyroclastic eruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Shingo

    2010-01-01

    After the formulation of guidelines for volcanic hazards in site evaluation for nuclear installations (e.g. JEAG4625-2009), it is required to establish appropriate methods to assess potential of large-scale pyroclastic eruptions at long-dormant volcanoes, which is one of the most hazardous volcanic phenomena on the safety of the installations. In considering the volcanic dormancy, magma eruptability is an important concept. The magma eruptability is dominantly controlled by magma viscosity, which can be estimated from petrological analysis of erupted materials. Therefore, viscosity estimation of magmas erupted in past eruptions should provide important information to assess future activities at hazardous volcanoes. In order to show the importance of magma viscosity in the concept of magma eruptability, this report overviews dike propagation processes from a magma chamber and nature of magma viscosity. Magma viscosity at pre-eruptive conditions of magma chambers were compiled based on previous petrological studies on past eruptions in Japan. There are only 16 examples of eruptions at 9 volcanoes satisfying data requirement for magma viscosity estimation. Estimated magma viscosities range from 10 2 to 10 7 Pa·s for basaltic to rhyolitic magmas. Most of examples fall below dike propagation limit of magma viscosity (ca. 10 6 Pa·s) estimated based on a dike propagation model. Highly viscous magmas (ca. 10 7 Pa·s) than the dike propagation limit are considered to lose eruptability which is the ability to form dikes and initiate eruptions. However, in some cases, small precursory eruptions of less viscous magmas commonly occurred just before climactic eruptions of the highly viscous magmas, suggesting that the precursory dike propagation by the less viscous magmas induced the following eruptions of highly viscous magmas (ca. 10 7 Pa·s). (author)

  3. Northern hemispheric response to large volcanic eruptions in relation to El Nino - winter case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, I.

    1994-01-01

    A large part of the global climate variability is attributed to variations of the Indian Monsoon and of El Nino/Southern Oscillation. Facing the recent violent volcanic eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991, and searching for the climate signal of the increased greenhouse effect, the climate impact of volcanic aerosols becomes more and more interesting

  4. Playing a violent television game affects heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, Malena; Anderson, Martin; Akerstedt, Torbjörn; Lindblad, Frank

    2009-01-01

    To investigate how playing a violent/nonviolent television game during the evening affects sympathetic and parasympathetic reactions during and after playing as well as sleep quality during the night after playing. In total, 19 boys, 12-15 years of age, played television games on two occasions in their homes and participated once without gaming. Heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV) and physical activity were measured during gaming/participating and the night to follow using a portable combined heart rate and movement sensor. A sleep diary and questionnaires about gaming experiences and session-specific experiences were filled in. Criteria for Selection of Games: Violent game involves/rewards direct physical violence (no handguns) against another person, and nonviolent game involves/rewards no violence; same game design ('third-person game'); conducted in the same manner; no differences concerning motor activity; similar sound and light effects; no sexual content, violence against women or racial overtones. During violent (vs. nonviolent) gaming, there was significantly higher activity of the very low frequency component of the HRV and total power. During the night after playing, very low frequency, low frequency and high frequency components were significantly higher during the violent (vs. nonviolent) condition, just as total power. There were no significant differences between the three conditions (violent/nonviolent/no gaming) with respect to an index reflecting subjectively perceived sleep difficulties. Nor was there any difference between violent and nonviolent condition for any single sleep item. Violent gaming induces different autonomic responses in boys compared to nonviolent gaming--during playing and during the following night--suggesting different emotional responses. Subjectively perceived sleep quality is not influenced after a single gaming experience. Future studies should address the development of the autonomic balance after gaming over longer

  5. SYMPATHETIC SOLAR FILAMENT ERUPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Rui; Liu, Ying D.; Zimovets, Ivan; Hu, Huidong; Yang, Zhongwei [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Dai, Xinghua, E-mail: liuxying@spaceweather.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2016-08-10

    The 2015 March 15 coronal mass ejection as one of the two that together drove the largest geomagnetic storm of solar cycle 24 so far was associated with sympathetic filament eruptions. We investigate the relations between the different filaments involved in the eruption. A surge-like small-scale filament motion is confirmed as the trigger that initiated the erupting filament with multi-wavelength observations and using a forced magnetic field extrapolation method. When the erupting filament moved to an open magnetic field region, it experienced an obvious acceleration process and was accompanied by a C-class flare and the rise of another larger filament that eventually failed to erupt. We measure the decay index of the background magnetic field, which presents a critical height of 118 Mm. Combining with a potential field source surface extrapolation method, we analyze the distributions of the large-scale magnetic field, which indicates that the open magnetic field region may provide a favorable condition for F2 rapid acceleration and have some relation with the largest solar storm. The comparison between the successful and failed filament eruptions suggests that the confining magnetic field plays an important role in the preconditions for an eruption.

  6. National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) provides states and communities with a clearer understanding of violent deaths to guide local decisions about...

  7. Violent computer games, empathy, and cosmopolitanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Many philosophical and public discussions of the ethical aspects of violent computer games typically centre on the relation between playing violent videogames and its supposed direct consequences on violent behaviour. But such an approach rests on a controversial empirical claim, is often one-sided

  8. Violent Comic Books Influence Relational Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsh, Steven J.; Olczak, Paul V.

    This paper assesses the impact that reading violent comic books has on hostile attributional bias using relationally aggressive scenarios. College students (N=85) read either very violent or mildly violent comic books. Participants rated the comic books on levels of violence, humor, interest level, and overall likeability. They also read five…

  9. The intergenerational transmission of violent offending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Weijer, S.G.A.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; Blokland, A.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines the intergenerational transmission and concentration of violent offending using conviction data of 3,440 persons from three consecutive generations from the Dutch Transfive study. Violent offending is more concentrated within nuclear families than non-violent offending,

  10. Alcohol Outlets and Violent Crime in Washington D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan, William K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Alcohol is more likely than any other drug to be involved in substance-related violence. In 2000 violence-related and self-directed injuries accounted for an estimated $37 billion and $33 billion in productivity losses and medical treatment, respectively. A review of emergency department data revealed violence and clinically identified trauma-related injuries have the strongest correlation among alcohol-dependent injuries. At the environmental level there is a relationship between alcohol outlet density and violent crime. A limited number of studies have examined the relationship between alcohol outlet type and the components of violent crime. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the aggregate components of violent crime and alcohol outlet density by type of outlet.Methods: For this study we used Washington, D.C. census tract data from the 2000 census to examine neighborhood characteristics. Alcohol outlet, violent crime, and population-level data for Washington, D.C. were drawn from various official yet publicly available sources. We developed an analytic database to examine the relationship between alcohol outlet category and four types of violent crime. After estimating spatial correlation and determining spatial dependence, we used a negative binomial regression analysis to assess the alcohol availability-violent crime association, while controlling for structural correlates of violence.Results: Independent of alternative structural correlates of violent crime, including the prevalence of weapons and illicit drugs, community-level alcohol outlet density is significantly associated with assaultive violence. Outlets were significantly related to robbery, assault, and sexual offenses. In addition, the relationship among on-premise and off-premise outlets varied across violent crime categories.Conclusion: In Washington, D.C., alcohol outlet density is significantly associated with the violent crimes. The

  11. The pacifist Jesus and the violent Jesus in the Gospel of Matthew

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2010-05-28

    May 28, 2010 ... Jerusalem, while the violent Jesus is the future or eschatological Jesus, who will return from ..... more so once we consider that most of these references are .... the non-Christian Jewish community, the Law-liberal wider.

  12. Reducing violent injuries: priorities for pediatrician advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolins, J C; Christoffel, K K

    1994-10-01

    A basic framework for developing an advocacy plan must systematically break down the large task of policy development implementation into manageable components. The basic framework described in detail in this paper includes three steps: Setting policy objectives by narrowing the scope of policy, by reviewing policy options, and by examining options against selected criteria. Developing strategies for educating the public and for approaching legislative/regulatory bodies. Evaluating the effectiveness of the advocacy action plan as a process and as an agent for change. To illustrate the variety of ways in which pediatricians can be involved in the policy process to reduce violent injuries among children and adolescents, we apply this systematic approach to three priority areas. Prohibiting the use of corporal punishment in schools is intended to curb the institutionalized legitimacy of violence that has been associated with future use of violence. Efforts to remove handguns from the environments of children and adolescents are aimed at reducing the numbers of firearm injuries inflicted upon and by minors. Comprehensive treatment of adolescent victims of assault is intended to decrease the reoccurrence of violent injuries.

  13. Geomorphic consequences of volcanic eruptions in Alaska: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.

    2015-01-01

    large, with flow volumes in the range of 107–109 m3. A review of the lahars generated during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt volcano will illustrate the geomorphic impacts of lahars on stream channels and riparian habitat. Although much work is needed to develop a comprehensive understanding of the geomorphic consequences of volcanic activity in Alaska, this review provides a synthesis of some of the best-studied eruptions and perhaps will serve as a starting point for future work on this topic.

  14. Volcanic eruptions on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, R. G.; Schneider, N. M.; Terrile, R. J.; Hansen, C.; Cook, A. F.

    1981-01-01

    Nine eruption plumes which were observed during the Voyager 1 encounter with Io are discussed. During the Voyager 2 encounter, four months later, eight of the eruptions were still active although the largest became inactive sometime between the two encounters. Plumes range in height from 60 to over 300 km with corresponding ejection velocities of 0.5 to 1.0 km/s and plume sources are located on several plains and consist of fissures or calderas. The shape and brightness distribution together with the pattern of the surface deposition on a plume 3 is simulated by a ballistic model with a constant ejection velocity of 0.5 km/s and ejection angles which vary from 0-55 deg. The distribution of active and recent eruptions is concentrated in the equatorial regions and indicates that volcanic activity is more frequent and intense in the equatorial regions than in the polar regions. Due to the geologic setting of certain plume sources and large reservoirs of volatiles required for the active eruptions, it is concluded that sulfur volcanism rather than silicate volcanism is the most likely driving mechanism for the eruption plumes.

  15. Promoting Exit from Violent Extremism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    A number of Western countries are currently adding exit programs targeting militant Islamists to their counterterrorism efforts. Drawing on research into voluntary exit from violent extremism, this article identifies themes and issues that seem to cause doubt, leading to exit. It then provides a ...... the influence attempt as subtle as possible, use narratives and self-affirmatory strategies to reduce resistance to persuasion, and consider the possibility to promote attitudinal change via behavioral change as an alternative to seek to influence beliefs directly....

  16. Male Youth Perceptions of Violent Extremism: towards a Test of Rational Choice Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhami, Mandeep K; Murray, Jennifer

    2016-09-20

    Understanding how people perceive the pros and cons of risky behaviors such as terrorism or violent extremism represents a first step in developing research testing rational choice theory aiming to explain and predict peoples' intentions to engage in, or support, these behaviors. Accordingly, the present study provides a qualitative, exploratory analysis of a sample of 57 male youths' perceptions of the benefits and drawbacks of: (a) accessing a violent extremist website, (b) joining a violent extremist group, and (c) leaving such a group. Youth perceived significantly more drawbacks than benefits of joining a violent extremist group (p = .001, d = .46) and accessing a violent extremist website (p = .001, d = .46). The perceived benefits of engagement referred to gaining knowledge/awareness, being part of a group/similar people, and fighting the enemy/for a cause. The drawbacks referred to being exposed to negative material and emotions, having violent/criminal beliefs and behaviors, and getting in trouble with the law. The perceived benefits of disengagement referred to no longer committing illegal acts, and regaining independence/not being manipulated. The drawbacks referred to exposing oneself to harm and reprisal. These findings provide an insight into how male youth think about (dis)engagement in violent extremism, and can inform future quantitative research designed to explain and predict (dis)engagement in violent extremism. Eventually, such research may inform the development of evidence-based prevention and intervention strategies.

  17. An Integrative Approach for Defining Plinian and Sub-Plinian Eruptive Scenarios at Andesitic Volcanoes: Event-Lithostratigraphy, Eruptive Parameters and Pyroclast Textural Variations of the Largest Late-Holocene Eruptions of Mt. Taranaki, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Orozco, R.; Cronin, S. J.; Damaschke, M.; Kosik, S.; Pardo, N.

    2016-12-01

    Three eruptive scenarios were determined based on the event-lithostratigraphic reconstruction of the largest late-Holocene eruptions of the andesitic Mt. Taranaki, New Zealand: a) sustained dome-effusion followed by sudden stepwise collapse and unroofing of gas-rich magma; b) repeated plug and burst events generated by transient open-/closed-vent conditions; and c) open-vent conditions of more mafic magmas erupting from a satellite vent. Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are the most frequent outcome in every scenario. They can be produced in any/every eruption phase by formation and either repetitive-partial or total gravity-driven collapse of lava domes in the summit crater (block-and-ash flows), frequently followed by sudden magma decompression and violent, highly unsteady to quasi-steady lateral expansion (blast-like PDCs); by collapse or single-pulse fall-back of unsteady eruption columns (pyroclastic flow- and surge-type currents); or during highly unsteady and explosive hydromagmatic phases (wet surges). Fall deposits are produced during the climatic phase of each eruptive scenario by the emplacement of (i) high, sustained and steady, (ii) sustained and height-oscillating, (iii) quasi-steady and pulsating, or (iv) unsteady and totally collapsing eruption columns. Volumes, column heights and mass- and volume-eruption rates indicate that these scenarios correspond to VEI 4-5 plinian and sub-plinian multi-phase and style-shifting episodes, similar or larger than the most recent 1655 AD activity, and comparable to plinian eruptions of e.g. Apoyeque, Colima, Merapi and Tarawera volcanoes. Whole-rock chemistry, textural reconstructions and density-porosity determinations suggest that the different eruptive scenarios are mainly driven by variations in the density structure of magma in the upper conduit. Assuming a simple single conduit model, the style transitions can be explained by differing proportions of alternating gas-poor/degassed and gas-rich magma.

  18. Eruptive and Geomorphic Processes at the Lathrop Wells Scoria Cone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Valentine; D.J. Krier; F.V. Perry; G. Heiken

    2006-01-01

    The ∼80 ka Lathrop Wells volcano (southern Nevada, U.S.A.) preserves evidence for a range of explosive processes and emplacement mechanisms of pyroclastic deposits and lava fields in a small-volume basaltic center. Early cone building by Strombolian bursts was accompanied by development of a fan-like lava field reaching ∼800 m distance from the cone, built upon a gently sloping surface. Lava flows carried rafts of cone deposits, which provide indirect evidence for cone facies in lieu of direct exposures in the active quarry. Subsequent activity was of a violent Strombolian nature, with many episodes of sustained eruption columns up to a few km in height. These deposited layers of scoria lapilli and ash in different directions depending upon wind direction at the time of a given episode, reaching up to ∼20 km from the vent, and also produced the bulk of the scoria cone. Lava effusion migrated from south to north around the eastern base of the cone as accumulation of lavas successively reversed the topography at the base of the cone. Late lavas were emplaced during violent Strombolian activity and continued for some time after explosive eruptions had waned. Volumes of the eruptive products are: fallout--0.07 km 3 , scoria cone--0.02 km 3 , and lavas--0.03 km 3 . Shallow-derived xenolith concentrations suggest an upper bound on average conduit diameter of ∼21 m in the uppermost 335 m beneath the volcano. The volcano was constructed over a period of at least seven months with cone building occurring only during part of that time, based upon analogy with historical eruptions. Post-eruptive geomorphic evolution varied for the three main surface types that were produced by volcanic activity: (1) scoria cone, (2) low relief surfaces (including lavas) with abundant pyroclastic material, and (3) lavas with little pyroclastic material. The role of these different initial textures must be accounted for in estimating relative ages of volcanic surfaces, and failure to

  19. Eruptive and Geomorphic Processes at the Lathrop Wells Scoria Cone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Valentine; D.J. Krier; F.V. Perry; G. Heiken

    2006-08-03

    The {approx}80 ka Lathrop Wells volcano (southern Nevada, U.S.A.) preserves evidence for a range of explosive processes and emplacement mechanisms of pyroclastic deposits and lava fields in a small-volume basaltic center. Early cone building by Strombolian bursts was accompanied by development of a fan-like lava field reaching {approx}800 m distance from the cone, built upon a gently sloping surface. Lava flows carried rafts of cone deposits, which provide indirect evidence for cone facies in lieu of direct exposures in the active quarry. Subsequent activity was of a violent Strombolian nature, with many episodes of sustained eruption columns up to a few km in height. These deposited layers of scoria lapilli and ash in different directions depending upon wind direction at the time of a given episode, reaching up to {approx}20 km from the vent, and also produced the bulk of the scoria cone. Lava effusion migrated from south to north around the eastern base of the cone as accumulation of lavas successively reversed the topography at the base of the cone. Late lavas were emplaced during violent Strombolian activity and continued for some time after explosive eruptions had waned. Volumes of the eruptive products are: fallout--0.07 km{sup 3}, scoria cone--0.02 km{sup 3}, and lavas--0.03 km{sup 3}. Shallow-derived xenolith concentrations suggest an upper bound on average conduit diameter of {approx}21 m in the uppermost 335 m beneath the volcano. The volcano was constructed over a period of at least seven months with cone building occurring only during part of that time, based upon analogy with historical eruptions. Post-eruptive geomorphic evolution varied for the three main surface types that were produced by volcanic activity: (1) scoria cone, (2) low relief surfaces (including lavas) with abundant pyroclastic material, and (3) lavas with little pyroclastic material. The role of these different initial textures must be accounted for in estimating relative ages of

  20. Premature eruption of the premolars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camm, J H; Schuler, J L

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a variety of cases in which very early loss of abscessed primary molars caused early eruption of the permanent successors. Clinical sequelae including ectopic eruption, alteration of eruption sequence, arch-length inadequacy and tooth impaction are illustrated by five case reports.

  1. Eruption of Pele

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The eruption of Pele on Jupiter's moon Io. The volcanic plume rises 300 kilometers above the surface in an umbrella-like shape. The plume fallout covers an area the size of Alaska. The vent is a dark spot just north of the triangular-shaped plateau (right center). To the left, the surface is covered by colorful lava flows rich in sulfur.

  2. Complicated lichenoid drug eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Katherine; Lowe, Patricia

    2005-02-01

    We report a case of severe lichenoid drug eruption with multiple possible causative agents. A hepatitis C-positive male presented with a short history of painful erosions of the vermilion, lichenoid lesions on the buccal mucosa and glans penis, and erosions and lichenification of the scrotum. In addition, he had a pruritic polymorphic eruption over the scalp, trunk and limbs, comprising psoriasiform and eczematous lesions. He had received combination therapy of pegylated interferon-alpha-2a and ribavirin, along with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for interferon-induced leucopenia, and propranolol for portal hypertension. The former three agents were ceased 3 weeks prior to presentation, but he remained on propranolol at the initial dermatology consultation. The polymorphous clinical picture was consistent with lichenoid drug eruption, which was confirmed on histology. The papulosquamous eruption responded quickly to 2 weeks of oral prednisone 25 mg daily, which was tapered to 1 mg over 3 months and then ceased. The mucosal lesions were slow to improve and required the addition of tacrolimus 0.03% solution t.d.s. for complete resolution.

  3. Volcanic Eruptions and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGrande, Allegra N.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions represent some of the most climatically important and societally disruptive short-term events in human history. Large eruptions inject ash, dust, sulfurous gases (e.g. SO2, H2S), halogens (e.g. Hcl and Hbr), and water vapor into the Earth's atmosphere. Sulfurous emissions principally interact with the climate by converting into sulfate aerosols that reduce incoming solar radiation, warming the stratosphere and altering ozone creation, reducing global mean surface temperature, and suppressing the hydrological cycle. In this issue, we focus on the history, processes, and consequences of these large eruptions that inject enough material into the stratosphere to significantly affect the climate system. In terms of the changes wrought on the energy balance of the Earth System, these transient events can temporarily have a radiative forcing magnitude larger than the range of solar, greenhouse gas, and land use variability over the last millennium. In simulations as well as modern and paleoclimate observations, volcanic eruptions cause large inter-annual to decadal-scale changes in climate. Active debates persist concerning their role in longer-term (multi-decadal to centennial) modification of the Earth System, however.

  4. Does Movie Violence Increase Violent Crime?

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon Dahl; Stefano DellaVigna

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory experiments in psychology find that media violence increases aggression in the short run. We analyze whether media violence affects violent crime in the field. We exploit variation in the violence of blockbuster movies from 1995 to 2004, and study the effect on same-day assaults. We find that violent crime decreases on days with larger theater audiences for violent movies. The effect is partly due to voluntary incapacitation: between 6PM and 12AM, a one million increase in the audi...

  5. Accelerated tooth eruption in children with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Shantanu; Cheng, Bin; Kaplan, Selma; Softness, Barney; Greenberg, Ellen; Goland, Robin S; Lalla, Evanthia; Lamster, Ira B

    2008-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate tooth eruption in 6- to 14-year-old children with diabetes mellitus. Tooth eruption status was assessed for 270 children with diabetes and 320 control children without diabetes. Data on important diabetes-related variables were collected. Analyses were performed using logistic regression models. Children with diabetes exhibited accelerated tooth eruption in the late mixed dentition period (10-14 years of age) compared to healthy children. For both case patients and control subjects the odds of a tooth being in an advanced eruptive stage were significantly higher among girls than boys. There was also a trend associating gingival inflammation with expedited tooth eruption in both groups. No association was found between the odds of a tooth being in an advanced stage of eruption and hemoglobin A(1c) or duration of diabetes. Patients with higher body mass index percentile demonstrated statistically higher odds for accelerated tooth eruption, but the association was not clinically significant. Children with diabetes exhibit accelerated tooth eruption. Future studies need to ascertain the role of such aberrations in dental development and complications such as malocclusion, impaired oral hygiene, and periodontal disease. The standards of care for children with diabetes should include screening and referral programs aimed at oral health promotion and disease prevention.

  6. Stress field control during large caldera-forming eruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Costa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Crustal stress field can have a significant influence on the way magma is channelled through the crust and erupted explosively at the surface. Large Caldera Forming Eruptions (LCFEs can erupt hundreds to thousands of cubic kilometres of magma in a relatively short time along fissures under the control of a far-field extensional stress. The associated eruption intensities are estimated in the range 109 - 1011 kg/s. We analyse syn-eruptive dynamics of LCFEs, by simulating numerically explosive flow of magma through a shallow dyke conduit connected to a magma chamber that in turn is fed by a deeper magma reservoir, both under the action of an extensional far-field stress. Results indicate that huge amounts of high viscosity silicic magma can be erupted over timescales of a few to several hours. Our study provides answers to outstanding questions relating to the intensity and duration of catastrophic volcanic eruptions in the past. In addition, it presents far-reaching implications for the understanding of dynamics and intensity of large-magnitude volcanic eruptions on Earth and to highlight the necessity of a future research to advance our knowledge of these rare catastrophic events.

  7. Violent phenomena in the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Narlikar, Jayant V

    2007-01-01

    The serenity of a clear night sky belies the evidence-gathered by balloons, rockets, satellites, and telescopes-that the universe contains centers of furious activity that pour out vast amounts of energy, some in regular cycles and some in gigantic bursts. This reader-friendly book, acclaimed by Nature as ""excellent and uncompromising,"" traces the development of modern astrophysics and its explanations of these startling celestial fireworks.This lively narrative ranges from the gravitational theories of Newton and Einstein to recent exciting discoveries of such violent phenomena as supernova

  8. Initiation of Solar Eruptions: Recent Observations and Implications for Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, A. C.

    2006-01-01

    Solar eruptions involve the violent disruption of a system of magnetic field. Just how the field is destabilized and explodes to produce flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is still being debated in the solar community. Here I discuss recent observational work into these questions by ourselves (me and my colleagues) and others. Our work has concentrated mainly on eruptions that include filaments. We use the filament motion early in the event as a tracer of the motion of the general erupting coronal field in and around the filament, since that field itself is hard to distinguish otherwise. Our main data sources are EUV images from SOHO/EIT and TRACE, soft Xray images from Yohkoh, and magnetograms from SOHO/MDI, supplemented with coronagraph images from SOHO/LASCO, hard X-ray data, and ground-based observations. We consider the observational findings in terms of three proposed eruption-initiation mechanisms: (i) runaway internal tether-cutting reconnection, (ii) slow external tether-cutting reconnection ("breakout"), and (iii) ideal MHD instability.

  9. Most Powerful Eruption in the Universe Discovered

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Astronomers have found the most powerful eruption seen in the Universe using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. A supermassive black hole generated this eruption by growing at a remarkable rate. This discovery shows the enormous appetite of large black holes, and the profound impact they have on their surroundings. The huge eruption is seen in a Chandra image of the hot, X-ray emitting gas of a galaxy cluster called MS 0735.6+7421. Two vast cavities extend away from the supermassive black hole in the cluster's central galaxy. The eruption - which has lasted for 100 million years and is still going - has generated the energy equivalent to hundreds of millions of gamma-ray bursts. Animation of Eruption from Supermassive Black Hole Animation of Eruption from Supermassive Black Hole This event was caused by gravitational energy release as enormous amounts of matter fell toward a black hole. Most of the matter was swallowed, but some of it was violently ejected before being captured by the black hole. "I was stunned to find that a mass of about 300 million Suns was swallowed," said Brian McNamara of Ohio University in Athens, lead author of the study that appears in the January 6, 2005 issue of Nature. "This is almost as massive as the supermassive black hole that swallowed it." Astronomers are not sure where such large amounts of matter came from. One theory is that gas from the host galaxy catastrophically cooled and was then swallowed by the black hole. Illustration of MS 0735.6+742 Illustration of MS 0735.6+742 The energy released shows that the black hole in MS 0735 has grown very dramatically during this eruption. Previous studies suggest that other large black holes have grown very little in the recent past, and that only smaller black holes are still growing quickly. "This new result is as surprising as it is exciting", said co-author Paul Nulsen of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center of Astrophysics. "This black hole is feasting when it should be fasting." Radio

  10. Large erupted complex odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijeev Vasudevan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are a heterogeneous group of jaw bone lesions, classified as odontogenic tumors which usually include well-diversified dental tissues. Odontoma is a term introduced to the literature by Broca in 1867. Trauma, infection and hereditary factors are the possible causes of forming this kind of lesions. Among odontogenic tumors, they constitute about 2/3 of cases. These lesions usually develop slowly and asymptomatically, and in most cases they do not cross the bone borders. Two types of odontoma are recognized: compound and complex. Complex odontomas are less common than the compound variety in the ratio 1:2.3. Eruption of an odontoma in the oral cavity is rare. We present a case of complex odontoma, in which apparent eruption has occurred in the area of the right maxillary second molar region.

  11. Is basic personality related to violent and non-violent video game play and preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chory, Rebecca M; Goodboy, Alan K

    2011-04-01

    Based on the uses and gratifications perspective, personality was expected to relate to violent video game play frequency and game preferences. Participants completed measures of personality and frequency of violent video game play, and identified their most frequently played video games. Results indicate that individuals higher in openness but lower in agreeableness played violent video games more frequently. In addition, more open and extroverted but less agreeable and neurotic individuals generally preferred to play video games that are more violent. Results suggest personality may be more predictive of violent video game use than traditional media use, though the predictive personality dimensions may be consistent across media types.

  12. Management of the acutely violent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Jorge R

    2005-09-01

    Violence in the work place is a new but growing problem for our profession. It is likely that at some point a psychiatrist will be confronted with a potentially violent patient or need to assess a violent patient. Understanding predictors and associated factors in violence as well as having a clear and well-defined strategy in approaching and dealing with the violent patient, thus, are crucial. Ensuring patient, staff, and personal safety is the most important aspect in the management of a violent patient. All of the staff must be familiar with management strategies and clear guidelines that are implemented and followed when confronted with a violent patient. The more structured the approach to the violent patient, the less likely a bad outcome will occur. Manipulating one's work environment to maximize safety and understanding how to de-escalate potentially mounting violence are two steps in the approach to the violent patient. Restraint, seclusion, and psychopharmacologic interventions also are important and often are necessary components to the management of the violent patient.

  13. Experience and Perpetration of Violent Behaviours among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives ... Worldwide, adolescents are disproportionately affected by violent ... and perpetration of physical, sexual and psychological violent behaviours among ... of violence among males were use of alcohol, witnessing domestic violence, ...

  14. Sexually Violent Predators and Civil Commitment Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer Kendall, Wanda D.; Cheung, Monit

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes the civil commitment models for treating sexually violent predators (SVPs) and analyzes recent civil commitment laws. SVPs are commonly defined as sex offenders who are particularly predatory and repetitive in their sexually violent behavior. Data from policy literature, a survey to all states, and a review of law review…

  15. The Narrative Labyrinth of Violent Dying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynearson, E. K.

    2005-01-01

    This essay outlines the dynamics of retelling the violent death of a loved one and the narrative "dilemma" of vulnerable family members fixated on retelling. To counter this fixation, the author presents a mythic retelling of violent death (the Myth of Theseus) as narrative basis for developing a restorative retelling. The essay begins by…

  16. Genetic background of extreme violent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiihonen, J; Rautiainen, M-R; Ollila, H M; Repo-Tiihonen, E; Virkkunen, M; Palotie, A; Pietiläinen, O; Kristiansson, K; Joukamaa, M; Lauerma, H; Saarela, J; Tyni, S; Vartiainen, H; Paananen, J; Goldman, D; Paunio, T

    2015-06-01

    In developed countries, the majority of all violent crime is committed by a small group of antisocial recidivistic offenders, but no genes have been shown to contribute to recidivistic violent offending or severe violent behavior, such as homicide. Our results, from two independent cohorts of Finnish prisoners, revealed that a monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) low-activity genotype (contributing to low dopamine turnover rate) as well as the CDH13 gene (coding for neuronal membrane adhesion protein) are associated with extremely violent behavior (at least 10 committed homicides, attempted homicides or batteries). No substantial signal was observed for either MAOA or CDH13 among non-violent offenders, indicating that findings were specific for violent offending, and not largely attributable to substance abuse or antisocial personality disorder. These results indicate both low monoamine metabolism and neuronal membrane dysfunction as plausible factors in the etiology of extreme criminal violent behavior, and imply that at least about 5-10% of all severe violent crime in Finland is attributable to the aforementioned MAOA and CDH13 genotypes.

  17. [Localized eruptive juvenile xanthogranuloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanotti, S; Chiaverini, C; Rostain, G; Cardot-Leccia, N; Lacour, J-P

    2014-03-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a non-Langerhans histiocytosis of young children characterized by solitary or multiple yellowish cutaneous nodules. Atypical skin lesions such as lichenoid eruptions, and pedunculated, maculopapular, plaque-like or linear lesions have been described. We report a case of eruptive XGJ en plaque in the left leg in an infant. A 13-month-old child presented asymptomatic eruptive, yellowish papules of the leg measuring 5 to 10mm since the age of 2months. There was no cutaneous infiltration between the lesions. Darier's sign was negative. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of JXG. The course of the disease comprised a gradual decrease in the number of active lesions with slight residual pigmentation. Our case was suggestive of JXG en plaque. Only 7 cases have been reported in the literature, all appearing before the age of 5months. The lesions corresponded mostly to an asymptomatic erythematous plaque studded with small yellowish/red nodules of variable localisation. Spontaneous involvement was noted in all cases. No systemic involvement was found. Herein we present a unique case of localised multiple JXG without evident clinical infiltrating plaque progressing with self-resolving flares. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Sex Differences in Violent versus Non-Violent Life-Threatening Altruism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey J. Fitzgerald

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Many studies on Hamilton's (1964 inclusive fitness theory have used the burning house and kidney donation examples of life-threatening altruism. However, these examples may not be sufficiently exhibiting the risk involved with life-threatening altruism that would have occurred in hunter-gatherer societies, such as fighting off attackers and/or predators. The present study examined participants' estimated likelihood to perform altruistic acts for specific kin members/friends in two violent life-threatening situations (i.e., being mugged and being chased and two non-violent life-threatening situations (i.e., the burning house and kidney donation examples. Participants were 216 undergraduate students who completed a questionnaire on altruism toward an actual kin member/friend. Each questionnaire contained four life-or-death scenarios (two violent and two non-violent in which either the participant's sibling, cousin, or best friend was in danger and needed help. Results indicated that people were more likely to help siblings than cousins and friends in both the violent and non-violent hypothetical scenarios. Participants indicated a greater likelihood to help people in violent situations than in non-violent situations. Women indicated a greater estimated likelihood than men to help people in non-violent situations while men indicated a greater estimated likelihood than women to help people in violent situations. Both male and female participants indicated a greater estimated likelihood to help women than men in violent situations.

  19. Playing violent video games increases intergroup bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown how, why, and for whom violent video game play is related to aggression and aggression-related variables. In contrast, less is known about whether some individuals are more likely than others to be the target of increased aggression after violent video game play. The present research examined the idea that the effects of violent video game play are stronger when the target is a member of an outgroup rather than an ingroup. In fact, a correlational study revealed that violent video game exposure was positively related to ethnocentrism. This relation remained significant when controlling for trait aggression. Providing causal evidence, an experimental study showed that playing a violent video game increased aggressive behavior, and that this effect was more pronounced when the target was an outgroup rather than an ingroup member. Possible mediating mechanisms are discussed.

  20. Historic hydrovolcanism at Deception Island (Antarctica): implications for eruption hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrazzi, Dario; Németh, Károly; Geyer, Adelina; Álvarez-Valero, Antonio M.; Aguirre-Díaz, Gerardo; Bartolini, Stefania

    2018-01-01

    Deception Island (Antarctica) is the southernmost island of the South Shetland Archipelago in the South Atlantic. Volcanic activity since the eighteenth century, along with the latest volcanic unrest episodes in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, demonstrates that the volcanic system is still active and that future eruptions are likely. Despite its remote location, the South Shetland Islands are an important touristic destination during the austral summer. In addition, they host several research stations and three summer field camps. Deception Island is characterised by a Quaternary caldera system with a post-caldera succession and is considered to be part of an active, dispersed (monogenetic), volcanic field. Historical post-caldera volcanism on Deception Island involves monogenetic small-volume (VEI 2-3) eruptions such forming cones and various types of hydrovolcanic edifices. The scientific stations on the island were destroyed, or severely damaged, during the eruptions in 1967, 1969, and 1970 mainly due to explosive activity triggered by the interaction of rising (or erupting) magma with surface water, shallow groundwater, and ice. We conducted a detailed revision (field petrology and geochemistry) of the historical hydrovolcanic post-caldera eruptions of Deception Island with the aim to understand the dynamics of magma-water interaction, as well as characterise the most likely eruptive scenarios from future eruptions. We specifically focused on the Crimson Hill (estimated age between 1825 and 1829), and Kroner Lake (estimated age between 1829 and 1912) eruptions and 1967, 1969, and 1970 events by describing the eruption mechanisms related to the island's hydrovolcanic activity. Data suggest that the main hazards posed by volcanism on the island are due to fallout, ballistic blocks and bombs, and subordinate, dilute PDCs. In addition, Deception Island can be divided into five areas of expected activity due to magma-water interaction, providing additional

  1. When will collective action be effective? Violent and non-violent protests differentially influence perceptions of legitimacy and efficacy among sympathizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Emma F; Louis, Winnifred R

    2014-02-01

    Collective action will be effective in achieving broader social change goals to the extent that it influences public opinion yet the degree to which collective action "works" in changing opinion is rarely studied. Experiment 1 (n = 158) showed that, consistent with a logic of strategic non-violence, non-violent collective action more effectively conveys a sense of the illegitimacy of the issue and the efficacy of the group, thereby promoting support for future non-violent actions. Experiment 2 (n = 139) explored the moderating role of allegations of corruption. A social context of corruption effectively undermined the efficacy and legitimacy of non-violent collective action, relative to support for violence, thereby promoting (indirectly) support for future extreme action. The implications of this research, for the logic of strategic non-violence and mobilizing supportive public opinion, are discussed.

  2. Months between rejuvenation and volcanic eruption at Yellowstone caldera, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Christy B.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Boyce, Jeremy W

    2015-01-01

    Rejuvenation of previously intruded silicic magma is an important process leading to effusive rhyolite, which is the most common product of volcanism at calderas with protracted histories of eruption and unrest such as Yellowstone, Long Valley, and Valles, USA. Although orders of magnitude smaller in volume than rare caldera-forming super-eruptions, these relatively frequent effusions of rhyolite are comparable to the largest eruptions of the 20th century and pose a considerable volcanic hazard. However, the physical pathway from rejuvenation to eruption of silicic magma is unclear particularly because the time between reheating of a subvolcanic intrusion and eruption is poorly quantified. This study uses geospeedometry of trace element profiles with nanometer resolution in sanidine crystals to reveal that Yellowstone’s most recent volcanic cycle began when remobilization of a near- or sub-solidus silicic magma occurred less than 10 months prior to eruption, following a 220,000 year period of volcanic repose. Our results reveal a geologically rapid timescale for rejuvenation and effusion of ~3 km3 of high-silica rhyolite lava even after protracted cooling of the subvolcanic system, which is consistent with recent physical modeling that predict a timescale of several years or less. Future renewal of rhyolitic volcanism at Yellowstone is likely to require an energetic intrusion of mafic or silicic magma into the shallow subvolcanic reservoir and could rapidly generate an eruptible rhyolite on timescales similar to those documented here.

  3. Concurrent eruptions at Etna, Stromboli, and Vulcano: casualty or causality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Funiciello

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Anecdotes of concurrent eruptions at Etna, Stromboli, and Vulcano (Southern Italy have persisted for more than 2000 years and volcanologists in recent and past times have hypothesized a causal link among these volcanoes. Here this hypothesis is tested. To introduce the problem and provide examples of the type of expected volcanic phenomena, narratives of the most notable examples of concurrent eruptions are provided. Then the frequency of eruptions at each individual volcano is analysed for about the last 300 years and the expected probability of concurrent eruptions is calculated to compare it to the observed probability. Results show that the occurrence of concurrent eruptions is often more frequent than a random probability, particularly for the Stromboli-Vulcano pair. These results are integrated with a statistical analysis of the earthquake catalogue to find evidence of linked seismicity in the Etnean and Aeolian areas. Results suggest a moderate incidence of non-random concurrent eruptions, but available data are temporally limited and do not allow an unequivocal identification of plausible triggers; our results, however, are the first attempt to quantify a more-than-2000-years-old curious observation and constitute a starting point for more sophisticated analyses of new data in the future. We look forward to our prediction of a moderate incidence of concurrent eruptions being confirmed or refuted with the passage of time and occurrence of new events.

  4. Potential Future Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, M.; Perry, F.; Valentine, G.; Smistad, E.

    2005-01-01

    the waste packages into the atmosphere, deposition of a tephra sheet, and redistribution of the contaminated ash. In both cases radioactive material is released to the accessible environment either through groundwater transport or through the atmospheric dispersal and deposition. Six Quaternary volcanic centers exist within 20 h of Yucca Mountain. Lathrop Wells cone (LWC), the youngest (approximately 75,000 yrs), is a well-preserved cinder cone with associated flows and tephra sheet that provides an excellent analogue for consequence studies related to future volcanism. Cone, lavas, hydrovolcanic ash, and ash-fall tephra have been examined to estimate eruptive volume and eruption type. LWC ejecta volumes suggest basaltic volcanism may be waning in the Yucca Mountain region. The eruptive products indicate a sequence of initial fissure fountaining, early Strombolian ash and lapilli deposition forming the scoria cone, a brief hydrovolcanic pulse (possibly limited to the NW sector), and a violent Strombolian phase. Mathematical models have been developed to represent magmatic processes and their consequences on proposed repository performance. These models address dike propagation, magma interaction and flow into drifts, eruption through the proposed repository, and post intrusion/eruption effects. These models continue to be refined to reduce the uncertainty associated with the consequences from a possible future igneous event

  5. Childhood adversity, mental health, and violent crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer-Smyth, Kathleen; Cornelius, Monica E; Pickelsimer, E Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Little is understood about childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) and lifetime violent crime perpetration. The purpose was to evaluate TBI before the age of 15 years and other childhood environmental factors, mental health, and lifetime history of committing a violent crime. A cross-sectional study of 636 male and female offenders from a southeastern state prison population was conducted using Chi-squared tests, t tests, and logistic regression to determine factors associated with ever committing a violent crime. Committing a violent crime was associated with male gender, younger age, greater childhood sexual abuse (CSA), greater childhood emotional abuse, no TBI by the age of 15 years, and greater neighborhood adversity during childhood. Although TBI has been related to violent and nonviolent crime, this study showed that absence of TBI by the age of 15 years was associated with lifetime violent crime when adjusting for CSA, childhood emotional abuse, and neighborhood adversity during childhood. This builds upon neurobehavioral development literature suggesting that CSA and the stress of violence exposure without direct physical victimization may play a more critical role in lifetime violent criminal behavior than childhood TBI. Violence risk reduction must occur during childhood focusing on decreasing adversity, especially violence exposure as a witness as well as a direct victim.

  6. Modelling and evaluating against the violent insider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortney, D.S.; Al-Ayat, R.A.; Saleh, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The violent insider threat poses a special challenge to facilities protecting special nuclear material from theft or diversion. These insiders could potentially behave as nonviolent insiders to deceitfully defeat certain safeguards elements and use violence to forcefully defeat hardware or personnel. While several vulnerability assessment tools are available to deal with the nonviolent insider, very limited effort has been directed to developing analysis tools for the violent threat. In this paper, the authors present an approach using the results of a vulnerability assessment for nonviolent insiders to evaluate certain violent insider scenarios. Since existing tools do not explicitly consider violent insiders, the approach is intended for experienced safeguards analysts and relies on the analyst to brainstorm possible violent actions, to assign detection probabilities, and to ensure consistency. The authors then discuss our efforts in developing an automated tool for assessing the vulnerability against those violent insiders who are willing to use force against barriers, but who are unwilling to kill or be killed. Specifically, the authors discuss our efforts in developing databases for violent insiders penetrating barriers, algorithms for considering the entry of contraband, and modelling issues in considering the use of violence

  7. Modelling and evaluating against the violent insider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortney, D.S.; Al-Ayat, R.A.; Saleh, R.A.

    1991-07-01

    The violent insider threat poses a special challenge to facilities protecting special nuclear material from theft or diversion. These insiders could potentially behave as nonviolent insiders to deceitfully defeat certain safeguards elements and use violence to forcefully defeat hardware or personnel. While several vulnerability assessment tools are available to deal with the nonviolent insider, very limited effort has been directed to developing analysis tools for the violent threat. In this paper, we present an approach using the results of a vulnerability assessment for nonviolent insiders to evaluate certain violent insider scenarios. Since existing tools do not explicitly consider violent insiders, the approach is intended for experienced safeguards analysts and relies on the analyst to brainstorm possible violent actions, to assign detection probabilities, and to ensure consistency. We then discuss our efforts in developing an automated tool for assessing the vulnerability against those violent insiders who are willing to use force against barriers, but who are unwilling to kill or be killed. Specifically, we discuss our efforts in developing databases for violent insiders penetrating barriers, algorithms for considering the entry of contraband, and modelling issues in considering the use of violence

  8. Eruption probabilities for the Lassen Volcanic Center and regional volcanism, northern California, and probabilities for large explosive eruptions in the Cascade Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathenson, Manuel; Clynne, Michael A.; Muffler, L.J. Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Chronologies for eruptive activity of the Lassen Volcanic Center and for eruptions from the regional mafic vents in the surrounding area of the Lassen segment of the Cascade Range are here used to estimate probabilities of future eruptions. For the regional mafic volcanism, the ages of many vents are known only within broad ranges, and two models are developed that should bracket the actual eruptive ages. These chronologies are used with exponential, Weibull, and mixed-exponential probability distributions to match the data for time intervals between eruptions. For the Lassen Volcanic Center, the probability of an eruption in the next year is 1.4x10-4 for the exponential distribution and 2.3x10-4 for the mixed exponential distribution. For the regional mafic vents, the exponential distribution gives a probability of an eruption in the next year of 6.5x10-4, but the mixed exponential distribution indicates that the current probability, 12,000 years after the last event, could be significantly lower. For the exponential distribution, the highest probability is for an eruption from a regional mafic vent. Data on areas and volumes of lava flows and domes of the Lassen Volcanic Center and of eruptions from the regional mafic vents provide constraints on the probable sizes of future eruptions. Probabilities of lava-flow coverage are similar for the Lassen Volcanic Center and for regional mafic vents, whereas the probable eruptive volumes for the mafic vents are generally smaller. Data have been compiled for large explosive eruptions (>≈ 5 km3 in deposit volume) in the Cascade Range during the past 1.2 m.y. in order to estimate probabilities of eruption. For erupted volumes >≈5 km3, the rate of occurrence since 13.6 ka is much higher than for the entire period, and we use these data to calculate the annual probability of a large eruption at 4.6x10-4. For erupted volumes ≥10 km3, the rate of occurrence has been reasonably constant from 630 ka to the present, giving

  9. Sex differences in predictors of violent and non-violent juvenile offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Zoe; Woodhams, Jessica; Cooke, Claire

    2014-01-01

    In response to concerns regarding the rise in female juvenile violent crime and the dearth of gender-specific research, this study aimed to identify predictors of violent offending in female offenders. Data were extracted from risk assessments of 586 male and female juvenile offenders (aged 11-17 years) conducted between 2005 and 2009 by the Youth Offending Service in Gloucestershire, an English county. Information regarding the young people's living arrangements, family and personal relationships, education, emotional/mental health, thinking and behavior, and attitudes to offending was recorded. Comparisons were made between the violent male offenders (N = 185), the violent female offenders (N = 113), the non-violent male offenders (N = 150), and the non-violent female offenders (N = 138) for these variables. These were followed by a multinomial logistic regression analysis. The findings indicated that engaging in self-harm was the best predictor of being a female violent offender, with the predictors of giving into pressure from others and attempted suicide nearing significance. Furthermore, non-violent females were significantly less likely to lose control of their temper and more likely to give in to pressure from others than their violent counterparts. Non-violent males were significantly less likely to lose control of their temper and more likely to self-harm and give in to pressure from others than violent males. Although many similarities existed between sexes for predictors of violent offending, the findings of this study indicate that more attention needs to be paid to the mental health of female offenders. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Universal bursty behaviour in human violent conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picoli, S.; Castillo-Mussot, M. Del; Ribeiro, H. V.; Lenzi, E. K.; Mendes, R. S.

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the mechanisms and processes underlying the dynamics of collective violence is of considerable current interest. Recent studies indicated the presence of robust patterns characterizing the size and timing of violent events in human conflicts. Since the size and timing of violent events arises as the result of a dynamical process, we explore the possibility of unifying these observations. By analyzing available catalogs on violent events in Iraq (2003-2005), Afghanistan (2008-2010) and Northern Ireland (1969-2001), we show that the inter-event time distributions (calculated for a range of minimum sizes) obeys approximately a simple scaling law which holds for more than three orders of magnitude. This robust pattern suggests a hierarchical organization in size and time providing a unified picture of the dynamics of violent conflicts.

  11. Will Mount Etna erupt before EGU General Assembly 2017?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisi, Marco; Cannavo', Flavio; Palano, Mimmo

    2017-04-01

    Mount Etna has historically recorded a long and very various series of eruptions. The eruptions have mostly shown an episodic character, despite a near continuous supply of magma. In the last years, activity at Mount Etna seems to follow a recurrent pattern characterized by very similar "inflation/paroxysmal events/deflation" dynamic. The paroxysms occurred in December 2015 and May 2016, which involved the "Voragine" crater, can be considered among the most violent observed during the last two decades. These events showed high lava fountains, in the order of hundreds of meters in height, and eruption columns, several kilometres high. A new cycle, characterized by a clear similar inflation of the whole volcano edifice is currently underway. Here, we analyse these recent volcanic cycles and discuss about a) a possible upper bound for the inflation dynamic, above which a paroxysmal event occurs, b) the comparison of the models generating the considered lava fountains and c) a possible time-predictable model of the expected paroxysmal event.

  12. Statistical mechanics of violent relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, F.H.

    1978-01-01

    We reexamine the foundations of Lynden-Bell's statistical mechanical discussion of violent relaxation in collisionless stellar systems. We argue that Lynden-Bell's formulation in terms of a continuum description introduces unnecessary complications, and we consider a more conventional formulation in terms of particles. We then find the exclusion principle discovered by Lynden-Bell to be quantitatively important only at phase densities where two-body encounters are no longer negligible. Since the edynamical basis for the exclusion principle vanishes in such cases anyway, Lynden-Bell statistics always reduces in practice to Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics when applied to stellar systems. Lynden-Bell also found the equilibrium distribution function generally to be a sum of Maxwellians with velocity dispersions dependent on the phase density at star formation. We show that this difficulty vanishes in the particulate description for an encounterless stellar system as long as stars of different masses are initially well mixed in phase space. Our methods also demonstrate the equivalence between Gibbs's formalism which uses the microcanonical ensemble and Boltzmann's formalism which uses a coarse-grained continuum description. In addition, we clarify the concept of irreversible behavior on a macroscopic scale for an encounterless stellar system. Finally, we comment on the use of unusual macroscopic constraints to simulate the effects of incomplete relaxation

  13. Prevalence of and risk factors for violent disciplinary practices at home in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, Claudia; Dam, Hang

    2014-02-01

    Data on parenting practices and the use of violence in child rearing remain scarce worldwide, hindering prevention efforts. This study examines disciplinary methods used on children at home in Viet Nam. It is based on data collected from 2010 to 2011 through the fourth round of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS4)-a household survey program supported by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) that focuses on women and children in low- and middle-income countries. Respondents in the survey were asked 11 questions relating to disciplinary measures used in the preceding month on one randomly selected child (2-14 years old) in each household. A final question about attitudes probed adults' views on the need for physical punishment in child rearing. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of violent and nonviolent forms of discipline, and to identify risk factors associated with violent punishment. Results showed that three in four children in Viet Nam are disciplined through violent means. The exposure of Vietnamese children to violent forms of discipline was significantly associated with varied characteristics of both children and their caregivers. Moreover, the use of violent disciplinary practices on children was strongly associated with positive attitudes toward corporal punishment. Risk factors for violent child discipline identified in this study can inform future interventions to promote positive practices and to protect Vietnamese children against violence in the home.

  14. Does Violent Crime Deter Physical Activity?

    OpenAIRE

    Janke, Katharina; Propper, Carol; Shields, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Crime has potentially important externalities. We investigate the relationship between recorded violent crime at the local area level and individuals’ participation in their local area through walking and physical activity. We use a sample of nearly 1 million people residing in over 320 local areas across England over the period 2005 to 2011. We show that concerns about personal safety co-move with police recorded violent crime. Our analysis controls for individual-level characteristics, no...

  15. Criminal Profiles of Violent Juvenile Sex and Violent Juvenile Non-Sex Offenders: An Explorative Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Mali, Bas R. F.; Bullens, Ruud A. R.; Vermeiren, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have longitudinally investigated the criminal profiles of violent juvenile sex and violent juvenile non-sex offenders. To make up for this lack, this study used police records of juveniles to determine the nature of the criminal profiles of violent sex offenders (n = 226) and violent non-sex offenders (n = 4,130). All offenders…

  16. An Eruption on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The first images returned to Earth by New Horizons during its close encounter with Jupiter feature the Galilean moon Io, snapped with the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) at 0840 UTC on February 26, while the moon was 2.5 million miles (4 million kilometers) from the spacecraft. Io is intensely heated by its tidal interaction with Jupiter and is thus extremely volcanically active. That activity is evident in these images, which reveal an enormous dust plume, more than 150 miles high, erupting from the volcano Tvashtar. The plume appears as an umbrella-shaped feature of the edge of Io's disk in the 11 o'clock position in the right image, which is a long-exposure (20-millisecond) frame designed specifically to look for plumes like this. The bright spots at 2 o'clock are high mountains catching the setting sun; beyond them the night side of Io can be seen, faintly illuminated by light reflected from Jupiter itself. The left image is a shorter exposure -- 3 milliseconds -- designed to look at surface features. In this frame, the Tvashtar volcano shows as a dark spot, also at 11 o'clock, surrounded by a large dark ring, where an area larger than Texas has been covered by fallout from the giant eruption. This is the clearest view yet of a plume from Tvashtar, one of Io's most active volcanoes. Ground-based telescopes and the Galileo Jupiter orbiter first spotted volcanic heat radiation from Tvashtar in November 1999, and the Cassini spacecraft saw a large plume when it flew past Jupiter in December 2000. The Keck telescope in Hawaii picked up renewed heat radiation from Tvashtar in spring 2006, and just two weeks ago the Hubble Space Telescope saw the Tvashtar plume in ultraviolet images designed to support the New Horizons flyby. Most of those images will be stored onboard the spacecraft for downlink to Earth in March and April.

  17. Neuropsychology and emotion processing in violent individuals with antisocial personality disorder or schizophrenia: The same or different? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, Ottilie; Young, Susan; Baumeister, David; Greer, Ben; Das, Mrigendra; Kumari, Veena

    2017-12-01

    To assess whether there are shared or divergent (a) cognitive and (b) emotion processing characteristics among violent individuals with antisocial personality disorder and/or schizophrenia, diagnoses which are commonly encountered at the interface of mental disorder and violence. Cognition and emotion processing are incorporated into models of violence, and thus an understanding of these characteristics within and between disorder groups may help inform future models and therapeutic targets. Relevant databases (OVID, Embase, PsycINFO) were searched to identify suitable literature. Meta-analyses comparing cognitive function in violent schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder to healthy controls were conducted. Neuropsychological studies not comparing these groups to healthy controls, and emotion processing studies, were evaluated qualitatively. Meta-analyses indicated lower IQ, memory and executive function in both violent schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder groups compared to healthy controls. The degree of deficit was consistently larger in violent schizophrenia. Both antisocial personality disorder and violent schizophrenia groups had difficulties in aspects of facial affect recognition, although theory of mind results were less conclusive. Psychopathic traits related positively to experiential emotion deficits across the two disorders. Very few studies explored comorbid violent schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder despite this being common in clinical practice. There are qualitatively similar, but quantitatively different, neuropsychological and emotion processing deficits in violent individuals with schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder which could be developed into transdiagnostic treatment targets for violent behaviour. Future research should aim to characterise specific subgroups of violent offenders, including those with comorbid diagnoses.

  18. Effects of Violent and Non-Violent Computer Game Content on Memory Performance in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, Asja; Kollhorster, Kirsten; Riediger, Annemarie; MacDonald, Vanessa; Lohaus, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    The present study focuses on the short-term effects of electronic entertainment media on memory and learning processes. It compares the effects of violent versus non-violent computer game content in a condition of playing and in another condition of watching the same game. The participants consisted of 83 female and 94 male adolescents with a mean…

  19. The Role of Violent Thinking in Violent Behavior: It's More About Thinking Than Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, Nicola; Walker, Julian; Hughes, Elise; Lewis, Rhiannon; Hyde, Gemma

    2017-08-01

    This article aims to explore and report on violent thinking and alcohol misuse; how these factors may predict self-reported violence. The role of violent thinking in violent behavior is both well established in theoretical models, yet there are few measures that explain this role. One measure that has been identified is the Maudsley Violence Questionnaire (MVQ). This is the first study to explore the use of the MVQ with a general (nonoffender) adult sample, having already been shown to be valid with young people (under 18 years old), adult male offenders, and mentally disordered offenders. This study involved 808 adult participants-569 female and 239 male participants. As figures demonstrate that around half of all violent crime in the United Kingdom is alcohol related, we also explored the role of alcohol misuse. Regression was used to explore how these factors predicted violence. The results demonstrate the important role of violent thinking in violent behavior. The MVQ factor of "Machismo" was the primary factor in regression models for both male and female self-reported violence. The role of alcohol in the regression models differed slightly between the male and female participants, with alcohol misuse involved in male violence. The study supports theoretical models including the role of violent thinking and encourages those hoping to address violence, to consider "Machismo" as a treatment target. The study also provides further validation of the MVQ as a helpful tool for clinicians or researchers who may be interested in "measuring" violent thinking.

