WorldWideScience

Sample records for future shore level

  1. A mathematical model of past, present and future shore level displacement in Fennoscandia

    Paasse, T. [Sveriges Geologiska Undersoekning, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    Shore level displacement in Fennoscandia is mainly due to two interactive vertical movements, glacio-isostatic uplift and eustatic sea level rise. A recent investigation of the lake-tilting phenomenon has made it possible to discern the course of glacio-isostatic. As a consequence an iteration process to estimate glacio-isostatic uplift and eustatic rise using empirical data of the shore level displacement has been started. The model indicates that there are two mechanisms involved in glacio-isostatic uplift, one slow and the other fast. The main uplift, still in progress, acts slowly. Arctan functions have proved to be suitable tools for describing slow glacio-isostatic uplift. The time of maximal uplift rate is isochronous, meaning that slow uplift occurred simultaneously in all Fennoscandia in an interactive movement. For slow uplift there is a relationship between the rate of decline and the crustal thickness. In areas with greater crustal thickness the rate of decline of the glacio-isostatic recovery is lower than in areas with thinner crust. The fast mechanism gave rise to a crustal subsidence which started about 12 500 BP. After about 10 300 BP, in the early Holocene, the subsidence was restored by a fast uplift. Normal distribution functions have been used for calculating the fast mechanism. The mantle material exhibits plastic behaviour. When the mantle encounters short-lived stresses the material behaves like an elastic solid but in response to long-term stresses it will flow. The slow mechanism can be linked to viscous flow and as a response to long-term stresses. The fast mechanism is probably the response to a short-lived stress. This stress could have been caused by renewed ice loading, due to a self-triggered redistribution of the ice load during deglaciation. Future development regarding glacio-isostatic uplift, eustasy and shore level displacement is predicted in Fennoscandia using the results from the modelling. Predictions are based on the

  2. A mathematical model of the shore level displacement in Fennoscandia

    Paasse, T.

    1996-12-01

    The shore level displacement in Fennoscandia (Scandinavia and Finland) is mainly due to two cooperative vertical movements, the glacio-isostatic uplift and the eustatic sea level rise. The course of the glacio-isostatic uplift has recently been made discernible according to an investigation of the lake tilting phenomenon. This new information has made it possible to start an iteration process for detailed estimations of the uplift and the rise using empirical data of the shore level displacement. Arctan-functions have proved to be suitable tools for describing the glacio-isostatic uplift. The model indicates that there are two mechanisms involved in the glacio-isostatic uplift, one slow that can be linked to viscous flow, and one fast that might be explained by compression followed by decompression. The future development regarding the glacio-isostatic uplift, the eustasy and the shore level displacement is predicted in Fennoscandia using the results from the modeling. The predictions are based on the assumption that the crustal and eustatic developments will follow the trends that exist today. 124 refs, 98 figs

  3. Simulation of Groundwater-Level and Salinity Changes in the Eastern Shore, Virginia

    Sanford, Ward E.; Pope, Jason P.; Nelms, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater-level and salinity changes have been simulated with a groundwater model developed and calibrated for the Eastern Shore of Virginia. The Eastern Shore is the southern part of the Delmarva Peninsula that is occupied by Accomack and Northampton Counties in Virginia. Groundwater is the sole source of freshwater to the Eastern Shore, and demands for water have been increasing from domestic, industrial, agricultural, and public-supply sectors of the economy. Thus, it is important that the groundwater supply be protected from overextraction and seawater intrusion. The best way for water managers to use all of the information available is usually to compile this information into a numerical model that can simulate the response of the system to current and future stresses. A detailed description of the geology, hydrogeology, and historical groundwater extractions was compiled and entered into the numerical model. The hydrogeologic framework is composed of a surficial aquifer under unconfined conditions, a set of three aquifers and associated overlying confining units under confined conditions (the upper, middle, and lower Yorktown-Eastover Formation), and an underlying confining unit (the St. Marys Formation). An estimate of the location and depths of two major paleochannels was also included in the framework of the model. Total withdrawals from industrial, commercial, public-supply, and some agricultural wells were compiled from the period 1900 through 2003. Reported pumpage from these sources increased dramatically during the 1960s and 70s, up to currently about 4 million gallons per day. Domestic withdrawals were estimated on the basis of population census districts and were assigned spatially to the model on the assumption that domestic users are located close to roads. A numerical model was created using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) code SEAWAT to simulate both water levels and concentrations of chloride (representing salinity). The model was

  4. A study of fish and shellfish radioactivity levels in Cumbrian near-shore waters

    McKay, W.A.; Szweda, C.

    1987-07-01

    Fish (cod, plaice, whiting and skate), crustacea (shrimp, Nephrops, crab and lobster) and mollusc (winkle) samples were collected from Cumbrian near-shore waters between November 1984 and the end of December 1986. The samples were analysed for total beta activity and a range of gamma and alpha emitters. In general the radionuclide levels were lower in 1986 than in 1985. On the assumption of constant consumption rates, the intakes of all consumers have decreased. In particular, the doses incurred by the critical group of local seafood consumers near Sellafield, mainly due to winkle consumption, were below the ICRP dose limit for the public of 1 mSv year -1 . (author)

  5. Effects of shore-level displacement on the ecology of Baltic Sea bays

    Hansen, Joakim P. [AquaBiota Water Rsearch, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    This report presents the up to date understanding of changes in ecological structure of small Baltic Sea bays following shore-level displacement and isolation of bays from the sea. It was produced as a part of the biosphere research programme, which has a strong emphasis on the characterization of properties and processes affecting the fate of potentially released radionuclides from the suggested repository of nuclear waste in the bedrock of the Forsmark area. The report has a focus on ecology and gives a description of input data, methodology and results on changes in flora and fauna communities, as well as some abiotic factors, with topographic isolation of bays from the sea. It is intended to describe the properties and conditions at the Forsmark site and to give information essential for demonstrating site specific understanding of processes and properties linked to a sea-to lake succession. Long-term landscape development in the Forsmark area is dependent on two main and partly interdependent factors; shore-level displacement and climate variations. These two factors in combination strongly affect a number of processes, which in turn influence the development of ecosystems. Some examples of such processes are erosion and sedimentation, primary production and decomposition of organic matter. In this work focus has been to report changes in the structure and biomass of flora and fauna communities, which affect primary production, and influence the processes of decomposition of organic matter and sedimentation. A section of the study also deals with the biological processes of primary production, auto trophic carbon uptake and influence of allochtonous energy. The study is part of a description of the Forsmark ecosystem succession during a glacial cycle, which is one of the main objectives of the biosphere modelling at the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The biomass of macro fauna was found to decrease with increasing isolation of bays

  6. Effects of shore-level displacement on the ecology of Baltic Sea bays

    Hansen, Joakim P.

    2012-12-01

    This report presents the up to date understanding of changes in ecological structure of small Baltic Sea bays following shore-level displacement and isolation of bays from the sea. It was produced as a part of the biosphere research programme, which has a strong emphasis on the characterization of properties and processes affecting the fate of potentially released radionuclides from the suggested repository of nuclear waste in the bedrock of the Forsmark area. The report has a focus on ecology and gives a description of input data, methodology and results on changes in flora and fauna communities, as well as some abiotic factors, with topographic isolation of bays from the sea. It is intended to describe the properties and conditions at the Forsmark site and to give information essential for demonstrating site specific understanding of processes and properties linked to a sea-to lake succession. Long-term landscape development in the Forsmark area is dependent on two main and partly interdependent factors; shore-level displacement and climate variations. These two factors in combination strongly affect a number of processes, which in turn influence the development of ecosystems. Some examples of such processes are erosion and sedimentation, primary production and decomposition of organic matter. In this work focus has been to report changes in the structure and biomass of flora and fauna communities, which affect primary production, and influence the processes of decomposition of organic matter and sedimentation. A section of the study also deals with the biological processes of primary production, auto trophic carbon uptake and influence of allochtonous energy. The study is part of a description of the Forsmark ecosystem succession during a glacial cycle, which is one of the main objectives of the biosphere modelling at the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The biomass of macro fauna was found to decrease with increasing isolation of bays

  7. Projecting future sea level

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Bromirski, Peter; Hayhoe, Katharine; Tyree, Mary; Dettinger, Mike; Flick, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    California’s coastal observations and global model projections indicate that California’s open coast and estuaries will experience increasing sea levels over the next century. Sea level rise has affected much of the coast of California, including the Southern California coast, the Central California open coast, and the San Francisco Bay and upper estuary. These trends, quantified from a small set of California tide gages, have ranged from 10–20 centimeters (cm) (3.9–7.9 inches) per century, quite similar to that estimated for global mean sea level. So far, there is little evidence that the rate of rise has accelerated, and the rate of rise at California tide gages has actually flattened since 1980, but projections suggest substantial sea level rise may occur over the next century. Climate change simulations project a substantial rate of global sea level rise over the next century due to thermal expansion as the oceans warm and runoff from melting land-based snow and ice accelerates. Sea level rise projected from the models increases with the amount of warming. Relative to sea levels in 2000, by the 2070–2099 period, sea level rise projections range from 11–54 cm (4.3–21 in) for simulations following the lower (B1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, from 14–61 cm (5.5–24 in) for the middle-upper (A2) emission scenario, and from 17–72 cm (6.7–28 in) for the highest (A1fi) scenario. In addition to relatively steady secular trends, sea levels along the California coast undergo shorter period variability above or below predicted tide levels and changes associated with long-term trends. These variations are caused by weather events and by seasonal to decadal climate fluctuations over the Pacific Ocean that in turn affect the Pacific coast. Highest coastal sea levels have occurred when winter storms and Pacific climate disturbances, such as El Niño, have coincided with high astronomical tides. This study considers a range of projected future

  8. An empirical model of glacio-isostatic movements and shore-level displacement in Fennoscandia

    Paasse, T. [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2001-08-01

    Shore-level displacement in Fennoscandia is mainly due to two co-operative vertical movements, glacio-isostatic uplift and global eustatic sea level rise. The course of the glacio-isostatic uplift has been made discernible according to an investigation of the lake-tilting phenomenon. This information made it possible to start an iteration process that has given mathematical expression for factors involved both within the isostatic movements and the eustatic rise. There are two components involved in glacio-isostatic uplift. The main uplift, still in progress, acts slowly and is thus called the slow component. Arctan functions have proved to be suitable tools for describing the slow component. There are two main factors involved in the function used for calculation; A{sub s} (m), the download factor and B{sub s} (y{sup -1} ), which is an inertia factor. A strong linear correlation between the inertia factor Bs and lithosphere thickness has been found in the model. There was also a fast component involved in the crustal changes at the end of Late Weichselian and early Holocene. This component gave rise to fast subsidence followed by fast uplift during the final part of the deglaciation. Crustal subsidence is assumed to be due to reloading of the crust in the central parts of Fennoscandia during the Younger Dryas stadial. Normal distribution functions are used for calculating this component. Glacio-isostatic uplift and thus a regressive shore-level displacement was extremely rapid around 10,300 years BP. This fast regression was contemporaneous and occurred in a similar way at the West Coasts of Norway and Sweden as well as in the Baltic. The 'drainage' of the Baltic Ice Lake has been interpreted in the model as due to this fast regression. The slow component is most probably due to viscous flow in the asthenosphere and the fast component is assumed to be due to its elasticity.

  9. An empirical model of glacio-isostatic movements and shore-level displacement in Fennoscandia

    Paasse, T.

    2001-08-01

    Shore-level displacement in Fennoscandia is mainly due to two co-operative vertical movements, glacio-isostatic uplift and global eustatic sea level rise. The course of the glacio-isostatic uplift has been made discernible according to an investigation of the lake-tilting phenomenon. This information made it possible to start an iteration process that has given mathematical expression for factors involved both within the isostatic movements and the eustatic rise. There are two components involved in glacio-isostatic uplift. The main uplift, still in progress, acts slowly and is thus called the slow component. Arctan functions have proved to be suitable tools for describing the slow component. There are two main factors involved in the function used for calculation; A s (m), the download factor and B s (y -1 ), which is an inertia factor. A strong linear correlation between the inertia factor Bs and lithosphere thickness has been found in the model. There was also a fast component involved in the crustal changes at the end of Late Weichselian and early Holocene. This component gave rise to fast subsidence followed by fast uplift during the final part of the deglaciation. Crustal subsidence is assumed to be due to reloading of the crust in the central parts of Fennoscandia during the Younger Dryas stadial. Normal distribution functions are used for calculating this component. Glacio-isostatic uplift and thus a regressive shore-level displacement was extremely rapid around 10,300 years BP. This fast regression was contemporaneous and occurred in a similar way at the West Coasts of Norway and Sweden as well as in the Baltic. The 'drainage' of the Baltic Ice Lake has been interpreted in the model as due to this fast regression. The slow component is most probably due to viscous flow in the asthenosphere and the fast component is assumed to be due to its elasticity

  10. A survey of fish and shellfish radioactivity levels in Cumbrian near-shore waters (1990)

    McKay, W A; Memmott, S D

    1991-09-01

    Fish (cod and plaice), crustacea, (crab and lobster), and molluscs (winkle) samples were collected from Cumbrian near-shore waters in 1990. The samples were analysed for total beta activity and a range of gamma and alpha emitters. In general, the radionuclide levels are lower than those measured in the previous 3 years of the study and the intake of radioactivity by all consumers should have reflected this. The dose estimated to have been incurred by the critical group of local seafood consumers near Sellafield in 1990, mainly due to winkle consumption, is less than 0.1 mSv and thus significantly below the limit of 1 mSv per year for long term radiation exposure recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (author).

  11. A survey of fish and shellfish radioactivity levels in Cumbrian near-shore waters (1990)

    McKay, W.A.; Memmott, S.D.

    1991-09-01

    Fish (cod and plaice), crustacea, (crab and lobster), and molluscs (winkle) samples were collected from Cumbrian near-shore waters in 1990. The samples were analysed for total beta activity and a range of gamma and alpha emitters. In general, the radionuclide levels are lower than those measured in the previous 3 years of the study and the intake of radioactivity by all consumers should have reflected this. The dose estimated to have been incurred by the critical group of local seafood consumers near Sellafield in 1990, mainly due to winkle consumption, is less than 0.1 mSv and thus significantly below the limit of 1 mSv per year for long term radiation exposure recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (author)

  12. Review of Bothnian Sea shore-level displacement data and use of a GIS tool to estimate isostatic uplift

    Vuorela, A.; Penttinen, T.; Lahdenperae, A.-M.

    2009-02-01

    The aim and approach of the study were to produce source data estimates necessary for modelling the future biosphere. The study updated the list of 14 C datings of sea-level index points, which show when lakes and mires were isolated from the Baltic Sea due to isostatic uplift. The study concentrated on the Bothnian Sea, especially the Olkiluoto area. The older Finnish datings (a list of 260 sea-level index points determined in 1995) were checked and revised as needed. New data was available for 56 Finnish and 41 Swedish index points. State-of-the-art 14 C calibration methods were applied. Various available data were used to estimate the parameters of the glacio-isostatic uplift model's slow component. The component describes the uplift in relation to time using parameters B s , which is related to the uplift's total duration, and A s , which is half of the total uplift possible in the period lasting from the Last Glacial Maximum to the distant future. The B s values were estimated by means of 1) crustal thickness and 2) shoreline displacement curves. In applying method 1, this study revised the function describing the relationship between crustal thickness and B s and created a new derivative-based method that also estimates the parameter A s without radiocarbon datings and using only crustal thickness and current uplift maps. In method 2, sea-level index point subsets along the Finnish and Swedish coasts of the Bothnian Sea were selected from the revised database, and their datings and elevations were used to determine the corresponding land uplift parameters. The parameter value distributions were used to produce maps. The values of the inertia factor B s are on average 6% higher than those calculated in 2001 but they are 10% lower in the Olkiluoto region. According to the interpolations of the new and old data, the estimated uplift at Olkiluoto for AD 12000 is 2.8 m (7%) less than calculated previously. The derivative-based method predicts an uplift for AD

  13. Impacts of climate change and sea level rise to Danish near shore ecosystems

    Vestergaard, P.

    2001-01-01

    Salt marshes and sand dunes are important types of coastal, terrestrial nature, which like other terrestrial ecosystems will be sensible to the future changes in climate, which have been predicted. Due to the processes acting in their morphogenesis and in the development and composition of their ecosystems, they will not least be influenced by sea level rise. Especially a strong impact of a sea level rise of about 50 cm (midrange of the projected global sea level rise) for the next century can be expected on Danish salt marshes, considering their limited vertical range (50-100 cm). (LN)

  14. Evaluating potentials for future generation off-shore wind-power outside Norway

    Benestad, R. E.; Haugen, J.; Haakenstad, H.

    2012-12-01

    With todays critical need of renewable energy sources, it is naturally to look towards wind power. With the long coast of Norway, there is a large potential for wind farms offshore Norway. Although there are more challenges with offshore wind energy installations compared to wind farms on land, the offshore wind is generally higher, and there is also higher persistence of wind speed values in the power generating classes. I planning offshore wind farms, there is a need of evaluation of the wind resources, the wind climatology and possible future changes. In this aspect, we use data from regional climate model runs performed in the European ENSEMBLE-project (van der Linden and J.F.B. Mitchell, 2009). In spite of increased reliability in RCMs in the recent years, the simulations still suffer from systematic model errors, therefore the data has to be corrected before using them in wind resource analyses. In correcting the wind speeds from the RCMs, we will use wind speeds from a Norwegian high resolution wind- and wave- archive, NORA10 (Reistad et al 2010), to do quantile mapping (Themeβl et. al. 2012). The quantile mapping is performed individually for each regional simulation driven by ERA40-reanalysis from the ENSEMBLE-project corrected against NORA10. The same calibration is then used to the belonging regional climate scenario. The calibration is done for each grid cell in the domain and for each day of the year centered in a +/-15 day window to make an empirical cumulative density function for each day of the year. The quantile mapping of the scenarios provide us with a new wind speed data set for the future, more correct compared to the raw ENSEMBLE scenarios. References: Reistad M., Ø. Breivik, H. Haakenstad, O. J. Aarnes, B. R. Furevik and J-R Bidlo, 2010, A high-resolution hindcast of wind and waves for The North Sea, The Norwegian Sea and The Barents Sea. J. Geophys. Res., 116. doi:10.1029/2010JC006402. Themessl M. J., A. Gobiet and A. Leuprecht, 2012

  15. Electrical Structure of Future Off-shore Wind Power Plant with a High Voltage Direct Current Power Transmission

    Sharma, Ranjan

    The increasing demand of electric power and the growing consciousness towards the changing climate has led to a rapid development of renewable energy in the recent years. Among all, wind energy has been the fastest growing energy source in the last decade. But the growing size of wind power plants......, better wind conditions at off-shore and the general demand to put them out of sight have all contributed to the installation of large wind power plants in off-shore condition. However, moving wind power plants far out in the off-shore comes with many associated problems. One of the main challenges...... is the transmission of power over long distance. Historically, the power transmission from off-shore wind power plants has been done via HVAC submarine cables. This provides a simple solution, but AC cables cannot be arbitrarily long. It is shown in the report that major issues with HVAC cable transmission system...

  16. Variations in ecdysteroid levels and cytochrome P450 expression during moult and reproduction in male shore crabs Carcinus maenas

    Styrishave, B.; Rewitz, K.; Lund, T.

    2004-01-01

    and intermoult. In the testis, 20E and E were present at high levels except in Postmoult Stage A, where low levels were observed. PoA was never observed in the testis. Ecdysteroids were quantified in the red and green colour forms of late intermoult C-4 crabs. In both phenotypes, 20E was the dominating...... had significantly higher testicular E levels than red crabs. Ecdysteroid levels were negatively related to CYP330A1 and CYP4C39 gene expression. CYP330A1 and CYP4C39 mRNA levels were low during intermoult and premoult but high during postmoult. The results suggest that E and 20E are involved in both......Ecdysteroid levels were investigated by HPLC-MS over the moult cycle and in relation to reproduction in male shore crabs Carcinus maenas. Ecdysone (E), 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and Ponasterone A (PoA) were quantified in the haemolymph, hepatopancreas and testis. Also, the expression of 2 recently...

  17. Alien shores

    Viermann, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    The UK nuclear programme started out in the 1950's with some remarkable milestones: Calder Hall 1 was the first commercial reactor worldwide to be erected and was connected to the grid in 1956 with the other three Calder Hall Magnox reactors soon to follow. More Magnox reactors were built along the British coast in the 1950's and 60's. In 1971 the two reactors at Wylfa were the last UK Magnox reactors to be connected to the grid. Low level radioactive waste arising from electricity production went to the Drigg burial site, spent fuel to the Sellafield reprocessing facilities. Intermediate level waste was collected mainly on site, but also in the storage pools at Sellafield. This legacy now has to be dealt with. The UK's only PWR is operated by EDF Energy in Sizewell near Leiston which was connected to the grid in 1995. ILW resins have been collected over its first 18 years of operation. With the storage tanks running out of capacity within the following 2 years it was necessary to start filling these resins into waste containers, ideally into containers suitable for the planned UK repository. German expertise and experience in dealing with different types of ILW can be of benefit for UK operators. GNS products and services ideally match some of the actual challenges which GNS could prove in some initial waste processing projects. GNS also started to develop custom made solutions for the UK market.

  18. Cruise tourism shore excursions

    João Lopes, Maria; Dredge, Dianne

    2018-01-01

    Very complex yet highly integrated business logics characterise cruise tourism with shore excursions frequently identified as a key source of value. This paper presents a case study of cruise tourism and shore excursion planning in Copenhagen, Denmark. The aim of this paper is to investigate...... the characteristics of cruise tourism, itinerary and shore excursion planning with a view to understanding the value generated from cruise tourism shore excursions. We argue that economic value is a blunt measure, and there are other types of value, positive and negative, that are also generated. This research...... reveals that a range of local conditions and structural characteristics create barriers and opportunities for generating different types of value. Using a case study of shore excursions in Copenhagen, the Baltic’s most important port, this paper explains the dynamics between cruise tourism and shore...

  19. Shore line displacement in Oeregrundsgrepen

    Brydsten, Lars

    1999-12-01

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1. The analysis is to be presented to the Swedish authorities not later than the end of 2000. SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste and is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, 1 km off the coast near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Northern Uppland. The shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area is at present approximately 60 cm per 100 years and is slowly decreasing, but will still be substantial for many thousands of years. Since Oeregrundsgrepen is a relatively shallow part of the Bothnian Sea, the positive shore displacement will greatly effect the proportions of land and sea in the future. Within 2000 years (4000 AD) half of the current water area in Oeregrundsgrepen will be land and the water volume will be decreased with two thirds. At 7000 AD, the whole Oeregrundsgrepen area will be without brackish water. The effects on the landscape evolution due to shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area are illustrated in a chronological series of digital maps in Power Point format available saved on the supplied CD-rom and entitled 'Elevation.ppt '. The bedrock tectonics in the area are in two dominating directions: one northern that can be seen in the west shoreline of the island Graesoe and one in a north-westerly direction seen in the shoreline of the mainland. Many of the large basins that will be established in the area due to the shore displacement will be elongated in one of these directions. Some of the basins are relatively shallow and therefore probably will be totally filled with organic rich sediments and will form peat or bogs. Other basins, especially Graesoeraennan (the deep channel on the west side of Graesoe) are deep basins and will form a long chain of deep lakes. One of the deeper basins

  20. Shore line displacement in Oeregrundsgrepen

    Brydsten, Lars [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science

    1999-12-15

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1. The analysis is to be presented to the Swedish authorities not later than the end of 2000. SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste and is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, 1 km off the coast near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Northern Uppland. The shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area is at present approximately 60 cm per 100 years and is slowly decreasing, but will still be substantial for many thousands of years. Since Oeregrundsgrepen is a relatively shallow part of the Bothnian Sea, the positive shore displacement will greatly effect the proportions of land and sea in the future. Within 2000 years (4000 AD) half of the current water area in Oeregrundsgrepen will be land and the water volume will be decreased with two thirds. At 7000 AD, the whole Oeregrundsgrepen area will be without brackish water. The effects on the landscape evolution due to shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area are illustrated in a chronological series of digital maps in Power Point format available saved on the supplied CD-rom and entitled 'Elevation.ppt '. The bedrock tectonics in the area are in two dominating directions: one northern that can be seen in the west shoreline of the island Graesoe and one in a north-westerly direction seen in the shoreline of the mainland. Many of the large basins that will be established in the area due to the shore displacement will be elongated in one of these directions. Some of the basins are relatively shallow and therefore probably will be totally filled with organic rich sediments and will form peat or bogs. Other basins, especially Graesoeraennan (the deep channel on the west side of Graesoe) are deep basins and will form a long chain of deep lakes. One

  1. Visual disamenities from off-shore wind farms in Denmark

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Dubgaard, Alex; Tranberg, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Expansion of the off-shore wind power plays a significant role in the energy policies of many EU countries. However, off-shore wind farms create visual disamenities. These disamenities can be reduced by locating wind farms at larger distances from the coast – and accepting higher costs per k......Wh produced. Base on the choices among alternative wind farm outlays, the preferences for reducing visual disamenities of off-shore wind farms were elicited using the Choice Experiment Method. The results show a clear picture; the respondents in three independent samples are willing to pay for mowing future...... off-shore wind farms away from the shore to reduce the wind farms visibility. However, the results also denote that the preferences vary with regards to the experiences with visual disamenities of off-shore wind farms. The respondents Horns Revs sample, where the off-shore wind farm is located...

  2. Neuroendocrine disruption in the shore crab Carcinus maenas: Effects of serotonin and fluoxetine on chh- and mih-gene expression, glycaemia and ecdysteroid levels.

    Robert, Alexandrine; Monsinjon, Tiphaine; Delbecque, Jean-Paul; Olivier, Stéphanie; Poret, Agnès; Foll, Frank Le; Durand, Fabrice; Knigge, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Serotonin, a highly conserved neurotransmitter, controls many biological functions in vertebrates, but also in invertebrates. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as fluoxetine, are commonly used in human medication to ease depression by affecting serotonin levels. Their residues and metabolites can be detected in the aquatic environment and its biota. They may also alter serotonin levels in aquatic invertebrates, thereby perturbing physiological functions. To investigate whether such perturbations can indeed be expected, shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) were injected either with serotonin, fluoxetine or a combination of both. Dose-dependent effects of fluoxetine ranging from 250 to 750nM were investigated. Gene expression of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (chh) as well as moult inhibiting hormone (mih) was assessed by RT-qPCR at 2h and 12h after injection. Glucose and ecdysteroid levels in the haemolymph were monitored in regular intervals until 12h. Serotonin led to a rapid increase of chh and mih expression. On the contrary, fluoxetine only affected chh and mih expression after several hours, but kept expression levels significantly elevated. Correspondingly, serotonin rapidly increased glycaemia, which returned to normal or below normal levels after 12h. Fluoxetine, however, resulted in a persistent low-level increase of glycaemia, notably during the period when negative feedback regulation reduced glycaemia in the serotonin treated animals. Ecdysteroid levels were significantly decreased by serotonin and fluoxetine, with the latter showing less pronounced and less rapid, but longer lasting effects. Impacts of fluoxetine on glycaemia and ecdysteroids were mostly observed at higher doses (500 and 750nM) and affected principally the response dynamics, but not the amplitude of glycaemia and ecdysteroid-levels. These results suggest that psychoactive drugs are able to disrupt neuroendocrine control in decapod crustaceans, as they interfere with the

  3. Russian State Leveling Network (present and future)

    Mazurova, Elena; Kopeikin, Sergei; Karpik, Aleksander

    2017-04-01

    In August 2016 the sixth session of the United Nations Committee of Experts of Global Geospatial Information Management (UN-GGIM) endorsed the roadmap for the development of a Global Geodetic Reference Frame (GGRF) and urged countries to join efforts for its creation. In response to the UN appeal in this article describes the current state of the high-precision Leveling Network in Russia and prospects of its development. In this paper, we consider projects related to the construction of new high-precision leveling lines by the classical methods, as well as issues of creating high-precision leveling network, associated with the development and implementation of a fundamentally new method of determining heights in geodesy - chronometric leveling based on the application of quantum metrology of time and the fundamental laws of general relativity. Keywords: leveling network, chronometric leveling, quantum metrology of time, the general theory of relativity.

  4. Optimally Reorganizing Navy Shore Infrastructure

    Kerman, Mitchell

    1997-01-01

    ...), but infrastructure reductions continue to lag force structure reductions. The United States Navy's recent initiatives to reduce its shore infrastructure costs include "regionalization", "outsourcing," and "homebasing...

  5. THE EFFECTS OF CHANGING MARGIN LEVELS ON FUTURES OPTIONS PRICE

    Yanling GU; Juan LI

    2006-01-01

    The paper studies the effects of changing margin levels on the price of futures options and how to organize a market maker's position. Black model (1976) becomes a special case of this paper.The paper prices futures options by duplicating them and adopting the theory of Backward Stochastic Differential Equations (BSDEs for short). Furthermore, the price of a futures option is the unique solution to a nonlinear BSDE.

  6. ShoreZone Survey Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a point file showing GPS trackline data collected during a ShoreZone aerial imaging survey. This flight trackline is recorded at 1-second intervals...

  7. ShoreZone Mapped Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is a polyline file of mapped ShoreZone units which correspond with data records found in the Unit, Xshr, BioUnit, and BioBand tables of this...

  8. Shore and off-shore monitoring of Rana Pratap Sagar lake

    Verma, P.C.; Roy, Alpana; Hegde, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    The Rana Pratap Sagar (RPS) is a man made fresh water reservoir on the river Chambal and is located about 65 km away from Kota city in the state of Rajasthan. It is a balancing reservoir between Gandhi Sagar, upstream and Jawahar Sagar, downstream. On the eastern bank of RPS there exist Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) Site, comprising of four operating pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) of 220 MWe each. The low level radioactive effluents from RAPS, are released in controlled manner to RPS. On release the effluents undergo dispersion in the aquatic environment of RPS and may reach man through, various pathways. Being fresh water reservoir, considerable emphasis is laid on the aquatic monitoring aspects relating to RPS and downstream reservoirs. This paper presents the monitored levels of radioactivity prevailing in the aquatic samples collected from near shore and off shore locations of RPS. (author)

  9. 46 CFR 129.390 - Shore power.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shore power. 129.390 Section 129.390 Shipping COAST... Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.390 Shore power. Each vessel that has an electrical system operating at more than 50 volts and has provisions for receiving shore power must meet the requirements of...

  10. 46 CFR 183.390 - Shore power.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shore power. 183.390 Section 183.390 Shipping COAST...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.390 Shore power. A vessel with an electrical system operating at more than 50 volts, which is provided with a means to connect to shore power...

  11. A GIS-model for predicting the impact of climate change on shore erosion in hydroelectric reservoirs

    Penner, L.A.; Zimmer, T.A.M.; St Laurent, M.

    2008-01-01

    Shoreline erosion affects inland lakes and hydroelectric reservoirs in several ways. This poster described a vector-based geographic information system (GIS) model designed to predict changes in shore zone geometry, top-of-bluff recession, and eroded sediment volumes. The model was designed for use in Manitoba Hydro's reservoirs in northern Manitoba, and simulated near-shore downcutting and bank recession caused by wind-generated waves. Parameters for the model included deep water wave energy, and water level fluctuations. Effective wave energy was seen as a function of the water level fluctuation range, wave conditions, and near-shore slope. The model was validated by field monitoring studies that included repeated shore zone transect surveys and sediment coring studies. Results of the study showed that the model provides a systematic method of predicting potential changes in erosion associated with climatic change. The volume and mass of eroded sediment predicted for the different modelling scenarios will be used as input data for future sedimentation models. tabs., figs

  12. Hybridization between two cryptic filamentous brown seaweeds along the shore: analysing pre- and postzygotic barriers in populations of individuals with varying ploidy levels.

    Montecinos, Alejandro E; Guillemin, Marie-Laure; Couceiro, Lucia; Peters, Akira F; Stoeckel, Solenn; Valero, Myriam

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to study the importance of hybridization between two cryptic species of the genus Ectocarpus, a group of filamentous algae with haploid-diploid life cycles that include the principal genetic model organism for the brown algae. In haploid-diploid species, the genetic structure of the two phases of the life cycle can be analysed separately in natural populations. Such life cycles provide a unique opportunity to estimate the frequency of hybrid genotypes in diploid sporophytes and meiotic recombinant genotypes in haploid gametophytes allowing the effects of reproductive barriers preventing fertilization or preventing meiosis to be untangle. The level of hybridization between E. siliculosus and E. crouaniorum was quantified along the European coast. Clonal cultures (568 diploid, 336 haploid) isolated from field samples were genotyped using cytoplasmic and nuclear markers to estimate the frequency of hybrid genotypes in diploids and recombinant haploids. We identified admixed individuals using microsatellite loci, classical assignment methods and a newly developed Bayesian method (XPloidAssignment), which allows the analysis of populations that exhibit variations in ploidy level. Over all populations, the level of hybridization was estimated at 8.7%. Hybrids were exclusively observed in sympatric populations. More than 98% of hybrids were diploids (40% of which showed signs of aneuploidy) with a high frequency of rare alleles. The near absence of haploid recombinant hybrids demonstrates that the reproductive barriers are mostly postzygotic and suggests that abnormal chromosome segregation during meiosis following hybridization of species with different genome sizes could be a major cause of interspecific incompatibility in this system. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Adiabatic logic future trend and system level perspective

    Teichmann, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Adiabatic logic is a potential successor for static CMOS circuit design when it comes to ultra-low-power energy consumption. Future development like the evolutionary shrinking of the minimum feature size as well as revolutionary novel transistor concepts will change the gate level savings gained by adiabatic logic. In addition, the impact of worsening degradation effects has to be considered in the design of adiabatic circuits. The impact of the technology trends on the figures of merit of adiabatic logic, energy saving potential and optimum operating frequency, are investigated, as well as degradation related issues. Adiabatic logic benefits from future devices, is not susceptible to Hot Carrier Injection, and shows less impact of Bias Temperature Instability than static CMOS circuits. Major interest also lies on the efficient generation of the applied power-clock signal. This oscillating power supply can be used to save energy in short idle times by disconnecting circuits. An efficient way to generate the p...

  14. Communicating uncertainties in assessments of future sea level rise

    Wikman-Svahn, P.

    2013-12-01

    How uncertainty should be managed and communicated in policy-relevant scientific assessments is directly connected to the role of science and the responsibility of scientists. These fundamentally philosophical issues influence how scientific assessments are made and how scientific findings are communicated to policymakers. It is therefore of high importance to discuss implicit assumptions and value judgments that are made in policy-relevant scientific assessments. The present paper examines these issues for the case of scientific assessments of future sea level rise. The magnitude of future sea level rise is very uncertain, mainly due to poor scientific understanding of all physical mechanisms affecting the great ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica, which together hold enough land-based ice to raise sea levels more than 60 meters if completely melted. There has been much confusion from policymakers on how different assessments of future sea levels should be interpreted. Much of this confusion is probably due to how uncertainties are characterized and communicated in these assessments. The present paper draws on the recent philosophical debate on the so-called "value-free ideal of science" - the view that science should not be based on social and ethical values. Issues related to how uncertainty is handled in scientific assessments are central to this debate. This literature has much focused on how uncertainty in data, parameters or models implies that choices have to be made, which can have social consequences. However, less emphasis has been on how uncertainty is characterized when communicating the findings of a study, which is the focus of the present paper. The paper argues that there is a tension between on the one hand the value-free ideal of science and on the other hand usefulness for practical applications in society. This means that even if the value-free ideal could be upheld in theory, by carefully constructing and hedging statements characterizing

  15. The CMS High Level Trigger System: Experience and Future Development

    Bauer, Gerry; Bowen, Matthew; Branson, James G; Bukowiec, Sebastian; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa, J A; Deldicque, Christian; Dobson, Marc; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Flossdorf, Alexander; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, R; Hartl, Christian; Hegeman, Jeroen; Holzner, André; Y L Hwong; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, R K; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Raginel, Olivier; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schwick, Christoph; Shpakov, Dennis; Simon, M; Spataru, A C; Sumorok, Konstanty

    2012-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC features a two-level trigger system. Events accepted by the first level trigger, at a maximum rate of 100 kHz, are read out by the Data Acquisition system (DAQ), and subsequently assembled in memory in a farm of computers running a software high-level trigger (HLT), which selects interesting events for offline storage and analysis at a rate of order few hundred Hz. The HLT algorithms consist of sequences of offline-style reconstruction and filtering modules, executed on a farm of 0(10000) CPU cores built from commodity hardware. Experience from the operation of the HLT system in the collider run 2010/2011 is reported. The current architecture of the CMS HLT, its integration with the CMS reconstruction framework and the CMS DAQ, are discussed in the light of future development. The possible short- and medium-term evolution of the HLT software infrastructure to support extensions of the HLT computing power, and to address remaining performance and maintenance issues, are discussed.

  16. The Future of GLOSS Sea Level Data Archaeology

    Jevrejeva, S.; Bradshaw, E.; Tamisiea, M. E.; Aarup, T.

    2014-12-01

    Long term climate records are rare, consisting of unique and unrepeatable measurements. However, data do exist in analogue form in archives, libraries and other repositories around the world. The Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) Group of Experts aims to provide advice on locating hidden tide gauge data, scanning and digitising records and quality controlling the resulting data. Long sea level data time series are used in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment reports and climate studies, in oceanography to study changes in ocean currents, tides and storm surges, in geodesy to establish national datum and in geography and geology to monitor coastal land movement. GLOSS has carried out a number of data archaeology activities over the past decade, which have mainly involved sending member organisations questionnaires on their repositories. The Group of Experts is now looking at future developments in sea level data archaeology and how new technologies coming on line could be used by member organisations to make data digitisation and transcription more efficient. Analogue tide data comes in two forms charts, which record the continuous measurements made by an instrument, usually via a pen trace on paper ledgers containing written values of observations The GLOSS data archaeology web pages will provide a list of software that member organisations have reported to be suitable for the automatic digitisation of tide gauge charts. Transcribing of ledgers has so far proved more labour intensive and is usually conducted by people entering numbers by hand. GLOSS is exploring using Citizen Science techniques, such as those employed by the Old Weather project, to improve the efficiency of transcribing ledgers. The Group of Experts is also looking at recent advances in Handwritten Text Recognition (HTR) technology, which mainly relies on patterns in the written word, but could be adapted to work with the patterns inherent in sea level data.

  17. Sea level ~400 000 years ago (MIS 11: analogue for present and future sea-level?

    D. Q. Bowen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of the sea-level today with that of 400 000 years ago (MIS 11, when the Earth's orbital characteristics were similar may provide, under conditions of natural variability, indications of future sea-level during the present interglacial. Then, as now, orbital eccentricity was low and precession dampened. Evidence for MIS 11 sea-level occurs on uplifting coastlines where shorelines with geochronological ages have been preserved. The sea-level term and the uplift term may be separated with an "uplift correction" formula. This discovers the original sea-level at which the now uplifted shoreline was fashioned. Estimates are based on average uplift rates of the "last interglacial" sea-level (MIS 5.5 using a range of estimates for sea-level and age at that time at different locations. These, with varying secular tectonic regimes in different ocean basins, provide a band of estimates for the MIS 11 sea-level. They do not support the hypothesis of an MIS 11 sea-level at ~20 m, and instead show that it was closer to its present level.

  18. 46 CFR 120.390 - Shore power.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shore power. 120.390 Section 120.390 Shipping COAST... PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.390 Shore power. A vessel with an electrical system operating at more...

  19. Design off-shore wind climate

    Larsen, G C; Joergensen, H E [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Specific recommendations of off-shore turbulence intensities, applicable for design purposes, are lacking in the present IEC-code. The present off-shore wind climate analysis presents the distribution of the turbulence standard deviation around the mean turbulence standard deviation, conditioned on the mean wind speed. Measured distributions, based on a huge amount of measuring data from two shallow water off-shore sites, are parameterized by fitting to a three parameter Weibull distribution. Combining a simple heuristic load model with the parameterized probability density functions of the turbulence standard deviations, an empirical off-shore design turbulence intensity is evaluated that in average yields the same fatigue damage as the distributed turbulence intensity. The proposed off-shore design turbulence intensity is, within the IEC code framework, applicable for extreme as well as for fatigue load determination. (au)

  20. Shore approach of Camarupim pipeline

    Bernardi, Tiaraju P.; Oliveira Neto, Vasco A. de; Siqueira, Jakson [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Camarupim Field is located in the northern portion of Espirito Santo Basin and was discovered from the drilling of the well 1-ESS-164 in 2006. It is a gas field which start of the production is in mid of 2009. The production unit will be a FPSO (Floating Production, Storage and Offloading) and the gas will flow through a pipeline with diameter ranging from 12 inches and 24 inches with approximately 60 km long, from the FPSO Cidade de Sao Mateus to UTGC (Unit for Treatment of Gas Cacimbas-Linhares-ES). The FPSO will have processing capacity of 10MMm3/day of gas. Due to the approach of the pipeline in the continental portion, located in an environmental protection area and place of spawning of sea turtles, the connection between the stretch of sea and land pipeline running through a shore approach, known and proven technique of horizontal directional drilling about 950m in length. This paper will be shown the assumptions adopted, the technique employed, the challenges faced by the team and the lessons learned to build the directional hole. (author)

  1. 46 CFR 169.686 - Shore power.

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements: (a) A shore power connection box or receptacle and a cable connecting this box or receptacle to... power cable must be provided with a disconnect means located on or near the main distribution panel...

  2. American Samoa Shore-based Creel Survey

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The DMWR staff has also conducted shore-based creel surveys which also have 2 major sub-surveys; one to estimate participation (fishing effort), and one to provide...