  20. Violent Women: Are They Catching Up To Violent Men or Have They Surpassed Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, R. Barri

    Current statistics on arrests, convictions, and prison inmates and recent studies on violence by women indicate that the number of women who commit violent crimes is rising. Violent crimes include murder, rape, terrorism, gang participation, domestic violence, and prostitution. The first section, "Women Who Kill," discusses women who…

  1. Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Haldrup

    2017-01-01

    Currently both design thinking and critical social science experience an increased interest in speculating in alternative future scenarios. This interest is not least related to the challenges issues of global sustainability present for politics, ethics and design. This paper explores the potenti......Currently both design thinking and critical social science experience an increased interest in speculating in alternative future scenarios. This interest is not least related to the challenges issues of global sustainability present for politics, ethics and design. This paper explores...... the potentials of speculative thinking in relation to design and social and cultural studies, arguing that both offer valuable insights for creating a speculative space for new emergent criticalities challenging current assumptions of the relations between power and design. It does so by tracing out discussions...... of ‘futurity’ and ‘futuring’ in design as well as social and cultural studies. Firstly, by discussing futurist and speculative approaches in design thinking; secondly by engaging with ideas of scenario thinking and utopianism in current social and cultural studies; and thirdly by showing how the articulation...

  2. Climate change, natural disasters, and the risk of violent conflict

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slettebak, Rune Thorkildsen

    2012-07-01

    This PhD project aims to assess the relation between natural disasters triggered by extreme weather events and the risk of violent conflict. The focus on these natural disasters stems from expectations that climate change will increase the frequency and severity of extreme weather events, combined with frequent suggestions that climate change in general and natural disasters in particular can be expected to trigger more violent conflicts. A number of conflict types, ranging from riots to civil war, are tested. Case studies have found examples where environmental factors have contributed to triggering conflict. However, without systematic assessments, we do not know whether these cases are exceptions or parts of a common pattern. Learning more about this is a prime aim of this thesis. As the effects of climate change are still mainly in the future, I turn to the past for learning more about these connections. Although future relations may differ from those in the past, learning from history is considered the best way of increasing our basis of knowledge on what to expect from the future. The thesis tests two opposing theoretical traditions against each other. On one side is the environmental security literature, which holds that environmentally induced adversity is likely to increase the risk of violent conflict. The other, relatively unknown tradition, called disaster sociology, expects adversity to stimulate altruistic behavior and replace past ascribed identities with new 'communities of sufferers' in the disaster aftermath. In a violent conflict setting, this argument is read as that disasters should reduce conflict risk. Four analyses have been conducted. The first has a global coverage, two focus on India and the last one on Indonesia. The first analysis aims to uncover general trends, while the three others use cases where environmentally driven violence is considered particularly likely, and disaggregated analytical designs that should be well

  3. Race, Ethnicity, and Adolescent Violent Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillyer, Marie Skubak; Tillyer, Rob

    2016-07-01

    The risk of adolescent violent victimization in the United States varies considerably across racial and ethnic populations; it is unknown whether the sources of risk also vary by race and ethnicity. This study examined the correlates of violent victimization for White, Black, and Hispanic youth. Data collected from 11,070 adolescents (51 % female, mean age = 15.04 years) during the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were used to estimate group-specific multilevel logistic regression models. The results indicate that male, violent offending, peer deviance, gang membership, and low self-control were significantly associated with increased odds of violent victimization for all groups. Some activities-including getting drunk, sneaking out, and unstructured socializing with peers-were risk factors for Black adolescents only; skipping school was a risk factor only for Hispanic adolescents. Although there are many similarities across groups, the findings suggest that minority adolescents are particularly vulnerable to violent victimization when they engage in some activities and minor forms of delinquency.

  4. Characterization of pyroclastic deposits and pre-eruptive soils following the 2008 eruption of Kasatochi Island Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Michaelson, G.; Ping, C.-L.; Plumlee, G.; Hageman, P.

    2010-01-01

    The 78 August 2008 eruption of Kasatochi Island volcano blanketed the island in newly generated pyroclastic deposits and deposited ash into the ocean and onto nearby islands. Concentrations of water soluble Fe, Cu, and Zn determined from a 1:20 deionized water leachate of the ash were sufficient to provide short-term fertilization of the surface ocean. The 2008 pyroclastic deposits were thicker in concavities at bases of steeper slopes and thinner on steep slopes and ridge crests. By summer 2009, secondary erosion had exposed the pre-eruption soils along gulley walls and in gully bottoms on the southern and eastern slopes, respectively. Topographic and microtopographic position altered the depositional patterns of the pyroclastic flows and resulted in pre-eruption soils being buried by as little as 1 m of ash. The different erosion patterns gave rise to three surfaces on which future ecosystems will likely develop: largely pre-eruptive soils; fresh pyroclastic deposits influenced by shallowly buried, pre-eruptive soil; and thick (>1 m) pyroclastic deposits. As expected, the chemical composition differed between the pyroclastic deposits and the pre-eruptive soils. Pre-eruptive soils hold stocks of C and N important for establishing biota that are lacking in the fresh pyroclastic deposits. The pyroclastic deposits are a source for P and K but have negligible nutrient holding capacity, making these elements vulnerable to leaching loss. Consequently, the pre-eruption soils may also represent an important long-term P and K source. ?? 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  5. Volcanic Eruptions in Kamchatka

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Sheveluch Stratovolcano Click on the image for full resolution TIFF Klyuchevskoy Stratovolcano Click on the image for full resolution TIFF One of the most volcanically active regions of the world is the Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Siberia, Russia. It is not uncommon for several volcanoes to be erupting at the same time. On April 26, 2007, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radioneter (ASTER) on NASA's Terra spacecraft captured these images of the Klyuchevskoy and Sheveluch stratovolcanoes, erupting simultaneously, and 80 kilometers (50 miles) apart. Over Klyuchevskoy, the thermal infrared data (overlaid in red) indicates that two open-channel lava flows are descending the northwest flank of the volcano. Also visible is an ash-and-water plume extending to the east. Sheveluch volcano is partially cloud-covered. The hot flows highlighted in red come from a lava dome at the summit. They are avalanches of material from the dome, and pyroclastic flows. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and

  6. Historical Significant Volcanic Eruption Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A significant eruption is classified as one that meets at least one of the following criteriacaused fatalities, caused moderate damage (approximately $1 million or...

  7. Assessing Eruption Column Height in Ancient Flood Basalt Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Self, Stephen; Schmidt, Anja; Hunter, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    A buoyant plume model is used to explore the ability of flood basalt eruptions to inject climate-relevant gases into the stratosphere. An example from the 1986 Izu-Oshima basaltic fissure eruption validates the model's ability to reproduce the observed maximum plume heights of 12-16 km above sea level, sustained above fire-fountains. The model predicts maximum plume heights of 13-17 km for source widths of between 4-16 m when 32% (by mass) of the erupted magma is fragmented and involved in the buoyant plume (effective volatile content of 6 wt%). Assuming that the Miocene-age Roza eruption (part of the Columbia River Basalt Group) sustained fire-fountains of similar height to Izu-Oshima (1.6 km above the vent), we show that the Roza eruption could have sustained buoyant ash and gas plumes that extended into the stratosphere at approximately 45 deg N. Assuming 5 km long active fissure segments and 9000 Mt of SO2 released during explosive phases over a 10-15 year duration, the approximately 180 km of known Roza fissure length could have supported approximately 36 explosive events/phases, each with a duration of 3-4 days. Each 5 km fissure segment could have emitted 62 Mt of SO2 per day into the stratosphere while actively fountaining, the equivalent of about three 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruptions per day. Each fissure segment could have had one to several vents, which subsequently produced lava without significant fountaining for a longer period within the decades-long eruption. Sensitivity of plume rise height to ancient atmospheric conditions is explored. Although eruptions in the Deccan Traps (approximately 66 Ma) may have generated buoyant plumes that rose to altitudes in excess of 18 km, they may not have reached the stratosphere because the tropopause was substantially higher in the late Cretaceous. Our results indicate that some flood basalt eruptions, such as Roza, were capable of repeatedly injecting large masses of SO2 into the stratosphere. Thus sustained

  8. Volcanic eruption plumes on Io

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, R.G.; Terrile, R.J.; Masursky, H.; Hansen, C.

    1979-01-01

    The detection of an umbrella-shaped plume extending about 280 km above the bright limb of Io was one of the most important discoveries made during the Voyager 1 encounter with the jovian system. This discovery proves that Io is volcanically active at present, and the number and magnitude of these eruptions indicate that Io is the most volcanically active body so far discovered in the Solar System. Preliminary analyses of these eruptive plumes are presented. (U.K.)

  9. Premature dental eruption: report of case.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, C M

    2011-08-05

    This case report reviews the variability of dental eruption and the possible sequelae. Dental eruption of the permanent teeth in cleft palate children may be variable, with delayed eruption the most common phenomenon. A case of premature dental eruption of a maxillary left first premolar is demonstrated, however, in a five-year-old male. This localized premature dental eruption anomaly was attributed to early extraction of the primary dentition, due to caries.

  10. Modeling lunar volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housley, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    Simple physical arguments are used to show that basaltic volcanos on different planetary bodies would fountain to the same height if the mole fraction of gas in the magma scaled with the acceleration of gravity. It is suggested that the actual eruption velocities and fountain heights are controlled by the velocities of sound in the two phase gas/liquid flows. These velocities are in turn determined by the gas contents in the magma. Predicted characteristics of Hawaiian volcanos are in excellent accord with observations. Assuming that the only gas in lunar volcano is the CO which would be produced if the observed Fe metal in lunar basalts resulted from graphite reduction, lunar volcanos would fountain vigorously, but not as spectacularly as their terrestrial counterparts. The volatile trace metals, halogens, and sulfur released would be transported over the entire moon by the transient atmosphere. Orange and black glass type pyroclastic materials would be transported in sufficient amounts to produce the observed dark mantle deposits.

  11. Violent and criminal manifestations in dementia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, Gabriele; Lucetti, Claudio; Danti, Sabrina; Carlesi, Cecilia; Nuti, Angelo

    2016-05-01

    Although the older adults have been studied as victims of violence, geriatric patients can display violent behavior. The purpose of the present review was to explore the phenomenon of criminal violations and violent acts in people with dementia. The authors used PubMed to search the MEDLINE database and other sources for original research and review articles on criminal and violent manifestation in demented patients combining the terms "criminal manifestation," "violence, aggressive behavior," "homicide," "suicide" and "homicide-suicide" together with "dementia". Possible biomarkers of violence are considered. The present review highlights the risk factors for violence in patients suffering from dementia, and reviews the literature about criminal violations and homicidal/suicidal behavior in this patient group. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16: 541-549. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  12. Joint Utility of Event-Dependent and Environmental Crime Analysis Techniques for Violent Crime Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Joel M.; Kennedy, Leslie W.; Piza, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    Violent crime incidents occurring in Irvington, New Jersey, in 2007 and 2008 are used to assess the joint analytical capabilities of point pattern analysis, hotspot mapping, near-repeat analysis, and risk terrain modeling. One approach to crime analysis suggests that the best way to predict future crime occurrence is to use past behavior, such as…

  13. VIM: A Platform for Violent Intent Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Schryver, Jack C.; Whitney, Paul D.; Augustenborg, Elsa C.; Danielson, Gary R.; Thompson, Sandra E.

    2009-03-31

    Radical and contentious political/religious activism may or may not evolve into violent behavior depending on contextual factors related to social, political, cultural and infrastructural conditions. Significant theoretical advances have been made in understanding these contextual factors and the import of their interrelations. However, there has been relative little progress in the development of processes and capabilities which leverage such theoretical advances to automate the anticipatory analysis of violent intent. In this paper, we describe a framework which implements such processes and capabilities, and discuss the implications of using the resulting system to assess the emergence of radicalization leading to violence.

  14. Schizophrenia, substance abuse, and violent crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Seena; Långström, Niklas; Hjern, Anders; Grann, Martin; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2009-05-20

    Persons with schizophrenia are thought to be at increased risk of committing violent crime 4 to 6 times the level of general population individuals without this disorder. However, risk estimates vary substantially across studies, and considerable uncertainty exists as to what mediates this elevated risk. Despite this uncertainty, current guidelines recommend that violence risk assessment should be conducted for all patients with schizophrenia. To determine the risk of violent crime among patients diagnosed as having schizophrenia and the role of substance abuse in mediating this risk. Longitudinal designs were used to link data from nationwide Swedish registers of hospital admissions and criminal convictions in 1973-2006. Risk of violent crime in patients after diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 8003) was compared with that among general population controls (n = 80 025). Potential confounders (age, sex, income, and marital and immigrant status) and mediators (substance abuse comorbidity) were measured at baseline. To study familial confounding, we also investigated risk of violence among unaffected siblings (n = 8123) of patients with schizophrenia. Information on treatment was not available. Violent crime (any criminal conviction for homicide, assault, robbery, arson, any sexual offense, illegal threats, or intimidation). In patients with schizophrenia, 1054 (13.2%) had at least 1 violent offense compared with 4276 (5.3%) of general population controls (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-2.2). The risk was mostly confined to patients with substance abuse comorbidity (of whom 27.6% committed an offense), yielding an increased risk of violent crime among such patients (adjusted OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 3.9-5.0), whereas the risk increase was small in schizophrenia patients without substance abuse comorbidity (8.5% of whom had at least 1 violent offense; adjusted OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.4; Pgenetic or early environmental) confounding of the

  15. Hubble Captures Volcanic Eruption Plume From Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has snapped a picture of a 400-km-high (250-mile-high) plume of gas and dust from a volcanic eruption on Io, Jupiter's large innermost moon.Io was passing in front of Jupiter when this image was taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 in July 1996. The plume appears as an orange patch just off the edge of Io in the eight o'clock position, against the blue background of Jupiter's clouds. Io's volcanic eruptions blasts material hundreds of kilometers into space in giant plumes of gas and dust. In this image, material must have been blown out of the volcano at more than 2,000 mph to form a plume of this size, which is the largest yet seen on Io.Until now, these plumes have only been seen by spacecraft near Jupiter, and their detection from the Earth-orbiting Hubble Space Telescope opens up new opportunities for long-term studies of these remarkable phenomena.The plume seen here is from Pele, one of Io's most powerful volcanos. Pele's eruptions have been seen before. In March 1979, the Voyager 1 spacecraft recorded a 300-km-high eruption cloud from Pele. But the volcano was inactive when the Voyager 2 spacecraft flew by Jupiter in July 1979. This Hubble observation is the first glimpse of a Pele eruption plume since the Voyager expeditions.Io's volcanic plumes are much taller than those produced by terrestrial volcanos because of a combination of factors. The moon's thin atmosphere offers no resistance to the expanding volcanic gases; its weak gravity (one-sixth that of Earth) allows material to climb higher before falling; and its biggest volcanos are more powerful than most of Earth's volcanos.This image is a contrast-enhanced composite of an ultraviolet image (2600 Angstrom wavelength), shown in blue, and a violet image (4100 Angstrom wavelength), shown in orange. The orange color probably occurs because of the absorption and/or scattering of ultraviolet light in the plume. This light from Jupiter passes through the plume and is

  16. Neuroimaging studies of aggressive and violent behavior: current findings and implications for criminology and criminal justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufkin, Jana L; Luttrell, Vickie R

    2005-04-01

    With the availability of new functional and structural neuroimaging techniques, researchers have begun to localize brain areas that may be dysfunctional in offenders who are aggressive and violent. Our review of 17 neuroimaging studies reveals that the areas associated with aggressive and/or violent behavioral histories, particularly impulsive acts, are located in the prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal regions. These findings are explained in the context of negative emotion regulation, and suggestions are provided concerning how such findings may affect future theoretical frameworks in criminology, crime prevention efforts, and the functioning of the criminal justice system.

  17. Violent video game players and non-players differ on facial emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Ruth L; Wong, Ulric; Hodgins, David C; Chiu, Carina G; Goghari, Vina M

    2016-01-01

    Violent video game playing has been associated with both positive and negative effects on cognition. We examined whether playing two or more hours of violent video games a day, compared to not playing video games, was associated with a different pattern of recognition of five facial emotions, while controlling for general perceptual and cognitive differences that might also occur. Undergraduate students were categorized as violent video game players (n = 83) or non-gamers (n = 69) and completed a facial recognition task, consisting of an emotion recognition condition and a control condition of gender recognition. Additionally, participants completed questionnaires assessing their video game and media consumption, aggression, and mood. Violent video game players recognized fearful faces both more accurately and quickly and disgusted faces less accurately than non-gamers. Desensitization to violence, constant exposure to fear and anxiety during game playing, and the habituation to unpleasant stimuli, are possible mechanisms that could explain these results. Future research should evaluate the effects of violent video game playing on emotion processing and social cognition more broadly. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Violent Video Games Alter Brain Function in Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feed News from the RSNA Annual Meeting Violent Video Games Alter Brain Function in Young Men At A ... functional MRI, researchers have found that playing violent video games for one week causes changes in brain function. ...

  19. Media Violence And Violent Behaviour of Nigerian Youths ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Media Violence And Violent Behaviour of Nigerian Youths: Intervention Strategies. ... linking frequent exposure to violent media in child hood with aggressive later in life. Characteristics of viewers, social environments and media content, were ...

  20. Volcanology and hazards of phreatomagmatic basaltic eruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmith, Johanne

    Iceland is one of the most active terrestrial volcanic regions on Earth with an average of more than 20 eruptions per century. Around 80% of all events are tephra generating explosive eruptions, but less than 10 % of all known tephra layers have been mapped. Recent hazard assessment models show...... that the two key parameters for hazard assessment modeling are total grain size distribution (TGSD) and eruptive style. These two parameters have been determined for even fewer eruptive events in Iceland. One of the most hazardous volcanoes in Iceland is Katla and no data set of TGSD or other eruptive...... parameters exist. Katla has not erupted for 99 years, but at least 2 of the 20 eruptions since the settlement of Iceland in 871 have reached Northern Europe as visible tephra fall. These eruptions occurred in 1755 and 1625 and remain enigmatic both in terms of actual size and eruption dynamics. This work...

  1. Teaching Students about Violent Media Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Brad J.

    2018-01-01

    Although violent entertainment has existed for centuries, the media have made it more accessible than ever before. In modern societies, people are immersed in media, like fish in water. Using hand-held devices, people can consume media just about anywhere they want, anytime they want. Moreover, violence is a common theme in the media, and research…

  2. Violent Video Games Recruit American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, William

    2006-01-01

    An expert on the sociology of video games highlights the power of this medium to popularize violence among children. But few are aware that some of the most technologically potent products are violent war games now being produced at taxpayer expense. These are provided free as a recruiting tool by the United States military. The author contends…

  3. The relation between sleep and violent aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Jeanine

    2017-01-01

    Good sleep is important for our emotional stability and aggression control. Although most people do not become violent after a period of poor sleep, this may be different for certain vulnerable individuals. Forensic psychiatric patients may represent a group of such individuals. We studied patients

  4. Violent video games affecting our children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessey, J A; Lee, J E

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to media violence is associated with increased aggression and its sequelae. Unfortunately, the majority of entertainment video games contain violence. Moreover, children of both genders prefer games with violent content. As there is no compulsory legislative standards to limit the type and amount of violence in video games, concerned adults must assume an oversight role.

  5. Individual Violent Overtopping Events: New Insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jayaratne, R.; Hunt-Raby, A.; Bullock, G. N.

    2009-01-01

    Wave overtopping is essentially a discrete process in which disastrous consequences can arise from the effect of one or two waves; few of the thousands of previous experiments have focused on the properties of individual events. The violent impacts of water waves on walls create velocities and pr...

  6. Mitigating the Harmful Effects of Violent Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkoetter, Lawrence I.; Rosenkoetter, Sharon E.; Ozretich, Rachel A.; Acock, Alan C.

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to minimize the harmful effects of violent TV, a yearlong intervention was undertaken with children in Grades 1 through 3 (N = 177). The classroom-based intervention consisted of 31 brief lessons that emphasized the many ways in which television distorts violence. As hypothesized, the intervention resulted in a reduction in children's…

  7. Teaching Peace: Alternatives to Violent Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurek, Dianne Miller; Velazquez, Michaela

    1995-01-01

    To help combat the effects of violence on children and improve the quality and nature of play, early childhood teachers can: define violence by helping children become aware of the issue, help children resolve their own conflicts, create a peace place in the classroom, intervene when violent play occurs, evaluate media and toys, and educate…

  8. Understanding Violent Behavior in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... goals of treatment typically focus on helping the child to: learn how to control his/her anger; express anger ... identification and intervention programs for violent youngsters Monitoring child's viewing of violence during their screen time including the Internet, tablets, smartphones, TV, videos, and movies. ... you find Facts for Families © helpful and ...

  9. Characterization of volcanic deposits and geoarchaeological studies from the 1815 eruption of Tambora volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igan Supriatman Sutawidjaja

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol1no1.20066aThe eruption of Tambora volcano on the island of Sumbawa in 1815 is generally considered as the largest and the most violent volcanic event in recorded history. The cataclysmic eruption occurred on 11 April 1815 was initiated by Plinian eruption type on 5 April and killed more than 90,000 people on Sumbawa and nearby Lombok. The type plinian eruptions occurred twice and ejected gray pumice and ash, to form stratified deposits as thick as 40-150 cm on the slopes and mostly distributed over the district west of the volcano. Following this, at about 7 pm, on 11 April the first pyroclastic surge was generated and progressively became greater extending to almost whole direction, mainly to the north, west, and south districts from the eruption center. The deadliest volcanic eruption buried ancient villages by pyroclastic surge and flow deposits in almost intact state, thus preserving important archaeological evidence for the period. High preservation in relatively stable conditions and known date of the eruptions provide approximate dating for the archaeological remains. Archaeological excavations on the site uncovered a variety of remains were relieved by ground penetrating radar (GPR to map structural remains of the ancient villages under the pyroclastic surge and flow deposits. These traverses showed that GPR could define structures as deep as 10 m (velocity 0.090 m/ns and could accurately map the thickness of the stratified volcanic deposits in the Tambora village area.    

  10. Exposure to Violent Video Games Increases Automatic Aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Eric; Swanson, Jane

    2004-01-01

    The effects of exposure to violent video games on automatic associations with the self were investigated in a sample of 121 students. Playing the violent video game Doom led participants to associate themselves with aggressive traits and actions on the Implicit Association Test. In addition, self-reported prior exposure to violent video games…

  11. Neuromodulation can reduce aggressive behavior elicited by violent video games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riva, Paolo; Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Romero Lauro, Leonor J.; Andrighetto, Luca; Volpato, Chiara; Bushman, Brad J.

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown that exposure to violent media increases aggression. However, the neural underpinnings of violent-media-related aggression are poorly understood. Additionally, few experiments have tested hypotheses concerning how to reduce violent-media-related aggression. In this experiment, we

  12. How Did Climate and Humans Respond to Past Volcanic Eruptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, Matthew; Ludlow, Francis; Legrande, Allegra N.

    2016-01-01

    To predict and prepare for future climate change, scientists are striving to understand how global-scale climatic change manifests itself on regional scales and also how societies adapt or don't to sometimes subtle and complex climatic changes. In this regard, the strongest volcanic eruptions of the past are powerful test cases, showcasing how the broad climate system responds to sudden changes in radiative forcing and how societies have responded to the resulting climatic shocks. These issues were at the heart of the inaugural workshop of the Volcanic Impacts on Climate and Society (VICS) Working Group, convened in June 2016 at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University in Palisades, N.Y. The 3-day meeting gathered approximately 50 researchers, who presented work intertwining the history of volcanic eruptions and the physical processes that connect eruptions with human and natural systems on a global scale.

  13. Probabilistic eruption forecasting at short and long time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzocchi, Warner; Bebbington, Mark S.

    2012-10-01

    Any effective volcanic risk mitigation strategy requires a scientific assessment of the future evolution of a volcanic system and its eruptive behavior. Some consider the onus should be on volcanologists to provide simple but emphatic deterministic forecasts. This traditional way of thinking, however, does not deal with the implications of inherent uncertainties, both aleatoric and epistemic, that are inevitably present in observations, monitoring data, and interpretation of any natural system. In contrast to deterministic predictions, probabilistic eruption forecasting attempts to quantify these inherent uncertainties utilizing all available information to the extent that it can be relied upon and is informative. As with many other natural hazards, probabilistic eruption forecasting is becoming established as the primary scientific basis for planning rational risk mitigation actions: at short-term (hours to weeks or months), it allows decision-makers to prioritize actions in a crisis; and at long-term (years to decades), it is the basic component for land use and emergency planning. Probabilistic eruption forecasting consists of estimating the probability of an eruption event and where it sits in a complex multidimensional time-space-magnitude framework. In this review, we discuss the key developments and features of models that have been used to address the problem.

  14. Preliminary impact assessment of effusive eruptions at Etna volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Annalisa; Michaud-Dubuy, Audrey; Branca, Stefano; De Beni, Emanuela; Del Negro, Ciro

    2016-04-01

    Lava flows are a recurring and widespread form of volcanic activity that threaten people and property around the world. The growing demographic congestion around volcanic structures increases the potential risks and costs that lava flows represent, and leads to a pressing need for faster and more accurate assessment of lava flow impact. To fully evaluate potential effects and losses that an effusive eruption may cause to society, property and environment, it is necessary to consider the hazard, the distribution of the exposed elements at stake and the associated vulnerability. Lava flow hazard assessment is at an advanced state, whereas comprehensive vulnerability assessment is lacking. Cataloguing and analyzing volcanic impacts provide insight on likely societal and physical vulnerabilities during future eruptions. Here we quantify the lava flow impact of two past main effusive eruptions of Etna volcano: the 1669, which is the biggest and destructive flank eruption to have occurred on Etna in historical time, and the 1981, lasting only 6 days, but characterized by an intense eruptive dynamics. Different elements at stake are considered, including population, hospitals, critical facilities, buildings of historic value, industrial infrastructures, gas and electricity networks, railways, roads, footways and finally land use. All these elements were combined with the 1669 and 1981 lava flow fields to quantify the social damage and economic loss.

  15. Systematic change in global patterns of streamflow following volcanic eruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, Carley E; Hegerl, Gabriele C

    2015-11-01

    Following large explosive volcanic eruptions precipitation decreases over much of the globe1-6, particularly in climatologically wet regions4,5. Stratospheric volcanic aerosols reflect sunlight, which reduces evaporation, whilst surface cooling stabilises the atmosphere and reduces its water-holding capacity7. Circulation changes modulate this global precipitation reduction on regional scales1,8-10. Despite the importance of rivers to people, it has been unclear whether volcanism causes detectable changes in streamflow given large natural variability. Here we analyse observational records of streamflow volume for fifty large rivers from around the world which cover between two and 6 major volcanic eruptions in the 20 th and late 19 th century. We find statistically significant reductions in flow following eruptions for the Amazon, Congo, Nile, Orange, Ob, Yenisey and Kolyma amongst others. When data from neighbouring rivers are combined - based on the areas where climate models simulate either an increase or a decrease in precipitation following eruptions - a significant (peruptions is detected in northern South American, central African and high-latitude Asian rivers, and on average across wet tropical and subtropical regions. We also detect a significant increase in southern South American and SW North American rivers. This suggests that future volcanic eruptions could substantially affect global water availability.

  16. Violent and Non-Violent Extremism: Two Sides of the Same Coin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex P. Schmid

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this Research Paper, Research Fellow Dr. Alex P. Schmid seeks to clarify some conceptual issues that tend to obscure the debate about how best to counter violent extremism. The main focus of this Research Paper is on obtaining a clearer understanding of what “Islamist extremism” entails in the context of the ongoing debate on allegedly “acceptable” non-violent extremists and “unacceptable” violent extremists. The author discusses a number of conceptualisations of religious extremism in the context of liberal democracies and also distinguishes, inter alia, between merely “not (yet violent” militancy and principled non-violent political activism in the Gandhian tradition. The author argues that the distinction between “non-violent extremism” and “violent extremism” is not a valid one. The paper provides a set of twenty indicators of extremism that can be used as an instrument for monitoring extremist statements and actions, with an eye to challenging and countering such non-democratic manifestations.

  17. Violent and Fatal Youth Trauma: Is There a Missed Opportunity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Madlinger, DO

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Accidents and assaults (homicides are the leading causes of death among the youth of the United States, accounting for 53.3% of deaths among children aged 1 to19 years. Victim recidivism,defined as repeated visits to the emergency department (ED as a victim of violent trauma, is a significantly growing public health problem. As 5-year mortality rates for recidivism are as high as 20%,it is important to determine whether victims with a history of violent trauma are at increased risk for fatal outcome with their next trauma. We hypothesized that victims of violent trauma who have had 1 prior ED visit for violent trauma will have increased odds of fatal outcome.Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted for patients presenting with penetrating trauma to the ED from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2009. All patients between the ages of 15 to 25 years who presented to the ED for any penetrating trauma were included. Patients with prior presentations for penetrating trauma were compared to those patients who were first-time presenters to determine the odds ratio of fatal outcome.Results: Overall, 15,395 patients were treated for traumatic presentations. Of these, 1,044 met inclusion criteria. Demographically, 79.4% were Hispanic, 19.4% were African American, and 0.96% were Caucasian. The average age was 21 years, and 98% of the population was male. One hundred and forty-seven (14% had prior presentations, and 897 (86% did not. Forty of the 147 patients (27%with prior presentations had a fatal outcome as compared to 29 patients of the 868 (3% without prior presentations, with odds ratio of 10.8 (95% confidence interval, 6.4–18.1; Pearson v2, P , 0.001. The 5-year mortality rate for those patients with fatal outcomes was calculated at 16.5%.Conclusion: Patients who had prior ED visits for penetrating trauma were at greater risk for fatal outcomes compared to those with no prior visits. Therefore, trauma-related ED visits might

  18. Can rain cause volcanic eruptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Larry G.

    1993-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions are renowned for their violence and destructive power. This power comes ultimately from the heat and pressure of molten rock and its contained gases. Therefore we rarely consider the possibility that meteoric phenomena, like rainfall, could promote or inhibit their occurrence. Yet from time to time observers have suggested that weather may affect volcanic activity. In the late 1800's, for example, one of the first geologists to visit the island of Hawaii, J.D. Dana, speculated that rainfall influenced the occurrence of eruptions there. In the early 1900's, volcanologists suggested that some eruptions from Mount Lassen, Calif., were caused by the infiltration of snowmelt into the volcano's hot summit. Most such associations have not been provable because of lack of information; others have been dismissed after careful evaluation of the evidence.

  19. Short-period volcanic gas precursors to phreatic eruptions: Insights from Poás Volcano, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moor, Maarten; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Pacheco, Javier; Avard, Geoffroy; Kern, Christoph; Liuzzo, Marco; Martinez, Maria; Giudice, Gaetano; Fischer, Tobias P.

    2016-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions involving interaction with water are amongst the most violent and unpredictable geologic phenomena on Earth. Phreatic eruptions are exceptionally difficult to forecast by traditional geophysical techniques. Here we report on short-term precursory variations in gas emissions related to phreatic blasts at Poás volcano, Costa Rica, as measured with an in situ multiple gas analyzer that was deployed at the edge of the erupting lake. Gas emitted from this hyper-acid crater lake approaches magmatic values of SO2/CO2 1–6 days prior to eruption. The SO2 flux derived from magmatic degassing through the lake is measureable by differential optical absorption spectrometry (sporadic campaign measurements), which allows us to constrain lake gas output and input for the major gas species during eruptive and non-eruptive periods. We can further calculate power supply to the hydrothermal system using volatile mass balance and thermodynamics, which indicates that the magmatic heat flux into the shallow hydrothermal system increases from ∼27 MW during quiescence to ∼59 MW during periods of phreatic events. These transient pulses of gas and heat from the deeper magmatic system generate both phreatic eruptions and the observed short-term changes in gas composition, because at high gas flux scrubbing of sulfur by the hydrothermal system is both kinetically and thermodynamically inhibited whereas CO2gas is always essentially inert in hyperacid conditions. Thus, the SO2/CO2 of lake emissions approaches magmatic values as gas and power supply to the sub-limnic hydrothermal system increase, vaporizing fluids and priming the hydrothermal system for eruption. Our results suggest that high-frequency real-time gas monitoring could provide useful short-term eruptive precursors at volcanoes prone to phreatic explosions.

  20. Magmatic Ascent and Eruption Processes on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. W.; Wilson, L.

    2018-05-01

    MESSENGER volcanic landform data and information on crustal composition allow us to model the generation, ascent, and eruption of magma; Mercury explosive and effusive eruption processes differ significantly from other terrestrial planetary bodies.

  1. Volcanic eruptions are cooling the earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses how volcanic eruptions may influence the climate. The environmental impacts both on the earth surface and the atmosphere are surveyed. Some major eruptions in modern times are mentioned

  2. A statistical method linking geological and historical eruption time series for volcanic hazard estimations: Applications to active polygenetic volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Rosas, Ana Teresa; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando

    2008-09-01

    The probabilistic analysis of volcanic eruption time series is an essential step for the assessment of volcanic hazard and risk. Such series describe complex processes involving different types of eruptions over different time scales. A statistical method linking geological and historical eruption time series is proposed for calculating the probabilities of future eruptions. The first step of the analysis is to characterize the eruptions by their magnitudes. As is the case in most natural phenomena, lower magnitude events are more frequent, and the behavior of the eruption series may be biased by such events. On the other hand, eruptive series are commonly studied using conventional statistics and treated as homogeneous Poisson processes. However, time-dependent series, or sequences including rare or extreme events, represented by very few data of large eruptions require special methods of analysis, such as the extreme-value theory applied to non-homogeneous Poisson processes. Here we propose a general methodology for analyzing such processes attempting to obtain better estimates of the volcanic hazard. This is done in three steps: Firstly, the historical eruptive series is complemented with the available geological eruption data. The linking of these series is done assuming an inverse relationship between the eruption magnitudes and the occurrence rate of each magnitude class. Secondly, we perform a Weibull analysis of the distribution of repose time between successive eruptions. Thirdly, the linked eruption series are analyzed as a non-homogeneous Poisson process with a generalized Pareto distribution as intensity function. As an application, the method is tested on the eruption series of five active polygenetic Mexican volcanoes: Colima, Citlaltépetl, Nevado de Toluca, Popocatépetl and El Chichón, to obtain hazard estimates.

  3. An Unusual Case Report of Erupted Odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaval Mehta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are the most common of the odontogenic tumors of the jaws, which are benign, slow growing, and nonaggressive. They are usually asymptomatic and found in routine dental radiographic examination. Odontomas are usually associated with tooth eruption disturbances. Eruption of odontoma in oral cavity is rare entity. Here we report a case of an unusual erupted compound odontoma.

  4. Eruption Cyst in the Neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Alline J; Silveira, Maria Lg; Duarte, Danilo A; Diniz, Michele B

    2018-01-01

    The pediatric dental approach to the oral cavity of newborns requires special attention, as many aspects are unique and peculiar to this period of life. It is important that pediatricians and pediatric dentists be aware of the characteristics within normal newborn patterns and prepared to make a correct diagnosis of abnormalities at early stages. Congenital eruption cysts (ECs) are rarely observed in newborns, as at this stage of a child's life, tooth eruption is unusual. This study reports a case of EC treated successfully by monitoring of the lesion, without any surgical procedure. In the 4th month, the lesion had completely regressed, and the deciduous central incisors had erupted without problems. The clinical and radiographic monitoring of ECs in newborns seems to be a satisfactory management procedure, similar to what is recommended for older children. How to cite this article: de Oliveira AJ, Silveira MLG, Duarte DA, Diniz MB. Eruption Cyst in the Neonate. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2018;11(1):58-60.

  5. Eruptive viscosity and volcano morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posin, S.B.; Greeley, R.

    1988-01-01

    Terrestrial central volcanoes formed predominantly from lava flows were classified as shields, stratovolcanoes, and domes. Shield volcanoes tend to be large in areal extent, have convex slopes, and are characterized by their resemblance to inverted hellenic war shields. Stratovolcanoes have concave slopes, whereas domes are smaller and have gentle convex slopes near the vent that increase near the perimeter. In addition to these differences in morphology, several other variations were observed. The most important is composition: shield volcanoes tend to be basaltic, stratovolcanoes tend to be andesitic, and domes tend to be dacitic. However, important exceptions include Fuji, Pico, Mayon, Izalco, and Fuego which have stratovolcano morphologies but are composed of basaltic lavas. Similarly, Ribkwo is a Kenyan shield volcano composed of trachyte and Suswa and Kilombe are shields composed of phonolite. These exceptions indicate that eruptive conditions, rather than composition, may be the primary factors that determine volcano morphology. The objective of this study is to determine the relationships, if any, between eruptive conditions (viscosity, erupted volume, and effusion rate) and effusive volcano morphology. Moreover, it is the goal of this study to incorporate these relationships into a model to predict the eruptive conditions of extraterrestrial (Martian) volcanoes based on their morphology

  6. Small volcanic eruptions and the stratospheric sulfate aerosol burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, David M.

    2012-09-01

    (Rampino and Self 1984, Pyle et al 1996, Self and Rampino 2012). But as yet, there is little evidence for the consequences of this scale of eruption for the climate system (Miles et al 2004), and few data against which to test simulations of stratospheric sulfur-injection 'geoengineering' scenarios of a similar scale and frequency (e.g. English et al 2012). A hint of the new volcano-observing capability came during the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland. For a few days in April 2010 meteorological conditions, coupled with a dramatic increase in volcanic ash production, led to the wide dispersal of fine volcanic particles across northern Europe; an event which was widely tracked by ground-based and satellite-borne instruments, augmented by in situ measurements from balloons and aircraft (Bennett et al 2010, Flentje et al 2010, Harrison et al 2010, Stohl et al 2011). Despite the interest in Eyjafjallajökull at the time, this was, geologically, only a very modest eruption with limited sulfur emissions and an impact restricted mainly to the regional troposphere (e.g. Thomas and Prata 2011, Walker et al 2012). Then, in June 2011, a previously dormant volcano in north-east Africa began to erupt violently. Little is known about Nabro, which is a partially collapsed volcano that straddles the Eritrea-Ethiopia border, and has had no known historical activity (Wiart and Oppenheimer 2005). Despite the remote location, and lack of prior warning, the event and its aftermath were remarkably well captured by remote-sensing instruments, as demonstrated in the new letter by Sawamura et al (2012). Using both ground-based and satellite-borne laser-ranging (lidar) data, Sawamura et al (2012) were able to extract detailed information about the nature of the volcanic aerosol layer, and its spread around the globe. The eruption started strongly, with substantial ash plumes for the first 48 h, rising to 9-14 km altitude (Smithsonian Institution 2011, Bourassa et al 2012), that carried at

  7. Violent extremist group ecologies under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrian, Manuel; Torres, Manuel R; Huerta, Ramon; Fowler, James H

    2013-01-01

    Violent extremist groups are currently making intensive use of Internet fora for recruitment to terrorism. These fora are under constant scrutiny by security agencies, private vigilante groups, and hackers, who sometimes shut them down with cybernetic attacks. However, there is a lack of experimental and formal understanding of the recruitment dynamics of online extremist fora and the effect of strategies to control them. Here, we utilize data on ten extremist fora that we collected for four years to develop a data-driven mathematical model that is the first attempt to measure whether (and how) these external attacks induce extremist fora to self-regulate. The results suggest that an increase in the number of groups targeted for attack causes an exponential increase in the cost of enforcement and an exponential decrease in its effectiveness. Thus, a policy to occasionally attack large groups can be very efficient for limiting violent output from these fora.

  8. The personal dispositions of violent extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davydov D.G.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the differences in the nature of extremism and radicalism, and the necessity of introducing the concept of "violent extremism." It is shown that the ideology is the explanation of extremist behavior, rather than its cause. The ideology of extremism often eclectic, contradictory and can easily be transformed by changing the object of hostility, depending on the situation. For the description of the psychological causes of extremism it is proposed to use the concept of personal disposition. Disposition is the preferred way to subjective interpretation of reality and reflects both the specific needs of a person as well the typical social situations where it realized and personal experience. Considered the following dispositions of violent extremism: the Cult of force and aggression, Intolerance, Out-group hostility Conventional coercion, Social pessimism and destructiveness, Mystical, Fighting and overcoming, Nihilism to law, Anti-subjectivism. It is proposed to use these dispositions as diagnostic criteria and for preventing and correcting.

  9. Engaging Civil Society in Countering Violent Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi van Ginkel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this Research Paper Dr. Bibi van Ginkel takes an in depth look at how multi-lateral institutions, engage with civil society to counter violent extremism. Dr. van Ginkel argues that civil society can play a crucial role in preventing and countering violent extremism in numerous ways – by working on development programs, through their work in conflict transformation, in providing a platform to raise political grievances and to facilitate dialogue, or through their work in empowering victims and survivors of terrorism. The Paper finds that over the last decade there has been a more intensive coordination of activities between the UN and other multi-lateral organisations and civil society but the question remains whether the implementation as well as the drafting of these policies will live up to their potential effectiveness. This Paper gauges how effective these measures have been and what more there is to do. The final section concludes with a series of policy recommendations.

  10. Violent Conflict and Gender Inequality: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Buvinic, Mayra; Das Gupta, Monica; Casabonne, Ursula; Verwimp, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Violent conflict, a pervasive feature of the recent global landscape, has lasting impacts on human capital, and these impacts are seldom gender neutral. Death and destruction alter the structure and dynamics of households, including their demographic profiles and traditional gender roles. To date, attention to the gender impacts of conflict has focused almost exclusively on sexual and gender-based violence. We show that a far wider set of gender issues must be considered to better document th...

  11. Violent life events and social disadvantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Soothill, Keith; Francis, Brian

    2007-01-01

    This is a systematic study of the social background of Danish males convicted for the first time of lethal violence, either actual or potential (e.g. unlawful killers, attempted homicides, negligent homicide, grievous bodily harm, N=125). Using registers, the paper addresses the following questio...... behaviour but a less strong predictor of suicidal behaviour. In contrast, being battered and being neglected during childhood more strongly predict later suicidal behaviour than violent behaviour. The implications for prevention are considered....

  12. Evolution and the Prevention of Violent Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Roach, Jason; Pease, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This paper suggests how violence prevention can be better informed by embracing an evolutionary approach to understanding and preventing violent crime. Here, ethical crime control through an evolutionary lens is consid-ered and speculation is offered as to what an evolution-evidenced crime reduction programme might look like. The paper begins with an outline of the current landscape of crime prevention scholarship within criminology and presents some possible points of contact with actual or ...

  13. Probabilistic short-term forecasting of eruption rate at Kīlauea Volcano using a physics-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K. R.

    2016-12-01

    Deterministic models of volcanic eruptions yield predictions of future activity conditioned on uncertainty in the current state of the system. Physics-based eruption models are well-suited for deterministic forecasting as they can relate magma physics with a wide range of observations. Yet, physics-based eruption forecasting is strongly limited by an inadequate understanding of volcanic systems, and the need for eruption models to be computationally tractable. At Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaii, episodic depressurization-pressurization cycles of the magma system generate correlated, quasi-exponential variations in ground deformation and surface height of the active summit lava lake. Deflations are associated with reductions in eruption rate, or even brief eruptive pauses, and thus partly control lava flow advance rates and associated hazard. Because of the relatively well-understood nature of Kīlauea's shallow magma plumbing system, and because more than 600 of these events have been recorded to date, they offer a unique opportunity to refine a physics-based effusive eruption forecasting approach and apply it to lava eruption rates over short (hours to days) time periods. A simple physical model of the volcano ascribes observed data to temporary reductions in magma supply to an elastic reservoir filled with compressible magma. This model can be used to predict the evolution of an ongoing event, but because the mechanism that triggers events is unknown, event durations are modeled stochastically from previous observations. A Bayesian approach incorporates diverse data sets and prior information to simultaneously estimate uncertain model parameters and future states of the system. Forecasts take the form of probability distributions for eruption rate or cumulative erupted volume at some future time. Results demonstrate the significant uncertainties that still remain even for short-term eruption forecasting at a well-monitored volcano - but also the value of a physics

  14. Effects of megascale eruptions on Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thordarson, T.; Rampino, M.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Self, S.

    2009-01-01

    Volcanic features are common on geologically active earthlike planets. Megascale or "super" eruptions involving >1000 Gt of magma have occurred on both Earth and Mars in the geologically recent past, introducing prodigious volumes of ash and volcanic gases into the atmosphere. Here we discuss felsic (explosive) and mafi c (flood lava) supereruptions and their potential atmospheric and environmental effects on both planets. On Earth, felsic supereruptions recur on average about every 100-200,000 years and our present knowledge of the 73.5 ka Toba eruption implies that such events can have the potential to be catastrophic to human civilization. A future eruption of this type may require an unprecedented response from humankind to assure the continuation of civilization as we know it. Mafi c supereruptions have resulted in atmospheric injection of volcanic gases (especially SO2) and may have played a part in punctuating the history of life on Earth. The contrast between the more sustained effects of flood basalt eruptions (decades to centuries) and the near-instantaneous effects of large impacts (months to years) is worthy of more detailed study than has been completed to date. Products of mafi c supereruptions, signifi cantly larger than known from the geologic record on Earth, are well preserved on Mars. The volatile emissions from these eruptions most likely had global dispersal, but the effects may not have been outside what Mars endures even in the absence of volcanic eruptions. This is testament to the extreme variability of the current Martian atmosphere: situations that would be considered catastrophic on Earth are the norm on Mars. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  15. Volcanic Eruption Observations from an Elevated Point of the Stromboli Using Thermal Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, V.; Gagnon, M. A.; Marcotte, F.; Gouhier, M.; Smekens, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Many urban areas are located near active volcanoes around the world. Therefore, scientific research on different indicators of imminent eruptions is carried out on an ongoing basis. Due to the hazardous and unpredictable behavior of volcanoes, remote sensing technologies are normally preferred for investigations. Over the years, the Telops Hyper-Cam, a high-performance infrared hyperspectral camera, has established itself as a reference tool for investigating gas clouds over large distances. In order to illustrate the benefits of standoff infrared hyperspectral imaging for characterizing volcanic processes, many different measurements were carried out from an elevated point ( 800 m) of the Stromboli volcano (Italy) by researchers from the Université Blaise-Pascal (Clermont-Ferrand, France). The Stromboli volcano is well known for its periodic eruptions of small magnitude containing various proportions of ash, lava and gases. Imaging was carried out at a relatively high spectral and spatial resolution before and during eruptions from the North-East (NE) craters. Both sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfur tetrafluoride (SiF4) could be successfully identified within the volcano's plume from their distinct spectral features. During the passive degassing phase, a total amount of 3.3 kg of SO2 and 0.8 g of SiF4 were estimated. A violent eruption from NE1 crater was then observed and a total of 45 g and and 7 g of SO2 and SiF4 were estimated respectively. These results are in good agreement with previous work using a UV-SO2 camera. Finally, a smaller eruption from NE2 crater was observed. Total amounts of 3 kg and 17 g of SO2 and SiF4 were estimated respectively. Quantitative chemical maps for both gases will be presented. The results show that standoff thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging provides unique insights for a better understanding of volcanic eruptions.

  16. Prediction of Solar Eruptions Using Filament Metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Ashna; Schanche, Nicole; Reeves, Katharine K.; Kempton, Dustin; Angryk, Rafal

    2018-05-01

    We perform a statistical analysis of erupting and non-erupting solar filaments to determine the properties related to the eruption potential. In order to perform this study, we correlate filament eruptions documented in the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK) with HEK filaments that have been grouped together using a spatiotemporal tracking algorithm. The HEK provides metadata about each filament instance, including values for length, area, tilt, and chirality. We add additional metadata properties such as the distance from the nearest active region and the magnetic field decay index. We compare trends in the metadata from erupting and non-erupting filament tracks to discover which properties present signs of an eruption. We find that a change in filament length over time is the most important factor in discriminating between erupting and non-erupting filament tracks, with erupting tracks being more likely to have decreasing length. We attempt to find an ensemble of predictive filament metadata using a Random Forest Classifier approach, but find the probability of correctly predicting an eruption with the current metadata is only slightly better than chance.

  17. The 2012 Copahue eruption: magnitude of gas fluxes and time scale of degassing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, J. C.; Camfield, L.

    2015-12-01

    Copahue volcano (Argentina, 37.5 S, 71.5 W) erupted in 2000 and 2012 with initial phreato-magmatic blasts, violent Strombolian eruptions of several hours duration, followed by open conduit activity for days to months. The 2012 basal deposits 10 km S of Copahue are mm-sized ashes with hydrothermally altered debris, followed by up to 10cm pancake pumices, while denser cinders fell near the crater in the waning stages. The strombolian plume was ~ 6 km high and satellite images show its trajectory up to 200 km S. The pumices have finely porous rims (0.3mm vesicles) that were probably quenched by hydrothermal fluids and coarse interiors (several mm vesicles) that inflated during eruption. All the products have identical chemical composition and mineralogy, and only vary in degree of vesiculation. The 2012 products are the most mafic of the whole volcanic history of Copahue, with MgO ~ 4.5 %. The quench rim pumice glass contains 1160 ppm Cl while glass inclusions have up to 1800 ppm Cl. Water concentrations are 0.5-2.0 % (by difference with EMPA) and plagioclase hygrometry. Pre-eruptive conditions were 1080 oC and 1-2.5 kb pressure. The magmato-hydrothermal system is leaking fluids into the overlying crater lake and into a river. The hot springs have pH <1 and these fluids are up to 60% magmatic in origin. Annual river flux measurements and non-steady state modeling between 1997 and 2013 constrain the mean hydrothermal Cl flux at 1170 tonnes/month. The 2012 erupted magma mass is about 1012 gr, and from the measured total Cl loss between 2000 and 2012 and mean degassed Cl in the magma the volume of degassing magma is estimated at 1014-1015 grams. Much more magma was degassing than was erupted. Analyses of 226Ra-210Pb constrained the maximum degassing time at 8-10 years prior to the 2012 eruption. Almost all rock samples have 210Pb deficits, and so most gas escaped from the magma into the hydrothermal system. Nonetheless, the top of the magma reservoir accumulated bubbles

  18. Effects of Volcanic Eruptions on Stratospheric Ozone Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Joan E.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of the stratospheric sulfate aerosol layer associated with the Mt. Pinatubo volcano and future volcanic eruptions on the recovery of the ozone layer is studied with an interactive two-dimensional photochemical model. The time varying chlorine loading and the stratospheric cooling due to increasing carbon dioxide have been taken into account. The computed ozone and temperature changes associated with the Mt. Pinatubo eruption in 1991 agree well with observations. Long model runs out to the year 2050 have been carried out, in which volcanoes having the characteristics of the Mount Pinatubo volcano were erupted in the model at 10-year intervals starting in the year 2010. Compared to a non-volcanic run using background aerosol loading, transient reductions of globally averaged column ozone of 2-3 percent were computed as a result of each of these eruptions, with the ozone recovering to that computed for the non-volcanic case in about 5 years after the eruption. Computed springtime Arctic column ozone losses of from 10 to 18 percent also recovered to the non-volcanic case within 5 years. These results suggest that the long-term recovery of ozone would not be strongly affected by infrequent volcanic eruptions with a sulfur loading approximating Mt. Pinatubo. Sensitivity studies in which the Arctic lower stratosphere was forced to be 4 K and 10 K colder resulted in transient ozone losses of which also recovered to the non-volcanic case in 5 years. A case in which a volcano five times Mt. Pinatubo was erupted in the year 2010 led to maximum springtime column ozone losses of 45 percent which took 10 years to recover to the background case. Finally, in order to simulate a situation in which frequent smaller volcanic eruptions result in increasing the background sulfate loading, a simulation was made in which the background aerosol was increased by 10 percent per year. This resulted in a delay of the recovery of column ozone to 1980 values of more than 10 years.

  19. Chronology and volcanology of the 1949 multi-vent rift-zone eruption on La Palma (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klügel, A.; Schmincke, H.-U.; White, J. D. L.; Hoernle, K. A.

    1999-12-01

    The compositionally zoned San Juan eruption on La Palma emanated from three eruptive centers located along a north-south-trending rift zone in the south of the island. Seismic precursors began weakly in 1936 and became strong in March 1949, with their foci progressing from the north of the rift zone towards its south. This suggests that magma ascended beneath the old Taburiente shield volcano and moved southward along the rift. The eruption began on June 24, 1949, with phreatomagmatic activity at Duraznero crater on the ridgetop (ca. 1880 m above sea level), where five vents erupted tephritic lava along a 400-m-long fissure. On June 8, the Duraznero vents shut down abruptly, and the activity shifted to an off-rift fissure at Llano del Banco, located at ca. 550 m lower elevation and 3 km to the northwest. This eruptive center issued initially tephritic aa and later basanitic pahoehoe lava at high rates, producing a lava flow that entered the sea. Two days after basanite began to erupt at Llano del Banco, Hoyo Negro crater (ca. 1880 m asl), located 700 m north of Duraznero along the rift, opened on July 12 and produced ash and bombs of basanitic to phonotephritic composition in violent phreatomagmatic explosions ( White and Schmincke, 1999). Llano del Banco and Hoyo Negro were simultaneously active for 11 days and showed a co-variance of their eruption rates indicating a shallow hydraulic connection. On July 30, after 3 days of quiescence at all vents, Duraznero and Hoyo Negro became active again during a final eruptive phase. Duraznero issued basanitic lava at high rates for 12 h and produced a lava flow that descended towards the east coast. The lava contains ca. 1 vol.% crustal and mantle xenoliths consisting of 40% tholeiitic gabbros from the oceanic crust, 35% alkaline gabbros, and 20% ultramafic cumulates. The occurrence of xenoliths almost exclusively in the final lava is consistent with their origin by wall-rock collapse at depth near the end of the eruption

  20. Violent victimization of adult patients with severe mental illness: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latalova K

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Klara Latalova,1,2 Dana Kamaradova,1,2 Jan Prasko1,2 1Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic; 2Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic Abstract: The aims of this paper are to review data on the prevalence and correlates of violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness, to critically evaluate the literature, and to explore possible approaches for future research. PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched using several terms related to severe mental illness in successive combinations with terms describing victimization. The searches identified 34 studies. Nine epidemiological studies indicate that patients with severe mental illness are more likely to be violently victimized than other community members. Young age, comorbid substance use, and homelessness are risk factors for victimization. Victimized patients are more likely to engage in violent behavior than other members of the community. Violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness has long-term adverse consequences for the course of their illness, and further impairs the quality of lives of patients and their families. Victimization of persons with severe mental illness is a serious medical and social problem. Prevention and management of victimization should become a part of routine clinical care for patients with severe mental illness. Keywords: victimization, violence, severe mental illness, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder

  1. Violent victimization of adult patients with severe mental illness: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Prasko, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this paper are to review data on the prevalence and correlates of violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness, to critically evaluate the literature, and to explore possible approaches for future research. PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched using several terms related to severe mental illness in successive combinations with terms describing victimization. The searches identified 34 studies. Nine epidemiological studies indicate that patients with severe mental illness are more likely to be violently victimized than other community members. Young age, comorbid substance use, and homelessness are risk factors for victimization. Victimized patients are more likely to engage in violent behavior than other members of the community. Violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness has long-term adverse consequences for the course of their illness, and further impairs the quality of lives of patients and their families. Victimization of persons with severe mental illness is a serious medical and social problem. Prevention and management of victimization should become a part of routine clinical care for patients with severe mental illness.