  3. CNMI Shore-based Creel Survey

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Division of Fish and Wildlife (DFW) staff conducted shore-based creel surveys which have 2 major...

  4. Boat And Shore Oracle Data Tables

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oracle Tables To Provide Boat and Shore Data which contains the object of this system is to provide an inventory of vessels that answer two fundamental questions:...

  5. Getting the oil to the shore

    Menin, J.A.; Meuter, P.

    2006-03-15

    Conveying highly corrosive fluids - hot water dissolved in salt and sulfide - is just one aspect of getting oil from the field to the shore. Brazilian oil company Petrobras had a requirement for high pressure pumps that could handle high viscosity fluids at its Campos off-shore oil field and be easily maintained. Joao Alberto Menin, Paul Meuter explains how Sulzer Pumps rose to the challenge. (author)

  6. Past and future changes in extreme sea levels and waves

    Lawe, J.A.; Woodworth, P.L.; Knutson, T.; McDonald, R.E.; Mclnnes, K.L.; Woth, K.; Von Storch, H.; Wolf, J.; Swail, V.; Bernier, N.B.; Gulev, S.; Horsburgh, K.J.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Hunter, J.R.; Weisse, R.

    of Extreme Sea Level 11.3.1 An Introduction to Storms Both mid-latitude and tropical storms are associated with extremes of sea level. Storm surges are generated by low atmospheric pressure and intense winds over the ocean. The latter also cause high wave... timescales, extremes and mean-sea-level change are both major factors in determining coastal evolution including the development of coastal ecosystems. It will be seen below that, although it is difficult to determine how mean sea level has changed...

  7. Future extreme sea level seesaws in the tropical Pacific.

    Widlansky, Matthew J; Timmermann, Axel; Cai, Wenju

    2015-09-01

    Global mean sea levels are projected to gradually rise in response to greenhouse warming. However, on shorter time scales, modes of natural climate variability in the Pacific, such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), can affect regional sea level variability and extremes, with considerable impacts on coastal ecosystems and island nations. How these shorter-term sea level fluctuations will change in association with a projected increase in extreme El Niño and its atmospheric variability remains unknown. Using present-generation coupled climate models forced with increasing greenhouse gas concentrations and subtracting the effect of global mean sea level rise, we find that climate change will enhance El Niño-related sea level extremes, especially in the tropical southwestern Pacific, where very low sea level events, locally known as Taimasa, are projected to double in occurrence. Additionally, and throughout the tropical Pacific, prolonged interannual sea level inundations are also found to become more likely with greenhouse warming and increased frequency of extreme La Niña events, thus exacerbating the coastal impacts of the projected global mean sea level rise.

  8. The Protective Properties of Common Reed Plantations on Shores of the Lower Volga Region

    Solodovnikov Denis Anatolyevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The abrasion processing of shores is a pressing problem of large water basins of the Lower Volga region and other Russian regions. About 3 km2 of shoreland is annually lost in the zone of the Volgograd water basin as a result of this process. The existing methods of shores protection are connected with the creation of concrete structures having a high level of erosion resistance. They are extremely expensive and in most cases they are not affordable for rural municipalities suffering from abrasion. The authors offer cheap and environmentally friendly way of protecting the shores of large water basins from abrasion. The method is based on the plantation of a common reed strip on a water basin’s shallow. The biological characteristics of common reed as the main component of shore protection structures are described. The terms and milestones of the work in the conditions of the Volgograd water basin are developed. The main result of applying our methodology is the complete cessation of abrasion processing of the shore at the corresponding piece of land. The authors overview the positive qualities of reed plantations, their biocenotic, barrier and waterproof role in on-shore ecosystems. The application of the described method will allow saving for the national economy dozens of hectares of valuable shore lands annually, in particular, irrigated cropland, settlement lands, infrastructure. In addition to the direct benefits associated with the conservation of land resources, the intensity of adverse processes associated with erosion of shores (water basin muddying, deterioration of sanitary qualities of water will decrease. Due to the wide geographic spread of common reed described in the present work, the technology of shores stabilization can be applied at almost all lowland water basins of Russia.

  9. The future of very low level radioactive wastes in question

    Vignes, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    After having recalled that nuclear plants produce various radioactive wastes, that the Cigeo project is the proposed solution to store these radioactive wastes, this article more particularly addresses the issue of very low level radioactive wastes which are now the main matter of concern for the IRSN as their quantity is expected to increase during the years to come (notably in relationship with nuclear reactor lifetime extension), and as present storage capacities will soon be saturated. The author first outlines that these wastes are not very dangerous but very cumbersome. Among these so-defined 'very low level' wastes, 30 to 50 per cent could be considered as harmless, but are now processed as dangerous wastes through costly processes. Various possibilities are then envisaged such as a diversification of storage options

  10. Model shows future cut in U.S. ozone levels

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    A joint U.S. auto-oil industry research program says modeling shows that changing gasoline composition can reduce ozone levels for Los Angeles in 2010 and for New York City and Dallas-Fort Worth in 2005. The air quality modeling was based on vehicle emissions research data released late last year (OGJ, Dec. 24, 1990, p. 20). The effort is sponsored by the big three auto manufacturers and 14 oil companies. Sponsors the cars and small trucks account for about one third of ozone generated in the three cities studied but by 2005-10 will account for only 5-9%

  11. The Topological Processor for the future ATLAS Level-1 Trigger

    Kahra, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS is an experiment on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), located at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. By 2015 the LHC instantaneous luminosity will be increased from $10^{34}$ up to $3\\cdot 10^{34} \\mathrm{cm}^{-2} \\mathrm{s}^{-1}$. This places stringent operational and physical requirements on the ATLAS Trigger in order to reduce the 40MHz collision rate to a manageable event storage rate of 1kHz while at the same time, selecting those events that contain interesting physics events. The Level-1 Trigger is the first rate-reducing step in the ATLAS Trigger, with an output rate of 100kHz and decision latency of less than $2.5 \\mu \\mathrm{s}$. It is composed of the Calorimeter Trigger, the Muon Trigger and the Central Trigger Processor (CTP). In 2014, there will be a new electronics module: the Topological Processor (L1Topo). The L1Topo will make it possible, for the first time, to use detailed information from subdetectors in a single Level-1 module. This allows the determi...

  12. Gender Stereotyping and the Jersey Shore: A Content Analysis

    Jacqueline S. Anderson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reality television is a highly popular genre, with a growing body of scholarly research. Unlike scripted programming, which offers fictional storylines, reality television relies heavily on cast member’s reactions to carefully crafted situations. This study examined the relationship between reality television and gender role stereotyping in a seminal reality television show, MTV’s Jersey Shore. Content analysis was used to conduct an in-depth examination of the first season of Jersey Shore, investigating three gendered issues: physical appearance, social roles and behavioral traits. Findings demonstrated the carefully manufactured relationship between gender role stereotyping and reality television programming in Jersey Shore, and illustrate the development of the female reality show character as related to sexualized behavior and social/emotional gender stereotypes. The depiction of female reality show characters seems to have increased its level of sensationalism, while continuing to be clichéd and conventional, while depiction of male characters is beginning to push the boundaries of being typecast in regards to their physical appearance and role in performing domestic tasks. Additionally, physical alterations on screen were many, warranting further investigation of this behavior.

  13. The ATLAS High Level Trigger Infrastructure, Performance and Future Developments

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT) is a distributed real-time software system that performs the final online selection of events produced during proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is designed as a two-stage event filter running on a farm of commodity PC hardware. Currently the system consists of about 850 multi-core processing nodes that will be extended incrementally following the increasing luminosity of the LHC to about 2000 nodes depending on the evolution of the processor technology. Due to the complexity and similarity of the algorithms a large fraction of the software is shared between the online and offline event reconstruction. The HLT Infrastructure serves as the interface between the two domains and provides common services for the trigger algorithms. The consequences of this design choice will be discussed and experiences from the operation of the ATLAS HLT during cosmic ray data taking and first beam in 2008 will be presented. Since the event processing time at the HL...

  14. Evaluation of 10 cross-shore sediment transport morphological models

    Schoonees, JS

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available .S. Schoonees, A.K. Theron/Coastal Engineering 25 (1995) 141 11 0.99 m shore transport rate above mean sea level during the storm < 123 m3/m 0 m < storm surge < 3.2 m 4.2 h..., are beach and dune erosion that occurs under storm waves and high water levels, prediction of set-back lines, adjustment of beach-fill to long-term wave action and the prediction of sediment build-up or beach profile...

  15. SEGMENTATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TIME LAPSE IMAGE SEQUENCES FOR THE DETERMINATION OF SHORE LINES CAPTURED BY HAND-HELD SMARTPHONE CAMERAS

    M. Kröhnert

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of globally environmental issues gains importance since the last years with still rising trends. Especially disastrous floods may cause in serious damage within very short times. Although conventional gauging stations provide reliable information about prevailing water levels, they are highly cost-intensive and thus just sparsely installed. Smartphones with inbuilt cameras, powerful processing units and low-cost positioning systems seem to be very suitable wide-spread measurement devices that could be used for geo-crowdsourcing purposes. Thus, we aim for the development of a versatile mobile water level measurement system to establish a densified hydrological network of water levels with high spatial and temporal resolution. This paper addresses a key issue of the entire system: the detection of running water shore lines in smartphone images. Flowing water never appears equally in close-range images even if the extrinsics remain unchanged. Its non-rigid behavior impedes the use of good practices for image segmentation as a prerequisite for water line detection. Consequently, we use a hand-held time lapse image sequence instead of a single image that provides the time component to determine a spatio-temporal texture image. Using a region growing concept, the texture is analyzed for immutable shore and dynamic water areas. Finally, the prevalent shore line is examined by the resultant shapes. For method validation, various study areas are observed from several distances covering urban and rural flowing waters with different characteristics. Future work provides a transformation of the water line into object space by image-to-geometry intersection.

  16. Segmentation of Environmental Time Lapse Image Sequences for the Determination of Shore Lines Captured by Hand-Held Smartphone Cameras

    Kröhnert, M.; Meichsner, R.

    2017-09-01

    The relevance of globally environmental issues gains importance since the last years with still rising trends. Especially disastrous floods may cause in serious damage within very short times. Although conventional gauging stations provide reliable information about prevailing water levels, they are highly cost-intensive and thus just sparsely installed. Smartphones with inbuilt cameras, powerful processing units and low-cost positioning systems seem to be very suitable wide-spread measurement devices that could be used for geo-crowdsourcing purposes. Thus, we aim for the development of a versatile mobile water level measurement system to establish a densified hydrological network of water levels with high spatial and temporal resolution. This paper addresses a key issue of the entire system: the detection of running water shore lines in smartphone images. Flowing water never appears equally in close-range images even if the extrinsics remain unchanged. Its non-rigid behavior impedes the use of good practices for image segmentation as a prerequisite for water line detection. Consequently, we use a hand-held time lapse image sequence instead of a single image that provides the time component to determine a spatio-temporal texture image. Using a region growing concept, the texture is analyzed for immutable shore and dynamic water areas. Finally, the prevalent shore line is examined by the resultant shapes. For method validation, various study areas are observed from several distances covering urban and rural flowing waters with different characteristics. Future work provides a transformation of the water line into object space by image-to-geometry intersection.

  17. Devonian lacustrine shore zone architecture imaged with ground penetrating radar

    Andrews, Steven D.; Moreau, Julien; Archer, Stuart

    . The shore zone sandstones overlie playa facies which contain abundant desiccation horizons, reflecting the most arid phase in the climatically controlled lacustrine cycle. As climatic conditions ameliorated the rejuvenation of fluvial systems resulted in the transport of sand out into the basin. Initial...... deposition was limited to intermittent events where sediment was laid down on a water saturated substrate. Some of these may have occurr­­­ed subaqueously as small scale turbidity flows. High resolution fluctuations in lake level resulted in periodic short lived reworking events along the lake margin which...

  18. Coupling of sea level and tidal range changes, with implications for future water levels.

    Devlin, Adam T; Jay, David A; Talke, Stefan A; Zaron, Edward D; Pan, Jiayi; Lin, Hui

    2017-12-05

    Are perturbations to ocean tides correlated with changing sea-level and climate, and how will this affect high water levels? Here, we survey 152 tide gauges in the Pacific Ocean and South China Sea and statistically evaluate how the sum of the four largest tidal constituents, a proxy for the highest astronomical tide (HAT), changes over seasonal and interannual time scales. We find that the variability in HAT is significantly correlated with sea-level variability; approximately 35% of stations exhibit a greater than ±50 mm tidal change per meter sea-level fluctuation. Focusing on a subset of three stations with long records, probability density function (PDF) analyses of the 95% percentile exceedance of total sea level (TSL) show long-term changes of this high-water metric. At Hong Kong, the increase in tides significantly amplifies the risk caused by sea-level rise. Regions of tidal decrease and/or amplification highlight the non-linear response to sea-level variations, with the potential to amplify or mitigate against the increased flood risk caused by sea-level rise. Overall, our analysis suggests that in many regions, local flood level determinations should consider the joint effects of non-stationary tides and mean sea level (MSL) at multiple time scales.

  19. Near shore waves, long-shore currents and sediment transport along micro-tidal beaches, central west coast of India

    Philip, C.S.; SanilKumar, V.; Dora, G.U.; Johnson, G.

    Coastlines are undergoing constant geomorphologic changes with respect to the incident wave climate. Based on waves measured at 9 m water depth, simulation of near shore wave transformation is done using REFDIF-1 numerical model and the near shore...

  20. Modelling regional sea-level changes in recent past and future

    Slangen, A.B.A.

    2012-01-01

    Sea-level change is one of the most important consequences of a warming climate, affecting many densely populated coastal communities. To improve coastal management and the planning of flood defences, information on the future development of sea-level rise is needed. However, sea-level rise is not

  1. Scour Protection of Off-Shore Windmills

    Frigaard, Peter; Pedersen, Jan

    2002-01-01

    In the Eighties and Nineties wind turbines with a total rated power of app 1000 Mega watt were erected in Denmark. Today more that 13% of the electrical consumption in in Denmark is covered by electricity from wind turbines. Through, due to lack of good positions for the windmills and due...... to growing opposition against the the wind turbines, the Danish government initiated in 1999 the construction of several large off-shore wind farms....

  2. Sea-Shore Interface Robotic Design

    2014-06-01

    for various beachfront terrains. Robotics , Robot , Amphibious Vehicles, Mobility, Surf-Zone, Autonomous, Wheg, exoskeleton Unclassified Unclassified...controllers and to showcase the benefits of a modular construction. The result was an exoskeleton design with modular components, see Figure 2.1. Figure 2.1...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS SEA-SHORE INTERFACE ROBOTIC DESIGN by Timothy L. Bell June 2014 Thesis Advisor: Richard Harkins

  3. Off-shore nuclear power plant

    Nakanishi, T.

    1980-01-01

    In order to avoid losses of energy and seawater pollution an off-shore nuclear power plant is coupled with a power plant which utilizes the temperature difference between seawater and hot reactor cooling water. According to the invention the power plant has a working media loop which is separated from the nuclear power plant. The apparative equipment and the operational characteristics of the power plant are the subject of the patent. (UWI) [de

  4. On the shores of Titan's farthest sea a scientific novel

    Carroll, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Titan is practically a planet in its own right, with a diameter similar to that of Mercury, methane rainstorms, organic soot and ethane seas. All of the most detailed knowledge on the moon's geology, volcanology, meteorology, marine sciences and chemistry are gathered together here to paint a factually accurate hypothetical future of early human colonization on this strange world. The views from Titan’s Mayda Outpost are spectacular, but all is not well at the moon's remote science base. On the shore of a methane sea beneath glowering skies, atmospherics researcher Abigail Marco finds herself in the middle of murder, piracy and colleagues who seem to be seeing sea monsters and dead people from the past. On the Shores of Titan’s Farthest Sea provides thrills, excitement and mystery – couched in the latest science – on one of the Solar System’s most bizarre worlds, Saturn’s huge moon Titan. "This riveting story, set against a plausibly well integrated interplanetary space, carries us along with its ...

  5. The future for the Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) Sea Level Data Rescue

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth; Matthews, Andrew; Rickards, Lesley; Aarup, Thorkild

    2016-04-01

    Historical sea level data are rare and unrepeatable measurements with a number of applications in climate studies (sea level rise), oceanography (ocean currents, tides, surges), geodesy (national datum), geophysics and geology (coastal land movements) and other disciplines. However, long-term time series are concentrated in the northern hemisphere and there are no records at the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) global data bank longer than 100 years in the Arctic, Africa, South America or Antarctica. Data archaeology activities will help fill in the gaps in the global dataset and improve global sea level reconstruction. The Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) is an international programme conducted under the auspices of the WMO-IOC Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology. It was set up in 1985 to collect long-term tide gauge observations and to develop systems and standards "for ocean monitoring and flood warning purposes". At the GLOSS-GE-XIV Meeting in 2015, GLOSS agreed on a number of action items to be developed in the next two years. These were: 1. To explore mareogram digitisation applications, including NUNIEAU (more information available at: http://www.mediterranee.cerema.fr/logiciel-de-numerisation-des-enregistrements-r57.html) and other recent developments in scanning/digitisation software, such as IEDRO's Weather Wizards program, to see if they could be used via a browser. 2. To publicise sea level data archaeology and rescue by: • maintaining and regularly updating the Sea Level Data Archaeology page on the GLOSS website • strengthening links to the GLOSS data centres and data rescue organisations e.g. linking to IEDRO, ACRE, RDA • restarting the sea level data rescue blog with monthly posts. 3. Investigate sources of funding for data archaeology and rescue projects. 4. Propose "Guidelines" for rescuing sea level data. These action items will aid the discovery, scanning, digitising and quality control

  6. Regional Sea Level Scenarios for Coastal Risk Management: Managing the Uncertainty of Future Sea Level Change and Extreme Water Levels for Department of Defense Coastal Sites Worldwide

    2016-04-01

    authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the authors’ Agencies. MANAGING THE UNCERTAINTY OF FUTURE SEA LEVEL CHANGE AND EXTREME WATER LEVELS FOR...COASTAL RISK MANAGEMENT 2-20 contingent probabilities given their dependence on non-probabilistic emissions futures, have extended the ranges of...flood risk provides confidence in the associated projection as a true minimum value for risk management purposes. The contemporary rate observed by

  7. Future-oriented tweets predict lower county-level HIV prevalence in the United States.

    Ireland, Molly E; Schwartz, H Andrew; Chen, Qijia; Ungar, Lyle H; Albarracín, Dolores

    2015-12-01

    Future orientation promotes health and well-being at the individual level. Computerized text analysis of a dataset encompassing billions of words used across the United States on Twitter tested whether community-level rates of future-oriented messages correlated with lower human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) rates and moderated the association between behavioral risk indicators and HIV. Over 150 million tweets mapped to U.S. counties were analyzed using 2 methods of text analysis. First, county-level HIV rates (cases per 100,000) were regressed on aggregate usage of future-oriented language (e.g., will, gonna). A second data-driven method regressed HIV rates on individual words and phrases. Results showed that counties with higher rates of future tense on Twitter had fewer HIV cases, independent of strong structural predictors of HIV such as population density. Future-oriented messages also appeared to buffer health risk: Sexually transmitted infection rates and references to risky behavior on Twitter were associated with higher HIV prevalence in all counties except those with high rates of future orientation. Data-driven analyses likewise showed that words and phrases referencing the future (e.g., tomorrow, would be) correlated with lower HIV prevalence. Integrating big data approaches to text analysis and epidemiology with psychological theory may provide an inexpensive, real-time method of anticipating outbreaks of HIV and etiologically similar diseases. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Near-Shore Floating Wave Energy Converters

    Ruol, Piero; Zanuttigh, Barbara; Martinelli, Luca

    2011-01-01

    and transmission characteristics are approximated to functions of wave height, period and obliquity. Their order of magnitude are 20% and 80%, respectively. It is imagined that an array of DEXA is deployed in front of Marina di Ravenna beach (IT), a highly touristic site of the Adriatic Coast. Based on the CERC......Aim of this note is to analyse the possible application of a Wave Energy Converter (WEC) as a combined tool to protect the coast and harvest energy. Physical model tests are used to evaluate wave transmission past a near-shore floating WEC of the wave activated body type, named DEXA. Efficiency...

  9. Specifying the Concept of Future Generations for Addressing Issues Related to High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    Kermisch, Celine

    2016-12-01

    The nuclear community frequently refers to the concept of "future generations" when discussing the management of high-level radioactive waste. However, this notion is generally not defined. In this context, we have to assume a wide definition of the concept of future generations, conceived as people who will live after the contemporary people are dead. This definition embraces thus each generation following ours, without any restriction in time. The aim of this paper is to show that, in the debate about nuclear waste, this broad notion should be further specified and to clarify the related implications for nuclear waste management policies. Therefore, we provide an ethical analysis of different management strategies for high-level waste in the light of two principles, protection of future generations-based on safety and security-and respect for their choice. This analysis shows that high-level waste management options have different ethical impacts across future generations, depending on whether the memory of the waste and its location is lost, or not. We suggest taking this distinction into account by introducing the notions of "close future generations" and "remote future generations", which has important implications on nuclear waste management policies insofar as it stresses that a retrievable disposal has fewer benefits than usually assumed.

  10. Computing the distribution of return levels of extreme warm temperatures for future climate projections

    Pausader, M.; Parey, S.; Nogaj, M. [EDF/R and D, Chatou Cedex (France); Bernie, D. [Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-15

    In order to take into account uncertainties in the future climate projections there is a growing demand for probabilistic projections of climate change. This paper presents a methodology for producing such a probabilistic analysis of future temperature extremes. The 20- and 100-years return levels are obtained from that of the normalized variable and the changes in mean and standard deviation given by climate models for the desired future periods. Uncertainty in future change of these extremes is quantified using a multi-model ensemble and a perturbed physics ensemble. The probability density functions of future return levels are computed at a representative location from the joint probability distribution of mean and standard deviation changes given by the two combined ensembles of models. For the studied location, the 100-years return level at the end of the century is lower than 41 C with an 80% confidence. Then, as the number of model simulations is low to compute a reliable distribution, two techniques proposed in the literature (local pattern scaling and ANOVA) have been used to infer the changes in mean and standard deviation for the combinations of RCM and GCM which have not been run. The ANOVA technique leads to better results for the reconstruction of the mean changes, whereas the two methods fail to correctly infer the changes in standard deviation. As standard deviation change has a major impact on return level change, there is a need to improve the models and the different techniques regarding the variance changes. (orig.)

  11. Projecting Future Sea Level Rise for Water Resources Planning in California

    Anderson, J.; Kao, K.; Chung, F.

    2008-12-01

    Sea level rise is one of the major concerns for the management of California's water resources. Higher water levels and salinity intrusion into the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta could affect water supplies, water quality, levee stability, and aquatic and terrestrial flora and fauna species and their habitat. Over the 20th century, sea levels near San Francisco Bay increased by over 0.6ft. Some tidal gauge and satellite data indicate that rates of sea level rise are accelerating. Sea levels are expected to continue to rise due to increasing air temperatures causing thermal expansion of the ocean and melting of land-based ice such as ice on Greenland and in southeastern Alaska. For water planners, two related questions are raised on the uncertainty of future sea levels. First, what is the expected sea level at a specific point in time in the future, e.g., what is the expected sea level in 2050? Second, what is the expected point of time in the future when sea levels will exceed a certain height, e.g., what is the expected range of time when the sea level rises by one foot? To address these two types of questions, two factors are considered: (1) long term sea level rise trend, and (2) local extreme sea level fluctuations. A two-step approach will be used to develop sea level rise projection guidelines for decision making that takes both of these factors into account. The first step is developing global sea level rise probability distributions for the long term trends. The second step will extend the approach to take into account the effects of local astronomical tides, changes in atmospheric pressure, wind stress, floods, and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. In this paper, the development of the first step approach is presented. To project the long term sea level rise trend, one option is to extend the current rate of sea level rise into the future. However, since recent data indicate rates of sea level rise are accelerating, methods for estimating sea level rise

  12. Future Reef Growth Can Mitigate Physical Impacts of Sea-Level Rise on Atoll Islands

    Beetham, Edward; Kench, Paul S.; Popinet, Stéphane

    2017-10-01

    We present new detail on how future sea-level rise (SLR) will modify nonlinear wave transformation processes, shoreline wave energy, and wave driven flooding on atoll islands. Frequent and destructive wave inundation is a primary climate-change hazard that may render atoll islands uninhabitable in the near future. However, limited research has examined the physical vulnerability of atoll islands to future SLR and sparse information are available to implement process-based coastal management on coral reef environments. We utilize a field-verified numerical model capable of resolving all nonlinear wave transformation processes to simulate how future SLR will modify wave dissipation and overtopping on Funafuti Atoll, Tuvalu, accounting for static and accretionary reef adjustment morphologies. Results show that future SLR coupled with a static reef morphology will not only increase shoreline wave energy and overtopping but will fundamentally alter the spectral composition of shoreline energy by decreasing the contemporary influence of low-frequency infragravity waves. "Business-as-usual" emissions (RCP 8.5) will result in annual wave overtopping on Funafuti Atoll by 2030, with overtopping at high tide under mean wave conditions occurring from 2090. Comparatively, vertical reef accretion in response to SLR will prevent any significant increase in shoreline wave energy and mitigate wave driven flooding volume by 72%. Our results provide the first quantitative assessment of how effective future reef accretion can be at mitigating SLR-associated flooding on atoll islands and endorse active reef conservation and restoration for future coastal protection.

  13. STENCIL - Strategies and Tools for Environment-friendly Shore Nourishments as Climate Change Impact Low-Regret Measures

    Schimmels, Stefan; Cofalla, Catrina; Deutschmann, Björn; Ganal, Caroline; Gijsman, Rik; Hass, H. Christian; Hollert, Henner; Mielck, Finn; Schlurmann, Thorsten; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Shiravani, Gholamreza; Staudt, Franziska; Strusinska, Agnieszka; Visscher, Jan; Wiltshire, Karen; Wolbring, Johanna

    2017-04-01

    Shore nourishments are regarded as an almost routine coastal protection measure and have been carried out worldwide for several decades. Recent studies generally conclude that "soft" coastal protection measures are an effective option for a sustainable coastal management. However, more research on economic sustainability, species-specific habitat demands and availability of sand deposits is required. Nowadays, the recent paradigm shifts to concepts like the Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) and the Ecosystem Approach to Management (EAM). For the German Wadden Sea these management objectives are an important issue of the "Wattenmeerstrategie 2100" (MELLUR-SH, 2015), a political strategy report that demands an adaption against the global change and the expected sea-level rise up to the year 2100. Hence, also new concepts and tools for the implementation of more sustainable, effective and environment-friendly shore nourishments are needed. The research project STENCIL joins the expertise of coastal engineers, geologists, biologists and toxicologists in order to make a first step towards the long-term goal of establishing an ICZM and EAM for shore nourishments in the German Wadden Sea. The project focuses on providing improved tools, models and methods for the prediction of coastal hydro- and morphodynamics. Furthermore, the impact of dredging and dumping activities on benthic habitats and their natural regeneration potentials will be evaluated. Since these impacts are still widely uninvestigated, monitoring of dredging areas and the surrounding sites using hydroacoustic devices, aerial photos and sediment samples for grain-size and benthos analysis remains of high importance. In order to develop standardized operative observation methods, analysis and decision-supporting tools, an implementation of field measurements, laboratory experiments as well as conceptual and numerical models is planned. These combined approaches will result in valuable data sets for

  14. DIAGNOSTICS OF LEVELS OF FORMATION OF FUTURE MUSIC TEACHERS’ ART REFLECTION

    Zhang Jingjing

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Features of diagnostics of levels of formation of art reflection are justified in the article. Four levels of future music teachers’ art reflection are defined. These levels are based on the research measures of desire to master art reflection; the degree of understanding the nature and characteristics of art reflection; measures of the emotional involvement into art reflection; degree of possession of the necessary skills for art reflection; formation of professionalism in music and performing activities. They are initial, satisfactory, sufficient and optimal. The importance of formation of future music teachers’ art reflection is considered as the basis for professional development, self-regulation on the acquisition of implementing art knowledge. The formation of art reflection requires the creation and implementation of specific methods of diagnostics of future music teachers’ art reflection. The article is dedicated to the problem of developing and testing diagnostic methods of formation of future music teachers’ art reflection. While writing the article there methods of analysis, synthesis, method of systematization of the material, the principles of objectivity and scientific character are being used. Diagnostics and analysis of the levels of future music teachers’ art reflection shows that the vast majority of students have art reflection at a satisfactory level (67.24%. 22.41% of students are found to have the initial level of formation of art reflection. Only 10.34% of students are found to have the sufficient level of art reflection. There are no students having the optimal level of art reflection. The author concluded that educational and behavior tasks, which the future music teachers have, are identified while testing the features of formation of future music teachers’ art reflection. They cause picking out the most appropriate areas and focus on the most prospective and effective methods of formation in the course of

  15. Devonian lacustrine shore zone architecture: giving perspective to cliff exposures with ground penetrating radar

    Andrews, Steven D.; Moreau, Julien; Archer, Stuart

    . Some of these may have occurr­­­ed subaqueously as small scale turbidity flows. High resolution fluctuations in lake level resulted in periodic short lived reworking events along the lake margin which produced amalgamated sands which formed low relief bars. Shore zone reworking is likely to have...

  16. Criteria, indicators and levels of formed professional functional competences of future teachers of physical culture

    Samsutina N.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is shown the structural components of the functional competence of professional teachers of physical education: motivational, cognitive and action-practical. We used the following methods of scientific knowledge, as the analysis of psychological, educational and methodological literature, synthesis, comparison, generalization, specification, classification, ordering Criteria and levels of occupational functional competence of future teachers of physical education. It is determined that the high level of professional formation of the functional competence of future teachers of physical culture is characterized by the motivation to perform professional functions of a teacher of physical culture, fundamental knowledge required to perform professional functions of a teacher of physical culture, a high level of general physical fitness, pronounced specific motor abilities and skills.

  17. Influence of occupational stress on mental health among Chinese off-shore oil workers.

    Chen, Wei-Qing; Wong, Tze-Wai; Yu, Tak-Sun

    2009-09-01

    To explore the influence of occupational stress on mental health in off-shore oil production. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 561 Chinese off-shore oil workers. The workers were invited to fill in a self-administered questionnaire exploring their socio-demographic characteristics, occupational stress levels, and 12-item general health questionnaire. A hierarchical multiple regression procedure was used to assess the effects of occupational stress on mental health. After controlling for age, educational level, marital status and years of off-shore work, poor mental health was found to have a significant positive association with seven of the nine identified sources of occupational stress. They were: conflict between job and family/social life, poor development of career and achievement at work, safety problems at work, management problems and poor relationship with others at work, poor physical environment of the work place, uncomfortable ergonomic factors at work, and poor organizational structure at work. All of these occupational stress sources together explained 19.9% of the total variance. The results confirmed that occupational stress was a major risk factor for poor mental health among Chinese off-shore oil workers. Reducing or eliminating occupational stressors at work would benefit workers' mental health.

  18. Futures

    Pedersen, Michael Haldrup

    2017-01-01

    Currently both design thinking and critical social science experience an increased interest in speculating in alternative future scenarios. This interest is not least related to the challenges issues of global sustainability present for politics, ethics and design. This paper explores the potenti......Currently both design thinking and critical social science experience an increased interest in speculating in alternative future scenarios. This interest is not least related to the challenges issues of global sustainability present for politics, ethics and design. This paper explores...... the potentials of speculative thinking in relation to design and social and cultural studies, arguing that both offer valuable insights for creating a speculative space for new emergent criticalities challenging current assumptions of the relations between power and design. It does so by tracing out discussions...... of ‘futurity’ and ‘futuring’ in design as well as social and cultural studies. Firstly, by discussing futurist and speculative approaches in design thinking; secondly by engaging with ideas of scenario thinking and utopianism in current social and cultural studies; and thirdly by showing how the articulation...

  19. Delivering high-level food industry skills for future food security through Advanced Training Partnerships

    Frazier, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    The UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council’s Advanced Training Partnerships initiative represents a significant investment in the provision of high-level skills for the UK food industry sector to address global food security from farm to fork. This paper summarises the background, aims and scope of the Advanced Training Partnerships, their development so far, and offers a view on future directions and evaluation of impact.

  20. Database Design for the Evaluation of On-shore and Off-Shore Storm Characteristics over East Central Florida

    Simpson, Amy A.; Wilson, Jennifer G.; Brown, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Data from multiple sources is needed to investigate lightning characteristics over differing terrain (on-shore vs. off-shore) by comparing natural cloud-to-ground lightning behavior differences depending on the characteristics of attachment mediums. The KSC Lightning Research Database (KLRD) was created to reduce manual data entry time and aid research by combining information from various data sources into a single record for each unique lightning event of interest. The KLRD uses automatic data handling functions to import data from a lightning detection network and identify and record lighting events of interest. Additional automatic functions import data from the NASA Buoy 41009 (located approximately 20 miles off the coast) and the KSC Electric Field Mill network, then match these electric field mill values to the corresponding lightning events. The KLRD calculates distances between each lightning event and the various electric field mills, aids in identifying the location type for each stroke (i.e., on-shore vs. off-shore, etc.), provides statistics on the number of strokes per flash, and produces customizable reports for quick retrieval and logical display of data. Data from February 2014 to date covers 48 unique storm dates with 2295 flashes containing 5700 strokes, of which 2612 are off-shore and 1003 are on-shore. The number of strokes per flash ranges from 1 to 22. The ratio of single to subsequent stroke flashes is 1.29 for off-shore strokes and 2.19 for on-shore strokes.

  1. Global Knowledge Futures: Articulating the Emergence of a New Meta-level Field

    Jennifer M. Gidley

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I articulate a new meta-level field of studies that I call global knowledge futures—a field through which other emerging transdisciplinary fields can be integrated to cohere knowledge at a higher level. I contrast this with the current dominant knowledge paradigm of the global knowledge economy with its fragmentation, commodification and instrumentalism based on neoliberal knowledge capitalism. I take a big-picture, macrohistorical lens to the new thinking and new knowledge patterns that are emerging within the evolution of consciousness discourse. I explore three discourses: postformal studies, integral studies and planetary studies—using a fourth discourse, futures studies, to provide a macro-temporal framing. By extending the meta-fields of postformal, integral and planetary studies into a prospective future dimension, I locate areas of development where these leading-edge discourses can be brought into closer dialogue with each other. In this meeting point of four boundary-spanning discourses I identify the new meta-level field of global knowledge futures, grounded in human thinking capacities, such as creativity, imagination, dialogue and collaboration.

  2. The future sea-level rise contribution of Greenland’s glaciers and ice caps

    Machguth, H.; Rastner, P.; Bolch, T.

    2013-01-01

    We calculate the future sea-level rise contribution from the surface mass balance of all of Greenland's glaciers and ice caps (GICs, ~90 000 km2) using a simplified energy balance model which is driven by three future climate scenarios from the regional climate models HIRHAM5, RACMO2 and MAR...... experiments suggest that mass loss could be higher by 20–30% if a strong lowering of the surface albedo were to take place in the future. It is shown that the sea-level rise contribution from the north-easterly regions of Greenland is reduced by increasing precipitation while mass loss in the southern half...... feedback mechanisms are considered. The mass loss of all GICs by 2098 is calculated to be 2016 ± 129 Gt (HIRHAM5 forcing), 2584 ± 109 Gt (RACMO2) and 3907 ± 108 Gt (MAR). This corresponds to a total contribution to sea-level rise of 5.8 ± 0.4, 7.4 ± 0.3 and 11.2 ± 0.3 mm, respectively. Sensitivity...

  3. The Science-Policy Link: Stakeholder Reactions to the Uncertainties of Future Sea Level Rise

    Plag, H.; Bye, B.

    2011-12-01

    Policy makers and stakeholders in the coastal zone are equally challenged by the risk of an anticipated rise of coastal Local Sea Level (LSL) as a consequence of future global warming. Many low-lying and often densely populated coastal areas are under risk of increased inundation. More than 40% of the global population is living in or near the coastal zone and this fraction is steadily increasing. A rise in LSL will increase the vulnerability of coastal infrastructure and population dramatically, with potentially devastating consequences for the global economy, society, and environment. Policy makers are faced with a trade-off between imposing today the often very high costs of coastal protection and adaptation upon national economies and leaving the costs of potential major disasters to future generations. They are in need of actionable information that provides guidance for the development of coastal zones resilient to future sea level changes. Part of this actionable information comes from risk and vulnerability assessments, which require information on future LSL changes as input. In most cases, a deterministic approach has been applied based on predictions of the plausible range of future LSL trajectories as input. However, there is little consensus in the scientific community on how these trajectories should be determined, and what the boundaries of the plausible range are. Over the last few years, many publications in Science, Nature and other peer-reviewed scientific journals have revealed a broad range of possible futures and significant epistemic uncertainties and gaps concerning LSL changes. Based on the somewhat diffuse science input, policy and decision makers have made rather different choices for mitigation and adaptation in cases such as Venice, The Netherlands, New York City, and the San Francisco Bay area. Replacing the deterministic, prediction-based approach with a statistical one that fully accounts for the uncertainties and epistemic gaps

  4. US power plant sites at risk of future sea-level rise

    Bierkandt, R; Levermann, A; Auffhammer, M

    2015-01-01

    Unmitigated greenhouse gas emissions may increase global mean sea-level by about 1 meter during this century. Such elevation of the mean sea-level enhances the risk of flooding of coastal areas. We compute the power capacity that is currently out-of-reach of a 100-year coastal flooding but will be exposed to such a flood by the end of the century for different US states, if no adaptation measures are taken. The additional exposed capacity varies strongly among states. For Delaware it is 80% of the mean generated power load. For New York this number is 63% and for Florida 43%. The capacity that needs additional protection compared to today increases by more than 250% for Texas, 90% for Florida and 70% for New York. Current development in power plant building points towards a reduced future exposure to sea-level rise: proposed and planned power plants are less exposed than those which are currently operating. However, power plants that have been retired or canceled were less exposed than those operating at present. If sea-level rise is properly accounted for in future planning, an adaptation to sea-level rise may be costly but possible. (letter)

  5. Giving perspective to cliff exposures with ground penetrating radar: Devonian lacustrine shore zone architecture

    Andrews, Steven; Moreau, Julien; Archer, Stuart

    2015-04-01

    loaded sandstone beds and sand-filled shallow channel features overlie the bar forms. The channels are well imaged in the radargrams where their wider context can be gained. Through the combination of high resolution GPR data and detailed sedimentological analysis determination of the processes through which the previously enigmatic lake shore zone sandstones has been possible. The shore zone sandstones overlie playa facies which contain abundant desiccation horizons, reflecting the most arid phase in the climatically-controlled lacustrine cycle. As climatic conditions ameliorated the rejuvenation of fluvial systems resulted in the transport of sand out into the basin. Initial deposition was limited to intermittent events where sediment was laid down on a water saturated substrate. Some of these may have occurred subaqueously as small scale turbidity flows. High resolution fluctuations in lake level resulted in periodic short-lived reworking events along the lake margin which produced amalgamated sands, forming low relief bars. Shore zone reworking is likely to have occurred over a wide area as the lake margin migrated back and forth, and gradually transgressed. Continued transgression forced fluvial systems back towards the basin margin.

  6. Future sea level rise constrained by observations and long-term commitment

    Mengel, Matthias; Levermann, Anders; Frieler, Katja; Robinson, Alexander; Marzeion, Ben; Winkelmann, Ricarda

    2016-01-01

    Sea level has been steadily rising over the past century, predominantly due to anthropogenic climate change. The rate of sea level rise will keep increasing with continued global warming, and, even if temperatures are stabilized through the phasing out of greenhouse gas emissions, sea level is still expected to rise for centuries. This will affect coastal areas worldwide, and robust projections are needed to assess mitigation options and guide adaptation measures. Here we combine the equilibrium response of the main sea level rise contributions with their last century's observed contribution to constrain projections of future sea level rise. Our model is calibrated to a set of observations for each contribution, and the observational and climate uncertainties are combined to produce uncertainty ranges for 21st century sea level rise. We project anthropogenic sea level rise of 28–56 cm, 37–77 cm, and 57–131 cm in 2100 for the greenhouse gas concentration scenarios RCP26, RCP45, and RCP85, respectively. Our uncertainty ranges for total sea level rise overlap with the process-based estimates of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The “constrained extrapolation” approach generalizes earlier global semiempirical models and may therefore lead to a better understanding of the discrepancies with process-based projections. PMID:26903648

  7. Future sea level rise constrained by observations and long-term commitment.

    Mengel, Matthias; Levermann, Anders; Frieler, Katja; Robinson, Alexander; Marzeion, Ben; Winkelmann, Ricarda

    2016-03-08

    Sea level has been steadily rising over the past century, predominantly due to anthropogenic climate change. The rate of sea level rise will keep increasing with continued global warming, and, even if temperatures are stabilized through the phasing out of greenhouse gas emissions, sea level is still expected to rise for centuries. This will affect coastal areas worldwide, and robust projections are needed to assess mitigation options and guide adaptation measures. Here we combine the equilibrium response of the main sea level rise contributions with their last century's observed contribution to constrain projections of future sea level rise. Our model is calibrated to a set of observations for each contribution, and the observational and climate uncertainties are combined to produce uncertainty ranges for 21st century sea level rise. We project anthropogenic sea level rise of 28-56 cm, 37-77 cm, and 57-131 cm in 2100 for the greenhouse gas concentration scenarios RCP26, RCP45, and RCP85, respectively. Our uncertainty ranges for total sea level rise overlap with the process-based estimates of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The "constrained extrapolation" approach generalizes earlier global semiempirical models and may therefore lead to a better understanding of the discrepancies with process-based projections.