  2. Volcanic eruptions and solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    The historical record of large volcanic eruptions from 1500 to 1980 is subjected to detailed time series analysis. In two weak but probably statistically significant periodicities of about 11 and 80 yr, the frequency of volcanic eruptions increases (decreases) slightly around the times of solar minimum (maximum). Time series analysis of the volcanogenic acidities in a deep ice core from Greenland reveals several very long periods ranging from about 80 to about 350 yr which are similar to the very slow solar cycles previously detected in auroral and C-14 records. Solar flares may cause changes in atmospheric circulation patterns that abruptly alter the earth's spin. The resulting jolt probably triggers small earthquakes which affect volcanism.

  3. Trolling new media: violent extremist groups recruiting through social media

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited With the advent and subsequent growth of several new media technologies, violent extremist groups have incorporated social media into recruiting strategies. How are violent extremist groups using social media for recruiting? This thesis explores several new media technologies—websites, blogs, social media, mobile phones, and online gaming—to determine if violent extremist groups rely on social media for recruiting. By comparing the com...

  4. Tooth eruption and browridge formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, M D

    1982-05-01

    One of the most reasonable hypotheses regarding the functional significance of the browridge is that the supraorbital torus forms in response to masticatory stress during development. Oyen, Walker, and Rice (1979) have recently proposed a model that tests this hypothesis: if browridges are functionally related to masticatory stresses on the cranial vault, then changes in the biomechanics of the masticatory system ought to be reflected by changes in the browridge. To test their model they attempted to relate biomechanical discontinuities resulting from tooth eruption to episodes of bone deposition on the supraorbital tori of a developmental series of dry Papio crania. This paper reports on a parallel test of the model on a cross-sectional sample of Australian Aboriginal juvenile crania. This sample showed no relation between tooth eruption and the supraorbital surface morphology thought to be indicative of active bone deposition. It is also demonstrated that no significant relationship between tooth eruption and episodes of bone deposition is shown by the Papio sample. It is concluded that the use of small cross-sectional samples of dry crania does not provide a valid test of the model.

  5. Exposure to violent video games increases automatic aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Eric; Swanson, Jane

    2004-02-01

    The effects of exposure to violent video games on automatic associations with the self were investigated in a sample of 121 students. Playing the violent video game Doom led participants to associate themselves with aggressive traits and actions on the Implicit Association Test. In addition, self-reported prior exposure to violent video games predicted automatic aggressive self-concept, above and beyond self-reported aggression. Results suggest that playing violent video games can lead to the automatic learning of aggressive self-views.

  6. Values, Attitudes Toward Interpersonal Violence, and Interpersonal Violent Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddig, Daniel; Davidov, Eldad

    2018-01-01

    The relevance of human values for the study of the motivational sources of interpersonal violent behavior was investigated in various fields of the social sciences. However, several past studies mixed up values with other dimensions like attitudes, norms, or beliefs, and only a few systematically assessed the effect of values on violent behavior relying on a value theory. Furthermore, in other studies, violence was often analyzed as a composite index of different forms of delinquent behavior rather than as violence per se . In the current study we address these gaps in the literature by building upon Schwartz' theory of basic human values. We use it to explain attitudes toward interpersonal violence and interpersonal violent behavior. We analyze data of young people ( n = 1,810) drawn from a German study in Duisburg, Germany, which assessed various types of self-reported violent behavior as well as values and attitudes toward violence. We test structural equation models in which we explain interpersonal violent behavior with basic human values, and where attitudes toward interpersonal violent behavior mediate this relation. Results show that self-transcendence and conservation values are associated negatively and power and stimulation values positively with interpersonal violent behavior. In addition, attitudes operate as a partial mediator for the former and as a full mediator for the latter in the relation between values and violent behavior. Despite a dominant association between attitudes and behavior, values themselves can significantly contribute to the explanation of violent behavior.

  7. Neuromodulation can reduce aggressive behavior elicited by violent video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Paolo; Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Romero Lauro, Leonor J; Andrighetto, Luca; Volpato, Chiara; Bushman, Brad J

    2017-04-01

    Research has shown that exposure to violent media increases aggression. However, the neural underpinnings of violent-media-related aggression are poorly understood. Additionally, few experiments have tested hypotheses concerning how to reduce violent-media-related aggression. In this experiment, we focused on a brain area involved in the regulation of aggressive impulses-the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC). We tested the hypothesis that brain polarization through anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over rVLPFC reduces aggression related to violent video games. Participants (N = 79) were randomly assigned to play a violent or a nonviolent video game while receiving anodal or sham stimulation. Afterward, participants aggressed against an ostensible partner using the Taylor aggression paradigm (Taylor Journal of Personality, 35, 297-310, 1967), which measures both unprovoked and provoked aggression. Among those who received sham stimulation, unprovoked aggression was significantly higher for violent-game players than for nonviolent-game players. Among those who received anodal stimulation, unprovoked aggression did not differ for violent- and nonviolent-game players. Thus, anodal stimulation reduced unprovoked aggression in violent-game players. No significant effects were found for provoked aggression, suggesting tit-for-tat responding. This experiment sheds light on one possible neural underpinning of violent-media-related aggression-the rVLPFC, a brain area involved in regulating negative feelings and aggressive impulses.

  8. Values, Attitudes Toward Interpersonal Violence, and Interpersonal Violent Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Seddig

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of human values for the study of the motivational sources of interpersonal violent behavior was investigated in various fields of the social sciences. However, several past studies mixed up values with other dimensions like attitudes, norms, or beliefs, and only a few systematically assessed the effect of values on violent behavior relying on a value theory. Furthermore, in other studies, violence was often analyzed as a composite index of different forms of delinquent behavior rather than as violence per se. In the current study we address these gaps in the literature by building upon Schwartz’ theory of basic human values. We use it to explain attitudes toward interpersonal violence and interpersonal violent behavior. We analyze data of young people (n = 1,810 drawn from a German study in Duisburg, Germany, which assessed various types of self-reported violent behavior as well as values and attitudes toward violence. We test structural equation models in which we explain interpersonal violent behavior with basic human values, and where attitudes toward interpersonal violent behavior mediate this relation. Results show that self-transcendence and conservation values are associated negatively and power and stimulation values positively with interpersonal violent behavior. In addition, attitudes operate as a partial mediator for the former and as a full mediator for the latter in the relation between values and violent behavior. Despite a dominant association between attitudes and behavior, values themselves can significantly contribute to the explanation of violent behavior.

  9. Violent victimization of adult patients with severe mental illness: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Prasko, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Klara Latalova,1,2 Dana Kamaradova,1,2 Jan Prasko1,2 1Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic; 2Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic Abstract: The aims of this paper are to review data on the prevalence and correlates of violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness, to critically evaluate the literature, and to explore possible approaches for future research. PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO d...

  10. Homegrown violent extremists: A seemingly undetectable threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Justin

    2017-04-01

    With today’s unlimited and instantaneous communication, it is easy for a United States citizen to easily connect with anyone in the world. There are many positives to this; however, the unintended consequences include vulnerable people being influenced by radical ideologies. This is evident with the increase in homegrown violent extremists (HVE).The challenge for law enforcement is how to work with constitutional constraints that require a criminal predicate to be present in order to allow intelligence teams to continue collecting information in a permanent file.

  11. Children's violent television viewing: are parents monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tina L; Brenner, Ruth A; Wright, Joseph L; Sachs, Hari Cheryl; Moyer, Patricia; Rao, Malla R

    2004-07-01

    Violent media exposure has been associated with aggressive behavior, and it has been suggested that child health professionals counsel families on limiting exposure. Effective violence prevention counseling requires an understanding of norms regarding parental attitudes, practices, and influencing factors. Both theories of reasoned action and planned behavior emphasize that subjective norms and attitudes affect people's perceptions and intended behavior. Few data exist on violent television viewing and monitoring from a cross-section of families. By understanding the spectrum of parental attitudes, community-sensitive interventions for violence prevention can be developed. The objective of this study was to assess attitudes about and monitoring of violent television viewing from the perspective of parents. An anonymous self-report assisted survey was administered to a convenience sample of parents/guardians who visited child health providers at 3 sites: an urban children's hospital clinic, an urban managed care clinic, and a suburban private practice. The parent questionnaire included questions on child-rearing attitudes and practices and sociodemographic information. A total of 1004 adults who accompanied children for health visits were recruited for the study; 922 surveys were completed (participation rate: 92%). A total of 830 (90%) respondents were parents and had complete child data. Of the 830 respondents, 677 had questions on television viewing included in the survey and were the focus of this analysis. Seventy-five percent of families reported that their youngest child watched television. Of these, 53% reported always limiting violent television viewing, although 73% believed that their children viewed television violence at least 1 time a week. Among television viewers, 81% reported usually or always limiting viewing of sexual content on television and 45% reported usually or always watching television with their youngest child. Among children who watched

  12. Completed Suicide with Violent and Non-Violent Methods in Rural Shandong, China: A Psychological Autopsy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shi-Hua; Jia, Cun-Xian

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aims to describe the specific characteristics of completed suicides by violent methods and non-violent methods in rural Chinese population, and to explore the related factors for corresponding methods. Methods Data of this study came from investigation of 199 completed suicide cases and their paired controls of rural areas in three different counties in Shandong, China, by interviewing one informant of each subject using the method of Psychological Autopsy (PA). Results There were 78 (39.2%) suicides with violent methods and 121 (60.8%) suicides with non-violent methods. Ingesting pesticides, as a non-violent method, appeared to be the most common suicide method (103, 51.8%). Hanging (73 cases, 36.7%) and drowning (5 cases, 2.5%) were the only violent methods observed. Storage of pesticides at home and higher suicide intent score were significantly associated with choice of violent methods while committing suicide. Risk factors related to suicide death included negative life events and hopelessness. Conclusions Suicide with violent methods has different factors from suicide with non-violent methods. Suicide methods should be considered in suicide prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:25111835

  13. Mental Disorders and Charges of Violent Offences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosden, Niels Patrick; Kramp, Peter; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2006-01-01

    This study describes associations between mental disorders and charges of violence among remanded adolescents. 100 15–17 year old boys from East Denmark, consecutively remanded during one year, were interviewed with SCAN, K-SADS and SCID-II to obtain past year ICD-10 diagnoses. There was no stati......This study describes associations between mental disorders and charges of violence among remanded adolescents. 100 15–17 year old boys from East Denmark, consecutively remanded during one year, were interviewed with SCAN, K-SADS and SCID-II to obtain past year ICD-10 diagnoses....... There was no statistically significant association between the occurrence of a violent charge and mental disorders in general (OR = 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI)[0.24; 4.38]). An association was found between violent charge and non-danish ethnicity (OR = 7.58, [1.60; 35.92]). Previously reported association between...... violence and mental disorder among adults were not replicated in this male adolescent remand population. A developmental hypothesis is proposed....

  14. Dopaminergic Polymorphisms, Academic Achievement, and Violent Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ilhong; Lee, Julak; Kim, Seung-Gon

    2015-12-01

    Recent research in the field of educational psychology points to the salience of self-control in accounting for the variance in students' report card grades. At the same time, a novel empirical study from molecular genetics drawing on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) data has revealed that polymorphisms in three dopaminergic genes (dopamine transporter [DAT1], dopamine D2 receptor [DRD2], and dopamine D4 receptor [DRD4]) are also linked to adolescents' grade point averages (GPAs). Juxtaposing these two lines of research, the current study reanalyzed the Add Health genetic subsample to assess the relative effects of these dopaminergic genes and self-control on GPAs. The results showed that the effects of the latter were far stronger than those of the former. The interaction effects between the dopaminergic genes and a set of environmental factors on academic performance were also examined, producing findings that are aligned with the "social push hypothesis" in behavioral genetics. Finally, based on the criminological literature on the link between academic performance and delinquency, we tested whether dopaminergic effects on violent delinquency were mediated by GPAs. The results demonstrated that academic performance fully mediated the linkage between these genes and violent delinquency. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Flux Cancellation Leading to CME Filament Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Roxana M.; Panesar, Navdeep K.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2016-01-01

    Solar filaments are strands of relatively cool, dense plasma magnetically suspended in the lower density hotter solar corona. They trace magnetic polarity inversion lines (PILs) in the photosphere below, and are supported against gravity at heights of up to approx.100 Mm above the chromosphere by the magnetic field in and around them. This field erupts when it is rendered unstable, often by magnetic flux cancellation or emergence at or near the PIL. We have studied the evolution of photospheric magnetic flux leading to ten observed filament eruptions. Specifically, we look for gradual magnetic changes in the neighborhood of the PIL prior to and during eruption. We use Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), and magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), both on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), to study filament eruptions and their photospheric magnetic fields. We examine whether flux cancellation or/and emergence leads to filament eruptions. We find that continuous flux cancellation was present at the PIL for many hours prior to each eruption. We present two CME-producing eruptions in detail and find the following: (a) the pre-eruption filament-holding core field is highly sheared and appears in the shape of a sigmoid above the PIL; (b) at the start of the eruption the opposite arms of the sigmoid reconnect in the middle above the site of (tether-cutting) flux cancellation at the PIL; (c) the filaments first show a slow-rise, followed by a fast-rise as they erupt. We conclude that these two filament eruptions result from flux cancellation in the middle of the sheared field, and thereafter evolve in agreement with the standard model for a CME/flare filament eruption from a closed bipolar magnetic field [flux cancellation (van Ballegooijen and Martens 1989 and Moore and Roumelrotis 1992) and runaway tether-cutting (Moore et. al 2001)].

  16. Disentangling the Effects of Violent Victimization, Violent Behavior, and Gun Carrying for Minority Inner-City Youth Living in Extreme Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Richard; Bolland, John

    2013-01-01

    Two waves of longitudinal data were used to examine the sequencing between violent victimization, violent behavior, and gun carrying in a high-poverty sample of African American youth. Multivariate logistic regression results indicated that violent victimization T1 and violent behavior T1 increased the likelihood of initiation of gun carrying T2…

  17. Erupted Compound Odontomas: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Tejasvi M.L.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The tumors in which odontogenic differentiation is fully expressed are the odontomas. Odontomas are considered as hamartomas rather than a true neoplasm. These tumors are composed of enamel, dentine, cementum and pulp tissue. It is most commonly associated with the eruption of the teeth. They are usually discovered on routine radiographic examination. In exceptional cases, the odontoma erupts in to the mouth. Nine cases of erupted compound odontomas are reported in the English literature, and the present paper reports another case of an erupted compound odontoma in a 22-year-old female patient.

  18. Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, Alan; Mao, Jianping

    1992-01-01

    An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95-percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.

  19. Statistical eruption forecast for the Chilean Southern Volcanic Zone: typical probabilities of volcanic eruptions as baseline for possibly enhanced activity following the large 2010 Concepción earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Dzierma

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A probabilistic eruption forecast is provided for ten volcanoes of the Chilean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ. Since 70% of the Chilean population lives in this area, the estimation of future eruption likelihood is an important part of hazard assessment. After investigating the completeness and stationarity of the historical eruption time series, the exponential, Weibull, and log-logistic distribution functions are fit to the repose time distributions for the individual volcanoes and the models are evaluated. This procedure has been implemented in two different ways to methodologically compare details in the fitting process. With regard to the probability of at least one VEI ≥ 2 eruption in the next decade, Llaima, Villarrica and Nevados de Chillán are most likely to erupt, while Osorno shows the lowest eruption probability among the volcanoes analysed. In addition to giving a compilation of the statistical eruption forecasts along the historically most active volcanoes of the SVZ, this paper aims to give "typical" eruption probabilities, which may in the future permit to distinguish possibly enhanced activity in the aftermath of the large 2010 Concepción earthquake.

  20. Playing violent video games and desensitization to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmyer, Jeanne Funk

    2015-01-01

    This article examines current research linking exposure to violent video games and desensitization to violence. Data from questionnaire, behavioral, and psychophysiologic research are reviewed to determine if exposure to violent video games is a risk factor for desensitization to violence. Real-world implications of desensitization are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comfortably numb: Desensitizing effects of violent media on helping others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bushman, B.J.; Anderson, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    Two studies tested the hypothesis that exposure to violent media reduces aid offered to people in pain. In Study 1, participants played a violent or nonviolent video game for 20 min. After game play, while completing a lengthy questionnaire, they heard a loud fight, in which one person was injured,

  2. Factors underlying male and female use of violent video games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, T.; Möller, I.; Krause, C.

    2015-01-01

    Research has consistently shown that males play violent video games more frequently than females, but factors underlying this gender gap have not been examined to date. This approach examines the assumption that males play violent video games more because they anticipate more enjoyment and less

  3. An Update on the Effects of Playing Violent Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig, A.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a brief overview of existing research on the effects of exposure to violent video games. An updated meta-analysis reveals that exposure to violent video games is significantly linked to increases in aggressive behaviour, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, and cardiovascular arousal, and to decreases in helping…

  4. Does Marijuana Use Lead to Aggression and Violent Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowsky, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    Marijuana use and violent behavior are causing widespread public concern. This article reviews theory and research on the relation between marijuana use and aggressive/violent behavior. It is evident from the inconsistent findings in the literature that the exact nature of the relation remains unclear. This article identifies several possible…

  5. The “Moral Disengagement in Violent Videogames” model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, T.

    2017-01-01

    How do violent videogames, as entertainment products, communicate violence in the context of warfare and in other settings? Also, why do users enjoy virtual violence? The present article introduces the Moral Disengagement in Violent Videogames model to tackle these important questions. The model

  6. Violent comic books and judgments of relational aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsh, Steven J; Olczak, Paul V

    2002-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of reading extremely violent versus mildly violent comic books on the interpretation of relational provocation situations. One hundred and seventeen introductory psychology students read either an extremely violent comic book or a mildly violent comic book. After reading the comic books, participants read five hypothetical stories in which a child, caused a relationally aggressive event to occur to another child, but the intent of the provocateur was ambiguous. After each story, participants were asked a series of questions about the provocateur's intent; potential retaliation toward the provocateur; and the provocateur's emotional state. Responses were coded in terms of amount of negative and violent content. Results indicated that participants reading the extremely violent comic books ascribed more hostile intent to the provocateur, suggested more retaliation toward the provocateur, and attributed a more negative emotional state to the provocateur than participants reading the mildly violent comic book. These data suggest that social information processing of relationally aggressive situations is influenced by violent comic books, even if the comic books do not contain themes of relational aggression.

  7. SANTORINI BEFORE THE MINOAN ERUPTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, Walter L.; Sørensen, Annette Højen; Katsipis, Samson

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions Several detailed geological observations in the landscape of Santorini enable us to claim that the two harbour towns were located on the inner side of the caldera wall on the island of Thera prior to the Minoan Eruption. This hypothesis is in agreement with the excavation sites of Bal...... that the fresco shows a joyful scene where the inhabitants of Bronze Age Santorini celebrate the seasonal change in connection with the arrival of life-giving rainwater either at the beginning of spring or at the end of the sailing season in autumn (Pl. CXLVIIc)....

  8. Violent Video Games and Children’s Aggressive Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Milani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The literature provides some evidence that the use of violent video games increases the risk for young people to develop aggressive cognitions and even behaviors. We aimed to verify whether exposure to violent video games is linked to problems of aggression in a sample of Italian children. Four questionnaires were administered to 346 children between 7 and 14 years of age, attending primary and secondary schools in Northern Italy. Variables measured were externalization, quality of interpersonal relationships, aggression, quality of coping strategies, and parental stress. Participants who preferred violent games showed higher scores for externalization and aggression. The use of violent video games and age were linked to higher levels of aggression, coping strategies, and the habitual video game weekly consumption of participants. Our data confirm the role of violent video games as risk factors for problems of aggressive behavior and of externalization in childhood and early adolescence.

  9. Childhood neurodevelopmental disorders and violent criminality: a sibling control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Sebastian; Forsman, Mats; Larsson, Henrik; Kerekes, Nora; Serlachius, Eva; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2014-11-01

    The longitudinal relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and violent criminality has been extensively documented, while long-term effects of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), tic disorders (TDs), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) on criminality have been scarcely studied. Using population-based registers of all child and adolescent mental health services in Stockholm, we identified 3,391 children, born 1984-1994, with neurodevelopmental disorders, and compared their risk for subsequent violent criminality with matched controls. Individuals with ADHD or TDs were at elevated risk of committing violent crimes, no such association could be seen for ASDs or OCD. ADHD and TDs are risk factors for subsequent violent criminality, while ASDs and OCD are not associated with violent criminality.

  10. The 2014 eruptions of Pavlof Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Haney, Matthew M.; Wallace, Kristi; Cameron, Cheryl E.; Schneider, David J.

    2017-12-22

    Pavlof Volcano is one of the most frequently active volcanoes in the Aleutian Island arc, having erupted more than 40 times since observations were first recorded in the early 1800s . The volcano is located on the Alaska Peninsula (lat 55.4173° N, long 161.8937° W), near Izembek National Wildlife Refuge. The towns and villages closest to the volcano are Cold Bay, Nelson Lagoon, Sand Point, and King Cove, which are all within 90 kilometers (km) of the volcano (fig. 1). Pavlof is a symmetrically shaped stratocone that is 2,518 meters (m) high, and has about 2,300 m of relief. The volcano supports a cover of glacial ice and perennial snow roughly 2 to 4 cubic kilometers (km3) in volume, which is mantled by variable amounts of tephra fall, rockfall debris, and pyroclastic-flow deposits produced during historical eruptions. Typical Pavlof eruptions are characterized by moderate amounts of ash emission, lava fountaining, spatter-fed lava flows, explosions, and the accumulation of unstable mounds of spatter on the upper flanks of the volcano. The accumulation and subsequent collapse of spatter piles on the upper flanks of the volcano creates hot granular avalanches, which erode and melt snow and ice, and thereby generate watery debris-flow and hyperconcentrated-flow lahars. Seismic instruments were first installed on Pavlof Volcano in the early 1970s, and since then eruptive episodes have been better characterized and specific processes have been documented with greater certainty. The application of remote sensing techniques, including the use of infrasound data, has also aided the study of more recent eruptions. Although Pavlof Volcano is located in a remote part of Alaska, it is visible from Cold Bay, Sand Point, and Nelson Lagoon, making distal observations of eruptive activity possible, weather permitting. A busy air-travel corridor that is utilized by a numerous transcontinental and regional air carriers passes near Pavlof Volcano. The frequency of air travel

  11. Inherited retarded eruption in the permanent dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, P; Kotsaki, A

    1997-01-01

    The term retarded eruption, may be used in cases where eruption is inhibited, causing an interruption in the coordination of tooth formation and tooth eruption. The phenomenon may be local or general, and several etiological factors for retarded eruption have been listed, comprising a lack of space, ankylosis, cysts, supernumerary teeth, hormone and vitamin deficiencies and several developmental disturbances and syndromes. The present paper describes several cases of retarded eruption where no factors other than inheritance have been evident. So far 14 cases have been evaluated, 9 boys and 5 girls. In addition several cases have been registered among parents and grandparents of the probands. Typical features are: retarded eruption, defined as more than 3 SD beyond mean eruption figures, comprises all teeth in the permanent dentition, and in 5 cases also second primary molars. The chronology of tooth formation are within normal limits. Consequently the teeth finish development still laying deeply buried in the jaws, often in aberrant positions and with curves or hooks on the roots. When the teeth finally get the "signal" for eruption, 5-15 years beyond normal eruption time, they move rather quickly into right positions, despite the long eruption paths and the hooked roots. Permanent teeth without, as well as with predecessors, are affected. Extraction of predecessors does not seem to provoke eruption. The main features in management are to take care of the primary teeth, to improve-esthetics, and offer surgery and orthodontics when needed. Analyses of pedigrees indicates that the genetic transmittance may be autosomal dominant as both sexes are affected, about half of the siblings show the trait, and the trait shows continuity through generations.

  12. Orientation of the eruption fissures controlled by a shallow magma chamber in Miyakejima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuo Geshi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation of the eruption fissures and composition of the lavas of the Miyakejima volcano indicate tectonic influence of a shallow magma chamber on the distribution of eruption fissures. We examined the distributions and magmatic compositions of 23 fissures that formed within the last 2800 years, based on a field survey and a new dataset of 14C ages. The dominant orientation of the eruption fissures in the central portion of the volcano was found to be NE-SW, which is perpendicular to the direction of regional maximum horizontal compressive stress (σHmax. Magmas that show evidences of magma mixing between basaltic and andesitic magmas erupted mainly from the eruption fissures with a higher offset angle from the regional σHmax direction. The presence of a shallow dike-shaped magma chamber controls the distribution of the eruption fissures. The injection of basaltic magma into the shallow andesitic magma chamber caused the temporal rise of internal magmatic pressure in the shallow magma chamber. Dikes extending from the andesitic magma chamber intrude along the local compressive stress field which is generated by the internal excess pressure of the andesitic magma chamber. As the result, the eruption fissures trend parallel to the elongation direction of the shallow magma chamber. Injection of basaltic magma into the shallow andesitic magma chamber caused the magma mixing. Some basaltic dikes from the deep-seated magma chamber reach the ground surface without intersection with the andesitic magma chamber. The patterns of the eruption fissures can be modified in the future as was observed in the case of the destruction of the shallow magma chamber during the 2000 AD eruption.

  13. Insights into the Toba Super-Eruption using SEM Analysis of Ash Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, E.; Achyuthan, H.; Durant, A. J.; Gibbard, P.; Mokhtar, S.; Oppenheimer, C.; Raj, R.; Shridar, A.

    2010-12-01

    The ~74 ka Youngest Toba Tuff (YTT) super-eruption of Toba volcano, Northern Sumatra, was the largest eruption of the Quaternary (magnitude M= 8.8) and injected massive quantities of volcanic gases and ash into the stratosphere. YTT deposits covered at least 40,000,000 km2 of Southeast Asia and are preserved in river valleys across peninsular India and Malaysia, and in deep-sea tephra layers in the Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal and South China Sea. Initial studies hypothesized the eruption caused immediate and substantial global cooling during the ~ 1 kyr between Dansgaard-Oeschger events 19 and 20 which devastated ecosystems and hominid populations. A more recent review argues against severe post-YTT climatic deterioration and cannot find clear evidence for considerable impacts on ecosystems or bio-diversity. The determination of the eruptive parameters is crucial in this issue to document the eruption and understand the potential impacts from future super-volcanic eruptions. Volcanic ash deposits can offer dramatic insights into key eruptive parameters, including magnitude, duration and plume height. The composition and shape of volcanic ashes can be used to interpret physical properties of an erupting magma and tephra transport, while textural characteristics such as grain roughness and surface vescicularity can provide insights into degassing history, volatile content and explosive activity of the volcano. We present a stratigraphic and sedimentological analysis of YTT deposits in stratified contexts at three localities in India, at two sites in Peninsular Malaysia, and at several localities around Lake Toba and on Samosir Island, Sumatra. These sites offer excellent constraints on the spatial distribution of YTT deposits which can be used to infer dispersal directions of the cloud, and provide insights into environmental controls on preservation of tephra beds. The research aims at a systematic interpretation of the Toba tephra to understand the volcanic

  14. Progressive approach to eruption at Campi Flegrei caldera in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Christopher R J; De Natale, Giuseppe; Carlino, Stefano

    2017-05-15

    Unrest at large calderas rarely ends in eruption, encouraging vulnerable communities to perceive emergency warnings of volcanic activity as false alarms. A classic example is the Campi Flegrei caldera in southern Italy, where three episodes of major uplift since 1950 have raised its central district by about 3 m without an eruption. Individual episodes have conventionally been treated as independent events, so that only data from an ongoing episode are considered pertinent to evaluating eruptive potential. An implicit assumption is that the crust relaxes accumulated stress after each episode. Here we apply a new model of elastic-brittle failure to test the alternative view that successive episodes promote a long-term accumulation of stress in the crust. The results provide the first quantitative evidence that Campi Flegrei is evolving towards conditions more favourable to eruption and identify field tests for predictions on how the caldera will behave during future unrest.

  15. The U.S. Army Chemical Corps and a Future Within AFRICOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Nonproliferation Review 7, no.2 (2000). 55 represents Nigeria’s Yoruba ethnic group, had taken the lead in instigating violent ethnic eruptions in...and cultures , it is not part of AFRICOM. • Equatorial Guinea: petroleum, natural gas, timber, gold, bauxite, diamonds, tantalum, sand and gravel

  16. This is your brain on violent video games: Neural desensitization to violence predicts increased aggression following violent video game exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, C.R.; Bartholow, B.D.; Kerr, G.T.; Bushman, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that media violence exposure can cause desensitization to violence, which in theory can increase aggression. However, no study to date has demonstrated this association. In the present experiment, participants played a violent or nonviolent video game, viewed violent and

  17. Global Significant Volcanic Eruptions Database, 4360 BC to present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Significant Volcanic Eruptions Database is a global listing of over 600 eruptions from 4360 BC to the present. A significant eruption is classified as one that...

  18. Palifermin-associated papular eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Brett; Knopp, Eleanor; Galan, Anjela; Nuovo, Gerard; Tigelaar, Robert; McNiff, Jennifer

    2009-02-01

    Palifermin is a recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor that is used to reduce the duration and severity of oral mucositis in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after myelotoxic therapy. Cutaneous adverse reactions associated with keratinocyte growth factor are reported to be rash, pruritus, and erythema. After receiving palifermin following autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and treatment with melphalan, a patient developed erythema and lichenoid papules that were distributed primarily in intertriginous areas. A biopsy specimen of the papules showed a striking resemblance to verrucae, but in situ hybridization studies were negative for human papillomavirus. Immunohistochemical staining with antibodies to Ki-67 and cytokeratin 5/6 showed increased keratinocyte proliferation in lesional skin. After treatment with palifermin, a papular eruption clinically resembling lichen planus or plane warts, with histologic features of verruca plana, and intertriginous erythema may occur. In this case, neither eruption required treatment, and spontaneous resolution was observed over days to weeks. Histopathologic staining patterns of Ki-67 and cytokeratin 5/6 may be useful in identifying adverse reactions to palifermin therapy.

  19. Reliability of risk assessment measures used in sexually violent predator proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cailey S; Kimonis, Eva R; Otto, Randy K; Kline, Suzonne M; Wasserman, Adam L

    2012-12-01

    The field interrater reliability of three assessment tools frequently used by mental health professionals when evaluating sex offenders' risk for reoffending--the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), the Minnesota Sex Offender Screening Tool-Revised (MnSOST-R) and the Static-99-was examined within the context of sexually violent predator program proceedings. Rater agreement was highest for the Static--99 (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC₁] = .78) and lowest for the PCL-R (ICC₁ = .60; MnSOST-R ICC₁ = .74), although all instruments demonstrated lower field reliability than that reported in their test manuals. Findings raise concerns about the reliability of risk assessment tools that are used to inform judgments of risk in high-stake sexually violent predator proceedings. Implications for future research and suggestions for improving evaluator training to increase accuracy when informing legal decision making are discussed.

  20. Exposure to violent media: the effects of songs with violent lyrics on aggressive thoughts and feelings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig A; Carnagey, Nicholas L; Eubanks, Janie

    2003-05-01

    Five experiments examined effects of songs with violent lyrics on aggressive thoughts and hostile feelings. Experiments 1, 3, 4 and 5 demonstrated that college students who heard a violent song felt more hostile than those who heard a similar but nonviolent song. Experiments 2-5 demonstrated a similar increase in aggressive thoughts. These effects replicated across songs and song types (e.g., rock, humorous, nonhumorous). Experiments 3-5 also demonstrated that trait hostility was positively related to state hostility but did not moderate the song lyric effects. Discussion centers on the potential role of lyric content on aggression in short-term settings, relation to catharsis and other media violence domains, development of aggressive personality, differences between long-term and short-term effects, and possible mitigating factors.

  1. Insensitivity of Tree-Ring Growth to Temperature and Precipitation Sharpens the Puzzle of Enhanced Pre-Eruption NDVI on Mt. Etna (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Ruedi; Kirchner, James W; Krusic, Paul J; Tognetti, Roberto; Houlié, Nicolas; Andronico, Daniele; Cullotta, Sebastiano; Egli, Markus; D'Arrigo, Rosanne; Cherubini, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    On Mt. Etna (Italy), an enhanced Normalized Difference in Vegetation Index (NDVI) signature was detected in the summers of 2001 and 2002 along a distinct line where, in November 2002, a flank eruption subsequently occurred. These observations suggest that pre-eruptive volcanic activity may have enhanced photosynthesis along the future eruptive fissure. If a direct relation between NDVI and future volcanic eruptions could be established, it would provide a straightforward and low-cost method for early detection of upcoming eruptions. However, it is unclear if, or to what extent, the observed enhancement of NDVI can be attributed to volcanic activity prior to the subsequent eruption. We consequently aimed at determining whether an increase in ambient temperature or additional water availability owing to the rise of magma and degassing of water vapour prior to the eruption could have increased photosynthesis of Mt. Etna's trees. Using dendro-climatic analyses we quantified the sensitivity of tree ring widths to temperature and precipitation at high elevation stands on Mt. Etna. Our findings suggest that tree growth at high elevation on Mt. Etna is weakly influenced by climate, and that neither an increase in water availability nor an increase in temperature induced by pre-eruptive activity is a plausible mechanism for enhanced photosynthesis before the 2002/2003 flank eruption. Our findings thus imply that other, yet unknown, factors must be sought as causes of the pre-eruption enhancement of NDVI on Mt. Etna.

  2. Have LEGO Products Become More Violent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bartneck

    Full Text Available Although television, computer games and the Internet play an important role in the lives of children they still also play with physical toys, such as dolls, cars and LEGO bricks. The LEGO company has become the world's largest toy manufacturer. Our study investigates if the LEGO company's products have become more violent over time. First, we analyzed the frequency of weapon bricks in LEGO sets. Their use has significantly increased. Second, we empirically investigated the perceived violence in the LEGO product catalogs from the years 1978-2014. Our results show that the violence of the depicted products has increased significantly over time. The LEGO Company's products are not as innocent as they used to be.

  3. Have LEGO Products Become More Violent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min Ser, Qi; Moltchanova, Elena; Smithies, James; Harrington, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Although television, computer games and the Internet play an important role in the lives of children they still also play with physical toys, such as dolls, cars and LEGO bricks. The LEGO company has become the world’s largest toy manufacturer. Our study investigates if the LEGO company’s products have become more violent over time. First, we analyzed the frequency of weapon bricks in LEGO sets. Their use has significantly increased. Second, we empirically investigated the perceived violence in the LEGO product catalogs from the years 1978–2014. Our results show that the violence of the depicted products has increased significantly over time. The LEGO Company’s products are not as innocent as they used to be. PMID:27203424

  4. Have LEGO Products Become More Violent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartneck, Christoph; Min Ser, Qi; Moltchanova, Elena; Smithies, James; Harrington, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Although television, computer games and the Internet play an important role in the lives of children they still also play with physical toys, such as dolls, cars and LEGO bricks. The LEGO company has become the world's largest toy manufacturer. Our study investigates if the LEGO company's products have become more violent over time. First, we analyzed the frequency of weapon bricks in LEGO sets. Their use has significantly increased. Second, we empirically investigated the perceived violence in the LEGO product catalogs from the years 1978-2014. Our results show that the violence of the depicted products has increased significantly over time. The LEGO Company's products are not as innocent as they used to be.

  5. Violent and Non-Violent Criminal Behavior among Young Chinese Drug Users: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liu; Chui, Wing Hong; Chen, Ye

    2018-03-02

    Young drug users are found to be increasingly involved in criminal justice issues. This exploratory and descriptive study aims to analyze the criminal behaviors among young Chinese drug users through a mixed methods research design. Quantitative analysis indicates that young drug users with and without a history of criminality show significant differences in terms of several features. Male drug users, particularly, those who are older, with religious beliefs, and initiated into drug use at younger age were most likely to commit crimes. Among drug users with criminal experiences, those who committed crimes prior to drug initiation have a greater likelihood of committing violent crimes. Furthermore, young drug users with severe depression are more likely to commit crimes, especially violent ones. Qualitative analysis further illustrates that young male drug users often get involved in criminal conduct of the youth gang nature with propensity for engaging in violent crimes as compared to their female counterparts who are more likely to turn into drug dealers and traffickers, in addition to engaging in larceny. The research findings are consistent with developmental theories and "victim to offender cycle". Integrated mental health and substance use services are suggested for crime prevention among young Chinese drug users.

  6. An update on the effects of playing violent video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig A

    2004-02-01

    This article presents a brief overview of existing research on the effects of exposure to violent video games. An updated meta-analysis reveals that exposure to violent video games is significantly linked to increases in aggressive behaviour, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, and cardiovascular arousal, and to decreases in helping behaviour. Experimental studies reveal this linkage to be causal. Correlational studies reveal a linkage to serious, real-world types of aggression. Methodologically weaker studies yielded smaller effect sizes than methodologically stronger studies, suggesting that previous meta-analytic studies of violent video games underestimate the true magnitude of observed deleterious effects on behaviour, cognition, and affect.

  7. Psychiatric Nurses' Attitudes Towards Violent Behaviour: A Brazilian Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maraína Gomes Pires Fernandes; de Vargas, Divane

    2018-02-13

    This study examines nurses' attitudes towards violent behaviour and the management of aggressiveness. A convenience sample of 185 nurses working in psychiatric urgent care and emergency services in Brazil responded to the MAVAS-BR. The results show that nurses' attitudes are more reflective of the external and situational models of violent behaviour and the use of control methods to manage aggressiveness. The mapping of this phenomenon using the same tools in a different context from those traditionally studied while observing similar results suggests a pattern of attitudes towards violent behaviour and the management of aggressiveness among nurses around the world.

  8. FOGO-2014: Monitoring the Fogo 2014 Eruption, Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Rui; Faria, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    before the eruption began. The Copernicus Emergency Management Service was also activated and several maps of lava flows advance and general site information were produced, based on Earth Observation, to facilitate crisis management. The eruption caused no casualties or personal injuries. The lava expelled by the current eruption (still active at the time of submission, January 6, 2015, but declining) destroyed the two main villages in the caldera (~1000 inhabitants), previously evacuated, and covered vast areas of agricultural land, causing very large economic losses and an uncertain future of the local populations. The C4G team installed a network of seven cGNSS receivers and nine seismometers, distributed in Fogo Island. The operation of the equipment started on 28th November 2014, and will continue until the end of January 2015. The mission also included a new detailed gravimetric survey of the island, the acquisition of geological samples, and the analysis of the air quality during the eruption. We present here a detailed description of the monitoring efforts carried out during the eruption as well as initial results of the analysis of the data collected. This monitoring effort carried out at the request and in collaboration with INMG, was made possible by an emergency financial support provided by Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia, Portugal.

  9. Thermal vesiculation during volcanic eruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallée, Yan; Dingwell, Donald B; Johnson, Jeffrey B; Cimarelli, Corrado; Hornby, Adrian J; Kendrick, Jackie E; von Aulock, Felix W; Kennedy, Ben M; Andrews, Benjamin J; Wadsworth, Fabian B; Rhodes, Emma; Chigna, Gustavo

    2015-12-24

    Terrestrial volcanic eruptions are the consequence of magmas ascending to the surface of the Earth. This ascent is driven by buoyancy forces, which are enhanced by bubble nucleation and growth (vesiculation) that reduce the density of magma. The development of vesicularity also greatly reduces the 'strength' of magma, a material parameter controlling fragmentation and thus the explosive potential of the liquid rock. The development of vesicularity in magmas has until now been viewed (both thermodynamically and kinetically) in terms of the pressure dependence of the solubility of water in the magma, and its role in driving gas saturation, exsolution and expansion during decompression. In contrast, the possible effects of the well documented negative temperature dependence of solubility of water in magma has largely been ignored. Recently, petrological constraints have demonstrated that considerable heating of magma may indeed be a common result of the latent heat of crystallization as well as viscous and frictional heating in areas of strain localization. Here we present field and experimental observations of magma vesiculation and fragmentation resulting from heating (rather than decompression). Textural analysis of volcanic ash from Santiaguito volcano in Guatemala reveals the presence of chemically heterogeneous filaments hosting micrometre-scale vesicles. The textures mirror those developed by disequilibrium melting induced via rapid heating during fault friction experiments, demonstrating that friction can generate sufficient heat to induce melting and vesiculation of hydrated silicic magma. Consideration of the experimentally determined temperature and pressure dependence of water solubility in magma reveals that, for many ascent paths, exsolution may be more efficiently achieved by heating than by decompression. We conclude that the thermal path experienced by magma during ascent strongly controls degassing, vesiculation, magma strength and the effusive

  10. Neuroimaging of aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Sterzer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of functional and structural neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural bases of aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents. Most functional neuroimaging studies have persued the hypothesis that pathological aggression is a consequence of deficits in the neural circuits involved in emotion processing. There is converging evidence for deficient neural responses to emotional stimuli in youths with a propensity towards aggressive behaviour. In addition, recent neuroimaging work has suggested that aggressive behaviour is also associated with abnormalities in neural processes that subserve both the inhibitory control of behaviour and the flexible adaptation of behaviour in accord with reinforcement information. Structural neuroimaging studies in children and adolescents with conduct problems are still scarce, but point to deficits in brain structures in volved in the processing of social information and in the regulation of social and goal directed behaviour. The indisputable progress that this research field has made in recent years notwithstanding, the overall picture is still rather patchy and there are inconsistencies between studies that await clarification. Despite this, we attempt to provide an integrated view on the neural abnormalities that may contribute to various forms of juvenile aggression and violence, and discuss research strategies that may help to provide a more profound understanding of these important issues in the future.

  11. The Open Sore of Football: Aggressive Violent Behavior and Hooliganism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumusgul Osman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aggression and violence have been a customary part of life that mankind has had to live with from the beginning of time; it has been accepted by society even though it expresses endless negativity. Aggression and violence can find a place in sports events and football games because of the social problems of the audience watching the competitions or games, which sometimes fall into the category of hooliganism. Turkey is one of the countries that should consider this problem to be a serious social problem. Even during 2014 and 2015, a relatively short period of time, there were significant hazardous acts committed by hooligans. In February 2014, one supporter was killed after a game between Liverpool and Arsenal in England; in March 2014, a game between Trabzonspor and Fenerbahce was left half-finished because of violent acts in the stadium that caused players in the pitch to believe that they could not leave stadium alive, although they finally left after a few hours; in another incident in March 2014, one supporter was killed after a game between Helsingborg and Djugarden in Sweden; in November 2014, one supporter was killed and 14 supporters were injured before the game between Atletico Madrid and Deportivo in Spain. These are all examples of aggression, violence, and hooliganism in football. This paper aims to discuss aggression, violence, and hooliganism in football, especially in recent years, and investigate what can be done to prevent these acts from occurring again in the future by examining them in hindsight.

  12. Research Less Violent? Or the Ethics of Performative Social Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabi Redwood

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I construct an argument which positions research as an inherently violent activity in which the strange is made to appear familiar thereby forcing the otherness of the other into some kind of order, and transforming the unknown into the knowable. Through organising data and imposing an order—which is arguably the point of any analysis and representation—the wild profusion of things is tamed (to use a Foucauldian metaphor. Thus ambiguity and difference are flattened out, and indeterminacy is overlaid with "findings". Furthermore, research can also be seen as an activity in which the moral choices, ethical and analytical decisions, and personal investments of the researcher are secreted away and so are made to appear natural and innocent. I argue that there is an opportunity for performative social science research to remember the ethical consequences of analysis and representation and to take responsibility for the violence of taming the wild profusion of data. This opportunity resides in its potential to show, not tell; to be open to the future, another happening, another event rather than to settle for one final conclusion and close down other possibilities; and to provoke critique, resistance and political action rather than appeal for agreement, conformity and indifference. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802608

  13. Structure and evolution of magnetic fields associated with solar eruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haimin; Liu Chang

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the studies of solar photospheric magnetic field evolution in active regions and its relationship to solar flares. It is divided into two topics, the magnetic structure and evolution leading to solar eruptions and rapid changes in the photospheric magnetic field associated with eruptions. For the first topic, we describe the magnetic complexity, new flux emergence, flux cancelation, shear motions, sunspot rotation and magnetic helicity injection, which may all contribute to the storage and buildup of energy that trigger solar eruptions. For the second topic, we concentrate on the observations of rapid and irreversible changes of the photospheric magnetic field associated with flares, and the implication on the restructuring of the three-dimensional magnetic field. In particular, we emphasize the recent advances in observations of the photospheric magnetic field, as state-of-the-art observing facilities (such as Hinode and Solar Dynamics Observatory) have become available. The linkages between observations, theories and future prospectives in this research area are also discussed. (invited reviews)

  14. Strong Constraints on Aerosol-Cloud Interactions from Volcanic Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavelle, Florent F.; Haywood, Jim M.; Jones, Andy; Gettelman, Andrew; Clarisse, Lieven; Bauduin, Sophie; Allan, Richard P.; Karset, Inger Helene H.; Kristjansson, Jon Egill; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; hide

    2017-01-01

    Aerosols have a potentially large effect on climate, particularly through their interactions with clouds, but the magnitude of this effect is highly uncertain. Large volcanic eruptions produce sulfur dioxide, which in turn produces aerosols; these eruptions thus represent a natural experiment through which to quantify aerosol-cloud interactions. Here we show that the massive 2014-2015 fissure eruption in Holuhraun, Iceland, reduced the size of liquid cloud droplets - consistent with expectations - but had no discernible effect on other cloud properties. The reduction in droplet size led to cloud brightening and global-mean radiative forcing of around minus 0.2 watts per square metre for September to October 2014. Changes in cloud amount or cloud liquid water path, however, were undetectable, indicating that these indirect effects, and cloud systems in general, are well buffered against aerosol changes. This result will reduce uncertainties in future climate projections, because we are now able to reject results from climate models with an excessive liquid-water-path response.

  15. Characteristics of EIT Dimmings in Solar Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi; Sterling, A. C.

    2006-01-01

    Intensity "dimmings" in coronal images are a key feature of solar eruptions. Such dimmings are likely the source locations for much of the material expelled in coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Characteristics such as the timing of the dimmings with respect to the onset of other eruption signatures, and the location of the dimmings in the context of the magnetic field environment of the erupting region, are indicative of the mechanism leading to the eruption. We examine dimmings of six eruptions in images from the EUV Imaging Telescope (EIT) on SOHO, along with supplementary soft X-ray (SXR) data from GOES and the SXR Telescope (SXT) on Yohkoh. We examine the timing of the dimming onset and compare with the time of EUV and SXR brightening and determine the timescale for the recovery from dimming for each event. With line-of-sight photospheric magnetograms from the MDI instrument on SOHO, we determine the magnetic structure of the erupting regions and the locations of the dimmings in those regions. From our analysis we consider which mechanism likely triggered each eruption: internal tether cutting, external tether cutting ("breakout"), loss of equilibrium, or some other mechanism.

  16. Plasma Evolution within an Erupting Coronal Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, David M.; Harra, Louise K.; Matthews, Sarah A.; Warren, Harry P.; Lee, Kyoung-Sun; Doschek, George A.; Hara, Hirohisa; Jenkins, Jack M.

    2018-03-01

    Coronal cavities have previously been observed to be associated with long-lived quiescent filaments and are thought to correspond to the associated magnetic flux rope. Although the standard flare model predicts a coronal cavity corresponding to the erupting flux rope, these have only been observed using broadband imaging data, restricting an analysis to the plane-of-sky. We present a unique set of spectroscopic observations of an active region filament seen erupting at the solar limb in the extreme ultraviolet. The cavity erupted and expanded rapidly, with the change in rise phase contemporaneous with an increase in nonthermal electron energy flux of the associated flare. Hot and cool filamentary material was observed to rise with the erupting flux rope, disappearing suddenly as the cavity appeared. Although strongly blueshifted plasma continued to be observed flowing from the apex of the erupting flux rope, this outflow soon ceased. These results indicate that the sudden injection of energy from the flare beneath forced the rapid eruption and expansion of the flux rope, driving strong plasma flows, which resulted in the eruption of an under-dense filamentary flux rope.

  17. ANOTHER "LETHAL TRIAD"-RISK FACTORS FOR VIOLENT INJURY AND LONG-TERM MORTALITY AMONG ADULT VICTIMS OF VIOLENT INJURY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laytin, Adam D; Shumway, Martha; Boccellari, Alicia; Juillard, Catherine J; Dicker, Rochelle A

    2018-04-14

    Mental illness, substance abuse, and poverty are risk factors for violent injury, and violent injury is a risk factor for early mortality that can be attenuated through hospital-based violence intervention programs. Most of these programs focus on victims under the age of 30 years. Little is known about risk factors or long-term mortality among older victims of violent injury. To explore the prevalence of risk factors for violent injury among younger (age < 30 years) and older (age 30 ≥ years) victims of violent injury, to determine the long-term mortality rates in these age groups, and to explore the association between risk factors for violent injury and long-term mortality. Adults with violent injuries were enrolled between 2001 and 2004. Demographic and injury data were recorded on enrollment. Ten-year mortality rates were measured. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were used to compare older and younger subjects. Among 541 subjects, 70% were over age 30. The overall 10-year mortality rate was 15%, and was much higher than in the age-matched general population in both age groups. Risk factors for violent injury including mental illness, substance abuse, and poverty were prevalent, especially among older subjects, and were each independently associated with increased risk of long-term mortality. Mental illness, substance abuse, and poverty constitute a "lethal triad" that is associated with an increased risk of long-term mortality among victims of violent injury, including both younger adults and those over age 30 years. Both groups may benefit from targeted risk-reduction efforts. Emergency department visits offer an invaluable opportunity to engage these vulnerable patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Post-Eruption Deformation Processes Measured Using ALOS-1 and UAVSAR InSAR at Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren N. Schaefer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pacaya volcano is a persistently active basaltic cone complex located in the Central American Volcanic Arc in Guatemala. In May of 2010, violent Volcanic Explosivity Index-3 (VEI-3 eruptions caused significant topographic changes to the edifice, including a linear collapse feature 600 m long originating from the summit, the dispersion of ~20 cm of tephra and ash on the cone, the emplacement of a 5.4 km long lava flow, and ~3 m of co-eruptive movement of the southwest flank. For this study, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR images (interferograms processed from both spaceborne Advanced Land Observing Satellite-1 (ALOS-1 and aerial Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR data acquired between 31 May 2010 and 10 April 2014 were used to measure post-eruptive deformation events. Interferograms suggest three distinct deformation processes after the May 2010 eruptions, including: (1 subsidence of the area involved in the co-eruptive slope movement; (2 localized deformation near the summit; and (3 emplacement and subsequent subsidence of about a 5.4 km lava flow. The detection of several different geophysical signals emphasizes the utility of measuring volcanic deformation using remote sensing techniques with broad spatial coverage. Additionally, the high spatial resolution of UAVSAR has proven to be an excellent compliment to satellite data, particularly for constraining motion components. Measuring the rapid initiation and cessation of flank instability, followed by stabilization and subsequent influence on eruptive features, provides a rare glimpse into volcanic slope stability processes. Observing these and other deformation events contributes both to hazard assessment at Pacaya and to the study of the stability of stratovolcanoes.

  19. Water Resource Management Mechanisms for Intrastate Violent Conflict Resolution: the Capacity Gap and What To Do About It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, M.; Veilleux, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Violent conflict and issues surrounding available water resources are both global problems and are connected. Violent conflict is increasingly intrastate in nature and coupled with increased hydrological variability as a function of climate change, there will be increased pressures on water resource use. The majority of mechanisms designed to secure water resources are often based on the presence of a governance framework or another type of institutional capacity, such as offered through a supra- or sub-national organization like the United Nations or a river basin organization. However, institutional frameworks are not present or loose functionality during violent conflict. Therefore, it will likely be extremely difficult to secure water resources for a significant proportion of populations in Fragile and Conflict Affected States. However, the capacity in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development nations for the appropriate interventions to address this problem is reduced by an increasing reluctance to participate in interventionist operations following a decade of expeditionary warfighting mainly in Iraq and Afghanistan, and related defence cuts. Therefore, future interventions in violent conflict and securing water resources may be more indirect in nature. This paper assesses the state of understanding key areas in the present literature and highlights the gap of securing water resources during violent conflict in the absence of institutional capacity. There is a need to close this gap as a matter of urgency by formulating frameworks to assess the lack of institutional oversight / framework for water resources in areas where violent conflict is prevalent; developing inclusive resource management platforms through transparency and reconciliation mechanisms; and developing endogenous confidence-building measures and evaluate how these may be encouraged by exogenous initiatives including those facilitated by the international community. This effort

  20. Reconstructing the deadly eruptive events of 1790 CE at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Don; Weaver, Samantha J; Houghton, Bruce F.

    2014-01-01

    A large number of people died during an explosive eruption of Kīlauea Volcano in 1790 CE. Detailed study of the upper part of the Keanakāko‘i Tephra has identified the deposits that may have been responsible for the deaths. Three successive units record shifts in eruption style that agree well with accounts of the eruption based on survivor interviews 46 yr later. First, a wet fall of very fine, accretionary-lapilli–bearing ash created a “cloud of darkness.” People walked across the soft deposit, leaving footprints as evidence. While the ash was still unconsolidated, lithic lapilli fell into it from a high eruption column that was seen from 90 km away. Either just after this tephra fall or during its latest stage, pulsing dilute pyroclastic density currents, probably products of a phreatic eruption, swept across the western flank of Kīlauea, embedding lapilli in the muddy ash and crossing the trail along which the footprints occur. The pyroclastic density currents were most likely responsible for the fatalities, as judged from the reported condition and probable location of the bodies. This reconstruction is relevant today, as similar eruptions will probably occur in the future at Kīlauea and represent its most dangerous and least predictable hazard.

  1. Factors associated with violent victimisation among homeless adults in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larney, Sarah; Conroy, Elizabeth; Mills, Katherine L; Burns, Lucy; Teesson, Maree

    2009-08-01

    To determine the prevalence and correlates of violent victimisation among homeless people in inner-Sydney. Cross-sectional design. Clients of a shelter for homeless, substance-using adults were interviewed about their drug use, mental health and violent victimisation in the previous 12 months. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with victimisation. Participants reported complex drug use histories and high levels of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders. Forty-eight per cent of participants reported past year victimisation. In univariate analyses, being female, schizophrenia/psychotic disorder, PTSD, depression and regular use of psychostimulants were associated with increased risk of victimisation. In multivariate analyses, regular use of psychostimulants (odds ratio [95% CI] 5.07 [1.53-16.84]), schizophrenia or other psychotic disorder (3.13 [1.24-7.9], and depression (2.65 [1.07-6.59]) were associated with increased risk of victimisation. This sample of homeless, substance-using adults experienced high levels of violence. People with poor mental health and regular psychostimulant users were at greater risk of victimisation. A longitudinal study to determine whether victimisation prolongs homelessness is warranted. Clinical staff working with homeless populations need to be aware of the likelihood of past and future victimisation and its effects on mental health. Homeless persons may benefit from learning to identify risk situations for victimisation and how to de-escalate potentially violent situations.

  2. Institutions, Anomie, and Violent Crime: Clarifying and Elaborating Institutional-Anomie Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Rosenfeld

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A limited but accumulating body of research and theoretical commentary offers support for core claims of the “institutional-anomie theory” of crime (IAT and points to areas needing further development. In this paper, which focuses on violent crime, we clarify the concept of social institutions, elaborate the cultural component of IAT, derive implications for individual behavior, summarize empirical applications, and propose directions for future research. Drawing on Talcott Parsons, we distinguish the “subjective” and “objective” dimensions of institutional dynamics and discuss their interrelationship. We elaborate on the theory’s cultural component with reference to Durkheim’s distinction between “moral” and “egoistic” individualism and propose that a version of the egoistic type characterizes societies in which the economy dominates the institutional structure, anomie is rampant, and levels of violent crime are high. We also offer a heuristic model of IAT that integrates macro- and individual levels of analysis. Finally, we discuss briefly issues for the further theoretical elaboration of this macro-social perspective on violent crime. Specifically, we call attention to the important tasks of explaining the emergence of economic dominance in the institutional balance of power and of formulating an institutional account for distinctive punishment practices, such as the advent of mass incarceration in the United States.

  3. Performance Evaluations and Victim Satisfaction With State Compensation for Violent Crime: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, M J J; Koster, N N; Van Heugten, J

    2015-07-29

    Satisfaction with a particular good or service represents an affective state in response to an individual's evaluation of the performance of that good or service. This evaluation involves a comparison between perceived actual performance and prior expectations. The current study used this theoretical idea to study violent crime victims' levels of satisfaction with services provided by a Dutch state compensation scheme. One hundred and seventy-seven victims of violent crime who had applied for compensation from the Dutch Violent Offences Compensation Fund (DVOCF) participated in two brief telephone interviews: one before receipt of the fund's decision upon their request for compensation and one after receipt of that decision. Based on the theories of distributive and procedural justice, measurement of prior expectations was differentiated in expectations about receipt of compensation, treatment by fund workers, and information provision. Results suggested that satisfaction with the DVOCF depended on fulfillment of expectations about treatment by fund workers and information provision, but not on fulfillment of expectations about receipt of compensation. Other predictors of victim satisfaction were as follows: duration of the application procedure, approval upon request for compensation, and satisfaction assessed during the first interview. Results were discussed in light of theory, policy implications, study limitations, and future research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Permanent molars: Delayed development and eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathi R

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Delayed development and eruption of all the permanent molars is a rare phenomenon, which can cause disturbance in the developing occlusion. The eruption of permanent first and second molars is very important for the coordination of facial growth and for providing sufficient occlusal support for undisturbed mastication. In the case described, the first permanent molars were delayed in their development and were seen erupting at the age of nine and a half years. Severe disparity between the left and the right side of the dentition with respect to the rate of development of molars were also present.

  5. Emotional Eruptions, Volcanic Activity and Global Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2011-01-01

    The eruption of Iceland’s Eyjafjallajökull volcano in April 2010 set off a number of environmental, economic and cultural effects obstructing thousands of people in the midst of their global mobility flows. It halted, as well, the exchange of goods and commodities and exposed the vulnerability...... of the global aeromobility system. In this paper an account is given of how the event was experienced by a European academic attending a number of North American conferences at precisely the time of the eruption. The paper is an attempt to describe how people reacted emotionally as well as rationally......, attempting to find strategies for coping with the consequences of the eruption....

  6. Predicting non-familial major physical violent crime perpetration in the US Army from administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosellini, A J; Monahan, J; Street, A E; Heeringa, S G; Hill, E D; Petukhova, M; Reis, B Y; Sampson, N A; Bliese, P; Schoenbaum, M; Stein, M B; Ursano, R J; Kessler, R C

    2016-01-01

    Although interventions exist to reduce violent crime, optimal implementation requires accurate targeting. We report the results of an attempt to develop an actuarial model using machine learning methods to predict future violent crimes among US Army soldiers. A consolidated administrative database for all 975 057 soldiers in the US Army in 2004-2009 was created in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS). Of these soldiers, 5771 committed a first founded major physical violent crime (murder-manslaughter, kidnapping, aggravated arson, aggravated assault, robbery) over that time period. Temporally prior administrative records measuring socio-demographic, Army career, criminal justice, medical/pharmacy, and contextual variables were used to build an actuarial model for these crimes separately among men and women using machine learning methods (cross-validated stepwise regression, random forests, penalized regressions). The model was then validated in an independent 2011-2013 sample. Key predictors were indicators of disadvantaged social/socioeconomic status, early career stage, prior crime, and mental disorder treatment. Area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.80-0.82 in 2004-2009 and 0.77 in the 2011-2013 validation sample. Of all administratively recorded crimes, 36.2-33.1% (male-female) were committed by the 5% of soldiers having the highest predicted risk in 2004-2009 and an even higher proportion (50.5%) in the 2011-2013 validation sample. Although these results suggest that the models could be used to target soldiers at high risk of violent crime perpetration for preventive interventions, final implementation decisions would require further validation and weighing of predicted effectiveness against intervention costs and competing risks.

  7. Original Paper Experience and Perpetration of Violent Behaviours ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-11

    Apr 11, 2011 ... physical, sexual and psychological violence among males were 75.3%, 44.9% and 13.3% respectively. ... have primary socialising influence for children and adolescents ... violent behaviors include whether “someone said.

  8. Promoting Non-violent Masculine Identities in El Salvador and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... conditions under which non-violent masculine role models and identities can emerge. Focusing on young men from vulnerable urban communities in both countries ... IDRC will partner with the Nicaraguan organization Fundación Puntos de ...

  9. Violent Adolescent Planet Caught Infrared Handed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, D.; Gaidos, E.

    2010-01-01

    The prevailing view of planet formation depicts accumulation of progressively larger objects, culminating in accretionary impacts between Moon- to Mars-sized protoplanets. Cosmochemists have found evidence in chondritic meteorites for such violent events, and the Moon is thought to have involved a huge impact between a Mars-sized object and the still-growing proto-Earth. Now we may have evidence for a large impact during planet formation around another star. Carey Lisse (Applied Physics Lab of the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore) and colleagues from the Space Telescope Science Institute (Baltimore), the University of Cambridge (UK), the Open University (Milton Keyes, UK), the University of Georgia (Athens, GA), Jet Propulsion Lab (Pasadena, CA), and the University of Rochester (New York) analyzed infrared spectra obtained by the Spitzer Space Telescope. They found a prominent peak in the spectrum at 9.3 micrometers, and two smaller ones at slightly lower and higher wavelengths. These peaks are consistent with the presence of SiO gas, a product expected to be produced by a highly energetic impact. The spectral measurements also allowed Lisse and his colleagues to estimate the size of the dust and they found that there is an abundance of micrometer-sized dust grains. This argues for a fresh source of fine material during the past 0.1 million years. That source may have been an impact between two protoplanets surrounding this young star.

  10. Psychometric properties of the Violent Experiences Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Alan R; Russell, Tiffany D

    2017-05-01

    The Violent Experiences Questionnaire-Revised (VEQ-R) is a brief retrospective self-report inventory which provides estimates of annual frequencies of childhood physical abuse, sibling physical abuse, exposure to parental violence, peer bullying, and corporal punishment as they were experienced from ages 5 to 16. The VEQ-R indices rely on a frequency metric that estimates the number of days on average per year a specified class of behavior occurred over a 12year retrospective period. All scores range from a frequency of 0 to a high of 104. Scale normative data was generated from both a college (N=1266) and national (N=1290) sample to expand the research applicability of this relatively new inventory. Subscales were added to estimate the frequency of victimization during childhood, the pre-teen years, and adolescence. Four "hostility" component indices were derived from perpetrator source (parent, sibling, peer, or domestic). Thresholds were established to for High, Moderate, Low, and No Risk classifications. Subscales dimensions were found to have both adequate internal and temporal consistency. Evidence of concurrent and discriminant validity was generated using the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale-Short-Form © , LONGSCAN Physical Abuse Self-Report scale, and Physical Punishment scale of the Assessing Environments III inventory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Violent Video Games and Children’s Aggressive Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Milani; Elena Camisasca; Simona C. S. Caravita; Chiara Ionio; Sarah Miragoli; Paola Di Blasio

    2015-01-01

    The literature provides some evidence that the use of violent video games increases the risk for young people to develop aggressive cognitions and even behaviors. We aimed to verify whether exposure to violent video games is linked to problems of aggression in a sample of Italian children. Four questionnaires were administered to 346 children between 7 and 14 years of age, attending primary and secondary schools in Nor...

  12. Factors underlying male and female use of violent video games

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, T.; Möller, I.; Krause, C.

    2015-01-01

    Research has consistently shown that males play violent video games more frequently than females, but factors underlying this gender gap have not been examined to date. This approach examines the assumption that males play violent video games more because they anticipate more enjoyment and less guilt from engaging in virtual violence than females. This may be because males are less empathetic, tend to morally justify physical violence more and have a greater need for sensation and aggression ...

  13. NEIGHBORHOOD CONTEXT AND THE GENDER GAP IN ADOLESCENT VIOLENT CRIME*

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, Gregory M.; Messner, Steven F.

    2010-01-01

    Although researchers consistently demonstrate that females engage in less criminal behavior than males across the life course, research on the variability of the gender gap across contexts is sparse. To address this issue, we examine the gender gap in self-reported violent crime among adolescents across neighborhoods. Multilevel models using data from the Project of Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) indicate that the gender gap in violent crime decreases as levels of neighbor...

  14. Active Volcanic Eruptions on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Six views of the volcanic plume named Prometheus, as seen against Io's disk and near the bright limb (edge) of the satellite by the SSI camera on the Galileo spacecraft during its second (G2) orbit of Jupiter. North is to the top of each frame. To the south-southeast of Prometheus is another bright spot that appears to be an active plume erupting from a feature named Culann Patera. Prometheus was active 17 years ago during both Voyager flybys, but no activity was detected by Voyager at Culann. Both of these plumes were seen to glow in the dark in an eclipse image acquired by the imaging camera during Galileo's first (G1) orbit, and hot spots at these locations were detected by Galileo's Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer.The plumes are thought to be driven by heating sulfur dioxide in Io's subsurface into an expanding fluid or 'geyser'. The long-lived nature of these eruptions requires that a substantial supply of sulfur dioxide must be available in Io's subsurface, similar to groundwater. Sulfur dioxide gas condenses into small particles of 'snow' in the expanding plume, and the small particles scatter light and appear bright at short wavelengths. The images shown here were acquired through the shortest-wavelength filter (violet) of the Galileo camera. Prometheus is about 300 km wide and 75 km high and Culann is about 150 km wide and less than 50 km high. The images were acquired on September 4, 1996 at a range of 2,000,000 km (20 km/pixel resolution). Prometheus is named after the Greek fire god and Culann is named after the Celtic smith god.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can

  15. 1984 Mauna Loa eruption and planetary geolgoy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    In planetary geology, lava flows on the Moon and Mars are commonly treated as relatively simple systems. Some of the complexities of actual lava flows are illustrated using the main flow system of the 1984 Mauna Loa eruption. The outline, brief narrative, and results given are based on a number of sources. The implications of the results to planetary geology are clear. Volume flow rates during an eruption depend, in part, on the volatile content of the lava. These differ from the volume flow rates calculated from post eruption flow dimensions and the duration of the eruption and from those using models that assume a constant density. Mass flow rates might be more appropriate because the masses of volatiles in lavas are usually small, but variable and sometimes unknown densities impose severe restrictions on mass estimates

  16. Severe hypertriglyceridemia presenting as eruptive xanthomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameera S Vangara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Eruptive xanthomatosis is described as the sudden eruption of erythematous yellow papules in the presence of hypertriglyceridemia, often associated with serum triglyceride levels above 2000 mg/dl. Severe hypertriglyceridemia can be caused by primary genetic mutations, secondary chronic diseases, or a combination of both. Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus is a known risk factor. It is imperative for physicians to be aware of eruptive xanthomatosis as a warning sign for severe hypertriglyceridemia due to the underlying risk for the potentially fatal complication of acute pancreatitis. Herein, we discuss a case of a 52-year-old man with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus who presented with eruptive xanthomata and a triglyceride level of 7157 mg/dl, the highest recorded value in the absence of acute pancreatitis, with a remarkable response to drug therapy. A review of the literature is included to discuss the clinical relevance and appropriate treatment of this disease entity.

  17. Polymorphous light eruption - some interesting aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrales-Padilla, H.; Dominguez-Soto, L.; Hojyo-Tomoka, M.T.; Londono, F.; Vargas-Ocampo, F.

    1979-01-01

    A study of polymorphous light eruption (PLE) is Latin America is reported. The clinical lesions, the course, histopathology, differential diagnosis, pathogenesis, treatment and systemic photoprotection are discussed. Treatment with ultraviolet radiation is included. (C.F.)

  18. Depth of origin of magma in eruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, Laura; Galindo, Ines; Gudmundsson, Agust; Morales, Jose Maria

    2013-09-26

    Many volcanic hazard factors--such as the likelihood and duration of an eruption, the eruption style, and the probability of its triggering large landslides or caldera collapses--relate to the depth of the magma source. Yet, the magma source depths are commonly poorly known, even in frequently erupting volcanoes such as Hekla in Iceland and Etna in Italy. Here we show how the length-thickness ratios of feeder dykes can be used to estimate the depth to the source magma chamber. Using this method, accurately measured volcanic fissures/feeder-dykes in El Hierro (Canary Islands) indicate a source depth of 11-15 km, which coincides with the main cloud of earthquake foci surrounding the magma chamber associated with the 2011-2012 eruption of El Hierro. The method can be used on widely available GPS and InSAR data to calculate the depths to the source magma chambers of active volcanoes worldwide.

  19. Seasonal variations of volcanic eruption frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    Do volcanic eruptions have a tendency to occur more frequently in the months of May and June? Some past evidence suggests that they do. The present study, based on the new eruption catalog of Simkin et al.(1981), investigates the monthly statistics of the largest eruptions, grouped according to explosive magnitude, geographical latitude, and year. At the 2-delta level, no month-to-month variations in eruption frequency are found to be statistically significant. Examination of previously published month-to-month variations suggests that they, too, are not statistically significant. It is concluded that volcanism, at least averaged over large portions of the globe, is probably not periodic on a seasonal or annual time scale.

  20. Tephra-Producing Eruptions of Holocene Age at Akutan Volcano, Alaska; Frequency, Magnitude, and Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waythomas, C. F.; Wallace, K. L.; Schwaiger, H.

    2012-12-01

    Aleutian arc volcanoes. Tephra deposits from typical VEI 2 historical eruptions are not well preserved on the island so tephra-fall frequency estimated from stratigraphic studies is underestimated. Akutan Island is home to the largest seafood processing plant in North America and has a workforce of more than one thousand people. Other infrastructure consists of a recently constructed paved airfield on neighboring Akun Island (25 km east of the active vent) and a new boat harbor at the head of Akutan Harbor. Plans to develop greenhouses, tourism, and increased cold storage capacity on Akutan and Akun Islands also are evolving. To support the power demands of the development efforts, The City of Akutan is considering the utilization of geothermal resources on the island that are located in Hot Springs Bay valley northwest of the city. All of the existing and planned infrastructure, water supply, and residential areas are about 12 km downwind (east) of the volcano and are at risk from ash-producing eruptions. The historical eruptive history suggests that VEI 2 eruptions are plausible in the near future and the Holocene tephra-fall record indicates that large eruptions (VEI 4 or larger) occur about every few thousand years. Numerical modeling of tephra fallout based on the record of ash-producing eruptions will be used to improve tephra-fall hazard assessments for the area.

  1. Tephra from the 1979 soufriere explosive eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, H

    1982-06-04

    The explosive phase of the 1979 Soufriere eruption produced 37.5 x 10(6) cubic meters (dense-rock equivalent) of tephra, consisting of about 40 percent juvenile basaltic andesite and 60 percent of a nonjuvenile component derived from the fragmentation of the 1971-1972 lava island during phreatomagmatic explosions. The unusually fine grain size, poor sorting, and bimodality of the land deposit are attributed to particle aggregation and the formation of accretionary lapilli in a wet eruption column.

  2. Asymptomatic Petechial Eruption on the Lower Legs

    OpenAIRE

    Mendese, Gary; Grande, Donald

    2013-01-01

    The authors report an unusual case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that presented as an asymptomatic petechial eruption on the lower legs. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is rare in New England and, as such, is typically not on the differential diagnosis when presented with such patients. What began as an asymptomatic eruption progressed to more classic signs of the disease, including a positive Rocky Mountain spotted fever titer. The patient was successfully treated with doxycydine and within a...

  3. ERUPTION PATTERN OF PERMANENT TEETH -IN TANZANIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was visible in the oral vacity. Generally permanent teeth erupted earlier in girls than in boys. The differences were 0.1 - 0.2 years for incisors and first molars, 0.2 - 0.4 years for canines and premolars and 0.3 - 0.5 years for second molars. Except for the second premolars, mandibular teeth erupted earlier than the maxillary in ...

  4. This is your brain on violent video games: Neural desensitization to violence predicts increased aggression following violent video game exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Engelhardt , Christopher R.; Bartholow , Bruce D.; Kerr , Geoffrey T.; Bushman , Brad J.

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Previous research has shown that media violence exposure can cause desensitization to violence, which in theory can increase aggression. However, no study to date has demonstrated this association. In the present experiment, participants played a violent or nonviolent video game, viewed violent and nonviolent photos while their brain activity was measured, and then gave an ostensible opponent unpleasant noise blasts. Participants low in previous exposure to video game ...

  5. Climatic impact of volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampino, Michael R.

    1991-01-01

    Studies have attempted to 'isolate' the volcanic signal in noisy temperature data. This assumes that it is possible to isolate a distinct volcanic signal in a record that may have a combination of forcings (ENSO, solar variability, random fluctuations, volcanism) that all interact. The key to discovering the greatest effects of volcanoes on short-term climate may be to concentrate on temperatures in regions where the effects of aerosol clouds may be amplified by perturbed atmospheric circulation patterns. This is especially true in subpolar and midlatitude areas affected by changes in the position of the polar front. Such climatic perturbation can be detected in proxy evidence such as decrease in tree-ring widths and frost rings, changes in the treeline, weather anomalies, severity of sea-ice in polar and subpolar regions, and poor grain yields and crop failures. In low latitudes, sudden temperature drops were correlated with the passage overhead of the volcanic dust cloud (Stothers, 1984). For some eruptions, such as Tambora, 1815, these kinds of proxy and anectdotal information were summarized in great detail in a number of papers and books (e.g., Post, 1978; Stothers, 1984; Stommel and Stommel, 1986; C. R. Harrington, in press). These studies lead to the general conclusion that regional effects on climate, sometimes quite severe, may be the major impact of large historical volcanic aerosol clouds.

  6. Electrostatic phenomena in volcanic eruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, S J; James, M R; Gilbert, J S, E-mail: s.lane@lancaster.ac.uk [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-23

    Electrostatic phenomena have long been associated with the explosive eruption of volcanoes. Lightning generated in volcanic plumes is a spectacular atmospheric electrical event that requires development of large potential gradients over distances of up to kilometres. This process begins as hydrated liquid rock (magma) ascends towards Earth's surface. Pressure reduction causes water supersaturation in the magma and the development of bubbles of supercritical water, where deeper than c. 1000 m, and water vapour at shallower depths that drives flow expansion. The generation of high strain rates in the expanding bubbly magma can cause it to fracture in a brittle manner, as deformation relaxation timescales are exceeded. The brittle fracture provides the initial charge separation mechanism, known as fractoemission. The resulting mixture of charged silicate particles and ions evolves over time, generating macro-scale potential gradients in the atmosphere and driving processes such as particle aggregation. For the silicate particles, aggregation driven by electrostatic effects is most significant for particles smaller than c. 100 {mu}m. Aggregation acts to change the effective aerodynamic behaviour of silicate particles, thus altering the sedimentation rates of particles from volcanic plumes from the atmosphere. The presence of liquid phases also promotes aggregation processes and lightning.

  7. Divergent El Niño responses to volcanic eruptions at different latitudes over the past millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Li, Jinbao; Wang, Bin; Liu, Jian; Li, Tim; Huang, Gang; Wang, Zhiyuan

    2017-08-01

    Detection and attribution of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) responses to radiative forcing perturbation are critical for predicting the future change of ENSO under global warming. One of such forcing perturbation is the volcanic eruption. Our understanding of the responses of ENSO system to explosive tropical volcanic eruptions remains controversial, and we know little about the responses to high-latitude eruptions. Here, we synthesize proxy-based ENSO reconstructions, to show that there exist an El Niño-like response to the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and tropical eruptions and a La Niña-like response to the Southern Hemisphere (SH) eruptions over the past millennium. Our climate model simulation results show good agreement with the proxy records. The simulation reveals that due to different meridional thermal contrasts, the westerly wind anomalies can be excited over the tropical Pacific to the south of, at, or to the north of the equator in the first boreal winter after the NH, tropical, or SH eruptions, respectively. Thus, the eastern-Pacific El Niño can develop and peak in the second winter after the NH and tropical eruptions via the Bjerknes feedback. The model simulation only shows a central-Pacific El Niño-like response to the SH eruptions. The reason is that the anticyclonic wind anomaly associated with the SH eruption-induced southeast Pacific cooling will excite westward current anomalies and prevent the development of eastern-Pacific El Niño-like anomaly. These divergent responses to eruptions at different latitudes and in different hemispheres underline the sensitivity of the ENSO system to the spatial structure of radiative disturbances in the atmosphere.

  8. GRI: focusing on the evolving violent universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knödlseder, Jürgen; von Ballmoos, Peter; Frontera, Filippo; Bazzano, Angela; Christensen, Finn; Hernanz, Margarida; Wunderer, Cornelia

    2009-03-01

    The gamma-ray imager (GRI) is a novel mission concept that will provide an unprecedented sensitivity leap in the soft gamma-ray domain by using for the first time a focusing lens built of Laue diffracting crystals. The lens will cover an energy band from 200-1,300 keV with an effective area reaching 600 cm2. It will be complemented by a single reflection multilayer coated mirror, extending the GRI energy band into the hard X-ray regime, down to ˜10 keV. The concentrated photons will be collected by a position sensitive pixelised CZT stack detector. We estimate continuum sensitivities of better than 10 - 7 ph cm - 2s - 1keV - 1 for a 100 ks exposure; the narrow line sensitivity will be better than 3 × 10 - 6 ph cm - 2s - 1 for the same integration time. As focusing instrument, GRI will have an angular resolution of better than 30 arcsec within a field of view of roughly 5 arcmin—an unprecedented achievement in the gamma-ray domain. Owing to the large focal length of 100 m of the lens and the mirror, the optics and detector will be placed on two separate spacecrafts flying in formation in a high elliptical orbit. R&D work to enable the lens focusing technology and to develop the required focal plane detector is currently underway, financed by ASI, CNES, ESA, and the Spanish Ministery of Education and Science. The GRI mission has been proposed as class M mission for ESAs Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. GRI will allow studies of particle acceleration processes and explosion physics in unprecedented detail, providing essential clues on the innermost nature of the most violent and most energetic processes in the universe.

  9. Relationship between eruption plume heights and seismic source amplitudes of eruption tremors and explosion events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, A.; Kumagai, H.

    2016-12-01

    It is crucial to analyze and interpret eruption tremors and explosion events for estimating eruption size and understanding eruption phenomena. Kumagai et al. (EPS, 2015) estimated the seismic source amplitudes (As) and cumulative source amplitudes (Is) for eruption tremors and explosion events at Tungurahua, Ecuador, by the amplitude source location (ASL) method based on the assumption of isotropic S-wave radiation in a high-frequency band (5-10 Hz). They found scaling relations between As and Is for eruption tremors and explosion events. However, the universality of these relations is yet to be verified, and the physical meanings of As and Is are not clear. In this study, we analyzed the relations between As and Is for eruption tremors and explosion events at active volcanoes in Japan, and estimated As and Is by the ASL method. We obtained power-law relations between As and Is, in which the powers were different between eruption tremors and explosion events. These relations were consistent with the scaling relations at Tungurahua volcano. Then, we compared As with maximum eruption plume heights (H) during eruption tremors analyzed in this study, and found that H was proportional to 0.21 power of As. This relation is similar to the plume height model based on the physical process of plume rise, which indicates that H is proportional to 0.25 power of volumetric flow rate for plinian eruptions. This suggests that As may correspond to volumetric flow rate. If we assume a seismic source with volume changes and far-field S-wave, As is proportional to the source volume rate. This proportional relation and the plume height model give rise to the relation that H is proportional to 0.25 power of As. These results suggest that we may be able to estimate plume heights in realtime by estimating As during eruptions from seismic observations.

  10. Experimental Constraints on Forecasting the Location of Volcanic Eruptions from Pre-eruptive Surface Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Guldstrand

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions pose a threat to lives and property when volcano flanks and surroundings are densely populated. The local impact of an eruption depends firstly on its location, whether it occurs near a volcano summit, or down on the flanks. Then forecasting, with a defined accuracy, the location of a potential, imminent eruption would significantly improve the assessment and mitigation of volcanic hazards. Currently, the conventional volcano monitoring methods based on the analysis of surface deformation assesses whether a volcano may erupt but are not implemented to locate imminent eruptions in real time. Here we show how surface deformation induced by ascending eruptive feeders can be used to forecast the eruption location through a simple geometrical analysis. Our analysis builds on the results of 33 scaled laboratory experiments simulating the emplacement of viscous magma intrusions in a brittle, cohesive Coulomb crust under lithostatic stress conditions. The intrusion-induced surface deformation was systematically monitored at high spatial and temporal resolution. In all the experiments, surface deformation preceding the eruptions resulted in systematic uplift, regardless of the intrusion shape. The analysis of the surface deformation patterns leads to the definition of a vector between the center of the uplifted area and the point of maximum uplift, which systematically acted as a precursor to the eruption's location. The temporal evolution of this vector indicated the direction in which the subsequent eruption would occur and ultimately the location itself, irrespective of the feeder shapes. Our findings represent a new approach on how surface deformation on active volcanoes that are not in active rifts could be analysed and used prior to an eruption with a real potential to improve hazard mitigation.

  11. Patterns of urban violent injury: a spatio-temporal analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cusimano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury related to violent acts is a problem in every society. Although some authors have examined the geography of violent crime, few have focused on the spatio-temporal patterns of violent injury and none have used an ambulance dataset to explore the spatial characteristics of injury. The purpose of this study was to describe the combined spatial and temporal characteristics of violent injury in a large urban centre.Using a geomatics framework and geographic information systems software, we studied 4,587 ambulance dispatches and 10,693 emergency room admissions for violent injury occurrences among adults (aged 18-64 in Toronto, Canada, during 2002 and 2004, using population-based datasets. We created kernel density and choropleth maps for 24-hour periods and four-hour daily time periods and compared location of ambulance dispatches and patient residences with local land use and socioeconomic characteristics. We used multivariate regressions to control for confounding factors. We found the locations of violent injury and the residence locations of those injured were both closely related to each other and clearly clustered in certain parts of the city characterised by high numbers of bars, social housing units, and homeless shelters, as well as lower household incomes. The night and early morning showed a distinctive peak in injuries and a shift in the location of injuries to a "nightlife" district. The locational pattern of patient residences remained unchanged during those times.Our results demonstrate that there is a distinctive spatio-temporal pattern in violent injury reflected in the ambulance data. People injured in this urban centre more commonly live in areas of social deprivation. During the day, locations of injury and locations of residences are similar. However, later at night, the injury location of highest density shifts to a "nightlife" district, whereas the residence locations of those most at risk of injury do not change.

  12. Results of the eruptive column model inter-comparison study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Antonio; Suzuki, Yujiro; Cerminara, M.; Devenish, Ben J.; Esposti Ongaro, T.; Herzog, Michael; Van Eaton, Alexa; Denby, L.C.; Bursik, Marcus; de' Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Engwell, S.; Neri, Augusto; Barsotti, Sara; Folch, Arnau; Macedonio, Giovanni; Girault, F.; Carazzo, G.; Tait, S.; Kaminski, E.; Mastin, Larry G.; Woodhouse, Mark J.; Phillips, Jeremy C.; Hogg, Andrew J.; Degruyter, Wim; Bonadonna, Costanza

    2016-01-01

    This study compares and evaluates one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) numerical models of volcanic eruption columns in a set of different inter-comparison exercises. The exercises were designed as a blind test in which a set of common input parameters was given for two reference eruptions, representing a strong and a weak eruption column under different meteorological conditions. Comparing the results of the different models allows us to evaluate their capabilities and target areas for future improvement. Despite their different formulations, the 1D and 3D models provide reasonably consistent predictions of some of the key global descriptors of the volcanic plumes. Variability in plume height, estimated from the standard deviation of model predictions, is within ~ 20% for the weak plume and ~ 10% for the strong plume. Predictions of neutral buoyancy level are also in reasonably good agreement among the different models, with a standard deviation ranging from 9 to 19% (the latter for the weak plume in a windy atmosphere). Overall, these discrepancies are in the range of observational uncertainty of column height. However, there are important differences amongst models in terms of local properties along the plume axis, particularly for the strong plume. Our analysis suggests that the simplified treatment of entrainment in 1D models is adequate to resolve the general behaviour of the weak plume. However, it is inadequate to capture complex features of the strong plume, such as large vortices, partial column collapse, or gravitational fountaining that strongly enhance entrainment in the lower atmosphere. We conclude that there is a need to more accurately quantify entrainment rates, improve the representation of plume radius, and incorporate the effects of column instability in future versions of 1D volcanic plume models.

  13. Asia-Pacific Region Global Earthquake and Volcanic Eruption Risk Management (G-EVER) project and a next-generation real-time volcano hazard assessment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarada, S.

    2012-12-01

    The first Workshop of Asia-Pacific Region Global Earthquake and Volcanic Eruption Risk Management (G-EVER1) was held in Tsukuba, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan from February 23 to 24, 2012. The workshop focused on the formulation of strategies to reduce the risks of disasters worldwide caused by the occurrence of earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions. More than 150 participants attended the workshop. During the workshop, the G-EVER1 accord was approved by the participants. The Accord consists of 10 recommendations like enhancing collaboration, sharing of resources, and making information about the risks of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions freely available and understandable. The G-EVER Hub website (http://g-ever.org) was established to promote the exchange of information and knowledge among the Asia-Pacific countries. Several G-EVER Working Groups and Task Forces were proposed. One of the working groups was tasked to make the next-generation real-time volcano hazard assessment system. The next-generation volcano hazard assessment system is useful for volcanic eruption prediction, risk assessment, and evacuation at various eruption stages. The assessment system is planned to be developed based on volcanic eruption scenario datasets, volcanic eruption database, and numerical simulations. Defining volcanic eruption scenarios based on precursor phenomena leading up to major eruptions of active volcanoes is quite important for the future prediction of volcanic eruptions. Compiling volcanic eruption scenarios after a major eruption is also important. A high quality volcanic eruption database, which contains compilations of eruption dates, volumes, and styles, is important for the next-generation volcano hazard assessment system. The volcanic eruption database is developed based on past eruption results, which only represent a subset of possible future scenarios. Hence, different distributions from the previous deposits are mainly observed due to the differences in

  14. X-ray Arcs Tell The Tale Of Giant Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    Long ago, a giant eruption occurred in a nearby galaxy and plunged it into turmoil. Now NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has revealed the remains of that explosion in the form of two enormous arcs of hot gas. This discovery can help astronomers better understand the cause and effect of violent outbursts from the vicinity of supermassive black holes in the centers of many so-called "active" galaxies. Scientists from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) report that two arc-like structures of multimillion-degree gas in the galaxy Centaurus A appear to be part of a ring 25,000 light years in diameter. The size and location of the ring suggest that it could have been produced in a titanic explosion that occurred about ten million years ago. A composite image of the galaxy made with radio (red and green), optical (yellow-orange), and X-ray data (blue) presents a stunning tableau of a tumultuous galaxy. A broad band of dust and cold gas is bisected at an angle by opposing jets of high-energy particles blasting away from the supermassive black hole in the nucleus. Lying in a plane perpendicular to the jets are the two large arcs of X-ray emitting hot gas. "Putting all the images together was the key to understanding what Chandra showed," said Margarita Karovska, lead author on a paper in the September 20, 2002, issue of The Astrophysical Journal. "Suddenly it all clicked in, as with a giant puzzle, and the images fit together to make a complete picture of the galaxy geometry that was not at all apparent before." The team proposes that the orientation of the arcs of hot gas perpendicular to the jet and the symmetry of the projected ring with respect to the center of the galaxy could be evidence that the ring is the result of a giant eruption in the nucleus of the galaxy 10 million years ago. This explosion may have produced a galaxy-sized shock wave that has been moving outward at speeds of a million miles per hour. The age of 10 million years for the

  15. Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, G.

    2001-01-01

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR), ''Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'', presents information about natural volcanic systems and the parameters that can be used to model their behavior. This information is used to develop parameter-value distributions appropriate for analysis of the consequences of volcanic eruptions through a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. Many aspects of this work are aimed at resolution of the Igneous Activity Key Technical Issue (KTI) as identified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC 1998, p. 3), Subissues 1 and 2, which address the probability and consequence of igneous activity at the proposed repository site, respectively. Within the framework of the Disruptive Events Process Model Report (PMR), this AMR provides information for the calculations in two other AMRs ; parameters described herein are directly used in calculations in these reports and will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). Compilation of this AMR was conducted as defined in the Development Plan, except as noted. The report begins with considerations of the geometry of volcanic feeder systems, which are of primary importance in predicting how much of a potential repository would be affected by an eruption. This discussion is followed by one of the physical and chemical properties of the magmas, which influences both eruptive styles and mechanisms for interaction with radioactive waste packages. Eruptive processes including the ascent velocity of magma at depth, the onset of bubble nucleation and growth in the rising magmas, magma fragmentation, and velocity of the resulting gas-particle mixture are then discussed. The duration of eruptions, their power output, and mass discharge rates are also described. The next section summarizes geologic constraints regarding the interaction between magma and waste packages. Finally, they discuss bulk grain size produced by relevant explosive eruptions and grain shapes

  16. Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Valentine

    2001-12-20

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR), ''Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'', presents information about natural volcanic systems and the parameters that can be used to model their behavior. This information is used to develop parameter-value distributions appropriate for analysis of the consequences of volcanic eruptions through a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. Many aspects of this work are aimed at resolution of the Igneous Activity Key Technical Issue (KTI) as identified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC 1998, p. 3), Subissues 1 and 2, which address the probability and consequence of igneous activity at the proposed repository site, respectively. Within the framework of the Disruptive Events Process Model Report (PMR), this AMR provides information for the calculations in two other AMRs ; parameters described herein are directly used in calculations in these reports and will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). Compilation of this AMR was conducted as defined in the Development Plan, except as noted. The report begins with considerations of the geometry of volcanic feeder systems, which are of primary importance in predicting how much of a potential repository would be affected by an eruption. This discussion is followed by one of the physical and chemical properties of the magmas, which influences both eruptive styles and mechanisms for interaction with radioactive waste packages. Eruptive processes including the ascent velocity of magma at depth, the onset of bubble nucleation and growth in the rising magmas, magma fragmentation, and velocity of the resulting gas-particle mixture are then discussed. The duration of eruptions, their power output, and mass discharge rates are also described. The next section summarizes geologic constraints regarding the interaction between magma and waste packages. Finally, they discuss bulk grain size produced by relevant explosive eruptions and grain

  17. A FLUX ROPE ERUPTION TRIGGERED BY JETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Juan; Zhang Hongqi; Deng Yuanyong; Lin Jiaben; Su Jiangtao; Liu Yu

    2010-01-01

    We present an observation of a filament eruption caused by recurrent chromospheric plasma injections (surges/jets) on 2006 July 6. The filament eruption was associated with an M2.5 two-ribbon flare and a coronal mass ejection (CME). There was a light bridge in the umbra of the main sunspot of NOAA 10898; one end of the filament was terminated at the region close to the light bridge, and recurrent surges were observed to be ejected from the light bridge. The surges occurred intermittently for about 8 hr before the filament eruption, and finally a clear jet was found at the light bridge to trigger the filament eruption. We analyzed the evolutions of the relative darkness of the filament and the loaded mass by the continuous surges quantitatively. It was found that as the occurrence of the surges, the relative darkness of the filament body continued growing for about 3-4 hr, reached its maximum, and kept stable for more than 2 hr until it erupted. If suppose 50% of the ejected mass by the surges could be trapped by the filament channel, then the total loaded mass into the filament channelwill be about 0.57x10 16 g with a momentum of 0.57x10 22 g cm s -1 by 08:08 UT, which is a non-negligible effect on the stability of the filament. Based on the observations, we present a model showing the important role that recurrent chromospheric mass injection play in the evolution and eruption of a flux rope. Our study confirms that the surge activities can efficiently supply the necessary material for some filament formation. Furthermore, our study indicates that the continuous mass with momentum loaded by the surge activities to the filament channel could make the filament unstable and cause it to erupt.

  18. Homicidal/violent thoughts, suicidal ideation and violent behavior in adolescents with social phobia in Metropolitan Lima, Perú.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivar, Roxana; Morón, Giannina; Padilla, Martín; Alarcón, Renato D

    2014-09-01

    Social phobia and violent behavior are both important mental health problems among adolescent populations in different parts of the world. This study attempts to evaluate possible connections between social phobia, homicidal/violent thoughts, suicidal ideation, and subsequent violent behavior among adolescents living in the metropolitan area of Lima, Perú. A sample of 991 adolescents, part of the 2002 Epidemiological Study in Metropolitan Lima, conducted by the National Institute of Mental Health "Honorio Delgado-Hideyo Noguchi" (INSM "HD-HN") was studied. Social phobia was diagnosed on the basis of clinical assessment and the use of MINI, and suicidal ideation, homicidal/violent thoughts, and violent behavior were identified through the Mental Health Questionnaire. Odds ratio (OR) statistical analyses adjusted by logistic regression controlling for age and gender were performed. Variables associated with social phobia were homicidal thoughts in the last month (OR: 5.19, confidence interval [CI] at 95% 4.95-5.40), an impulse to hit known (OR: 1.56; 95% CI, 1.53-1.59) and unknown (OR: 3.98, 95% CI,3.89-4.07) persons, the wish to take revenge for a past offense (OR: 2.60, 95% CI 2.54-2.64), getting involved in fights with different kinds of weapons (OR: 1,78, 95% CI 1.70-1.87), suicidal ideation throughout lifetime (OR: 4.74, 95% CI 4.65-4.83), and life prevalence of suicidal attempt (OR: 5.39, 95% CI 5.23-5.55). Social phobia in adolescents of this Peruvian sample seems to be closely associated with both homicidal/violent thoughts, violent behavior, and suicidal ideation. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Losing the Plot: Narrative, Counter-Narrative and Violent Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Glazzard

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Counter-terrorist practitioners and policy makers appear to be very interested in narrative. They often describe the worldview of violent Islamist groups and movements as the ‘jihadi narrative’, while their efforts to confront terrorist propaganda are usually labelled as ‘counter-narrative’ or ‘alternative narrative’. However, while the counter-narrative approach has gained widespread acceptance in governments, think-tanks and civil society organisations, it is built on very shaky theoretical and empirical foundations. Some valuable theoretical contributions to the study of violent extremist narrative have been made by psychologists in particular, but there is one discipline which is conspicuous by its absence from the field: literary studies. This paper makes a case for the value of studying violent extremist narratives as narratives in the literary sense. By employing the tools and techniques of literary criticism, violent extremist communication can be revealed as not only potentially persuasive, but also creative and aesthetically appealing: terrorists inspire their followers, they don’t merely persuade them. Understanding the creative sources of this inspiration is vital if counter-narrative is to succeed in presenting an alternative to the propaganda of violent extremist groups.

  20. Political Violence and the Mediating Role of Violent Extremist Propensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nele Schils

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research into violent extremism is lacking integrated theoretical frameworks explaining individual involvement in politically or religiously motivated violence, resulting in a poor understanding of causal mechanisms. Building on situational action theory, the current study moves beyond the dominant risk factor approach and proposes an integrated model for the explanation of political/religious violence, distinguishing between direct mechanisms and “causes of the causes.” The model integrates mechanisms from different but complementary traditions. Following previous work, this study focusses on the causes of the causes influencing direct key mechanisms, violent extremist propensity, and exposure to violent extremist moral settings that explain political/religious violence. The theoretical model is tested using structural equation modelling. The analyses are based on a web survey (N = 6,020 among adolescents and young adults in Belgium. Results show that violent extremist propensity and exposure to violent extremist moral settings have direct effects on the likelihood of political/religious violence. These direct mechanisms are in turn determined by a series of exogenous factors: perceived injustice and poor social integration. The relationship between perceived injustice and poor social integration and political/religious violence is further mediated by perceived alienation, perceived procedural justice, and religious authoritarianism. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  1. Violent online games exposure and cyberbullying/victimization among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Lawrence T; Cheng, Zaohuo; Liu, Xinmin

    2013-03-01

    This population-based cross-sectional survey examined the association between exposure to violent online games and cyberbullying and victimization in adolescents recruited from two large cities utilizing a stratified two-stage random cluster sampling technique. Cyberbullying and victimization were assessed by the E-victimization and E-bullying scales validated in a previous study. Exposure to violent online games was measured by self-nomination of the degree of violent content in the games played. Results indicated that the majority (74.3 percent) of respondents did not experience any cyberbullying or victimization in the last 7 days before the survey, 14.4 percent reported to be victimized via cyberspace, 2.9 percent admitted that they had bullied others, and 8.4 percent reported to be both perpetrators- and- victims. One hundred and eighty seven (15.3 percent) considered games they were playing were of moderate to severe violence. Students who had been involved in cyberbullying as well as being victimized were two times as likely to have been exposed to violent online games, and nearly four times as likely for those involved in bullying others. Exposure to violent online games was associated with being a perpetrator as well as a perpetrator-and-victim of cyberbullying. Parents and clinicians need to be aware of the potential harm of these exposures. The policy implications of results were also discussed.

  2. NEIGHBORHOOD CONTEXT AND THE GENDER GAP IN ADOLESCENT VIOLENT CRIME*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Gregory M.; Messner, Steven F.

    2011-01-01

    Although researchers consistently demonstrate that females engage in less criminal behavior than males across the life course, research on the variability of the gender gap across contexts is sparse. To address this issue, we examine the gender gap in self-reported violent crime among adolescents across neighborhoods. Multilevel models using data from the Project of Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) indicate that the gender gap in violent crime decreases as levels of neighborhood disadvantage increase. Further, the narrowing of the gender gap is explained by gender differences in peer influence on violent offending. Neighborhood disadvantage increases exposure to peer violence for both sexes, but peer violence has a stronger impact on violent offending for females than for males, producing the reduction in the gender gap at higher levels of disadvantage. We also find that the gender difference in the relationship between peer violence and offending is explained, in part, by (1) the tendency for females to have more intimate friendships than males, and (2) the moderating effect of peer intimacy on the relationship between peer violence and self-reported violent behavior. PMID:21709751

  3. NEIGHBORHOOD CONTEXT AND THE GENDER GAP IN ADOLESCENT VIOLENT CRIME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Gregory M; Messner, Steven F

    2010-12-01

    Although researchers consistently demonstrate that females engage in less criminal behavior than males across the life course, research on the variability of the gender gap across contexts is sparse. To address this issue, we examine the gender gap in self-reported violent crime among adolescents across neighborhoods. Multilevel models using data from the Project of Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) indicate that the gender gap in violent crime decreases as levels of neighborhood disadvantage increase. Further, the narrowing of the gender gap is explained by gender differences in peer influence on violent offending. Neighborhood disadvantage increases exposure to peer violence for both sexes, but peer violence has a stronger impact on violent offending for females than for males, producing the reduction in the gender gap at higher levels of disadvantage. We also find that the gender difference in the relationship between peer violence and offending is explained, in part, by (1) the tendency for females to have more intimate friendships than males, and (2) the moderating effect of peer intimacy on the relationship between peer violence and self-reported violent behavior.

  4. Eruption and degassing dynamics of the major August 2015 Piton de la Fournaise eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Muro, Andrea; Arellano, Santiago; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Bachelery, Patrick; Boudoire, Guillaume; Coppola, Diego; Ferrazzini, Valerie; Galle, Bo; Giudice, Gaetano; Gurioli, Lucia; Harris, Andy; Liuzzo, Marco; Metrich, Nicole; Moune, Severine; Peltier, Aline; Villeneuve, Nicolas; Vlastelic, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    Piton de la Fournaise (PdF) shield volcano is one of the most active basaltic volcanoes in the World with one eruption every nine months, on average. This frequent volcanic activity is broadly bimodal, with frequent small volume, short lived eruptions (de la Fournaise volcanological observatory (DOAS, MultiGaS, diffuse CO2 soil emissions). Regular lava and tephra sampling was also performed for geochemical and petrological analysis. The eruption was preceded by a significant increase in CO2 soil emissions at distal soil stations (ca. 15 km from the summit), with CO2 enrichment also being recorded at summit low temperature fumaroles. Eruptive products were spectacularly zoned, with plagioclase and pyroxene being abundant in the early erupted products and olivine being the main phase in the late-erupted lavas. Total gas emissions at the eruptive vent underwent a decrease during the first half of the eruption and then an increase, mirroring the time evolution of magma discharge rate (from 5-10 m3/s in September to 15-30 m3/s in late-October) and the progressive change in magma composition. In spite of significant evolution in magma and gas output, CO2/SO2 ratios in high temperature gases remained quite low (< 0.3) and with little temporal change. Geochemical data indicated that this relatively long-lived eruption corresponded to the progressive drainage of most of the shallow part of PdF plumbing system, triggered by a new pulse of deep magma. While erupted magma and high temperature gases were mostly provided by the shallow part of the system, distal sites and summit low temperature fumaroles recorded a deeper triggering mechanism.

  5. Experimental constraints on forecasting the location of volcanic eruptions from pre-eruptive surface deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldstrand, Frank; Galland, Olivier; Hallot, Erwan; Burchardt, Steffi

    2018-02-01

    Volcanic eruptions pose a threat to lives and property when volcano flanks and surroundings are densely populated. The local impact of an eruption depends firstly on its location, whether it occurs near a volcano summit, or down on the flanks. Then forecasting, with a defined accuracy, the location of a potential, imminent eruption would significantly improve the assessment and mitigation of volcanic hazards. Currently, the conventional volcano monitoring methods based on the analysis of surface deformation assesses whether a volcano may erupt but are not implemented to locate imminent eruptions in real time. Here we show how surface deformation induced by ascending eruptive feeders can be used to forecast the eruption location through a simple geometrical analysis. Our analysis builds on the results of 33 scaled laboratory experiments simulating magma intrusions in a brittle crust, during which the intrusion-induced surface deformation was systematically monitored at high spatial and temporal resolution. In all the experiments, surface deformation preceding the eruptions resulted in systematic uplift, regardless of the intrusion shape. The analysis of the surface deformation patterns leads to the definition of a vector between the centre of the uplifted zone and the point of maximum uplift, which systematically acted as a precursor to the eruption’s location. The temporal evolution of this vector indicated the direction in which the subsequent eruption would occur and ultimately the location itself, irrespective of the feeder shapes. Our findings represent a new approach on how surface deformation on active volcanoes could be analysed and used prior to an eruption with a real potential to improve hazard mitigation.

  6. Guided tooth eruption: Comparison of open and closed eruption techniques in labially impacted maxillary canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M londhe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: After third molars, the maxillary canines are the most commonly impacted permanent teeth and one-third of these are labial impactions. Impacted canines often require orthodontic guidance in the eruption. This study was conducted to assess the posttreatment results of surgically exposed and orthodontically aligned labially impacted maxillary canines comparing two different surgical techniques. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two phases, a surgical phase and an orthodontic phase. In surgical phase, events during surgical exposure and recovery of 31 patients with labially impacted maxillary canine were recorded. Patients were managed with open and closed eruption technique. The assessment included comparison of two techniques of surgical exposure, postoperative pain, mobility, vitality, periodontal health, level of impaction, and duration of orthodontic treatment. Results: The postoperative recovery was longer after open eruption than close eruption technique (P = 0.000. Postoperative pain experienced by patients was similar, but regression of pain was faster in closed eruption technique. The mean surgical time for open eruption technique was lesser when compared with closed eruption technique (P = 0.000. The total duration of orthodontic treatment was directly dependent upon the level of impaction, with deeper level of impaction having longer duration of orthodontic treatment. The mobility and vitality of guided canine was similar in both techniques. Conclusion: The closed eruption technique was a longer surgical procedure, but the postoperative pain regression was faster. The duration of orthodontic treatment was longer with deeper level of impaction. The closed eruption surgical techniques provide better periodontal tissues around the guided erupted teeth.

  7. Russian eruption warning systems for aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C.; Girina, O.; Senyukov, S.; Rybin, A.; Osiensky, J.; Izbekov, P.; Ferguson, G.

    2009-01-01

    More than 65 potentially active volcanoes on the Kamchatka Peninsula and the Kurile Islands pose a substantial threat to aircraft on the Northern Pacific (NOPAC), Russian Trans-East (RTE), and Pacific Organized Track System (PACOTS) air routes. The Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) monitors and reports on volcanic hazards to aviation for Kamchatka and the north Kuriles. KVERT scientists utilize real-time seismic data, daily satellite views of the region, real-time video, and pilot and field reports of activity to track and alert the aviation industry of hazardous activity. Most Kurile Island volcanoes are monitored by the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT) based in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. SVERT uses daily moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images to look for volcanic activity along this 1,250-km chain of islands. Neither operation is staffed 24 h per day. In addition, the vast majority of Russian volcanoes are not monitored seismically in real-time. Other challenges include multiple time-zones and language differences that hamper communication among volcanologists and meteorologists in the US, Japan, and Russia who share the responsibility to issue official warnings. Rapid, consistent verification of explosive eruptions and determination of cloud heights remain significant technical challenges. Despite these difficulties, in more than a decade of frequent eruptive activity in Kamchatka and the northern Kuriles, no damaging encounters with volcanic ash from Russian eruptions have been recorded. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  8. The influence of eruption season on the global aerosol evolution and radiative impact of tropical volcanic eruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Toohey

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of tropical volcanic eruptions using a general circulation model with coupled aerosol microphysics are used to assess the influence of season of eruption on the aerosol evolution and radiative impacts at the Earth's surface. This analysis is presented for eruptions with SO2 injection magnitudes of 17 and 700 Tg, the former consistent with estimates of the 1991 Mt. Pinatubo eruption, the later a near-"super eruption". For each eruption magnitude, simulations are performed with eruptions at 15° N, at four equally spaced times of year. Sensitivity to eruption season of aerosol optical depth (AOD, clear-sky and all-sky shortwave (SW radiative flux is quantified by first integrating each field for four years after the eruption, then calculating for each cumulative field the absolute or percent difference between the maximum and minimum response from the four eruption seasons. Eruption season has a significant influence on AOD and clear-sky SW radiative flux anomalies for both eruption magnitudes. The sensitivity to eruption season for both fields is generally weak in the tropics, but increases in the mid- and high latitudes, reaching maximum values of ~75 %. Global mean AOD and clear-sky SW anomalies show sensitivity to eruption season on the order of 15–20 %, which results from differences in aerosol effective radius for the different eruption seasons. Smallest aerosol size and largest cumulative impact result from a January eruption for Pinatubo-magnitude eruption, and from a July eruption for the near-super eruption. In contrast to AOD and clear-sky SW anomalies, all-sky SW anomalies are found to be insensitive to season of eruption for the Pinatubo-magnitude eruption experiment, due to the reflection of solar radiation by clouds in the mid- to high latitudes. However, differences in all-sky SW anomalies between eruptions in different seasons are significant for the larger eruption magnitude, and the ~15 % sensitivity to

  9. Should violent offenders be forced to undergo neurotechnological treatment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Søbirk; Kragh, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    ’s right to freedom of thought. We argue that this objection can be challenged. First, we present some specifications of what a right to freedom of thought might mean. We focus on the recently published views of Jared Craig, and Jan Cristopher Bublitz and Reinhard Merkel. Secondly, we argue that forcing...... violent offenders to undergo certain kinds of NT may not violate the offender’s right to freedom of thought as that right is specified by Craig, and Bublitz and Merkel. Thirdly, even if non-consensual NT is used in a way that does violate freedom of thought, such use can be difficult to abandon without...... inconsistency. For if one is not an abolitionist, and therefore accepts traditional state punishments for violent offenders like imprisonment – which, the evidence shows, often violate the offender’s right to freedom of thought – then, it is argued, one will have reason to accept that violent offenders can...

  10. Solar eruptions - soil radon - earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saghatelyan, E.; Petrosyan, L.; Aghbalyan, Yu.; Baburyan, M.; Araratyan, L.

    2004-01-01

    For the first time a new natural phenomenon was established: a contrasting increase in the soil radon level under the influence of solar flares. Such an increase is one of geochemical indicators of earthquakes. Most researchers consider this a phenomenon of exclusively terrestrial processes. Investigations regarding the link of earthquakes to solar activity carried out during the last decade in different countries are based on the analysis of statistical data ΣΕ (t) and W (t). As established, the overall seismicity of the Earth and its separate regions depends of an 11-year long cycle of solar activity. Data provided in the paper based on experimental studies serve the first step on the way of experimental data on revealing cause-and-reason solar-terrestrials bonds in a series s olar eruption-lithosphere radon-earthquakes . They need further collection of experimental data. For the first time, through radon constituent of terrestrial radiation objectification has been made of elementary lattice of the Hartmann's network contoured out by bio location method. As found out, radon concentration variations in Hartmann's network nodes determine the dynamics of solar-terrestrial relationships. Of the three types of rapidly running processes conditioned by solar-terrestrial bonds earthquakes are attributed to rapidly running destructive processes that occur in the most intense way at the juncture of tectonic massifs, along transformed and deep failures. The basic factors provoking the earthquakes are both magnetic-structural effects and a long-term (over 5 months) bombing of the surface of lithosphere by highly energetic particles of corpuscular solar flows, this being approved by photometry. As a result of solar flares that occurred from 29 October to 4 November 2003, a sharply contrasting increase in soil radon was established which is an earthquake indicator on the territory of Yerevan City. A month and a half later, earthquakes occurred in San-Francisco, Iran, Turkey

  11. Comparative Framework for Understanding Jewish and Christian Violent Fundamentalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Perliger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although most scholars agree that in the last couple of decades, religious fundamentalism has become the dominant ideological feature in the landscape of modern terrorism, many prefer to ignore the fact that this is not a development which is restricted to the Islamic world, and that other religious traditions have also experienced growth in groups which prefer to use violent strategies to promote their sacred visions. The current chapter strives to fill this gap by analyzing the emergence of violent religious groups in two distinct, non-Islamic, religious traditions. At first glance, the Christian Identity and the Religious-Zionist movements have very little in common. However, both movements served as a breeding ground for the emergence of violent fundamentalist groups aspiring to facilitate an apocalyptic/redemption scenario by engaging in illegal violent campaigns. Moreover, in both cases, the role of spiritual leaders was crucial in shaping the radicalization of the groups and their target selection, and the violence had a clear symbolic narrative. In other words, for the members of these violent groups, the violence served a clear role in the mobilization of potential supporters, and the branding and dissemination of the movement's ideology. Finally, while in general, terrorism is perceived as the weapon of the weak, in these two cases it was perpetrated by individuals/groups affiliated to communities belonging to the dominant religious framework in their respective polities (i.e., the Religious-Zionist and Christian Identity movements are perceived by their members as branches of Judaism and Christianity. Hence, by utilizing a comparative framework, the article will not just analyze the violent manifestations that emerged from these two movements, but also try to identify the unique factors that characterize and facilitate the emergence of religious groups within religious communities belonging to the dominant religious tradition in their

  12. Exposure of US Adolescents to Extremely Violent Movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Keilah A.; Chambers, Jennifer Gibson; Nassau, Daniel H.; Rakhra, Balvinder K.; Sargent, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Despite concerns about exposure to violent media, there are few data on youth exposure to violent movies. In this study we examined such exposure among young US adolescents. Methods We used a random-digit-dial survey of 6522 US adolescents aged 10 to 14 years fielded in 2003. Using previously validated methods, we determined the percentage and number of US adolescents who had seen each of 534 recently released movies. We report results for the 40 that were rated R for violence by the Motion Picture Association of America, UK 18 by the British Board of Film Classification and coded for extreme violence by trained content coders. Results The 40 violent movies were seen by a median of 12.5% of an estimated 22 million US adolescents aged 10 to 14 years. The most popular violent movie, Scary Movie, was seen by >10 million (48.1%) children, 1 million of whom were 10 years of age. Watching extremely violent movies was associated with being male, older, nonwhite, having less-educated parents, and doing poorly in school. Black male adolescents were at particularly high risk for seeing these movies; for example Blade, Training Day, and Scary Movie were seen, respectively, by 37.4%, 27.3%, and 48.1% of the sample overall versus 82.0%, 81.0%, and 80.8% of black male adolescents. Violent movie exposure was also associated with measures of media parenting, with high-exposure adolescents being significantly more likely to have a television in their bedroom and to report that their parents allowed them to watch R-rated movies. Conclusions This study documents widespread exposure of young US adolescents to movies with extreme graphic violence from movies rated R for violence and raises important questions about the effectiveness of the current movie-rating system. PMID:18676548

  13. Exposure of US adolescents to extremely violent movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Keilah A; Gibson Chambers, Jennifer; Nassau, Daniel H; Rakhra, Balvinder K; Sargent, James D

    2008-08-01

    Despite concerns about exposure to violent media, there are few data on youth exposure to violent movies. In this study we examined such exposure among young US adolescents. We used a random-digit-dial survey of 6522 US adolescents aged 10 to 14 years fielded in 2003. Using previously validated methods, we determined the percentage and number of US adolescents who had seen each of 534 recently released movies. We report results for the 40 that were rated R for violence by the Motion Picture Association of America, UK 18 by the British Board of Film Classification and coded for extreme violence by trained content coders. The 40 violent movies were seen by a median of 12.5% of an estimated 22 million US adolescents aged 10 to 14 years. The most popular violent movie, Scary Movie, was seen by >10 million (48.1%) children, 1 million of whom were 10 years of age. Watching extremely violent movies was associated with being male, older, nonwhite, having less-educated parents, and doing poorly in school. Black male adolescents were at particularly high risk for seeing these movies; for example Blade, Training Day, and Scary Movie were seen, respectively, by 37.4%, 27.3%, and 48.1% of the sample overall versus 82.0%, 81.0%, and 80.8% of black male adolescents. Violent movie exposure was also associated with measures of media parenting, with high-exposure adolescents being significantly more likely to have a television in their bedroom and to report that their parents allowed them to watch R-rated movies. This study documents widespread exposure of young US adolescents to movies with extreme graphic violence from movies rated R for violence and raises important questions about the effectiveness of the current movie-rating system.