  8. On the regional characteristics of past and future sea-level change (Invited)

    Timmermann, A.; McGregor, S.

    2010-12-01

    Global sea-level rise due to the thermal expansion of the warming oceans and freshwater input from melting glaciers and ice-sheets is threatening to inundate low-lying islands and coast-lines worldwide. At present global mean sea level rises at 3.1 ± 0.7 mm/yr with an accelerating tendency. However, the magnitude of recent decadal sea-level trends varies greatly spatially attaining values of up to 10 mm/yr in some areas of the western tropical Pacific. Identifying the causes of recent regional sea-level trends and understanding the patterns of future projected sea-level change is of crucial importance. Using a wind-forced simplified dynamical ocean model, we show that the regional features of recent decadal and multidecadal sea-level trends in the tropical Indo-Pacific can be attributed to changes in the prevailing wind-regimes. Furthermore it is demonstrated that within an ensemble of ten state-of-the art coupled general circulation models, forced by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations over the next century, wind-induced re-distributions of upper-ocean water play a key role in establishing the spatial characteristics of projected regional sea-level rise. Wind-related changes in near- surface mass and heat convergence near the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Kiribati, the Cook Islands and French Polynesia oppose, but can not cancel the regional signal of global mean sea-level rise.

  9. Between tide and wave marks: a unifying model of physical zonation on littoral shores

    Christopher E. Bird

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of tides on littoral marine habitats are so ubiquitous that shorelines are commonly described as ‘intertidal’, whereas waves are considered a secondary factor that simply modifies the intertidal habitat. However mean significant wave height exceeds tidal range at many locations worldwide. Here we construct a simple sinusoidal model of coastal water level based on both tidal range and wave height. From the patterns of emergence and submergence predicted by the model, we derive four vertical shoreline benchmarks which bracket up to three novel, spatially distinct, and physically defined zones. The (1 emergent tidal zone is characterized by tidally driven emergence in air; the (2 wave zone is characterized by constant (not periodic wave wash; and the (3 submergent tidal zone is characterized by tidally driven submergence. The decoupling of tidally driven emergence and submergence made possible by wave action is a critical prediction of the model. On wave-dominated shores (wave height ≫ tidal range, all three zones are predicted to exist separately, but on tide-dominated shores (tidal range ≫ wave height the wave zone is absent and the emergent and submergent tidal zones overlap substantially, forming the traditional “intertidal zone”. We conclude by incorporating time and space in the model to illustrate variability in the physical conditions and zonation on littoral shores. The wave:tide physical zonation model is a unifying framework that can facilitate our understanding of physical conditions on littoral shores whether tropical or temperate, marine or lentic.

  10. The healthcare off-shoring industry in developing economies--institutional and economic foundations: an Indian case.

    Kshetri, Nir

    2011-01-01

    Industrialized world-based healthcare providers are increasingly off-shoring low-end healthcare services such as medical transcription, billing and insurance claims. High-skill medical jobs such as tele-imaging and tele-pathology are also being sub-contracted to developing countries. Despite its importance, little theory or research exists to explain what factors affect industry growth. The article's goals, therefore, are to examine economic processes associated with developing economies' shift from low- to high-value information technology enabled healthcare services, and to investigate how these differ in terms of legitimacy from regulative, normative and cognitive institutions in the sending country and how healthcare services differ from other services. This research is conceptual and theory-building. Broadly, its approach can be described as a positivistic epistemology. Anti off-shoring regulative, normative and cognitive pressures in the sending country are likely to be stronger in healthcare than in most business process outsourcing. Moreover, such pressures are likely to be stronger in high-value rather than in low-value healthcare off-shoring. The findings also indicate that off-shoring low-value healthcare services and emergent healthcare industries in a developing economy help accumulate implicit and tacit knowledge required for off-shoring high-value healthcare services. The approach lacks primary data and empirical documentation. The article helps in understanding industry drivers and its possible future direction. The findings help in understanding the lens through which various institutional actors in a sending country view healthcare service off-shoring. The article's value stems from its analytical context, mechanisms and processes associated with developing economies' shift to high-value healthcare off-shoring services.

  11. Minimum and Maximum Potential Contributions to Future Sea Level Rise from Polar Ice Sheets

    Deconto, R. M.; Pollard, D.

    2017-12-01

    New climate and ice-sheet modeling, calibrated to past changes in sea-level, is painting a stark picture of the future fate of the great polar ice sheets if greenhouse gas emissions continue unabated. This is especially true for Antarctica, where a substantial fraction of the ice sheet rests on bedrock more than 500-meters below sea level. Here, we explore the sensitivity of the polar ice sheets to a warming atmosphere and ocean under a range of future greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. The ice sheet-climate-ocean model used here considers time-evolving changes in surface mass balance and sub-ice oceanic melting, ice deformation, grounding line retreat on reverse-sloped bedrock (Marine Ice Sheet Instability), and newly added processes including hydrofracturing of ice shelves in response to surface meltwater and rain, and structural collapse of thick, marine-terminating ice margins with tall ice-cliff faces (Marine Ice Cliff Instability). The simulations improve on previous work by using 1) improved atmospheric forcing from a Regional Climate Model and 2) a much wider range of model physical parameters within the bounds of modern observations of ice dynamical processes (particularly calving rates) and paleo constraints on past ice-sheet response to warming. Approaches to more precisely define the climatic thresholds capable of triggering rapid and potentially irreversible ice-sheet retreat are also discussed, as is the potential for aggressive mitigation strategies like those discussed at the 2015 Paris Climate Conference (COP21) to substantially reduce the risk of extreme sea-level rise. These results, including physics that consider both ice deformation (creep) and calving (mechanical failure of marine terminating ice) expand on previously estimated limits of maximum rates of future sea level rise based solely on kinematic constraints of glacier flow. At the high end, the new results show the potential for more than 2m of global mean sea level rise by 2100

  12. Reducing the likelihood of future human activities that could affect geologic high-level waste repositories

    1984-05-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations provides a means of isolating the waste from people until the radioactivity has decayed to safe levels. However, isolating people from the wastes is a different problem, since we do not know what the future condition of society will be. The Human Interference Task Force was convened by the US Department of Energy to determine whether reasonable means exist (or could be developed) to reduce the likelihood of future human unintentionally intruding on radioactive waste isolation systems. The task force concluded that significant reductions in the likelihood of human interference could be achieved, for perhaps thousands of years into the future, if appropriate steps are taken to communicate the existence of the repository. Consequently, for two years the task force directed most of its study toward the area of long-term communication. Methods are discussed for achieving long-term communication by using permanent markers and widely disseminated records, with various steps taken to provide multiple levels of protection against loss, destruction, and major language/societal changes. Also developed is the concept of a universal symbol to denote Caution - Biohazardous Waste Buried Here. If used for the thousands of non-radioactive biohazardous waste sites in this country alone, a symbol could transcend generations and language changes, thereby vastly improving the likelihood of successful isolation of all buried biohazardous wastes

  13. Reducing the likelihood of future human activities that could affect geologic high-level waste repositories

    1984-05-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations provides a means of isolating the waste from people until the radioactivity has decayed to safe levels. However, isolating people from the wastes is a different problem, since we do not know what the future condition of society will be. The Human Interference Task Force was convened by the US Department of Energy to determine whether reasonable means exist (or could be developed) to reduce the likelihood of future human unintentionally intruding on radioactive waste isolation systems. The task force concluded that significant reductions in the likelihood of human interference could be achieved, for perhaps thousands of years into the future, if appropriate steps are taken to communicate the existence of the repository. Consequently, for two years the task force directed most of its study toward the area of long-term communication. Methods are discussed for achieving long-term communication by using permanent markers and widely disseminated records, with various steps taken to provide multiple levels of protection against loss, destruction, and major language/societal changes. Also developed is the concept of a universal symbol to denote Caution - Biohazardous Waste Buried Here. If used for the thousands of non-radioactive biohazardous waste sites in this country alone, a symbol could transcend generations and language changes, thereby vastly improving the likelihood of successful isolation of all buried biohazardous wastes.

  14. The future sea-level rise contribution of Greenland’s glaciers and ice caps

    Machguth, H; Rastner, P; Bolch, T; Mölg, N; Sørensen, L Sandberg; Aðalgeirsdottir, G; Van Angelen, J H; Van den Broeke, M R; Fettweis, X

    2013-01-01

    We calculate the future sea-level rise contribution from the surface mass balance of all of Greenland’s glaciers and ice caps (GICs, ∼90 000 km 2 ) using a simplified energy balance model which is driven by three future climate scenarios from the regional climate models HIRHAM5, RACMO2 and MAR. Glacier extent and surface elevation are modified during the mass balance model runs according to a glacier retreat parameterization. Mass balance and glacier surface change are both calculated on a 250 m resolution digital elevation model yielding a high level of detail and ensuring that important feedback mechanisms are considered. The mass loss of all GICs by 2098 is calculated to be 2016 ± 129 Gt (HIRHAM5 forcing), 2584 ± 109 Gt (RACMO2) and 3907 ± 108 Gt (MAR). This corresponds to a total contribution to sea-level rise of 5.8 ± 0.4, 7.4 ± 0.3 and 11.2 ± 0.3 mm, respectively. Sensitivity experiments suggest that mass loss could be higher by 20–30% if a strong lowering of the surface albedo were to take place in the future. It is shown that the sea-level rise contribution from the north-easterly regions of Greenland is reduced by increasing precipitation while mass loss in the southern half of Greenland is dominated by steadily decreasing summer mass balances. In addition we observe glaciers in the north-eastern part of Greenland changing their characteristics towards greater activity and mass turnover. (letter)

  15. Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) for shore approach applications

    Smith, Neil [MGI do Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Horizontal directional drilling (HDD) has become a commonly used construction method for pipeline shore approaches. HDD can mitigate environmental impact, provide greater burial depths and minimize construction schedules. The risks that are associated with HDD river crossings, which are generally well recognized, also apply to HDD shore approaches where they are combined with specific risks occurring from working in the marine environment. The shore approach projects of The Bronx and Hunts Point provide good practical examples of the benefits of this technology in spite of the various challenges encountered. (author)

  16. Stress analysis of partial sphere used for bottom shell of off-shore structure

    Nishimaki, Ko; Matsumoto, Kohei; Hori, Tohru; Takeshita, Haruyuki; Iwata, Setsuo

    1976-01-01

    In the near future, various huge off-shore structures will be constructed. Concrete shall become a leading material in the structures, owing to its versatile properties. One of the limitations of concrete is its low tensile strength. The problem of low tensile strength of concrete is dealt with in main by two different methods: by applying prestressing and by designing the structural configuration so that no tensile stresses appear. In the paper, the authors discuss the application of partially spherical shell to huge off-shore structures. Structural analysis by using the finite element method were done in order to investigate the feasibility of the structure. The results were arranged as to certain parameters to derive design charts by which the stresses of check points can be presumed. Optimum shape is also discussed. (auth.)

  17. Dynamic performance of power generation systems for off-shore oil and gas platforms

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Breuhaus, Peter; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    %) arises on the prediction of the rotational speed of the high pressure shaft, while the largest deviation (average relative error ~20%) occurs in the evaluation of the pressure at the outlet of the low pressure turbine. As waste heat recovery units (e.g. organic Rankine cycles) are likely...... to be implemented in future off-shore platforms, the proposed model may serve in the design phase for a preliminary assessment of the dynamic response of the power generation system and to evaluate if requirements such as minimum and maximum frequency during transient operation and the recovery time are satisfied......On off-shore oil and gas platforms two or more gas turbines typically support the electrical demand on site by operating as a stand-alone (island) power system. As reliability and availability are major concerns during operation, the dynamic performance of the power generation system becomes...

  18. Regional marine climate scenarios in the NE Atlantic sector close to the Spanish shores

    Damià Gomis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an overview of the changes expected during the 21st century in key marine parameters (sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity, sea level and waves in the sector of the NE Atlantic Ocean close to the Spanish shores. Under the A1B scenario, open-sea surface temperatures would increase by 1°C to 1.5°C by 2050 as a consequence of global ocean warming. Near the continental margin, however, the global temperature rise would be counteracted by an enhancement of the seasonal upwelling. Sea surface salinity is likely to decrease in the future, mainly due to the advection of high-latitude fresher waters from ice melting. Mean sea level rise has been quantified as 15-20 cm by 2050, but two contributions not accounted for by our models must be added: the mass redistribution derived from changes in the large-scale circulation (which in the NE Atlantic may be as large as 15 cm in 2050 or 35 cm by 2100 and the increase in the ocean mass content due to the melting of continental ice (for which estimates are still uncertain. The meteorological tide shows very small changes, and therefore extreme sea levels would be higher in the 21st century, but mostly due to the increase in mean sea level, not to an increase in the storminess. The wave projections point towards slightly smaller significant wave heights, but the changes projected are of the same order as the natural variability.

  19. Long Island north shore helicopter route environmental study

    2012-02-21

    This report presents the results of the noise and emissions analysis of helicopter operations along the North Shore Helicopter Route of Long Island, New York performed by the Federal Aviation Administration, with the assistance of the Volpe Center...

  20. Shore protection structures along Kerala coast-low cost alteratives

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Jasanto, P.K.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Several studies over the last two decades on low cost shore protection measures are reviewed to have an integrated profile with a point on application to the sheltered coasts of Kerala. It is emphasised that these alternative are generally...

  1. 27 CFR 9.79 - Lake Michigan Shore.

    2010-04-01

    ... Michigan Shore. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lake Michigan... southeast along the winding course of the Kalamazoo River for approximately 35 miles until it intersects the...

  2. O?shore ?oating wind turbine and its dynamic problems?

    Renchuan ZHU; Guoping MIAO; Ju FAN; Hua LIU

    2016-01-01

    Green energy sources and ocean wind power are plentiful in deep sea. More and more o?shore wind power plants are constructed in the deep water over hundred meters below the surface. While o?shore ?oating wind turbine system is working, wind turbine, ?oating foundation, and mooring system a?ect each other with wind, waves, and currents acting on them. Various o?shore ?oating wind turbine systems and the encoun-tered environmental loads are brie?y reviewed and discussed. It is di?cult and crucial to comprehensively analyze the aerodynamic-hydrodynamic-service system-structure un-der the coupling e?ect of o?shore ?oating wind turbine system. The environmental ?ow ?eld, structure scale, and rational applications of theories and approaches should be well considered in advance.

  3. Photosynthesis in a sub-Antarctic shore-zone lichen

    Smith, V.; Gremmen, N.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Photosynthetic responses to moisture, light, temperature, salinity and inorganic nitrogen fertilization are reported for a shore-zone lichen Turgidiusculum complicatulum (formerly Mastodia tesselata), a possible recent introduction to sub-Antarctic Marion Island. Optimum moisture contents for net

  4. St. Croix: Shore-based Fishing Access Points (2014)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Two local experts delineated access points for shore-based fishing along the shoreline of St. Croix, USVI. The points were documented at different times, and then...

  5. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Oahu South Shore

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 2-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding the south shore of the island of Oahu at approximately 200-m resolution....

  6. Design of a gravity corer for near shore sediment sampling

    Bhat, S.T.; Sonawane, A.V.; Nayak, B.U.

    For the purpose of geotechnical investigation a gravity corer has been designed and fabricated to obtain undisturbed sediment core samples from near shore waters. The corer was successfully operated at 75 stations up to water depth 30 m. Simplicity...

  7. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Travnikov, Oleg; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pirrone, Nicola; Munthe, John; Kindbom, Karin

    2016-10-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the main goal of applying them in models to assess current (2013) and future (2035) air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of this contaminant. The combustion of fossil fuels (mainly coal) for energy and heat production in power plants and in industrial and residential boilers, as well as artisanal and small-scale gold mining, is one of the major anthropogenic sources of Hg emissions to the atmosphere at present. These sources account for about 37 and 25 % of the total anthropogenic Hg emissions globally, estimated to be about 2000 t. Emissions in Asian countries, particularly in China and India, dominate the total emissions of Hg. The current estimates of mercury emissions from natural processes (primary mercury emissions and re-emissions), including mercury depletion events, were estimated to be 5207 t year-1, which represents nearly 70 % of the global mercury emission budget. Oceans are the most important sources (36 %), followed by biomass burning (9 %). A comparison of the 2035 anthropogenic emissions estimated for three different scenarios with current anthropogenic emissions indicates a reduction of these emissions in 2035 up to 85 % for the best-case scenario. Two global chemical transport models (GLEMOS and ECHMERIT) have been used for the evaluation of future mercury pollution levels considering future emission scenarios. Projections of future changes in mercury deposition on a global scale simulated by these models for three anthropogenic emissions scenarios of 2035 indicate a decrease in up to 50 % deposition in the Northern Hemisphere and up to 35 % in Southern Hemisphere for the best-case scenario. The EU GMOS project has proved to be a very important

  8. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    J. M. Pacyna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the main goal of applying them in models to assess current (2013 and future (2035 air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of this contaminant. The combustion of fossil fuels (mainly coal for energy and heat production in power plants and in industrial and residential boilers, as well as artisanal and small-scale gold mining, is one of the major anthropogenic sources of Hg emissions to the atmosphere at present. These sources account for about 37 and 25 % of the total anthropogenic Hg emissions globally, estimated to be about 2000 t. Emissions in Asian countries, particularly in China and India, dominate the total emissions of Hg. The current estimates of mercury emissions from natural processes (primary mercury emissions and re-emissions, including mercury depletion events, were estimated to be 5207 t year−1, which represents nearly 70 % of the global mercury emission budget. Oceans are the most important sources (36 %, followed by biomass burning (9 %. A comparison of the 2035 anthropogenic emissions estimated for three different scenarios with current anthropogenic emissions indicates a reduction of these emissions in 2035 up to 85 % for the best-case scenario. Two global chemical transport models (GLEMOS and ECHMERIT have been used for the evaluation of future mercury pollution levels considering future emission scenarios. Projections of future changes in mercury deposition on a global scale simulated by these models for three anthropogenic emissions scenarios of 2035 indicate a decrease in up to 50 % deposition in the Northern Hemisphere and up to 35 % in Southern Hemisphere for the best-case scenario. The EU GMOS project has

  9. A high-speed DAQ framework for future high-level trigger and event building clusters

    Caselle, M.; Perez, L.E. Ardila; Balzer, M.; Dritschler, T.; Kopmann, A.; Mohr, H.; Rota, L.; Vogelgesang, M.; Weber, M.

    2017-01-01

    Modern data acquisition and trigger systems require a throughput of several GB/s and latencies of the order of microseconds. To satisfy such requirements, a heterogeneous readout system based on FPGA readout cards and GPU-based computing nodes coupled by InfiniBand has been developed. The incoming data from the back-end electronics is delivered directly into the internal memory of GPUs through a dedicated peer-to-peer PCIe communication. High performance DMA engines have been developed for direct communication between FPGAs and GPUs using 'DirectGMA (AMD)' and 'GPUDirect (NVIDIA)' technologies. The proposed infrastructure is a candidate for future generations of event building clusters, high-level trigger filter farms and low-level trigger system. In this paper the heterogeneous FPGA-GPU architecture will be presented and its performance be discussed.

  10. Future health physics prospects in high-level nuclear waste management

    Waite, D.A.; Mayberry, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this presentation is to provide an overview of health physics activities anticipated to be required at a high-level nuclear waste repository and to project the numbers of health physics personnel expected to be required to carry out these activities. Health physics personnel receiving consideration in the projections include the health physics manager, shift supervisors, area supervisors, health physicists, and technologists. Phases of the repository addressed are construction, operation, retrieval, and decommissioning. Specific topics discussed in the process of developing the projections are: (a) the basic features of a geologic repository, (b) the staffing requirements of such a repository, (c) health physics involvement in repository operations, and (d) the anticipated schedule for operation of repositories in the United States. A quantitative assessment of future health physics prospects in high-level nuclear waste management is included

  11. Community-level climate change vulnerability research: trends, progress, and future directions

    McDowell, Graham; Ford, James; Jones, Julie

    2016-03-01

    This study systematically identifies, characterizes, and critically evaluates community-level climate change vulnerability assessments published over the last 25 years (n = 274). We find that while the field has advanced considerably in terms of conceptual framing and methodological approaches, key shortcomings remain in how vulnerability is being studied at the community-level. We argue that vulnerability research needs to more critically engage with the following: methods for evaluating future vulnerability, the relevance of vulnerability research for decision-making, interdependencies between social and ecological systems, attention to researcher / subject power dynamics, critical interpretation of key terms, and consideration of the potentially positive opportunities presented by a changing climate. Addressing these research needs is necessary for generating knowledge that supports climate-affected communities in navigating the challenges and opportunities ahead.

  12. Future rise of the sea level: consequences and strategies on the shoreline

    Teisson, C.

    1991-11-01

    The Mean Sea Level may rise in a near future due to the warming of the atmosphere associated with the 'greenhouse effect'. The alarming estimations issued in the 1980's (several meters of surelevation in the next centuries) are now lowered: the ice sheets, the melting of which could induce such a rise, do not present signs of instability. A rise from 30 to 50 cm is likely to occur in the middle of the next century; there is a probability of 25% that the rise of sea level relative to the year 1980 stands beyond 1 meter by 2100. The consequences of such a rise on the shoreline and the maritime works are reviewed, and planning strategies are discussed. This study has been performed in the framework of a convention between EDF-LNH and the Sea State Secretary (Service Technique des Ports Maritimes et Voies Navigables) 41 refs., 31 figs., 6 tabs

  13. International Standardization in the Design of "Shore to Ship" - Power Supply Systems of Ships in Port

    Tarnapowicz, Dariusz; German-Galkin, Sergiej

    2018-03-01

    The decisive source of air pollution emissions in ports is the berthed ships. This is primarily caused by the work of ship's autonomous generator sets. One way of reducing the air pollution emissions in ports is the supply of ships from electricity inland system. The main problem connected with the power connection of ships to the inland network is caused by different values of levels and frequencies of voltages in these networks (in various countries) in relation to different values of levels and frequencies of voltages present in the ship's network. It is also important that the source power can range from a few hundred kW up to several MW. In order to realize a universal „Shore to Ship" system that allows the connection of ships to the electricity inland network, the international standardization is necessary. This article presents the current recommendations, standards and regulations for the design of „Shore to Ship" systems.

  14. Future extreme water levels and floodplains in Gironde Estuary considering climate change

    Laborie, V.; Hissel, F.; Sergent, P.

    2012-04-01

    Within THESEUS European project, an overflowing model of Gironde Estuary has been used to evaluate future surge levels at Le Verdon and future water levels at 6 specific sites of the estuary : le Verdon, Richard, Laména, Pauillac, Le Marquis and Bordeaux. It was then used to study the evolution of floodplains' location and areas towards 2100 in the entire Estuary. In this study, no breaching and no modification in the elevation of the dike was considered. The model was fed by several data sources : wind fields at Royan and Mérignac interpolated from the grid of the European Climatolologic Model CLM/SGA, a tide signal at Le Verdon, the discharges of Garonne (at La Réole), the Dordogne (at Pessac) and Isle (at Libourne). A simplified mathematical model of surge levels has been adjusted at Le Verdon with 10 surge storms and by using wind and pressure fields given by CLM/SGA. This adjustment was led so that the statistical analysis of the global signal at Le Verdon gives the same quantiles as the same analysis driven on maregraphic observations for the period [1960 ; 2000]. The assumption used for sea level rise was the pessimistic one of the French national institute for climate change: 60 cm in 2100. The model was then used to study the evolution of extreme water levels towards 2100. The analysis of surge levels at Le Verdon shows a decrease in quantiles which is coherent with the analysis of climatologic fields. The analysis of water levels shows that the increase in mean water levels quantiles represents only a part of sea level rise in Gironde Estuary. Moreover this effect seems to decrease from the maritime limit of the model towards upstream. Concerning floodplains, those corresponding to return periods from 2 to 100 years for present conditions and 3 slices [2010; 2039], [2040; 2069] and [2070; 2099] have been mapped for 3 areas in Gironde Estuary : around Le Verdon, at the confluence between Garonne and Dordogne, and near Bordeaux. Concerning the evolution

  15. The impact of future sea-level rise on the global tides

    Pickering, M. D.; Horsburgh, K. J.; Blundell, J. R.; Hirschi, J. J.-M.; Nicholls, R. J.; Verlaan, M.; Wells, N. C.

    2017-06-01

    Tides are a key component in coastal extreme water levels. Possible changes in the tides caused by mean sea-level rise (SLR) are therefore of importance in the analysis of coastal flooding, as well as many other applications. We investigate the effect of future SLR on the tides globally using a fully global forward tidal model: OTISmpi. Statistical comparisons of the modelled and observed tidal solutions demonstrate the skill of the refined model setup with no reliance on data assimilation. We simulate the response of the four primary tidal constituents to various SLR scenarios. Particular attention is paid to future changes at the largest 136 coastal cities, where changes in water level would have the greatest impact. Spatially uniform SLR scenarios ranging from 0.5 to 10 m with fixed coastlines show that the tidal amplitudes in shelf seas globally respond strongly to SLR with spatially coherent areas of increase and decrease. Changes in the M2 and S2 constituents occur globally in most shelf seas, whereas changes in K1 and O1 are confined to Asian shelves. With higher SLR tidal changes are often not proportional to the SLR imposed and larger portions of mean high water (MHW) changes are above proportional. Changes in MHW exceed ±10% of the SLR at 10% of coastal cities. SLR scenarios allowing for coastal recession tend increasingly to result in a reduction in tidal range. The fact that the fixed and recession shoreline scenarios result mainly in changes of opposing sign is explained by the effect of the perturbations on the natural period of oscillation of the basin. Our results suggest that coastal management strategies could influence the sign of the tidal amplitude change. The effect of a spatially varying SLR, in this case fingerprints of the initial elastic response to ice mass loss, modestly alters the tidal response with the largest differences at high latitudes.

  16. Evolution of Cross-Shore Profile Models for Sustainable Coastal Design

    Ismail, Nabil; El-Sayed, Mohamed

    2014-05-01

    Selection and evaluation of coastal structures are correlated with environmental wave and current parameters as well as cross shore profiles. The coupling between the environmental conditions and cross shore profiles necessitates the ability to predict reasonably the cross shore profiles. Results obtained from the validation of a cross-shore profile evolution model, Uniform Beach Sediment Transport-Time-Averaged Cross-Shore (UNIBEST-TC), were examined and further analyzed to reveal the reasons for the discrepancy between the model predictions of the field data at the surf zone of the Duck Beach in North Carolina, USA. The UNIBEST model was developed to predict the main cross shore parameters of wave height, direction, cross shore and long shore currents. However, the results of the model predictions are generally satisfactory for wave height and direction but not satisfactory for the remaining parameters. This research is focused on exploring the discrepancy between the model predictions and the field data of the Duck site, and conducting further analyses to recommend model refinements. The discrepancy is partially attributed due to the fact that the measured values, were taken close to the seabed, while the predicted values are the depth-averaged velocity. Further examination indicated that UNIBEST-TC model runs consider the RMS of the wave height spectrum with a constant gamma-value from the offshore wave spectrum at 8.0m depth. To confirm this argument, a Wavelet Analysis was applied to the time series of wave height and longshore current velocity parameters at the Duck site. The significant wave height ranged between 0.6m and 4.0m while the frequencies ranged between 0.08 to 0.2Hz at 8.0m water depth. Four cases corresponding to events of both high water level and low water level at Duck site were considered in this study. The results show that linear and non-linear interaction between wave height and long-shore current occur over the range of frequencies

  17. Assessing the role of internal climate variability in Antarctica's contribution to future sea-level rise

    Tsai, C. Y.; Forest, C. E.; Pollard, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) has the potential to be a major contributor to future sea-level rise (SLR). Current projections of SLR due to AIS mass loss remain highly uncertain. Better understanding of how ice sheets respond to future climate forcing and variability is essential for assessing the long-term risk of SLR. However, the predictability of future climate is limited by uncertainties from emission scenarios, model structural differences, and the internal variability that is inherently generated within the fully coupled climate system. Among those uncertainties, the impact of internal variability on the AIS changes has not been explicitly assessed. In this study, we quantify the effect of internal variability on the AIS evolutions by using climate fields from two large-ensemble experiments using the Community Earth System Model to force a three-dimensional ice sheet model. We find that internal variability of climate fields, particularly atmospheric fields, among ensemble members leads to significantly different AIS responses. Our results show that the internal variability can cause about 80 mm differences of AIS contribution to SLR by 2100 compared to the ensemble-mean contribution of 380-450 mm. Moreover, using ensemble-mean climate fields as the forcing in the ice sheet model does not produce realistic simulations of the ice loss. Instead, it significantly delays the onset of retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet for up to 20 years and significantly underestimates the AIS contribution to SLR by 0.07-0.11 m in 2100 and up to 0.34 m in the 2250's. Therefore, because the uncertainty caused by internal variability is irreducible, we seek to highlight a critical need to assess the role of internal variability in projecting the AIS loss over the next few centuries. By quantifying the impact of internal variability on AIS contribution to SLR, policy makers can obtain more robust estimates of SLR and implement suitable adaptation strategies.

  18. UNEP-IOC-WMO-IUCN meeting of experts on a long-term global monitoring system of coastal and near-shore phenomena related to climate change, pilot projects and mangroves and coral reefs

    1991-01-01

    This meeting was held to develop strategies for long-term global monitoring of coastal and near-shore phenomena related to climate change, specifically mangroves and coral reefs. The agenda included an overview of the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) initiative, modules and pilot phase activities. Action plans for the implementation of long-term monitoring of mangrove and coral reef ecosystems were developed including; potential impacts of climate change and sea level rise on mangroves and coral reefs, consideration of parameters, consideration of methodologies, relationships of proposed activities to relevant national, regional and international developments, consideration of monitoring sites, and future implementation.

  19. Carbon choices determine US cities committed to futures below sea level.

    Strauss, Benjamin H; Kulp, Scott; Levermann, Anders

    2015-11-03

    Anthropogenic carbon emissions lock in long-term sea-level rise that greatly exceeds projections for this century, posing profound challenges for coastal development and cultural legacies. Analysis based on previously published relationships linking emissions to warming and warming to rise indicates that unabated carbon emissions up to the year 2100 would commit an eventual global sea-level rise of 4.3-9.9 m. Based on detailed topographic and population data, local high tide lines, and regional long-term sea-level commitment for different carbon emissions and ice sheet stability scenarios, we compute the current population living on endangered land at municipal, state, and national levels within the United States. For unabated climate change, we find that land that is home to more than 20 million people is implicated and is widely distributed among different states and coasts. The total area includes 1,185-1,825 municipalities where land that is home to more than half of the current population would be affected, among them at least 21 cities exceeding 100,000 residents. Under aggressive carbon cuts, more than half of these municipalities would avoid this commitment if the West Antarctic Ice Sheet remains stable. Similarly, more than half of the US population-weighted area under threat could be spared. We provide lists of implicated cities and state populations for different emissions scenarios and with and without a certain collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Although past anthropogenic emissions already have caused sea-level commitment that will force coastal cities to adapt, future emissions will determine which areas we can continue to occupy or may have to abandon.

  20. Stereotyping at the undergraduate level revealed during interprofessional learning between future doctors and biomedical scientists.

    Lewitt, Moira S; Ehrenborg, Ewa; Scheja, Max; Brauner, Annelie

    2010-01-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) involving undergraduate health professionals is expected to promote collaboration in their later careers. The role of IPE between doctors and biomedical scientists has not been explored at the undergraduate level. Our aim was to introduce IPE sessions for medical and biomedical students in order to identify the benefits and barriers to these groups learning together. Medical and biomedical students together discussed laboratory results, relevant literature, and ideas for developing new diagnostic tools. The programme was evaluated with questionnaires and interviews. While there was general support for the idea of IPE, medical and biomedical students responded differently. Biomedical students were more critical, wanted more explicit learning objectives and felt that their professional role was often misunderstood. The medical students were more enthusiastic but regarded the way the biomedical students communicated concerns about their perceived role as a barrier to effective interprofessional learning. We conclude that stereotyping, which can impede effective collaborations between doctors and biomedical scientists, is already present at the undergraduate level and may be a barrier to IPE. Effective learning opportunities should be supported at the curriculum level and be designed to specifically enable a broad appreciation of each other's future professional roles.

  1. Near-future carbon dioxide levels alter fish behaviour by interfering with neurotransmitter function

    Nilsson, Göran E.; Dixson, Danielle L.; Domenici, Paolo; McCormick, Mark I.; Sørensen, Christina; Watson, Sue-Ann; Munday, Philip L.

    2012-03-01

    Predicted future CO2 levels have been found to alter sensory responses and behaviour of marine fishes. Changes include increased boldness and activity, loss of behavioural lateralization, altered auditory preferences and impaired olfactory function. Impaired olfactory function makes larval fish attracted to odours they normally avoid, including ones from predators and unfavourable habitats. These behavioural alterations have significant effects on mortality that may have far-reaching implications for population replenishment, community structure and ecosystem function. However, the underlying mechanism linking high CO2 to these diverse responses has been unknown. Here we show that abnormal olfactory preferences and loss of behavioural lateralization exhibited by two species of larval coral reef fish exposed to high CO2 can be rapidly and effectively reversed by treatment with an antagonist of the GABA-A receptor. GABA-A is a major neurotransmitter receptor in the vertebrate brain. Thus, our results indicate that high CO2 interferes with neurotransmitter function, a hitherto unrecognized threat to marine populations and ecosystems. Given the ubiquity and conserved function of GABA-A receptors, we predict that rising CO2 levels could cause sensory and behavioural impairment in a wide range of marine species, especially those that tightly control their acid-base balance through regulatory changes in HCO3- and Cl- levels.

  2. Future extension of the Swedish repository for low and intermediate level waste (SFR)

    Carlsson, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The existing Swedish repository for low and intermediate level waste (SFR) is licensed for disposal of short-lived waste originated from operation and maintenance of Swedish nuclear power plants. The repository is foreseen to be extended to accommodate short-lived waste from the future decommissioning of the Nuclear Power Plants. Long-lived waste from operation, maintenance and eventually decommissioning will be stored some years before disposal in a geological repository. This repository can be build either as a further extension of the SFR facility or as a separate repository. This paper discusses the strategy of a step-wise extended repository where the extensions are performed during operation of the existing parts of the repository. It describes the process for licensing new parts of the repository (and re-license of the existing parts). (author)

  3. Performance assessment for future low-level waste disposal facilities at ORNL

    Lee, D.W.; Kocher, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the strategy for waste management on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and the approach to preparing future performance assessments that has evolved from previous performance assessment studies of low-level radioactive waste disposal on the ORR. The strategy for waste management is based on the concept that waste classification should be determined by performance assessment other than the sources of waste. This dose-based strategy for waste classification and management places special importance on the preparation and interpretation of waste disposal performance assessments for selecting appropriate disposal technologies and developing waste acceptance criteria. Additionally, the challenges to be overcome in the preparation of performance assessments are discussed. 7 refs

  4. Tritium activity concentration along the Western shore of the Black Sea

    Carmen Varlam; Faurescu, I.; Irina Vagner; Denisa Faurescu; Patrascu, V.; Margineanu, R.M.; Duliu, O.G.

    2013-01-01

    The Black Sea tritium level was investigated in 33 places southward the Danube Delta covering about 360 km of the Black Sea Western Shore. Both surface (10 cm depth) and bottom (up to 20 m depth) water samples were collected. In the close vicinity of Danube Delta, the tritium activity concentration in the surface water was around 28 TU, which is almost the same as that of the Danube River waters, but it decreased to about 5 TU in the bottom water. This discrepancy slowly diminished wherein at about 120 km southward, the tritium content in both surface and bottom water reached almost the same constant value of 6.5 ± 2.3 TU. This value, about two and a half times smaller than that reported 17 years ago, remained almost unchanged for the last 240 km of shore up to the Turkish border. (author)

  5. Decapod crustaceans from rocky shore at Farol Island, Matinhos, Paraná, Brazil. I: temporal distribution of population densities

    Masunari, Setuko; Oliveira, Edinalva; Kowalczuk, Vânia Graciele Lezan

    1998-01-01

    A study of the temporal distribution of the decapod populations from a rocky shore at Farol Isle, Matinhos, State of Paraná, Brazil (25o51'S e48o32'W) was carried out. The rocky shore is 13m wide when the tidal level is zero meter and about 8o inclination. In the supralittoral, the rocky basins is mostly covered by a layer of litter coming from the terrestrial environment. In the midlittoral and upper infralittoral, the rocky slope is overlayed by boulders and pebbles and they constitute a hi...

  6. Recent experience and future evolution of the CMS High Level Trigger System

    Bauer, Gerry; Branson, James; Bukowiec, Sebastian Czeslaw; Chaze, Olivier; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Deldicque, Christian; Dobson, Marc; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Hartl, Christian; Holzner, Andre Georg; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Franciscus; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius; Nunez Barranco Fernandez, Carlos; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Raginel, Olivier; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schwick, Christoph; Spataru, Andrei Cristian; Stoeckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty

    2012-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC uses a two-stage trigger system, with events flowing from the first level trigger at a rate of 100 kHz. These events are read out by the Data Acquisition system (DAQ), assembled in memory in a farm of computers, and finally fed into the high-level trigger (HLT) software running on the farm. The HLT software selects interesting events for offline storage and analysis at a rate of a few hundred Hz. The HLT algorithms consist of sequences of offline-style reconstruction and filtering modules, executed on a farm of 0(10000) CPU cores built from commodity hardware. Experience from the 2010-2011 collider run is detailed, as well as the current architecture of the CMS HLT, and its integration with the CMS reconstruction framework and CMS DAQ. The short- and medium-term evolution of the HLT software infrastructure is discussed, with future improvements aimed at supporting extensions of the HLT computing power, and addressing remaining performance and maintenance issues.

  7. Contributions of internal climate variability to mitigation of projected future regional sea level rise

    Hu, A.; Bates, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    Observations indicate that the global mean surface temperature is rising, so does the global mean sea level. Sea level rise (SLR) can impose significant impacts on island and coastal communities, especially when SLR is compounded with storm surges. Here, via analyzing results from two sets of ensemble simulations from the Community Earth System Model version 1, we investigate how the potential SLR benefits through mitigating the future emission scenarios from business as usual to a mild-mitigation over the 21st Century would be affected by internal climate variability. Results show that there is almost no SLR benefit in the near term due to the large SLR variability due to the internal ocean dynamics. However, toward the end of the 21st century, the SLR benefit can be as much as a 26±1% reduction of the global mean SLR due to seawater thermal expansion. Regionally, the benefits from this mitigation for both near and long terms are heterogeneous. They vary from just a 11±5% SLR reduction in Melbourne, Australia to a 35±6% reduction in London. The processes contributing to these regional differences are the coupling of the wind-driven ocean circulation with the decadal scale sea surface temperature mode in the Pacific and Southern Oceans, and the changes of the thermohaline circulation and the mid-latitude air-sea coupling in the Atlantic.

  8. An independent verification and validation of the Future Theater Level Model conceptual model

    Hartley, D.S. III; Kruse, K.L.; Martellaro, A.J.; Packard, S.L.; Thomas, B. Jr.; Turley, V.K.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes the methodology and results of independent verification and validation performed on a combat model in its design stage. The combat model is the Future Theater Level Model (FTLM), under development by The Joint Staff/J-8. J-8 has undertaken its development to provide an analysis tool that addresses the uncertainties of combat more directly than previous models and yields more rapid study results. The methodology adopted for this verification and validation consisted of document analyses. Included were detailed examination of the FTLM design documents (at all stages of development), the FTLM Mission Needs Statement, and selected documentation for other theater level combat models. These documents were compared to assess the FTLM as to its design stage, its purpose as an analytical combat model, and its capabilities as specified in the Mission Needs Statement. The conceptual design passed those tests. The recommendations included specific modifications as well as a recommendation for continued development. The methodology is significant because independent verification and validation have not been previously reported as being performed on a combat model in its design stage. The results are significant because The Joint Staff/J-8 will be using the recommendations from this study in determining whether to proceed with develop of the model.

  9. Volatility Transmission between Renminbi and Asia-Pacific on-shore and off-shore U.S. dollar futures

    Michael Funke; Roberta Colavecchio

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses multivariate GARCH techniques to study volatility spillovers between the Chinese non-deliverable forward market and seven of its Asia-Pacific counterparts over the period January 1998 to March 2005. To account for the time-variability of conditional correlation, a dynamic correlation structure is included in the volatility model specification. The empirical results demonstrate that the renminbi non-deliverable forward (NDF) has been a driver of various Asian currency markets b...

  10. Uranium in the Near-shore Aquatic Food Chain: Studies on Periphyton and Asian Clams

    Bunn, Amoret L.; Miley, Terri B.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Brandt, Charles A.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2007-12-31

    The benthic aquatic organisms in the near-shore environment of the Columbia River are the first biological receptors that can be exposed to groundwater contaminants coming from the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The primary contaminant of concern in the former nuclear fuels processing area at the Site, known as the 300 Area, is uranium. Currently, there are no national clean up criteria for uranium and ecological receptors. This report summarizes efforts to characterize biological uptake of uranium in the food chain of the benthic aquatic organisms and provide information to be used in future assessments of uranium and the ecosystem.

  11. Uranium in the Near-shore Aquatic Food Chain: Studies on Periphyton and Asian Clams

    Bunn, Amoret L.; Miley, Terri B.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Brandt, Charles A.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2007-01-01

    The benthic aquatic organisms in the near-shore environment of the Columbia River are the first biological receptors that can be exposed to groundwater contaminants coming from the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The primary contaminant of concern in the former nuclear fuels processing area at the Site, known as the 300 Area, is uranium. Currently, there are no national clean up criteria for uranium and ecological receptors. This report summarizes efforts to characterize biological uptake of uranium in the food chain of the benthic aquatic organisms and provide information to be used in future assessments of uranium and the ecosystem.