  14. Violência durante o sono Violent behavior during sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Poyares

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Casos de comportamento violento (CV durante o sono são relatados na literatura. A incidência de comportamento violento durante o sono não é muito conhecida. Um estudo epidemiológico mostra que cerca de 2% da população geral apresentava comportamento violento dormindo e eram predominantemente homens. Neste artigo, os autores descrevem aspectos clínicos e médico-legais envolvidos na investigação do comportamento violento. O comportamento violento se refere a ferimentos auto-infligidos ou infligidos a um terceiro durante o sono. Ocorre, muito freqüentemente, seguindo um despertar parcial no contexto de um transtorno de despertar (parassonias. Os transtornos do sono predominantes diagnosticados são: transtorno de comportamento REM e sonambulismo. O comportamento violento poderia ser precipitado pelo estresse, uso de álcool e drogas, privação do sono ou febre.Cases of violent behavior during sleep have been reported in the literature. However, the incidence of violent behavior during sleep is not known. One epidemiological study showed that approximately 2% of the general population, predominantly males, presented violent behavior while asleep. In the present study, the authors describe clinical and medico-legal aspects involved in violent behavior investigation. Violent behavior refers to self-injury or injury to another during sleep. It happens most frequently following partial awakening in the context of arousal disorders (parasomnias. The most frequently diagnosed sleep disorders are REM behavior disorder and somnambulism. Violent behavior might be precipitated by stress, use of alcohol or drugs, sleep deprivation or fever.

  15. Tranexamic acid-induced fixed drug eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsuko Matsumura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 33-year-old male showed multiple pigmented patches on his trunk and extremities after he took tranexamic acid for common cold. He stated that similar eruptions appeared when he was treated with tranexamic acid for influenza 10 months before. Patch test showed positive results at 48 h and 72 h by 1% and 10% tranexamic acid at the lesional skin only. To our knowledge, nine cases of fixed drug eruption induced by tranexamic acid have been reported in Japan. Tranexamic acid is a safe drug and frequently used because of its anti-fibrinolytic and anti-inflammatory effects, but caution of inducing fixed drug eruption should be necessary.

  16. Power-law relaxation in human violent conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picoli, Sergio; Antonio, Fernando J.; Itami, Andreia S.; Mendes, Renio S.

    2017-08-01

    We study relaxation patterns of violent conflicts after bursts of activity. Data were obtained from available catalogs on the conflicts in Iraq, Afghanistan and Northern Ireland. We find several examples in each catalog for which the observed relaxation curves can be well described by an asymptotic power-law decay (the analog of the Omori's law in geophysics). The power-law exponents are robust, nearly independent of the conflict. We also discuss the exogenous or endogenous nature of the shocks. Our results suggest that violent conflicts share with earthquakes and other natural and social phenomena a common feature in the dynamics of aftershocks.

  17. "Violent Intent Modeling: Incorporating Cultural Knowledge into the Analytical Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Nibbs, Faith G.

    2007-08-24

    While culture has a significant effect on the appropriate interpretation of textual data, the incorporation of cultural considerations into data transformations has not been systematic. Recognizing that the successful prevention of terrorist activities could hinge on the knowledge of the subcultures, Anthropologist and DHS intern Faith Nibbs has been addressing the need to incorporate cultural knowledge into the analytical process. In this Brown Bag she will present how cultural ideology is being used to understand how the rhetoric of group leaders influences the likelihood of their constituents to engage in violent or radicalized behavior, and how violent intent modeling can benefit from understanding that process.

  18. Pattern of drug eruptions in a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, Z.; Nadeem, N.; Aman, S.; Kazmi, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: An adverse drug reaction is unintentional which occurs at doses used for prophylaxis, diagnosis or treatment. Objectives: To determine the frequency of various cutaneous drug eruptions that occur in patients in a tertiary care hospital setting. Patients and Methods: All patients with cutaneous drug eruptions seen at the Dermatology Department of Mayo Hospital, Lahore, over 6 months were enrolled and the pattern of drug eruptions like urticaria, angioedema, fixed drug eruption, maculopapular rash, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis etc. were recorded, along with drugs that caused it. Results:A total of 160 patients (86 males, 74 females) were included in the study. Mean age of patients was 30.7+-15.4 years. Major eruptions were fixed drug eruption (21.3%) followed by urticaria without angioedema (10%), maculopapular rash (9.3%), lichenoid drug eruption (8.7%), acneiform drug eruption (7.5%), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (6.9%), vesiculobullous eruption (5.6%), erythema multiforme and eczematous eruption (5% each). Common drugs causing eruptions were sulfonamides (16.3%), followed by NSAIDs (14.4%), herbal and homeopathic medications (12.5%), penicillins (9.3%), tetracyclines (8.7%), antituberculous drugs, cephalosporins and antiepileptics (6.3% each). Conclusion: Fixed drug eruption and urticaria without angioedema were commonest eruptions while, sulfonamides and NSAIDs were the major causative drugs. Policy message: Reporting of adverse drug reactions is not done in Pakistan and needs to be done in each hospital. (author)

  19. Explosive Volcanic Eruptions from Linear Vents on Earth, Venus and Mars: Comparisons with Circular Vent Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Baloga, Stephen M.; Wimert, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    Conditions required to support buoyant convective plumes are investigated for explosive volcanic eruptions from circular and linear vents on Earth, Venus, and Mars. Vent geometry (linear versus circular) plays a significant role in the ability of an explosive eruption to sustain a buoyant plume. On Earth, linear and circular vent eruptions are both capable of driving buoyant plumes to equivalent maximum rise heights, however, linear vent plumes are more sensitive to vent size. For analogous mass eruption rates, linear vent plumes surpass circular vent plumes in entrainment efficiency approximately when L(sub o) > 3r(sub o) owing to the larger entrainment area relative to the control volume. Relative to circular vents, linear vents on Venus favor column collapse and the formation of pyroclastic flows because the range of conditions required to establish and sustain buoyancy is narrow. When buoyancy can be sustained, however, maximum plume heights exceed those from circular vents. For current atmospheric conditions on Mars, linear vent eruptions are capable of injecting volcanic material slightly higher than analogous circular vent eruptions. However, both geometries are more likely to produce pyroclastic fountains, as opposed to convective plumes, owing to the low density atmosphere. Due to the atmospheric density profile and water content on Earth, explosive eruptions enjoy favorable conditions for producing sustained buoyant columns, while pyroclastic flows would be relatively more prevalent on Venus and Mars. These results have implications for the injection and dispersal of particulates into the planetary atmosphere and the ability to interpret the geologic record of planetary volcanism.

  20. Eruptions and superhumps in dwarf novae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.

    1979-01-01

    The existence of two distinct eruption types in dwarf novae is considered. A small subclass of dwarf novae, the SU Ursae Majoris stars, show occasional very bright and long eruptions (''supermaxima''), and during supermaxima, large-amplitude photometric variations (''superhumps'') at a period related to the orbital period are seen. Two new stars showing these effects, AY Lyrae and YZ Cancri, are reported. A third star, WZ Sagittae, is probably also a member of the class. Models for the superhumps are reviewed and found to be unsatisfactory. Observational constraints on a successful model are discussed

  1. Global science: the eruption of Krakatau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörries, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    The eruption of the volcano Krakatau in the Netherlands East Indies (Indonesia) in 1883 had worldwide impact. This was perceived in the three quite different types of global propagation that occurred after the eruption: a rapid pressure wave, noticeable only to measuring instruments, followed a few hours later by the spread of the news of the event, succeeded by a slowly expanding optical phenomenon that lasted for a couple of years. Krakatau was the first natural catastrophe of global magnitude that was almost immediately recognized as such throughout the world, largely thanks to the recently installed worldwide telegraphic network.

  2. Terbinafine-induced lichenoid drug eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yue; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Haiyan; Lai, Wei; Maibach, Howard I

    2017-03-01

    Drug-induced lichen planus has been induced by antibiotics, anticonvulsants, antidiabetics, antimalarials, antitubercular drugs, antihypertensives, psychiatric drugs, chemotherapeutic agents, diuretic, heavy metals, NSAIDs, etc. Terbinafine, an antifungal agent, is widely used for dermatophyte infections and onychomycosis. Cutaneous adverse effects of terbinafine are rarely reported. Here, we report a case of terbinafine-induced lichenoid drug eruption in a 22-year-old who presented with generalized lichenoid eruption 2 weeks after terbinafine initiation of. The body and lip cleared completely after 8 weeks of drug withdrawal; nail change cleared after 12 weeks.

  3. The Variable Climate Impact of Volcanic Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, H.

    2011-12-01

    The main effect of big volcanic eruptions in the climate system is due to their efficient transport of condensable gases and their precursors into the stratosphere. There the formation of aerosols leads to effects on atmospheric radiation transfer inducing a reduction of incoming solar radiation by reflection (i.e. cooling of the Earth surface) and absorption of near infrared radiation (i.e. heating) in the aerosol laden layers. In the talk processes determining the climate effect of an eruption will be illustrated by examples, mainly from numerical modelling. The amount of gases released from a magma during an eruption and the efficiency of their transport into very high altitudes depends on the geological setting (magma type) and eruption style. While mid-sized eruption plumes of Plinian style quickly can develop buoyancy by entrainment of ambient air, very large eruptions with high magma flux rates often tend to collapsing plumes and co-ignimbrite style. These cover much bigger areas and are less efficient in entraining ambient air. Vertical transport in these plumes is chaotic and less efficient, leading to lower neutral buoyancy height and less gas and particles reaching high stratospheric altitudes. Explosive energy and amount of released condensable gases are not the only determinants for the climatic effect of an eruption. The effect on shortwave radiation is not linear with the amount of aerosols formed since according to the Lambert-Beer Law atmospheric optical depth reaches a saturation limit with increased absorber concentration. In addition, if more condensable gas is available for aerosol growth, particles become larger and this affects their optical properties to less reflection and more absorption. Larger particles settle out faster, thus reducing the life time of the aerosol disturbance. Especially for big tropical eruptions the strong heating of the stratosphere in low latitudes leads to changes in atmospheric wave propagation by strengthened

  4. Asymptomatic petechial eruption on the lower legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendese, Gary; Grande, Donald

    2013-09-01

    The authors report an unusual case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that presented as an asymptomatic petechial eruption on the lower legs. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is rare in New England and, as such, is typically not on the differential diagnosis when presented with such patients. What began as an asymptomatic eruption progressed to more classic signs of the disease, including a positive Rocky Mountain spotted fever titer. The patient was successfully treated with doxycydine and within a short period of time, was completely back at baseline.

  5. Ilchulbong tuff cone, Jeju Island, Korea, revisited: A compound monogenetic volcano involving multiple magma batches, shifting vents, and discrete eruptive phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Y.; Brenna, M.; Smith, I. E.; Nemeth, K.; White, J. D.; Murtagh, R.; Jeon, Y.; Kwon, C.; Cronin, S. J.

    2010-12-01

    detecting potential shifts in eruption chemistry and vent location. It appears that if eruption breaks are short, successive magma batches follow the same path, whereas if pauses are greater than a critical period, conduit solidification will force vent migration for subsequent magma batches. This has important implications for examining the controls of vent migration at other monogenetic volcanoes and for emergency management planning during future similar types of eruptions.

  6. Surveillance for Violent Deaths - National Violent Death Reporting System, 17 States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Bridget H; Fowler, Katherine A; Jack, Shane P D; Betz, Carter J; Blair, Janet M

    2016-08-19

    In 2013, more than 57,000 persons died in the United States as a result of violence-related injuries. This report summarizes data from CDC's National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) regarding violent deaths from 17 U.S. states for 2013. Results are reported by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, marital status, location of injury, method of injury, circumstances of injury, and other selected characteristics. 2013. NVDRS collects data from participating states regarding violent deaths obtained from death certificates, coroner/medical examiner reports, law enforcement reports, and secondary sources (e.g., child fatality review team data, supplemental homicide reports, hospital data, and crime laboratory data). This report includes data from 17 states that collected statewide data for 2013 (Alaska, Colorado, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, North Carolina, New Jersey, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Utah, Virginia, and Wisconsin). NVDRS collates documents for each death and links deaths that are related (e.g., multiple homicides, a homicide followed by a suicide, or multiple suicides) from a single incident. For 2013, a total of 18,765 fatal incidents involving 19,251 deaths were captured by NVDRS in the 17 states included in this report. The majority (66.2%) of deaths were suicides, followed by homicides (23.2%), deaths of undetermined intent (8.8%), deaths involving legal intervention (1.2%) (i.e., deaths caused by law enforcement and other persons with legal authority to use deadly force, excluding legal executions), and unintentional firearm deaths (Revision [ICD-10] and does not denote the lawfulness or legality of the circumstances surrounding a death caused by law enforcement.) Suicides occurred at higher rates among males, non-Hispanic whites, American Indian/Alaska Natives, persons aged 45-64 years, and males aged ≥75 years. Suicides were preceded primarily by a mental health, intimate partner, or physical

  7. The frequency of explosive volcanic eruptions in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelley, Patrick L; Newhall, Christopher G; Bradley, Kyle E

    There are ~750 active and potentially active volcanoes in Southeast Asia. Ash from eruptions of volcanic explosivity index 3 (VEI 3) and smaller pose mostly local hazards while eruptions of VEI ≥ 4 could disrupt trade, travel, and daily life in large parts of the region. We classify Southeast Asian volcanoes into five groups, using their morphology and, where known, their eruptive history and degassing style. Because the eruptive histories of most volcanoes in Southeast Asia are poorly constrained, we assume that volcanoes with similar morphologies have had similar eruption histories. Eruption histories of well-studied examples of each morphologic class serve as proxy histories for understudied volcanoes in the class. From known and proxy eruptive histories, we estimate that decadal probabilities of VEI 4-8 eruptions in Southeast Asia are nearly 1.0, ~0.6, ~0.15, ~0.012, and ~0.001, respectively.

  8. Impacts of a Pinatubo-size volcanic eruption on ENSO

    KAUST Repository

    Predybaylo, Evgeniya; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Wittenberg, Andrew T.; Zeng, Fanrong

    2017-01-01

    Observations and model simulations of the climate responses to strong explosive low-latitude volcanic eruptions suggest a significant increase in the likelihood of El Niño during the eruption and posteruption years, though model results have been

  9. Holocene eruption history in Iceland - Eruption frequency vs. Tephra layer frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladottir, B. A.; Larsen, G.

    2012-12-01

    Volcanic deposits of all kinds are used to reconstruct eruption history of volcanoes and volcanic zones. In Iceland tephra is the ideal volcanic deposit to study eruption history as two out of every three eruptions taking place there during the last 11 centuries have been explosive, leaving tephra as their only product. If eruptions producing both lava and tephra are included three out of every four eruptions have produced tephra. Tephra dispersal and deposition depends on factors such as eruption magnitude, eruption cloud height, duration of eruption and prevailing wind directions at the time of eruption. Several outcrops around a particular volcano must therefore be measured to obtain optimal information of its eruption history. Vegetation in the area of deposition is also of great importance for its preservation. Tephra deposited on un-vegetated land is rapidly eroded by wind and water, and deposits up to few tens of cm thickness may be lost from the record. Such tephra deposited on grassy or forested land is at least partly sheltered from the wind after deposition. Soon after tephra deposition (how soon depends on tephra thickness) the root system of the vegetation creates an even better shelter for the tephra and when this stage is reached the tephra is preserved in the soil for millennia, given that no soil erosion takes place. Vegetation is often boosted in the first years after tephra deposition which in turn helps tephra preservation. A setback of using soil sections for reconstructing Holocene eruption history is the lack of soil at the beginning of the era but for that time period tephra records in lake and marine sediments can be used. When tephra stratigraphy in soil sections is measured to study eruption history and eruption frequency of a volcano it must be kept in mind that what is seen is in fact the tephra layer frequency. One section only shows tephra layers deposited in that location and more importantly only the layers preserved there. The

  10. From Family Violence Exposure to Violent Offending: Examining Effects of Race and Mental Health in a Moderated Mediation Model Among Confined Male Juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, Rebecca L; Alexander, Apryl A; Burkhart, Barry R

    2017-09-01

    Depression, substance use, and impulsivity have been linked to family violence exposure and to the development of violent offending during adolescence. Additionally, the indirect effects associated with these factors may not generalize across different racial/ethnic adolescent populations. The present study tested whether race/ethnicity moderated the mediated relationship between family violence exposure and violent offending, with depression, substance use, and impulsivity as mediators. A sample of 1,359 male adolescents was obtained from a juvenile correctional program. Between-racial/ethnic group comparisons were generally consistent with previous findings. The overall moderated mediation model was significant in predicting violence for both racial/ethnic groups. Different factors influenced violent offending among African Americans and European Americans in the tested model. Furthermore, race/ethnicity moderated the relationship between family violence exposure and impulsivity and substance use. Implications and future directions resolving issues are discussed concerning whether race/ethnicity should be included as a moderator in models of violence.

  11. Technicolor/INRIA team at the MediaEval 2013 Violent Scenes Detection Task

    OpenAIRE

    Penet , Cédric; Demarty , Claire-Hélène; Gravier , Guillaume; Gros , Patrick

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents the work done at Technicolor and INRIA regarding the MediaEval 2013 Violent Scenes Detection task, which aims at detecting violent scenes in movies. We participated in both the objective and the subjective subtasks.

  12. Sulphur-rich volcanic eruptions and stratospheric aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampino, M. R.; Self, S.

    1984-01-01

    Data from direct measurements of stratospheric optical depth, Greenland ice-core acidity, and volcanological studies are compared, and it is shown that relatively small but sulfur-rich volcanic eruptions can have atmospheric effects equal to or even greater than much larger sulfur-poor eruptions. These small eruptions are probably the most frequent cause of increased stratospheric aerosols. The possible sources of the excess sulfur released in these eruptions are discussed.

  13. Violent video games and attitudes towards victims of crime: an empirical study among youth

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, L; Griffiths, MD

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that playing violent video games may be associated with an increase in acceptance of violence and positive attitudes towards perpetrators of crime. This study is the first to investigate the relationship between playing violent video games and attitudes towards victims of crime. A total of 206 young people (aged 12-24 years) completed measures of attitudes towards victims and violent video game exposure. The results suggest that exposure to violent video games ...

  14. Determining the role of the Internet in violent extremism and terrorism: six suggestions for progressing research

    OpenAIRE

    Conway, Maura

    2016-01-01

    Some scholars and others are skeptical of a significant role for the Internet in processes of violent radicalization. There is increasing concern on the part of other scholars, and increasingly also policymakers and publics, that easy availability of violent extremist content online may have violent radicalizing effects. This article identifies a number of core questions regarding the interaction of violent extremism and terrorism and the Internet, particularly social media, that have yet to ...

  15. The Role of Violent Media Preference in Cumulative Developmental Risk for Violence and General Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Bushman, Brad J.; O'Brien, Maureen; Moceri, Dominic

    2008-01-01

    The impact of exposure to violence in the media on the long-term development and short-term expression of aggressive behavior has been well documented. However, gaps in this literature remain, and in particular the role of violent media exposure in shaping violent and other serious antisocial behavior has not been investigated. Further, studies of violent media effects typically have not sampled from populations with confirmed histories of violent and/or nonviolent antisocial behavior. In thi...

  16. Violent Video Games as Exemplary Teachers: A Conceptual Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Douglas A.; Gentile, J. Ronald

    2008-01-01

    This article presents conceptual and empirical analyses of several of the "best practices" of learning and instruction, and demonstrates how violent video games use them effectively to motivate learners to persevere in acquiring and mastering a number of skills, to navigate through complex problems and changing environments, and to experiment with…

  17. Institutional degeneration and evolution of violent secret cults in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we argue that though a plethora of other factors outside the University system have been advanced to explain the upsurge of violent cults on Nigerian campuses, endogenous forces including policy failure, administrative naivety, and deterioration of structures, equipment and facilities, that is, institutional ...

  18. Violent Media Consumption and the Recognition of Dynamic Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsh, Steven J.; Mounts, Jeffrey R. W.; Olczak, Paul V.

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the speed of recognition of facial emotional expressions (happy and angry) as a function of violent media consumption. Color photos of calm facial expressions morphed to either an angry or a happy facial expression. Participants were asked to make a speeded identification of the emotion (happiness or anger) during the morph.…

  19. Transforming Violent Selves through Reflection in Critical Communicative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flecha, Ainhoa; Pulido, Cristina; Christou, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Currently, teenagers are being socialized into a world of violent realities, not only through social interaction but also through interaction via the media, especially via the Internet. Research conducted using the critical communicative methodology has shown that this methodology helps young people to reflect critically about their violent…

  20. Trolling New Media: Violent Extremist Groups Recruiting Through Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    We must make the Internet our tool.”67 In addition to al Neda, al Qaeda maintains several other websites such as al Ansar (the Helpers ) and al...players can hone their sniper skills by executing Prime Minister Ariel Sharon.126 Just as violent extremist groups have expanded recruiting efforts

  1. Spaces of insecurity : human agency in violent conflicts in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witsenburg, K.; Zaal, A.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    There are regions in the world where socio-economic deprivation, ecological marginality, political exclusion, poverty and violence all seem to converge. The cases presented in this book describe various violent conflicts in rural Kenya and aim to understand spatial insecurity while searching for

  2. Childhood Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Violent Criminality: A Sibling Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Sebastian; Forsman, Mats; Larsson, Henrik; Kerekes, Nora; Serlachius, Eva; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The longitudinal relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and violent criminality has been extensively documented, while long-term effects of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), tic disorders (TDs), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) on criminality have been scarcely studied. Using population-based registers of all…

  3. Daily violent video game playing and depression in preadolescent youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortolero, Susan R; Peskin, Melissa F; Baumler, Elizabeth R; Cuccaro, Paula M; Elliott, Marc N; Davies, Susan L; Lewis, Terri H; Banspach, Stephen W; Kanouse, David E; Schuster, Mark A

    2014-09-01

    Most studies on the impact of playing violent video games on mental health have focused on aggression. Relatively few studies have examined the relationship between playing violent video games and depression, especially among preadolescent youth. In this study, we investigated whether daily violent video game playing over the past year is associated with a greater number of depressive symptoms among preadolescent youth, after controlling for several well-known correlates of depression among youth. We analyzed cross-sectional data collected from 5,147 fifth-grade students and their primary caregivers who participated in Wave I (2004-2006) of Healthy Passages, a community-based longitudinal study conducted in three U.S. cities. Linear regression was conducted to determine the association between violent video game exposure and number of depressive symptoms, while controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, peer victimization, witnessing violence, being threatened with violence, aggression, family structure, and household income level. We found that students who reported playing high-violence video games for ≥2 hours per day had significantly more depressive symptoms than those who reported playing low-violence video games for video games and number of depressive symptoms among preadolescent youth. More research is needed to examine this association and, if confirmed, to investigate its causality, persistence over time, underlying mechanisms, and clinical implications.

  4. Violent Interaction Detection in Video Based on Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peipei; Ding, Qinghai; Luo, Haibo; Hou, Xinglin

    2017-06-01

    Violent interaction detection is of vital importance in some video surveillance scenarios like railway stations, prisons or psychiatric centres. Existing vision-based methods are mainly based on hand-crafted features such as statistic features between motion regions, leading to a poor adaptability to another dataset. En lightened by the development of convolutional networks on common activity recognition, we construct a FightNet to represent the complicated visual violence interaction. In this paper, a new input modality, image acceleration field is proposed to better extract the motion attributes. Firstly, each video is framed as RGB images. Secondly, optical flow field is computed using the consecutive frames and acceleration field is obtained according to the optical flow field. Thirdly, the FightNet is trained with three kinds of input modalities, i.e., RGB images for spatial networks, optical flow images and acceleration images for temporal networks. By fusing results from different inputs, we conclude whether a video tells a violent event or not. To provide researchers a common ground for comparison, we have collected a violent interaction dataset (VID), containing 2314 videos with 1077 fight ones and 1237 no-fight ones. By comparison with other algorithms, experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model for violent interaction detection shows higher accuracy and better robustness.

  5. Building a Nonviolent Organization: Religious Leadership in a Violent World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mary Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the role of leaders in building nonviolent organizations and the role of organizations in cultivating habits of peace, thereby preparing people as peacemakers in a violent world. Leadership literature asks how to build healthy organizations; conflict literature asks how to make global peace. Both ask how…

  6. Traditional justice and reconciliation after violent conflict: Learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    after violent conflict: Learning from African experiences. Huyse, Luc and Mark Salter eds. 2008. Stockholm, International IDEA (Institute for Democracy and ... civil society. From their different vantage points they present a cross-cutting analysis on how traditional mechanisms can efficiently and effectively complement ...

  7. MEDIA INFLUENCE AND VIOLENT CRIMES IN THE NIGER DELTA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    Violent crimes have also increased to be part of the media content in all ... backed by the Social Learning Theory of Bandura cited in Ugiagbe (2009) who posited .... Desensitization refers to reduced cognitive responsiveness to actual ... cyberbully their peers, get into physical fights, be hostile, argue with teachers, and show.

  8. Teachers' stress intensifies violent disciplining in Tanzanian secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Tobias; Goessmann, Katharina; Nkuba, Mabula; Hermenau, Katharin

    2018-02-01

    Violent forms of discipline in schools continue to be widespread across the globe despite their damaging effects. Since little is known about factors influencing the extent of violence applied by teachers, this study aimed to investigate the influence of teachers' stress, work satisfaction, and personal characteristics on their disciplining style. Using structural equation modeling, associations between violent discipline, burnout symptoms, and job perceptions (pressure and difficulties in class) reported by 222 teachers from 11 secondary schools in Tanzania in 2015 were analyzed. Results indicated a direct association between perceived stress and emotional violent discipline (β=.18, pjob perceptions and both forms of violent disciplining. The model showed good model fit (χ 2 [44, n=222]=67.47 (p=.013), CFI=.94, TLI=.91, IFI=.94, RMSEA=.049 [90%-CI=.02-.07, PCLOSE=.50], SRMR=.06). Our findings suggest that teachers' personal perceptions of their work as well as their stress burden play a role in their disciplining styles. Our findings underline the importance of integrating topics, such as stress and coping as well as positive, nonviolent discipline measures into the regular teacher's training and in addition to develop and evaluate school-based preventative interventions for teachers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Violent fan fluctuations: a diffusion perspective to explain supporters' violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braun, R.; Vliegenthart, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we address the question of how diffusion mechanisms predict the level of violence among soccer fans. We embed possible causes of violent fan behavior in a theoretical framework of diffusion, as social movement scholars deploy it to study other instances of collective violence. Four

  10. Life Satisfaction and Violent Behaviors among Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valois, Robert F.; Paxton, Raheem J.; Zullig, Keith J.; Huebner, E. Scott

    2006-01-01

    We explored relationships between violent behaviors and perceived life satisfaction among 2,138 middle school students in a southern state using the CDC Middle School Youth Risk Behavior Survey (MSYRBS) and the Brief Multidimensional Student Life Satisfaction Scale (BMSLSS). Logistic regression analyses and multivariate models constructed…

  11. Violent Events: School Social Workers' Perception and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawood, Natalie Diane

    2013-01-01

    This article reports findings from a national web-based survey of 250 members of the School Social Work Association of America (SSWAA). This study examines the types of violent events reported by school social workers and the practitioner's perception of the problem of interpersonal violence in the school context. It identifies interventions being…

  12. Application of reality therapy on violent beliefs of Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The application of Reality Therapy on students' violent beliefs was investigated through quasi-experimental research design with a sample of 18 students (13 boys and 5 girls) and another set of 18 students (15 boys and 3 girls) for experimental and control groups respectively. The students in experimental group were those ...

  13. The Challenge of Researching Violent Societies: Navigating Complexities in Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshabangu, Icarbord

    2009-01-01

    Through use of a recent study researching democratic education and citizenship in Zimbabwe, this paper examines the methodological dilemmas and challenges faced by an ethnographer, particularly by a research student in a violent context. The article posits a bricolage strategy to navigate some of the dangers and methodological dilemmas inherent so…

  14. Democracy and Violent Conflicts in Nigeria: Implications for National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper found that; the nature of competition for political power, multi-ethnic nature of the polity as well as corruption, unemployment and poverty are some of the factors which make democracy in Nigeria‟s Fourth Republic violent-ridden. The paper therefore, recommends among others, the need to cut down on the ...

  15. Youth and Violent Conflict. Study Guide for Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States Institute of Peace, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study guide are: (1) to increase student understanding of the prevalence of youth participation in violent conflict and the challenges to addressing this global issue; (2) to familiarize students with strategies for conflict prevention, management, and resolution; (3) to develop students' analytical reading, writing, and…

  16. Giant Galaxy's Violent Past Comes Into Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    Long-exposure images of the giant elliptical galaxy M87 by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, together with radio observations, have provided spectacular evidence of repetitive outbursts from the vicinity of the galaxy's supermassive black hole. Magnetized rings, bubbles, plumes and jets ranging in size from a few thousand to a few hundred thousand light years point to ongoing violent activity for hundreds of millions of years. "The hot X-ray emitting gas extending for hundreds of thousands of light years around M87 reveals a record of episodes of black hole activity," said Paul Nulsen of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in Cambridge, Mass. and an author of an Astrophysical Journal paper describing the latest Chandra observations. "With these detailed observations, we are beginning to understand how the central supermassive black hole transfers enormous amounts of energy over vast reaches of space." M87, located in the middle of the Virgo galaxy cluster, is surrounded by an extensive atmosphere of multi-million degree Celsius gas. Chandra's long-exposure image has allowed astronomers to see in more detail structures discovered by previous observations with Chandra and other X-ray telescopes, to discover new features, and to make specific comparisons with radio images, which trace the presence of high-energy electrons in a magnetic field." X-ray Image of M87 Chandra X-ray Image of M87, Close-Up The picture that emerges is one in which the infall of material toward a central supermassive black hole produces a magnetized jet of high-energy particles that blasts away from the vicinity of the black hole at near the speed of light. As a jet plows into the surrounding gas, a buoyant, magnetized bubble of high-energy particles is created, and an intense sound wave rushes ahead of the expanding bubble. In Chandra's image of M87, X-rays from the jet dominate the central region of the galaxy. The jet is thought to be pointed at a small angle toward the

  17. CME Eruption Onset Observations from EIT and SXT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, A. C.

    2004-01-01

    Why CMEs erupt is a major outstanding puzzle of solar physics. Signatures observable at the earliest stages of eruption onset may hold precious clues about the onset mechanism. We present observations in EUV from SOHO/EIT and in soft X-rays from Yohkoh/SXT of the re-eruption and eruption phases of CME expulsion, along with the eruption's magnetic setting found from SOHO/MDI magnetograms. Most of our events involve clearly-observable filament eruptions and multiple neutral lines, and we use the magnetic settings and motions of the filaments to help infer the geometry and behavior of the associated erupting magnetic fields. Pre-eruption and early-eruption signatures include a relatively slow filament rise prior to eruption, and intensity "dimmings" and brightenings, both in the immediate neighborhood of the "core" (location of greatest magnetic shear) of the erupting fields and at locations remote from the core. These signatures and their relative timings place observational constraints on eruption mechanisms; our recent work has focused on implications for the so-called "tether cutting" and "breakout" models, but the same observational constraints are applicable to any model.

  18. Robust satellite techniques for monitoring volcanic eruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pergola, N.; Pietrapertosa, C. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Metodologie Avanzate, Tito Scalo, PZ (Italy); Lacava, T.; Tramutoli, V. [Potenza Universita' della Basilicata, Potenza (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria e Fisica dell' Ambiente

    2001-04-01

    Through this paper the robust approach to monitoring volcanic aerosols by satellite is applied to an extended set of events affecting Stromboli and Etna volcanoes to assess its performance in automated detection of eruptive clouds and in monitoring pre-eruptive emission activities. Using only NOAA/AVHRR data at hand (without any specific atmospheric model or ancillary ground-based measurements) the proposed method automatically discriminates meteorological from eruptive volcanic clouds and, in several cases, identified pre-eruptive anomalies in the emission rates not identified by traditional methods. The main merit of this approach is its effectiveness in recognising field anomalies also in the presence of a highly variable surface background as well as its intrinsic exportability not only on different geographic areas but also on different satellite instrumental packages. In particular, the possibility to extend the proposed method to the incoming new MSG/SEVIRI satellite package (which is going to fly next year) with its improved spectral (specific bands for SO{sub 2}) and temporal (up to 15 min) resolutions has been evaluated representing the natural continuation of this work.

  19. Giant Plagioclase Basalts, eruption rate versus time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R.Narasimhan(krishtel emaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    I found the GPB lavas to be very interest- ing because in some ... by Venkatesan et al (1993) and thus in a way validates my approach. ... and age calculation of lavas from phenocrysts. Keywords. Deccan Trap; Giant Plagioclase Basalts; eruption duration. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Earth Planet. Sci.), 111, No. 4, December ...

  20. Guidance of eruption for general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan, Peter W; Kao, Elizabeth C; Wei, Stephen H

    2003-04-01

    The principle of early treatment through well-planned extraction of primary teeth followed by removal of permanent teeth has stood the test of time. The objective of this article is to develop some simple guidelines for general dental practitioners to perform 'guidance of eruption' in malocclusion with severe crowding.

  1. Evolving Coronal Holes and Interplanetary Erupting Stream ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Coronal holes and interplanetary disturbances are important aspects of the physics of the Sun and heliosphere. Interplanetary disturbances are identified as an increase in the density turbulence compared with the ambient solar wind. Erupting stream disturbances are transient large-scale structures of ...

  2. An 18,000 year-long eruptive record from Volcán Chaitén, northwestern Patagonia: Paleoenvironmental and hazard-assessment implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloway, Brent V.; Pearce, Nick J. G.; Moreno, Patricio I.; Villarosa, Gustavo; Jara, Ignacio; De Pol-Holz, Ricardo; Outes, Valeria

    2017-07-01

    The 2008 eruption of Volcán Chaitén (VCha) in northwestern Patagonia was the first explosive rhyolitic eruption to have occurred within a century and provided an unprecedented scientific opportunity to examine all facets of the eruption ranging from magma rheology/ascent rates to ash-fall effects on biota and infrastructure. Up to very recently it was thought that the latest eruption prior to the 2008 event occurred c. 9750 cal. a BP. Although a number of researchers have recognised additional eruptive products, but their stratigraphy, age, and geochemical attributes have not been systematically described and/or recorded. In this study, we provide a detailed examination of andic cover-beds and tephra-bearing lake sequences located both proximally and distally to VCha, which record a series of hitherto unknown rhyolitic eruptive products and place all previous observations firmly within a coherent stratigraphic framework. Through major- and trace-element glass shard geochemistry we are able to confidently verify eruptive source. A total of 20 discrete tephra beds are recognised, with at least 10 having widespread areal distributions and/or depositional imprints broadly comparable to, or greater than, the 2008-tephra event. This record indicates that VCha has been continuously but intermittently active as far back as the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (c. 18,000 cal a BP) with two dominant, genetically related magma types and an intermediary 'mixed' type. Before this the eruptive record has been largely obscured and/or erased by widespread Andean piedmont glaciation. However, based on the tempo of VCha activity over the last c. 18,000 years, older VCha eruptives can be anticipated to occur as well as future hazardous explosive events. The new eruptive inventory will ultimately be useful for correlating equivalent-aged sequences and refining long-term eruptive tempo as well as corresponding temporal changes in magmatic evolution.

  3. BDVC (Bimodal Database of Violent Content): A database of violent audio and video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Martínez, Jose Luis; Mijes Cruz, Mario Humberto; Rodríguez Vázqu, Manuel Antonio; Rodríguez Espejo, Luis; Montoya Obeso, Abraham; García Vázquez, Mireya Saraí; Ramírez Acosta, Alejandro Álvaro

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays there is a trend towards the use of unimodal databases for multimedia content description, organization and retrieval applications of a single type of content like text, voice and images, instead bimodal databases allow to associate semantically two different types of content like audio-video, image-text, among others. The generation of a bimodal database of audio-video implies the creation of a connection between the multimedia content through the semantic relation that associates the actions of both types of information. This paper describes in detail the used characteristics and methodology for the creation of the bimodal database of violent content; the semantic relationship is stablished by the proposed concepts that describe the audiovisual information. The use of bimodal databases in applications related to the audiovisual content processing allows an increase in the semantic performance only and only if these applications process both type of content. This bimodal database counts with 580 audiovisual annotated segments, with a duration of 28 minutes, divided in 41 classes. Bimodal databases are a tool in the generation of applications for the semantic web.

  4. "Harder and Harder"? Is Mainstream Pornography Becoming Increasingly Violent and Do Viewers Prefer Violent Content?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Eran; Seida, Kimberly

    2018-04-18

    It is a common notion among many scholars and pundits that the pornography industry becomes "harder and harder" with every passing year. Some have suggested that porn viewers, who are mostly men, become desensitized to "soft" pornography, and producers are happy to generate videos that are more hard core, resulting in a growing demand for and supply of violent and degrading acts against women in mainstream pornographic videos. We examined this accepted wisdom by utilizing a sample of 269 popular videos uploaded to PornHub over the past decade. More specifically, we tested two related claims: (1) aggressive content in videos is on the rise and (2) viewers prefer such content, reflected in both the number of views and the rankings for videos containing aggression. Our results offer no support for these contentions. First, we did not find any consistent uptick in aggressive content over the past decade; in fact, the average video today contains shorter segments showing aggression. Second, videos containing aggressive acts are both less likely to receive views and less likely to be ranked favorably by viewers, who prefer videos where women clearly perform pleasure.

  5. Beyond the lab: Investigating early adolescents' cognitive, emotional, and arousal responses to violent games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkers, K.M.; Piotrowski, J.T.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    Cognitive, emotional, and arousal responses to violent games play a central role in theoretical explanations of how violent media may affect aggression. However, existing research has focused on a relatively narrow range of responses to violent games in experimental settings. This limits our

  6. Violent video games stress people out and make them more aggressive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasan, Y.; Bègue, L.; Bushman, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that violent video games increase aggression, and that stress increases aggression. Many violent video games can be stressful because enemies are trying to kill players. The present study investigates whether violent games increase aggression by inducing stress in players. Stress

  7. I wish I were a warrior: Effects of violent video games on adolescent boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konijn, E.A.; Nije Bijvank, M.; Bushman, B.J.

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that violent video games are especially likely to increase aggression when players identify with violent game characters. Dutch adolescent boys with low education ability (N = 112) were randomly assigned to play a realistic or fantasy violent or nonviolent video

  8. Daily Violent Video Game Playing and Depression in Preadolescent Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskin, Melissa F.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Cuccaro, Paula M.; Elliott, Marc N.; Davies, Susan L.; Lewis, Terri H.; Banspach, Stephen W.; Kanouse, David E.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Most studies on the impact of playing violent video games on mental health have focused on aggression. Relatively few studies have examined the relationship between playing violent video games and depression, especially among preadolescent youth. In this study, we investigated whether daily violent video game playing over the past year is associated with a greater number of depressive symptoms among preadolescent youth, after controlling for several well-known correlates of depression among youth. We analyzed cross-sectional data collected from 5,147 fifth-grade students and their primary caregivers who participated in Wave I (2004–2006) of Healthy Passages, a community-based longitudinal study conducted in three U.S. cities. Linear regression was conducted to determine the association between violent video game exposure and number of depressive symptoms, while controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, peer victimization, witnessing violence, being threatened with violence, aggression, family structure, and household income level. We found that students who reported playing high-violence video games for ≥2 hours per day had significantly more depressive symptoms than those who reported playing low-violence video games for <2 hours per day (p<0.001). The magnitude of this association was small (Cohen's d=0.16), but this association was consistent across all racial/ethnic subgroups and among boys (Cohen's d values ranged from 0.12 to 0.25). Our findings indicate that there is an association between daily exposure to violent video games and number of depressive symptoms among preadolescent youth. More research is needed to examine this association and, if confirmed, to investigate its causality, persistence over time, underlying mechanisms, and clinical implications. PMID:25007237

  9. Violent media and hostile appraisals: A meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Brad J

    2016-11-01

    Hostile people tend to view the world as a hostile place. Although there are individual differences in hostile world-views, situational factors can also play a role. For example, scenes of violence in the mass media might influence people to view the world as a hostile place. This meta-analysis aggregates, for the first time, all studies that have investigated the link between exposure to violent media and hostile appraisals (e.g., perceiving the ambiguous actions by others as aggressive actions). This meta-analysis included 37 independent studies involving 10,410 participants. The results showed a "small" to "moderate" sized average correlation between exposure to violent media and hostile appraisals (r +  = .20, 95%CI = .14, .26). Significant correlations were found in experimental, cross-sectional, and longitudinal studies, indicating a triangulation of evidence. Effects were not correlated with participant gender. Effects were also stable over time. However, the link between exposure to violent media and hostile appraisals was positively related to age, perhaps because violent media can have cumulative effects over time. There was no evidence of publication bias. The findings from this meta-analysis are consistent with the General Aggression Model (e.g., Anderson, & Bushman, 2002; Annual Review of Psychology 53:27-51). These results compliment those from previous meta-analyses showing that violent media can increase aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, physiological arousal, and aggressive behavior. These findings also have practical significance, because people who view the world in a hostile manner are more likely to behave aggressively themselves. Aggr. Behav. 42:605-613, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Medicolegal aspects of hospital treatment of violent mentally ill persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper deals with medicolegal aspects of the hospital treatment of patients suffering from severe mental disorders and who are prone to violent behavior, dangerous to self and others. Violent acts in this study were defined as deliberate and nonconsensual acts of actual, attempted or threatened harm to a person or persons, and classified into categories of any type of violence, physical violence and nonphysical violence, which is in accordance with approaches used in other risk assessment researches. Outline of Cases. The authors present four cases of mentally ill inpatients whose violent behavior toward self or other persons resulted in self-destruction and physical aggression against other persons. The presented cases involved: 1 selfinjury in a patient with acute organic mental disorder after jumping through a hospital window, 2 suicide by drowning of a patient with acute mental disorder after escaping from intensive care unit, 3 suicide in a depressive patient after escaping from a low-security psychiatry unit, 4 physical violence against body and life of other persons in a patient with chronic mental disorder. Conclusion. The presented cases are considered to be rare in clinical practice and risk of violent behavior and the consequent danger of mentally ill inpatients may be efficiently predicted and prevented with appropriate hospital management based on 1 repeated escalation of violent behavior and 2 protection of the patient and others. Hence, if the physician, in order to prevent harmful consequences, does not apply all the necessary measures, including appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, as well as treatment in an adequate setting, such act is against the Criminal Law of the Republic of Serbia which sanctions physician's negligence. Also, according to the Law on Obligations of the Republic of Serbia this presents a legal ground for damage claim and the requirement of liability for nonmaterial damage

  11. Association Between Deliberate Self-harm and Violent Criminality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlin, Hanna; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Bjureberg, Johan; Lichtenstein, Paul; Molero, Yasmina; Rydell, Mina; Hedman, Erik; Runeson, Bo; Jokinen, Jussi; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Hellner, Clara

    2017-06-01

    Individuals who self-harm may have an increased risk of aggression toward others, but this association has been insufficiently investigated. More conclusive evidence may affect assessment, treatment interventions, and clinical guidelines. To investigate the association between nonfatal self-harm and violent crime. This population-based longitudinal cohort study, conducted from January 1, 1997, through December 31, 2013, studied all Swedish citizens born between 1982 and 1998 who were 15 years and older (N = 1 850 252). Individuals who emigrated from Sweden before the age of 15 years (n = 104 051) or immigrated to Sweden after the age of 13 years (ie, crime according to the Swedish penal code. The study cohort consisted of 1 850 525 individuals (950 382 males and 900 143 females), and the mean (SD) follow-up time was 8.1 (4.7) years (range, 0-17.0 years; minimum age, 15 years; maximum age, 32 years). During a mean follow-up period of 8.1 years, 55 185 individuals (3.0%) received clinical care for self-harm. The crude hazard ratio was 4.9 (95% CI, 4.8-5.0) for violent crime conviction in exposed individuals compared with the unexposed group. Women who self-harm were at particularly high risk for expressing violent behaviors. After adjustment for relevant psychiatric comorbidities and socioeconomic status, an almost doubled hazard of violent offense remained (hazard ratio, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.8-1.9). Self-harm is associated with an increased risk of conviction for a violent offense in both sexes. The risk of violence, as well as the risk of suicide and self-harm, should be assessed among offending and self-harming individuals.

  12. Sequential assimilation of volcanic monitoring data to quantify eruption potential: Application to Kerinci volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yan; Gregg, Patricia M.; Chaussard, Estelle; Aoki, Yosuke

    2017-12-01

    Quantifying the eruption potential of a restless volcano requires the ability to model parameters such as overpressure and calculate the host rock stress state as the system evolves. A critical challenge is developing a model-data fusion framework to take advantage of observational data and provide updates of the volcanic system through time. The Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) uses a Monte Carlo approach to assimilate volcanic monitoring data and update models of volcanic unrest, providing time-varying estimates of overpressure and stress. Although the EnKF has been proven effective to forecast volcanic deformation using synthetic InSAR and GPS data, until now, it has not been applied to assimilate data from an active volcanic system. In this investigation, the EnKF is used to provide a “hindcast” of the 2009 explosive eruption of Kerinci volcano, Indonesia. A two-sources analytical model is used to simulate the surface deformation of Kerinci volcano observed by InSAR time-series data and to predict the system evolution. A deep, deflating dike-like source reproduces the subsiding signal on the flanks of the volcano, and a shallow spherical McTigue source reproduces the central uplift. EnKF predicted parameters are used in finite element models to calculate the host-rock stress state prior to the 2009 eruption. Mohr-Coulomb failure models reveal that the shallow magma reservoir is trending towards tensile failure prior to 2009, which may be the catalyst for the 2009 eruption. Our results illustrate that the EnKF shows significant promise for future applications to forecasting the eruption potential of restless volcanoes and hind-cast the triggering mechanisms of observed eruptions.

  13. Sequential Assimilation of Volcanic Monitoring Data to Quantify Eruption Potential: Application to Kerinci Volcano, Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the eruption potential of a restless volcano requires the ability to model parameters such as overpressure and calculate the host rock stress state as the system evolves. A critical challenge is developing a model-data fusion framework to take advantage of observational data and provide updates of the volcanic system through time. The Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF uses a Monte Carlo approach to assimilate volcanic monitoring data and update models of volcanic unrest, providing time-varying estimates of overpressure and stress. Although the EnKF has been proven effective to forecast volcanic deformation using synthetic InSAR and GPS data, until now, it has not been applied to assimilate data from an active volcanic system. In this investigation, the EnKF is used to provide a “hindcast” of the 2009 explosive eruption of Kerinci volcano, Indonesia. A two-sources analytical model is used to simulate the surface deformation of Kerinci volcano observed by InSAR time-series data and to predict the system evolution. A deep, deflating dike-like source reproduces the subsiding signal on the flanks of the volcano, and a shallow spherical McTigue source reproduces the central uplift. EnKF predicted parameters are used in finite element models to calculate the host-rock stress state prior to the 2009 eruption. Mohr-Coulomb failure models reveal that the host rock around the shallow magma reservoir is trending toward tensile failure prior to 2009, which may be the catalyst for the 2009 eruption. Our results illustrate that the EnKF shows significant promise for future applications to forecasting the eruption potential of restless volcanoes and hind-cast the triggering mechanisms of observed eruptions.

  14. Genetic risk for violent behavior and environmental exposure to disadvantage and violent crime: the case for gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J C; Jacobs, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    Despite mounds of evidence to suggest that neighborhood structural factors predict violent behavior, almost no attention has been given to how these influences work synergistically (i.e., interact) with an individual's genetic propensity toward violent behavior. Indeed, two streams of research have, heretofore, flowed independently of one another. On one hand, criminologists have underscored the importance of neighborhood context in the etiology of violence. On the other hand, behavioral geneticists have argued that individual-level genetic propensities are important for understanding violence. The current study seeks to integrate these two compatible frameworks by exploring gene-environment interactions (GxE). Two GxEs were examined and supported by the data (i.e., the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health). Using a scale of genetic risk based on three dopamine genes, the analysis revealed that genetic risk had a greater influence on violent behavior when the individual was also exposed to neighborhood disadvantage or when the individual was exposed to higher violent crime rates. The relevance of these findings for criminological theorizing was considered.

  15. Beliefs and practices of the parents of violent and oppositional adolescents: an ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P; Glaser, Brian A; Calhoun, Georgia B; Bates, Jeffrey M

    2006-05-01

    Parenting is a transactional process, influenced by the child's behavior and the environmental context. The present study explores the beliefs and practices of parents of aggressive and oppositional adolescents to understand better the relation among parenting practices, context, and youth violence. Parents of juvenile offenders (N=203) completed assessments of youths' violent and oppositional behaviors, community violence exposure, and their own beliefs and parenting behaviors and perceptions of the juvenile justice system. Parents of youth with the highest levels of violent and oppositional behavior problems reported elevated feelings of hopelessness regarding the child's future, inadequacy as a parent, fear of physical harm by the child, anger toward the child, as well as difficulty monitoring the child. All parents reported relatively high levels of perceived support by the justice system. Parental stress was also examined as a possible influence on the parents' beliefs and behaviors regarding the child. Results suggest that parents' emotional and behavioral responses should be addressed when intervening with juvenile offenders. Editors' Strategic Implications: The authors present evidence to suggest that parents' perceptions of hopelessness/inadequacy and their fear for their child's safety are both by-products of life with an aggressive child as well as contributing factors to that aggressive behavior. Thus, successful interventions must both target the parents as change agents in the youth's life but also include a strong parental support component, so that parents will have an opportunity to orchestrate positive impacts in high-risk environments.

  16. Recruitment and selection in violent extremist organizations: Exploring what industrial and organizational psychology might contribute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Samuel T; Shortland, Neil D; Crayne, Matthew P; Ligon, Gina S

    2017-04-01

    For many terrorist organizations, also known as violent extremist organizations (VEOs), their ability to perpetuate violence is often contingent upon successful recruitment and selection of organizational members. Although academic work on terrorist recruitment and selection has improved in recent years, researchers have generally focused more heavily on aspects of radicalization rather than organization attraction and entry. Moreover, a number of terrorism scholars have lamented the lack of conceptual frameworks with which to interpret and extend findings linked to recruitment and selection, specifically. In light of these difficulties, we propose that considering literature bases outside of terrorism may be useful in extending lines of inquiry and offering alternative ways of thinking about how terrorist organizations operate. Specifically, we draw on Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Human Resource Management, and Organizational Behavior literature bases to offer alternative and extended modes of thought on terrorist recruitment and selection. In doing so, we believe both terrorism and more traditional organizational scholars can make substantive and novel contributions to future investigations of increasingly pressing issues surrounding violent extremism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. The dynamics of Hawaiian-style eruptions: a century of study: Chapter 8 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Margaret T.; Cashman, Katharine V.; Swanson, Donald A.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter, prepared in celebration of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatoryʼs centennial, provides a historical lens through which to view modern paradigms of Hawaiian-style eruption dynamics. The models presented here draw heavily from observations, monitoring, and experiments conducted on Kīlauea Volcano, which, as the site of frequent and accessible eruptions, has attracted scientists from around the globe. Long-lived eruptions in particular—Halema‘uma‘u 1907–24, Kīlauea Iki 1959, Mauna Ulu 1969–74, Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō-Kupaianaha 1983–present, and Halema‘uma‘u 2008–present—have offered incomparable opportunities to conceptualize and constrain theoretical models with multidisciplinary data and to field-test model results. The central theme in our retrospective is the interplay of magmatic gas and near-liquidus basaltic melt. A century of study has shown that gas exsolution facilitates basaltic dike propagation; volatile solubility and vesiculation kinetics influence magma-rise rates and fragmentation depths; bubble interactions and gas-melt decoupling modulate magma rheology, eruption intensity, and plume dynamics; and pyroclast outgassing controls characteristics of eruption deposits. Looking to the future, we anticipate research leading to a better understanding of how eruptive activity is influenced by volatiles, including the physics of mixed CO2-H2O degassing, gas segregation in nonuniform conduits, and vaporization of external H2O during magma ascent.

  18. Sunset Crater, AZ: Evolution of a highly explosive basaltic eruption as indicated by granulometry and clast componentry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, C. M.; Clarke, A. B.; Pioli, L.; Alfano, F.

    2011-12-01

    Basaltic scoria cone volcanoes are the most abundant volcanic edifice on Earth and occur in all tectonic settings. Basaltic magmas have lower viscosities, higher temperatures, and lower volatile contents than silicic magmas, and therefore generally have a lower potential for explosive activity. However, basaltic eruptions display great variability in eruptive style, from mild lava flows to more energetic explosions with large plumes. The San Francisco Volcanic Field (SFVF) in northern Arizona, active from 6 Ma-present, consists of over 600 volcanoes, mostly alkali basalt scoria cones, and five silicic centers [Wood and Kienle (1990), Cambridge University Press]. The eruption of Sunset Crater in the SFVF during the Holocene was an anomalously large basaltic explosive eruption, consisting of eight tephra-bearing phases and three lava flows [Amos (1986), MS thesis, ASU]. Typical scoria cone-forming eruptions have volumes sorted. Future work will include textural analysis of bubbles and crystals to understand the ascent and cooling history of the different clast types, and also to better interpret differences in abundance as related to variations in eruption or vent dynamics.

  19. Mechanism of the 1996-97 non-eruptive volcano-tectonic earthquake swarm at Iliamna Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, D.C.; Power, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    A significant number of volcano-tectonic(VT) earthquake swarms, some of which are accompanied by ground deformation and/or volcanic gas emissions, do not culminate in an eruption.These swarms are often thought to represent stalled intrusions of magma into the mid- or shallow-level crust.Real-time assessment of the likelihood that a VTswarm will culminate in an eruption is one of the key challenges of volcano monitoring, and retrospective analysis of non-eruptive swarms provides an important framework for future assessments. Here we explore models for a non-eruptive VT earthquake swarm located beneath Iliamna Volcano, Alaska, in May 1996-June 1997 through calculation and inversion of fault-plane solutions for swarm and background periods, and through Coulomb stress modeling of faulting types and hypocenter locations observed during the swarm. Through a comparison of models of deep and shallow intrusions to swarm observations,we aim to test the hypothesis that the 1996-97 swarm represented a shallow intrusion, or "failed" eruption.Observations of the 1996-97 swarm are found to be consistent with several scenarios including both shallow and deep intrusion, most likely involving a relatively small volume of intruded magma and/or a low degree of magma pressurization corresponding to a relatively low likelihood of eruption. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  20. The 1902-3 eruptions of the Soufrière, St Vincent: Impacts, relief and response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, David M.; Barclay, Jenni; Armijos, Maria Teresa

    2018-05-01

    Retrospective analysis of the contemporary colonial and scientific records of a major explosive eruption of the Soufrière of St Vincent from 1902 to 1903 reveals how this significant and prolonged event presented challenges to the authorities charged with managing the crisis and its aftermath. In a small-island setting vulnerable to multiple hazards, the spatial footprint of the volcanic hazard and the nature and intensity of the hazard effects were rather different to those of other recurrent hazards such as hurricanes. The eruption affected the same parts of the island that had been impacted by prior explosive eruptions in 1718 and 1812, and hurricanes in 1831 and 1898, with consequences that disproportionately affected those working in and around the large sugar estates. The official response to the eruption, both in terms of short-term relief and remediation, was significantly accelerated by the existence of mature plans for land-reform following the collapse of the sugar market, and ongoing plans for rebuilding in the aftermath of the destructive hurricane of 1898. The picture that this analysis helps to illuminate provides insights both into the nature of the particular eruptive episode, and the human and social response to that episode. This not only informs discussion and planning for future explosive eruptions on St Vincent, but provides important empirical evidence for building effective responses in similar multihazard contexts.

  1. Postglacial eruptive history and geochemistry of Semisopochnoi volcano, western Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Michelle L.; Larsen, Jessica F.; Neal, Christina A.

    2018-02-14

    C, possibly following a period of decreased magmatic flux. During the Holocene, basaltic Sugarloaf Peak appears to bypass any upper crustal magmatic storage region and erupt crystal-rich basalts. Recent seismic swarms and long-lived warm springs attest to ongoing magmatic activity.The Holocene eruptive record at Semisopochnoi volcano is one of diverse eruptive styles as well as frequent eruptions from multiple vents located within and outside the caldera. The number and diversity of postcaldera vents means that the sites of future eruptions cannot be predicted with certainty. Future eruptions of ash similar in magnitude to the VEI 3 or less eruptions recorded in the documented tephra deposits would pose a hazard to aircraft in the region.

  2. Evolution of submarine eruptive activity during the 2011-2012 El Hierro event as documented by hydroacoustic images and remotely operated vehicle observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoza, L.; González, F. J.; Barker, S. J.; Madureira, P.; Medialdea, T.; de Ignacio, C.; Lourenço, N.; León, R.; Vázquez, J. T.; Palomino, D.

    2017-08-01

    , especially during explosive phases. This work shows the results of a study carried out during the eruption of the submarine volcano occurred during 2011-2012 1 km offshore El Hierro Island, Canary Islands, Spain. The submarine volcano emitted periodically large bubbles of gas, ashes, and giant steamed lava balloons that floated in the sea surface before sinking. These products identified later after the eruption using a submersible vehicle forming huge accumulations of lava balloons on the seafloor. More quiet periods erupted toothpaste lava from secondary cones which formed stalactite-like formations. Massive accumulation of blocks on the summit evidence intermittent violent explosions occurred when the cooling of lava progressively close the vent accumulating gas that finally exploded. The final stage of this submarine eruption consisted in the formation of chimneys by liquid-like lavas mixed with hydrothermal fluids forming 5-10 m tall "hornitos" structures at the summit of the volcano at 89 m depth but without emerging as it was expected.

  3. Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire data on alcoholic violent offenders: specific connections to severe impulsive cluster B personality disorders and violent criminality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Roope; Holi, Matti; Lindberg, Nina; Virkkunen, Matti

    2007-07-30

    The validity of traditional categorical personality disorder diagnoses is currently re-evaluated from a continuous perspective, and the evolving DSM-V classification may describe personality disorders dimensionally. The utility of dimensional personality assessment, however, is unclear in violent offenders with severe personality pathology. The temperament structure of 114 alcoholic violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) was compared to 84 offenders without ASPD, and 170 healthy controls. Inclusion occurred during a court-ordered mental examination preceded by homicide, assault, battery, rape or arson. Participants underwent assessment of temperament with the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and were diagnosed with DSM-III-R criteria. The typical temperament profile in violent offender having ASPD comprised high novelty seeking, high harm avoidance, and low reward dependence. A 21% minority scored low in trait harm avoidance. Results, including the polarized harm avoidance dimension, are in accordance with Cloninger's hypothesis of dimensional description of ASPD. The low harm avoidance offenders committed less impulsive violence than high harm avoidance offenders. High harm avoidance was associated with comorbid antisocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. Results indicate that the DSM based ASPD diagnosis in alcoholic violent offenders associates with impulsiveness and high novelty seeking but comprises two different types of ASPD associated with distinct second-order traits that possibly explain differences in type of violent criminality. Low harm avoidance offenders have many traits in common with high scorers on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Results link high harm avoidance with broad personality pathology and argue for the usefulness of self-report questionnaires in clinical praxis.

  4. Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire data on alcoholic violent offenders: specific connections to severe impulsive cluster B personality disorders and violent criminality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindberg Nina

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The validity of traditional categorical personality disorder diagnoses is currently re-evaluated from a continuous perspective, and the evolving DSM-V classification may describe personality disorders dimensionally. The utility of dimensional personality assessment, however, is unclear in violent offenders with severe personality pathology. Methods The temperament structure of 114 alcoholic violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD was compared to 84 offenders without ASPD, and 170 healthy controls. Inclusion occurred during a court-ordered mental examination preceded by homicide, assault, battery, rape or arson. Participants underwent assessment of temperament with the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ and were diagnosed with DSM-III-R criteria. Results The typical temperament profile in violent offender having ASPD comprised high novelty seeking, high harm avoidance, and low reward dependence. A 21% minority scored low in trait harm avoidance. Results, including the polarized harm avoidance dimension, are in accordance with Cloninger's hypothesis of dimensional description of ASPD. The low harm avoidance offenders committed less impulsive violence than high harm avoidance offenders. High harm avoidance was associated with comorbid antisocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. Conclusion Results indicate that the DSM based ASPD diagnosis in alcoholic violent offenders associates with impulsiveness and high novelty seeking but comprises two different types of ASPD associated with distinct second-order traits that possibly explain differences in type of violent criminality. Low harm avoidance offenders have many traits in common with high scorers on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R. Results link high harm avoidance with broad personality pathology and argue for the usefulness of self-report questionnaires in clinical praxis.

  5. Social and environmental impact of volcaniclastic flows related to 472 AD eruption at Vesuvius from stratigraphic and geoarcheological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vito, Mauro A.; de Vita, Sandro; Rucco, Ilaria; Bini, Monica; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Aurino, Paola; Cesarano, Mario; Ebanista, Carlo; Rosi, Mauro; Ricciardi, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing number of evidences in the surrounding plain of Somma-Vesuvius volcano which indicate that along with primary volcanic processes (i.e. fallout, pyroclastic density currents) the syn-eruptive and post-eruptive volcaniclastic remobilization has severely impacted the ancient civilizations, which flourished in the area. This represents an important starting point for understanding the future hazard related to a potential (and not remote) renewal of volcanic activity of the Campaniana volcanoes. We present geoarcheological and stratigraphic data obtained from the analysis of more than 160 sections in the Campanian plain showing the widespread impact of volcaniclastic debris flows and floods originated from the rapid remobilization of the products of the AD 472 eruption of Somma-Vesuvius, both on the environment and on the human landscape. This eruption was one of the two sub-Plinian historical events of Somma Vesuvius. This event largely impacted the northern and eastern territory surrounding the volcano with deposition of a complex sequence of pyroclastic-fallout and -current deposits. These sequences were variably affected by syn- and post-eruptive mobilization both along the Somma-Vesuvius slopes and the Apennine valleys with the emplacement of thick mud- and debris-flows which strongly modified the preexisting paleogeography of the Plain with irretrievable damages to the agricultural and urban landscape. The multidisciplinary approach to the study of the sequences permitted to reconstruct the palaeoenvironment before the eruption and the timing of the emplacement of both pyroclastic and volcanoclastic deposits. The preexisting landscape was characterized by intense human occupation, although showing strong evidences of degradation and abandonment due to the progressive decline of the Roman Empire. The impact of volcaniclastic flows continued for decades after the eruption as highlighted in the studied sequences by stratigraphic and archaeologic

  6. Global time-size distribution of volcanic eruptions on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papale, Paolo

    2018-05-01

    Volcanic eruptions differ enormously in their size and impacts, ranging from quiet lava flow effusions along the volcano flanks to colossal events with the potential to affect our entire civilization. Knowledge of the time and size distribution of volcanic eruptions is of obvious relevance for understanding the dynamics and behavior of the Earth system, as well as for defining global volcanic risk. From the analysis of recent global databases of volcanic eruptions extending back to more than 2 million years, I show here that the return times of eruptions with similar magnitude follow an exponential distribution. The associated relative frequency of eruptions with different magnitude displays a power law, scale-invariant distribution over at least six orders of magnitude. These results suggest that similar mechanisms subtend to explosive eruptions from small to colossal, raising concerns on the theoretical possibility to predict the magnitude and impact of impending volcanic eruptions.

  7. Radiative and Dynamical Feedbacks Limit the Climate Response to Extremely Large Volcanic Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, D. C.; Vidal, C. M.; Keeble, J. M.; Griffiths, P. T.; Archibald, A. T.

    2017-12-01

    -poor eruption scenarios against a pre-industrial baseline climate. This has important implications for future volcanic eruptions as ClOx reduces in response to the cessation of chlorofluorocarbon emissions.

  8. Linking rapid magma reservoir assembly and eruption trigger mechanisms at evolved Yellowstone-type supervolcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotzlaw, J.F.; Bindeman, I.N.; Watts, Kathryn E.; Schmitt, A.K.; Caricchi, L.; Schaltegger, U.

    2014-01-01

    The geological record contains evidence of volcanic eruptions that were as much as two orders of magnitude larger than the most voluminous eruption experienced by modern civilizations, the A.D. 1815 Tambora (Indonesia) eruption. Perhaps nowhere on Earth are deposits of such supereruptions more prominent than in the Snake River Plain–Yellowstone Plateau (SRP-YP) volcanic province (northwest United States). While magmatic activity at Yellowstone is still ongoing, the Heise volcanic field in eastern Idaho represents the youngest complete caldera cycle in the SRP-YP, and thus is particularly instructive for current and future volcanic activity at Yellowstone. The Heise caldera cycle culminated 4.5 Ma ago in the eruption of the ∼1800 km3 Kilgore Tuff. Accessory zircons in the Kilgore Tuff display significant intercrystalline and intracrystalline oxygen isotopic heterogeneity, and the vast majority are 18O depleted. This suggests that zircons crystallized from isotopically distinct magma batches that were generated by remelting of subcaldera silicic rocks previously altered by low-δ18O meteoric-hydrothermal fluids. Prior to eruption these magma batches were assembled and homogenized into a single voluminous reservoir. U-Pb geochronology of isotopically diverse zircons using chemical abrasion–isotope dilution–thermal ionization mass spectrometry yielded indistinguishable crystallization ages with a weighted mean 206Pb/238U date of 4.4876 ± 0.0023 Ma (MSWD = 1.5; n = 24). These zircon crystallization ages are also indistinguishable from the sanidine 40Ar/39Ar dates, and thus zircons crystallized close to eruption. This requires that shallow crustal melting, assembly of isolated batches into a supervolcanic magma reservoir, homogenization, and eruption occurred extremely rapidly, within the resolution of our geochronology (103–104 yr). The crystal-scale image of the reservoir configuration, with several isolated magma batches, is very similar to the

  9. Towards real-time eruption forecasting in the Auckland Volcanic Field: application of BET_EF during the New Zealand National Disaster Exercise `Ruaumoko'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Jan; Marzocchi, Warner; Jolly, Gill; Constantinescu, Robert; Selva, Jacopo; Sandri, Laura

    2010-03-01

    The Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF) is a young basaltic field that lies beneath the urban area of Auckland, New Zealand’s largest city. Over the past 250,000 years the AVF has produced at least 49 basaltic centers; the last eruption was only 600 years ago. In recognition of the high risk associated with a possible future eruption in Auckland, the New Zealand government ran Exercise Ruaumoko in March 2008, a test of New Zealand’s nation-wide preparedness for responding to a major disaster resulting from a volcanic eruption in Auckland City. The exercise scenario was developed in secret, and covered the period of precursory activity up until the eruption. During Exercise Ruaumoko we adapted a recently developed statistical code for eruption forecasting, namely BET_EF (Bayesian Event Tree for Eruption Forecasting), to independently track the unrest evolution and to forecast the most likely onset time, location and style of the initial phase of the simulated eruption. The code was set up before the start of the exercise by entering reliable information on the past history of the AVF as well as the monitoring signals expected in the event of magmatic unrest and an impending eruption. The average probabilities calculated by BET_EF during Exercise Ruaumoko corresponded well to the probabilities subjectively (and independently) estimated by the advising scientists (differences of few percentage units), and provided a sound forecast of the timing (before the event, the eruption probability reached 90%) and location of the eruption. This application of BET_EF to a volcanic field that has experienced no historical activity and for which otherwise limited prior information is available shows its versatility and potential usefulness as a tool to aid decision-making for a wide range of volcano types. Our near real-time application of BET_EF during Exercise Ruaumoko highlighted its potential to clarify and possibly optimize decision-making procedures in a future AVF eruption

  10. The Shadow of Physical Harm? Examining the Unique and Gendered Relationship Between Fear of Murder Versus Fear of Sexual Assault on Fear of Violent Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Samantha; Cook, Carrie L

    2015-09-01

    The shadow hypothesis regarding the impact of fear of sexual assault on fear of violent crime suggests that female fear of crime is characterized by concern about sexual assault as a contemporaneous victimization event during a violent crime event. Recent research has found that other types of crime, namely physical assault, may also be feared as a contemporaneous offense. We know of no research that has examined the unique impact of fear of murder versus fear of sexual assault on fear of violent crime. There is also a lack of research that explores how these two types of fear uniquely affect men and women. In addition to gender, we examine factors that have been suggested in previous research to correlate with fear of crime: race, victimization, vicarious victimization, and perceived risk. Through survey methodology, this research examines the unique relationship between both fear of murder and fear of sexual assault and fear of three types of violent crime for men and women. Results suggest differences in how fear of murder and fear of sexual assault are related to fear of other types of violence for men and women. Specifically, fear of murder is important in estimating male fear of robbery and aggravated assault. However, fear of sexual assault is almost as important as fear of murder for men in estimating fear of home invasion. Similarly, for women, fear of sexual assault and fear of murder both are significant factors associated with fear of violent crime, and differences between the levels of significance are marginal. This study is a first to examine whether murder may also be feared as a contemporaneous offense. The results are informative in identifying what drives fear of crime, particularly violent crime, for both men and women. Avenues for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. A study of serum lipid profile and serum apolipoproteins A1 and B in Indian male violent criminal offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Nandini; Sinha, V K

    2006-01-01

    High cholesterol has been advanced as the most important factor in the development of coronary artery disease. Most panels have recommended population-wide dietary restrictions, yet a body of evolving data yields evidence of the hazards of low cholesterol, including links to aggression and hostility. The aim of this study was to compare the serum lipid profile and serum apolipoproteins A1 and B of men with a violent criminal record and men with no criminal history. Fasting blood samples were collected from 30 men with a known history of violent crime and 30 men with no criminal record. Serum lipid profile and serum apolipoproteins A1 and B were measured in each sample, and compared between the two groups. The group with the violent criminal record showed significantly lower total cholesterol, lower LDL cholesterol, higher apolipoprotein A1 and lower apolipoprotein B compared with the control group. Lower total cholesterol, lower LDL cholesterol, higher apolipoprotein A1 and lower apolipoprotein B could predispose to violence. Future research might explore the possibility that diets offered in prison could affect relevant pathways in lipid metabolism. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. An Erupted Dilated Odontoma: A Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A dilated odontoma is an extremely rare developmental anomaly represented as a dilatation of the crown and root as a consequence of a deep, enamel-lined invagination and is considered a severe variant of dens invaginatus. An oval shape of the tooth lacking morphological characteristics of a crown or root implies that the invagination happened in the initial stages of morphodifferentiation. Spontaneous eruption of an odontoma is a rare occurrence and the occurrence of a dilated odontoma in a supernumerary tooth is even rarer with only a few case reports documented in the English literature. We present an extremely rare case of erupted dilated odontoma occurring in the supernumerary tooth in anterior maxillary region in an 18-year-old male, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first ever case reported in English literature.

  13. Fine particles in the Soufriere eruption plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, D. C.; Chuan, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    The size distributions of fine particles measured at tropospheric altitudes in the periphery of the eruption plume formed during the April 17, 1979 eruption of Soufriere Volcano and in the low-level effluents on May 15, 1979 were found to be bimodal, having peak concentrations at geometric mean diameters of 1.1 and 0.23 micrometers. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis of the samples revealed an abundance of aluminum and silicon and traces of sodium, magnesium, chlorine, potassium, calcium, and iron in the large-particle mode. The submicrometer-sized particles were covered with liquid containing sulfur, assumed to be in the form of liquid sulfuric acid.

  14. The effects of violent media content on aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Patrick K; Plante, Courtney; Gentile, Douglas A

    2018-02-01

    Decades of research have shown that violent media exposure is one risk factor for aggression. This review presents findings from recent cross-sectional, experimental, and longitudinal studies, demonstrating the triangulation of evidence within the field. Importantly, this review also illustrates how media violence research has started to move away from merely establishing the existence of media effects and instead has begun to investigate the mechanisms underlying these effects and their limitations. Such studies range from investigations into cross-cultural differences to neurophysiological effects, and the interplay between media, individual, and contextual factors. Although violent media effects have been well-established for some time, they are not monolithic, and recent findings continue to shed light on the nuances and complexities of such effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Demobilising and Disengaging Violent Extremists: Towards a New UN Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Richards

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available First and second generation programmes of Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR, are no longer ‘fit for purpose’ in contexts of violent extremism. Recognising this, voices from within the United Nations (UN system have recently called for the development of a practice framework combining DDR and Countering Violent Extremism (CVE. Drawing on examples from Nigeria and Somalia, this commentary outlines six issue areas where DDR and CVE overlap, and where further operational guidance is required. These issue areas are: safe passage; the handling of seized and captured weapons; risk assessment; the use of deradicalisation programmes; the reintegration of extremist offenders; and the links between DDR and rehabilitation programmes for extremist prisoners.

  16. H-functions and mixing in violent relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremaine, S.; Henon, M.; Lynden-Bell, D.

    1986-01-01

    An H-function is any function of the phase space distribution function F(x,v) which is non-decreasing with time. In collisionless systems Boltzmann's H-function - integral F log F dx dv is only one of a variety of H-functions of the form - integral C(F) dx dv, where C is any convex function. Every equilibrium stellar system in which the distribution function is a decreasing function of the energy alone is a stationary point of some H-function of this form. During violent relaxation, all such H-functions must increase, and the distribution function is said to become 'more mixed'. A simple criterion is given for determining whether a given distribution function is more mixed than another; this criterion is used to show that a violently relaxed galaxy resembles observed elliptical galaxies only if the initial state is cold or clumpy. (author)

  17. Disarming Youth Combatants: Mitigating Youth Radicalization and Violent Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpaslan Özerdem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the complex of motivating variables that define the push and pull factors behind recruitment and participation in civil conflict, "radicalization"—or "violent extremism"—is not conceived as a very strong motive, as is the case with studies on terrorism. As part of disarming youth combatants,the linkages between reintegration outcomes and possible rerecruitment into radical and extremist violence must be better understood to mitigate such risks. In our analysis, the policies guiding reintegration of child soldiers and youth should be better attuned to the relationship between recruitment motivations and reintegration outcomes, and must be approached from a political lens rather than a purely technical one. The risk of radicalization and involvement in violent extremism is ultimately a structural challenge, which needs to address root causes of recruitment rather than trying to find a solution through a band-aid approach of stopgap reintegration assistance.

  18. Motives for offending among violent and psychotic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P J

    1985-11-01

    Two hundred and three male remanded prisoners were interviewed with respect to their current offence, mental state, and social and psychiatric histories. All but nine of the sub-group of 121 psychotic men showed active symptoms at the time of committing a criminal offence; 20% of the actively ill psychotics were directly driven to offend by their psychotic symptoms, and a further 26% probably so. If some of the indirect consequences of the psychosis were taken into account, 82% of their offences were probably attributable to the illness. Among the normal and neurotic men, none claimed psychotic motives for offending, but motives suggesting high emotional arousal such as panic or retaliation triggered the greatest violence. Within the psychotic group, those driven to offend by their delusions were most likely to have been seriously violent, and psychotic symptoms probably accounted directly for most of the very violent behaviour.

  19. Children's exposure to violent video games and desensitization to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jeanne B

    2005-07-01

    Desensitization to violence is cited frequently as being an outcome of exposure to media violence and a condition that contributes to increased aggression. This article initiates the development of a conceptual model for describing possible relationships among violent video games, brain function, and desensitization by using empathy and attitudes toward violence as proxy measures of desensitization. More work is needed to understand how specific game content may affect brain activity, how brain development may be affected by heavy play at young ages, and how personality and lifestyle variables may moderate game influence. Given the current state of knowledge, recommendations are made for clinicians to help parents monitor and limit exposure to violent video games and encourage critical thinking about media violence.

  20. The effects of violent media content on aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Patrick K.; Plante, Courtney; Gentile, Douglas A.

    2017-01-01

    how media violence research has started to move away from merely establishing the existence of media effects and instead has begun to investigate the mechanisms underlying these effects and their limitations. Such studies range from investigations into cross-cultural differences to neurophysiological...... effects, and the interplay between media, individual, and contextual factors. Although violent media effects have been well-established for some time, they are not monolithic, and recent findings continue to shed light on the nuances and complexities of such effects.......Decades of research have shown that violent media exposure is one risk factor for aggression. This review presents findings from recent cross-sectional, experimental, and longitudinal studies, demonstrating the triangulation of evidence within the field. Importantly, this review also illustrates...

  1. When does eruption run-up begin? Multidisciplinary insight from the 1999 eruption of Shishaldin volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Daniel J.; Plank, Terry A.; Roman, Diana C.; Power, John A.; Bodnar, Robert J.; Hauri, Erik H.

    2018-03-01

    During the run-up to eruption, volcanoes often show geophysically detectable signs of unrest. However, there are long-standing challenges in interpreting the signals and evaluating the likelihood of eruption, especially during the early stages of volcanic unrest. Considerable insight can be gained from combined geochemical and geophysical studies. Here we take such an approach to better understand the beginning of eruption run-up, viewed through the lens of the 1999 sub-Plinian basaltic eruption of Shishaldin volcano, Alaska. The eruption is of interest due to its lack of observed deformation and its apparent long run-up time (9 months), following a deep long-period earthquake swarm. We evaluate the nature and timing of recharge by examining the composition of 138 olivine macrocrysts and 53 olivine-hosted melt inclusions and through shear-wave splitting analysis of regional earthquakes. Magma mixing is recorded in three crystal populations: a dominant population of evolved olivines (Fo60-69) that are mostly reversely zoned, an intermediate population (Fo69-76) with mixed zonation, and a small population of normally zoned more primitive olivines (Fo76-80). Mixing-to-eruption timescales are obtained through modeling of Fe-Mg interdiffusion in 78 olivines. The large number of resultant timescales provides a thorough record of mixing, demonstrating at least three mixing events: a minor event ∼11 months prior to eruption, overlapping within uncertainty with the onset of deep long-period seismicity; a major event ∼50 days before eruption, coincident with a large (M5.2) shallow earthquake; and a final event about a week prior to eruption. Shear-wave splitting analysis shows a change in the orientation of the local stress field about a month after the deep long-period swarm and around the time of the M5.2 event. Earthquake depths and vapor saturation pressures of Raman-reconstructed melt inclusions indicate that the recharge magma originated from depths of at least 20

  2. Dwarf Star Erupts in Giant Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This movie taken by NASA'S Galaxy Evolution Explorer shows one of the largest flares, or star eruptions, ever recorded at ultraviolet wavelengths. The star, called GJ 3685A, just happened to be in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer's field of view while the telescope was busy observing galaxies. As the movie demonstrates, the seemingly serene star suddenly exploded once, then even more intensely a second time, pouring out in total about one million times more energy than a typical flare from our Sun. The second blast of light constituted an increase in brightness by a factor of at least 10,000. Flares are huge explosions of energy stemming from a single location on a star's surface. They are caused by the brief destruction of a star's magnetic fields. Many types of stars experience them, though old, small, rapidly rotating 'red dwarfs' like GJ 3685A tend to flare more frequently and dramatically. These stars, called flare stars, can experience powerful eruptions as often as every few hours. Younger stars, in general, also erupt more often. One of the reasons astronomers study flare stars is to gain a better picture and history of flare events taking place on the Sun. A preliminary analysis of the GJ 3685A flare shows that the mechanisms underlying stellar eruptions may be more complex than previously believed. Evidence for the two most popular flare theories was found. Though this movie has been sped up (the actual flare lasted about 20 minutes), time-resolved data exist for each one-hundredth of a second. These observations were taken at 2 p.m. Pacific time, April 24, 2004. In the still image, the time sequence starts in the upper left panel, continues in the upper right, then moves to the lower left and ends in the lower right. The circular and linear features that appear below and to the right of GJ 3685A during the flare event are detector artifacts caused by the extreme brightness of the flare.

  3. Terbinafine induced pityriasis rosea-like eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Anisha; Bhatia, Anuradha; Kanish, Bimal; Williams, Abhilasha

    2015-01-01

    Terbinafine is an allylamine antifungal agent which is widely used for the treatment of fungal infections. Cutaneous side effects have been reported in 2% of the patients on terbinafine therapy with many morphological patterns. We report a case of terbinafine induced pityriasis rosea, a very rare side effect of terbinafine. This report emphasizes the importance of counseling the patient to report immediately in the event of a cutaneous eruption.

  4. Terbinafine induced pityriasis rosea-like eruption

    OpenAIRE

    Anisha George; Anuradha Bhatia; Bimal Kanish; Abhilasha Williams

    2015-01-01

    Terbinafine is an allylamine antifungal agent which is widely used for the treatment of fungal infections. Cutaneous side effects have been reported in 2% of the patients on terbinafine therapy with many morphological patterns. We report a case of terbinafine induced pityriasis rosea, a very rare side effect of terbinafine. This report emphasizes the importance of counseling the patient to report immediately in the event of a cutaneous eruption.

  5. Interceptive management of eruption disturbances: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozza, Paola; Marino, Alessandra; Lagana, Giuseppina

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present report is to describe a case of a patient with eruption disturbances of an ankylosed lower primary second molar, delayed development of a maxillary permanent canine associated with an odontoma and a class III dental malocclusion. In such a case the objectives of treatment are: to prevent impaction of the lower second premolar and tipping of the lower first molar; to establish correct anterior overbite and overjet and to control the development of the permanent upper canine.

  6. Cellular and molecular basis of tooth eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, GE

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Tooth eruption requires the presence of a dental follicle (DF), alveolar bone resorption for an eruption pathway, and alveolar bone formation at the base of the bony crypt. The objectives of our investigations have been to determine how the DF regulates both the osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis needed for eruption. Material & Methods Multiple experimental methods have been employed. Results The DF regulates osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis by regulating the expression of critical genes in both a chronological and spatial fashion. In the rat 1st mandibular molar there is a major burst of osteoclastogenesis at day 3 postnatally and a minor burst at day 10. At day 3, the DF maximally expresses colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) to down-regulate the expression of osteoprotegerin such that osteoclastogenesis can occur. At day 10, the minor burst of osteoclastogenesis is promoted by upregulation of VEGF and RANKL in the DF. Spatially, the bone resorption is in the coronal portion of the bony crypt and genes such as RANKL are expressed more in the coronal region of the DF than in its basal one-half. For osteogenesis, bone formation begins at day 3 at the base of the bony crypt and maximal growth is at days 9–14. Osteo-inductive genes such as BMP-2 appear to promote this and are expressed more in the basal half of the DF than in the coronal. Conclusion The osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis needed for eruption are regulated by differential gene expression in the DF both chronologically and spatially. PMID:19419449

  7. Multispacecraft observations of a prominence eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bemporad

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available On 9 May 2007 a prominence eruption occurred at the West limb. Remarkably, the event was observed by the STEREO/EUVI telescopes and by the HINODE/EIS and SOHO/UVCS spectrometers. We present results from all these instruments. High-cadence (~37 s data from STEREO/EUVI A and B in the He II λ304 line were used to study the 3-D shape and expansion of the prominence. The high spatial resolution EUVI images (~1.5"/pixel have been used to infer via triangulation the 3-D shape and orientation of the prominence 12 min after the eruption onset. At this time the prominence has mainly the shape of a "hook" highly inclined southward, has an average thickness of 0.068 R⊙, a length of 0.43 R⊙ and lies, in first approximation, on a plane. Hence, the prominence is mainly a 2-D structure and there is no evidence for a twisted flux rope configuration. HINODE/EIS was scanning with the 2" slit the region where the filament erupted. The EIS spectra show during the eruption remarkable non-thermal broadening (up to ~100 km s−1 in the region crossed by the filament in spectral lines emitted at different temperatures, possibly with differences among lines from higher Fe ionization stages. The CME was also observed by the SOHO/UVCS instrument: the spectrograph slit was centered at 1.7 R⊙, at a latitude of 5° SW and recorded a sudden increase in the O VI λλ1032–1037 and Si XII λ520 spectral line intensities, representative of the CME front transit.

  8. Predicting positive mental health in internally displaced persons in Indonesia: the roles of economic improvement and exposure to violent conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragih Turnip, Sherly; Sörbom, Dag; Hauff, Edvard

    2016-01-01

    Positive mental health, rather than just the absence of mental illness, is rarely investigated among the internally displaced persons (IDPs) affected by violent conflict in low-income countries. The purpose of this study was to investigate a model that could explain the interrelationship between factors contributing to positive mental health in displaced populations. In a longitudinal study we examine poverty, exposure to traumatic events and the change of material well-being after one year. We collected data in two consecutive years (2005 and 2006) from a community-based sample of IDPs in Ambon, Indonesia, through face-to-face structured interviews with consenting adults. Participants of this study were IDPs lived in Ambon during the violent conflict period. We interviewed 471 IDPs in the first year and reinterviewed 399 (85%) of the same subjects in the second year. The IDPs possessed good sense of coherence and subjective well-being. Our final model, which was generated by the use of structural equation modeling, fits the data well (χ(2) = 52.51, df = 45, p = .21, CFI = .99, RMSEA = .019). Exposure to violent conflict had a negative impact on IDPs' mental health initially and better economic conditions improved it (r = -.30 and .29 respectively). Mental health status one year previously was a strong predictor of future mental health, followed by individual economic growth in the past year (r = .43 and .29 respectively). On a group level the IDPs were resilient and adaptive to survive in adverse living conditions after devastating violent conflict, and the economic improvement contributed to it.

  9. Eruption products of the 1883 eruption of Krakatau and their final settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izumi Yokoyama

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Firstly the volume of pyroclastic ejecta during the 1883 eruption of Krakatau is re-examined. To revise the volume of flow deposits, the author basically follows Verbeek’s observation while to estimate the fall deposits, as the last resort, the author assumes that volume ratios fall / flow are common to similar caldera eruptions, and the ratios determined by the caldera- forming eruptions of Novarupta and Pinatubo are applied to the Krakatau eruption. Verbeek’s estimation of the total volume of ejecta, 12 km3 is revised to 19 km3. This is significantly different from the volume of disrupted volcano edifice, 8 km3. Such a result does not support the predecessors’ hypothesis that calderas are formed by collapses of volcano edifices into magma reservoirs in replacement of the total ejecta. Through the discussion on the volume estimation of volcanic ejecta on and around Krakatau, the author recognizes that such estimation should be originally very difficult to attain enough accuracy. Much importance of “caldera deposits” to post-eruption settlements of the ejecta is emphasized. In relation to caldera formation, mechanical stability of a cavity in the crust is discussed. Lastly, upon the basis of subsurface structure, especially caldera deposits, a structural image of Krakatau caldera is presented.

  10. Violent men in couple relationships: mental disorders and typological profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Echeburúa, Enrique; J. Amor, Pedro; de Corral, Paz

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this theoretical paper are to analyze the mental disorders and the most relevant psychological deficits of intimate partner violent men, as well as to identify different types of batterers according to the classifications of Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart (1994) and of Fernandez- Montalvo and Echeburúa (1997). A review of multiple theoretical and empirical papers has been carried out with this purpose. The main results show that the aggressors usually show psychological deficits –la...

  11. Change in Family Structure and Rates of Violent Juvenile Delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Fry, Jeannie A

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the question: Have the changes in family structure in the U.S. become a catalyst for juvenile delinquency? For this research, I use existing statistics for my three independent variables: divorce rates, rate of working mothers with children under age 18, percent female-headed households. My dependent variable, juvenile violent crime rates, is measured using data from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. My control variables consist of the followin...

  12. Evidence for Mixed Helicity in Erupting Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muglach, K.; Wang, Y.-M.; Kliem, B.

    2009-09-01

    Erupting filaments are sometimes observed to undergo a rotation about the vertical direction as they rise. This rotation of the filament axis is generally interpreted as a conversion of twist into writhe in a kink-unstable magnetic flux rope. Consistent with this interpretation, the rotation is usually found to be clockwise (as viewed from above) if the post-eruption arcade has right-handed helicity, but counterclockwise if it has left-handed helicity. Here, we describe two non-active-region filament events recorded with the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory in which the sense of rotation appears to be opposite to that expected from the helicity of the post-event arcade. Based on these observations, we suggest that the rotation of the filament axis is, in general, determined by the net helicity of the erupting system, and that the axially aligned core of the filament can have the opposite helicity sign to the surrounding field. In most cases, the surrounding field provides the main contribution to the net helicity. In the events reported here, however, the helicity associated with the filament "barbs" is opposite in sign to and dominates that of the overlying arcade.

  13. Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Krier

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report, ''Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'', is to present information about natural volcanic systems and the parameters that can be used to model their behavior. This information is used to develop parameter-value distributions appropriate for analysis of the consequences of volcanic eruptions through a repository at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report provides information to four other reports: ''Number of Waste Packages Hit by Igneous Intrusion'', (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170001]); ''Atmospheric Dispersal and Deposition of Tephra from Potential Volcanic Eruption at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170026]); ''Dike/Drift Interactions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170028]); ''Development of Earthquake Ground Motion Input for Preclosure Seismic Design and Postclosure Performance Assessment of a Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170027], Section 6.5). This report is organized into seven major sections. This section addresses the purpose of this document. Section 2 addresses quality assurance, Section 3 the use of software, Section 4 identifies the requirements that constrain this work, and Section 5 lists assumptions and their rationale. Section 6 presents the details of the scientific analysis and Section 7 summarizes the conclusions reached

  14. Drug eruptions from phenylbutazone in Jamu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giam, Y C; Tham, S N; Tan, T; Lim, A

    1986-01-01

    Drug eruptions from indeginous medicine is often difficult to diagnosis and confirm. It is known that a number of these now supplied by bomohs and Chinese sinsehs contain known drugs and are dispensed as tablets and capsules. We report 3 cases of adverse drug eruption to "Jamu", a Malay herb. A particular brand, "Jamu Indonesia, Toko Air Pancur", from Johor Bahru, Malaysia, is especially recommended for "sakit pinggang" or backache. The cases occurred between January and February 1985, and all had taken brown kidney shaped tablets. The adverse reactions were moderately severe. Two had erythroderma with hepatitis, and one, Steven Johnson Syndrome. Analysis of this jamu for analgesics led to the discovery of adulteration with phenylbutazone and diazepam. Records from local cases from 1974-1984 showed that 8 other patients, all Chinese had adverse cutaneous eruptions from phenylbutazone, oxybutazone and propyphenazone. The skin manifestations were erythroderma (2 cases), vasculitis (2 cases) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (4 cases). Those with toxic epidermal necrolysis had 100% mortality.

  15. Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Krier

    2004-10-04

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report, ''Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'', is to present information about natural volcanic systems and the parameters that can be used to model their behavior. This information is used to develop parameter-value distributions appropriate for analysis of the consequences of volcanic eruptions through a repository at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report provides information to four other reports: ''Number of Waste Packages Hit by Igneous Intrusion'', (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170001]); ''Atmospheric Dispersal and Deposition of Tephra from Potential Volcanic Eruption at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170026]); ''Dike/Drift Interactions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170028]); ''Development of Earthquake Ground Motion Input for Preclosure Seismic Design and Postclosure Performance Assessment of a Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170027], Section 6.5). This report is organized into seven major sections. This section addresses the purpose of this document. Section 2 addresses quality assurance, Section 3 the use of software, Section 4 identifies the requirements that constrain this work, and Section 5 lists assumptions and their rationale. Section 6 presents the details of the scientific analysis and Section 7 summarizes the conclusions reached.

  16. Explosive eruptive history of Pantelleria, Italy: Repeated caldera collapse and ignimbrite emplacement at a peralkaline volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nina J.; Rotolo, Silvio G.; Williams, Rebecca; Speranza, Fabio; McIntosh, William C.; Branney, Michael J.; Scaillet, Stéphane

    2018-01-01

    A new, pre-Green Tuff (46 ka) volcanic stratigraphy is presented for the peralkaline Pantelleria Volcano, Italy. New 40Ar/39Ar and paleomagnetic data are combined with detailed field studies to develop a comprehensive stratigraphic reconstruction of the island. We find that the pre-46 ka succession is characterised by eight silica-rich peralkaline (trachyte to pantellerite) ignimbrites, many of which blanketed the entire island. The ignimbrites are typically welded to rheomorphic, and are commonly associated with lithic breccias and/or pumice deposits. They record sustained radial pyroclastic density currents fed by low pyroclastic fountains. The onset of ignimbrite emplacement is typically preceded (more rarely followed) by pumice fallout with limited dispersal, and some eruptions lack any associated pumice fall deposit, suggesting the absence of tall eruption columns. Particular attention is given to the correlation of well-developed lithic breccias in the ignimbrites, interpreted as probable tracers of caldera collapses. They record as many as five caldera collapse events, in contrast to the two events reported to date. Inter-ignimbrite periods are characterised by explosive and effusive eruptions with limited dispersal, such as small pumice cones, as well as pedogenesis. These periods have similar characteristics as the current post-Green Tuff activity on the island, and, while not imminent, it is reasonable to postulate the occurrence of another ignimbrite-forming eruption sometime in the future.

  17. Role of Laboratory Plasma Experiments in exploring the Physics of Solar Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, S.

    2017-12-01

    Solar eruptive events are triggered over a broad range of spatio-temporal scales by a variety of fundamental processes (e.g., force-imbalance, magnetic-reconnection, electrical-current driven instabilities) associated with arched magnetoplasma structures in the solar atmosphere. Contemporary research on solar eruptive events is at the forefront of solar and heliospheric physics due to its relevance to space weather. Details on the formation of magnetized plasma structures on the Sun, storage of magnetic energy in such structures over a long period (several Alfven transit times), and their impulsive eruptions have been recorded in numerous observations and simulated in computer models. Inherent limitations of space observations and uncontrolled nature of solar eruptions pose significant challenges in testing theoretical models and developing the predictive capability for space-weather. The pace of scientific progress in this area can be significantly boosted by tapping the potential of appropriately scaled laboratory plasma experiments to compliment solar observations, theoretical models, and computer simulations. To give an example, recent results from a laboratory plasma experiment on arched magnetic flux ropes will be presented and future challenges will be discussed. (Work supported by National Science Foundation, USA under award number 1619551)

  18. Psychosocial and environmental distress resulting from a volcanic eruption: Study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsini, Sri; Usher, Kim; Buettner, Petra; Mills, Jane; West, Caryn; Methods, Res

    2015-01-01

    To examine the psychosocial and environmental distress resulting from the 2010 eruption of the Merapi volcano and explore the experience of living in an environment damaged by a volcanic eruption. Natural disasters cause psychosocial responses in survivors. While volcanic eruptions are an example of a natural disaster, little is currently known about the psychosocial impact on survivors. Volcanic eruptions also cause degradation of the environment, which is linked to environmental distress. However, little is currently known of this phenomenon. An explanatory mixed method study. The research will be divided into three phases. The first phase will involve instrument modification, translation and testing. The second phase will involve a survey to a larger sample using the modified and tested questionnaire. The third phase will involve the collection of interviews from a sub set of the same participants as the second phase. Quantitative data will be analyzed to determine the extent of psychosocial and environmental distress experienced by the participants. Qualitative data will be analyzed to explain the variation among the participants. The results of the study will be used to develop strategies to support survivors in the future and to help ameliorate distress.

  19. Epidemiology of violent deaths in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, A; Mercy, J A; Krug, E

    2001-06-01

    This study describes epidemiologic patterns of mortality due to suicide, homicide, and war for the world in order to serve as a benchmark against which to measure future progress and to raise awareness about violence as a global public health problem. The world and its eight major regions. Data were derived from The Global Burden of Disease series and the US National Center for Health Statistics to estimate crude rates, age adjusted rates, sex rate ratios, and the health burden for suicide, homicide, and war related deaths for the world and its eight major regions in 1990. In 1990, an estimated 1,851,000 people died from violence (35.3 per 100,000) in the world. There were an estimated 786,000 suicides. Overall suicide rates ranged from 3.4 per 100,000 in Sub-Saharan Africa to 30.4 per 100,000 in China. There were an estimated 563,000 homicides. Overall homicide rates ranged from 1.0 per 100,000 in established market economies to 44.8 per 100,000 in Sub-Saharan Africa with peaks among males aged 15-24 years old, and among females aged 0-4 years old. There were an estimated 502,000 war related deaths with peaks in rates for both sexes among people aged 0-4, 15-29, and 60-69 years old. The number of violence related deaths in the world is unacceptably high. Coordinated prevention and control efforts are urgently needed.

  20. School Violent Crime and Academic Achievement in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick-Will, Julia

    2013-10-01

    Educational outcomes vary dramatically across schools in the United States. Many under-performing schools, especially in Chicago, also deal with high levels of violent crime on school grounds. Exposure to this type of frequent violence may be an important factor shaping already disadvantaged students' educational experiences. However, estimating the effect of school violence on learning is difficult due to potential selection bias and the confounding of other school-level problems. Using detailed crime data from the Chicago Police Department, complete administrative records from the Chicago Public Schools, and school climate surveys conducted by the Consortium on Chicago School Research (2002-10), this study exploits variation in violent crime rates within schools over time to estimate its effect on academic achievement. School and neighborhood fixed-effects models show that violent crime rates have a negative effect on test scores, but not on grades. This effect is more likely related to direct reductions in learning, through cognitive stress and classroom disruptions, than changes in perceived safety, general school climate, or discipline practices.

  1. Deliberate self-harm behavior among young violent offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Natalie; Ozolins, Andrejs; Westling, Sofie; Westrin, Åsa; Billstedt, Eva; Hofvander, Björn; Wallinius, Märta

    2017-01-01

    Deliberate self-harm behavior (DSH) can have profound effects on a person's quality of life, and challenges the health care system. Even though DSH has been associated with aggressive interpersonal behaviors, the knowledge on DSH in persons exhibiting such behaviors is scarce. This study aims to (1) specify the prevalence and character of DSH, (2) identify clinical, neurocognitive, psychosocial, and criminological characteristics associated with DSH, and (3) determine predictors of DSH among young violent offenders. Data were collected from a nationally representative cohort of 270 male violent offenders, 18-25 years old, imprisoned in Sweden. Participants were interviewed and investigated neuropsychologically, and their files were reviewed for psychosocial background, criminal history, mental disorders, lifetime aggressive antisocial behaviors, and DSH. A total of 62 offenders (23%) had engaged in DSH at some point during their lifetime, many on repeated occasions, yet without suicidal intent. DSH was significantly associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, various substance use disorders, being bullied at school, and repeated exposure to violence at home during childhood. Mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and being bullied at school remained significant predictors of DSH in a total regression model. Violent offenders direct aggressive behaviors not only toward other people, but also toward themselves. Thus, DSH must be assessed and prevented in correctional institutions as early as possible, and more knowledge is needed of the function of DSH among offenders.

  2. Emotional Desensitization to Violence Contributes to Adolescents’ Violent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Madan, Anjana; Windle, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Many adolescents are exposed to violence in their schools, communities and homes. Exposure to violence at high levels or across multiple contexts has been linked with emotional desensitization, indicated by low levels of internalizing symptoms. However, the long-term consequences of such desensitization are unknown. This study examined emotional desensitization to violence, together with externalizing problems, as mediators of the relationship between exposure to violence in pre-adolescence and violent behavior in late adolescence. A community sample of youth (N=704; 48% female; 76% African American, 22% Caucasian) reported on their exposure to violence in multiple settings at ages 11, 13 and 18. Internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed at ages 11 and 13; violent behavior was measured at age 18. Structural Equation Modeling showed that exposure to high levels of violence at age 11 was associated with lower levels of internalizing problems (quadratic effect) at age 13, as was exposure to violence across multiple contexts (linear effect). In turn, fewer internalizing problems and more externalizing problems at age 13 predicted more violent behavior at age 18. The results suggest that emotional desensitization to violence in early adolescence contributes to serious violence in late adolescence. PMID:25684447

  3. Emotional Desensitization to Violence Contributes to Adolescents' Violent Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Madan, Anjana; Windle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Many adolescents are exposed to violence in their schools, communities and homes. Exposure to violence at high levels or across multiple contexts has been linked with emotional desensitization, indicated by low levels of internalizing symptoms. However, the long-term consequences of such desensitization are unknown. This study examined emotional desensitization to violence, together with externalizing problems, as mediators of the relationship between exposure to violence in pre-adolescence and violent behavior in late adolescence. A community sample of youth (N = 704; 48% female; 76% African American, 22% Caucasian) reported on their exposure to violence in multiple settings at ages 11, 13 and 18. Internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed at ages 11 and 13; violent behavior was measured at age 18. Structural Equation Modeling showed that exposure to high levels of violence at age 11 was associated with lower levels of internalizing problems (quadratic effect) at age 13, as was exposure to violence across multiple contexts (linear effect). In turn, fewer internalizing problems and more externalizing problems at age 13 predicted more violent behavior at age 18. The results suggest that emotional desensitization to violence in early adolescence contributes to serious violence in late adolescence.

  4. The origin of violent behaviour among child labourers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, K; Rahman, F; Jansson, B

    2008-01-01

    We explored the causes and circumstances of violent behaviour among a group of child labourers in the Indian unorganized sectors. From 14 categories of occupations, a total of 1,400 child labourers were interviewed in both urban and rural areas. The average family size of these mostly illiterate child labourers is seven, and average family income is 3,200 INR per month. In the short term child labourers become violent, aggressive, and criminal, following a pyramid of violent behaviour, including socio-economic pressure, cultural deviance, and psychological pressure. When considering family history it seems that the problem is part of a vicious cycle of violence, which persists through generations and evolves with financial crisis, early marriage, and violence in the family and workplace. Our study demonstrates that the most vulnerable groups of child labourers belong to the following workplaces: dhabas, food stalls, rail/bus stations, rail-floor cleaning, and rag picking. Giving high priority to capacity building within the community, including support for locally-generated solutions, is warranted.

  5. Countering violent extremism via de-securitisation on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Warrington

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The case of a civil society actor on Twitter entering a securitized discourse on terrorism illustrates the transformative theoretical potential that emerges from new forms of communication online. Through a qualitative analysis of tweets from the Average Mohamed profile, the potential to change a negative narrative of violent extremism operating within a securitised discourse of Islamic terrorism, is discussed in an online context. The arguments forming from this analysis offers a new approach to studying online counter narratives by linking a theoretical framework of securitisation and de-securitisation to recent political efforts Countering Violent Extremism (CVE and Preventing Violent Extremism (PVE. Through the inclusion of a civil society Twitter account as an illustrative case, this paper explores how social media can challenge existing assumptions of who can be a de-securitising actor within security theory by blurring the lines between political and societal sectors in a securitised threat from Islamic terrorism. If and how a civil society actor can loosen the dichotomous discursive relationship between Self/Other relations within a contemporary discourse on terrorism becomes relevant for a theoretical discussion by presenting an argument suggesting that online CVE polices are more effective within the sphere of ‘normal’ politics rather than within the realm of securitization. This theoretical perspective offers an analytical framework including a wide range of actors involved in counter narratives policies which is useful for further CVE research.

  6. SOLAR MULTIPLE ERUPTIONS FROM A CONFINED MAGNETIC STRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeongwoo; Chae, Jongchul [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Liu, Chang; Jing, Ju [Space Weather Research Laboratory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States)

    2016-09-20

    How eruption can recur from a confined magnetic structure is discussed based on the Solar Dynamics Observatory observations of the NOAA active region 11444, which produced three eruptions within 1.5 hr on 2012 March 27. The active region (AR) had the positive-polarity magnetic fields in the center surrounded by the negative-polarity fields around. Since such a distribution of magnetic polarity tends to form a dome-like magnetic fan structure confined over the AR, the multiple eruptions were puzzling. Our investigation reveals that this event exhibits several properties distinct from other eruptions associated with magnetic fan structures: (i) a long filament encircling the AR was present before the eruptions; (ii) expansion of the open–closed boundary (OCB) of the field lines after each eruption was suggestive of the growing fan-dome structure, and (iii) the ribbons inside the closed magnetic polarity inversion line evolved in response to the expanding OCB. It thus appears that in spite of multiple eruptions the fan-dome structure remained undamaged, and the closing back field lines after each eruption rather reinforced the fan-dome structure. We argue that the multiple eruptions could occur in this AR in spite of its confined magnetic structure because the filament encircling the AR was adequate for slipping through the magnetic separatrix to minimize the damage to its overlying fan-dome structure. The result of this study provides a new insight into the productivity of eruptions from a confined magnetic structure.

  7. SOLAR MULTIPLE ERUPTIONS FROM A CONFINED MAGNETIC STRUCTURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeongwoo; Chae, Jongchul; Liu, Chang; Jing, Ju

    2016-01-01

    How eruption can recur from a confined magnetic structure is discussed based on the Solar Dynamics Observatory observations of the NOAA active region 11444, which produced three eruptions within 1.5 hr on 2012 March 27. The active region (AR) had the positive-polarity magnetic fields in the center surrounded by the negative-polarity fields around. Since such a distribution of magnetic polarity tends to form a dome-like magnetic fan structure confined over the AR, the multiple eruptions were puzzling. Our investigation reveals that this event exhibits several properties distinct from other eruptions associated with magnetic fan structures: (i) a long filament encircling the AR was present before the eruptions; (ii) expansion of the open–closed boundary (OCB) of the field lines after each eruption was suggestive of the growing fan-dome structure, and (iii) the ribbons inside the closed magnetic polarity inversion line evolved in response to the expanding OCB. It thus appears that in spite of multiple eruptions the fan-dome structure remained undamaged, and the closing back field lines after each eruption rather reinforced the fan-dome structure. We argue that the multiple eruptions could occur in this AR in spite of its confined magnetic structure because the filament encircling the AR was adequate for slipping through the magnetic separatrix to minimize the damage to its overlying fan-dome structure. The result of this study provides a new insight into the productivity of eruptions from a confined magnetic structure.