  12. Wastewater shores up food security | IDRC - International ...

    2010-10-13

    Oct 13, 2010 ... Water enters the food system at various points along the path “from farm to fork. ... The findings will help to influence future WHO recommendations and government health policies – and to stop a valuable ... Related articles ...

  13. Near-shore Antarctic pH variability has implications for the design of ocean acidification experiments

    Kapsenberg, Lydia; Kelley, Amanda L.; Shaw, Emily C.; Martz, Todd R.; Hofmann, Gretchen E.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how declining seawater pH caused by anthropogenic carbon emissions, or ocean acidification, impacts Southern Ocean biota is limited by a paucity of pH time-series. Here, we present the first high-frequency in-situ pH time-series in near-shore Antarctica from spring to winter under annual sea ice. Observations from autonomous pH sensors revealed a seasonal increase of 0.3 pH units. The summer season was marked by an increase in temporal pH variability relative to spring and early winter, matching coastal pH variability observed at lower latitudes. Using our data, simulations of ocean acidification show a future period of deleterious wintertime pH levels potentially expanding to 7–11 months annually by 2100. Given the presence of (sub)seasonal pH variability, Antarctica marine species have an existing physiological tolerance of temporal pH change that may influence adaptation to future acidification. Yet, pH-induced ecosystem changes remain difficult to characterize in the absence of sufficient physiological data on present-day tolerances. It is therefore essential to incorporate natural and projected temporal pH variability in the design of experiments intended to study ocean acidification biology.

  14. Environmental hazards for pipelines in coastal regions/shore approaches

    Jinsi, B.K.

    1995-01-01

    Often oil/gas and other hydrocarbons discovered and produced offshore are transported to onshore facilities via submarine pipelines. The route of such pipelines traverses through coastal/shore approach regions. For a rational/economic design, safe installation and subsequent operation it is of utmost importance to review, evaluate and finalize various environmental hazard such as winds, waves, currents, seabed topography, seabed and sub-bottom soils, seabed erosion and soil accretion. This paper addresses the above described environmental hazards, their assessment and techniques to prepare design parameters which must be used for stability analysis, installation methods, long term operation and maintenance for the shore approaches. Additionally, various proven pipeline installation and stabilization techniques for the shore approach region are detailed. As case histories, three approaches installed in the Dutch North Sea are described

  15. Cadmium in the shore crab Carcinus maenas along the Norwegian coast: geographical and seasonal variation and correlation to physiological parameters.

    Knutsen, Heidi; Wiech, Martin; Duinker, Arne; Maage, Amund

    2018-03-27

    Previously, high concentrations of cadmium have been found in the hepatopancreas of the edible or brown crab (Cancer pagurus) sampled from positions north of about 67° N, compared to regions further south along the Norwegian coast, with no clear understanding why. In order to study a similar organism in the same ecosystem, the present study analyzed 210 shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) from four different locations along the Norwegian coast, two in the North and two in the South. The physiological variables size, sex, molting stage, hepatosomatic index, carapace color, and gonad maturation were registered, in attempt to explain the high inter-individual variation in cadmium levels in hepatopancreas. In contrast to the brown crabs, the shore crabs showed no clear geographical differences in cadmium concentrations. This indicates physiological differences between the two crab species. No clear and consistent correlations were found between cadmium levels and physiological parameters, except for sex, where cadmium concentration in hepatopancreas was twice as high in males compared to females. The cadmium levels also varied with season, with approximately 40 and 60% lower cadmium concentration in April than August for male and female shore crabs, respectively. None of the analyzed cadmium concentrations in muscle meat from claws exceeded EUs food safety limit, and low cadmium levels in soup prepared from shore crabs clearly indicated that this dish is not problematic regarding food safety.

  16. Past and future sea-level change from the surface mass balance of glaciers

    B. Marzeion

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We present estimates of sea-level change caused by the global surface mass balance of glaciers, based on the reconstruction and projection of the surface mass balance of all the individual glaciers of the world, excluding the ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica. The model is validated using a leave-one-glacier-out cross-validation scheme against 3997 observed surface mass balances of 255 glaciers, and against 756 geodetically observed, temporally integrated volume and surface area changes of 341 glaciers. When forced with observed monthly precipitation and temperature data, the glaciers of the world are reconstructed to have lost mass corresponding to 114 ± 5 mm sea-level equivalent (SLE between 1902 and 2009. Using projected temperature and precipitation anomalies from 15 coupled general circulation models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5 ensemble, they are projected to lose an additional 148 ± 35 mm SLE (scenario RCP26, 166 ± 42 mm SLE (scenario RCP45, 175 ± 40 mm SLE (scenario RCP60, or 217 ± 47 mm SLE (scenario RCP85 during the 21st century. Based on the extended RCP scenarios, glaciers are projected to approach a new equilibrium towards the end of the 23rd century, after having lost either 248 ± 66 mm SLE (scenario RCP26, 313 ± 50 mm SLE (scenario RCP45, or 424 ± 46 mm SLE (scenario RCP85. Up until approximately 2100, ensemble uncertainty within each scenario is the biggest source of uncertainty for the future glacier mass loss; after that, the difference between the scenarios takes over as the biggest source of uncertainty. Ice mass loss rates are projected to peak 2040 ∼ 2050 (RCP26, 2050 ∼ 2060 (RCP45, 2070 ∼ 2090 (RCP60, or 2070 ∼ 2100 (RCP85.

  17. The future of event-level information repositories, indexing, and selection in ATLAS

    Barberis, D; Cranshaw, J; Malon, D; Gemmeren, P Van; Zhang, Q; Dimitrov, G; Nairz, A; Sorokoletov, R; Doherty, T; Quilty, D; Gallas, E J; Hrivnac, J; Nowak, M

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS maintains a rich corpus of event-by-event information that provides a global view of the billions of events the collaboration has measured or simulated, along with sufficient auxiliary information to navigate to and retrieve data for any event at any production processing stage. This unique resource has been employed for a range of purposes, from monitoring, statistics, anomaly detection, and integrity checking, to event picking, subset selection, and sample extraction. Recent years of data-taking provide a foundation for assessment of how this resource has and has not been used in practice, of the uses for which it should be optimized, of how it should be deployed and provisioned for scalability to future data volumes, and of the areas in which enhancements to functionality would be most valuable. This paper describes how ATLAS event-level information repositories and selection infrastructure are evolving in light of this experience, and in view of their expected roles both in wide-area event delivery services and in an evolving ATLAS analysis model in which the importance of efficient selective access to data can only grow.

  18. Identification of high-level functional/system requirements for future civil transports

    Swink, Jay R.; Goins, Richard T.

    1992-01-01

    In order to accommodate the rapid growth in commercial aviation throughout the remainder of this century, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is faced with a formidable challenge to upgrade and/or modernize the National Airspace System (NAS) without compromising safety or efficiency. A recurring theme in both the Aviation System Capital Investment Plan (CIP), which has replaced the NAS Plan, and the new FAA Plan for Research, Engineering, and Development (RE&D) rely on the application of new technologies and a greater use of automation. Identifying the high-level functional and system impacts of such modernization efforts on future civil transport operational requirements, particularly in terms of cockpit functionality and information transfer, was the primary objective of this project. The FAA planning documents for the NAS of the 2005 era and beyond were surveyed; major aircraft functional capabilities and system components required for such an operating environment were identified. A hierarchical structured analysis of the information processing and flows emanating from such functional/system components were conducted and the results documented in graphical form depicting the relationships between functions and systems.

  19. Data communication for near shore applications

    Stetenfeldt, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The wave energy conversion concept developed at Uppsala University is based on a buoy at sea level that is connected to a linear generator on the sea bed. The movements of the buoy riding the waves gets converted into electricity by the reciprocal movements of the translator inside the generator. To be able to compensate the negative impact of water level variations on power production, which is especially important at sites with high tidal range, a sea level compensation system to be placed ...

  20. Experiencing the changing climate on the shores of Lake Superior

    Akerlof, K.; Maibach, E.

    2011-12-01

    The Great Lakes of the United States - the largest freshwater system in the world - have been termed "the canary in the coal mine" of environmental change. To assess if and how residents of Alger County, Michigan are experiencing changes in climate on the shores of Lake Superior, during the summer of 2010 we conducted a representative household mail survey in collaboration with a national lakeshore and watershed partnership. A total of 765 adult residents (18 years or older) responded to the survey; a 57% survey completion rate. We content analyzed respondents' open-ended characterizations of how they have personally experienced global warming, and compared the results with land surface and storm data for the same geographic region to see whether public perceptions of local changes match trends in National Climatic Data Center data. Just over a quarter of residents (27%) indicated that they had personally experienced global warming. Those who had were most likely to say that they had experienced global warming locally (as opposed to in other locations of the country or globally), and most frequently cited changes in seasons, weather, lake levels, and animals or plant species. However, some local public perceptions appeared to conflict with weather records. For example, residents were more likely to say that they had been experiencing less snow in the winters, while NCDC data suggests the reverse is true. As climate changes differentially in regions across the United States, the public will in turn experience its physical impacts in distinct ways that are unique to each landscape. This may be counter-intuitive to a public that increasingly experiences the world, and issues such as climate change, through sources of information such as national news media that operate at much larger geographic scales. Understanding where these forms of cognitive dissonance may arise may assist researchers, educators, and communicators in furthering discourses with the public about

  1. Thirty Years of Social Science Research on High-Level Nuclear Waste: Achievements and Future Challenges

    Solomon, Barry D. (Dept. of Social Sciences, Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton (United States)), e-mail: bdsolomo@mtu.edu; Andren, Mats; Strandberg, Urban (Center for Public Sector Research, Univ. of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    Research on high-level nuclear waste management has focused on technical and scientific issues since the U.S. National Academy of Sciences first studied the problem in the mid 1950s and recommended long-term disposal in deep salt formations. In this review, we trace the development of the problem's definition and its associated research since socioeconomic, political and policy issues were first given consideration and nuclear waste management became recognized as more than a technical issue. Three time periods are identified. First, from the mid 1970s to early 1980s, initial research explored institutional dimensions of nuclear waste, including ethics. The second period began in the early 1980s with a concerted effort to solve the problem and site nuclear waste repositories, and ended in the mid 1990s with minimal progress in the U.S. and general stalemate in Asia and Europe (with the notable exception of Sweden). This phase accelerated research on risk perception and stigma of nuclear waste, and elevated a focus on public trust. Great attention was given to repository siting conflicts, while minimal attention was placed on ethics, equity, political systems, and public participation. The last period, since the mid 1990s, has been characterized by continuing political stalemate and increased attention to public participation, political systems and international solutions. Questions of ethics have been given renewed attention, while research on risk perceptions and siting conflicts continues. We frame these periods in a broader context of the shifting role of applied social scientists. The paper concludes with a general discussion of this research area and prospects for future research

  2. Thirty Years of Social Science Research on High-Level Nuclear Waste: Achievements and Future Challenges

    Solomon, Barry D.; Andren, Mats; Strandberg, Urban

    2010-09-01

    Research on high-level nuclear waste management has focused on technical and scientific issues since the U.S. National Academy of Sciences first studied the problem in the mid 1950s and recommended long-term disposal in deep salt formations. In this review, we trace the development of the problem's definition and its associated research since socioeconomic, political and policy issues were first given consideration and nuclear waste management became recognized as more than a technical issue. Three time periods are identified. First, from the mid 1970s to early 1980s, initial research explored institutional dimensions of nuclear waste, including ethics. The second period began in the early 1980s with a concerted effort to solve the problem and site nuclear waste repositories, and ended in the mid 1990s with minimal progress in the U.S. and general stalemate in Asia and Europe (with the notable exception of Sweden). This phase accelerated research on risk perception and stigma of nuclear waste, and elevated a focus on public trust. Great attention was given to repository siting conflicts, while minimal attention was placed on ethics, equity, political systems, and public participation. The last period, since the mid 1990s, has been characterized by continuing political stalemate and increased attention to public participation, political systems and international solutions. Questions of ethics have been given renewed attention, while research on risk perceptions and siting conflicts continues. We frame these periods in a broader context of the shifting role of applied social scientists. The paper concludes with a general discussion of this research area and prospects for future research

  3. Future climate change driven sea-level rise: secondary consequences from human displacement for island biodiversity.

    Wetzel, Florian T; Kissling, W Daniel; Beissmann, Helmut; Penn, Dustin J

    2012-09-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) due to global warming will result in the loss of many coastal areas. The direct or primary effects due to inundation and erosion from SLR are currently being assessed; however, the indirect or secondary ecological effects, such as changes caused by the displacement of human populations, have not been previously evaluated. We examined the potential ecological consequences of future SLR on >1,200 islands in the Southeast Asian and the Pacific region. Using three SLR scenarios (1, 3, and 6 m elevation, where 1 m approximates most predictions by the end of this century), we assessed the consequences of primary and secondary SLR effects from human displacement on habitat availability and distributions of selected mammal species. We estimate that between 3-32% of the coastal zone of these islands could be lost from primary effects, and consequently 8-52 million people would become SLR refugees. Assuming that inundated urban and intensive agricultural areas will be relocated with an equal area of habitat loss in the hinterland, we project that secondary SLR effects can lead to an equal or even higher percent range loss than primary effects for at least 10-18% of the sample mammals in a moderate range loss scenario and for 22-46% in a maximum range loss scenario. In addition, we found some species to be more vulnerable to secondary than primary effects. Finally, we found high spatial variation in vulnerability: species on islands in Oceania are more vulnerable to primary SLR effects, whereas species on islands in Indo-Malaysia, with potentially 7-48 million SLR refugees, are more vulnerable to secondary effects. Our findings show that primary and secondary SLR effects can have enormous consequences for human inhabitants and island biodiversity, and that both need to be incorporated into ecological risk assessment, conservation, and regional planning. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. The Role of Level-3 PSA in the Regulatory Structure for the Licensing of Future NPPs

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Han, Sang Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) provides a systematic analysis to identify and quantify all risks that the plant imposed to the operators, general public and the environment and thus demonstrates compliance to regulatory risk criteria. Therefore, the PSA has been being played an important role in the development of safety requirements for the existing plants, mainly reactors using light water technology. However, the existing safety requirements may not be fully applicable to the future reactors due to the advances in technology, new safety options, and new strategies for managing abnormal plant conditions. Therefore, a comprehensive set of technology-neutral safety requirements are being developed by the IAEA and USNRC. Especially, USNRC is developing a basis for a regulatory structure that is applicable to all types of reactor designs, including gas-cooled, liquid metal, and heavy and light water-moderated reactors because metrics such as core damage and large early release may not be applicable to some advanced reactor designs. They are developing this kind of basis for a regulatory structure in order to provide a technology neutral safety approach that will guide the design, construction and operation, as well as safety assessment, of innovative reactors. They are using the quantitative safety goals expressed by means of a frequency-consequence diagram. Within this approach, the scope of the PSA needs to encompass a whole spectrum of off-normal events including frequent, infrequent, and rare initiating events and event sequences. These events include a spectrum of releases from minor to major, and sequences that address conditions less than the core damage sequences. It also needs to address the dose consequences of these event sequences as measured at the exclusion area boundary (EAB). In order to obtain dose consequences for the whole spectrum of off-normal events, the dose evaluation by using the deterministic and probabilistic approaches has to be

  5. 161 EVALUATION OF ON-SHORE OIL SPILL REMEDIATION ...

    EVALUATION OF ON-SHORE OIL SPILL REMEDIATION OPERATIONS IN. PORT HARCOURT ... study is an attempt to unravel the effectiveness of clean-up exercises undertaken by oil .... Research Design. The study ..... remediation as well as tilling and evacuation of affected soils would certainly be more productive.

  6. Littoral Encounters : The Shore as Cultural Interface in King Horn

    Sobecki, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    1. III * Later Medieval: Excluding Chaucer -- Brown et al., 10.1093 ... ... between the Saracens and the londisse men allied to the protagonist (' Littoral Encounters: the Shore as Cultural Interface in King Horn', Al-Mas a ... www.ywes.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/man0092 2.Murray, Alan V.

  7. Biological impacts of oil pollution: rocky shores. V. 7

    1997-01-01

    Most people with access to the sea have at one time enjoyed looking into rockpools and searching for crabs under boulders. Rocky shores have a great deal of fascination for people and they are the closest that many of them will get to the mysteries below the low tide mark. They are found, in some form, on most of the world's coasts and their ecology has been the subject of many books, reports and scientific papers. Rocky shores encompass a variety of intertidal habitats and have a range of vulnerabilities to oil. While some areas are quickly and easily cleaned by natural forces others can trap oil in sensitive sub-habitats which may then be damaged and take many years to recover. Furthermore, rocky shores have an importance in the wider context of marine ecosystems and some provide important local fisheries resources, tourism and amenities. This report describes the factors that make some rocky shores more sensitive to oil spills than others and considers the most appropriate methods of clean-up. Case histories are used to illustrate the effects of spills and spill clean-up, as well as typical recovery rates. (UK)

  8. Selected fishery and population parameters of eight shore-angling ...

    Selected fishery and population parameters of eight shore-angling species in the ... Five different estimates of natural mortality (M), and the coefficients of ... for the most abundant species, blacktail Diplodus capensis, with a mean CPUE of 0.252 ... Keywords: catch per unit effort; fisheries management; marine protected area; ...

  9. Near-shore distribution of Heaviside's ( Cephalorhynchus heavisidii ...

    Heaviside's dolphins were found in shallower, cooler water than dusky dolphins and were more likely to be seen during brighter phases of the moon (when nocturnal light conditions may influence the vertical migration patterns of prey) and in areas of high hake abundance. Near-shore fishing activity was higher in the ...

  10. Routing helicopters for crew exchanges on off-shore locations

    Sierksma, G.; Tijssen, G.A.

    This paper deals with a vehicle routing problem with split demands, namely the problem of determining a flight schedule for helicopters to off-shore platform locations for exchanging crew people employed on these platforms. The problem is formulated as an LP model and solved by means of a

  11. Cross-shore currents in the surf zone

    Aagaard, Troels; Vinther, Niels

    2008-01-01

      While the dynamics and kinematics of various types of mean cross-shore current flows in the surf zone (undertow and rip currents) are fairly well understood, the causes for transitions occurring between these two types of mean circulation patterns remain obscure. On longshore barred beaches...

  12. Seasonally and spatially referenced estimates of recreational shore ...

    A roving creel survey of the recreational shore fishery along the 16.4-km coastline in the Goukamma Marine Protected Area on the south coast of South Africa was conducted from 2009 to 2011. Some 838 patrols were stratified equally among months, areas and years, but intentionally biased towards weekends. Angler ...

  13. An analysis of the recreational shore fishery in the Goukamma ...

    Ten years (1993–2002) of shore fishing catch and effort data collected during routine patrols in the Goukamma Marine Protected Area in theWestern Cape Province were analysed. Of a total of 35 species recorded, the most common were backtail, Diplodus sargus capensis (39%), and galjoen, Dichistius capensis (25%).

  14. Optimization of Organic Rankine Cycles for Off-Shore Applications

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Larsen, Ulrik; Nguyen, Tuong-Van

    2013-01-01

    and the thermal efficiency of the cycle can be maximized. This paper is aimed at finding the most optimal ORC tailored for off-shore applications using an optimization procedure based on the genetic algorithm. Numerous working fluids are screened through, considering mainly thermal efficiency, but also other...

  15. For easy sleep along the shore: Making hazard warnings more ...

    2011-01-27

    Jan 27, 2011 ... For easy sleep along the shore: Making hazard warnings more effective ... to alert the public; local leaders trained to make the right decisions; .... and the sirens sound, its people will have the motivation and the capacity to act?

  16. Effects of density on cross-shore sediment transport

    Bosboom, J.; de Meijer, R.J.; Kraus, N.C.; McDougal, W.G.

    1999-01-01

    After the discovery of high concentrations of heavy minerals on the beach of the Dutch barrier-island Ameland, the radiometric fingerprinting technique was developed to assess offshore heavy-mineral concentrations. These measurements revealed cross-shore variations in the heavy-mineral

  17. Future concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases CO2, CFC and CH4 - an assessment on the educational level

    Hoppenau, S.

    1992-01-01

    A model on the educational level is described to estimate effective future atmospheric CO 2 concentrations. The effects of chlorofluorocarbon and methane emission and deforestation are taken into account. The influence of different emission scenarios on the time evolution of greenhouse-gas concentration are illustrated. Future global energy policies are discussed both under the aspects of rising world population and the reduction in global CO 2 emissions. The model can be handled on a PC or even on a pocket calculator

  18. Collection of Country-level Interim Surveys Implemented as Part of the Feed the Future Initiative

    US Agency for International Development — Led by USAID, Feed the Future is the U.S. Government?s global hunger and food security initiative, which establishes a foundation for lasting progress against global...

  19. Collection of Country-level Baseline Surveys Implemented as Part of the Feed the Future Initiative

    US Agency for International Development — Led by USAID, Feed the Future is the U.S. Government?s global hunger and food security initiative, which establishes a foundation for lasting progress against global...

  20. Effects of fuel and forest conservation on future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

    Walker, J C; Kasting, J F

    1992-01-01

    formulation of the rock cycle and to the dissolution of deep sea carbonate sediments. Atmospheric carbon dioxide continues to increase as long fossil fuel is burned at a significant rate, because the rate of fossil fuel production of carbon dioxide far exceeds the rates at which geochemical processes can remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The maximum concentration of carbon dioxide achieved in the atmosphere depends on the total amount of fossil fuel burned, but only weakly on the rate of burning. The future course of atmospheric carbon dioxide is, however, very sensitive to the fate of the forests in this simulation because of the important role assigned to carbon dioxide fertilization of plant growth rate. Forest clearance drives up atmospheric carbon dioxide not only by converting biomass into atmospheric carbon dioxide but more importantly by reducing the capacity of the biota to sequester fossil fuel carbon dioxide. In this simulation, atmospheric carbon dioxide levels could be sustained indefinitely below 500 parts per million (ppm) if fossil fuel combustion rates were immediately cut from their present value of 5 x 10(14) m/y to 0.2 x 10(14) m/y (a factor of 25 reduction) and if further forest clearance were halted. If neither of these conditions is met and if we consume most of the world's fossil fuel reserves, peak carbon dioxide concentrations of 1000-2000 ppm are probable within the next few centuries.

  1. Enabling the MLSpOC (Multi-Level Space Operations Center) of the Future

    Missal, D.

    2012-09-01

    accredited today at multiple sites both CONUS and OCONUS. It is designed to assist information systems developers achieve DCID 6/3 Protection Level 4 or 5 (PL4 or PL5) or DoD SABI C&A for SECRET-to-UNCLASSIFIED systems (PL3). The product is on the DoD/DNI Unified Cross-domain Management Office's (UCDMO) Baseline of accredited solutions, and is the only solution on the Baseline which the Government considers to be an "All-in-One" approach to the Cross-domain Security challenge. Our solution is also the only PL-4 Cloud in existence and that is deployed and operational in the entire world today (at DIA). The Space marketplace is a very unique cross-domain challenge, as a need exists for Unclassified SSA Data Sharing at a deeper and more fundamental level than anywhere else in the IC or DoD. For instance, certain Agencies and/or Programs have a requirement to share information with Partner Nations that are not considered to be "friendly" (e.g. China). Our Solution is the ONLY solution in the world today that's achieved C&A, and that is uniquely positioned to enable the Multi-level Space Operations Center (MLSpOC) of the Future.

  2. Short-term observation of beach dynamics using cross-shore profiles and foreshore sediment

    Dora, G.U.; SanilKumar, V.; Johnson, G.; Philip, C.S.; Vinayaraj, P.

    Cross-shore beach profiles and textural characteristics of foreshore sediment were analyzed for understanding an annual cycle of intertidal beach dynamics at Devbag, an Island sheltered estuarine coast. Cross-shore transects were monitored in a...

  3. 78 FR 39719 - Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    2013-07-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [ Docket No. CP13-498-000] Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on June 13, 2013, Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company (Eastern Shore) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission an application under section 7...

  4. 77 FR 65542 - Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    2012-10-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP13-6-000] Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 12, 2012, Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company (Eastern Shore), 1110 Forrest Avenue, Dover, Delaware 19904, filed in the above referenced docket...

  5. 75 FR 13524 - Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    2010-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP10-76-000] Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application March 15, 2010. Take notice that on March 5, 2010, Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company, (Eastern Shore), 1110 Forrest Avenue, Dover, Delaware 19904, pursuant to...

  6. Effect of acanthocephalan parasites on hiding behaviour in two species of shore crabs.

    Latham, A D M; Poulin, R

    2002-12-01

    The effect of acanthocephalan parasites (Profilicollis spp.) on the hiding behaviour during low tide of two species of shore crabs (intermediate hosts), Macrophthalmus hirtipes (Brachyura: Ocypodidae) and Hemigrapsus crenulatus (Brachyura: Grapsidae), was examined at Blueskin Bay, South Island, New Zealand. Exposed M. hirtipes were found to have significantly higher infection levels than did hidden conspecifics. This pattern was not observed for H. crenulatus. Mean cystacanth numbers were found to be considerably higher in M. hirtipes than H. crenulatus. Crabs exposed at low tide are at a greater risk of predation by definitive shorebird hosts than are hidden conspecifics. Preferential manipulation of one intermediate host species over another could influence diversity within ecosystems.

  7. Impacts of representing sea-level rise uncertainty on future flood risks: An example from San Francisco Bay.

    Ruckert, Kelsey L; Oddo, Perry C; Keller, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Rising sea levels increase the probability of future coastal flooding. Many decision-makers use risk analyses to inform the design of sea-level rise (SLR) adaptation strategies. These analyses are often silent on potentially relevant uncertainties. For example, some previous risk analyses use the expected, best, or large quantile (i.e., 90%) estimate of future SLR. Here, we use a case study to quantify and illustrate how neglecting SLR uncertainties can bias risk projections. Specifically, we focus on the future 100-yr (1% annual exceedance probability) coastal flood height (storm surge including SLR) in the year 2100 in the San Francisco Bay area. We find that accounting for uncertainty in future SLR increases the return level (the height associated with a probability of occurrence) by half a meter from roughly 2.2 to 2.7 m, compared to using the mean sea-level projection. Accounting for this uncertainty also changes the shape of the relationship between the return period (the inverse probability that an event of interest will occur) and the return level. For instance, incorporating uncertainties shortens the return period associated with the 2.2 m return level from a 100-yr to roughly a 7-yr return period (∼15% probability). Additionally, accounting for this uncertainty doubles the area at risk of flooding (the area to be flooded under a certain height; e.g., the 100-yr flood height) in San Francisco. These results indicate that the method of accounting for future SLR can have considerable impacts on the design of flood risk management strategies.

  8. Impacts of representing sea-level rise uncertainty on future flood risks: An example from San Francisco Bay.

    Kelsey L Ruckert

    Full Text Available Rising sea levels increase the probability of future coastal flooding. Many decision-makers use risk analyses to inform the design of sea-level rise (SLR adaptation strategies. These analyses are often silent on potentially relevant uncertainties. For example, some previous risk analyses use the expected, best, or large quantile (i.e., 90% estimate of future SLR. Here, we use a case study to quantify and illustrate how neglecting SLR uncertainties can bias risk projections. Specifically, we focus on the future 100-yr (1% annual exceedance probability coastal flood height (storm surge including SLR in the year 2100 in the San Francisco Bay area. We find that accounting for uncertainty in future SLR increases the return level (the height associated with a probability of occurrence by half a meter from roughly 2.2 to 2.7 m, compared to using the mean sea-level projection. Accounting for this uncertainty also changes the shape of the relationship between the return period (the inverse probability that an event of interest will occur and the return level. For instance, incorporating uncertainties shortens the return period associated with the 2.2 m return level from a 100-yr to roughly a 7-yr return period (∼15% probability. Additionally, accounting for this uncertainty doubles the area at risk of flooding (the area to be flooded under a certain height; e.g., the 100-yr flood height in San Francisco. These results indicate that the method of accounting for future SLR can have considerable impacts on the design of flood risk management strategies.

  9. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    Pacyna, J. M.; Travnikov, O.; De Simone, F.; Hedgecock, I. M.; Sundseth, K.; Pacyna, E. G.; Steenhuisen, F.; Pirrone, N.; Munthe, J.; Kindbom, K.

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the

  10. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on global scale

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Travnikov, Oleg; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pirrone, Nicola; Munthe, John; Kindbom, Karin

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of mercury world-wide are presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the

  11. Projecting county-level populations under three future scenarios: a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA Assessment

    Stanley J. Zarnoch; H. Ken Cordell; Carter J. Betz

    2010-01-01

    County-level population projections from 2010 to 2060 are developed under three national population growth scenarios for reporting in the 2010 Renewable Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment. These population growth scenarios are tied to global futures scenarios defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), a program within the United Nations...

  12. High-level panel of experts to recommend future course for IAEA

    2008-01-01

    Full text: A high-level panel of experts, charged by IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei with making an assessment of the challenges the IAEA will face up to the year 2020 and beyond, holds its initial meetings in Vienna 25 - 26 February. The Commission of Eminent Persons, under the chairmanship of former Mexican President, Ernesto Zedillo, includes 18 senior international figures, and will make recommendations on ways in which the Agency can prepare to meet its expanding workload. The Commission's findings are intended to stimulate further discussion - among Member States, between the States and the IAEA Secretariat, and by the broader public - about the future of the Agency and how best it can contribute in the coming years to the efforts of the international community to achieve development, peace and security, said IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei. The members of the Commission are: Dr. Ernesto Zedillo (Chairman) - Director of the Yale Center for the Study of Globalization; former President of Mexico; Ambassador Oluyemi Adeniji - former Minister of Foreign Affairs, Nigeria; former Member of the Board of Governors of the IAEA; Lakhdar Brahimi - Visiting Scholar at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey; former UN Under-Secretary-General, Special Adviser to the Secretary-General, and Chair of the Panel on UN Peace Operations; Lajos Bokros - Professor of Economics and Public Policy, and Chief Operating Officer of the Central European University, Budapest, Hungary; Dr. Rajagopala Chidambaram - Principal Scientific Advisor to the Government of India; DAE Homi Bhabha Professor; former Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission; former Director of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre; Senator Lamberto Dini - President of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the Italian Senate; Gareth Evans - President and Chief Executive Officer, International Crisis Group, Brussels; former Australian Foreign Minister 1988-1998; former Minister for Resources and

  13. Reseeding of mussels on denuded rocky shores: preliminary studies ...

    A method is developed to establish clumps of mussels Perna perna in denuded areas on high-energy rocky shores on the south-east coast of South Africa. A total of 20 small (20–30 mm total length) mussels is placed under a 30 cm half-section of perforated PVC drainage pipe bolted to the rock surface. The pipe is left in ...

  14. Gender Stereotyping and the Jersey Shore: A Content Analysis

    Jacqueline S. Anderson; Sharmila Pixy Ferris

    2016-01-01

    Reality television is a highly popular genre, with a growing body of scholarly research. Unlike scripted programming, which offers fictional storylines, reality television relies heavily on cast member’s reactions to carefully crafted situations. This study examined the relationship between reality television and gender role stereotyping in a seminal reality television show, MTV’s Jersey Shore. Content analysis was used to conduct an in-depth examination of the first season of ...

  15. Current state and future perspectives on coupled ice-sheet - sea-level modelling

    de Boer, Bas; Stocchi, Paolo; Whitehouse, Pippa L.; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.

    2017-08-01

    The interaction between ice-sheet growth and retreat and sea-level change has been an established field of research for many years. However, recent advances in numerical modelling have shed new light on the precise interaction of marine ice sheets with the change in near-field sea level, and the related stability of the grounding line position. Studies using fully coupled ice-sheet - sea-level models have shown that accounting for gravitationally self-consistent sea-level change will act to slow down the retreat and advance of marine ice-sheet grounding lines. Moreover, by simultaneously solving the 'sea-level equation' and modelling ice-sheet flow, coupled models provide a global field of relative sea-level change that is consistent with dynamic changes in ice-sheet extent. In this paper we present an overview of recent advances, possible caveats, methodologies and challenges involved in coupled ice-sheet - sea-level modelling. We conclude by presenting a first-order comparison between a suite of relative sea-level data and output from a coupled ice-sheet - sea-level model.

  16. Associations of Affective Responses During Free-Living Physical Activity and Future Physical Activity Levels: an Ecological Momentary Assessment Study.

    Liao, Yue; Chou, Chih-Ping; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam; Dunton, Genevieve

    2017-08-01

    Affective response during physical activity may influence motivation to perform future physical activity behavior. However, affective response during physical activity is often assessed under controlled laboratory conditions. The current study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to capture affective responses during free-living physical activity performed by adults, and determined whether these affective responses predict future moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels after 6 and 12 months. At baseline, electronic EMA surveys were randomly prompted across 4 days asking about current activities and affective states (e.g., happy, stressed, energetic, tired). Affective response during physical activity was operationalized as the level of positive or negative affect reported when concurrent physical activity (e.g., exercise or sports) was also reported. Data were available for 82 adults. Future levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were measured using accelerometers, worn for seven consecutive days at 6 and 12 months after the baseline assessment. Feeling more energetic during physical activity was associated with performing more minutes of daily MVPA after both 6 and 12 months. Feeling less negative affect during physical activity was associated with engaging in more daily MVPA minutes after 12 months only. This study demonstrated how EMA can be used to capture affective responses during free-living physical activity. Results found that feelings more energetic and less negative during physical activity were associated with more future physical activity, suggesting that positive emotional benefits may reinforce behavior.

  17. Predicted impacts of future water level decline on monitoring wells using a ground-water model of the Hanford Site

    Wurstner, S.K.; Freshley, M.D.

    1994-12-01

    A ground-water flow model was used to predict water level decline in selected wells in the operating areas (100, 200, 300, and 400 Areas) and the 600 Area. To predict future water levels, the unconfined aquifer system was stimulated with the two-dimensional version of a ground-water model of the Hanford Site, which is based on the Coupled Fluid, Energy, and Solute Transport (CFEST) Code in conjunction with the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software package. The model was developed using the assumption that artificial recharge to the unconfined aquifer system from Site operations was much greater than any natural recharge from precipitation or from the basalt aquifers below. However, artificial recharge is presently decreasing and projected to decrease even more in the future. Wells currently used for monitoring at the Hanford Site are beginning to go dry or are difficult to sample, and as the water table declines over the next 5 to 10 years, a larger number of wells is expected to be impacted. The water levels predicted by the ground-water model were compared with monitoring well completion intervals to determine which wells will become dry in the future. Predictions of wells that will go dry within the next 5 years have less uncertainty than predictions for wells that will become dry within 5 to 10 years. Each prediction is an estimate based on assumed future Hanford Site operating conditions and model assumptions

  18. Teaching Future Middle Level Educators to Craft Learning Activities That Enhance Young Adolescent Creativity

    Hilton, Jason T.

    2016-01-01

    As social and academic forces begin to collide for young adolescents at the beginning of the middle level experience, students experience an unfortunate drop in their creativity. Appropriately trained middle level teachers have the potential to lessen this problem through the use of carefully selected open-ended learning activities that increase…

  19. Current state and future perspectives on coupled ice-sheet – sea-level modelling

    de Boer, Bas; Stocchi, Paolo; Whitehouse, Pippa L.; van de Wal, Roderik S.W.

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between ice-sheet growth and retreat and sea-level change has been an established field of research for many years. However, recent advances in numerical modelling have shed new light on the precise interaction of marine ice sheets with the change in near-field sea level, and the

  20. Global Climate targets and future consumption level: An evaluation of the required GHG intensity

    Girod, B.; van Vuuren, D.P.; Hertwich, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Discussion and analysis on international climate policy often focuses on the rather abstract level of total national and regional greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. At some point, however, emission reductions need to be translated to consumption level. In this article, we evaluate the implications of

  1. Leader Narcissism and Outcomes in Organizations: A Review at Multiple Levels of Analysis and Implications for Future Research

    Braun, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Narcissists often pursue leadership and are selected for leadership positions by others. At the same time, they act in their own best interest, putting the needs and interests of others at risk. While theoretical arguments clearly link narcissism and leadership, the question whether leader narcissism is good or bad for organizations and their members remains unanswered. Narcissism seems to have two sides, a bright and a dark one. This systematic literature review seeks to contribute to the ongoing academic discussion about the positive or negative impact of leader narcissism in organizations. Forty-five original research articles were categorized according to outcomes at three levels of analysis: the dyadic level (focusing on leader-follower relationships), the team level (focusing on work teams and small groups), and the organizational level. On this basis, we first summarized the current state of knowledge about the impact that leader narcissism has on outcomes at different levels of analysis. Next, we revealed similarities and contradictions between research findings within and across levels of analysis, highlighting persistent inconsistencies concerning the question whether leader narcissism has positive or negative consequences. Finally, we outlined theoretical and methodological implications for future studies of leader narcissism. This multi-level perspective ascertains a new, systematic view of leader narcissism and its consequences for organizations and their stakeholders. The article demonstrates the need for future research in the field of leader narcissism and opens up new avenues for inquiry. PMID:28579967

  2. Leader Narcissism and Outcomes in Organizations: A Review at Multiple Levels of Analysis and Implications for Future Research

    Susanne Braun

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Narcissists often pursue leadership and are selected for leadership positions by others. At the same time, they act in their own best interest, putting the needs and interests of others at risk. While theoretical arguments clearly link narcissism and leadership, the question whether leader narcissism is good or bad for organizations and their members remains unanswered. Narcissism seems to have two sides, a bright and a dark one. This systematic literature review seeks to contribute to the ongoing academic discussion about the positive or negative impact of leader narcissism in organizations. Forty-five original research articles were categorized according to outcomes at three levels of analysis: the dyadic level (focusing on leader-follower relationships, the team level (focusing on work teams and small groups, and the organizational level. On this basis, we first summarized the current state of knowledge about the impact that leader narcissism has on outcomes at different levels of analysis. Next, we revealed similarities and contradictions between research findings within and across levels of analysis, highlighting persistent inconsistencies concerning the question whether leader narcissism has positive or negative consequences. Finally, we outlined theoretical and methodological implications for future studies of leader narcissism. This multi-level perspective ascertains a new, systematic view of leader narcissism and its consequences for organizations and their stakeholders. The article demonstrates the need for future research in the field of leader narcissism and opens up new avenues for inquiry.

  3. Leader Narcissism and Outcomes in Organizations: A Review at Multiple Levels of Analysis and Implications for Future Research.

    Braun, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Narcissists often pursue leadership and are selected for leadership positions by others. At the same time, they act in their own best interest, putting the needs and interests of others at risk. While theoretical arguments clearly link narcissism and leadership, the question whether leader narcissism is good or bad for organizations and their members remains unanswered. Narcissism seems to have two sides, a bright and a dark one. This systematic literature review seeks to contribute to the ongoing academic discussion about the positive or negative impact of leader narcissism in organizations. Forty-five original research articles were categorized according to outcomes at three levels of analysis: the dyadic level (focusing on leader-follower relationships), the team level (focusing on work teams and small groups), and the organizational level. On this basis, we first summarized the current state of knowledge about the impact that leader narcissism has on outcomes at different levels of analysis. Next, we revealed similarities and contradictions between research findings within and across levels of analysis, highlighting persistent inconsistencies concerning the question whether leader narcissism has positive or negative consequences. Finally, we outlined theoretical and methodological implications for future studies of leader narcissism. This multi-level perspective ascertains a new, systematic view of leader narcissism and its consequences for organizations and their stakeholders. The article demonstrates the need for future research in the field of leader narcissism and opens up new avenues for inquiry.

  4. Radiation education for secondary school level in Asia-application of Japanese experiences and future mission

    Iimoto, Takeshi; Kakefu, Tomohisa; Takahashi, Itaru; Takaki, Rieko

    2015-01-01

    A mission on the development of nuclear science and technology education program for secondary school students in the Asia-Pacific Ocean area by the IAEA (2012 - 2015 years) is in progress. Attractive educational programs covering fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) have been developed. Selected pilot countries (the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, UAE) use the programs and education tools as their trial under their own circumstances. Background and trends of this activity, Japanese support to the activity, and its future scope are introduced. (author)

  5. How Should the Fires Network for the Future Force BDE Level UA be Structured?

    Ulloa, Juan

    2004-01-01

    ... to all available fires in the area of operations. This monograph constitutes an exploratory study of and preliminary analysis of the effects of networking all available fires at the brigade level UA...

  6. Experience of department of internal diseases propaedeutics in formation of cultural level of future physician

    Skvortsov Yu.I.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The problems concerning the study at clinical departments, ethics and deontology in communication between students and patients are discussed in the article. Special attention is paid to uprising of the cultural level of students.

  7. Recommendations for future low-level and mixed waste management practices at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Jennrich, E.A.; Klein, R.B.; Murphy, E.S.; Shuman, R.; Hickman, W.W.; Rutz, A.C.; Uhl, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes recommendations concerning the management of low-level radioactive wastes and mixtures at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Performance assessments, characterization, site disposal design, shipment, and storage are discussed

  8. Shore displacement in northern Uppland during the last 6500 calender years

    Hedenstroem, Anna; Risberg, Jan

    2003-10-01

    This report describes the shore displacement in northern Uppland, Sweden. Four lake basins were investigated regarding elevation and age of their isolation events. The methods applied were diatom stratigraphy and AMS radiocarbon datings of terrestrial macrofossils, together with analysis of water, organic carbon and calcium carbonate in the sediment. Lake Barsjoe (22.5 masl -meters above sea level) was isolated 3,200 cal yrs BP, Lake Landholmssjoen (16.0 masl) 2,200 cal yrs BP, Lake Soedra Aassjoen (10.8 masl) 1,400 cal yrs BP and Lake Eckarfjaerden (5.5 masl) 850 cal yrs BP. Combined with six basins located at approximately the 70 m Litorina Limit isobase it was concluded that the shore displacement during the last 6500 calendar years was regressive in nature. The isolation processes, however, seem to have been prolonged at 4750-4150 cal yrs BP, 2500-2200 cal yrs Bp and 1100-850 cal yrs BP. These events can be correlated with eustatic sea level rises recorded in the Stockholm area. The diatom succession during the formation of the oligotrophic hardwater Lakes Barsjoe, Landholmssjoen and Eckarfjaerden differs from the brownwater Lake Soedra Aasjoen. Short pre-isolation sequences indicate that erosion has affected the four basins investigated. Accumulation rates in the lake basins vary between 0.5 mm/year in Lake Barsjoe and 1.5 mm/year in Lake Soedra Aasjoen

  9. Shore displacement in northern Uppland during the last 6500 calender years

    Hedenstroem, Anna; Risberg, Jan [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology

    2003-10-01

    This report describes the shore displacement in northern Uppland, Sweden. Four lake basins were investigated regarding elevation and age of their isolation events. The methods applied were diatom stratigraphy and AMS radiocarbon datings of terrestrial macrofossils, together with analysis of water, organic carbon and calcium carbonate in the sediment. Lake Barsjoe (22.5 masl -meters above sea level) was isolated 3,200 cal yrs BP, Lake Landholmssjoen (16.0 masl) 2,200 cal yrs BP, Lake Soedra Aassjoen (10.8 masl) 1,400 cal yrs BP and Lake Eckarfjaerden (5.5 masl) 850 cal yrs BP. Combined with six basins located at approximately the 70 m Litorina Limit isobase it was concluded that the shore displacement during the last 6500 calendar years was regressive in nature. The isolation processes, however, seem to have been prolonged at 4750-4150 cal yrs BP, 2500-2200 cal yrs Bp and 1100-850 cal yrs BP. These events can be correlated with eustatic sea level rises recorded in the Stockholm area. The diatom succession during the formation of the oligotrophic hardwater Lakes Barsjoe, Landholmssjoen and Eckarfjaerden differs from the brownwater Lake Soedra Aasjoen. Short pre-isolation sequences indicate that erosion has affected the four basins investigated. Accumulation rates in the lake basins vary between 0.5 mm/year in Lake Barsjoe and 1.5 mm/year in Lake Soedra Aasjoen.

  10. Global climate targets and future consumption level: an evaluation of the required GHG intensity

    Girod, Bastien; Van Vuuren, Detlef Peter; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2013-01-01

    Discussion and analysis on international climate policy often focuses on the rather abstract level of total national and regional greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. At some point, however, emission reductions need to be translated to consumption level. In this article, we evaluate the implications of the strictest IPCC representative concentration pathway for key consumption categories (food, travel, shelter, goods, services). We use IPAT style identities to account for possible growth in global consumption levels and indicate the required change in GHG emission intensity for each category (i.e. GHG emission per calorie, person kilometer, square meter, kilogram, US dollar). The proposed concept provides guidance for product developers, consumers and policymakers. To reach the 2 °C climate target (2.1 tCO 2 -eq. per capita in 2050), the GHG emission intensity of consumption has to be reduced by a factor of 5 in 2050. The climate targets on consumption level allow discussion of the feasibility of this climate target at product and consumption level. In most consumption categories products in line with this climate target are available. For animal food and air travel, reaching the GHG intensity targets with product modifications alone will be challenging and therefore structural changes in consumption patterns might be needed. The concept opens up possibilities for further research on potential solutions on the consumption and product level to global climate mitigation. (letter)

  11. Projected contributions of future wind farm development to community noise and annoyance levels in Ontario, Canada

    Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L.; Ollson, Christopher A.; Knopper, Loren D.

    2013-01-01

    Wind turbines produce sound during their operation; therefore, jurisdictions around the world have developed regulations regarding the placement of electricity generating wind farms with the intent of preventing unacceptable levels of ‘community noise’ in their vicinity. However, as survey results indicate that the relationship between wind turbine noise and annoyance may differ from noise-annoyance relationships for other common noise sources (e.g., rail, traffic), there are concerns that the application of general noise guidelines for wind turbines may lead to unacceptably high levels of annoyance in communities. In this study, previously published survey results that quantified wind turbine noise and self-reported annoyance were applied to the predicted noise levels (from turbines and transformers) for over 8000 receptors in the vicinity of 13 planned wind power developments in the province of Ontario, Canada. The results of this analysis indicate that the current wind turbine noise restrictions in Ontario will limit community exposure to wind turbine related noise such that levels of annoyance are unlikely to exceed previously established background levels of noise-related annoyance from other common noise sources. This provides valuable context that should be considered by policy-makers when evaluating the potential impacts of wind turbine noise on the community. -- highlights: •Wind turbine noise-annoyance relationship used to predict annoyance in Ontario. •Noise annoyance predicted to be <8% for non-participants <1 km from turbines. •Predicted levels of wind turbine noise annoyance similar to that from traffic noise. •Wind turbine noise annoyance not expected to exceed existing background levels

  12. Safe Shores and Resilient Transit Corridors: Using Science, Design, and Stakeholder Partnerships to Address Connecticut's Coastal Vulnerabilities

    French, R. A.; Felson, A. J.; Kirmmse, E.; Hagemann, K.

    2015-12-01

    Connecticut's densely developed coastline is highly vulnerable to sea level rise and coastal storms. 95% of the state's entire population lives within 50 miles of the shore. Connecticut has more than $542 billion in insured assets in harms way, only Florida has a greater exposure. As part of the state of Connecticut Phase 1 application for the HUD National Disaster Resilience Competition, the Connecticut Institute for Resilience and Climate Adaptation (CIRCA) at the University of Connecticut undertook an assessment of coastal vulnerabilities, including the impacts of sea level rise on the frequency of flooding, socioeconomic factors, critical infrastructure, and housing using data collected from federal, state, and municipal sources. Connecticut's unique geology, characterized by a glaciated coastline with highly erodible former deltas and elevated ridgelines extending out to rocky headlands, became the basis of the climate adaptation approach. Together with a nine state agency workgroup, municipal and regional government, and non-profit and industry representatives, CIRCA and the Yale UED lab developed a long-term urban redevelopment solution of resilient access and egress corridors layered over ridgelines and resilient zones of transit oriented economic development linked to shoreline communities. This concept can be applied in both Connecticut's coastal cities like New Haven and its smaller towns. The process demonstrated the effective partnership between the universities and state agencies in bringing the science of flood modeling and mapping together with innovative design to create solutions for climate adaptation. However, it also revealed significant gaps in data availability to analyze the economic and social drivers for adopting different adaptation strategies. Furthermore, the accuracy of current flood mapping tools needs to be improved to predict future flooding at the municipal project scale. As Connecticut and other states move forward with resilience

  13. The future of event-level information repositories, indexing, and selection in ATLAS

    Barberis, D; The ATLAS collaboration; Dimitrov, G; Doherty, T; Gallas, E; Hrivnac, J; Malon, D; Nairz, A; Nowak, M; Quilty, D; Sorokoletov, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zhang, Q

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS maintains a rich corpus of event-by-event information that provides a global view of virtually all of the billions of events the collaboration has seen or simulated, along with sufficient auxiliary information to navigate to and retrieve data for any event at any production processing stage. This unique resource has been employed for a range of purposes, from monitoring, statistics, anomaly detection, and integrity checking to event picking, subset selection, and sample extraction. Recent years of data-taking provide a foundation for assessment of how this resource has and has not been used in practice, of the uses for which it should be optimized, of how it should be deployed and provisioned for scalability to future data volumes, and of the areas in which enhancements to functionality would be most valuable. \

  14. Reflections on leadership at the local level and the future of Laos

    Richard Pratt

    2016-05-01

    The interviews provide insight into the complex world in which local leaders work and the opportunities and constraints they must negotiate. They must understand the issues their communities face when changes are impinging on those communities. This understanding helps to give them access, and once access is obtained, they must try to help to solve community problems using their experience and knowledge. The resources available— money, people, and materials—to get to the best outcomes are very limited, and the political setting presents significant challenges. Ultimately they may get results by joining their motivation to help, their local and outside knowledge, and the limited available resources with the power, or potential power, of local people. Finally, there are good reasonys to believe that what was learned here has important implications for the future of leadership in Laos.

  15. Modelling street level PM10 concentrations across Europe: source apportionment and possible futures

    Kiesewetter, G.; Borken-Kleefeld, J.; Schöpp, W.; Heyes, C.; Thunis, P.; Bessagnet, B.; Terrenoire, E.; Fagerli, H.; Nyiri, A.; Amann, M.

    2015-02-01

    Despite increasing emission controls, particulate matter (PM) has remained a critical issue for European air quality in recent years. The various sources of PM, both from primary particulate emissions as well as secondary formation from precursor gases, make this a complex problem to tackle. In order to allow for credible predictions of future concentrations under policy assumptions, a modelling approach is needed that considers all chemical processes and spatial dimensions involved, from long-range transport of pollution to local emissions in street canyons. Here we describe a modelling scheme which has been implemented in the GAINS integrated assessment model to assess compliance with PM10 (PM with aerodynamic diameter dispersion calculations, and a traffic increment calculation wherever applicable. At each monitoring station fulfilling a few data coverage criteria, measured concentrations in the base year 2009 are explained to the extent possible and then modelled for the past and future. More than 1850 monitoring stations are covered, including more than 300 traffic stations and 80% of the stations which exceeded the EU air quality limit values in 2009. As a validation, we compare modelled trends in the period 2000-2008 to observations, which are well reproduced. The modelling scheme is applied here to quantify explicitly source contributions to ambient concentrations at several critical monitoring stations, displaying the differences in spatial origin and chemical composition of urban roadside PM10 across Europe. Furthermore, we analyse the predicted evolution of PM10 concentrations in the European Union until 2030 under different policy scenarios. Significant improvements in ambient PM10 concentrations are expected assuming successful implementation of already agreed legislation; however, these will not be large enough to ensure attainment of PM10 limit values in hot spot locations such as Southern Poland and major European cities. Remaining issues are

  16. Future directions of defense programs high-level waste technology programs

    Chee, T.C.; Shupe, M.W.; Turner, D.A.; Campbell, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    The Department of Energy has been managing high-level waste from the production of nuclear materials for defense activities over the last forty years. An objective for the Defense Waste and Transportation Management program is to develop technology which ensures the safe, permanent disposal of all defense radioactive wastes. Technology programs are underway to address the long-term strategy for permanent disposal of high-level waste generated at each Department of Energy site. Technology is being developed for assessing the hazards, environmental impacts, and costs of each long-term disposal alternative for selection and implementation. This paper addresses key technology development areas, and consideration of recent regulatory requirements associated with the long-term management of defense radioactive high-level waste

  17. Uncertainties in Future Regional Sea Level Trends: How to Deal with the Internal Climate Variability?

    Becker, M.; Karpytchev, M.; Hu, A.; Deser, C.; Lennartz-Sassinek, S.

    2017-12-01

    Today, the Climate models (CM) are the main tools for forecasting sea level rise (SLR) at global and regional scales. The CM forecasts are accompanied by inherent uncertainties. Understanding and reducing these uncertainties is becoming a matter of increasing urgency in order to provide robust estimates of SLR impact on coastal societies, which need sustainable choices of climate adaptation strategy. These CM uncertainties are linked to structural model formulation, initial conditions, emission scenario and internal variability. The internal variability is due to complex non-linear interactions within the Earth Climate System and can induce diverse quasi-periodic oscillatory modes and long-term persistences. To quantify the effects of internal variability, most studies used multi-model ensembles or sea level projections from a single model ran with perturbed initial conditions. However, large ensembles are not generally available, or too small, and computationally expensive. In this study, we use a power-law scaling of sea level fluctuations, as observed in many other geophysical signals and natural systems, which can be used to characterize the internal climate variability. From this specific statistical framework, we (1) use the pre-industrial control run of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model (NCAR-CCSM) to test the robustness of the power-law scaling hypothesis; (2) employ the power-law statistics as a tool for assessing the spread of regional sea level projections due to the internal climate variability for the 21st century NCAR-CCSM; (3) compare the uncertainties in predicted sea level changes obtained from a NCAR-CCSM multi-member ensemble simulations with estimates derived for power-law processes, and (4) explore the sensitivity of spatial patterns of the internal variability and its effects on regional sea level projections.

  18. Estuarine Response to River Flow and Sea-Level Rise under Future Climate Change and Human Development

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping; Voisin, Nathalie; Copping, Andrea E.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the response of river flow and estuarine hydrodynamics to climate change, land-use/land-cover change (LULC), and sea-level rise is essential to managing water resources and stress on living organisms under these changing conditions. This paper presents a modeling study using a watershed hydrology model and an estuarine hydrodynamic model, in a one-way coupling, to investigate the estuarine hydrodynamic response to sea-level rise and change in river flow due to the effect of future climate and LULC changes in the Snohomish River estuary, Washington, USA. A set of hydrodynamic variables, including salinity intrusion points, average water depth, and salinity of the inundated area, were used to quantify the estuarine response to river flow and sea-level rise. Model results suggest that salinity intrusion points in the Snohomish River estuary and the average salinity of the inundated areas are a nonlinear function of river flow, although the average water depth in the inundated area is approximately linear with river flow. Future climate changes will shift salinity intrusion points further upstream under low flow conditions and further downstream under high flow conditions. In contrast, under the future LULC change scenario, the salinity intrusion point will shift downstream under both low and high flow conditions, compared to present conditions. The model results also suggest that the average water depth in the inundated areas increases linearly with sea-level rise but at a slower rate, and the average salinity in the inundated areas increases linearly with sea-level rise; however, the response of salinity intrusion points in the river to sea-level rise is strongly nonlinear.

  19. Past and future contribution of global groundwater depletion to sea-level rise

    Wada, Y.; Beek, L.P.H. van; Sperna Weiland, F.C.; Chao, B.; Wu, Y.-H.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest the increasing contribution of groundwater depletion to global sea-level rise. Groundwater depletion has more than doubled during the last decades, primarily due to increase in water demand, while the increase in water impoundments behind dams has been tapering off since

  20. Winning the Future: An Investigation into the Creativity Capacity across the Levels of Education in Ireland

    Leahy, Keelin

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated the creativity capacity across the levels of education in Ireland, involving 702 participants. Creative capacity was investigated through a comparative analysis of creativity quotient (CQ). A divergent thinking task comprising the "how many uses" activity was assessed using the criteria for determining CQ;…

  1. Addressing challenges for future strategic-level emergency management: reframing, networking, and capacity-building.

    Bosomworth, Karyn; Owen, Christine; Curnin, Steven

    2017-04-01

    The mounting frequency and intensity of natural hazards, alongside growing interdependencies between social-technical and ecological systems, are placing increased pressure on emergency management. This is particularly true at the strategic level of emergency management, which involves planning for and managing non-routine, high-consequence events. Drawing on the literature, a survey, and interviews and workshops with Australia's senior emergency managers, this paper presents an analysis of five core challenges that these pressures are creating for strategic-level emergency management. It argues that emphasising 'emergency management' as a primary adaptation strategy is a retrograde step that ignores the importance of addressing socio-political drivers of vulnerabilities. Three key suggestions are presented that could assist the country's strategic-level emergency management in tackling these challenges: (i) reframe emergency management as a component of disaster risk reduction rather than them being one and the same; (ii) adopt a network governance approach; and (iii) further develop the capacities of strategic-level emergency managers. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  2. The multi-millennial Antarctic commitment to future sea-level rise.

    Golledge, N R; Kowalewski, D E; Naish, T R; Levy, R H; Fogwill, C J; Gasson, E G W

    2015-10-15

    Atmospheric warming is projected to increase global mean surface temperatures by 0.3 to 4.8 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial values by the end of this century. If anthropogenic emissions continue unchecked, the warming increase may reach 8-10 degrees Celsius by 2300 (ref. 2). The contribution that large ice sheets will make to sea-level rise under such warming scenarios is difficult to quantify because the equilibrium-response timescale of ice sheets is longer than those of the atmosphere or ocean. Here we use a coupled ice-sheet/ice-shelf model to show that if atmospheric warming exceeds 1.5 to 2 degrees Celsius above present, collapse of the major Antarctic ice shelves triggers a centennial- to millennial-scale response of the Antarctic ice sheet in which enhanced viscous flow produces a long-term commitment (an unstoppable contribution) to sea-level rise. Our simulations represent the response of the present-day Antarctic ice-sheet system to the oceanic and climatic changes of four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) from the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We find that substantial Antarctic ice loss can be prevented only by limiting greenhouse gas emissions to RCP 2.6 levels. Higher-emissions scenarios lead to ice loss from Antarctic that will raise sea level by 0.6-3 metres by the year 2300. Our results imply that greenhouse gas emissions in the next few decades will strongly influence the long-term contribution of the Antarctic ice sheet to global sea level.

  3. Future hydrological alterations in the Mekong Delta under the impact of water resources development, land subsidence and sea level rise

    Thanh Duc Dang

    2018-02-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Depending on hydrological characteristics of each region (river-dominated, transitional or tidal, the influence of each potential driver may vary. The operation of proposed hydropower dams would change river-dominated upper floodplain’s water levels by 26 to 70% and −0.8 to −5.9% in the dry and wet season respectively, but the impact diminishes throughout the floodplains. In the wet season, the upper Vietnamese Delta changes from a transitional stage to a river-dominated stage, and localized water infrastructure development in the upper delta has the greatest effect on water levels in the region. Land subsidence combined with sea level rise could have the greatest future influence on flooding in the delta if current rates are extrapolated. Sustainable water management strategies are thus necessary to mitigate changes in the floodplains and delta and increase resilience to sea level rise and land subsidence.

  4. Projected near-future levels of temperature and pCO2 reduce coral fertilization success.

    Rebecca Albright

    Full Text Available Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO2 are projected to contribute to a 1.1-6.4°C rise in global average surface temperatures and a 0.14-0.35 reduction in the average pH of the global surface ocean by 2100. If realized, these changes are expected to have negative consequences for reef-building corals including increased frequency and severity of coral bleaching and reduced rates of calcification and reef accretion. Much less is known regarding the independent and combined effects of temperature and pCO2 on critical early life history processes such as fertilization. Here we show that increases in temperature (+3°C and pCO2 (+400 µatm projected for this century negatively impact fertilization success of a common Indo-Pacific coral species, Acropora tenuis. While maximum fertilization did not differ among treatments, the sperm concentration required to obtain 50% of maximum fertilization increased 6- to 8- fold with the addition of a single factor (temperature or CO2 and nearly 50- fold when both factors interact. Our results indicate that near-future changes in temperature and pCO2 narrow the range of sperm concentrations that are capable of yielding high fertilization success in A. tenuis. Increased sperm limitation, in conjunction with adult population decline, may have severe consequences for coral reproductive success. Impaired sexual reproduction will further challenge corals by inhibiting population recovery and adaptation potential.

  5. Modelling street level PM10 concentrations across Europe: source apportionment and possible futures

    G. Kiesewetter

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing emission controls, particulate matter (PM has remained a critical issue for European air quality in recent years. The various sources of PM, both from primary particulate emissions as well as secondary formation from precursor gases, make this a complex problem to tackle. In order to allow for credible predictions of future concentrations under policy assumptions, a modelling approach is needed that considers all chemical processes and spatial dimensions involved, from long-range transport of pollution to local emissions in street canyons. Here we describe a modelling scheme which has been implemented in the GAINS integrated assessment model to assess compliance with PM10 (PM with aerodynamic diameter 10 across Europe. Furthermore, we analyse the predicted evolution of PM10 concentrations in the European Union until 2030 under different policy scenarios. Significant improvements in ambient PM10 concentrations are expected assuming successful implementation of already agreed legislation; however, these will not be large enough to ensure attainment of PM10 limit values in hot spot locations such as Southern Poland and major European cities. Remaining issues are largely eliminated in a scenario applying the best available emission control technologies to the maximal technically feasible extent.

  6. Future directions for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's low-level waste management program

    Starmer, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act envisioned that all states would be able to dispose of commercial low-level waste generated within their borders by 1986, either individually or through interstate compacts. Based on the current status of state and compact efforts, it is clear that no new disposal sites will be available by 1986 or for some period thereafter. In the short-term, there is uncertainty that the existing disposal sites will remain open after January 1, 1986, or if restrictions will apply after that time. If restrictions occur, storage, treatment or even curtailed generation may result for individual waste producers. Other uncertainties clouding implementation of the Policy Act include the final configuration of regional compacts - in the northeast in particular - clear assignment of responsibility for disposal of classes of waste, the method of disposal - shallow land burial or alternatives - that will be employed for low-level waste, and regulation of mixed wastes, wastes which have both radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous constituents. The NRC strategy for low-level waste management aims to resolve or reduce these uncertainties, and to encourage transition to a stable, national system based on timely state action. NRC will continue development of regulatory and technical guidance for disposal site licensing and build on its capabilities to address specific areas of state concern, such as alternatives to shallow land burial, and site characterization and modeling. NRC also plans to expand state and compact outreach efforts to help ensure that our technical work is properly focused. The authors will also be directly assisting those states and compacts on technical matters they confront in actual disposal site development and licensing

  7. The Topological Processor for the future ATLAS Level-1 Trigger: from design to commissioning

    Simioni, E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is located at the European Centre for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. It is designed to measure decay properties of highly energetic particles produced in the protons collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC has a beam collision frequency of 40 MHz, and thus requires a trigger system to efficiently select events, thereby reducing the storage rate to a manageable level of about 400 Hz. Event triggering is therefore one of the extraordinary challenges faced by the ATLAS detector. The Level-1 Trigger is the first rate-reducing step in the ATLAS Trigger, with an output rate of 75kHz and decision latency of less than 2.5 s. It is primarily composed of the Calorimeter Trigger, Muon Trigger, the Central Trigger Processor (CTP). Due to the increase in the LHC instantaneous luminosity up 3 x 10^34/cm2 s from 2015 onwards, a new element will be included in the Level-1 Trigger scheme: the Topological Processor (L1Topo). The L1Topo receives data in a specialized format from the ...

  8. Remote coral reefs can sustain high growth potential and may match future sea-level trends.

    Perry, Chris T; Murphy, Gary N; Graham, Nicholas A J; Wilson, Shaun K; Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A; East, Holly K

    2015-12-16

    Climate-induced disturbances are contributing to rapid, global-scale changes in coral reef ecology. As a consequence, reef carbonate budgets are declining, threatening reef growth potential and thus capacity to track rising sea-levels. Whether disturbed reefs can recover their growth potential and how rapidly, are thus critical research questions. Here we address these questions by measuring the carbonate budgets of 28 reefs across the Chagos Archipelago (Indian Ocean) which, while geographically remote and largely isolated from compounding human impacts, experienced severe (>90%) coral mortality during the 1998 warming event. Coral communities on most reefs recovered rapidly and we show that carbonate budgets in 2015 average +3.7 G (G = kg CaCO3 m(-2) yr(-1)). Most significantly the production rates on Acropora-dominated reefs, the corals most severely impacted in 1998, averaged +8.4 G by 2015, comparable with estimates under pre-human (Holocene) disturbance conditions. These positive budgets are reflected in high reef growth rates (4.2 mm yr(-1)) on Acropora-dominated reefs, demonstrating that carbonate budgets on these remote reefs have recovered rapidly from major climate-driven disturbances. Critically, these reefs retain the capacity to grow at rates exceeding measured regional mid-late Holocene and 20th century sea-level rise, and close to IPCC sea-level rise projections through to 2100.

  9. The impact of climate change and emissions control on future ozone levels: Implications for human health.

    Stowell, Jennifer D; Kim, Young-Min; Gao, Yang; Fu, Joshua S; Chang, Howard H; Liu, Yang

    2017-11-01

    Overwhelming evidence has shown that, from the Industrial Revolution to the present, human activities influence ground-level ozone (O 3 ) concentrations. Past studies demonstrate links between O 3 exposure and health. However, knowledge gaps remain in our understanding concerning the impacts of climate change mitigation policies on O 3 concentrations and health. Using a hybrid downscaling approach, we evaluated the separate impact of climate change and emission control policies on O 3 levels and associated excess mortality in the US in the 2050s under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). We show that, by the 2050s, under RCP4.5, increased O 3 levels due to combined climate change and emission control policies, could contribute to an increase of approximately 50 premature deaths annually nationwide in the US. The biggest impact, however, is seen under RCP8.5, where rises in O 3 concentrations are expected to result in over 2,200 additional premature deaths annually. The largest increases in O 3 are seen in RCP8.5 in the Northeast, the Southeast, the Central, and the West regions of the US. Additionally, when O 3 increases are examined by climate change and emissions contributions separately, the benefits of emissions mitigation efforts may significantly outweigh the effects of climate change mitigation policies on O 3 -related mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cardiovascular load in off-shore sailing competition.

    Bernardi, M; Felici, F; Marchetti, M; Marchettoni, P

    1990-06-01

    Blood pressure, heart rate, VO2 and lactate accumulation have been measured during the hauling of ropes that, in off shore sailing, very often implies MVC isometric effort. Measures have been taken alternatively on the boat or in laboratory with a boat simulator. It appears that energy output is moderate, lactic O2 debt not relevant and blood pressure is maintained quite unchanged due to the short duration of isometric effort. Cardiovascular load is therefore not heavy and sailing can be enlisted among aerobic recreational exercises.

  11. Framing the national nuclear legacy at the local level: Implications for the future of federal facilities

    Morrone, Michele; Basta, Tania B.; Somerville, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    There are several major federal nuclear facilities located in small towns and rural areas of the United States. While many of these facilities were developed in the 1950s to support national defense, in the 1960s and 1970s, some of these shifted their mission to focus on national energy infrastructure. Now, many of these facilities are in a clean-up phase, and local communities are becoming increasingly engaged in influencing decisions about the future of the sites. Communicating with the public in rural communities is challenging when it involves a complicated environmental issue that could have widespread economic impacts. The local media reflect public understanding, so getting a sense of how these media frame issues can be a crucial first step to developing an effective community engagement strategy. A media content analysis of one local newspaper was completed in relation to a major federal nuclear facility. The content analysis is compared to the results of a telephone survey in the region served by the paper and the results suggest that there is a relationship between how the facility is portrayed in local media and public concern. This study has important implications for other nuclear facilities because of the role of local citizens in decision-making. - Highlights: ► Decisions about federal nuclear facilities include local citizen participation. ► Local media can play an important role in public perception of environmental risk. ► Local print media rely on a limited number in of sources for their stories. ► Effective risk communication should begin by understanding local public concerns.

  12. Secondary particle background levels and effects on detectors at future hadron colliders

    Pal, T.

    1993-01-01

    The next generation of hadron colliders, the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), will operate at high center-of-mass energies and luminosities. Namely, for the SSC(LHC) √s=40TeV (√s=16TeV) and L=10 33 cm -2 s -1 (L=3x10 34 cm -2 s -1 ). These conditions will result in the production of large backgrounds as well as radiation environments. Ascertaining the backgrounds, in terms of the production of secondary charged and neutral particles, and the radiation environments are important considerations for the detectors proposed for these colliders. An initial investigation of the radiation levels in the SSC detectors was undertaken by D. Groom and colleagues, in the context of the open-quotes task force on radiation levels in the SSC interaction regions.close quotes The method consisted essentially of an analytic approach, using standard descriptions of average events in conjunction with simulations of secondary processes

  13. Secondary particle in background levels and effects on detectors at future hadron colliders

    Pal, T.

    1993-06-01

    The next generation of hadron colliders, the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), will operate at high center-of-mass energies and luminosities. Namely, for the SSC (LHC) √s = 40 TeV (√s = 16 TeV) and L = 10 33 cm -2 s -1 (L = 3 x 10 34 cm -2 s -1 ). These conditions will result in the production of large backgrounds as well as radiation environments. Ascertaining the backgrounds, in terms of the production of secondary charged and neutral particles, and the radiation environments are important considerations for the detectors proposed for these colliders. An initial investigation of the radiation levels in the SSC detectors was undertaken by D. Groom and colleagues, in the context of the ''task force on radiation levels in the SSC interaction regions.'' The method consisted essentially of an analytic approach, using standard descriptions of average events in conjunction with simulations of secondary processes. Following Groom's work, extensive Monte Carlo simulations were performed to address the issues of backgrounds and radiation environments for the GEM and SD C3 experiments proposed at the SSC, and for the ATLAS and CMS experiments planned for the LHC. The purpose of the present article is to give a brief summary of some aspects of the methods, assumptions, and calculations performed to date (principally for the SSC detectors), and to stress the relevance of such calculations to the detectors proposed for the study of B-physics in particular

  14. Systematic Analysis of Rocky Shore Morphology along 700km of Coastline Using LiDAR-derived DEMs

    Matsumoto, H.; Dickson, M. E.; Masselink, G.

    2016-12-01

    Rock shore platforms occur along much of the world's coast and have a long history of study; however, uncertainty remains concerning the relative importance of various formative controls in different settings (e.g. wave erosion, weathering, tidal range, rock resistance, inheritance). Ambiguity is often attributed to intrinsic natural variability and the lack of preserved evidence on eroding rocky shores, but it could also be argued that previous studies are limited in scale, focusing on a small number of local sites, which restricts the potential for insights from broad, regional analyses. Here we describe a method, using LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEMs), for analysing shore platform morphology over an unprecedentedly wide area in which there are large variations in environmental conditions. The new method semi-automatically extracts shore platform profiles and systematically conducts morphometric analysis. We apply the method to 700 km of coast in the SW UK that is exposed to (i) highly energetic swell waves to local wind waves, (ii) macro to mega tidal ranges, and (iii) highly resistant igneous rocks to moderately hard sedimentary rocks. Computer programs are developed to estimate mean sea level, mean spring tidal range, wave height, and rock strength along the coastline. Filtering routines automatically select and remove profiles that are unsuitable for analysis. The large data-set of remaining profiles supports broad and systematic investigation of possible controls on platform morphology. Results, as expected, show wide scatter, because many formative controls are in play, but several trends exist that are generally consistent with relationships that have been inferred from local site studies. This paper will describe correlation analysis on platform morphology in relation to environmental conditions and also present a multi-variable empirical model derived from multi linear regression analysis. Interesting matches exist between platform gradients

  15. Leveling the Playing Field? Communication Technology as a Predictor of Future Attainments for Deaf Young Adults

    Carrie Lou Garberoglio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Communication technologies are often proposed to level the playing field for individuals with disabilities, but the benefits may be magnified for deaf individuals in particular due to the communication barriers experienced by these individuals. In this paper, we set out to test the assumption that increased engagement with communication technology, specifically computer-mediated communication, during adolescence would contribute to actual attainment gains in adult life for deaf individuals in three domains: life, education, and employment. A secondary analysis using the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2 was conducted, allowing for a longitudinal examination of deaf individuals' experiences in the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Findings revealed that deaf individuals who engaged with computer-mediated communication at higher frequencies during adolescence did not reveal discernible gains in adult life attainments in any domain. We propose that the benefits of communication technology only go so far, and that achieving greater equitable outcomes for deaf individuals requires larger systemic change.

  16. Mental health issues from rising sea level in a remote coastal region of the Solomon Islands: current and future.

    Asugeni, James; MacLaren, David; Massey, Peter D; Speare, Rick

    2015-12-01

    There is little published research about mental health and climate change in the Pacific, including Solomon Islands. Solomon Islands has one of the highest rates of sea-level rise globally. The aim of this research was to document mental health issues related to sea-level rise for people in East Malaita, Solomon Islands. A cross-sectional study was carried out in six low-lying villages in East Malaita, Solomon Islands. The researcher travelled to villages by dugout canoe. In addition to quantitative, closed-ended questions, open-ended questions with villagers explored individual and community responses to rising sea level. Of 60 people asked, 57 completed the questionnaire. Of these, 90% reported having seen a change in the weather patterns. Nearly all participants reported that sea-level rise is affecting them and their family and is causing fear and worry on a personal and community level. Four themes emerged from the qualitative analysis: experience of physical impacts of climate change; worry about the future; adaptation to climate change; government response needed. Given predictions of ongoing sea-level rise in the Pacific it is essential that more research is conducted to further understand the human impact of climate change for small island states which will inform local, provincial and national-level mental health responses. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  17. Shore Side Electricity in Europe: Potential and environmental benefits

    Winkel, R.; Weddige, U.; Johnsen, D.; Hoen, V.; Papaefthimiou, S.

    2016-01-01

    In the context of reducing emissions from the transport sector, the EU Commission envisions a strong modal shift to energy efficient modes including maritime shipping and inland shipping, as an alternative for road transport. In view of the expected growth of the sector, the emissions from waterborne transport are a key concern. When at berth, ships typically use their auxiliary engines to generate electrical power for communications, lighting, ventilation and other on-board equipment. The extended use of vessels’ auxiliary engines augments greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution in the adjacent ports, which are typically located in or near densely populated areas, thus leading to dangerous health and environmental effects. Shore Side Electricity (SSE) is an option for reducing the unwanted environmental impacts of ships at berth, i.e. GHG emissions, other air pollutants (NO_x, SO_x, PM) and noise of ships using their auxiliary engines. This paper quantifies the economic and environmental potential for SSE in Europe, through detailed estimation of in-port ships’ emissions and relevant energy demand, providing an insight of the expected barriers for implementation and formulating recommendations on policy actions that could accelerate the implementation of SSE in European harbors. - Highlights: • We model Shore Side Electricity (SSE) options for ports in the European region. • The economic and environmental potential for SSE in Europe is quantified. • The expected barriers for wide implementation of SSE are depicted. • We recommend policy actions that could accelerate SSE implementation.

  18. Whole-community facilitation regulates biodiversity on Patagonian rocky shores.

    Brian R Silliman

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors that generate and maintain biodiversity is a central goal in ecology. While positive species interactions (i.e., facilitation have historically been underemphasized in ecological research, they are increasingly recognized as playing important roles in the evolution and maintenance of biodiversity. Dominant habitat-forming species (foundation species buffer environmental conditions and can therefore facilitate myriad associated species. Theory predicts that facilitation will be the dominant community-structuring force under harsh environmental conditions, where organisms depend on shelter for survival and predation is diminished. Wind-swept, arid Patagonian rocky shores are one of the most desiccating intertidal rocky shores ever studied, providing an opportunity to test this theory and elucidate the context-dependency of facilitation.Surveys across 2100 km of southern Argentinean coastline and experimental manipulations both supported theoretical predictions, with 43 out of 46 species in the animal assemblage obligated to living within the matrices of mussels for protection from potentially lethal desiccation stress and predators having no detectable impact on diversity.These results provide the first experimental support of long-standing theoretical predictions and reveal that in extreme climates, maintenance of whole-community diversity can be maintained by positive interactions that ameliorate physical stress. These findings have important conservation implications and emphasize that preserving foundation species should be a priority in remediating the biodiversity consequences of global climate change.

  19. Modeling Anthropogenic Impact on Sediment Balance and Relative Sea-Level Rise in Contemporary and Future Deltas

    Tessler, Z. D.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Overeem, I.; Syvitski, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Modern deltas are dependent on human-mediated freshwater and sediment fluxes. Changes to these fluxes impact delta biogeophysical functioning, and affect the long-term sustainability of these landscapes for both human and natural systems. Here we present contemporary estimates of long-term mean sediment balance and relative sea-level rise across 46 global deltas. We model ongoing development and scenarios of future water resource management and hydropower infrastructure in upstream river basins to explore how changing sediment fluxes impact relative sea-level in coastal delta systems. Model results show that contemporary sediment fluxes, anthropogenic drivers of land subsidence, and sea-level rise result in relative sea-level rise rates in deltas that average 6.8 mm/year. Currently planned or under-construction dams can be expected to increase rates of relative sea-level rise on the order of 1 mm/year. Some deltas systems, including the Magdalena, Orinoco, and Indus, are highly sensitive to future impoundment of river basins, with RSLR rates increasing up to 4 mm/year in a high-hydropower-utilization scenario. Sediment fluxes may be reduced by up to 60% in the Danube and 21% in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Megnha if all currently planned dams are constructed. Reduced sediment retention on deltas due to increased river channelization and local flood controls increases RSLR on average by nearly 2 mm/year. Long-term delta sustainability requires a more complete understanding of how geophysical and anthropogenic change impact delta geomorphology. Strategies for sustainable delta management that focus on local and regional drivers of change, especially groundwater and hydrocarbon extraction and upstream dam construction, can be highly impactful even in the context of global climate-induced sea-level rise.

  20. The Topological Processor for the future ATLAS Level-1 Trigger: from design to commissioning

    Simioni, E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to measure decay properties of high energetic particles produced in the proton-proton collisions. During its first run, the LHC collided proton bunches at a frequency of 20 MHz, and therefore the detector required a Trigger system to efficiently select events down to a manageable event storage rate of about 400 Hz. By 2015 the LHC instantaneous luminosity will be increased up to 3$\\times$$10^{34}cm^{-2}s^{-1}$: this represent an unprecedented challenge faced by the ATLAS Trigger system. To cope with the higher event rate and efficiently select relevant events from physics point of view, a new element will be included in the Level-1 Trigger scheme after 2015: the Topological Processor (L1Topo).\\\\ The L1Topo system, currently developed at CERN, will consist initially of an ATCA crate and two L1Topo modules. A high density opto-electroconverter (AVAGO miniPOD) drives up to 1.6 Tb/s of data from the calorimeter and muon detectors into two high end ...

  1. The Topological Processor for the future ATLAS Level-1 Trigger: from design to commissioning

    INSPIRE-00226165

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at LHC will require a Trigger system to efficiently select events down to a manageable event storage rate of about 400 Hz. By 2015 the LHC instantaneous luminosity will be increased up to 3 x 10^34 cm-2s-1, this represents an unprecedented challenge faced by the ATLAS Trigger system. To cope with the higher event rate and efficiently select relevant events from a physics point of view, a new element will be included in the Level-1 Trigger scheme after 2015: the Topological Processor (L1Topo). The L1Topo system, currently developed at CERN, will consist initially of an ATCA crate and two L1Topo modules. A high density opto-electroconverter (AVAGO miniPOD) drives up to 1.6 Tb/s of data from the calorimeter and muon detectors into two high-end FPGA (Virtex7-690), to be processed in about 200 ns. The design has been optimized to guarantee excellent signal in- tegrity of the high-speed links and low latency data transmission on the Real Time Data Path (RTDP). The L1Topo receives data in a standa...

  2. The Swiss high-level waste programme: Status and future challenges

    Schneider, J.W.; Zuidema, P.

    2006-01-01

    After about 25 years of studies and investigations covering both the crystalline basement as well as the overlying sediments in northern Switzerland, Nagra submitted at the end of 2002 comprehensive project documentation on the feasibility of safe disposal of SF / HLW and longlived ILW in Opalinus Clay (Project Entsorgungsnachweis, or 'demonstration of disposal feasibility' in English). The recently published reviews by the Swiss safety authorities all came to a positive conclusion about the project. The review phase was followed by a broad public consultation phase in 2005. Based on the results of the review and the public consultation phase, the Swiss Government (the Federal Council), in its meeting on 28 June 2006, decided to accept the demonstration of disposal feasibility. Furthermore, Nagra recently published a report on the siting possibilities for a SF / HLW / ILW repository from the geological point of view. All these documents show that a level of maturity has been reached that allows moving towards siting of such a repository. As a first step in the siting process the Swiss Government is currently preparing a site selection procedure that also defines the corresponding criteria; a first draft has been published in June 2006. Thus, the Swiss HLW programme is currently moving towards the important and challenging phase of deciding on the site for repository implementation, involving all relevant stakeholders. (author)

  3. Mainstreaming ecosystem services in state-level conservation planning: progress and future needs

    Ryan R. Noe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services (ES have become an important focus of the conservation movement but have yet to be mainstreamed into environmental policy and management, especially at the state and federal levels. Adoption of an ES approach requires agency personnel to have knowledge or experience in implementing an ES approach and metrics that link potential actions to impacts on ES. We characterize the degree to which ES considerations are taken into account in setting priorities for conservation acquisitions in the U.S. state of Minnesota. We assess two core dimensions of an ES approach: (1 multiobjective targeting and (2 measuring program benefits in terms of increases in human well-being. We assess the degree to which these two dimensions occur in statute and in conservation program decision making. We find that state statute provides clear support for an ES approach in conservation funding mechanisms. However, we find that many of the programs funded through those mechanisms have more traditional habitat-centric approaches. In contrast to statutory emphasis, water quality related metrics were not prominent. We recommend expanding current prioritization systems to include a broader suite of metrics that are linked to human well-being to further mainstream ES in Minnesota. These metrics can be generated from existing data and would allow program managers to better communicate the public benefits of conservation spending.