  8. Experimental study of the differential effects of playing versus watching violent video games on children's aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polman, Hanneke; de Castro, Bram Orobio; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2008-01-01

    There is great concern about the effects of playing violent video games on aggressive behavior. The present experimental study was aimed at investigating the differential effects of actively playing vs. passively watching the same violent video game on subsequent aggressive behavior. Fifty-seven children aged 10-13 either played a violent video game (active violent condition), watched the same violent video game (passive violent condition), or played a non-violent video game (active non-violent condition). Aggression was measured through peer nominations of real-life aggressive incidents during a free play session at school. After the active participation of actually playing the violent video game, boys behaved more aggressively than did the boys in the passive game condition. For girls, game condition was not related to aggression. These findings indicate that, specifically for boys, playing a violent video game should lead to more aggression than watching television violence. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Eruptive history of South Sister, Oregon Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierstein, J.; Hildreth, W.; Calvert, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    South Sister is southernmost and highest of the Three Sisters, three geologically dissimilar stratovolcanoes that together form a spectacular 20km reach along the Cascade crest in Oregon. North Sister is a monotonously mafic edifice as old as middle Pleistocene, Middle Sister a basalt-andesite-dacite cone built between 48 and 14ka, and South Sister is a basalt-free edifice that alternated rhyolitic and intermediate modes from 50ka to 2ka (largely contemporaneous with Middle Sister). Detailed mapping, 330 chemical analyses, and 42 radioisotopic ages show that the oldest exposed South Sister lavas were initially rhyolitic ~50ka. By ~37ka, rhyolitic lava flows and domes (72-74% SiO2) began alternating with radially emplaced dacite (63-68% SiO2) and andesite (59-63% SiO2) lava flows. Construction of a broad cone of silicic andesite-dacite (61-64% SiO2) culminated ~30ka in a dominantly explosive sequence that began with crater-forming andesitic eruptions that left fragmental deposits at least 200m thick. This was followed at ~27ka by growth of a steeply dipping summit cone of agglutinate-dominated andesite (56-60.5% SiO2) and formation of a summit crater ~800m wide. This crater was soon filled and overtopped by a thick dacite lava flow and then by >150m of dacitic pyroclastic ejecta. Small-volume dacite lavas (63-67% SiO2) locally cap the pyroclastic pile. A final sheet of mafic agglutinate (54-56% SiO2) - the most mafic product of South Sister - erupted from and drapes the small (300-m-wide) present-day summit crater, ending a summit-building sequence that lasted until ~22ka. A 20kyr-long-hiatus was broken by rhyolite eruptions that produced (1) the Rock Mesa coulee, tephra, and satellite domelets (73.5% SiO2) and (2) the Devils Chain of ~20 domes and short coulees (72.3-72.8% SiO2) from N-S vent alignments on South Sister's flanks. The compositional reversal from mafic summit agglutinate to recent rhyolites epitomizes the frequently changing compositional modes of the

  10. Indirect Climatic Effects of Major Volcanic Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, D. J.

    2007-05-01

    The direct effects on climate, related to atmospheric emissions to the atmosphere following major volcanic eruptions, are well-known although the sparseness of such eruptions make detailed study on the range of such variations difficult. In general terms, infrared absorption by volcanic emissions to the stratosphere result in local heating early in the event when gaseous sulfur compounds exist. This early period is followed by gas to particle conversion, on a time scale of 1-2 months, promoting the formation of sulfuric acid-water droplets. Coagulation and droplet growth result in the "volcanic stratospheric aerosol layer" which is related to the predominant direct climatic effect of large eruptions, the cooling of the troposphere by backscattering of solar visible radiation to space with a recovery time scale of 1-2 years. In this paper we will discuss some of the less-known "indirect" effects of the volcanic stratospheric aerosol on climate. We label them indirect as they act on climate through intermediary atmospheric constituents. The intermediaries in the volcanic indirect climatic effect are generally atmospheric greenhouse gases or other atmospheric gases and conditions which affect greenhouse gases. For example, cooling of the troposphere following major eruptions reduces the growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide related to respiration by the terrestrial biosphere. In addition, redirection of part of the direct solar beam into diffuse radiation by the volcanic stratospheric aerosol stimulates plant photosynthesis, further reducing the carbon dioxide growth rate. The growth rate of the second-most important atmospheric greenhouse gas, methane, is also affected by volcanic emissions. Volcanic stratospheric aerosol particles provide surface area which catalyzes heterogeneous chemical reactions thus stimulating removal of stratospheric ozone, also a greenhouse gas. Although major droughts usually related to ENSO events have opposite effects on carbon

  11. Active Eruptions in the NE Lau Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resing, J. A.; Embley, R. W.

    2009-12-01

    NE Lau Response Team: K Rubin, E Baker, J Lupton, M Lilley, T Shank, S Merle, R Dziak, T Collasius (Jason 2 Expedition Leader), N Buck, T Baumberger, D Butterfield, D Clague, D Conlin, J Cowen, R Davis, L Evans, J Huber, M Keith, N Keller, P Michael, E Podowski, A-L Reysenbach, K Roe, H Thomas, S Walker. During a May 2009 cruise to W Mata volcano in the NE Lau Basin, we made the first observations of an active eruption on the deep-sea floor. The cruise was organized after volcanic activity was detected at two sites (W Mata volcano and NE Lau Spreading Center, NELSC) during a Nov. 2008 NOAA-PMEL expedition. At that time, both sites had elevated H2 concentrations and volcaniclastic shards in the hydrothermal plumes. Moored hydrophone data since Jan 2009 indicate that the activity at W Mata has been continuous between these expeditions. Results of our cruise and other work suggest that the NE Lau Basin hosts an unusually high level of magmatic activity, making it an ideal location to study the effects of magmatic processes on hydrothermal activity and associated ecosystems. W Mata was visited with 5 ROV Jason 2 dives and 2 dives with the MBARI autonomous mapping vehicle in May 2009. It was actively erupting at the 1200 m deep summit during each, so a hydrophone was deployed locally to collect acoustic data. Ship and shore-based analysis of HD video, molten lava, rocks, sediments, hot spring waters, and micro- and macro biological specimens collected by Jason 2 have provided a wealth of data. The eruption itself was characterized by extrusion of red, molten lava, extensive degassing, formation of large magma bubbles, explosive pyroclast ejection, and the active extrusion of pillow lavas. The erupting magmas are boninite, a relatively rare magma type found only at convergent margins. The hydrothermal fluids are generally acidic and all diffuse fluids collected were microbially active, even those at pH 20 yrs the PMEL-Vents and NSF RIDGE programs have sought to observe

  12. Phreatomagmatic eruptive and depositional processes during the 1949 eruption on La Palma (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James D. L.; Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich

    1999-12-01

    In 1949, a 5-week-long magmatic and phreatomagmatic eruption took place along the active volcanic ridge of La Palma (Canary Islands). Two vents, Duraznero and Hoyo Negro, produced significant pyroclastic deposits. The eruption began from Duraznero vent, which produced a series of deposits with an upward decrease in accidental fragments and increase in fluidal ash and spatter, together inferred to indicate decreasing phreatomagmatic interaction. Hoyo Negro erupted over a 2-week period, producing a variety of pyroclastic density currents and ballistic blocks and bombs. Hoyo Negro erupted within and modified an older crater having high walls on the northern to southeastern edges. Southwestern to western margins of the crater lay 50 to 100 m lower. Strongly contrasting deposits in the different sectors (N-SE vs. SW-W) were formed as a result of interaction between topography, weak eruptive columns and stratified pyroclastic density currents. Tephra ring deposits are thicker and coarser-grained than upper rim deposits formed along the higher edges of the crater, and beyond the crater margin, valley-confined deposits are thicker than more thinly bedded mantling deposits on higher topography. These differences indicate that the impact zone for the bulk of the collapsing, tephra-laden column lay within the crater and that the high crater walls inhibited escape of pyroclastic density currents to the north and east. The impact zone lay outside the low SW-W rims, however, thus allowing stratified pyroclastic density currents to move freely away from the crater in those directions, depositing thin sections (<30 cm) of well-bedded ash (mantling deposits) on ridges and thicker sections (1-3 m) of structureless ash beds in valleys and small basins. Such segregation of dense pyroclastic currents from more dilute ones at the crater wall is likely to be common for small eruptions from pre-existing craters and is an important factor to be taken into account in volcanic hazards

  13. Eruptions at Lone Star Geyser, Yellowstone National Park, USA, part 1: energetics and eruption dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlstrom, Leif; Hurwitz, Shaul; Sohn, Robert; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Murphy, Fred; Rudolph, Maxwell L.; Johnston, Malcolm J.S.; Manga, Michael; McCleskey, R. Blaine

    2013-01-01

    Geysers provide a natural laboratory to study multiphase eruptive processes. We present results from a four–day experiment at Lone Star Geyser in Yellowstone National Park, USA. We simultaneously measured water discharge, acoustic emissions, infraredintensity, and visible and infrared video to quantify the energetics and dynamics of eruptions, occurring approximately every three hours. We define four phases in the eruption cycle: 1) a 28 ± 3 minute phase with liquid and steam fountaining, with maximum jet velocities of 16–28 m s− 1, steam mass fraction of less than ∼ 0.01. Intermittently choked flow and flow oscillations with periods increasing from 20 to 40 s are coincident with a decrease in jet velocity and an increase of steam fraction; 2) a 26 ± 8 minute post–eruption relaxation phase with no discharge from the vent, infrared (IR) and acoustic power oscillations gliding between 30 and 40 s; 3) a 59 ± 13 minute recharge period during which the geyser is quiescent and progressively refills, and 4) a 69 ± 14 minute pre–play period characterized by a series of 5–10 minute–long pulses of steam, small volumes of liquid water discharge and 50–70 s flow oscillations. The erupted waters ascend froma 160 − 170° C reservoir and the volume discharged during the entire eruptive cycle is 20.8 ± 4.1 m3. Assuming isentropic expansion, we calculate a heat output from the geyser of 1.4–1.5 MW, which is < 0.1% of the total heat output from Yellowstone Caldera.

  14. Violent media exposure, aggression and CU traits in adolescence: Testing the selection and socialization hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Ann-Margret

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the role of exposure to violent action for later aggression and for later callous-unemotional traits in a sample of Swedish adolescents (N = 77-85), testing the selection and socialization hypotheses. Adolescents reported on violent delinquency and on callous-unemotional (CU) traits at age 15, on their media habits at age 16 and on reactive and proactive aggression and CU traits at age 18. The socialization hypothesis was supported with regard to aggression, that is, violent delinquency did not affect consumption of violent action, but controlling for violent delinquency, consumption of violent action added to proactive aggression and, marginally, to reactive aggression. The selection hypothesis was supported with regard to CU traits, that is, high levels of CU traits predicted frequent consumption of violent action, but consumption of violent action did not affect later levels of CU traits. Frequent violent media use was associated with later aggression. The associations between CU traits and violent media need further study. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Serreta 1998-2001 submarine volcanic eruption, offshore Terceira (Azores): Characterization of the vent and inferences about the eruptive dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, David; Pimentel, Adriano; Pacheco, José; Martorelli, Eleonora; Sposato, Andrea; Ercilla, Gemma; Alonso, Belen; Chiocci, Francesco

    2018-05-01

    High-resolution bathymetric data and seafloor sampling were used to characterize the most recent volcanic eruption in the Azores region, the 1998-2001 Serreta submarine eruption. The vent of the eruption is proposed to be an asymmetric topographic high, composed of two coalescing volcanic cones, underlying the location where lava balloons had been observed at the sea surface during the eruption. The volcanic products related to the 1998-2001 eruption are constrained to an area of 0.5 km2 around the proposed vent position. A submarine Strombolian-style eruption producing basaltic lava balloons, ash and coarse scoriaceous materials with limited lateral dispersion led to the buildup of the cones. The 1998-2001 Serreta eruption shares many similarities with other intermediate-depth lava balloon-forming eruptions (e.g., the 1891 eruption offshore Pantelleria and the 2011-2012 eruption south of El Hierro), revealing the particular conditions needed for the production of this unusual and scarcely documented volcanic product.

  16. Blood, Monstrosity and Violent Imagery: Grand-Guignol, the French Theatre of Horror as a Form of Violent Entertainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Jurković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the sixty-year period of its existence, Grand-Guignol, the French theatre of horror, gained a status of a legendary theatre which dealt with horrors and terrors of human mind, successfully connecting faits divers (common, everyday facts with the erotic and titillating scenes of violence on stage. The performance style, the writing, the special effects, and the directorship over the course of years, made this theatre a legendary place where blood flowed in streams and people fainted during performances, in this way making its indelible mark in horror genre today. In this paper, the author is trying to focus the attention on the theatre of Grand-Guignol as a form of violent entertainment and the way the representations of violence and horror enacted on its stage affected the audience, through Goldstein’s theory of the importance of visual imagery in different media today. Furthermore, through comparison of violent acts presented on the stage of the Grand-Guignol and the atmosphere they create in the viewer’s mind with some of the aspects of Artaud’s vision of his theatre of cruelty, the author attempts to show how this form of violent entertainment in the theatrical media influences the vision of that same violence within the audience, with the sense of security as the main idea in which the viewers feel safe to enjoy, envision and in a way become the participants in the performances enacted on the small stage of the Grand-Guignol.

  17. A comparison study of a solar active-region eruptive filament and a neighboring non-eruptive filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao-Wei; Wu, Shi-Tsan; Feng, Xue-Shang; Hu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Solar active region (AR) 11283 is a very magnetically complex region and it has produced many eruptions. However, there exists a non-eruptive filament in the plage region just next to an eruptive one in the AR, which gives us an opportunity to perform a comparison analysis of these two filaments. The coronal magnetic field extrapolated using our CESE-MHD-NLFFF code reveals that two magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) exist in the same extrapolation box supporting these two filaments, respectively. Analysis of the magnetic field shows that the eruptive MFR contains a bald-patch separatrix surface (BPSS) cospatial very well with a pre-eruptive EUV sigmoid, which is consistent with the BPSS model for coronal sigmoids. The magnetic dips of the non-eruptive MFRs match Hα observation of the non-eruptive filament strikingly well, which strongly supports the MFR-dip model for filaments. Compared with the non-eruptive MFR/filament (with a length of about 200 Mm), the eruptive MFR/filament is much smaller (with a length of about 20 Mm), but it contains most of the magnetic free energy in the extrapolation box and holds a much higher free energy density than the non-eruptive one. Both the MFRs are weakly twisted and cannot trigger kink instability. The AR eruptive MFR is unstable because its axis reaches above a critical height for torus instability, at which the overlying closed arcades can no longer confine the MFR stably. On the contrary, the quiescent MFR is very firmly held by its overlying field, as its axis apex is far below the torus-instability threshold height. Overall, this comparison investigation supports that an MFR can exist prior to eruption and the ideal MHD instability can trigger an MFR eruption.

  18. A comparison study of a solar active-region eruptive filament and a neighboring non-eruptive filament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Chao-Wei; Feng, Xue-Shang; Wu, Shi-Tsan; Hu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Solar active region (AR) 11283 is a very magnetically complex region and it has produced many eruptions. However, there exists a non-eruptive filament in the plage region just next to an eruptive one in the AR, which gives us an opportunity to perform a comparison analysis of these two filaments. The coronal magnetic field extrapolated using our CESE–MHD–NLFFF code reveals that two magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) exist in the same extrapolation box supporting these two filaments, respectively. Analysis of the magnetic field shows that the eruptive MFR contains a bald-patch separatrix surface (BPSS) cospatial very well with a pre-eruptive EUV sigmoid, which is consistent with the BPSS model for coronal sigmoids. The magnetic dips of the non-eruptive MFRs match Hα observation of the non-eruptive filament strikingly well, which strongly supports the MFR-dip model for filaments. Compared with the non-eruptive MFR/filament (with a length of about 200 Mm), the eruptive MFR/filament is much smaller (with a length of about 20 Mm), but it contains most of the magnetic free energy in the extrapolation box and holds a much higher free energy density than the non-eruptive one. Both the MFRs are weakly twisted and cannot trigger kink instability. The AR eruptive MFR is unstable because its axis reaches above a critical height for torus instability, at which the overlying closed arcades can no longer confine the MFR stably. On the contrary, the quiescent MFR is very firmly held by its overlying field, as its axis apex is far below the torus-instability threshold height. Overall, this comparison investigation supports that an MFR can exist prior to eruption and the ideal MHD instability can trigger an MFR eruption. (paper)

  19. The amplifying influence of increased ocean stratification on a future year without a summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasullo, J T; Tomas, R; Stevenson, S; Otto-Bliesner, B; Brady, E; Wahl, E

    2017-10-31

    In 1816, the coldest summer of the past two centuries was observed over northeastern North America and western Europe. This so-called Year Without a Summer (YWAS) has been widely attributed to the 1815 eruption of Indonesia's Mt. Tambora and was concurrent with agricultural failures and famines worldwide. To understand the potential impacts of a similar future eruption, a thorough physical understanding of the YWAS is crucial. Climate model simulations of both the 1815 Tambora eruption and a hypothetical analogous future eruption are examined, the latter occurring in 2085 assuming a business-as-usual climate scenario. Here, we show that the 1815 eruption drove strong responses in both the ocean and cryosphere that were fundamental to driving the YWAS. Through modulation of ocean stratification and near-surface winds, global warming contributes to an amplified surface climate response. Limitations in using major volcanic eruptions as a constraint on cloud feedbacks are also found.

  20. Characterizing Volcanic Eruptions on Venus: Some Realistic (?) Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stofan, E. R.; Glaze, L. S.; Grinspoon, D. H.

    2011-01-01

    When Pioneer Venus arrived at Venus in 1978, it detected anomalously high concentrations of SO2 at the top of the troposphere, which subsequently declined over the next five years. This decline in SO2 was linked to some sort of dynamic process, possibly a volcanic eruption. Observations of SO2 variability have persisted since Pioneer Venus. More recently, scientists from the Venus Express mission announced that the SPICAV (Spectroscopy for Investigation of Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Venus) instrument had measured varying amounts of SO2 in the upper atmosphere; VIRTIS (Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer) measured no similar variations in the lower atmosphere (ESA, 4 April, 2008). In addition, Fegley and Prinn stated that venusian volcanoes must replenish SO2 to the atmosphere, or it would react with calcite and disappear within 1.9 my. Fegley and Tremain suggested an eruption rate on the order of approx 1 cubic km/year to maintain atmospheric SO2; Bullock and Grinspoon posit that volcanism must have occurred within the last 20-50 my to maintain the sulfuric acid/water clouds on Venus. The abundance of volcanic deposits on Venus and the likely thermal history of the planet suggest that it is still geologically active, although at rates lower than Earth. Current estimates of resurfacing rates range from approx 0.01 cubic km/yr to approx 2 cubic km/yr. Demonstrating definitively that Venus is still volcanically active, and at what rate, would help to constrain models of evolution of the surface and interior, and help to focus future exploration of Venus.

  1. Erupted complex composite odontoma: Report of two atypical cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Tomar Bhattacharya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are nonaggressive, hamartomatous developmental malformations of odontogenic origin. They are considered one of the most common odontogenic lesions composed by diverse dental tissues. They may interfere with the eruption of an associated tooth and are more prevalent in the posterior mandible. The eruption of a complex odontoma into the oral cavity is rare. Here, we report such two rare cases of gigantic erupted complex composite odontomas.

  2. Geostationary satellite observations of the april 1979 soufriere eruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, A F

    1982-06-04

    Infrared images from the geostationary satellite SMS-1 were used to study the growth of the eight major eruptions of Soufriere, St. Vincent, during April 1979. These eruptions differed considerably in growth and intensity, the most intense being that of 17 April which formed an ash cloud of 96,000 square kilometers in 4 hours. The weakest eruption formed a cloud of only 16,000 square kilometers.

  3. Impacts of a Pinatubo-size volcanic eruption on ENSO

    KAUST Repository

    Predybaylo, Evgeniya

    2017-01-16

    Observations and model simulations of the climate responses to strong explosive low-latitude volcanic eruptions suggest a significant increase in the likelihood of El Niño during the eruption and posteruption years, though model results have been inconclusive and have varied in magnitude and even sign. In this study, we test how this spread of responses depends on the initial phase of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the eruption year and on the eruption\\'s seasonal timing. We employ the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory CM2.1 global coupled general circulation model to investigate the impact of the Pinatubo 1991 eruption, assuming that in 1991 ENSO would otherwise be in central or eastern Pacific El Niño, La Niña, or neutral phases. We obtain statistically significant El Niño responses in a year after the eruption for all cases except La Niña, which shows no response in the eastern equatorial Pacific. The eruption has a weaker impact on eastern Pacific El Niños than on central Pacific El Niños. We find that the ocean dynamical thermostat and (to a lesser extent) wind changes due to land-ocean temperature gradients are the main feedbacks affecting El Niño development after the eruption. The El Niño responses to eruptions occurring in summer are more pronounced than for winter and spring eruptions. That the climate response depends on eruption season and initial ENSO phase may help to reconcile apparent inconsistencies among previous studies.

  4. Failed magmatic eruptions: Late-stage cessation of magma ascent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, S.C.; Newhall, C.; Roman, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    When a volcano becomes restless, a primary question is whether the unrest will lead to an eruption. Here we recognize four possible outcomes of a magmatic intrusion: "deep intrusion", "shallow intrusion", "sluggish/viscous magmatic eruption", and "rapid, often explosive magmatic eruption". We define "failed eruptions" as instances in which magma reaches but does not pass the "shallow intrusion" stage, i. e., when magma gets close to, but does not reach, the surface. Competing factors act to promote or hinder the eventual eruption of a magma intrusion. Fresh intrusion from depth, high magma gas content, rapid ascent rates that leave little time for enroute degassing, opening of pathways, and sudden decompression near the surface all act to promote eruption, whereas decreased magma supply from depth, slow ascent, significant enroute degassing and associated increases in viscosity, and impingement on structural barriers all act to hinder eruption. All of these factors interact in complex ways with variable results, but often cause magma to stall at some depth before reaching the surface. Although certain precursory phenomena, such as rapidly escalating seismic swarms or rates of degassing or deformation, are good indicators that an eruption is likely, such phenomena have also been observed in association with intrusions that have ultimately failed to erupt. A perpetual difficulty with quantifying the probability of eruption is a lack of data, particularly on instances of failed eruptions. This difficulty is being addressed in part through the WOVOdat database. Papers in this volume will be an additional resource for scientists grappling with the issue of whether or not an episode of unrest will lead to a magmatic eruption.

  5. The submarine eruption of La Restinga (El Hierro, Canary Islands): October 2011-March 2012; La erupcion submarina de La Restinga en la isla de El Hierro, Canarias: Octubre 2011-Marzo 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Torrado, F J; Carracedo, J C; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A; Soler, V; Troll, V R; Wiesmaier, S

    2012-11-01

    The first signs of renewed volcanic activity at El Hierro began in July 2011 with the occurrence of abundant, low-magnitude earthquakes. The increasing seismicity culminated on October 10, 2011, with the onset of a submarine eruption about 2 km offshore from La Restinga, the southernmost village on El Hierro. The analysis of seismic and deformation records prior to, and throughout, the eruption allowed the reconstruction of its main phases: 1) ascent of magma and migration of hypo centres from beneath the northern coast (El Golfo) towards the south rift zone, close to La Restinga, probably marking the hydraulic fracturing and the opening of the eruptive conduit; and 2) onset and development of a volcanic eruption indicated by sustained and prolonged harmonic tremor whose intensity varied with time. The features monitored during the eruption include location, depth and morphological evolution of the eruptive source and emission of floating volcanic bombs. These bombs initially showed white, vesiculated cores (originated by partial melting of underlying pre-volcanic sediments upon which the island of El Hierro was constructed) and black basanite rims, and later exclusively hollow basanitic lava balloons. The eruptive products have been matched with a fissural submarine eruption without ever having attained surtseyan explosiveness. The eruption has been active for about five months and ended in March 2012, thus becoming the second longest reported historical eruption in the Canary Islands after the Timanfaya eruption in Lanzarote (1730-1736). This eruption provided the first opportunity in 40 years to manage a volcanic crisis in the Canary Islands and to assess the interpretations and decisions taken, thereby gaining experience for improved management of future volcanic activity. Seismicity and deformation during the eruption were recorded and analysed by the Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN). Unfortunately, a lack of systematic sampling of erupted pyroclasts and

  6. Sustained eruptions on Enceladus explained by turbulent dissipation in tiger stripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Edwin S.; Rubin, Allan M.

    2016-04-01

    Spacecraft observations suggest that the plumes of Saturn’s moon Enceladus draw water from a subsurface ocean, but the sustainability of conduits linking ocean and surface is not understood. Observations show eruptions from “tiger stripe” fissures that are sustained (although tidally modulated) throughout each orbit, and since the 2005 discovery of the plumes. Peak plume flux lags peak tidal extension by ˜1 rad, suggestive of resonance. Here, we show that a model of the tiger stripes as tidally flexed slots that puncture the ice shell can simultaneously explain the persistence of the eruptions through the tidal cycle, the phase lag, and the total power output of the tiger stripe terrain, while suggesting that eruptions are maintained over geological timescales. The delay associated with flushing and refilling of O(1)-m-wide slots with ocean water causes erupted flux to lag tidal forcing and helps to buttress slots against closure, while tidally pumped in-slot flow leads to heating and mechanical disruption that staves off slot freezeout. Much narrower and much wider slots cannot be sustained. In the presence of long-lived slots, the 106-y average power output of the tiger stripes is buffered by a feedback between ice melt-back and subsidence to O(1010) W, which is similar to observed power output, suggesting long-term stability. Turbulent dissipation makes testable predictions for the final flybys of Enceladus by Cassini. Our model shows how open connections to an ocean can be reconciled with, and sustain, long-lived eruptions. Turbulent dissipation in long-lived slots helps maintain the ocean against freezing, maintains access by future Enceladus missions to ocean materials, and is plausibly the major energy source for tiger stripe activity.

  7. Human survival in volcanic eruptions: Thermal injuries in pyroclastic surges, their causes, prognosis and emergency management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Peter J; Jenkins, Susanna; Seswandhana, Rosadi; Komorowski, Jean-Christophe; Dunn, Ken; Purser, David; Voight, Barry; Shelley, Ian

    2017-08-01

    This study of burns patients from two eruptions of Merapi volcano, Java, in 1994 and 2010, is the first detailed analysis to be reported of thermal injuries in a large series of hospitalised victims of pyroclastic surges, one of the most devastating phenomena in explosive eruptions. Emergency planners in volcanic crises in populated areas have to integrate the health sector into disaster management and be aware of the nature of the surge impacts and the types of burns victims to be expected in a worst scenario, potentially in numbers and in severity that would overwhelm normal treatment facilities. In our series, 106 patients from the two eruptions were treated in the same major hospital in Yogyakarta and a third of these survived. Seventy-eight per cent were admitted with over 40% TBSA (total body surface area) burns and around 80% of patients were suspected of having at least some degree of inhalation injury as well. Thirty five patients suffered over 80% TBSA burns and only one of these survived. Crucially, 45% of patients were in the 40-79% TBSA range, with most suspected of suffering from inhalation injury, for whom survival was most dependent on the hospital treatment they received. After reviewing the evidence from recent major eruptions and outlining the thermal hazards of surges, we relate the type and severity of the injuries of these patients to the temperatures and dynamics of the pyroclastic surges, as derived from the environmental impacts and associated eruption processes evaluated in our field surveys and interviews conducted by our multi-disciplinary team. Effective warnings, adequate evacuation measures, and political will are all essential in volcanic crises in populated areas to prevent future catastrophes on this scale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. Reprint of "Seismic monitoring of the Plosky Tolbachik eruption in 2012-2013 (Kamchatka Peninsula Russia)"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senyukov, S. L.; Nuzhdina, I. N.; Droznina, S. Ya.; Garbuzova, V. T.; Kozhevnikova, T. Yu.; Sobolevskaya, O. V.; Nazarova, Z. A.; Bliznetsov, V. E.

    2015-12-01

    The active basaltic volcano Plosky Tolbachik (Pl. Tolbachik) is located in the southern part of the Klyuchevskoy volcano group on the Kamchatka Peninsula. The previous 1975-1976 Great Tolbachik Fissure Eruption (1975-1976 GTFE) occurred in the southern sector of Pl. Tolbachik. It was preceded by powerful earthquakes with local magnitudes between 2.5 and 4.9 and it was successfully predicted with a short-term forecast. The Kamchatka Branch of Geophysical Survey (KBGS) of the Russian Academy of Science (RAS) began to publish the results of daily seismic monitoring of active Kamchatka volcanoes on the Internet in 2000. Unlike the 1975-1976 GTFE precursor, (1) seismicity before the 2012-2013 Tolbachik Fissure Eruption (2012-2013 TFE) was relatively weak and earthquake magnitudes did not exceed 2.5. (2) Precursory earthquake hypocenters at 0-5 km depth were concentrated mainly under the southeastern part of the volcano. (3) The frequency of events gradually increased in September 2012, and rose sharply on the eve of the eruption. (4) According to seismic data, the explosive-effusive 2012-2013 TFE began at 05 h 15 min UTC on November 27, 2012; the outbreak occurred between the summit of the Pl. Tolbachik and the Northern Breakthrough of the 1975-1976 GTFE. (5) Because of bad weather, early interpretations of the onset time and the character of the eruption were made using seismological data only and were confirmed later by other monitoring methods. The eruption finished in early September 2013. This article presents the data obtained through real-time seismic monitoring and the results of retrospective analysis, with additional comments on the future monitoring of volcanic activity.

  9. High-resolution Observations of Sympathetic Filament Eruptions by NVST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shangwei; Su, Yingna; Zhou, Tuanhui; Ji, Haisheng [Key Laboratory for Dark Matter and Space Science, Purple Mountain Observatory, CAS, Nanjing 210008 (China); Van Ballegooijen, Adriaan [5001 Riverwood Avenue, Sarasota, FL 34231 (United States); Sun, Xudong, E-mail: ynsu@pmo.ac.cn [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2017-07-20

    We investigate two sympathetic filament eruptions observed by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope on 2015 October 15. The full picture of the eruptions is obtained from the corresponding Solar Dynamics Observatory ( SDO )/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) observations. The two filaments start from active region NOAA 12434 in the north and end in one large quiescent filament channel in the south. The left filament erupts first, followed by the right filament eruption about 10 minutes later. Clear twist structure and rotating motion are observed in both filaments during the eruption. Both eruptions failed, since the filaments first rise up, then flow toward the south and merge into the southern large quiescent filament. We also observe repeated activations of mini filaments below the right filament after its eruption. Using magnetic field models constructed based on SDO /HMI magnetograms via the flux rope insertion method, we find that the left filament eruption is likely to be triggered by kink instability, while the weakening of overlying magnetic fields due to magnetic reconnection at an X-point between the two filament systems might play an important role in the onset of the right filament eruption.

  10. Beyond eruptive scenarios: assessing tephra fallout hazard from Neapolitan volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Laura; Costa, Antonio; Selva, Jacopo; Tonini, Roberto; Macedonio, Giovanni; Folch, Arnau; Sulpizio, Roberto

    2016-04-12

    Assessment of volcanic hazards is necessary for risk mitigation. Typically, hazard assessment is based on one or a few, subjectively chosen representative eruptive scenarios, which use a specific combination of eruptive sizes and intensities to represent a particular size class of eruption. While such eruptive scenarios use a range of representative members to capture a range of eruptive sizes and intensities in order to reflect a wider size class, a scenario approach neglects to account for the intrinsic variability of volcanic eruptions, and implicitly assumes that inter-class size variability (i.e. size difference between different eruptive size classes) dominates over intra-class size variability (i.e. size difference within an eruptive size class), the latter of which is treated as negligible. So far, no quantitative study has been undertaken to verify such an assumption. Here, we adopt a novel Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Analysis (PVHA) strategy, which accounts for intrinsic eruptive variabilities, to quantify the tephra fallout hazard in the Campania area. We compare the results of the new probabilistic approach with the classical scenario approach. The results allow for determining whether a simplified scenario approach can be considered valid, and for quantifying the bias which arises when full variability is not accounted for.

  11. Setting of the Father's Day Eruption at Kilauea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, D. A.

    2007-12-01

    The Father's Day eruption and associated intrusion took place within a 10-km segment of Kilauea's east rift zone between Hi`iaka and Napau Craters--a segment that has had more numerous eruptions and intrusions than any other of comparable length during the past 200, probably the past 1000, years. Fifteen known eruptions started in this area in the past 200 years: 1840, 1922, 1923, 1962, August and October 1963, March and December 1965, August and October 1968, February and May 1969, May and November 1973, and March 1980 (only 3 cubic meters!). Three others, not previously designated as distinct eruptions despite having all the appropriate characteristics, took place during on-going eruptions: two in `Alo`i Crater in 1970 and 1972, and one in Napau Crater in 1997. Two of the largest shields on the east rift zone formed during long-lasting eruptions within this area--Kane Nui o Hamo at an unknown date, perhaps the 11-12th century, and Mauna Ulu (1969-1974). In addition, many small intrusions without eruptions are known. Seven short eruptions punctuated a prolonged eruption: four within the segment during the Mauna Ulu eruption, two at the summit and southwest rift zone during that same eruption, and one in Napau Crater in 1997 during the Pu`u `O`o eruption. Thus the Father's Day eruption is not unique by virtue of taking place during an ongoing eruption elsewhere along the rift zone. The increased frequency of activity in the segment during the 20th century is obvious, particularly after 1962. For most of the past 1,000 years, eruptions were centered at Kilauea's summit, with significant but lesser activity along the rift zones. A large summit deflation in 1924 ended the nearly continuous lava lake in Halemaumau, eventually leading to the past 5 decades of dominantly east rift zone activity. This segment of the rift zone contains most of the pit craters on Kilauea and gradually changes from a SE trend near the caldera to an ENE trend that characterizes the rest of

  12. Overstated evidence for short-term effects of violent games on affect and behavior: A reanalysis of Anderson et al. (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgard, Joseph; Engelhardt, Christopher R; Rouder, Jeffrey N

    2017-07-01

    Violent video games are theorized to be a significant cause of aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Important evidence for this claim comes from a large meta-analysis by Anderson and colleagues (2010), who found effects of violent games in experimental, cross-sectional, and longitudinal research. In that meta-analysis, the authors argued that there is little publication or analytic bias in the literature, an argument supported by their use of the trim-and-fill procedure. In the present manuscript, we reexamine their meta-analysis using a wider array of techniques for detecting bias and adjusting effect sizes. Our conclusions differ from those of Anderson and colleagues in 3 salient ways. First, we detect substantial publication bias in experimental research on the effects of violent games on aggressive affect and aggressive behavior. Second, after adjustment for bias, the effects of violent games on aggressive behavior in experimental research are estimated as being very small, and estimates of effects on aggressive affect are much reduced. In contrast, the cross-sectional literature finds correlations that appear largely unbiased. Third, experiments meeting the original authors' criteria for methodological quality do not yield larger adjusted effects than other experiments, but instead yield larger indications of bias, indicating that perhaps they were selected for significance. We outline future directions for stronger experimental research. The results indicate the need for an open, transparent, and preregistered research process to test the existence of the basic phenomenon. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Multi-disciplinary Monitoring of the 2014 Eruption of Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, R. M. S.; Faria, B. V. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Fogo volcano, located in the Cape Verde Archipelago (offshore Western Africa), is a complete stratovolcano system. It is the most recent expression of the Cape Verde hotspot, that has formed the archipelago. The summit reaches ~2830m above sea level, and raises 1100m above Chã das Caldeiras, an almost flat circular area. The last eruption of Fogo started on November 23, 2014 (~10:00UTC), after 19 years of inactivity. C4G, a distributed research infrastructure created in 2014 in the framework of the Portuguese Roadmap for Strategic Research Infrastructures, collaborated immediately with INMG, the Cape Verdean Meteorological and Geophysical Institut with the goal of complementing the permanent geophysical monitoring network in operation on Fogo island. The INMG permanent network is composed of seven seismographic stations and three tiltmeter stations, with real-time data transmitted. On the basis of increased pre-event activity (which started in October 2014), INMG issued a formal alert of an impending eruption to the Civil Protection Agency, about 24 hours before the onset of the eruption. Although the eruption caused no casualties or personal injuries due to the warnings issued, the lava expelled by the eruption (which last until the end of January) destroyed the two main villages in the caldera (~1000 inhabitants) and covered vast areas of agricultural land, causing very large economic losses and an uncertain future of the local populations. The C4G team installed a network of seven GNSS receivers and nine seismometers, distributed by the entire island. The data collection started on 28th November 2014, and continued until the end of January 2015. The mission also included a new detailed gravimetric survey of the island, the acquisition of geological samples, and the analysis of the air quality during the eruption. We present here a detailed description of the monitoring efforts carried out during the eruption as well as initial results of the analysis of the

  14. The Interaction of Extremist Propaganda and Anger as Predictors of Violent Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortland, Neil; Nader, Elias; Imperillo, Nicholas; Ross, Kyrielle; Dmello, Jared

    2017-12-01

    In this study, and with a view to extending upon existing findings on the effects of general violent media on violent cognitions, we experimentally measured the relationship between exposure to extremist propaganda and violent cognitions. Our results countered our hypotheses and the wider findings of violent media and aggression that exposure to violent stimuli increases violent thoughts and that this effect is moderated by trait aggression. Specifically, this study found that participants with low and medium trait aggression became more pro-social after being exposed to extremist propaganda. We discuss these results with reference to theories of terror management and mortality salience, as well as the implications of these results for wider theories of the role of online extremist material in the wider "radicalization" process.

  15. Stratospheric sulfate from the Gareloi eruption, 1980: Contribution to the ''ambient'' aerosol by a poorly documented volcanic eruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlacek, W.A.; Mroz, E.J.; Heiken, G.

    1981-01-01

    While sampling stratospheric aerosols during July--August 1980 a plume of ''fresh'' volcanic debris was observed in the Northern hemisphere. The origin of this material seems to be a poorly documented explosive eruption of Gareloi valcano in the Aleutian Islands. The debris was sampled at an altitude of 19.2 km: almost twice the height of observed eruption clouds. Such remote, unobserved or poorly documented eruptions may be a source that helps maintain the ''ambient'' stratospheric aerosol background

  16. Sunspot splitting triggering an eruptive flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Rohan E.; Puschmann, Klaus G.; Kliem, Bernhard; Balthasar, Horst; Denker, Carsten

    2014-02-01

    Aims: We investigate how the splitting of the leading sunspot and associated flux emergence and cancellation in active region NOAA 11515 caused an eruptive M5.6 flare on 2012 July 2. Methods: Continuum intensity, line-of-sight magnetogram, and dopplergram data of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager were employed to analyse the photospheric evolution. Filtergrams in Hα and He I 10830 Å of the Chromospheric Telescope at the Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, track the evolution of the flare. The corresponding coronal conditions were derived from 171 Å and 304 Å images of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly. Local correlation tracking was utilized to determine shear flows. Results: Emerging flux formed a neutral line ahead of the leading sunspot and new satellite spots. The sunspot splitting caused a long-lasting flow towards this neutral line, where a filament formed. Further flux emergence, partly of mixed polarity, as well as episodes of flux cancellation occurred repeatedly at the neutral line. Following a nearby C-class precursor flare with signs of interaction with the filament, the filament erupted nearly simultaneously with the onset of the M5.6 flare and evolved into a coronal mass ejection. The sunspot stretched without forming a light bridge, splitting unusually fast (within about a day, complete ≈6 h after the eruption) in two nearly equal parts. The front part separated strongly from the active region to approach the neighbouring active region where all its coronal magnetic connections were rooted. It also rotated rapidly (by 4.9° h-1) and caused significant shear flows at its edge. Conclusions: The eruption resulted from a complex sequence of processes in the (sub-)photosphere and corona. The persistent flows towards the neutral line likely caused the formation of a flux rope that held the filament. These flows, their associated flux cancellation, the emerging flux, and the precursor flare all contributed to the destabilization of the flux rope. We

  17. Eruptive history of Mount Katmai, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, Edward; Fierstein, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Mount Katmai has long been recognized for its caldera collapse during the great pyroclastic eruption of 1912 (which vented 10 km away at Novarupta in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes), but little has previously been reported about the geology of the remote ice-clad stratovolcano itself. Over several seasons, we reconnoitered all parts of the edifice and sampled most of the lava flows exposed on its flanks and caldera rim. The precipitous inner walls of the 1912 caldera remain too unstable for systematic sampling; so we provide instead a photographic and interpretive record of the wall sequences exposed. In contrast to the several andesite-dacite stratovolcanoes nearby, products of Mount Katmai range from basalt to rhyolite. Before collapse in 1912, there were two overlapping cones with separate vent complexes and craters; their products are here divided into eight sequences of lava flows, agglutinates, and phreatomagmatic ejecta. Latest Pleistocene and Holocene eruptive units include rhyodacite and rhyolite lava flows along the south rim; a major 22.8-ka rhyolitic plinian fall and ignimbrite deposit; a dacite-andesite zoned scoria fall; a thick sheet of dacite agglutinate that filled a paleocrater and draped the west side of the edifice; unglaciated leveed dacite lava flows on the southeast slope; and the Horseshoe Island dacite dome that extruded on the caldera floor after collapse. Pre-collapse volume of the glaciated Katmai edifice was ∼30 km3, and eruptive volume is estimated to have been 57±13 km3. The latter figure includes ∼40±6 km3 for the edifice, 5±2 km3 for off-edifice dacite pyroclastic deposits, and 12±5 km3 for the 22.8-ka rhyolitic pyroclastic deposits. To these can be added 13.5 km3 of magma that erupted at Novarupta in 1912, all or much of which is inferred to have been withdrawn from beneath Mount Katmai. The oldest part of the edifice exposed is a basaltic cone, which gave a 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of 89 ± 25 ka.

  18. The effect of violent video game playing on gamer's views of victims of crime

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, L

    2015-01-01

    This research was designed to explore the relationship between violent video game play and attitudes towards victims. As the violent genre of games become more popular and as the graphics and content becomes even more realistic and immersive, there has been concern that this media form offers a different perspective on violence to players than more passive forms of media. Much of the research in the area of violent video game research has focused on changes in players in terms of aggressive b...

  19. Witness and nonwitness children's violent and peaceful behavior in different types of simulated conflict with peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballif-Spanvill, Bonnie; Clayton, Claudia J; Hendrix, Suzanne B

    2007-04-01

    The violent and peaceful behaviors of 115 children who had or had not witnessed domestic violence were measured in five types of simulated conflict. Witnesses did not differ from nonwitnesses in conflicts involving limited resources, jealousy over possessions, or intimidation; witnesses were significantly more violent in conflicts involving aggression and exclusion. The most violent responses were found among abusers' sons who had been excluded by peers. 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  20. [Influence of violent TV upon children of a public school in Bogotá, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Olmos, Isabel; Pinzón, Angela María; González-Reyes, Rodrigo; Sánchez-Molano, Juliana

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the impact that a violent and a non-violent movie may cause on scholars. In Bogotá, 125 public primary school students were surveyed, applying a questionnaire to learn both about their daily life violence and their attitude towards it. Two weeks later, they were shown one violent movie, and two weeks later a non-violent one. Children were asked to draw their families, express their opinions and answer a questionnaire after each movie. The initial survey showed that 23.6% of the children reported violent responses when they were offended, 39.8% reported some kind of familiar violence and 19.5% identified themselves with a violent figure. Boys were more prone to respond violently when offended and to identify themselves with a violent figure than girls (p=0.004). Compared with the non-violent movie, a greater percentage of children excluded themselves from the family drawing after watching the violent movie (Odds Ratio (OR): 2.55; 95% Interval Confidence (95% CI) 1.22-5.43, p=0.01). The family drawing after the violent movie also showed more emotional signs (OR: 3.13; 95% CI: 1.35-7.52; p=0.0053) and more aggressive signs (OR: 2.55; 95% CI: 1.22-5.43; p=0.01) than the family drawing after the non-violent movie. The family drawing test showed the immediate impact of television. Television violence negatively influences kids and should be avoided.

  1. The 1% of the population accountable for 63% of all violent crime convictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Orjan; Wallinius, Märta; Lundström, Sebastian; Frisell, Thomas; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Kerekes, Nóra

    2014-04-01

    Population-based studies on violent crime and background factors may provide an understanding of the relationships between susceptibility factors and crime. We aimed to determine the distribution of violent crime convictions in the Swedish population 1973-2004 and to identify criminal, academic, parental, and psychiatric risk factors for persistence in violent crime. The nationwide multi-generation register was used with many other linked nationwide registers to select participants. All individuals born in 1958-1980 (2,393,765 individuals) were included. Persistent violent offenders (those with a lifetime history of three or more violent crime convictions) were compared with individuals having one or two such convictions, and to matched non-offenders. Independent variables were gender, age of first conviction for a violent crime, nonviolent crime convictions, and diagnoses for major mental disorders, personality disorders, and substance use disorders. A total of 93,642 individuals (3.9%) had at least one violent conviction. The distribution of convictions was highly skewed; 24,342 persistent violent offenders (1.0% of the total population) accounted for 63.2% of all convictions. Persistence in violence was associated with male sex (OR 2.5), personality disorder (OR 2.3), violent crime conviction before age 19 (OR 2.0), drug-related offenses (OR 1.9), nonviolent criminality (OR 1.9), substance use disorder (OR 1.9), and major mental disorder (OR 1.3). The majority of violent crimes are perpetrated by a small number of persistent violent offenders, typically males, characterized by early onset of violent criminality, substance abuse, personality disorders, and nonviolent criminality.

  2. Risk factors for violent crime in Schizophrenia: a national cohort study of 13,806 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Seena; Grann, Martin; Carlström, Eva; Lichtenstein, Paul; Långström, Niklas

    2009-03-01

    To determine risk factors for and prevalence of violent crime in patients with schizophrenia, and in particular, to explore the contribution of familial risk factors. We designed a cohort study that followed up patients with 2 or more hospitalizations for schizophrenia (ICD-8, ICD-9, and ICD-10 criteria) and investigated the risk for a violent conviction using Cox proportional hazards models. All 13,806 patients with 2 hospital discharge diagnoses of schizophrenia from January 1, 1973, through December 31, 2004, in Sweden were followed until violent conviction, emigration, death, or end of follow-up (December 31, 2004), and associations with sociodemographic, individual (substance abuse comorbidity, and previous violence), and familial (parental violent crime and parental alcohol abuse) factors were examined. Over an average follow-up period of 12 years, 17.1% (N = 1519) of the men and 5.6% (N = 273) of the women with 2 or more hospitalizations for schizophrenia had a violent conviction after discharge from hospital. Familial risk factors had moderate effects, increasing the risk for violent convictions by 50% to 150%. After adjustment for sociodemographic and individual risk factors, the associations between parental violent crime and risk of violent convictions remained in men (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.33 to 2.04) and in women (adjusted HR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.11 to 3.01), whereas parental alcohol abuse was no longer significantly associated with violent crime. Parental violent crime had moderate associations with violent crime in male and female offspring with at least 2 hospitalizations for schizophrenia, which were mostly stronger than the better documented sociodemographic risk factors. This suggests that familial (genetic or early environmental) risk factors have an important role in the etiology of violent offending among individuals with schizophrenia and should be considered in violence risk assessment. ©Copyright 2009 Physicians

  3. Long-term volcanic hazard forecasts based on Somma-Vesuvio past eruptive activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lirer, Lucio; Petrosino, Paola; Alberico, Ines; Postiglione, Immacolata

    2001-02-01

    Distributions of pyroclastic deposits from the main explosive events at Somma-Vesuvio during the 8,000-year B.P.-A.D. 1906 time-span have been analysed to provide maps of volcanic hazard for long-term eruption forecasting. In order to define hazard ratings, the spatial distributions and loads (kg/m2) exerted by the fall deposits on the roofs of buildings have been considered. A load higher than 300 kg/m2 is defined as destructive. The relationship load/frequency (the latter defined as the number of times that an area has been impacted by the deposition of fall deposits) is considered to be a suitable parameter for differentiating among areas according to hazard rating. Using past fall deposit distributions as the basis for future eruptive scenarios, the total area that could be affected by the products of a future Vesuvio explosive eruption is 1,500 km2. The perivolcanic area (274 km2) has the greatest hazard rating because it could be buried by pyroclastic flow deposits thicker than 0.5 m and up to several tens of metres in thickness. Currently, the perivolcanic area also has the highest risk because of the high exposed value, mainly arising from the high population density.

  4. The appeal of violent video games to lower educated aggressive adolescent boys from two countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Jeroen S; Bushman, Brad J; Konijn, Elly A

    2006-10-01

    The objective of this study was to test the effect of individual differences on appeal and use of video games. Participants were 299 adolescent boys from lower and higher secondary schools in the Netherlands and Belgium. In general, boys were most attracted to violent video games. Boys that scored higher in trait aggressiveness and lower in empathy were especially attracted to violent games and spent more time playing video games than did boys lower in trait aggressiveness. Lower educated boys showed more appreciation for both violent and nonviolent games and spent more time playing them than did higher educated boys. The present study showed that aggressive and less empathic boys were most attracted to violent games. The fact that heavy users of violent games show less empathy and higher aggressiveness suggests the possibility of desensitization. Other studies have shown that playing violent games increases aggressiveness and decreases empathy. These results combined suggest the possibility of a violence cycle. Aggressive individuals are attracted to violent games. Playing violent games increases aggressiveness and decreases empathy, which in turn leads to increased appreciation and use of violent games.

  5. Excessive users of violent video games do not show emotional desensitization: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szycik, Gregor R; Mohammadi, Bahram; Hake, Maria; Kneer, Jonas; Samii, Amir; Münte, Thomas F; Te Wildt, Bert T

    2017-06-01

    Playing violent video games have been linked to long-term emotional desensitization. We hypothesized that desensitization effects in excessive users of violent video games should lead to decreased brain activations to highly salient emotional pictures in emotional sensitivity brain regions. Twenty-eight male adult subjects showing excessive long-term use of violent video games and age and education matched control participants were examined in two experiments using standardized emotional pictures of positive, negative and neutral valence. No group differences were revealed even at reduced statistical thresholds which speaks against desensitization of emotion sensitive brain regions as a result of excessive use of violent video games.

  6. Risk and Protective Factors for Difficulty Controlling Violent Behavior in National Guard and Reserve Service Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthen, Miranda; Rathod, Sujit D; Cohen, Gregory; Sampson, Laura; Ursano, Robert; Gifford, Robert; Fullerton, Carol; Galea, Sandro; Ahern, Jennifer

    2017-11-01

    Violent behavior is an important problem for military service members and veterans. A representative cohort of U.S. Reserve and National Guard personnel ( N = 1,293) were interviewed to assess self-reported problems controlling violent behavior, deployment traumas, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol abuse, and social support. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the associations of violent behavior with risk and protective factors. Problems controlling violent behavior were uncommon among male (3.3%) and female (1.7%) service members. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) showed associations between violent behavior and deployment traumas (aPR = 1.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.34, 2.08]), PTSD (aPR = 9.95, 95% CI = [5.09, 19.48]), and PTSD symptom severity (aPR for each additional PTSD symptom = 1.07, 95% CI = [1.06, 1.09]). Social support was associated with lower prevalence of violent behavior (aPR = 0.62, 95% CI = [0.52, 0.76]). The association between violent behavior and alcohol abuse was not statistically significant (aPR = 1.94, 95% CI = [0.92, 4.09]). Results were consistent when the population was restricted to personnel who had deployed to a war zone. Problems controlling violent behavior were less common in this cohort than has been documented in other studies. Associations of violent behavior with risk and protective factors are consistent with prior research.

  7. Advancing paternal age and offspring violent offending: a sibling-comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Pawitan, Yudi; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2012-08-01

    Children born to older fathers are at higher risk to develop severe psychopathology (e.g., schizophrenia and bipolar disorder), possibly because of increased de novo mutations during spermatogenesis with older paternal age. Because severe psychopathology is correlated with antisocial behavior, we examined possible associations between advancing paternal age and offspring violent offending. Interlinked Swedish national registers provided information on fathers' age at childbirth and violent criminal convictions in all offspring born from 1958 to 1979 (N = 2,359,921). We used ever committing a violent crime and number of violent crimes as indices of violent offending. The data included information on multiple levels; we compared differentially exposed siblings in within-family analyses to rigorously test causal influences. In the entire population, advancing paternal age predicted offspring violent crime according to both indices. Congruent with a causal effect, this association remained for rates of violent crime in within-family analyses. However, in within-family analyses, we found no association with ever committing a violent crime, suggesting that factors shared by siblings (genes and environment) confounded this association. Life-course persistent criminality has been proposed to have a partly biological etiology; our results agree with a stronger biological effect (i.e., de novo mutations) on persistent violent offending.

  8. Near infrared photometry of violent star formation regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnick, J.; Terlevich, R.; Moles, M.

    1985-01-01

    Near infrared broad band photometry and CO indices for a significant number of Violent Star Formation Regions are presented. The existence of a narrow correlation between W (Hβ) and IR colour is confirmed. The interpretation of this relation as an age sequence implies a correlation between CO index and W(Hβ) which is not found. It is argued however that this failure is most likely a consequence of using narrow band filters to determine CO indices in objects with strong emission-line spectra. (author)

  9. Elastic energy release in great earthquakes and eruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agust eGudmundsson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The sizes of earthquakes are measured using well-defined, measurable quantities such as seismic moment and released (transformed elastic energy. No similar measures exist for the sizes of volcanic eruptions, making it difficult to compare the energies released in earthquakes and eruptions. Here I provide a new measure of the elastic energy (the potential mechanical energy associated with magma chamber rupture and contraction (shrinkage during an eruption. For earthquakes and eruptions, elastic energy derives from two sources: (1 the strain energy stored in the volcano/fault zone before rupture, and (2 the external applied load (force, pressure, stress, displacement on the volcano/fault zone. From thermodynamic considerations it follows that the elastic energy released or transformed (dU during an eruption is directly proportional to the excess pressure (pe in the magma chamber at the time of rupture multiplied by the volume decrease (-dVc of the chamber, so that . This formula can be used as a basis for a new eruption magnitude scale, based on elastic energy released, which can be related to the moment-magnitude scale for earthquakes. For very large eruptions (>100 km3, the volume of the feeder-dike is negligible, so that the decrease in chamber volume during an eruption corresponds roughly to the associated volume of erupted materials , so that the elastic energy is . Using a typical excess pressures of 5 MPa, it is shown that the largest known eruptions on Earth, such as the explosive La Garita Caldera eruption (27-28 million years ago and largest single (effusive Colombia River basalt lava flows (15-16 million years ago, both of which have estimated volumes of about 5000 km3, released elastic energy of the order of 10EJ. For comparison, the seismic moment of the largest earthquake ever recorded, the M9.5 1960 Chile earthquake, is estimated at 100 ZJ and the associated elastic energy release at 10EJ.

  10. 10,000 Years of explosive eruptions of Merapi Volcano, Central Java: archaeological and modern implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhall, C.G.; Bronto, S.; Alloway, B.; Banks, N.G.; Bahar, I.; Del Marmol, M.A.; Hadisantono, R.D.; Holcomb, R.T.; McGeehin, J.; Miksic, J.N.; Rubin, M.; Sayudi, S.D.; Sukhyar, R.; Andreastuti, Supriyati; Tilling, R.I.; Torley, R.; Trimble, D.; Wirakusumah, A.D.

    2000-01-01

    larger than any of this century have occurred many times during Merapi's history, most recently during the 19th century. Are the relatively small eruptions of the 20th century a new style of open-vent, less hazardous activity that will persist for the foreseeable future? Or, alternatively, are they merely low-level "background" activity that could be interrupted upon relatively short notice by much larger explosive eruptions? The geologic record suggests the latter, which would place several hundred thousand people at risk. We know of no reliable method to forecast when an explosive eruption will interrupt the present interval of low-level activity. This conclusion has important implications for hazard evaluation.

  11. The Novarupta-Katmai eruption of 1912 - largest eruption of the twentieth century; centennial perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy

    2012-01-01

    The explosive outburst at Novarupta (Alaska) in June 1912 was the 20th century's most voluminous volcanic eruption. Marking its centennial, we illustrate and document the complex eruptive sequence, which was long misattributed to nearby Mount Katmai, and how its deposits have provided key insights about volcanic and magmatic processes. It was one of the few historical eruptions to produce a collapsed caldera, voluminous high-silica rhyolite, wide compositional zonation (51-78 percent SiO2), banded pumice, welded tuff, and an aerosol/dust veil that depressed global temperature measurably. It emplaced a series of ash flows that filled what became the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, sustaining high-temperature metal-transporting fumaroles for a decade. Three explosive episodes spanned ~60 hours, depositing ~17 km3 of fallout and 11±2 km3 of ignimbrite, together representing ~13.5 km3 of zoned magma. No observers were nearby and no aircraft were in Alaska, and so the eruption narrative was assembled from scattered villages and ship reports. Because volcanology was in its infancy and the early investigations (1915-23) were conducted under arduous expeditionary conditions, many provocative misapprehensions attended reports based on those studies. Fieldwork at Katmai was not resumed until 1953, but, since then, global advances in physical volcanology and chemical petrology have gone hand in hand with studies of the 1912 deposits, clarifying the sequence of events and processes and turning the eruption into one of the best studied in the world. To provide perspective on this century-long evolution, we describe the geologic and geographic setting of the eruption - in a remote, sparsely inhabited wilderness; we review the cultural and scientific contexts at the time of the eruption and early expeditions; and we compile a chronology of the many Katmai investigations since 1912. Products of the eruption are described in detail, including eight layers of regionwide fallout

  12. Eruptive event generator based on the Gibson-Low magnetic configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovikov, D.; Sokolov, I. V.; Manchester, W. B.; Jin, M.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2017-08-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs), a kind of energetic solar eruptions, are an integral subject of space weather research. Numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modeling, which requires powerful computational resources, is one of the primary means of studying the phenomenon. With increasing accessibility of such resources, grows the demand for user-friendly tools that would facilitate the process of simulating CMEs for scientific and operational purposes. The Eruptive Event Generator based on Gibson-Low flux rope (EEGGL), a new publicly available computational model presented in this paper, is an effort to meet this demand. EEGGL allows one to compute the parameters of a model flux rope driving a CME via an intuitive graphical user interface. We provide a brief overview of the physical principles behind EEGGL and its functionality. Ways toward future improvements of the tool are outlined.

  13. Supercomputer modeling of volcanic eruption dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieffer, S.W. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Valentine, G.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Woo, Mahn-Ling [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Our specific goals are to: (1) provide a set of models based on well-defined assumptions about initial and boundary conditions to constrain interpretations of observations of active volcanic eruptions--including movies of flow front velocities, satellite observations of temperature in plumes vs. time, and still photographs of the dimensions of erupting plumes and flows on Earth and other planets; (2) to examine the influence of subsurface conditions on exit plane conditions and plume characteristics, and to compare the models of subsurface fluid flow with seismic constraints where possible; (3) to relate equations-of-state for magma-gas mixtures to flow dynamics; (4) to examine, in some detail, the interaction of the flowing fluid with the conduit walls and ground topography through boundary layer theory so that field observations of erosion and deposition can be related to fluid processes; and (5) to test the applicability of existing two-phase flow codes for problems related to the generation of volcanic long-period seismic signals; (6) to extend our understanding and simulation capability to problems associated with emplacement of fragmental ejecta from large meteorite impacts.

  14. Imaging a Magnetic-breakout Solar Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao; Du, Guohui; Zhao, Di; Wu, Zhao; Liu, Wei; Wang, Bing; Ruan, Guiping; Feng, Shiwei; Song, Hongqiang

    2016-04-01

    The fundamental mechanism initiating coronal mass ejections (CMEs) remains controversial. One of the leading theories is magnetic breakout, in which magnetic reconnection occurring high in the corona removes the confinement on an energized low-corona structure from the overlying magnetic field, thus allowing it to erupt. Here, we report critical observational evidence of this elusive breakout reconnection in a multi-polar magnetic configuration that leads to a CME and an X-class, long-duration flare. Its occurrence is supported by the presence of pairs of heated cusp-shaped loops around an X-type null point and signatures of reconnection inflows. Other peculiar features new to the breakout picture include sequential loop brightening, coronal hard X-rays at energies up to ˜100 keV, and extended high-corona X-rays above the later restored multi-polar structure. These observations, from a novel perspective with clarity never achieved before, present crucial clues to understanding the initiation mechanism of solar eruptions.

  15. IMAGING A MAGNETIC-BREAKOUT SOLAR ERUPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yao; Du, Guohui; Zhao, Di; Wu, Zhao; Wang, Bing; Ruan, Guiping; Feng, Shiwei; Song, Hongqiang; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental mechanism initiating coronal mass ejections (CMEs) remains controversial. One of the leading theories is magnetic breakout, in which magnetic reconnection occurring high in the corona removes the confinement on an energized low-corona structure from the overlying magnetic field, thus allowing it to erupt. Here, we report critical observational evidence of this elusive breakout reconnection in a multi-polar magnetic configuration that leads to a CME and an X-class, long-duration flare. Its occurrence is supported by the presence of pairs of heated cusp-shaped loops around an X-type null point and signatures of reconnection inflows. Other peculiar features new to the breakout picture include sequential loop brightening, coronal hard X-rays at energies up to ∼100 keV, and extended high-corona X-rays above the later restored multi-polar structure. These observations, from a novel perspective with clarity never achieved before, present crucial clues to understanding the initiation mechanism of solar eruptions

  16. Magnetic reconnection during eruptive magnetic flux ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Z. X.; Keppens, R.; Roussev, I. I.; Lin, J.

    2017-08-01

    Aims: We perform a three-dimensional (3D) high resolution numerical simulation in isothermal magnetohydrodynamics to study the magnetic reconnection process in a current sheet (CS) formed during an eruption of a twisted magnetic flux rope (MFR). Because the twist distribution violates the Kruskal-Shafranov condition, the kink instability occurs, and the MFR is distorted. The centre part of the MFR loses its equilibrium and erupts upward, which leads to the formation of a 3D CS underneath it. Methods: In order to study the magnetic reconnection inside the CS in detail, mesh refinement has been used to reduce the numerical diffusion and we estimate a Lundquist number S = 104 in the vicinity of the CS. Results: The refined mesh allows us to resolve fine structures inside the 3D CS: a bifurcating sheet structure signaling the 3D generalization of Petschek slow shocks, some distorted-cylindrical substructures due to the tearing mode instabilities, and two turbulence regions near the upper and the lower tips of the CS. The topological characteristics of the MFR depend sensitively on the observer's viewing angle: it presents as a sigmoid structure, an outwardly expanding MFR with helical distortion, or a flare-CS-coronal mass ejection symbiosis as in 2D flux-rope models when observed from the top, the front, or the side. The movie associated to Fig. 2 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  17. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  18. Fixed Drug Eruption due to Achiote Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Tattersall

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fixed drug eruption (FDE is a localized type IV sensitivity reaction to a systemically introduced allergen. It usually occurs as a result of new medication, making identification and avoidance of the trigger medication straightforward; however, in a rare subset of cases no pharmacological source is identified. In such cases, the causative agent is often a food or food additive. In this report we describe a case of a FDE in a 12-year-old girl recently immigrated to the United States from Ecuador who had no medication exposure over the course of her illness. Through an exhaustive patient history and literature review, we were able to hypothesize that her presentation was caused by a dietary change of the natural achiote dye used in the preparation of yellow rice to a locally available commercial dye mix containing tartrazine, or Yellow 5, which has previously been implicated in both systemic hypersensitivity reactions and specifically in FDE. This report adds to the small body of available literature on non-pharmacological fixed hypersensitivity eruptions and illustrates an effective approach to the management of such a presentation when history is not immediately revealing.

  19. Fixed Drug Eruption due to Achiote Dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian; Reddy, Bobby Y.

    2016-01-01

    Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a localized type IV sensitivity reaction to a systemically introduced allergen. It usually occurs as a result of new medication, making identification and avoidance of the trigger medication straightforward; however, in a rare subset of cases no pharmacological source is identified. In such cases, the causative agent is often a food or food additive. In this report we describe a case of a FDE in a 12-year-old girl recently immigrated to the United States from Ecuador who had no medication exposure over the course of her illness. Through an exhaustive patient history and literature review, we were able to hypothesize that her presentation was caused by a dietary change of the natural achiote dye used in the preparation of yellow rice to a locally available commercial dye mix containing tartrazine, or Yellow 5, which has previously been implicated in both systemic hypersensitivity reactions and specifically in FDE. This report adds to the small body of available literature on non-pharmacological fixed hypersensitivity eruptions and illustrates an effective approach to the management of such a presentation when history is not immediately revealing. PMID:26933409

  20. Morphology, temperature, and eruption dynamics at Pele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Robert R.; Lopes, Rosaly M. C.

    2011-06-01

    The Pele region of Io has been the site of vigorous volcanic activity from the time of the first Voyager I observations in 1979 up through the final Galileo ones in 2001. There is high-temperature thermal emission from a visibly dark area that is thought to be a rapidly overturning lava lake, and is also the source of a large sulfur-rich plume. We present a new analysis of Voyager I visible wavelength images, and Galileo Solid State Imager (SSI) and Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) thermal emission observations which better define the morphology of the region and the intensity of the emission. The observations show remarkable correlations between the locations of the emission and the features seen in the Voyager images, which provide insight into eruption mechanisms and constrain the longevity of the activity. We also analyze an additional wavelength channel of NIMS data (1.87 μm) which paradoxically, because of reduced sensitivity, allows us to estimate temperatures at the peak locations of emission. Measurements of eruption temperatures on Io are crucial because they provide our best clues to the composition of the magma. High color temperatures indicative of ultramafic composition have been reported for the Pillan hot spot and possibly for Pele, although recent work has called into question the requirement for magma temperatures above those expected for ordinary basalts. Our new analysis of the Pele emission near the peak of the hot spot shows color temperatures near the upper end of the basalt range during the I27 and I32 encounters. In order to analyze the observed color temperatures we also present an analytical model for the thermal emission from fire-fountains, which should prove generally useful for analyzing similar data. This is a modification of the lava flow emission model presented in Howell (Howell, R.R. [1997]. Icarus 127, 394-407), adapted to the fire-fountain cooling curves first discussed in Keszthelyi et al. (Keszthelyi, L., Jaeger, W

  1. Small-scale eruptive filaments on the quiet sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermans, L.M.; Martin, S.F.

    1986-01-01

    A study of a little known class of eruptive events on the quiet sun was conducted. All of 61 small-scale eruptive filamentary structures were identified in a systematic survey of 32 days of H alpha time-lapse films of the quiet sun acquired at Big Bear Solar Observatory. When fully developed, these structures have an average length of 15 arc seconds before eruption. They appear to be the small-scale analog of large-scale eruptive filaments observed against the disk. At the observed rate of 1.9 small-scale eruptive features per field of view per average 7.0 hour day, the rate of occurence of these events on the sun were estimated to be greater than 600 per 24 hour day.. The average duration of the eruptive phase was 26 minutes while the average lifetime from formation through eruption was 70 minutes. A majority of the small-scale filamentary sturctures were spatially related to cancelling magnetic features in line-of-sight photospheric magnetograms. Similar to large-scale filaments, the small-scale filamentary structures sometimes divided opposite polarity cancelling fragments but often had one or both ends terminating at a cancellation site. Their high numbers appear to reflect the much greater flux on the quiet sun. From their characteristics, evolution, and relationship to photospheric magnetic flux, it was concluded that the structures described are small-scale eruptive filaments and are a subset of all filaments

  2. Requirement of alveolar bone formation for eruption of rat molars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Gary E.; He, Hongzhi; Gutierrez, Dina L.; Ring, Sherry; Yao, Shaomian

    2011-01-01

    Tooth eruption is a localized event that requires a dental follicle (DF) to regulate the resorption of alveolar bone to form an eruption pathway. During the intra-osseous phase of eruption, the tooth moves through this pathway. The mechanism or motive force that propels the tooth through this pathway is controversial but many studies have shown that alveolar bone growth at the base of the crypt occurs during eruption. To determine if this bone growth (osteogenesis) was causal, experiments were designed in which the expression of an osteogenic gene in the DF, bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP6), was inhibited by injection of the 1st mandibular molar of the rat with an siRNA targeted against BMP6. The injection was followed by electroporation to promote uptake of the siRNA. In 45 first molars injected, eruption either was delayed or completely inhibited (7 molars). In the impacted molars, an eruption pathway formed but bone growth at the base of the crypt was greatly reduced as compared to the erupted first molar controls. These studies show that alveolar bone growth at the base of the crypt is required for tooth eruption and that BMP6 may be an essential gene for promoting this growth. PMID:21896048

  3. Mount St. Helens: Still erupting lessons 31 years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza; Charlie Crisafulli; Fred Swanson

    2011-01-01

    The massive volcanic eruption of Mount St. Helens 31 years ago provided the perfect backdrop for studying the earliest stages of forest development. Immediately after the eruption, some areas of the blast area were devoid of life. On other parts of the volcanic landscape, many species survived, although their numbers were greatly reduced. Reassembly began at many...

  4. Interdisciplinary studies of eruption at Chaiten Volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Pallister; Jon J. Major; Thomas C. Pierson; Richard P. Hoblitt; Jacob B. Lowenstern; John C. Eichelberger; Lara. Luis; Hugo Moreno; Jorge Munoz; Jonathan M. Castro; Andres Iroume; Andrea Andreoli; Julia Jones; Fred Swanson; Charlie Crisafulli

    2010-01-01

    There was keen interest within the volcanology community when the first large eruption of high-silica rhyolite since that of Alaska's Novarupta volcano in 1912 began on 1 May 2008 at Chaiten volcano, southern Chile, a 3-kilometer-diameter caldera volcano with a prehistoric record of rhyolite eruptions. Vigorous explosions occurred through 8 May 2008, after which...

  5. Triggering of the largest Deccan eruptions by the Chicxulub impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, M.A.; Alvarez, W.; Self, S.; Karlstrom, L.; Renne, P.R.; Manga, M.; Sprain, C.J.; Smit, J.; Vanderkluysen, L.; Gibson, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    New constraints on the timing of the Cretaceous- Paleogene mass extinction and the Chicxulub impact, together with a particularly voluminous and apparently brief eruptive pulse toward the end of the "main-stage" eruptions of the Deccan continental flood basalt province suggest that these three

  6. Rapid laccolith intrusion driven by explosive volcanic eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Jonathan M; Cordonnier, Benoit; Schipper, C Ian; Tuffen, Hugh; Baumann, Tobias S; Feisel, Yves

    2016-11-23

    Magmatic intrusions and volcanic eruptions are intimately related phenomena. Shallow magma intrusion builds subsurface reservoirs that are drained by volcanic eruptions. Thus, the long-held view is that intrusions must precede and feed eruptions. Here we show that explosive eruptions can also cause magma intrusion. We provide an account of a rapidly emplaced laccolith during the 2011 rhyolite eruption of Cordón Caulle, Chile. Remote sensing indicates that an intrusion began after eruption onset and caused severe (>200 m) uplift over 1 month. Digital terrain models resolve a laccolith-shaped body ∼0.8 km 3 . Deformation and conduit flow models indicate laccolith depths of only ∼20-200 m and overpressures (∼1-10 MPa) that likely stemmed from conduit blockage. Our results show that explosive eruptions may rapidly force significant quantities of magma in the crust to build laccoliths. These iconic intrusions can thus be interpreted as eruptive features that pose unique and previously unrecognized volcanic hazards.

  7. Erupting complex odontoma: Report of a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinakapani Ramakrishna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are the most frequent hamartomatous lesions involving the oral cavity. The complex variant is an agglomerate of all dental tissues characterized by abnormal morphodifferentiation despite normal histodifferentiation. These are usually asymptomatic and are frequently associated with eruption disturbances. We report an unusual case of erupting complex odontoma associated with an impacted maxillary second molar.

  8. The December 2015 Mount Etna eruption: An analysis of inflation/deflation phases and faulting processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisi, Marco; Jin, Shuanggen; Pulvirenti, Fabio; Scaltrito, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    During the first days of December 2015, there were four paroxysmal events at the ;Voragine; crater on Mount Etna, which were among the most violent observed during the last two decades. A few days after the ;Voragine; paroxysms, the Pernicana - Provenzana fault system, located near the crater area, underwent an intense seismic swarm with a maximum ;local; magnitude ML of 3.6. This paper investigates the relationship between the eruptive phenomenon and the faulting process in terms of Coulomb stress changes. The recorded seismicity is compatible with a multicausal stress redistribution inside the volcano edifice, occurring after the four paroxysmal episodes that interrupted the usual trend of inflation observed at Mt. Etna. The recorded seismicity falls within the framework of a complex chain of various and intercorrelated processes that started with the inflation preparing the ;Voragine; magmatic activity. This was followed with the rapid deflation of the volcano edifice during the paroxysmal episodes. We determined that the recorded deflation was not the direct cause of the seismic swarm. In fact, the associated Coulomb stress change, in the area of seismic swarm, was of about -1 [bar]. Instead, the fast deflation caused the rarely observed inversion of dislocation in the eastern flank at the same time as intense hydrothermal activity that, consequently, underwent an alteration. This process probably reduced the friction along the fault system. Then, the new phase of inflation, observed at the end of the magmatic activity, triggered the faulting processes.

  9. The chemically zoned 1949 eruption on La Palma (Canary Islands): Petrologic evolution and magma supply dynamics of a rift zone eruption

    OpenAIRE

    Klügel, Andreas; Hoernle, Kaj A.; Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich; White, James D. L.

    2000-01-01

    The 1949 rift zone eruption along the Cumbre Vieja ridge on La Palma involved three eruptive centers, 3 km spaced apart, and was chemically and mineralogically zoned. Duraznero crater erupted tephrite for 14 days and shut down upon the opening of Llano del Banco, a fissure that issued first tephrite and, after 3 days, basanite. Hoyo Negro crater opened 4 days later and erupted basanite, tephrite, and phonotephrite, while Llano del Banco continued to issue basanite. The eruption ended with Dur...

  10. Gendered Pathways: Violent Childhood Maltreatment, Sex Exchange, and Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn; Murphy, Brett; Javdani, Shabnam

    2015-04-20

    Recent work has emphasized the role of violent victimization, along with risky contexts like sex exchange, in pathways to problems of externalizing and substance use in women. Nonetheless, few studies have empirically tested gender differences involving the roles of adversity factors (e.g., childhood violent maltreatment, sex exchange) in drug use patterns. The present study tested a model of gender differences in relationships between childhood physical and sexual abuse, sex exchange, and two indicators of drug use: engagement and symptoms of disorder. We recruited an ethnically-diverse sample of 304 (130 women) adults with recent histories of violence and/or drug use, who completed a substance use diagnostic interview, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and a sex exchange questionnaire. First, structural equation modeling revealed that childhood sexual and physical abuse were related to increased drug engagement in women and men, respectively, above the influence of early childhood contextual variables (e.g., neighborhood, family) and age. Second, sexual abuse was related to sex exchange, which in turn was related to drug use symptoms in women but not men. These data provide empirical support for distinct trauma-related pathways to drug use problems in men and women, which has implications for gendered explanations and prevention approaches.

  11. Visual attention in violent offenders: Susceptibility to distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotboom, Jantine; Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S; Bouman, Yvonne H A; In 't Hout, Willem; Sergiou, Carmen; van der Stigchel, Stefan; Theeuwes, Jan

    2017-05-01

    Impairments in executive functioning give rise to reduced control of behavior and impulses, and are therefore a risk factor for violence and criminal behavior. However, the contribution of specific underlying processes remains unclear. A crucial element of executive functioning, and essential for cognitive control and goal-directed behavior, is visual attention. To further elucidate the importance of attentional functioning in the general offender population, we employed an attentional capture task to measure visual attention. We expected offenders to have impaired visual attention, as revealed by increased attentional capture, compared to healthy controls. When comparing the performance of 62 offenders to 69 healthy community controls, we found our hypothesis to be partly confirmed. Offenders were more accurate overall, more accurate in the absence of distracting information, suggesting superior attention. In the presence of distracting information offenders were significantly less accurate compared to when no distracting information was present. Together, these findings indicate that violent offenders may have superior attention, yet worse control over attention. As such, violent offenders may have trouble adjusting to unexpected, irrelevant stimuli, which may relate to failures in self-regulation and inhibitory control. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Talking violent. A phenomenological study of metaphors battering men use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisikovits, Z; Buchbinder, E

    1997-10-01

    This analysis examined the language and metaphors used by men who perpetrated domestic violence in an attempt to shed light on the impulsive and reflective aspects of violent acts as they appear in the context of batterers' experiences. The study is introduced with a brief review of the literature on "intimate violence" to show that it is recognized that batterers rarely define their behavior as violent and aberrant and that they suffer cognitive distortions and an inability to identify emotions accurately. Data were gathered through in-depth, semistructured interviews with 35 couples in Israel who reported at least one incidence of violence in the prior year. Content analysis of the interviews revealed that the men used 1) war metaphors to construct and express conflict and violence, 2) metaphors that presented the self as a dangerous space characterized by inner struggles, and 3) metaphors of de-escalation and balancing. The discussion notes that the metaphors of war were interconnected (war with the self and with the world) and allowed men to threaten violence as a means of self defense and, paradoxically, to attempt to gain self-control by losing control. For these men, the world was dichotomous and life was a constant struggle against real and imagined enemies. Survival depended upon suppression of feelings of weakness (symbolized by the feminine). Interventions should examine metaphors used by batterers and help men develop an alternative metaphoric structure that renders violence foreign and meaningless. This requires that clinicians first assess their own use of metaphors.

  13. Making Friends in Violent Neighborhoods: Strategies among Elementary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjanette M. Chan Tack

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available While many studies have examined friendship formation among children in conventional contexts, comparatively fewer have examined how the process is shaped by neighborhood violence. The literature on violence and gangs has identified coping strategies that likely affect friendships, but most children in violent neighborhoods are not gang members, and not all friendship relations involve gangs. We examine the friendship-formation process based on in-depth interviews with 72 students, parents, and teachers in two elementary schools in violent Chicago neighborhoods. All students were African American boys and girls ages 11 to 15. We find that while conventional studies depict friendship formation among children as largely affective in nature, the process among the students we observed was, instead, primarily strategic. The children’s strategies were not singular but heterogeneous and malleable in nature. We identify and document five distinct strategies: protection seeking, avoidance, testing, cultivating questioners, and kin reliance. Girls were as affected as boys were, and they also reported additional preoccupations associated with sexual violence. We discuss implications for theories of friendship formation, violence, and neighborhood effects.

  14. Fear of Violent Victimization among the Foreign-Born

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana ANDREESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In general, most studies that examined the relationship immigrants – criminal behavior focused on the immigrants’ involvement in criminal activities as offenders and/or the effects of immigration on crime rates. Only limited research looked at the levels of victimization and perceived safety experienced by immigrants in their receiving countries. Using the most recent available data from the European Social Survey (Round 5/2010, the present quantitative analysis conducted on a representative sample of residents in United Kingdom (N=2422 tries to determine the levels of criminal victimization and fear of violent crime associated with foreign nationals living in a European country, where immigration is generally unpopular. Although foreign-born persons living in United Kingdom appear to have a higher degree of victimization (vicarious and direct than natives, the inter-group difference is not sufficiently large to be significant at p< .05.Nevertheless, compared to natives, first-generation immigrants manifest a significantly higher level of fear of violent victimization. Results also show that in addition to inter-group differences in the levels of perceived unsafety and experiences with victimization, the effects of fear-of-crime correlates vary in intensity among respondents differentiated by their country of birth. In addition, one’s level of acculturation contributes to differences in fear of crime among immigrants.

  15. Effect of hurricanes and violent storms on salt marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, N.; Ganju, N. K.; Fagherazzi, S.

    2016-12-01

    Salt marsh losses have been documented worldwide because of land use change, wave erosion, and sea-level rise. It is still unclear how resistant salt marshes are to extreme storms and whether they can survive multiple events without collapsing. Based on a large dataset of salt marsh lateral erosion rates collected around the world, here, we determine the general response of salt marsh boundaries to wave action under normal and extreme weather conditions. As wave energy increases, salt marsh response to wind waves remains linear, and there is not a critical threshold in wave energy above which salt marsh erosion drastically accelerates. We apply our general formulation for salt marsh erosion to historical wave climates at eight salt marsh locations affected by hurricanes in the United States. Based on the analysis of two decades of data, we find that violent storms and hurricanes contribute less than 1% to long-term salt marsh erosion rates. In contrast, moderate storms with a return period of 2.5 mo are those causing the most salt marsh deterioration. Therefore, salt marshes seem more susceptible to variations in mean wave energy rather than changes in the extremes. The intrinsic resistance of salt marshes to violent storms and their predictable erosion rates during moderate events should be taken into account by coastal managers in restoration projects and risk management plans.

  16. Textural constraints on the dynamics of the 2000 Miyakejima eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garozzo, Ileana; Romano, Claudia; Giordano, Guido; Geshi, Nobuo; Vona, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Miyakejima Volcano is a basaltic-andesite stratovolcano active from ~10.000 years, located on the north of the Izu-Bonin arc. During the last 600 years the volcano has been characterized mainly by flank fissure activity, with explosive phreatomagmatic eruptions on the coastal areas. In the last century, the activity became more frequent and regular with intervals of 20 to 70 years (1940, 1962, 1983 and 2000). The last activity started on 27 June 2000, with a minor submarine eruption on the west coast of the volcano, and proceeded with six major summit eruptions from July 8 to August 29. The eruptions led to the formation of a collapse caldera ~1.6 km across. The total erupted tephra represents only 1.7% in volume of the caldera, the high fragmentation of magma produced mainly fine-grained volcanic ash. In order to improve the understanding on the triggering and dynamics of this explosive eruption, we carried out a detailed investigation of the erupted materials with particular attention to the textural features of juvenile pyroclasts (Vesicle and Crystal Size Distributions). The stratigraphic record can be divided into six fall units, corresponding to the six summit eruptions, although juvenile materials were identified only in 4 units (unit 2, 4, 5, 6). We selected about 100 juvenile grains sampled from the bottom to the top of each level, to be analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The study of juvenile morphological features allowed us to recognize the existence of three characteristic morphotypes, showing marked differences in their external morphologies and internal textures (from poorly to highly crystallized and vesiculated clasts). The distribution of these morphotypes is non-homogeneous along the eruptive sequence indicating changes of dynamics during magma ascent. Juveniles do not show features inherited from the interaction with external water. Vesicle Volume Distributions of the selected ash grains show that the three types of pyroclasts experienced

  17. Remote Sensing and GIS as Tools for Identifying Risk for Phreatomagmatic Eruptions in the Bishoftu Volcanic Field, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, H. G.; Graettinger, A.

    2017-12-01

    within a 100 km radius of the volcanic field center point. The infrastructure map and eruption scenarios will be used to identify infrastructure and resources with the greatest exposure in the event of future eruptions at the Bishoftu Volcanic Field.

  18. Fixed drug eruption resulting from fluconazole use: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavallaee Mahkam

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Fluconazole is a widely used antifungal agent with a possible side effect of fixed drug eruption. However, this adverse drug effect is absent from the reported list of possible side effects of fluconazole. We are presenting a rare case in our report. Case presentation A 25-year-old Iranian woman developed fixed drug eruptions on different sites of her body after taking five doses of fluconazole to treat vaginal candidiasis. A positive patch test, positive oral challenge test and skin biopsy were all found to be consistent with fixed drug eruption. Conclusion Fluconazole is a widely prescribed drug, used mainly to treat candidiasis. Fixed drug eruption as a possible side effect of Fluconazole is not well known and thus, the lesions may be misdiagnosed and mistreated. Based on our findings, which are consistent with a number of other practitioners, we recommend adding fixed drug eruption to the list of possible side effects of fluconazole.

  19. Spontaneous Eruption of Premolar Associated with a Dentigerous Cyst

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    Irla Karlinne Ferreira de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentigerous cyst (DC is the second most common odontogenic cyst with greater incidence in young patients. It presents as a unilocular, asymptomatic radiolucency involving the crown of an impacted tooth, commonly noticed in X-rays to investigate absence, wrong tooth position, or delay in the chronology of eruption. Decompression/marsupialization (D/M is the most implemented treatment, especially when preserving the tooth involved is advised. The aim of this study is to discuss the DC characteristics that contribute to spontaneous eruption of premolars, by reporting the case of a conservative treatment of DC. This eruption depends on factors such as age, angulation of inclusion, rate of root formation, depth of inclusion, and eruption space. This paper reports the case of a 10-year-old patient with a radiolucent lesion diagnosed as DC involving element 35, which erupted as a result of treatment. The patient was observed during 1 year and 6 months.

  20. Spontaneous Eruption of Premolar Associated with a Dentigerous Cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Irla Karlinne Ferreira; Luna, Anibal Henrique Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    Dentigerous cyst (DC) is the second most common odontogenic cyst with greater incidence in young patients. It presents as a unilocular, asymptomatic radiolucency involving the crown of an impacted tooth, commonly noticed in X-rays to investigate absence, wrong tooth position, or delay in the chronology of eruption. Decompression/marsupialization (D/M) is the most implemented treatment, especially when preserving the tooth involved is advised. The aim of this study is to discuss the DC characteristics that contribute to spontaneous eruption of premolars, by reporting the case of a conservative treatment of DC. This eruption depends on factors such as age, angulation of inclusion, rate of root formation, depth of inclusion, and eruption space. This paper reports the case of a 10-year-old patient with a radiolucent lesion diagnosed as DC involving element 35, which erupted as a result of treatment. The patient was observed during 1 year and 6 months.

  1. Drawing the Curtain on Enceladus' South-Polar Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitale, Joseph N.; Hurford, Terry A.; Rhoden, Alyssa R.; Berkson, Emily E.; Platts, Symeon S.

    2015-11-01

    For a comprehensive description of Enceladus' south-polar eruptions observed at high resolution, they must be represented as broad curtains rather than discrete jets. Meanders in the fractures from which the curtains of material erupt give rise to optical illusions that look like discrete jets, even along fractures with no local variations in eruptive activity, implying that many features previously identified as "jets" are in fact phantoms. By comparing Cassini images with model curtain eruptions, we are able to obtain maps of eruptive activity that are not biased by the presence of those phantom jets. The average of our activity maps over all times agrees well with thermal maps produced by Cassini CIRS. We can best explain the observed curtains by assuming spreading angles with altitude of up to 14° and zenith angles of up to 8°, for curtains observed in geometries that are sensitive to those quantities.

  2. Do volcanic eruptions affect climate? Sulfur gases may cause cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Stephen; Rampino, Michael R.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between volcanic eruptions on earth and the observed climatic changes is investigated. The results of the comparison and analyses of volcanologic and climatologic data sets for the years between 1880 and 1980 indicate that changes in temperature caused by even of the largest eruptions recorded during this time were about the same as normal variations in temperature. However, when temperature records for several months or years preceding and following a given eruption were analyzed, a statistically significant temperature decrease of 0.2-0.5 C was found for the periods of one to two years immediately following some of the 19th and 20th century explosive events that prodiced large aerosol clouds (e.g., Krakatau and Agung eruptions). It is suggested that the content of sulfur in the erupted magma determines the size of aerosol cloud producing the cooling effect.

  3. Darwin's triggering mechanism of volcano eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiev, Shamil

    2010-05-01

    Charles Darwin wrote that ‘… the elevation of many hundred square miles of territory near Concepcion is part of the same phenomenon, with that splashing up, if I may so call it, of volcanic matter through the orifices in the Cordillera at the moment of the shock;…' and ‘…a power, I may remark, which acts in paroxysmal upheavals like that of Concepcion, and in great volcanic eruptions,…'. Darwin reports that ‘…several of the great chimneys in the Cordillera of central Chile commenced a fresh period of activity ….' In particular, Darwin reported on four-simultaneous large eruptions from the following volcanoes: Robinson Crusoe, Minchinmavida, Cerro Yanteles and Peteroa (we cite the Darwin's sentences following his The Voyage of the Beagle and researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474). Let us consider these eruptions taking into account the volcano shape and the conduit. Three of the volcanoes (Minchinmavida (2404 m), Cerro Yanteles (2050 m), and Peteroa (3603 m)) are stratovolcanos and are formed of symmetrical cones with steep sides. Robinson Crusoe (922 m) is a shield volcano and is formed of a cone with gently sloping sides. They are not very active. We may surmise, that their vents had a sealing plug (vent fill) in 1835. All these volcanoes are conical. These common features are important for Darwin's triggering model, which is discussed below. The vent fill material, usually, has high level of porosity and a very low tensile strength and can easily be fragmented by tension waves. The action of a severe earthquake on the volcano base may be compared with a nuclear blast explosion of the base. It is known, that after a underground nuclear explosion the vertical motion and the surface fractures in a tope of mountains were observed. The same is related to the propagation of waves in conical elements. After the explosive load of the base. the tip may break and fly off at high velocity. Analogous phenomenon may be generated as a result of a

  4. Reconstruction of the eruptive activity on the NE sector of Stromboli volcano: timing of flank eruptions since 15 ka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvari, S.; Branca, S.; Corsaro, R.A.; De Beni, E.; Miraglia, L.; Norini, G.; Wijbrans, J.R.; Boschi, E.

    2011-01-01

    A multidisciplinary geological and compositional investigation allowed us to reconstruct the occurrence of flank eruptions on the lower NE flank of Stromboli volcano since 15 ka. The oldest flank eruption recognised is Roisa, which occurred at ~15 ka during the Vancori period, and has transitional

  5. Estimating rates of decompression from textures of erupted ash particles produced by 1999-2006 eruptions of Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Heather M.N.; Cashman, Katharine V.; Mothes, Patricia A.; Hall, Minard L.; Ruiz, Andrés Gorki; Le Pennec, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    Persistent low- to moderate-level eruptive activity of andesitic volcanoes is difficult to monitor because small changes in magma supply rates may cause abrupt transitions in eruptive style. As direct measurement of magma supply is not possible, robust techniques for indirect measurements must be developed. Here we demonstrate that crystal textures of ash particles from 1999 to 2006 Vulcanian and Strombolian eruptions of Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador, provide quantitative information about the dynamics of magma ascent and eruption that is difficult to obtain from other monitoring approaches. We show that the crystallinity of erupted ash particles is controlled by the magma supply rate (MSR); ash erupted during periods of high magma supply is substantially less crystalline than during periods of low magma supply. This correlation is most easily explained by efficient degassing at very low pressures (<<50 MPa) and degassing-driven crystallization controlled by the time available prior to eruption. Our data also suggest that the observed transition from intermittent Vulcanian explosions at low MSR to more continuous periods of Strombolian eruptions and lava fountains at high MSR can be explained by the rise of bubbles through (Strombolian) or trapping of bubbles beneath (Vulcanian) vent-capping, variably viscous (and crystalline) magma.

  6. Geochemical surveys in the Lusi mud eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarra, Alessandra; Mazzini, Adriano; Etiope, Giuseppe; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Hussein, Alwi; Hadi J., Soffian

    2016-04-01

    The Lusi mud eruption started in May 2006 following to a 6.3 M earthquake striking the Java Island. In the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n° 308126) we carried out geochemical surveys in the Sidoarjo district (Eastern Java Island, Indonesia) to investigate the gas bearing properties of the Watukosek fault system that crosses the Lusi mud eruption area. Soil gas (222Rn, CO2, CH4) concentration and flux measurements were performed 1) along two detailed profiles (~ 1km long), trending almost W-E direction, and 2) inside the Lusi embankment (about 7 km2) built to contain the erupted mud. Higher gas concentrations and fluxes were detected at the intersection with the Watukosek fault and the antithetic fault system. These zones characterized by the association of higher soil gas values constitute preferential migration pathways for fluids towards surface. The fractures release mainly CO2 (with peaks up to 400 g/m2day) and display higher temperatures (up to 41°C). The main shear zones are populated by numerous seeps that expel mostly CH4. Flux measurements in the seeping pools reveal that φCO2 is an order of magnitude higher than that measured in the fractures, and two orders of magnitude higher for φCH4. An additional geochemical profile was completed perpendicularly to the Watukosek fault escarpement (W-E direction) at the foots of the Penanngungang volcano. Results reveal CO2 and CH4 flux values significantly lower than those measured in the embankment, however an increase of radon and flux measurements is observed approaching the foots of the escarpment. These measurements are complemented with a database of ~350 CH4 and CO2 flux measurements and some soil gas concentrations (He, H2, CO2, CH4 and C2H6) and their isotopic analyses (δ13C-CH4, δD-CH4 and δ13C-CO2). Results show that the whole area is characterized by diffused gas release through seeps, fractures, microfractures and soil degassing. The collected results shed light on the origin of the

  7. Violent and non-violent methods of attempted and completed suicide in Swedish young men: the role of early risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbacka, Marlene; Jokinen, Jussi

    2015-08-14

    There is a paucity of studies on the role of early risk factors for the choice of methods for violent suicide attempts. Adolescent risk factors for the choice of violent or non-violent methods for suicide attempts and the risk of subsequent suicide were studied using a longitudinal design. A national Swedish cohort of 48 834 18-20-year-old young men conscripted for military service from 1969 to 1970 was followed through official registers during a 37-year period. Two questionnaires concerning their psychosocial background were answered by each conscript. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to estimate the risk for different methods of attempted suicide and later suicide. A total of 1195 (2.4 %) men had made a suicide attempt and of these, 133 (11.1 %) committed suicide later. The number of suicide victims among the non-attempters was 482 (1 %). Half of the suicides occurred during the same year as the attempt. Suicide victims had earlier onset of suicidal behaviour and had more often used hanging as a method of attempted suicide than those who did not later commit suicide. The early risk factors for both violent and non-violent methods of suicide attempt were quite similar. Violent suicide attempts, especially by hanging, are associated with a clearly elevated suicide risk in men and require special clinical and public health attention. The early risk factors related to the choice of either a violent or a non-violent suicide attempt method are interlinked and circumstantial factors temporally close to the suicide attempt, such as access to a specific method, may partly explain the choice of method.

  8. What factors control the size of an eruption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Agust

    2017-04-01

    For human society, eruption sizes (eruptive volumes or masses) are of the greatest concern. In particular, the largest eruptions, producing volumes of the order of hundreds or thousands of cubic kilometres, provide, together with meteoritic impacts, the greatest natural threats to mankind. Eruptive volumes tend to follow power laws so that most eruptions are comparatively small whereas a few are very large. It follows that a while during most ruptures of the source chambers a small fraction of the magma leaves the chamber, in some ruptures a very large fraction of the magma leaves the chamber. Most explosive eruptions larger than about 25 km3 are associated with caldera collapse. In the standard 'underpressure' ('lack of magmatic support') model, however, the collapse is the consequence, not the cause, of the large eruption. For poroelastic models, typically less than 4% of the magma in a felsic chamber and less than 0.1% of the magma in a mafic chamber leaves the chamber during rupture (and eventual eruption). In some caldera models, however, 20-70% of the magma is supposed to leave the chamber before the ring-fault forms and the caldera block begins to subside. In these models any amount of magma can flow out of the chamber following its rupture and there is apparently no way to forecast either the volume of magma injected from the chamber (hence the potential size of an eventual eruption) or the conditions for caldera collapse. An alternative model is proposed here. In this model normal (small) eruptions are controlled by standard poroelastity behaviour of the chamber, whereas large eruptions are controlled by chamber-volume reduction or shrinkage primarily through caldera/graben block subsidence into the chamber. Volcanotectonic stresses are then a major cause of ring-fault/graben boundary-fault formation. When large slips occur on these faults, the subsiding crustal block reduces the volume of the underlying chamber/reservoir, thereby maintaining its excess

  9. A Longitudinal Study of the Association between Violent Video Game Play and Aggression among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Teena; Adachi, Paul J. C.; Good, Marie

    2012-01-01

    In the past 2 decades, correlational and experimental studies have found a positive association between violent video game play and aggression. There is less evidence, however, to support a long-term relation between these behaviors. This study examined sustained violent video game play and adolescent aggressive behavior across the high school…

  10. Mortal Kombat: The Effects of Violent Video Technology on Males' Hostility and Cardiovascular Responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Mary E.; Wiest, J. Rose

    A study examined differences in cardiovascular (CV) reactions and hostility following non-violent play and violent video game play. Subjects were 30 male college undergraduate students. Only male subjects were used because most video games are male oriented, males frequent videogame arcades more often than females, and the gender gap in video game…

  11. The Role of Violent Video Game Content in Adolescent Development: Boys' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Cheryl K.; Kutner, Lawrence A.; Warner, Dorothy E.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous policies have been proposed at the local, state, and national level to restrict youth access to violent video and computer games. Although studies are cited to support policies, there is no published research on how children perceive the uses and influence of violent interactive games. The authors conduct focus groups with 42 boys ages 12…

  12. How violent video games communicate violence: A literature review and content analysis of moral disengagement factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, T.; Krakowiak, M.; Tsay-Vogel, M.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms of moral disengagement in violent video game play have recently received considerable attention among communication scholars. To date, however, no study has analyzed the prevalence of moral disengagement factors in violent video games. To fill this research gap, the present approach

  13. Violent Video Gaming and Moral Reasoning in Adolescents: Is There an Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajovic, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    In this study of 109 adolescents from the eighth grade of seven public elementary schools in Canada, the relationship between adolescents' violent video game playing patterns, habits and attitudes, and their levels of moral reasoning was investigated. The results suggested that playing violent video games in general was a very popular activity…

  14. A 10-year follow-up study of violent victimization in first episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langeveld, Johannes; Bjørkly, Stål; Evensen, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Violent victimization in persons with severe mental illness has long-term adverse consequences. Little is known about the long-term prevalence of victimization in first episode psychosis, or about factors affecting victimization throughout the course of illness. To assess the prevalence of violent...

  15. Media Managing Mood: A Look at the Possible Effects of Violent Media on Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Alexandra; LaQuea, Rachel; Cromwell, Rachel; Ferguson, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The potential impact of violent media on children's emotional well-being has been a source of controversy for several decades. To date evidence for a negative impact of violent media on emotional well-being has been mixed and increasingly connected to a "replication crisis" throughout psychological science. Objective: The…

  16. The Effects of Violent Video Game Habits on Adolescent Aggressive Attitudes and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Paul J.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Olson, Abbie A.; van Brederode, Tara M.

    Video games have become one of the favorite activities of children in America. A growing body of research links violent video game play to aggressive cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors. This study tested the predictions that exposure to violent video game content is: (1) positively correlated with hostile attribution bias; (2) positively…

  17. Moral disengagement moderates the effect of violent video games on self-control, cheating and aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabbiadini, A.; Riva, P.; Andrighetto, L.; Volpato, C.; Bushman, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    Violent video games glorify and reward immoral behaviors (e.g., murder, assault, rape, robbery, arson, motor vehicle theft). Based on the moral disengagement theory, we predicted that violent games would increase multiple immoral behaviors (i.e., lack of self-control, cheating, aggression),

  18. Effects of avatar race in violent video games on racial attitudes and aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, G.S.; Gibson, B; Lueke, A.K.; Huesmann, L.R.; Bushman, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    The media often link Black characters and violence. This is especially true in video games, in which Black male characters are virtually always violent. This research tested the effects of playing a violent game as a Black (vs. White) avatar on racial stereotypes and aggression. In Experiment 1,

  19. The Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggression: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, John L.

    2001-01-01

    Cumulates findings across existing empirical research on the effects of violent video games to estimate overall effect size and discern important trends and moderating variables. Suggests there is a smaller effect of violent video games on aggression than has been found with television violence on aggression. (SG)

  20. Seeing the World through "Mortal Kombat" Colored Glasses: Violent Video Games and Hostile Attribution Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsh, Steven J.

    Although positive effects of children playing video games have been found, recent research suggests that exposure to violent video games may lead to an increase in aggressive behavior. This study investigated the effects of playing violent versus nonviolent video games on the interpretation of ambiguous provocation situations. Participants were 52…

  1. Violent video games cause an increase in aggression long after the game has been turned off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bushman, B.J.; Gibson, B

    2011-01-01

    Experimental studies show that violent video games cause people to behave more aggressively, but how long does the effect last? In most experiments, aggression is measured immediately after gameplay. The present experiment is the first to test the long-term causal effects of violent video games on

  2. Effects of Playing versus Observing Violent versus Nonviolent Video Games on Children's Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybill, Daniel; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined short-term effects of playing versus observing violent versus nonviolent video games on the aggression of elementary school children. Children (N=146) played or observed games for 14 minutes, then completed three measures of aggression. Found no differences between violent and nonviolent conditions on measures of aggression. (Author/NB)

  3. The Relationship between Juvenile Psychopathic Traits, Delinquency and (Violent) Recidivism: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asscher, Jessica J.; van Vugt, Eveline S.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Dekovic, Maja; Eichelsheim, Veroni I.; Yousfi, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    A meta-analysis of k = 53 studies containing 60 non-overlapping samples and 10,073 participants was conducted to investigate whether psychopathy was associated with delinquency and (violent) recidivism in juveniles. The results showed that psychopathy was moderately associated with delinquency, general recidivism, and violent recidivism. Moderator…

  4. A longitudinal study of the association between violent video game play and aggression among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Teena; Adachi, Paul J C; Good, Marie

    2012-07-01

    In the past 2 decades, correlational and experimental studies have found a positive association between violent video game play and aggression. There is less evidence, however, to support a long-term relation between these behaviors. This study examined sustained violent video game play and adolescent aggressive behavior across the high school years and directly assessed the socialization (violent video game play predicts aggression over time) versus selection hypotheses (aggression predicts violent video game play over time). Adolescents (N = 1,492, 50.8% female) were surveyed annually from Grade 9 to Grade 12 about their video game play and aggressive behaviors. Nonviolent video game play, frequency of overall video game play, and a comprehensive set of potential 3rd variables were included as covariates in each analysis. Sustained violent video game play was significantly related to steeper increases in adolescents' trajectory of aggressive behavior over time. Moreover, greater violent video game play predicted higher levels of aggression over time, after controlling for previous levels of aggression, supporting the socialization hypothesis. In contrast, no support was found for the selection hypothesis. Nonviolent video game play also did not predict higher levels of aggressive behavior over time. Our findings, and the fact that many adolescents play video games for several hours every day, underscore the need for a greater understanding of the long-term relation between violent video games and aggression, as well as the specific game characteristics (e.g., violent content, competition, pace of action) that may be responsible for this association.

  5. Violent Extremism, National Security and Prevention. Institutional Discourses and Their Implications for Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Christer; Säljö, Roger

    2018-01-01

    Currently, threats to societal security from extremist groups are high on the political agenda in many countries. Politicians, policymakers at various levels and communities are searching for methods to counteract recruitment to violent organizations. These efforts are often referred to as Prevention of Violent Extremism (PVE-programmes). One of…

  6. Families, Neighborhood Socio-Demographic Factors, and Violent Behaviors among Latino, White, and Black Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Martinez, Lorena M.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Schulz, Amy J.; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Pedraza, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Youth violence is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among Blacks and Latinos. Violent behaviors within Latino subgroups and the reasons for subgroup differences are not well understood. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 16,615), this study examined the risk for violent behaviors among an ethnically…

  7. The Role of Violent Media Preference in Cumulative Developmental Risk for Violence and General Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Bushman, Brad J.; O'Brien, Maureen; Moceri, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    The impact of exposure to violence in the media on the long-term development and short-term expression of aggressive behavior has been well documented. However, gaps in this literature remain, and in particular the role of violent media exposure in shaping violent and other serious antisocial behavior has not been investigated. Further, studies of…

  8. The relationships between environmental factors and violent behaviors in adolescent students of Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Omidi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Our findings confirmed love and affection and healthy pastime (e.g. watching comedy and drama movies in the family to reduce violent behaviors in adolescents. In contrast, aggressive behaviors in the family, watching crime, police, and action movies were found to increase violent behaviors in adolescents.

  9. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to the Relationship between Violent Victimization and Criminal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaske, Jamie; Boisvert, Danielle; Wright, John Paul

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that there is a significant association between violent victimization and criminal behavior. One potential explanation for this association is that genetically mediated processes contribute to both violent victimization and criminal behavior. The current study uses data from the twin sample of the National Longitudinal Study of…

  10. Personality traits predict brain activation and connectivity when witnessing a violent conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Stock, Jan; Hortensius, R.; Sinke, Charlotte; Goebel, Rainer; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    As observers we excel in decoding the emotional signals telling us that a social interaction is turning violent. The neural substrate and its modulation by personality traits remain ill understood. We performed an fMRI experiment in which participants watched videos displaying a violent conflict

  11. Violent Video Games and the Military: Recruitment, Training, and Treating Mental Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, John

    2014-01-01

    This article adds to the small collection of art education studies on video games (Parks, 2008; Patton, 2013; Sweeny, 2010) by critically examining the association between violent video games, the U.S. military, and mental disability--from a critical disability studies perspective. Derby overviews the controversies surrounding violent video games…

  12. Buss-Durkee Assessment and Validation with Violent versus Nonviolent Chronic Alcohol Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renson, Gisele J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abusers who had been violent while intoxicated and nonviolent alcohol abusers were administered the Buss-Durkee Inventory. Violence was documented. Violent drinkers scored significantly higher than control subjects on the inventory total hostility score and on subscales measuring assault, irritability, verbal hostility, indirect…

  13. Victim's Response and Alcohol-Related Factors as Determinants of Women's Responses to Violent Pornography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jeanette; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Martell, Joel; Heiman, Julia R.

    2004-01-01

    Women suffer a variety of detrimental effects from exposure to violent pornography. This study examined the role of specific situational cues embedded within a violent pornographic story, as well as alcohol consumption and alcohol expectancies, to determine potential mechanisms through which these effects occur. Female social drinkers (N=123),…

  14. Eruption and emplacement timescales of ignimbrite super-eruptions from thermo-kinetics of glass shards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan eLavallée

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Super-eruptions generating hundreds of cubic kilometres of pyroclastic density currents are commonly recorded by thick, welded and lava-like ignimbrites. Despite the huge environmental impact inferred for this type of eruption, little is yet known about the timescales of deposition and post-depositional flow. Without these timescales, the critical question of the duration of any environmental impact, and the ensuing gravity of its effects for the Earth system, eludes us. The eruption and welding of ignimbrites requires three transects of the glass transition. Magma needs to: 1 fragment during ascent, 2 liquefy and relax during deposition, agglutination and welding (sintering, and 3 quench by cooling into the glassy state. Here we show that welding is a rapid, syn-depositional process and that the welded ignimbrite sheet may flow for up to a few hours before passing through the glass transition a final time. Geospeedometry reveals that the basal vitrophyre of the Grey’s Landing ignimbrite underwent the glass transition at a rate of ~0.1 °C.min^-1 at 870 °C; that is, 30-180 °C below pre-eruptive geothermometric estimates. Application of a 1-D cooling model constrains the timescale of deposition, agglutination, and welding of the basal vitrophyre to less than 1 hour, and possibly even tens of minutes. Thermo-mechanical iteration of the sintering process indicates an optimal temperature solution for the emplacement of the vitrophyres at 966 °C. The vitrophyres reveal a Newtonian rheology up to 46 MPa, which suggests that the ash particles annealed entirely during welding and that viscous energy dissipation is unlikely from loading conditions alone, unless shear stresses imposed by the overlying ash flow were excessively high and sustained over long distances. The findings underline the value of the term 'lava-like' flow to describe the end rheology of Snake River-type ignimbrites, fully consistent with the typical lithofacies observed.

  15. The Tala Tuff, La Primavera caldera Mexico. Pre-eruptive conditions and magma processes before eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Ceballos, G.

    2015-12-01

    La Primavera caldera, Jalisco Mexico, is a Pleistocenic volcanic structure formed by dome complexes and multiple pyroclastic flows and fall deposits. It is located at the intersection of the Chapala, Colima, and Tepic grabens in western Mexico. The first volcanic activity associated to La Primavera started ~0.1 Ma with the emission of pre-caldera lavas. The caldera collapse occurred 95 ka and is associated to the eruption of ~20 km3of pumice flows known as the Tala tuff (Mahood 1980). The border of the caldera was replaced by a series of domes dated in 75-30 ky, which partially filled the inner depression of the caldera with pyroclastic flows and falls. For more than a decade the Federal Commission of Electricity in Mexico (CFE) has prospected and evaluated the geothermal potential of the Cerritos Colorados project at La Primavera caldera. In order to better understand the plumbing system that tapped the Tala tuff and to investigate its relation with the potential geothermal field at La Primavera we performed a series of hydrothermal experiments and studied melt inclusions hosted in quartz phenocrysts by Fourier Infra red stectroscopy (FTIR). Although some post caldera products at La Primavera contain fayalite and quartz (suggesting QFM conditions) the Tala tuff does not contain fayalite and we ran experiments under NNO conditions. The absence of titanomagnetite does not allowed us to calculate pre-eruptive temperature. However, the stability of quartz and plagioclase, which are natural phases, suggest that temperature should be less than 750 °C at a pressure of 200 MPa. The analyses of H2O and CO2 dissolved in melt inclusions yielded concentrations of 2-5 wt.% and 50-100 ppm respectively. This data confirm that the pre-eruptive pressure of the Tala tuff is ~200 MPa and in addition to major elements compositions suggest that the Tala tuff is either, compositionally zoned or mixed with other magma just prior to eruption.

  16. POLYMORPHOUS LIGHT ERUPTION – A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogeesh Hosahalli Rajaiah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Polymprhouos light eruption is the most common idiopathic photodermatosis. It is a sun induced cutaneous reaction characterized by onset itchy erathematous papules, plaques, vesicles or erythema multiforme type of lesions after brief exposure to sunlight. Sun-exposed areas of the body or rarely the partially covered areas are commonly involved. PLE is more common in temperate climates than in tropics. It begins usually at the onset of summer and moderates as the summer progresses. In most patients it usually runs a benign course. Diagnosis is mainly on clinical grounds. Therapy involves avoidance of sun-exposure and use of sunscreens. Cases not responding to simple measures require PUVA (Psoralen and Ultraviolet A or UVB (ultraviolet B therapy. Other alternative suggested therapies with variable success include oral hydroxychloroquine, beta-carotene, thalidomide and nicotinamide.

  17. Ursodeoxycholic acid induced generalized fixed drug eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkol, Hatice Uce; Calka, Omer; Dulger, Ahmet Cumhur; Bulut, Gulay

    2014-09-01

    Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a rare form of drug allergies that recur at the same cutaneous or mucosal site in every usage of drug. Single or multiple round, sharply demarcated and dusky red plaques appear soon after drug exposure. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA: 3α,7β-dihydroxy-5β-cholanic acid) is used for the treatment of cholestatic liver diseases. Some side effects may be observed, such as diarrhea, dyspepsia, pruritus and headaches. We encountered only three cases of lichenoid reaction regarding the use of UDCA among previous studies. In this article, we reported a generalized FDE case related to UDCA intake in a 59-year-old male patient with cholestasis for the first time in the literature.

  18. Introduction to the 2012-2013 Tolbachik eruption special issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Benjamin R.; Belousov, Alexander; Belousova, Marina; Volynets, Anna

    2015-12-01

    The Tolbachik volcanic complex in central Kamchatka holds a special place in global volcanological studies. It is one of 4 areas of extensive historic volcanic activity in the northern part of the Central Kamchatka Depression (the others being Klyuchevskoy, Bezymianny, Shiveluch), and is part of the Klyuchevskoy volcanic group, which is one of the most active areas of volcanism on Earth. Tolbachik is especially well-known due largely to the massive 1975-1976 eruption that became known as the Great Tolbachik Fissure eruption (GTFE; Fedotov, 1983; Fedotov et al., 1984). This was one of the first eruptions in Russia to be predicted based on precursory seismic activity, based on M5 earthquakes approximately one week before the eruption started, and was intensively studied during its course by a large number of Russian scientists. A summary of those studies was published, first in Russian and then in English, and it became widely read for many reasons. One in particular is that the eruption was somewhat unusual for a subduction zone setting; although many subduction zone stratovolcanoes have associated basaltic tephra cone-lava fields, this was the first such Hawaiian-style eruption to be widely observed. After the end of the eruption in 1976, the complex showed no signs of activity until 27 November 2012, when increased seismic activity was registered by the Kamchatka Branch of the Russian Geophysical Survey and a red glow from the eruption site was first noticed through the snowstorm haze. This prompted them, and then the Kamchatka Volcanic Emergency Response Team (KVERT) to issue an alert that activity was coming from the south flank of Plosky Tolbachik volcano, the younger of two volcanic edifices (the older is Ostry Tolbachik) that together make up the bulk of the complex along with tephra cone-lava fields that lie along a NE-SW fissure zone that transects Plosky Tolbachik. The new eruption lasted for more than 250 days and, like the 1975-1976 eruption, was

  19. Photogrammetric Analysis of the Current Dome-Building Eruption of Mount St. Helens Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, A. K.; Dzurisin, D.; Crider, J. G.; Schilling, S. P.

    2006-12-01

    tiltmeters provides an opportunity to further our understanding of the processes underlying ground deformation and future eruptive activity of Mount St. Helens.

  20. Correlates of violent response among Peruvian women abused by an intimate partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaye, Bizu; Lam, Nelly; Cripe, Swee May; Sanchez, Sixto E; Williams, Michelle A

    2010-01-01

    The authors sought to identify correlates of violent response among women exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) in Lima, Peru. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on exposure to IPV and women's physical violent reaction towards their abuser. Women who were sexually abused by their partners, as compared with women who experienced emotional abuse only, were more than twice as likely to respond in a violent manner to the abuse (OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 1.14-4.74). Similarly, women who reported being physically abused, were 4 times as likely than those who experienced emotional abuse only to retaliate in a physically violent manner (OR = 4.04, 95% CI = 2.68-6.11). Women's educational status, history of witnessing parental violence as a child, and type of IPV are significantly associated with women's violent response. Community support networks and culturally appropriate intervention programs designed to prevent and mitigate the impact of IPV are needed.