  4. The Intra-Americas Sea low-level jet: overview and future research.

    Amador, Jorge A

    2008-12-01

    A relevant climate feature of the Intra-Americas Sea (IAS) is the low-level jet (IALLJ) dominating the IAS circulation, both in summer and winter; and yet it is practically unknown with regard to its nature, structure, interactions with mid-latitude and tropical phenomena, and its role in regional weather and climate. This paper updates IALLJ current knowledge and its contribution to IAS circulation-precipitation patterns and presents recent findings about the IALLJ based on first in situ observations during Phase 3 of the Experimento Climático en las Albercas de Agua Cálida (ECAC), an international field campaign to study IALLJ dynamics during July 2001. Nonhydrostatic fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5) simulations were compared with observations and reanalysis. Large-scale circulation patterns of the IALLJ northern hemisphere summer and winter components suggest that trades, and so the IALLJ, are responding to land-ocean thermal contrasts during the summer season of each continent. The IALLJ is a natural component of the American monsoons as a result of the continent's approximate north-south land distribution. During warm (cold) El Niño-Southern Oscillation phases, winds associated with the IALLJ core (IALLJC) are stronger (weaker) than normal, so precipitation anomalies are positive (negative) in the western Caribbean near Central America and negative (positive) in the central IAS. During the ECAC Phase 3, strong surface winds associated with the IALLJ induced upwelling, cooling down the sea surface temperature by 1-2 degrees C. The atmospheric mixed layer height reached 1 km near the surface wind maximum below the IALLJC. Observations indicate that primary water vapor advection takes place in a shallow layer between the IALLJC and the ocean surface. Latent heat flux peaked below the IALLJC. Neither the reanalysis nor MM5 captured the observed thermodynamic and kinematic IALLJ

  5. Biological traits explain the distribution and colonisation ability of the invasive shore crab Hemigrapsus takanoi

    Gothland, M.; Dauvin, J. C.; Denis, L.; Dufossé, F.; Jobert, S.; Ovaert, J.; Pezy, J. P.; Tous Rius, A.; Spilmont, N.

    2014-04-01

    Comprehending marine invasions requires a better knowledge of the biological traits of invasive species, and the future spread of invasive species may be predicted through comprehensive overviews of their distribution. This study thus presents the current distribution of a non-indigenous species, the Asian shore crab Hemigrapsus takanoi, as well as the species population characteristics (size distribution and cohorts), based on a five-year survey (2008-2012) along the French coast of the English Channel. Two large populations were found near harbours: one on the Opal Coast (where density reached 61 ± 22 ind.m-2, mean ± s.d., in Dunkirk harbour) and one on the Calvados coast (density up to 26 ± 6 ind.m-2, mean ± s.d, in Honfleur harbour). H. takanoi exhibited a short life cycle, a rapid growth, an early sexual maturity and a high adult mortality. These features, combined with previously described high fecundity and high dispersal ability, endow this species with an 'r-selected strategy'. This strategy, which usually characterises species with a high colonisation ability, would explain the success of H. takanoi for colonising the French coast of the Channel. However, the species was found only in harbours and their vicinity; H. takanoi thus exhibited a discontinuous distribution along the 700 km of coastline. These results are discussed regarding sediment preference and potential introduction vectors. Hemigrapsus takanoi is now considered as established on the French coast and further studies are needed to evaluate the consequences of its introduction on the structure and functioning of the impacted shores.

  6. Water resources of the Lake Erie shore region in Pennsylvania

    Mangan, John William; Van Tuyl, Donald W.; White, Walter F.

    1952-01-01

    An abundant supply of water is available to the Lake Erie Shore region in Pennsylvania. Lake i£rie furnishes an almost inexhaustible supply of water of satisfactory chemical quality. Small quantities of water are available from small streams in the area and from the ground. A satisfactory water supply is one of the factors that affect the economic growth of a region. Cities and towns must have adequate amounts of pure water for human consumption. Industries must have suitable water ih sufficient quantities for all purposes. In order to assure. success and economy, the development of water resources should be based on adequate knowledge of the quantity and quality of the water. As a nation, we can not afford to run the risk of dissipating our resources, especially in times of national emergency, by building projects that are not founded on sound engineering and adequate water-resources information. The purpose of this report is to summarize and interpret all available water-resources information for the Lake Erie Shore region in Pennsylvania. The report will be useful for initial guidance in the location or expansion of water facilities for defense and nondefense industries and the municipalities upon which they are dependent. It will also be useful in evaluating the adequacy of the Geological Survey's part of the basic research necessary to plan the orderly development of the water resources of the Lake Erie Shore region. Most of the data contained inthis report have been obtained'by the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Forests and Waters, the Pennsylvania Department of Internal Affairs, and the Pennsylvania State Planning Board, Department of Commerce. The Pennsylv~nia Department of Health furnished information on water pollution. The report was prepared in the Water Resources Division of the U. S. Geological Survey b:y John W. Mangan (Surface Water). Donald W. VanTuyl (Ground Water). and Walter F. White, Jr. (Quality of

  7. Projected near-future CO2 levels increase activity and alter defensive behaviours in the tropical squid Idiosepius pygmaeus

    Blake L. Spady

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 levels projected to occur in the oceans by the end of this century cause a range of behavioural effects in fish, but whether other highly active marine organisms, such as cephalopods, are similarly affected is unknown. We tested the effects of projected future CO2 levels (626 and 956 µatm on the behaviour of male two-toned pygmy squid, Idiosepius pygmaeus. Exposure to elevated CO2 increased the number of active individuals by 19–25% and increased movement (number of line-crosses by nearly 3 times compared to squid at present-day CO2. Squid vigilance and defensive behaviours were also altered by elevated CO2 with >80% of individuals choosing jet escape responses over defensive arm postures in response to a visual startle stimulus, compared with 50% choosing jet escape responses at control CO2. In addition, more escape responses were chosen over threat behaviours in body pattern displays at elevated CO2 and individuals were more than twice as likely to use ink as a defence strategy at 956 µatm CO2, compared with controls. Increased activity could lead to adverse effects on energy budgets as well as increasing visibility to predators. A tendency to respond to a stimulus with escape behaviours could increase survival, but may also be energetically costly and could potentially lead to more chases by predators compared with individuals that use defensive postures. These results demonstrate that projected future ocean acidification affects the behaviours of a tropical squid species.

  8. Results from levels 2/3 fusion implementations: issues, challenges, retrospectives, and perspectives for the future an annotated perspective

    Kadar, Ivan; Bosse, Eloi; Salerno, John; Lambert, Dale A.; Das, Subrata; Ruspini, Enrique H.; Rhodes, Bradley J.; Biermann, Joachim

    2008-04-01

    Even though the definition of the Joint Director of Laboratories (JDL) "fusion levels" were established in 1987, published 1991, revised in 1999 and 2004, the meaning, effects, control and optimization of interactions among the fusion levels have not as yet been fully explored and understood. Specifically, this is apparent from the abstract JDL definitions of "Levels 2/3 Fusion" - situation and threat assessment (SA/TA), which involve deriving relations among entities, e.g., the aggregation of object states (i.e., classification and location) in SA, while TA uses SA products to estimate/predict the impact of actions/interactions effects on situations taken by the participant entities involved. Given all the existing knowledge in the information fusion and human factors literature, (both prior to and after the introduction of "fusion levels" in 1987) there are still open questions remaining in regard to implementation of knowledge representation and reasoning methods under uncertainty to afford SA/TA. Therefore, to promote exchange of ideas and to illuminate the historical, current and future issues associated with Levels 2/3 implementations, leading experts were invited to present their respective views on various facets of this complex problem. This paper is a retrospective annotated view of the invited panel discussion organized by Ivan Kadar (first author), supported by John Salerno, in order to provide both a historical perspective of the evolution of the state-of-the-art (SOA) in higher-level "Levels 2/3" information fusion implementations by looking back over the past ten or more years (before JDL), and based upon the lessons learned to forecast where focus should be placed to further enhance and advance the SOA by addressing key issues and challenges. In order to convey the panel discussion to audiences not present at the panel, annotated position papers summarizing the panel presentation are included.

  9. A model of water and sediment balance as determinants of relative sea level rise in contemporary and future deltas

    Tessler, Zachary D.; Vörösmarty, Charles J.; Overeem, Irina; Syvitski, James P. M.

    2018-03-01

    Modern deltas are dependent on human-mediated freshwater and sediment fluxes. Changes to these fluxes impact delta biogeophysical functioning and affect the long-term sustainability of these landscapes for human and for natural systems. Here we present contemporary estimates of long-term mean sediment balance and relative sea level rise across 46 global deltas. We model scenarios of contemporary and future water resource management schemes and hydropower infrastructure in upstream river basins to explore how changing sediment fluxes impact relative sea level rise in delta systems. Model results show that contemporary sediment fluxes, anthropogenic drivers of land subsidence, and sea level rise result in delta relative sea level rise rates that average 6.8 mm/y. Assessment of impacts of planned and under-construction dams on relative sea level rise rates suggests increases on the order of 1 mm/y in deltas with new upstream construction. Sediment fluxes are estimated to decrease by up to 60% in the Danube and 21% in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna if all currently planned dams are constructed. Reduced sediment retention on deltas caused by increased river channelization and management has a larger impact, increasing relative sea level rise on average by nearly 2 mm/y. Long-term delta sustainability requires a more complete understanding of how geophysical and anthropogenic change impact delta geomorphology. Local and regional strategies for sustainable delta management that focus on local and regional drivers of change, especially groundwater and hydrocarbon extraction and upstream dam construction, can be highly impactful even in the context of global climate-induced sea level rise.

  10. Shored gunshot wound of exit. A phenomenon with identity crisis.

    Aguilar, J C

    1983-09-01

    Shored gunshot wound of exit is produced when the outstretched skin is impaled, sandwiched, and crushed between the outgoing bullet and the unyielding object over the exit site, thus leaving an abrasion collar on the wound margin. Proper coaptation of the wound margin is impossible because of the loss of skin just like those observed in entrance wounds. In contrast to the entrance wound, the supported exit wound shows a scalloped or punched-out abrasion collar and sharply contoured skin in between the radiating skin lacerations marginating the abrasion (Fig. 1). Should gunpowder be observed around the exit site, it is often unevenly distributed, and is not associated with searing, gunpowder stippled abrasion, tatooing, and deposition of soot.

  11. Decolonizing through integration: Australia's off-shore island territories

    Roger Wettenhall

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Australia’s three small off-shore island territories – Norfolk Island in the Pacific Ocean and Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling Islands Group in the Indian Ocean – can be seen as monuments to 19th century British-style colonization, though their early paths to development took very different courses. Their transition to the status of external territories of the Australian Commonwealth in the 20th century – early in the case of Norfolk and later in the cases of Christmas and Cocos – put them on a common path in which serious tensions emerged between local populations which sought autonomous governance and the Commonwealth government which wanted to impose governmental systems similar to those applying to mainstream Australians. This article explores the issues involved, and seeks to relate the governmental history of the three island territories to the exploration of island jurisdictions developed in island studies research.

  12. Economic valuation of the visual externalities of off-shore wind farms

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Dubgaard, Alex; Martinsen, Louise

    The primary focus of the study presented in this report is visual externalities of off-shore wind farms and the Danish population’s willingness to pay for having these ex-ternalities reduced. The investigation is part of the Danish monitoring programme for off-shore wind farms, comprising several...

  13. 33 CFR 169.102 - Who is the shore-based authority?

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who is the shore-based authority... (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY SHIP REPORTING SYSTEMS Establishment of Two Mandatory Ship Reporting Systems for the Protection of Northern Right Whales § 169.102 Who is the shore-based authority? The U.S...

  14. The RUNE Experiment—A Database of Remote-Sensing Observations of Near-Shore Winds

    Floors, Rogier Ralph; Peña, Alfredo; Lea, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    We present a comprehensive database of near-shore wind observations that were carried out during the experimental campaign of the RUNE project. RUNE aims at reducing the uncertainty of the near-shore wind resource estimates from model outputs by using lidar, ocean, and satellite observations. Here...

  15. 77 FR 74548 - North Shore Railroad Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-PPL Susquehanna, LLC

    2012-12-14

    ... Railroad Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--PPL Susquehanna, LLC North Shore Railroad Company...., that PPL Susquehanna, LLC (PPLS), and Allegheny Electric Cooperative, Inc. (AEC), the owners of the... extends to an interchange with Norfolk Southern Railway. North Shore states that it provides the only...

  16. Future Coastal Population Growth and Exposure to Sea-Level Rise and Coastal Flooding - A Global Assessment

    Neumann, Barbara; Vafeidis, Athanasios T.; Zimmermann, Juliane; Nicholls, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Coastal zones are exposed to a range of coastal hazards including sea-level rise with its related effects. At the same time, they are more densely populated than the hinterland and exhibit higher rates of population growth and urbanisation. As this trend is expected to continue into the future, we investigate how coastal populations will be affected by such impacts at global and regional scales by the years 2030 and 2060. Starting from baseline population estimates for the year 2000, we assess future population change in the low-elevation coastal zone and trends in exposure to 100-year coastal floods based on four different sea-level and socio-economic scenarios. Our method accounts for differential growth of coastal areas against the land-locked hinterland and for trends of urbanisation and expansive urban growth, as currently observed, but does not explicitly consider possible displacement or out-migration due to factors such as sea-level rise. We combine spatially explicit estimates of the baseline population with demographic data in order to derive scenario-driven projections of coastal population development. Our scenarios show that the number of people living in the low-elevation coastal zone, as well as the number of people exposed to flooding from 1-in-100 year storm surge events, is highest in Asia. China, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and Viet Nam are estimated to have the highest total coastal population exposure in the baseline year and this ranking is expected to remain largely unchanged in the future. However, Africa is expected to experience the highest rates of population growth and urbanisation in the coastal zone, particularly in Egypt and sub-Saharan countries in Western and Eastern Africa. The results highlight countries and regions with a high degree of exposure to coastal flooding and help identifying regions where policies and adaptive planning for building resilient coastal communities are not only desirable but essential. Furthermore, we

  17. Future coastal population growth and exposure to sea-level rise and coastal flooding--a global assessment.

    Neumann, Barbara; Vafeidis, Athanasios T; Zimmermann, Juliane; Nicholls, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Coastal zones are exposed to a range of coastal hazards including sea-level rise with its related effects. At the same time, they are more densely populated than the hinterland and exhibit higher rates of population growth and urbanisation. As this trend is expected to continue into the future, we investigate how coastal populations will be affected by such impacts at global and regional scales by the years 2030 and 2060. Starting from baseline population estimates for the year 2000, we assess future population change in the low-elevation coastal zone and trends in exposure to 100-year coastal floods based on four different sea-level and socio-economic scenarios. Our method accounts for differential growth of coastal areas against the land-locked hinterland and for trends of urbanisation and expansive urban growth, as currently observed, but does not explicitly consider possible displacement or out-migration due to factors such as sea-level rise. We combine spatially explicit estimates of the baseline population with demographic data in order to derive scenario-driven projections of coastal population development. Our scenarios show that the number of people living in the low-elevation coastal zone, as well as the number of people exposed to flooding from 1-in-100 year storm surge events, is highest in Asia. China, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and Viet Nam are estimated to have the highest total coastal population exposure in the baseline year and this ranking is expected to remain largely unchanged in the future. However, Africa is expected to experience the highest rates of population growth and urbanisation in the coastal zone, particularly in Egypt and sub-Saharan countries in Western and Eastern Africa. The results highlight countries and regions with a high degree of exposure to coastal flooding and help identifying regions where policies and adaptive planning for building resilient coastal communities are not only desirable but essential. Furthermore, we

  18. Future coastal population growth and exposure to sea-level rise and coastal flooding--a global assessment.

    Barbara Neumann

    Full Text Available Coastal zones are exposed to a range of coastal hazards including sea-level rise with its related effects. At the same time, they are more densely populated than the hinterland and exhibit higher rates of population growth and urbanisation. As this trend is expected to continue into the future, we investigate how coastal populations will be affected by such impacts at global and regional scales by the years 2030 and 2060. Starting from baseline population estimates for the year 2000, we assess future population change in the low-elevation coastal zone and trends in exposure to 100-year coastal floods based on four different sea-level and socio-economic scenarios. Our method accounts for differential growth of coastal areas against the land-locked hinterland and for trends of urbanisation and expansive urban growth, as currently observed, but does not explicitly consider possible displacement or out-migration due to factors such as sea-level rise. We combine spatially explicit estimates of the baseline population with demographic data in order to derive scenario-driven projections of coastal population development. Our scenarios show that the number of people living in the low-elevation coastal zone, as well as the number of people exposed to flooding from 1-in-100 year storm surge events, is highest in Asia. China, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and Viet Nam are estimated to have the highest total coastal population exposure in the baseline year and this ranking is expected to remain largely unchanged in the future. However, Africa is expected to experience the highest rates of population growth and urbanisation in the coastal zone, particularly in Egypt and sub-Saharan countries in Western and Eastern Africa. The results highlight countries and regions with a high degree of exposure to coastal flooding and help identifying regions where policies and adaptive planning for building resilient coastal communities are not only desirable but essential

  19. Microgrids Technologies in Future Seaports

    Baizura Binti Ahamad, Nor; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2018-01-01

    issues, shore-side-power emerges as an initial solution to mitigate the unwanted environmental impact of ships at berth. In addition to this, port development must be in line with the emerging ships technologies as most of the ships are moving forward All-Electric-Ship (AES) concept. However, the use......The issue is mostly attributable to the growth of maritime, inland shipping, waterborne transport and trade demand in the freight sector. This fundamental problem is being a key concern for the European Commission because it leads to adverse health and environmental effects. To solve the emission...... of shore-side-power is still new, although the international standard was recently available, shore-side-power still facing technical challenges like power supply/demand power, different voltage, and frequency level on the ship and port side. Therefore, the integration of microgrid technologies...

  20. Tidal Energy System for On-Shore Power Generation

    Bruce, Allan J

    2012-06-26

    Addressing the urgent need to develop LCOE competitive renewable energy solutions for US energy security and to replace fossil-fuel generation with the associated benefits to environment impacts including a reduction in CO2 emissions, this Project focused on the advantages of using hydraulic energy transfer (HET) in large-scale Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) systems for harvesting off-shore tidal energy in US waters. A recent DOE resource assessment, identifies water power resources have a potential to meet 15% of the US electric supply by 2030, with MHK technologies being a major component. The work covered a TRL-4 laboratory proof-in-concept demonstration plus modeling of a 15MW full scale system based on an approach patented by NASA-JPL, in which submerged high-ratio gearboxes and electrical generators in conventional MHK turbine systems are replaced by a submerged hydraulic radial pump coupled to on-shore hydraulic motors driving a generator. The advantages are; first, the mean-time-between-failure (MTBF), or maintenance, can be extended from approximately 1 to 5 years and second, the range of tidal flow speeds which can be efficiently harvested can be extended beyond that of a conventional submerged generator. The approach uses scalable, commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components, facilitating scale-up and commercialization. All the objectives of the Project have been successfully met (1) A TRL4 system was designed, constructed and tested. It simulates a tidal energy turbine, with a 2-m diameter blade in up to a 2.9 m/sec flow. The system consists of a drive motor assembly providing appropriate torque and RPM, attached to a radial piston pump. The pump circulates pressurized, environmentally-friendly, HEES hydraulic fluid in a closed loop to an axial piston motor which drives an electrical generator, with a resistive load. The performance of the components, subsystems and system were evaluated during simulated tidal cycles. The pump is contained in a tank for

  1. Impacts of Habitat Complexity on Physiology: Purple Shore Crabs Tolerate Osmotic Stress for Shelter

    McGaw, I. J.

    2001-12-01

    Purple shore crabs, Hemigrapsus nudus (Crustacea: Decapoda), can survive indefinitely in salinities of 8 (25% SW), but also tolerate short-term exposure to salinities as low as 2. In the laboratory their salinity preference range, determined from choice chamber experiments, is 22-32 and they can discriminate between pairs of salinities separated by a difference of 2. These crabs show a strong positive thigmotaxis and a weak negative phototaxis and tend to choose environments with available shelter. The presence of shelter significantly alters the behaviour of this species. When shelter is available the salinity preference range is 10-32. Even in salinities below this preference range, the presence of shelter prolongs the time spent in the lower test salinities. This change in behaviour has implications on the crab's physiology: the haemolymph osmolality falls to lower levels when crabs remain in low salinity under shelters. In the field, H. nudus is found in creeks with salinities close to freshwater and they may remain in this salinity for up to 11 h, if there are rocks under which to shelter. An increase in habitat complexity increases the number of crabs that are found within the creek. These crabs in the low salinity environment have a lower haemolymph osmolality than crabs on the nearby open shore. In H. nudus the behavioural selection of a shelter appears to outweigh the physiological costs associated with osmotic regulation of the body fluids. Therefore, the distribution of H. nudus in estuaries may depend more on the availability of suitable habitats rather than the salinity tolerance of this species.

  2. Simulation of coastal floodings during a typhoon event with the consideration of future sea-level rises.

    Shu-Huei, Jhang; Chih-Chung, Wen; Dong-Jiing, Doong; Cheng-Han, Tsai

    2017-04-01

    Taiwan is an Island in the western Pacific Ocean and experienced more than 3 typhoons in a year. Typhoons bring intense rainfall, high waves, and storm surges, which often resulted in coastal flooding. The flooding can be aggravated by the sea level rise due to the global warming, which may subject Taiwan's coastal areas to more serious damage in the future than present. The objectives of this study are to investigate the flooding caused by typhoons in the Annan District, Tainan, a city on the southwest coast of Taiwan by numerical simulations, considering the effects of sea-level rises according to the level suggested by the 5th Assessment Report of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) for 2050 and 2100, respectively. The simulations were carried out by using MIKE21 HD (a hydrodynamic model) and MIKE21 SW (a spectral wave model). In our simulation, we used an intense typhoon, named Soudelor, as our base typhoon, which made its landfall on the east coast of Taiwan in the summer of 2015, traveled through the width of the island, and exited the island to the north of Tainan. The reasons we pick this typhoon are that it passed near our objective area, wind field data for this typhoon are available, and we have well documented coastal wave and water level measurements during the passage of Typhoon Soudelor. We firstly used ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) wind field data to reconstruct typhoon waves and storm surges for this typhoon by using coupled MIKE21 SW and MIKE21 HD in a regional model. The resultant simulated wave height and sea-level height matched satisfactorily with the measured data. The wave height and storm surge calculated by the regional model provided the boundary conditions for our fine-grid domain. Then different sea-level rises suggested by the IPCC were incorporated into the fine-grid model. Since river discharge due to intense rainfall has also to be considered for coastal flooding, our fine-grid models

  3. Derivation of working levels for animal feedstuffs for use in the event of a future nuclear accident

    Nisbet, A.; Woodman, R.; Brown, J.

    1998-04-01

    In the event of a future nuclear accident, European Council Food Intervention Levels (CFILs) would be legally binding for foodstuffs marketed in the UK. Practical guidance has been developed on the activity concentrations of radiocaesium and radiostrontium in animal feedstuffs that would give rise to concentrations equivalent to the relevant CFIL in the final animal product. The animals considered were dairy and beef cattle, lambs, pigs, broiler chickens and laying hens. Typical diets have been derived for each animal. The NRPB foodchain model FARMLAND has been used to predict activity concentrations in different feedstuffs for accidents occurring at different times of the year. The predicted concentrations were combined with the data on dietary composition, information on feed-to-product transfer and the relevant CFIL to estimate the corresponding Working levels in Animal Feedstuffs (WAFs). The calculations were carried out using a dedicated software system called SILAFOD. This flexible system can be used to carry out more specific assessments. A handbook that accompanies this report contains detailed information on animal diets, contributions from various feedstuffs to intakes of activity and the corresponding WAFs. The early phase after an accident and the longer-term phase are both considered. The work received partial financial support from the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Radiological Safety and Nutrition Division. (author)

  4. Operation of a low-level waste disposal facility and how to prevent problems in future facilities

    Di Sibio, R.

    1985-01-01

    Operation of a low-level waste facility is an ever increasing problem nationally, and specifically one that could grow to crisis proportion in Pennsylvania. There have been, nevertheless, a variety of changes over the years in the management of low level radioactive waste, particularly with regard to disposal facilities that can avert a crisis condition. A number of companies have been organized thru possible a broad range of services to the nuclear industry, including those that emphasize solidification of waste materials, engineering services, waste management, and transportation to disposal sites across the United States. This paper addresses one particular site and the problems which evolved at that site from an environmental perspective. It is important that it is clearly understood that, although these problems are resolvable, the lessons learned here are critical for the prevention of problems at future facilities. The focus of this paper is on the Maxey Flats, Kentucky disposal facility which was closed in 1977. It must be understood that the regulations for siting, management, burial techniques, waste classification, and the overall management of disposal sites were limited when this facility was in operation

  5. Kiel Canal: Past and future threats for shipping resulting from precipitation, wind surge and sea level rise

    Ganske, Anette; Hüttl-Kabus, Sabine; Möller, Jens; Schade, Nils; Heinrich, Hartmut; Tinz, Birger

    2017-04-01

    The Kiel Canal is the most frequented artificial waterway in the world. It connects the North Sea and the Hamburg Harbor with the Baltic Sea and has a length of about 100 km. The Canal receives its water from the upper catchment of the river Eider. Discharge from the Canal towards the North Sea is via the sluices at Brunsbüttel (90%) into river Elbe and into the Baltic Sea via the sluices at Kiel-Holtenau. A risk of closure of the Canal occurs when high precipitation in the catchment meets high water levels in the river Elbe and/or the Baltic preventing the discharge of excess Canal water. Future sea level rise jointly with other effects such as possibly increasing wind surge and precipitation will close the gap between the inner and outer water levels, so that someday the outside levels will surmount the inner one. The German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure (BMVI) tasked its internal Network of Experts to run a case study on the evolution of critical water levels in order to estimate risks and vulnerabilities for adaptation measures. First step of the investigation is a search for factors or combination of factors responsible for closures in the past. Candidates are factors such as higher water levels at low tides, high precipitation events on land, soil moisture and human factors like preventive water management measures. Second step will be the search for the natural criteria in climate projections. Here we report on the results of the first step of the case study with a focus on the exit towards the North Sea. There, discharge is possible only during low tide. Presently still sufficient difference in height exists between the levels in the Canal and the river Elbe allowing for a free flow of excess Canal water. Shipping is ceased when levels in the Canal surpass safety limits due to high precipitation events in the catchment jointly with high outer water levels. We used atmospheric data from ERA-Interim reanalysis instead of gauge data

  6. Evaporation from a temperate closed-basin lake and its impact on present, past, and future water level

    Xiao, Ke; Griffis, Timothy J.; Baker, John M.; Bolstad, Paul V.; Erickson, Matt D.; Lee, Xuhui; Wood, Jeffrey D.; Hu, Cheng; Nieber, John L.

    2018-06-01

    Lakes provide enormous economic, recreational, and aesthetic benefits to citizens. These ecosystem services may be adversely impacted by climate change. In the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area of Minnesota, USA, many lakes have been at historic low levels and water augmentation strategies have been proposed to alleviate the problem. White Bear Lake (WBL) is a notable example. Its water level declined 1.5 m during 2003-2013 for reasons that are not fully understood. This study examined current, past, and future lake evaporation to better understand how climate will impact the water balance of lakes within this region. Evaporation from WBL was measured from July 2014 to February 2017 using two eddy covariance (EC) systems to provide better constraints on the water budget and to investigate the impact of evaporation on lake level. The estimated annual evaporation losses for years 2014 through 2016 were 559 ± 22 mm, 779 ± 81 mm, and 766 ± 11 mm, respectively. The higher evaporation in 2015 and 2016 was caused by the combined effects of larger average daily evaporation and a longer ice-free season. The EC measurements were used to tune the Community Land Model 4 - Lake, Ice, Snow and Sediment Simulator (CLM4-LISSS) to estimate lake evaporation over the period 1979-2016. Retrospective analyses indicate that WBL evaporation increased during this time by about 3.8 mm year-1, which was driven by increased wind speed and lake-surface vapor pressure gradient. Using a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emission scenario (RCP8.5), lake evaporation was modeled forward in time from 2017 to 2100. Annual evaporation is expected to increase by 1.4 mm year-1 over this century, largely driven by lengthening ice-free periods. These changes in ice phenology and evaporation will have important implications for the regional water balance, and water management and water augmentation strategies that are being proposed for these Metropolitan lakes.

  7. Survey of Radiological and Chemical Contaminants in the Near-Shore Environment at the Hanford Site 300 Area

    Patton, Gregory W.; Van Verst, Scott P.; Tiller, Brett L.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Poston, Ted M.

    2003-01-01

    This updates the original report by correcting some errors and adding new information. This assessment of the 300 Area was completed to identify any contamination present and determine if it could present a risk to humans and plant and animal life. The assessment characterized the radiological and chemical conditions existing in the near-shore environment of the Columbia River at the 300 Area by collecting water, biota, and sediment samples and measuring radiation levels during a time when the effects of riverbank spring discharges and groundwater upwelling into the river was likely to be present

  8. The Relevance and Future of Joint Logistics Over the Shore (JLOTS) Operations

    2013-04-01

    important since cargo transfer from lighters to causeways is accomplished more safely beyond the surf zone. Taking all of the limitations above into...conditions not involving such variables as disabling equipment or personnel. Unfortunately, limiting the training to only those favorable situations

  9. Colour change and camouflage in juvenile shore crabs Carcinus maenas

    Martin eStevens

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Camouflage is perhaps the most widespread anti-predator defense in nature, with many different types thought to exist. Of these, resembling the general color and pattern of the background (background matching is likely to be the most common. Background matching can be achieved by adaptation of individual appearance to different habitats or substrates, behavioral choice, and color change. Although the ability to change coloration for camouflage over a period of hours or days is likely to be widely found among animals, few studies have quantified this against different backgrounds. Here, we test whether juvenile shore crabs (Carcinus maenas are capable of color change for camouflage by placing them on either black or white (experiment 1 or red and green (experiment 2 backgrounds. We find that crabs are capable of significant changes in brightness, becoming lighter on white backgrounds and darker on black backgrounds. Using models of predator (avian vision, we show that these differences are large enough in many individuals to lead to perceptible changes in appearance. Furthermore, comparisons of crabs with the backgrounds show that changes are likely to lead to significant improvements in camouflage and potentially reduced detection probabilities. Crabs underwent some changes on the red and green backgrounds, but visual modeling indicated that these changes were very small and unlikely to be detectable. Our experiment shows that crabs are able to adjust their camouflage by changes in brightness over a period of hours, and that this could influence detection probability by predators.

  10. Modelling seabird collision risk with off-shore wind farms

    Mateos, Maria; Arroyo, Gonzalo Munoz; Rosario, Jose Juan Alonso del

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Recent concern about the adverse effects of collision mortality of avian migrants at wind farms has highlighted the need to understand bird-wind turbine interactions. Here, a stochastic collision model, based on data of seabird behaviour collected on- site, is presented, as a flexible and easy to take tool to assess the collisions probabilities of off-shore wind farms in a pre-construction phase. The collision prediction model considering the wind farm area as a risk window has been constructed as a stochastic model for avian migrants, based on Monte Carlo simulation. The model calculates the probable number of birds collided per time unit. Migration volume, wind farm dimensions, vertical and horizontal distribution of the migratory passage, flight direction and avoidance rates, between other variables, are taken into account in different steps of the model as the input variables. In order to assess the weighted importance of these factors on collision probability predictions, collision probabilities obtained from the set of scenarios resulting from the different combinations of the input variables were modelled by using Generalised Additive Models. The application of this model to a hypothetical project for erecting a wind farm at the Strait of Gibraltar showed that collision probability, and consequently mortality rates, strongly depend on the values of the avoidance rates taken into account, and the distribution of birds into the different altitude layers. These parameters should be considered as priorities to be addressed in post-construction studies. (Author)

  11. Structure Changes of Macrobenthic Community on Rocky Shores After the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill

    Yun-Hwan Jung; Heung-Sik Park; Kon-Tak Yoon; Hyung-Gon Lee; Chae-Woo Ma

    2013-01-01

    In Korea, more than 300 oil spill accidents occur every year. Despite the frequency, only a small pool of data is available on the initial effect of oil spill on macrobenthic fauna inhabiting rocky shores. The aim of this study was to analyze the variation of macrobenthic fauna composition and community structure on rocky shores, and understand the impact of oil on rocky shore organisms after the Hebei Spirit oil spill. Field surveys were carried out in five regions dose to the wreck site in ...

  12. Greenland plays a large role in the gloomy picture painted of probable future sea-level rise

    Hanna, Edward

    2012-12-01

    Goelzer et al (2012) paint a portentous picture of what is likely to happen to the global sea-level over the next 1000 years. This worrying assessment is based on our current best understanding of how the world's giant ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica, as well as a quarter of a million smaller glacial ice masses, and the ocean collectively respond to ongoing climate change. Theirs is a state of the science study that integrates these key contributors of sea-level change based on the latest models and current understanding, and an integrated Earth systems modelling approach termed LOVECLIM. As they point out in their study, only a handful of global climate models to date—i.e. models that are used to make predictions of future climate change—incorporate dynamically (fully) coupled ice-sheet models. According to the scenarios presented by Goelzer et al (2012), we could see between 2.1 and 6.8 m of global sea-level rise by 3000 AD, compared with 'just' 1.1 m if the atmosphere is stabilised at 2000 CO2 levels. Much, up to some 4 m, of this contribution comes from increased melting and mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet, which is several times more sensitive than the Antarctic ice sheet to warming temperatures in these simulations. Interestingly, dynamical ice mass losses through iceberg calving become increasingly less significant for Greenland as the ice sheet retreats further inland during the 1000 yr runs (Sole et al 2008). The latest modelling studies show that around a half, perhaps more, of the recent Greenland mass losses (Barletta et al 2012, Rignot et al 2011) are already through increased melt and runoff (Hanna et al 2008, 2012, van den Broeke et al 2009); note also the recent (summer 2012) record surface melting of the Greenland ice sheet (Nghiem et al 2012) caused by atmospheric forcing (Overland et al 2012) and the potential of such events to impact on ice flow (Bartholomew et al 2011). By contrast, the greatest sea-level rise reported for

  13. Evaporation from a temperate closed-basin lake and its impact on present, past, and future water level

    Xiao, K.; Griffis, T. J.; Baker, J. M.; Bolstad, P. V.; Erickson, M. D.; Lee, X.; Wood, J. D.; Hu, C.

    2017-12-01

    Lakes provide enormous economic, recreational, and aesthetic benefits to citizens. These ecosystem services may be adversely impacted by climate change. In the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area of Minnesota, USA, many lakes have been at historic low levels and water augmentation strategies have been proposed to alleviate the problem. For example, the water level of White Bear Lake (WBL) declined 1.5 m during 2003-2013 for reasons that are not fully understood. This study examined current, past, and future lake evaporation to better understand how climate will impact the water balance of lakes within this region. Evaporation from WBL was measured from July 2014 to February 2017 using two eddy covariance (EC) systems to provide better constraints on the water budget and to investigate the impact of evaporation on lake level. The annual evaporation for years 2014 through 2016 were 559±22 mm, 779±81 mm, and 766±11 mm, respectively. The larger evaporation in 2015 and 2016 was caused by the combined effects of larger average daily evaporation and a longer ice-free season. The EC measurements were used to tune the Community Land Model 4 - Lake, Ice, Snow and Sediment Simulator (CLM4-LISSS) to estimate lake evaporation over the period 1979-2016. Retrospective analyses indicated that WBL evaporation increased by about 3.8 mm yr-1. Mass balance analysis implied that the lake level declines at WBL during 1986-1990 and 2003-2012 were mainly caused by the coupled low precipitation and high evaporation. Using a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emission scenario (RCP8.5), lake evaporation was modeled forward in time from 2017 to 2100. Annual evaporation is expected to increase by 1.4 mm yr-1 over this century, which is largely driven by lengthening ice-free periods. These changes in ice phenology and evaporation will have important implications for the regional water balance, and water management and water augmentation strategies that are being proposed for these Metropolitan

  14. Distal impacts of aquarium trade: Exploring the emerging sandhopper (Orchestoidea tuberculata) artisanal shore gathering fishery in Chile.

    Tapia-Lewin, Sebastián; Vergara, Karina; De La Barra, Christian; Godoy, Natalio; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Gelcich, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    Artisanal fishery activities support the livelihoods of millions of people worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Within these fisheries, distal global drivers can promote switching between alternative target resources. These drivers can promote the rapid development of new, unregulated and previously unexploited fisheries that pose a threat to the sustainability of ecosystems. In this paper, we describe a new artisanal shore gathering activity that targets a previously unexploited resource: the sandhopper (Orchestoidea tuberculata). The activity is driven by aquarium trade demand for food. We used mixed methods to describe the activity, assessed basic socio-economic incentives, and estimated Catches per Unit Effort. Results show that the sandhopper plays an important role for the livelihoods of shore gatherers engaged in the activity. Gatherers have adapted and developed two main extraction methods with different degrees of investment and extraction rates. Furthermore, gatherers have developed local knowledge regarding the ecology and management of the resource. Results show that economic incentives can motivate a rapid expansion of this unregulated activity. Future research gaps and management options to address the development of this fishery are discussed in light of these findings.

  15. Impact assessment of an off-shore wind park on sea ducks

    Guillemette, M.; Kyed Larsen, J.; Clausager, I.

    1998-03-01

    As part of the plan of the Danish government to expand off-shore wind energy production, The Ministry of Environment and Energy, in collaboration with ELSAM (an energy consortium), initiated a three-year study of the potential conflict between the Tunoe Knob off-shore wind park and aquatic birds in 1994-97. Danish coastal waters support very large, internationally important concentrations of moulting, migrating and wintering sea ducks which depend on shallow water areas as major feeding habitats. Denmark is committed, in relation to international conventions and EU directives, to protect and maintain these populations of aquatic birds and such shallow coastal areas are precisely the type of areas in which future wind parks are planned. Two general approaches were adopted for the investigation: the before-after-control-impact design (BACI) and After studies conducted around the wind park. The aim of the BACI studies was to compare bird abundance and distribution before and after the construction of the wind park and between the area presumably affected by the development and a control area. This was carried out on three spatial scales: (i) conducting aerial surveys in two large zones (about 5,000 ha), Tunoe Knob and Ringebjerg Sand, while controlling the total number of birds in Aarhus Bay (88,000 ha), (ii) conducting ground surveys of two areas of about 700-800 ha coverage at Tunoe Knob and Ringebjerg Sand, using the latter as a control area and (iii) within Tunoe using three sub areas (160-250 ha) as controls compared to the construction area. The after experiments were conducted around the wind park with the aim of controlling the confounding effect of food supply and to establish (a) the short-term possible effects of noise and rotor movements generated by the turbines on the distribution and abundance of sea ducks and (b) the long-term scaring effect of the wind park (the impact of revolving rotors and the presence of the standing towers). Finally, an

  16. Behavioral thermoregulation in Hemigrapsus nudus, the amphibious purple shore crab.

    McGaw, I J

    2003-02-01

    The thermoregulatory behavior of Hemigrapsus nudus, the amphibious purple shore crab, was examined in both aquatic and aerial environments. Crabs warmed and cooled more rapidly in water than in air. Acclimation in water of 16 degrees C (summer temperatures) raised the critical thermal maximum temperature (CTMax); acclimation in water of 10 degrees C (winter temperatures) lowered the critical thermal minimum temperature (CTMin). The changes occurred in both water and air. However, these survival regimes did not reflect the thermal preferences of the animals. In water, the thermal preference of crabs acclimated to 16 degrees C was 14.6 degrees C, and they avoided water warmer than 25.5 degrees C. These values were significantly lower than those of the crabs acclimated to 10 degrees C; these animals demonstrated temperature preferences for water that was 17 degrees C, and they avoided water that was warmer than 26.9 degrees C. This temperature preference was also exhibited in air, where 10 degrees C acclimated crabs exited from under rocks at a temperature that was 3.2 degrees C higher than that at which the 16 degrees C acclimated animals responded. This behavioral pattern was possibly due to a decreased thermal tolerance of 16 degrees C acclimated crabs, related with the molting process. H. nudus was better able to survive prolonged exposure to cold temperatures than to warm temperatures, and there was a trend towards lower exit temperatures with the lower acclimation (10 degrees C) temperature. Using a complex series of behaviors, the crabs were able to precisely control body temperature independent of the medium, by shuttling between air and water. The time spent in either air or water was influenced more strongly by the temperature than by the medium. In the field, this species may experience ranges in temperatures of up to 20 degrees C; however, it is able to utilize thermal microhabitats underneath rocks to maintain its body temperature within fairly narrow

  17. Willingness to pay for reduced visual disamenities from off-shore wind farms in Denmark

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Dubgaard, Alex

    Expansion of the off-shore wind power capacity plays a significant role in the wind power strategy in many EU countries. However, off-shore wind farms are associated with visual disamenities. The disamenities can be reduced by locating the wind farms at larger distances from the coast. But......, the costs per kWh produced increase as the distance is augmented. In this paper, peoples’ willingness to pay for a reduction in the visual disamenity of off-shore wind farms is elicited using the economic valuation method Choice Experiments. The economic valuation scenario comprises the locations of 3600 MW...... and 50 km from the coast opposed to 8 km. The results also reveal that the WTP deviate strongly with regards to the age of the respondent and the experiences with off-shore wind farms. These properties of the WTP are believed to have significant policy related consequences. Keywords: Visual Disamenities...

  18. Analysis of fish movements between Great Lakes coastal wetlands and near shore habitat via otolith microchemistry

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands are unique habitats with physical connections with near shore environments. This facilitates the exchange of energy between habitats in a principle known as habitat coupling. Coupling can be facilitated by movements of consumers; however, wetland us...

  19. Preliminary Observations on the Uptake of Poliovirus by West Coast Shore Crabs

    DiGirolamo, Rudolph; Wiczynski, Leokadia; Daley, Michael; Miranda, Florencio

    1972-01-01

    West Coast shore crabs (Pachygrapsus sp. and Hemigrapsus sp.), when in seawater contaminated with poliovirus or allowed to feed on virus-contaminated mussels (Mytilus californianus), were found to accumulate high titers of virus. PMID:4333894

  20. AFSC/ABL: ShoreZone Ground Stations, web-posted database in ArcGIS

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The web-posted Alaska Shore Station Database is a compilation of hundreds of intertidal sites that were visited and evaluated throughout the coastal waters of...

  1. A Futures Orientation in the Australian Curriculum: Current Levels of Teacher Interest, Activity and Support in Western Australia

    Paynter, Mark; Bruce, Neville

    2014-01-01

    The soon to be implemented Australian Curriculum aims to integrate a futures orientation across subject areas. Guidelines and support for this specific initiative are being finalized. Only a little is known about the current teaching of a futures orientation or of secondary teacher interest, understanding and support for this important but…

  2. Alcohol content in the 'Hyper-Reality' MTV show 'Geordie Shore'

    Lowe, Eden; Britton, John; Cranwell, Jo

    2018-01-01

    Aim: To quantify the occurrence of alcohol content, including alcohol branding, in the popular primetime television UK Reality TV show 'Geordie Shore' Series 11. \\ud \\ud Methods: A 1-min interval coding content analysis of alcohol content in the entire DVD Series 11 of 'Geordie Shore' (10 episodes). Occurrence of alcohol use, implied use, other alcohol reference/paraphernalia or branding was recorded. \\ud \\ud Results: All categories of alcohol were present in all episodes. 'Any alcohol' conte...

  3. Warm summer nights and the growth decline of shore pine in Southeast Alaska

    Sullivan, Patrick F.; Mulvey, Robin L.; Brownlee, Annalis H.; Barrett, Tara M.; Pattison, Robert R.

    2015-12-01

    Shore pine, which is a subspecies of lodgepole pine, was a widespread and dominant tree species in Southeast Alaska during the early Holocene. At present, the distribution of shore pine in Alaska is restricted to coastal bogs and fens, likely by competition with Sitka spruce and Western hemlock. Monitoring of permanent plots as part of the United States Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis program identified a recent loss of shore pine biomass in Southeast Alaska. The apparent loss of shore pine is concerning, because its presence adds a vertical dimension to coastal wetlands, which are the richest plant communities of the coastal temperate rainforest in Alaska. In this study, we examined the shore pine tree-ring record from a newly established plot network throughout Southeast Alaska and explored climate-growth relationships. We found a steep decline in shore pine growth from the early 1960s to the present. Random Forest regression revealed a strong correlation between the decline in shore pine growth and the rise in growing season diurnal minimum air temperature. Warm summer nights, cool daytime temperatures and a reduced diurnal temperature range are associated with greater cloud cover in Southeast Alaska. This suite of conditions could lead to unfavorable tree carbon budgets (reduced daytime photosynthesis and greater nighttime respiration) and/or favor infection by foliar pathogens, such as Dothistroma needle blight, which has recently caused widespread tree mortality on lodgepole pine plantations in British Columbia. Further field study that includes experimental manipulation (e.g., fungicide application) will be necessary to identify the proximal cause(s) of the growth decline. In the meantime, we anticipate continuation of the shore pine growth decline in Southeast Alaska.

  4. Impact of global warming and rising CO2 levels on coral reef fishes: what hope for the future?

    Munday, Philip L; McCormick, Mark I; Nilsson, Göran E

    2012-11-15

    Average sea-surface temperature and the amount of CO(2) dissolved in the ocean are rising as a result of increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO(2). Many coral reef fishes appear to be living close to their thermal optimum, and for some of them, even relatively moderate increases in temperature (2-4°C) lead to significant reductions in aerobic scope. Reduced aerobic capacity could affect population sustainability because less energy can be devoted to feeding and reproduction. Coral reef fishes seem to have limited capacity to acclimate to elevated temperature as adults, but recent research shows that developmental and transgenerational plasticity occur, which might enable some species to adjust to rising ocean temperatures. Predicted increases in P(CO(2)), and associated ocean acidification, can also influence the aerobic scope of coral reef fishes, although there is considerable interspecific variation, with some species exhibiting a decline and others an increase in aerobic scope at near-future CO(2) levels. As with thermal effects, there are transgenerational changes in response to elevated CO(2) that could mitigate impacts of high CO(2) on the growth and survival of reef fishes. An unexpected discovery is that elevated CO(2) has a dramatic effect on a wide range of behaviours and sensory responses of reef fishes, with consequences for the timing of settlement, habitat selection, predator avoidance and individual fitness. The underlying physiological mechanism appears to be the interference of acid-base regulatory processes with brain neurotransmitter function. Differences in the sensitivity of species and populations to global warming and rising CO(2) have been identified that will lead to changes in fish community structure as the oceans warm and becomes more acidic; however, the prospect for acclimation and adaptation of populations to these threats also needs to be considered. Ultimately, it will be the capacity for species to adjust to environmental

  5. Predicting the Performance of Chain Saw Machines Based on Shore Scleroscope Hardness

    Tumac, Deniz

    2014-03-01

    Shore hardness has been used to estimate several physical and mechanical properties of rocks over the last few decades. However, the number of researches correlating Shore hardness with rock cutting performance is quite limited. Also, rather limited researches have been carried out on predicting the performance of chain saw machines. This study differs from the previous investigations in the way that Shore hardness values (SH1, SH2, and deformation coefficient) are used to determine the field performance of chain saw machines. The measured Shore hardness values are correlated with the physical and mechanical properties of natural stone samples, cutting parameters (normal force, cutting force, and specific energy) obtained from linear cutting tests in unrelieved cutting mode, and areal net cutting rate of chain saw machines. Two empirical models developed previously are improved for the prediction of the areal net cutting rate of chain saw machines. The first model is based on a revised chain saw penetration index, which uses SH1, machine weight, and useful arm cutting depth as predictors. The second model is based on the power consumed for only cutting the stone, arm thickness, and specific energy as a function of the deformation coefficient. While cutting force has a strong relationship with Shore hardness values, the normal force has a weak or moderate correlation. Uniaxial compressive strength, Cerchar abrasivity index, and density can also be predicted by Shore hardness values.

  6. Innovative Disposal Practices at the Nevada Test Site to Meet Its Low-Level Waste Generators' Future Disposal Needs

    Di Sanza, E.F.; Carilli, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) streams which have a clear, defined pathway to disposal are becoming less common as U.S. Department of Energy accelerated cleanup sites enters their closure phase. These commonly disposed LLW waste streams are rapidly being disposed and the LLW inventory awaiting disposal is dwindling. However, more complex waste streams that have no path for disposal are now requiring attention. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NSO) Environmental Management Program is charged with the responsibility of carrying out the disposal of onsite and off-site defense-generated and research-related LLW at the Nevada. Test Site (NTS). The NSO and its generator community are constantly pursuing new LLW disposal techniques while meeting the core mission of safe and cost-effective disposal that protects the worker, the public and the environment. From trenches to present-day super-cells, the NTS disposal techniques must change to meet the LLW generator's disposal needs. One of the many ways the NTS is addressing complex waste streams is by designing waste specific pits and trenches. This ensures unusual waste streams with high-activity or large packaging have a disposal path. Another option the NTS offers is disposal of classified low-level radioactive-contaminated material. In order to perform this function, the NTS has a safety plan in place as well as a secure facility. By doing this, the NTS can accept DOE generated classified low-level radioactive-contaminated material that would be equivalent to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Class B, C, and Greater than Class C waste. In fiscal year 2006, the NTS will be the only federal disposal facility that will be able to dispose mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) streams. This is an activity that is highly anticipated by waste generators. In order for the NTS to accept MLLW, generators will have to meet the stringent requirements of the NTS

  7. Shore protection for the coast of Mousuni Island in West Bengal, India

    V Sundar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mousuni Island in West Bengal, India is wide-open to Bay of Bengal. This island by virtue of its location is exposed to river flow as well as wave action. It is thus subjected to severe erosion along its south-western coastal stretch and also significantly affecting agriculture due to seawater inundation. This is due to the lower level of bund crest elevation combined with high water levels during coastal flooding. The most suitable method to arrest the shore erosion and salt water intrusion is to divert the flow gradually toward the deeper section of the channel. To meet this requirement, after carrying out a comprehensive profiling of the existing bund, bank connected series of spurs with locally available construction materials and unskilled labor are proposed. In order to design these spurs, the magnitude and direction of sediment movement along the stretch is estimated. The layout of protection measures is proposed based on a detailed analysis of site conditions and the environmental conditions. The tranquility inside the proposed coastal protecting structure is substantiated with a two-dimensional horizontal flow model. Furthermore, the behavior of the shorelines has been studied numerically with the proposed coastal protection measure. The detailed analysis of the results from the numerical model and the protection measure are discussed in this article.

  8. Prospective elemental analysis of algal biomass accumulated at the dominican republic Shores during 2015

    Fernández, Fernando; Boluda, Carlos José; Olivera, Jesús; Gómez, Luis Alberto Guillermo Bolivar; Gómez, Enmanuel Echavarría Aris Mendis

    2017-01-01

    The massive accumulation and decomposition of the Sargassum natans and Sargassum fluitans brown seaweeds on the Antillean shores has become a major problem in Central America and the Caribbean, seriously affecting tourism. However, the value of the algal biomass should not be underestimated, since it contains bioactive compounds with industrial application or in a more traditional use as fertilizers. On the other hand, seaweeds have the ability to bioaccumulate toxic metals such as Hg, Pb, Cd, Ni and Cr, among others. In order to ensure the safety of this biological material in its possible applications, it has been carried out a prospective study of the content in different transition metals and rare earths. Slightly elevated mercury levels were detected, which could limit the use of biomass. The content in Sc (scandium), Y (yttrium) and 14 lanthanides (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu), collectively known as rare earths, was also determined, being higher than in the ocean levels. This is consistent with the hypothesis that places the origin of these algae to more southern latitudes, where they proliferate in the shelter of the mouth of large rivers. (author)

  9. PROSPECTIVE ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ALGAL BIOMASS ACUMULATED AT THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC SHORES DURING 2015

    Fernando Fernández

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The massive accumulation and decomposition of the Sargassum natans and Sargassum fluitans brown seaweeds on the Antillean shores has become a major problem in Central America and the Caribbean, seriously affecting tourism. However, the value of the algal biomass should not be underestimated, since it contains bioactive compounds with industrial application or in a more traditional use as fertilizers. On the other hand, seaweeds have the ability to bioaccumulate toxic metals such as Hg, Pb, Cd, Ni and Cr, among others. In order to ensure the safety of this biological material in its possible applications, it has been carried out a prospective study of the content in different transition metals and rare earths. Slightly elevated mercury levels were detected, which could limit the use of biomass. The content in Sc (scandium, Y (yttrium and 14 lanthanides (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu, collectively known as rare earths, was also determined, being higher than in the ocean levels. This is consistent with the hypothesis that places the origin of these algae to more southern latitudes, where they proliferate in the shelter of the mouth of large rivers.

  10. Habitat, wildlife, and one health: Arcanobacterium pyogenes in Maryland and Upper Eastern Shore white-tailed deer populations

    Melissa M. Turner

    2013-08-01

    antler and nasal swabs from deer were positive for A. pyogenes, respectively. On the Upper Eastern Shore, prevalence of A. pyogenes cultured from deer did not differ between management areas, and was abundant among both sexes and across all age classes. No A. pyogenes was cultured from a small sample of neonates. Conclusion: Our study indicates A. pyogenes may be carried widely among white-tailed deer regardless of sex or age class, but we found no evidence the pathogen is acquired in utero. The distribution of A. pyogenes across regions and concentration in a region with low livestock levels suggests the potential for localized endemicity of the organism and the possibility that deer may serve as a maintenance reservoir for an emerging one health concern.

  11. The Delaware Bay Estuary as a Classroom: A Research Experience for Future Elementary Grade-Level Teachers

    Madsen, J.; Fifield, S.; Allen, D.; Shipman, H.; Ford, D.; Dagher, Z.; Brickhouse, N.

    2004-05-01

    With supplemental funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF), students from the University of Delaware's Science Semester course took part in a two-day research cruise in the Delaware Bay Estuary. The Science Semester, an NSF-funded project, is an integrated 15-credit sequence that encompasses the entire course work for the spring semester for approximately 60 sophomore-level elementary education majors. The semester includes the earth, life, and physical science content courses and the education science methods course integrated into one curriculum. In this curriculum, problem-based learning and other inquiry-based approaches are applied to foster integrated understandings of science and pedagogy that future elementary teachers need to effectively use inquiry-based approaches in their classrooms. The research cruise was conducted as part of one of the four major investigations during the course. The investigation focused on Delaware's state marine animal, Limulus polyphemus. It is one of the four remaining species of horseshoe crabs; the largest spawning population of Limulus is found in Delaware Bay. Within the problem- and inquiry-based learning approaches of the Science Semester course, the students became aware that very little data exists on the benthic habitat of Limulus polyphemus. In order to learn more about this habitat, a cohort of seven students from the course was recruited as part of the scientific party to take part in the research cruise to collect data on the floor of Delaware Bay. The data included: multibeam bathymetry/backscatter data, grab samples of bay bottom sediments, and CTD profiles. Prior to the cruise, all students in the course took part in laboratory exercises to learn about topographic maps and navigation charts using the Delaware Bay area as the region of study. While "at-sea", the cruise participants sent the ship's latitude and longitude positions as a function of time. The positions were used by the on-land students to

  12. Power-hardware-in-the-loop test of VSC-HVDC connection for off-shore wind power plants

    Sharma, Ranjan [Siemens Wind Power A/S, Brande (Denmark); Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark). Center for Electric Technology; Cha, Seung T.; Wu, Qiuwei; Rasmussen, Tonny W.; Oestergaard, Jacob [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark). Center for Electric Technology; Jensen, Kim H. [Siemens Wind Power A/S, Brande (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    This paper present a power-hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) test of an off-shore wind power plant (WPP) interconnected to the on-shore grid via a VSC-HVDC connection. The intention of the PHIL test is to verify the hardware interaction and the control co-ordination between the plant side VSC of the HVDC system and the wind turbines within the WPP in order to ensure smooth operation of the WPP under both normal and fault operating condition. The PHIL test platform is comprised of a real time digital simulator (RTDS), a Spitzenberger Spies three phase 7,5 kW power amplifier, a purpose built VSC and a DC chopper. The WPP is simulated in the RTDS as a single full-scale wind turbine. The simulated WPP interacts with the WPP side VSC through the power amplifier. The interface between the RTDS and the power amplifier is done via an analogue GTAO I/O card of the RTDS and the input channel of the amplifier. The amplifier scales up the voltages at the point of connection of the WPP in the RTDS to the voltage level for the WPP side VSC. The WPP side VSC converter is equipped with a DC chopper. The test results show the successful control coordination between the WPP and the plant side VSC converter of the HVDC connection of the WPP. (orig.)

  13. Changes in the flora of the eastern and southern shore area of lake Piaseczno in the years 2003-2010

    Artur Serafin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the flora composition of the eastern and southern shore area of Lake Piaseczno, with predominantly agricultural and recreational land use in the lake catchment, were examined in the years 2003 and 2010. Multifaceted analysis of the flora was made with regard to its botanical, syntaxonomical, and ecological aspects, the identified species were assigned to different historical-geographical groups and range groups, as well as the flora synanthropisation, anthropophytisation and apophytisation indices were calculated and compared. Both the species number and the species floristic composition of the Lake Piaseczno shore zone changed in seven years. The fact that the value of the synanthropisation index remained at a similar level and a slight increase in the anthropophytisation index values are probably related to the decrease in tourist traffic in this area and the diminishing pressure from extensive agriculture. The results of the flora analysis, in terms of the assignment of species to characteristic ecological groups, confirm the specific habitat conditions in the study area and, above all, significant permeability of the substrate and high soil nutrient availability.

  14. Responses of a Rocky Shore Gastropod to the Effluents of Predatory and Non-predatory Crabs: Avoidance and Attraction.

    Marko, P B; Palmer, A R

    1991-12-01

    Laboratory experiments revealed that the rocky shore gastropod, Nucella lamellosa (Gmelin), could discriminate between the effluents of predatory and non-predatory crabs. N. lamellosa turned away from seawater that had passed over the large predatory crab, Cancer productus Randall. This avoidance behavior was observed in snails from two localities that, based on differences in shell form, presumably experienced different levels of predation intensity. The scent of the non-predatory crabs Pugettia producta (Randall) and Lopholithodes mandtii Brandt had no effect on the turning behavior of snails from either site. Surprisingly, snails from both sites were attracted to the scent of a small shore crab, Hemigrapsus nudus (Dana), but moved at random in response to a common prey item Balanus glandula Darwin. These results suggest that N. lamellosa can assess from a distance the relative risks posed by different species of crabs, and respond appropriately. The unexpected attraction to H. nudus suggests that N. lamellosa may use this effluent to home in from a distance on potential refugia, because H. nudus are often associated with crevices and the undersides of boulders where N. lamellosa would be less vulnerable to larger predators.

  15. Camouflage and individual variation in shore crabs (Carcinus maenas from different habitats.

    Martin Stevens

    Full Text Available Camouflage is widespread throughout the natural world and conceals animals from predators in a vast range of habitats. Because successful camouflage usually involves matching aspects of the background environment, species and populations should evolve appearances tuned to their local habitat, termed phenotype-environment associations. However, although this has been studied in various species, little work has objectively quantified the appearances of camouflaged animals from different habitats, or related this to factors such as ontogeny and individual variation. Here, we tested for phenotype-environment associations in the common shore crab (Carcinus maenas, a species highly variable in appearance and found in a wide range of habitats. We used field surveys and digital image analysis of the colors and patterns of crabs found in four locations around Cornwall in the UK to quantify how individuals vary with habitat (predominantly rockpool, mussel bed, and mudflat. We find that individuals from sites comprising different backgrounds show substantial differences in several aspects of color and pattern, and that this is also dependent on life stage (adult or juvenile. Furthermore, the level of individual variation is dependent on site and life stage, with juvenile crabs often more variable than adults, and individuals from more homogenous habitats less diverse. Ours is the most comprehensive study to date exploring phenotype-environment associations for camouflage and individual variation in a species, and we discuss the implications of our results in terms of the mechanisms and selection pressures that may drive this.

  16. The psychopharmacology algorithm project at the Harvard South Shore Program: an update on schizophrenia.

    Osser, David N; Roudsari, Mohsen Jalali; Manschreck, Theo

    2013-01-01

    This article is an update of the algorithm for schizophrenia from the Psychopharmacology Algorithm Project at the Harvard South Shore Program. A literature review was conducted focusing on new data since the last published version (1999-2001). The first-line treatment recommendation for new-onset schizophrenia is with amisulpride, aripiprazole, risperidone, or ziprasidone for four to six weeks. In some settings the trial could be shorter, considering that evidence of clear improvement with antipsychotics usually occurs within the first two weeks. If the trial of the first antipsychotic cannot be completed due to intolerance, try another until one of the four is tolerated and given an adequate trial. There should be evidence of bioavailability. If the response to this adequate trial is unsatisfactory, try a second monotherapy. If the response to this second adequate trial is also unsatisfactory, and if at least one of the first two trials was with risperidone, olanzapine, or a first-generation (typical) antipsychotic, then clozapine is recommended for the third trial. If neither trial was with any these three options, a third trial prior to clozapine should occur, using one of those three. If the response to monotherapy with clozapine (with dose adjusted by using plasma levels) is unsatisfactory, consider adding risperidone, lamotrigine, or ECT. Beyond that point, there is little solid evidence to support further psychopharmacological treatment choices, though we do review possible options.

  17. Camouflage and individual variation in shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) from different habitats.

    Stevens, Martin; Lown, Alice E; Wood, Louisa E

    2014-01-01

    Camouflage is widespread throughout the natural world and conceals animals from predators in a vast range of habitats. Because successful camouflage usually involves matching aspects of the background environment, species and populations should evolve appearances tuned to their local habitat, termed phenotype-environment associations. However, although this has been studied in various species, little work has objectively quantified the appearances of camouflaged animals from different habitats, or related this to factors such as ontogeny and individual variation. Here, we tested for phenotype-environment associations in the common shore crab (Carcinus maenas), a species highly variable in appearance and found in a wide range of habitats. We used field surveys and digital image analysis of the colors and patterns of crabs found in four locations around Cornwall in the UK to quantify how individuals vary with habitat (predominantly rockpool, mussel bed, and mudflat). We find that individuals from sites comprising different backgrounds show substantial differences in several aspects of color and pattern, and that this is also dependent on life stage (adult or juvenile). Furthermore, the level of individual variation is dependent on site and life stage, with juvenile crabs often more variable than adults, and individuals from more homogenous habitats less diverse. Ours is the most comprehensive study to date exploring phenotype-environment associations for camouflage and individual variation in a species, and we discuss the implications of our results in terms of the mechanisms and selection pressures that may drive this.

  18. BASIC PARAMETERS FOR DESIGNING PHYSICAL SEPARATION TREATMENTS FROM AN INTENSIVE ON-SHORE FISH FARM

    Biagio Bianchi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The pollutant load was monitored in an intensive on-shore plant; evaluation especially concerned one basin,during a period of time in which the water temperature (21-23°c, the stocking density (25 kg/m3, the loading and unloading flow (40 dm3/s remained steady at the highest values. The results show that the maximum pollution levels are characterized by high concentrations of suspended organic materials, as well as by high BOD5/COD rates; moreover, more than 60% of the suspended solid waste consists of particles with a maximum dimension ranging from 200 μm to more than 500 μm. Tests show that an effluent channel is not efficient in reducing the pollutant load of waste water. The laboratory sedimentation trials showed – for a period of about 3 hours – minimum and maximum solid particle sedimentation speeds of 2.56 mm/s and 46.8 mm/s respectively, which should be considered when deciding the turbid speed and the dimensions of basins for this type of effluent. In any case, the sedimentation process carried out in the laboratory was only just sufficient to bring the farm effluent within the legal limits. Therefore a mechanical filtration treatment may suit the specific requirements of the farm waste water used for the experimental trials. A 50 μm mesh would be considered sufficient for any critical situation.

  19. PERSPECTIVE: The tripping points of sea level rise

    Hecht, Alan D.

    2009-12-01

    , according to Titus et al, is for communities to develop a common vision about which lands will be protected and which lands will yield to the rising sea, similar to the way land use plans identify commercial, residential, agricultural, and conservation lands. The supplementary material in their paper (as well as a related web site suggested by the peer review process of this journal) provides maps that depict the likelihood of shore protection based on existing land use data and the assessment of the local governments. Such maps, they suggest, might be used as a starting point to promote dialogue within communities about which lands should be protected and which lands are allowed to become submerged. A second tripping point relates to conflict between existing environmental laws and their collective ability to respond to the impacts of global warming. For example, property owners are automatically issued permits for construction of hard shore-protection structures (e.g. bulkheads and revetments) without an assessment of their environmental impact. Normally, under the Clean Water Act, the impact of each permit is assessed separately, but there is a special expedited process for activities with no cumulative impact. The Corps of Engineers concluded that shore protection does not have a cumulative impact, and that might be true if shore erosion was rare and stable shores the general rule. But once we recognize that the sea level is rising, then shore erosion becomes the general rule and a cumulative impact is likely. Under the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA), cumulative impacts have been defined as `the impacts of an activity ``added to other past present and reasonably future actions'' regardless of who takes the other actions'. If the NEPA were actually evoked, it would considerably delay permit approvals and substantially impact the Corps of Engineers' process for issuing permits. The potential impact of sea level rise clearly requires a holistic approach to

  20. Evaluation of the dynamics of change of shore cliff located in the vicinity of Pleśna village in the period 2006-2015

    Czesław Suchocki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes on our planet contribute to the rise in the average level of the seas, oceans, and a greater number of storms. It causes an increasing process of the sea abrasion on the cliffs. The paper presents the research, which determines the rate of retreat of the cliff shore fragment located in the vicinity of Pleśna village. The cliff displacements, which are the effect of erosive factors, were analysed on the basis of observations made in the years 2006-2015. Terrestrial laser scanning technology was applied to periodic measurements of the cliff. In the studies, the methodology of cliff shores monitoring was used, which was the result of five-year research performed by the staff of the Department of Geodesy Technical University of Koszalin. Keywords: abrasion, cliff, terrestrial laser scanner

  1. NaNet3: The on-shore readout and slow-control board for the KM3NeT-Italia underwater neutrino telescope

    Ammendola R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The KM3NeT-Italia underwater neutrino detection unit, the tower, consists of 14 floors. Each floor supports 6 Optical Modules containing front-end electronics needed to digitize the PMT signal, format and transmit the data and 2 hydrophones that reconstruct in real-time the position of Optical Modules, for a maximum tower throughput of more than 600 MB/s. All floor data are collected by the Floor Control Module (FCM board and transmitted by optical bidirectional virtual point-to-point connections to the on-shore laboratory, each FCM needing an on-shore counterpart as communication endpoint. In this contribution we present NaNet3, an on-shore readout board based on Altera Stratix V GX FPGA able to manage multiple FCM data channels with a capability of 800 Mbps each. The design is a NaNet customization for the KM3NeT-Italia experiment, adding support in its I/O interface for a synchronous link protocol with deterministic latency at physical level and for a Time Division Multiplexing protocol at data level.

  2. NaNet3: The on-shore readout and slow-control board for the KM3NeT-Italia underwater neutrino telescope

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Frezza, O.; Lo Cicero, F.; Martinelli, M.; Paolucci, P. S.; Pontisso, L.; Simula, F.; Vicini, P.; Ameli, F.; Nicolau, C. A.; Pastorelli, E.; Simeone, F.; Tosoratto, L.; Lonardo, A.

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT-Italia underwater neutrino detection unit, the tower, consists of 14 floors. Each floor supports 6 Optical Modules containing front-end electronics needed to digitize the PMT signal, format and transmit the data and 2 hydrophones that reconstruct in real-time the position of Optical Modules, for a maximum tower throughput of more than 600 MB/s. All floor data are collected by the Floor Control Module (FCM) board and transmitted by optical bidirectional virtual point-to-point connections to the on-shore laboratory, each FCM needing an on-shore counterpart as communication endpoint. In this contribution we present NaNet3, an on-shore readout board based on Altera Stratix V GX FPGA able to manage multiple FCM data channels with a capability of 800 Mbps each. The design is a NaNet customization for the KM3NeT-Italia experiment, adding support in its I/O interface for a synchronous link protocol with deterministic latency at physical level and for a Time Division Multiplexing protocol at data level.

  3. Factors that influence consumers' acceptance of future energy systems : the effects of adjustment type, production level, and price

    Leijten, Fenna R. M.; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Keizer, Kees; Gorsira, Madelijne; van der Werff, Ellen; Steg, Linda

    2014-01-01

    To promote the successful introduction of sustainable energy systems, more insight is needed into factors influencing consumer's acceptance of future energy systems. A questionnaire study among 139 Dutch citizens (aged 18-85) was conducted. Participants rated the acceptability of energy systems made

  4. Motivated for leisure in the future: a person-centred longitudinal study in the lowest level of secondary education

    van der Veen, I.; Peetsma, T.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term future time perspective on leisure has been found to relate negatively to school effort. This was studied further by recognizing types of students based on developments in long-term leisure perspectives and comparing their development in motivation and academic achievement. Around 1200

  5. Motivated for Leisure in the Future: A Person-Centred Longitudinal Study in the Lowest Level of Secondary Education

    Van der Veen, Ineke; Peetsma, Thea

    2011-01-01

    Long-term future time perspective on leisure has been found to relate negatively to school effort. This was studied further by recognizing types of students based on developments in long-term leisure perspectives and comparing their development in motivation and academic achievement. Around 1200 12-13 year old students attending the lowest level…

  6. Estimating Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance contribution to future sea level rise using the regional atmospheric climate model MAR

    Fettweis, X.; Franco, B.; Tedesco, M.; van Angelen, J.H.; Lenaerts, J.T.M.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Gallee, H

    2012-01-01

    We report future projections of Surface Mass Balance (SMB) over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) obtained with the regional climate model MAR, forced by the outputs of three CMIP5 General Circulation Models (GCMs) when considering two different warming scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). The GCMs

  7. Physical activity, C-reactive protein levels and the risk of future coronary artery disease in apparently healthy men and women: the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study

    Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Day, Nicholas E.; Luben, Robert; Bingham, Sheila A.; Peters, Ron J. G.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity is inversely associated with the risk of future coronary artery disease. Whether this relationship is in part mediated by lower levels of systemic inflammation, as indicated by C-reactive protein concentrations, is unknown. METHODS: We performed a nested case-control

  8. Preparing Future Leaders in Higher Education: Excellence Practices from Staff to Mid-Level Management Role Transitions

    Little, Erica Sherese

    2016-01-01

    Mid-level leadership is key to a functioning university and it is important that mid-level leaders feel they have the tools and resources they need in order to succeed. To be successful in a new mid-level leadership position, entering supervisors must clearly communicate a strong sense of vision, values, and principles to their staff and establish…

  9. Increased Glutamate and Homocysteine and Decreased Glutamine Levels in Autism: A Review and Strategies for Future Studies of Amino Acids in Autism

    Ahmad Ghanizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many reports about the significant roles of some amino acids in neurobiology and treatment of autism. This is a critical review of amino acids levels in autism. No published review article about the level of amino acids in autism was found. The levels of glutamate and homocystein are increased in autism while the levels of glutamine and tryptophan are decreased. Findings regarding the plasma levels of taurine and lysine are controversial. The urinary levels of homocysteine and essential amino acids in both the untreated and treated autistic children are significantly less than those in the controls. The current literature suffers from many methodological shortcomings which needed to be considered in future studies. Some of them are age, gender, developmental level, autism symptoms severity, type of autism spectrum disorders, medical comorbidities, intelligent quotient, diet, concomitant medications, body mass index, and technical method of assessment of amino acids.

  10. Increased Glutamate and Homocysteine and Decreased Glutamine Levels in Autism: A Review and Strategies for Future Studies of Amino Acids in Autism

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    There are many reports about the significant roles of some amino acids in neurobiology and treatment of autism. This is a critical review of amino acids levels in autism. No published review article about the level of amino acids in autism was found. The levels of glutamate and homocystein are increased in autism while the levels of glutamine and tryptophan are decreased. Findings regarding the plasma levels of taurine and lysine are controversial. The urinary levels of homocysteine and essential amino acids in both the untreated and treated autistic children are significantly less than those in the controls. The current literature suffers from many methodological shortcomings which needed to be considered in future studies. Some of them are age, gender, developmental level, autism symptoms severity, type of autism spectrum disorders, medical comorbidities, intelligent quotient, diet, concomitant medications, body mass index, and technical method of assessment of amino acids. PMID:24167375

  11. Severe impacts of brown tides caused by Sargassum spp. on near-shore Caribbean seagrass communities.

    van Tussenbroek, Brigitta I; Hernández Arana, Héctor A; Rodríguez-Martínez, Rosa E; Espinoza-Avalos, Julio; Canizales-Flores, Hazel M; González-Godoy, Carlos E; Barba-Santos, M Guadalupe; Vega-Zepeda, Alejandro; Collado-Vides, Ligia

    2017-09-15

    From mid-2014 until the end of 2015, the Mexican Caribbean coast experienced a massive influx of drifting Sargassum spp. that accumulated on the shores, resulting in build-up of decaying beach-cast material and near-shore murky brown waters (Sargassum-brown-tides, Sbt). The effects of Sbt on four near-shore waters included reduction in light, oxygen (hypoxia or anoxia) and pH. The monthly influx of nitrogen, and phosphorus by drifting Sargassum spp. was estimated at 6150 and 61kgkm -1 respectively, resulting in eutrophication. Near-shore seagrass meadows dominated by Thalassia testudinum were replaced by a community dominated by calcareous rhizophytic algae and drifting algae and/or epiphytes, resulting in 61.6-99.5% loss of below-ground biomass. Near-shore corals suffered total or partial mortality. Recovery of affected seagrass meadows may take years or even decades, or changes could be permanent if massive influxes of Sargassum spp. recur. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Survey of the state of the art in near-shore pipeline location and burial assessment

    Wilkey, P.L.

    1991-11-01

    Project's objective is to evaluate state-of-the-art methods for locating pipelines in shallow (less than 15 ft) water and for determining and monitoring their burial depths. The following recommendations are made on the research needed in three areas for locating near-shore, shallowly buried pipelines: (1) Sensors: The pipeline industry has selected the magnetic gradiometer array (GA) as a preferred sensor method. Other potential methods exist as backups. No additional research is recommended. (2) Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs): The Pipeline Research Committee is pursuing development of a prototype ROV is deliver the GA or other similar equipment to pipeline locations. (3) Phenomena: The data being collected from research on the phenomena affecting seabed conditions and the bathymetric data being collected along the Gulf Coast should be synthesized. This new effort should focus on identifying erosion-prone areas with respect to present and potential future pipeline locations. Technical approach is to get the broadest perspective on the concerns related to the determination of burial conditions for offshore pipelines, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) contacted individuals and organizations from the gas and petroleum industries, hardware and software vendors, academicians, and representatives from the government. A literature survey yielded the names of persons within academia who are presently working on similar applications with sensors. In the oil and gas industry, individuals and organizations involved in the Pipeline Research Committee made extensive contributions to the review and also provided the names of meaningful contacts from among their vendors. Discussions were held with the various persons both on the telephone and face to face. Vendors provided background materials and overview presentations on their capabilities for ANL to review

  13. The global pyrogenic carbon cycle and its impact on the level of atmospheric CO2 over past and future centuries.

    Landry, Jean-Sébastien; Matthews, H Damon

    2017-08-01

    The incomplete combustion of vegetation and dead organic matter by landscape fires creates recalcitrant pyrogenic carbon (PyC), which could be consequential for the global carbon budget if changes in fire regime, climate, and atmospheric CO 2 were to substantially affect gains and losses of PyC on land and in oceans. Here, we included global PyC cycling in a coupled climate-carbon model to assess the role of PyC in historical and future simulations, accounting for uncertainties through five sets of parameter estimates. We obtained year-2000 global stocks of (Central estimate, likely uncertainty range in parentheses) 86 (11-154), 47 (2-64), and 1129 (90-5892) Pg C for terrestrial residual PyC (RPyC), marine dissolved PyC, and marine particulate PyC, respectively. PyC cycling decreased atmospheric CO 2 only slightly between 1751 and 2000 (by 0.8 Pg C for the Central estimate) as PyC-related fluxes changed little over the period. For 2000 to 2300, we combined Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5 with stable or continuously increasing future fire frequencies. For the increasing future fire regime, the production of new RPyC generally outpaced the warming-induced accelerated loss of existing RPyC, so that PyC cycling decreased atmospheric CO 2 between 2000 and 2300 for most estimates (by 4-8 Pg C for Central). For the stable fire regime, however, PyC cycling usually increased atmospheric CO 2 (by 1-9 Pg C for Central), and only the most extreme choice of parameters maximizing PyC production and minimizing PyC decomposition led to atmospheric CO 2 decreases under RCPs 4.5 and 8.5 (by 5-8 Pg C). Our results suggest that PyC cycling will likely reduce the future increase in atmospheric CO 2 if landscape fires become much more frequent; however, in the absence of a substantial increase in fire frequency, PyC cycling might contribute to, rather than mitigate, the future increase in atmospheric CO 2 . © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Structure of macroalgal communities on tropical rocky shores inside and outside a marine protected area.

    Portugal, Adriana Brizon; Carvalho, Fabrício Lopes; Soares, Marcelo de Oliveira; Horta, Paulo Antunes; de Castro Nunes, José Marcos

    2017-09-01

    The structure of marine macroalgal communities and morpho-functional groups were investigated in a poorly characterized region on the Tropical Southwestern Atlantic coast, Brazil. The survey was conducted at six rocky shores located on the mainland and on coastal islands distributed inside a marine protected area (MPA) and outside the MPA (near a densely populated area). We hypothesized that tropical rocky shores inside the MPA and islands have higher species richness, diversity, and evenness of marine macroalgae. Results confirmed that species richness, diversity and evenness were significantly higher inside the MPA than in rocky shores outside the MPA. Only species richness was higher on islands than on the mainland. The results suggest that human impacts could lead to a competitive advantage and dominance in the articulated calcareous morphotype, resulting in community differences and lower benthic biodiversity in tropical ecosystems near urbanized sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. On-Shore Pipeline Emergency Repair Center; Centro de Reparos Emergenciais de Dutos Terrestres

    Souza Filho, Byron Goncalves de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    After the accidents happened on years 2000 and 2001, in TRANSPETRO's operated pipelines, appeared a common conscientiousness about the necessity for the creation of a basic infrastructure for emergency and contingency pipeline repair that centralize equipment, procedures and technologies applied to pipeline maintenance. Then, it was planned the creation of the On-Shore Pipeline Emergency Center (CRE-DUT), following the model of the Off-Shore Pipelines Repair Group from PETROBRAS/EP, (Exploration and Production) and other similar centers of pipeline transport companies worldwide (Canada, Colombia, Mexico, Argentina). The CRE-DUT has the Mission of offering contingency; emergency and specials on-shore pipelines repair services, with safety, quality and at the less possible time, seeking for the leadership on applying new technologies and the excellency in repair activities. (author)

  16. Hearing in the matter of an application by Erie Shores Wind Farm Limited Partnership for an Order granting leave to construct transmission facilities to connect a wind farm to the transmission facilities of Hydro One Network Inc.[In the matter of the Ontario Energy Board Act, 1998, S.O. 1998, c. 15, Schedule B

    Kaiser, G.; Vlahos, P.; Betts, B.

    2005-06-20

    This document presents the transcripts of an Ontario Energy Board hearing regarding an application filed by Erie Shores Wind Farm Limited to construct transmission facilities that will connect Erie Shores' wind farm on the north shore of Lake Erie to the transmission facilities of Hydro One Network. This document presents the examinations by representatives of the Board Counsel, Erie Shores Wind Farm Limited Partnership, Hydro One Networks Inc., Ontario's Independent Electricity System Operator and intervenors. Erie Shores is a limited partnership between AIM PowerGen Corporation and Clean Power Income Fund. The proposed wind farm is to be located along the north shore of Lake Erie, covering about 14,000 acres of farmland in the townships of Bayham, Malahide and Norfolk County. It consists of 66 wind turbines with a net output of 99 MW. The construction of transmission facilities would involve the construction of a new transformer station with a 34.5/115 kV transformer, a capacitor bank, switch gear, and space for a future transformer. It would also include a transmission line from the Port Burwell transmission station to Hydro One's circuits at Cranberry Junction near Tillsonburg. Erie Shores also proposes to construct 27 km of the transmission line within the existing Otter Valley utility corridor, 3 km along the active Canadian Pacific Rail corridor, and over certain private lands located south of Tillsonburg Junction. Erie Shores was one of the successful bidders that has entered into a 20-year renewable energy supply contract with the Ontario Electricity Financial Corporation. The Board considers that the project is in the public interest and granted approval for the project, subject to certain conditions regarding communications, monitoring and reporting requirements. 2 refs., 1 appendix.

  17. Large-Ensemble modeling of past and future variations of the Antarctic Ice Sheet with a coupled ice-Earth-sea level model

    Pollard, David; DeConto, Robert; Gomez, Natalya

    2016-04-01

    To date, most modeling of the Antarctic Ice Sheet's response to future warming has been calibrated using recent and modern observations. As an alternate approach, we apply a hybrid 3-D ice sheet-shelf model to the last deglacial retreat of Antarctica, making use of geologic data of the last ~20,000 years to test the model against the large-scale variations during this period. The ice model is coupled to a global Earth-sea level model to improve modeling of the bedrock response and to capture ocean-ice gravitational interactions. Following several recent ice-sheet studies, we use Large Ensemble (LE) statistical methods, performing sets of 625 runs from 30,000 years to present with systematically varying model parameters. Objective scores for each run are calculated using modern data and past reconstructed grounding lines, relative sea level records, cosmogenic elevation-age data and uplift rates. The LE results are analyzed to calibrate 4 particularly uncertain model parameters that concern marginal ice processes and interaction with the ocean. LE's are extended into the future with climates following RCP scenarios. An additional scoring criterion tests the model's ability to reproduce estimated sea-level high stands in the warm mid-Pliocene, for which drastic retreat mechanisms of hydrofracturing and ice-cliff failure are needed in the model. The LE analysis provides future sea-level-rise envelopes with well-defined parametric uncertainty bounds. Sensitivities of future LE results to Pliocene sea-level estimates, coupling to the Earth-sea level model, and vertical profiles of Earth properties, will be presented.

  18. Change in coastal sedimentation conditions due to positive shore displacement in Oeregrundsgrepen

    Brydsten, Lars

    1999-12-01

    This report is a part the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1. SFR-1 is a low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility, which is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, 1 km off the coast near the Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant. At a possible discharge of radionuclides from SFR-1 today, ground water currents will presumably transport the radionuclides to the sea bottom. Many radionuclides are able to absorb on to fine particles, and it is likely that the radionuclides would adsorb on to particles in the sediment or particles suspended in the seawater. The adsorption is strong, and therefore the dynamics of the radionuclides are governed by the dynamics of the fine particles. A mathematical model has been developed to simulate the resuspension of fine particles caused by wave movement. The model simulates the wave-induced near bottom water dynamics based on meteorological data. First, the wave's characteristics in deep water are calculated. Then the gradual change of the wave's characteristics is calculated as it reaches shallower water. The maximum near-bottom orbital velocity is calculated for the entire fetch distance, and the wave's ability to resuspend fine-grained particles is determined using well-known semiempirical methods. A large variety of weather conditions are simulated and the results are shown as a map for two different bottom types: accumulated bottoms (continual accumulation of fine grained particles and any radionuclides present) and erosional/accumulation bottoms (periods with accumulation alternating with periods with erosion). The model has been calibrated for four areas close to SFR-1, which provides a range of different sedimentation conditions. Since shore displacement is positive, currently approximately 60 cm per century, sedimentation conditions have fluctuated and will continue to

  19. Surf zone entrainment, along-shore transport, and human health implications of pollution from tidal outlets

    Grant, S. B.; Kim, J. H.; Jones, B. H.; Jenkins, S. A.; Wasyl, J.; Cudaback, C.

    2005-10-01

    Field experiments and modeling studies were carried out to characterize the surf zone entrainment and along-shore transport of pollution from two tidal outlets that drain into Huntington Beach and Newport Beach, popular public beaches in southern California. The surf zone entrainment and near-shore transport of pollutants from these tidal outlets appears to be controlled by prevailing wave conditions and coastal currents, and fine-scale features of the flow field around the outlets. An analysis of data from dye experiments and fecal indicator bacteria monitoring studies reveals that the along-shore flux of surf zone water is at least 50 to 300 times larger than the cross-shore flux of surf zone water. As a result, pollutants entrained in the surf zone hug the shore, where they travel significant distances parallel to the beach before diluting to extinction. Under the assumption that all surf zone pollution at Huntington Beach originates from two tidal outlets, the Santa Ana River and Talbert Marsh outlets, models of mass and momentum transport in the surf zone approximately capture the observed tidal phasing and magnitude of certain fecal indicator bacteria groups (total coliform) but not others (Escherichia coli and enterococci), implying the existence of multiple sources of, and/or multiple transport pathways for, fecal pollution at this site. The intersection of human recreation and near-shore pollution pathways implies that, from a human health perspective, special care should be taken to reduce the discharge of harmful pollutants from land-side sources of surface water runoff, such as tidal outlets and storm drains.

  20. The Technical and Business Analysis of Using Shore Power Connection in The Port of Hamburg

    Devi Hotnauli Samosir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In port, when the ship is berthing the loading, unloading, and hospitality activity is using auxiliary engine. The combustion of marine fuels is a major contributor to air pollution, the air pollution is released 400 km around the port area. The impacts of the pollution are respiratory, health, and the environment around ports. Study indicates 60.000 of cardiopulmonary mortalities caused by ship air emission. Ship emission represents 3% of global CO2, 15% of global NOx, and 6% of global SOx emission. Because of that Hamburg Port is released the shore power facilities in July 2015 with idea of smart port and use the renewable energy such as wind turbine and solar panel compliance with IEC-ISO-IEEE 8005-1. In this bachelor thesis, the cost and also the condition between shore power and auxiliary engine will be analyzed and compared to find the most economical between shore power facilities and ship’s auxiliary engine. Shore power facilities in Hamburg are provided by SIEMENS with SIHARBOR and use a robot arm by Stemman Technik as the cable management system. The goal of this thesis is developed calculation tool to see the cost comparison and also the emission. And from the calculation tool the shore power is reducing the emission by 100% because of using the renewable energy and become economical than using auxiliary engine, it can save up to €1000. The other benefits  are ship owner can save maintenance of their auxiliary engine and also saved the file. It shows that the shore power is a proven technology to reduce the emission and saved berth cost.

  1. Understanding nutrients in the Chesapeake Bay watershed and implications for management and restoration: the Eastern Shore

    Ator, Scott W.; Denver, Judith M.

    2015-03-12

    The Eastern Shore includes only a small part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, but contributes disproportionately large loads of the excess nitrogen and phosphorus that have contributed to ecological and economic degradation of the bay in recent decades. Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States and a vital ecological and economic resource. The bay and its tributaries have been degraded in recent decades by excessive nitrogen and phosphorus in the water column, however, which cause harmful algal blooms and decreased water clarity, submerged aquatic vegetation, and dissolved oxygen. The disproportionately large nitrogen and phosphorus yields from the Eastern Shore to Chesapeake Bay are attributable to human land-use practices as well as natural hydrogeologic and soil conditions. Applications of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds to the Eastern Shore from human activities are intensive. More than 90 percent of nitrogen and phosphorus reaching the land in the Eastern Shore is applied as part of inorganic fertilizers or manure, or (for nitrogen) fixed directly from the atmosphere in cropland. Also, hydrogeologic and soil conditions promote the movement of these compounds from application areas on the landscape to groundwater and (or) surface waters, and the proximity of much of the Eastern Shore to tidal waters limits opportunities for natural removal of these compounds in the landscape. The Eastern Shore only includes 7 percent of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, but receives nearly twice as much nitrogen and phosphorus applications (per area) as the remainder of the watershed and yields greater nitrogen and phosphorus, on average, to the bay. Nitrogen and phosphorus commonly occur in streams at concentrations that may adversely affect aquatic ecosystems and have increased in recent decades.

  2. The contribution to future flood risk in the Severn Estuary from extreme sea level rise due to ice sheet mass loss

    Quinn, N.; Bates, P. D.; Siddall, M.

    2013-12-01

    The rate at which sea levels will rise in the coming century is of great interest to decision makers tasked with developing mitigation policies to cope with the risk of coastal inundation. Accurate estimates of future sea levels are vital in the provision of effective policy. Recent reports from UK Climate Impacts Programme (UKCIP) suggest that mean sea levels in the UK may rise by as much as 80 cm by 2100; however, a great deal of uncertainty surrounds model predictions, particularly the contribution from ice sheets responding to climatic warming. For this reason, the application of semi-empirical modelling approaches for sea level rise predictions has increased of late, the results from which suggest that the rate of sea level rise may be greater than previously thought, exceeding 1 m by 2100. Furthermore, studies in the Red Sea indicate that rapid sea level rise beyond 1m per century has occurred in the past. In light of such research, the latest UKCIP assessment has included a H++ scenario for sea level rise in the UK of up to 1.9 m which is defined as improbable but, crucially, physically plausible. The significance of such low-probability sea level rise scenarios upon the estimation of future flood risk is assessed using the Somerset levels (UK) as a case study. A simple asymmetric probability distribution is constructed to include sea level rise scenarios of up to 1.9 m by 2100 which are added to a current 1:200 year event water level to force a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of coastal inundation. From the resulting ensemble predictions an estimation of risk by 2100 is established. The results indicate that although the likelihood of extreme sea level rise due to rapid ice sheet mass loss is low, the resulting hazard can be large, resulting in a significant (27%) increase to the projected annual risk. Furthermore, current defence construction guidelines for the coming century in the UK are expected to account for 95% of the sea level rise distribution

  3. Proceedings of the eighth annual DOE low-level waste management forum: Technical Session 8, Future DOE low-level waste management

    1987-02-01

    This volume contains the following papers: (1) DOE Systems Approach and Integration; (2) Impacts of Hazardous Waste Regulation on Low-Level Waste Management; (3) Site Operator Needs and Resolution Status; and (4) Establishment of New Disposal Capacity for the Savannah River Plant. All papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (AT)

  4. Surveying Caulerpa (Chlorophyta species along the shores of the eastern Mediterranean

    S. UKABI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Caulerpa (Chlorophyta species inhabiting intertidal and shallow subtidal areas along the Israeli Mediterranean shores were surveyed (i.e. presence/absence on a seasonal basis from 2007-2009. We recorded the presence of three speciesC. prolifera, C. mexicana, and C. scalpelliformis. These species were noticeable in autumn and inconspicuous during winter, thus, revealing seasonality and population dynamics. There were no indications of well-known invasive species such as Caulerpa racemosa var.cylindracea and Caulerpa taxifolia. This study is the first of a kind that assesses the geographical distribution and seasonality of the genus Caulerpa along the Israeli shores.

  5. Veterinary medicinal products for the bees - the current situation and future strategies - an important topic discussed at European level

    Alina Karina Draghici,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the current situation and future issues relating to health and treatment options bees, bee breeders in Europe, agencies and drug manufacturers in Europe have held several meetings. One of thesetook place last year in December at the EMEA (European Medicines Agency in London, United Kingdom. The purpose of this meeting was to consider the current situation of pathology in bees to identify the most common diseases found in this species, identification and lack of treatment options for some diseases, and identifying solutions to improve the situation.

  6. Localised Effects of a Mega-Disturbance: Spatiotemporal Responses of Intertidal Sandy Shore Communities to the 2010 Chilean Earthquake.

    Sepúlveda, Roger D; Valdivia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Determining the effects of unpredictable disturbances on dynamic ecological systems is challenged by the paucity of appropriate temporal and spatial coverage of data. On 27 February 2010, an 8.8 Mw mega-earthquake and tsunami struck central Chile and caused coastal land-level changes, massive damage to coastal infrastructure, and widespread mortality of coastal organisms. Wave-exposed sandy beaches showed significant changes of species abundances from before to after the earthquake, but the highly dynamic biotic and abiotic conditions of these habitats make difficult to draw clear-cut conclusions from these patterns. Here, we analysed a beyond-BACI (Before-After Control-Impact) sampling design to test whether the effects of the Maule earthquake on sandy-shore species diversity, abundance, and structure were heterogeneous along the shore. Invertebrate species abundances were quantified before (i.e. February 2010) and after (i.e. March 2010, September 2010, and March 2011) the earthquake at three sandy shores randomly located within the earthquake rupture area and three sites within a "control" area located >400 km southward from epicentre. Immediately after the earthquake took place, the three sites located in the rupture area showed anomalous beach-profile uplifts that did not comply with the erosion (i.e. "negative" uplifts) that regularly occurs during late summer in the region. Species richness, abundance, and community structure significantly varied from before to after the strike, but these patterns of change varied among sites within both areas. Only the site with the strongest and persistent beach-profile uplift within the rupture area showed significant concomitant changes in species richness and community structure; after 13 months, this community showed a similar multivariate structure to the before-disturbance state. This site, in particular, was located in the section of the rupture area that received most of the impact of the after-earthquake tsunami

  7. Localised Effects of a Mega-Disturbance: Spatiotemporal Responses of Intertidal Sandy Shore Communities to the 2010 Chilean Earthquake.

    Roger D Sepúlveda

    Full Text Available Determining the effects of unpredictable disturbances on dynamic ecological systems is challenged by the paucity of appropriate temporal and spatial coverage of data. On 27 February 2010, an 8.8 Mw mega-earthquake and tsunami struck central Chile and caused coastal land-level changes, massive damage to coastal infrastructure, and widespread mortality of coastal organisms. Wave-exposed sandy beaches showed significant changes of species abundances from before to after the earthquake, but the highly dynamic biotic and abiotic conditions of these habitats make difficult to draw clear-cut conclusions from these patterns. Here, we analysed a beyond-BACI (Before-After Control-Impact sampling design to test whether the effects of the Maule earthquake on sandy-shore species diversity, abundance, and structure were heterogeneous along the shore. Invertebrate species abundances were quantified before (i.e. February 2010 and after (i.e. March 2010, September 2010, and March 2011 the earthquake at three sandy shores randomly located within the earthquake rupture area and three sites within a "control" area located >400 km southward from epicentre. Immediately after the earthquake took place, the three sites located in the rupture area showed anomalous beach-profile uplifts that did not comply with the erosion (i.e. "negative" uplifts that regularly occurs during late summer in the region. Species richness, abundance, and community structure significantly varied from before to after the strike, but these patterns of change varied among sites within both areas. Only the site with the strongest and persistent beach-profile uplift within the rupture area showed significant concomitant changes in species richness and community structure; after 13 months, this community showed a similar multivariate structure to the before-disturbance state. This site, in particular, was located in the section of the rupture area that received most of the impact of the after

  8. Extremely low genetic diversity across mangrove taxa reflects past sea level changes and hints at poor future responses.

    Guo, Zixiao; Li, Xinnian; He, Ziwen; Yang, Yuchen; Wang, Wenqing; Zhong, Cairong; Greenberg, Anthony J; Wu, Chung-I; Duke, Norman C; Shi, Suhua

    2018-04-01

    The projected increases in sea levels are expected to affect coastal ecosystems. Tropical communities, anchored by mangrove trees and having experienced frequent past sea level changes, appear to be vibrant at present. However, any optimism about the resilience of these ecosystems is premature because the impact of past climate events may not be reflected in the current abundance. To assess the impact of historical sea level changes, we conducted an extensive genetic diversity survey on the Indo-Malayan coast, a hotspot with a large global mangrove distribution. A survey of 26 populations in six species reveals extremely low genome-wide nucleotide diversity and hence very small effective population sizes (N e ) in all populations. Whole-genome sequencing of three mangrove species further shows the decline in N e to be strongly associated with the speed of past changes in sea level. We also used a recent series of flooding events in Yalong Bay, southern China, to test the robustness of mangroves to sea level changes in relation to their genetic diversity. The events resulted in the death of half of the mangrove trees in this area. Significantly, less genetically diverse mangrove species suffered much greater destruction. The dieback was accompanied by a drastic reduction in local invertebrate biodiversity. We thus predict that tropical coastal communities will be seriously endangered as the global sea level rises. Well-planned coastal development near mangrove forests will be essential to avert this crisis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Ocean Acidification and Increased Temperature Have Both Positive and Negative Effects on Early Ontogenetic Traits of a Rocky Shore Keystone Predator Species.

    Manríquez, Patricio H; Jara, María Elisa; Seguel, Mylene E; Torres, Rodrigo; Alarcon, Emilio; Lee, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    The combined effect of ocean acidification and warming is expected to have significant effects on several traits of marine organisms. The gastropod Concholepas concholepas is a rocky shore keystone predator characteristic of the south-eastern Pacific coast of South America and an important natural resource exploited by small-scale artisanal fishermen along the coast of Chile and Peru. In this study, we used small juveniles of C. concholepas collected from the rocky intertidal habitats of southern Chile (39 °S) to evaluate under laboratory conditions the potential consequences of projected near-future levels of ocean acidification and warming for important early ontogenetic traits. The individuals were exposed long-term (5.8 months) to contrasting pCO2 (ca. 500 and 1400 μatm) and temperature (15 and 19 °C) levels. After this period we compared body growth traits, dislodgement resistance, predator-escape response, self-righting and metabolic rates. With respect to these traits there was no evidence of a synergistic interaction between pCO2 and temperature. Shell growth was negatively affected by high pCO2 levels only at 15 °C. High pCO2 levels also had a negative effect on the predator-escape response. Conversely, dislodgement resistance and self-righting were positively affected by high pCO2 levels at both temperatures. High tenacity and fast self-righting would reduce predation risk in nature and might compensate for the negative effects of high pCO2 levels on other important defensive traits such as shell size and escape behaviour. We conclude that climate change might produce in C. concholepas positive and negative effects in physiology and behaviour. In fact, some of the behavioural responses might be a consequence of physiological effects, such as changes in chemosensory capacity (e.g. predator-escape response) or secretion of adhesive mucous (e.g. dislodgement resistance). Moreover, we conclude that positive behavioural responses may assist in the

  10. Ocean Acidification and Increased Temperature Have Both Positive and Negative Effects on Early Ontogenetic Traits of a Rocky Shore Keystone Predator Species.

    Patricio H Manríquez

    Full Text Available The combined effect of ocean acidification and warming is expected to have significant effects on several traits of marine organisms. The gastropod Concholepas concholepas is a rocky shore keystone predator characteristic of the south-eastern Pacific coast of South America and an important natural resource exploited by small-scale artisanal fishermen along the coast of Chile and Peru. In this study, we used small juveniles of C. concholepas collected from the rocky intertidal habitats of southern Chile (39 °S to evaluate under laboratory conditions the potential consequences of projected near-future levels of ocean acidification and warming for important early ontogenetic traits. The individuals were exposed long-term (5.8 months to contrasting pCO2 (ca. 500 and 1400 μatm and temperature (15 and 19 °C levels. After this period we compared body growth traits, dislodgement resistance, predator-escape response, self-righting and metabolic rates. With respect to these traits there was no evidence of a synergistic interaction between pCO2 and temperature. Shell growth was negatively affected by high pCO2 levels only at 15 °C. High pCO2 levels also had a negative effect on the predator-escape response. Conversely, dislodgement resistance and self-righting were positively affected by high pCO2 levels at both temperatures. High tenacity and fast self-righting would reduce predation risk in nature and might compensate for the negative effects of high pCO2 levels on other important defensive traits such as shell size and escape behaviour. We conclude that climate change might produce in C. concholepas positive and negative effects in physiology and behaviour. In fact, some of the behavioural responses might be a consequence of physiological effects, such as changes in chemosensory capacity (e.g. predator-escape response or secretion of adhesive mucous (e.g. dislodgement resistance. Moreover, we conclude that positive behavioural responses may assist

  11. Ocean Acidification and Increased Temperature Have Both Positive and Negative Effects on Early Ontogenetic Traits of a Rocky Shore Keystone Predator Species

    Manríquez, Patricio H.; Jara, María Elisa; Seguel, Mylene E.; Torres, Rodrigo; Alarcon, Emilio; Lee, Matthew R.

    2016-01-01

    The combined effect of ocean acidification and warming is expected to have significant effects on several traits of marine organisms. The gastropod Concholepas concholepas is a rocky shore keystone predator characteristic of the south-eastern Pacific coast of South America and an important natural resource exploited by small-scale artisanal fishermen along the coast of Chile and Peru. In this study, we used small juveniles of C. concholepas collected from the rocky intertidal habitats of southern Chile (39°S) to evaluate under laboratory conditions the potential consequences of projected near-future levels of ocean acidification and warming for important early ontogenetic traits. The individuals were exposed long-term (5.8 months) to contrasting pCO2 (ca. 500 and 1400 μatm) and temperature (15 and 19°C) levels. After this period we compared body growth traits, dislodgement resistance, predator-escape response, self-righting and metabolic rates. With respect to these traits there was no evidence of a synergistic interaction between pCO2 and temperature. Shell growth was negatively affected by high pCO2 levels only at 15°C. High pCO2 levels also had a negative effect on the predator-escape response. Conversely, dislodgement resistance and self-righting were positively affected by high pCO2 levels at both temperatures. High tenacity and fast self-righting would reduce predation risk in nature and might compensate for the negative effects of high pCO2 levels on other important defensive traits such as shell size and escape behaviour. We conclude that climate change might produce in C. concholepas positive and negative effects in physiology and behaviour. In fact, some of the behavioural responses might be a consequence of physiological effects, such as changes in chemosensory capacity (e.g. predator-escape response) or secretion of adhesive mucous (e.g. dislodgement resistance). Moreover, we conclude that positive behavioural responses may assist in the adaptation

  12. Future changes in the climatology of the Great Plains low-level jet derived from fine resolution multi-model simulations.

    Tang, Ying; Winkler, Julie; Zhong, Shiyuan; Bian, Xindi; Doubler, Dana; Yu, Lejiang; Walters, Claudia

    2017-07-10

    The southerly Great Plains low-level jet (GPLLJ) is one of the most significant circulation features of the central U.S. linking large-scale atmospheric circulation with the regional climate. GPLLJs transport heat and moisture, contribute to thunderstorm and severe weather formation, provide a corridor for the springtime migration of birds and insects, enhance wind energy availability, and disperse air pollution. We assess future changes in GPLLJ frequency using an eight member ensemble of dynamically-downscaled climate simulations for the mid-21st century. Nocturnal GPLLJ frequency is projected to increase in the southern plains in spring and in the central plains in summer, whereas current climatological patterns persist into the future for daytime and cool season GPLLJs. The relationship between future GPLLJ frequency and the extent and strength of anticyclonic airflow over eastern North America varies with season. Most simulations project a westward shift of anticyclonic airflow in summer, but uncertainty is larger for spring with only half of the simulations suggesting a westward expansion. The choice of regional climate model and the driving lateral boundary conditions have a large influence on the projected future changes in GPLLJ frequency and highlight the importance of multi-model ensembles to estimate the uncertainty surrounding the future GPLLJ climatology.

  13. Mercury contamination level and speciation inventory in Lakes Titicaca & Uru-Uru (Bolivia): Current status and future trends.

    Guédron, S; Point, D; Acha, D; Bouchet, S; Baya, P A; Tessier, E; Monperrus, M; Molina, C I; Groleau, A; Chauvaud, L; Thebault, J; Amice, E; Alanoca, L; Duwig, C; Uzu, G; Lazzaro, X; Bertrand, A; Bertrand, S; Barbraud, C; Delord, K; Gibon, F M; Ibanez, C; Flores, M; Fernandez Saavedra, P; Ezpinoza, M E; Heredia, C; Rocha, F; Zepita, C; Amouroux, D

    2017-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystems of the Bolivian Altiplano (∼3800 m a.s.l.) are characterized by extreme hydro-climatic constrains (e.g., high UV-radiations and low oxygen) and are under the pressure of increasing anthropogenic activities, unregulated mining, agricultural and urban development. We report here a complete inventory of mercury (Hg) levels and speciation in the water column, atmosphere, sediment and key sentinel organisms (i.e., plankton, fish and birds) of two endorheic Lakes of the same watershed differing with respect to their size, eutrophication and contamination levels. Total Hg (THg) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) concentrations in filtered water and sediment of Lake Titicaca are in the lowest range of reported levels in other large lakes worldwide. Downstream, Hg levels are 3-10 times higher in the shallow eutrophic Lake Uru-Uru than in Lake Titicaca due to high Hg inputs from the surrounding mining region. High percentages of MMHg were found in the filtered and unfiltered water rising up from <1 to ∼50% THg from the oligo/hetero-trophic Lake Titicaca to the eutrophic Lake Uru-Uru. Such high %MMHg is explained by a high in situ MMHg production in relation to the sulfate rich substrate, the low oxygen levels of the water column, and the stabilization of MMHg due to abundant ligands present in these alkaline waters. Differences in MMHg concentrations in water and sediments compartments between Lake Titicaca and Uru-Uru were found to mirror the offset in MMHg levels that also exist in their respective food webs. This suggests that in situ MMHg baseline production is likely the main factor controlling MMHg levels in fish species consumed by the local population. Finally, the increase of anthropogenic pressure in Lake Titicaca may probably enhance eutrophication processes which favor MMHg production and thus accumulation in water and biota. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The future of soil protection strategy at the level of European Union at the filed of soil monitoring

    Ladislav Kubík

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available European Union deals long with problems of the two components of environment the air and the water. So far soil wasnęt in the main scope of the European Union. The European Union deal now with problems of soil, where we can find question of the soil monitoring. This issue was solve in the framework of the Working group on soil monitoring (WG. The recommendations from the WG are base for deciding of the European Commission, which will have interest to formulate new soil directive. The main tasks of the WG were to review of existing soil monitoring systems, to specify basic soil parameters, indicators, to define soil parameters for each soil threats and to harmonize future soil monitoring activity and soil data.

  15. The Future of Nearshore Processes Research

    Elko, N.; Feddersen, F.; Foster, D. L.; Holman, R. A.; McNinch, J.; Ozkan-Haller, H. T.; Plant, N. G.; Raubenheimer, B.; Elgar, S.; Hay, A. E.; Holland, K. T.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.; Lippmann, T. C.; Miller, J. K.; Stockdon, H. F.; Ashton, A. D.; Boehm, A. B.; Clark, D.; Cowen, E.; Dalyander, S.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Hapke, C. J.; MacMahan, J.; McNamara, D.; Mulligan, R. P.; Palmsten, M. L.; Ruggiero, P.; Sherwood, C. R.; Hsu, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Over 70 members of the nearshore coastal processes research community convened in April 2014 to discuss a vision for the future of nearshore science while celebrating the memories and contributions of our recently departed colleague, Abby Sallenger. The participants reviewed community accomplishments over the past four decades. Federal agencies, including FEMA, NOAA, NPS, USGS, USACE, and NRL discussed the most pressing societal needs within the coastal zone. The group engaged in a retrospective of the last four decades of progress, assessed the current status and limitations of nearshore processes research, and developed a vision for the future that focuses on societally relevant problems. The top research topics identified included: Long-term Coastal Impacts: Meaningfully improve our understanding and prediction of the long-term coastal effects of sea level rise and changes in storminess patterns and associated efforts to protect coastal infrastructure. Extreme Events: Coastal flooding, overland flow, and concurrent morphological evolution during extreme events including the subsequent process of coastal recovery. Human and Ecosystem Health: Linkages between physical coastal processes (transport and mixing) and land-based pollution (pathogens, nutrients, toxic contaminants). Critical for addressing these research questions is enabling infrastructure, such as new observational tools and data sets, models, and nearshore-community communication and collaboration. Idea and concepts developed during the meeting (to be published in Shore and Beach) will be presented to foster collaboration and advocacy amongst the wider nearshore community. Meeting materials are available at: https://scripps.ucsd.edu/centers/nearshorefuture/.

  16. Calcifying invertebrates succeed in a naturally CO2-rich coastal habitat but are threatened by high levels of future acidification

    M. Wahl

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available CO2 emissions are leading to an acidification of the oceans. Predicting marine community vulnerability towards acidification is difficult, as adaptation processes cannot be accounted for in most experimental studies. Naturally CO2 enriched sites thus can serve as valuable proxies for future changes in community structure. Here we describe a natural analogue site in the Western Baltic Sea. Seawater pCO2 in Kiel Fjord is elevated for large parts of the year due to upwelling of CO2 rich waters. Peak pCO2 values of >230 Pa (>2300 μatm and pHNBS values of pCO2 values are ~70 Pa (~700 μatm. In contrast to previously described naturally CO2 enriched sites that have suggested a progressive displacement of calcifying auto- and heterotrophic species, the macrobenthic community in Kiel Fjord is dominated by calcifying invertebrates. We show that blue mussels from Kiel Fjord can maintain control rates of somatic and shell growth at a pCO2 of 142 Pa (1400 μatm, pHNBS = 7.7. Juvenile mussel recruitment peaks during the summer months, when high water pCO2 values of ~100 Pa (~1000 μatm prevail. Our findings indicate that calcifying keystone species may be able to cope with surface ocean pHNBS values projected for the end of this century when food supply is sufficient. However, owing to non-linear synergistic effects of future acidification and upwelling of corrosive water, peak seawater pCO2 in Kiel Fjord and many other productive estuarine habitats could increase to values >400 Pa (>4000 μatm. These changes will most likely affect calcification and recruitment, and increase external shell dissolution.

  17. Reconstructing Holocene shore displacement and Stone Age palaeogeography from a foredune sequence on Ruhnu Island, Gulf of Riga, Baltic Sea

    Muru, Merle; Rosentau, Alar; Preusser, Frank; Plado, Jüri; Sibul, Ivo; Jõeleht, Argo; Bjursäter, Stefan; Aunap, Raivo; Kriiska, Aivar

    2018-02-01

    Holocene shore displacement and the palaeogeography of Late Mesolithic and Late Neolithic settlements on Ruhnu Island, Gulf of Riga, were reconstructed using foredune sequence luminescence dating, sedimentological data supported by ground-penetrating radar analysis, and GIS-based landscape modelling. The foredune ridges consist of very well to well sorted fine- to medium-grained aeolian sand and are underlain by seaward dipping foreshore sediments. The studied sequence of 38 ridges was formed between 6.91 ± 0.58 ka and 2.54 ± 0.19 ka ago, and represents a period of falling relative sea level. Foredune plain progradation, with average rates of 0.3-0.6 m per year, was controlled by isostatic land uplift, which caused a continuous withdrawal of shorelines to lower elevations. The dated foredune succession was used to reconstruct the coastal palaeogeography of the island. Palaeogeographical reconstructions show that during two phases of Late Mesolithic habitation, at ca. 7.2 cal. ka BP and 6.2 cal. ka BP, seal hunters settled the coastal zone of Ruhnu Island. Based on tool material and pottery type they could have originated from Saaremaa Island, which according to palaeoreconstruction of the Gulf of Riga, was located approximately 70 km northwest of Ruhnu Island during the Late Mesolithic. Later signs of human occupation, radiocarbon dated to ca. 4.7 cal. ka BP, were from the centre of the island, hundreds of metres away from the shore at about 8 m above its contemporary sea level. This Late Neolithic habitation shows a clearly different pattern than earlier coastal settlement, and suggests a shift in subsistence strategy towards agriculture and animal husbandry.

  18. Quantifying trade-offs between future yield levels, food availability and forest and woodland conservation in Benin.

    Duku, Confidence; Zwart, Sander J; van Bussel, Lenny G J; Hein, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Meeting the dual objectives of food security and ecosystem protection is a major challenge in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). To this end agricultural intensification is considered desirable, yet, there remain uncertainties regarding the impact of climate change on opportunities for agricultural intensification and the adequacy of intensification options given the rapid population growth. We quantify trade-offs between levels of yield gap closure, food availability and forest and woodland conservation under different scenarios. Each scenario is made up of a combination of variants of four parameters i.e. (1) climate change based on Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs); (2) population growth based on Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs); (3) cropland expansion with varying degrees of deforestation; and (4) different degrees of yield gap closure. We carry out these analyses for three major food crops, i.e. maize, cassava and yam, in Benin. Our analyses show that in most of the scenarios, the required levels of yield gap closures required to maintain the current levels of food availability can be achieved by 2050 by maintaining the average rate of yield increases recorded over the past two and half decades in addition to the current cropping intensity. However, yields will have to increase at a faster rate than has been recorded over the past two and half decades in order to achieve the required levels of yield gap closures by 2100. Our analyses also show that without the stated levels of yield gap closure, the areas under maize, cassava and yam cultivation will have to increase by 95%, 102% and 250% respectively in order to maintain the current levels of per capita food availability. Our study shows that food security outcomes and forest and woodland conservation goals in Benin and likely the larger SSA region are inextricably linked together and require holistic management strategies that considers trade-offs and co-benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  19. Progress and future direction for the interim safe storage and disposal of Hanford high level waste (HLW)

    Wodrich, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the progress made at the largest environmental cleanup program in the United States. Substantial advances in methods to start interim safe storage of Hanford Site high-level wastes, waste characterization to support both safety- and disposal-related information needs, and proceeding with cost-effective disposal by the US DOE and its Hanford Site contractors, have been realized. Challenges facing the Tank Waste Remediation System Program, which is charged with the dual and parallel missions of interim safe storage and disposal of the high-level tank waste stored at the Hanford Site, are described

  20. Biogeographical boundaries, functional group structure and diversity of Rocky Shore communities along the Argentinean coast.

    Evie A Wieters

    Full Text Available We investigate the extent to which functional structure and spatial variability of intertidal communities coincide with major biogeographical boundaries, areas where extensive compositional changes in the biota are observed over a limited geographic extension. We then investigate whether spatial variation in the biomass of functional groups, over geographic (10's km and local (10's m scales, could be associated to species diversity within and among these groups. Functional community structure expressed as abundance (density, cover and biomass and composition of major functional groups was quantified through field surveys at 20 rocky intertidal shores spanning six degrees of latitude along the southwest Atlantic coast of Argentina and extending across the boundaries between the Argentinean and Magellanic Provinces. Patterns of abundance of individual functional groups were not uniformly matched with biogeographical regions. Only ephemeral algae showed an abrupt geographical discontinuity coincident with changes in biogeographic boundaries, and this was limited to the mid intertidal zone. We identified 3-4 main 'groups' of sites in terms of the total and relative abundance of the major functional groups, but these did not coincide with biogeographical boundaries, nor did they follow latitudinal arrangement. Thus, processes that determine the functional structure of these intertidal communities are insensitive to biogeographical boundaries. Over both geographical and local spatial scales, and for most functional groups and tidal levels, increases in species richness within the functional group was significantly associated to increased total biomass and reduced spatial variability of the group. These results suggest that species belonging to the same functional group are sufficiently uncorrelated over space (i.e. metres and site-to-site to stabilize patterns of biomass variability and, in this manner, provide a buffer, or "insurance", against

  1. Osmotic and ionic regulation in shore crabs Carcinus maenas inhabiting a tidal estuary

    Winkler, A.; Siebers, D.; Becker, W.

    1988-03-01

    Shore crabs Carcinus maenas were exposed to salinities fluctuating according to the natural tidal rhythm. To this end they were maintained in net cages positioned in the estuarine waters of the river Elbe. The cages were lifted every hour, and between 8 12 specimens were analyzed for hemolymph concentrations of Na, K, Ca, Mg, and osmolality. The results obtained were compared with the respective data measured in external brackish water. In addition, the specific activity of Na-K-ATPase in a posterior gill was determined. Hemolymph Na and Mg as well as branchial Na-K-ATPase were also determined in crabs collected in the North Sea and the Baltic. The results show that in C. maenas living in salinities fluctuating with the tides by approx. 15‰ S, Na, K and Ca were hyperregulated, and Mg was effectively hyporegulated. The concentrations of all hemolymph ions and the activity of the Na-K-ATPase were kept constant over the whole tidal cycle. In Baltic crabs, Na was effectively hyperregulated and gill Na-K-ATPase was significantly elevated by a factor of ca 2 when compared with North Sea crabs. It is suggested that long-term hyperregulation of Na in constant salinities results from an increased number of Na-K-ATPase molecules which may change by synthesis or degradation following salinity stress. Constant hemolymph levels of hyperregulated Na in crabs inhabiting fluctuating brackish water are accomplished by activation of existing Na-K-ATPase by low Na and inhibition by higher ambient concentrations.

  2. Evaporation from a temperate closed-basin lake and its impact on present, past, and future water level

    Lakes provide enormous economic, recreational, and aesthetic benefits to citizens. These ecosystem services may be adversely impacted by climate change. In the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area of Minnesota, USA, many lakes have been at historic low levels and water augmentation strategies have been pro...

  3. Relevance of future snowfall level height in the Peruvian Andes for glacier loss in the 21st century under different emission scenarios

    Schauwecker, Simone; Kronenberg, Marlene; Rohrer, Mario; Huggel, Christian; Endries, Jason; Montoya, Nilton; Neukom, Raphael; Perry, Baker; Salzmann, Nadine; Schwarb, Manfred; Suarez, Wilson

    2017-04-01

    In many regions of Peru, the competition for limited hydrological resources already represents a large risk for conflicts. In this context, and within the circumstances of climate change, there is a great interest in estimating the future loss of Peruvian glaciers. Solid precipitation on glaciers, which affects the shortwave radiation budget via its effects on albedo, in general reduces ablation. For that reason, the height of the upper level of the transition zone between liquid and solid precipitation (snowfall level height) is considered to play a critical role. This snowfall level height is linked to air temperature. The observed and projected warming of the atmosphere is therefore affecting the glaciers amongst others by changing the snowfall level height. Despite the potential significance of these changes for Peruvian glaciers, the relations between snowfall level heights, glacier extents and climate scenarios have been poorly investigated so far. In our study, we first analyse the snowfall level heights over the Peruvian Cordilleras. Second, we investigate the relationship between the present snowfall level heights and current glacier extents. As a third step, we derive projected changes of snowfall level heights from GCMs for the RCP2.6 and 8.5 emission scenarios and use them to roughly estimate the end of XXI century glaciation for the Peruvian Cordilleras. Our results indicate a large difference in future glacier extent between the high-emission (pessimistic) RCP8.5 and the low-emission (optimistic) RCP2.6. If global emissions can be substantially reduced, a significant part of the glaciated area of Peru can be maintained. On the contrary, if mitigation is unsuccessful, most of the glacier mass in Peru will be lost during the 21st century. In both cases, but even more so for the high-emission scenario, adaptation will play a critical role and should focus on improvements in water resource management which is essential on a local to regional scale. Air

  4. Methods for diagnosing the level of preparedness of future specialists of physical education and sports unto the organization labour staff of youth sports school

    Perepletchikov D.A.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical questions of determination of level of readiness of future specialists are examined to organization of activity of child's sporting schools. The plan of creation of structural functional model of readiness of specialists is presented to organization of activity of child's sporting schools. Procedure of determination of specific gravity of factors of professional readiness of specialists is described to organization of activity of child's sporting schools. The qualimetry vehicle of determination of level of their professional readiness is given. The general view of form of expert estimation of this readiness is presented.

  5. Assessment of Off-shore Wind Energy Resource in China using QuikSCAT Satellite data and SAR Satellite Images

    Xiuzhi, Zhang; Yanbo, Shen; Jingwei, Xu

    2010-01-01

    From August 2008 to August 2009, the project ‘Off-Shore Wind Energy Resource Assessment and Feasibility Study of Off-Shore Wind Farm Development in China’ was carried out by China Meteorological Administration (CMA), which was funded by the EU-China Energy and Environment Programme (EEP). As one ...

  6. The Orinoco megadelta as a conservation target in the face of the ongoing and future sea level rise.

    Vegas-Vilarrúbia, T; Hernández, E; Rull, Valentí; Rull Vegas, Elisa

    2015-05-15

    Currently, risk assessments related to rising sea levels and the adoption of defensive or adaptive measures to counter these sea level increases are underway for densely populated deltas where economic losses might be important, especially in the developed world. However, many underpopulated deltas harbouring high biological and cultural diversity are also at risk but will most likely continue to be ignored as conservation targets. In this study, we explore the potential effects of erosion, inundation and salinisation on one of the world's comparatively underpopulated megadeltas, the Orinoco Delta. With a 1 m sea level rise expected to occur by 2100, several models predict a moderate erosion of the delta's shorelines, migration or loss of mangroves, general inundation of the delta with an accompanying submersion of wetlands, and an increase in the distance to which sea water intrudes into streams, resulting in harm to the freshwater biota and resources. The Warao people are the indigenous inhabitants of the Orinoco Delta and currently are subject to various socioeconomic stressors. Changes due to sea level rise will occur extremely rapidly and cause abrupt shifts in the Warao's traditional environments and resources, resulting in migrations and abandonment of their ancestral territories. However, evidence indicates that deltaic aggradation/accretion processes at the Orinoco delta due to allochthonous sediment input and vegetation growth could be elevating the surface of the land, keeping pace with the local sea level rise. Other underpopulated and large deltas of the world also may risk immeasurable biodiversity and cultural losses and should not be forgotten as important conservation targets. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Preferences for Management of Near-Shore Marine Ecosystems: A Choice Experiment in New Zealand

    Sophal Chhun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in New Zealand in establishing “Customary Management Areas” (taiāpure and mātaitai and Marine Reserves to support Māori cultural practices and restore declining biodiversity and fish stocks. Allocation of near-shore marine areas for these management systems potentially benefits the larger public, but it has often been vigorously opposed by recreational and commercial fishers. This paper reports estimates of the relative values held by the public toward four potentially conflicting uses of near-shore marine areas. These estimates come from a web-based choice survey completed by 1055 respondents recruited from throughout New Zealand. The response rate was especially high at 60%. We present results weighted to the characteristics of the population and test the results against a variety of well-known sources of survey bias. Scenario development suggests that some reallocation of near-shore marine areas to any of the management systems under discussion alternative to the status quo is likely to yield a welfare gain. A combination of marine reserves and taiāpure is most preferred. The exercise supports the use of discrete choice experiments to provide crucial information about difficult-to-quantify public values for aspects of management of near-shore marine areas, such as proposed taiāpure, mātaitai, or marine reserves.

  8. Effects of human trampling on a rocky shore fauna on the Sao Paulo coast, southeastern Brazil.

    Ferreira, M N; Rosso, S

    2009-11-01

    Increased tourist activity in coastal regions demands management strategies to reduce impacts on rocky shores. The highly populated coastal areas in southeastern Brazil are an example of degradation caused by development of industry and tourism. Among different shore impacts, trampling has been intensively studied, and may represent a significant source of stress for intertidal fauna. A randomised blocks design was applied to experimentally study the effects of two different trampling intensities on richness, diversity, density and biomass of the rocky shore fauna of Obuseiro beach, Guarujá, southeastern Brazil. Blocks were distributed in two portions of the intertidal zone, dominated respectively by Chthamalus bisinuatus (Cirripedia) and Isognomon bicolor (Bivalvia). Blocks were trampled over three months, simulating the vacation period in Brazil and were monitored for the following nine months. Results indicate that Chthamalus bisinuatus is vulnerable to trampling impacts. Richness, diversity and turn-over index tended to be higher in trampled plots four months after trampling ceased. In general, results agree with previous trampling studies, suggesting that even low intensities of trampling may cause some impact on intertidal communities. Management strategies should include isolation of sensitive areas, construction of boardwalks, visitor education and monitoring programmes. In Brazil, additional data obtained from experimental studies are necessary in order to achieve a better understanding of trampling impacts on rocky shore communities.

  9. The Employment Situation in Selected Communities on the Lower Eastern Shore of Maryland.

    Thaxton, Louis C.; Tuthill, Dean F.

    This is an illustrated report on some findings of the Citizens Education Project (CEP), a 1979 survey of the employment situation of communities in five Maryland counties. The study was conducted by the Maryland Cooperative Extension Service, University of Maryland, College Park and Eastern Shore, with funding from Extension Program 1890. The…

  10. Toxicity of harbour canal sediments before dredging and after off shore disposal

    Van den Hurk, P.; Eertman, R.H.M.; Stronkhorst, J.

    1997-01-01

    Dredge material from an entrance waterway to the port of Rotterdam and sediments from the North Sea off-shore disposal site were tested for toxicity using three different sediment bioassays, The goals of the study were to evaluate if bioassays generate useful additional information to chemical based

  11. Distribution of elements along the shore of the Kayrakum water reservoir

    Djuraev, A.A.; Abdushukurov, D.A.; Passell, H.

    2012-01-01

    Soil and sediment samples, selected along the shore of the Kayrakum water reservoir in the Syrdarya River system, have been analyzed using X-Ray Fluorescence. The results obtained show spatial variations in the concentrations of both selected major rock-forming elements as well as of trace elements.

  12. Using Case Studies to Teach About Global Issues, The Sahel: The "Shore" of Disaster

    Hall, Susan J.

    1974-01-01

    Sahel is the Arabic word for "shore" and is applied to the Southern belt of the Sahara Desert now undergoing a severe drought. This article describes the lifestyle of a Tuareg herder as he and his family fight for survival. Discussion questions and possible solution to the problems are provided in the case study. (Author/DE)

  13. Few fish but many fishers: a case study of shore-based recreational ...

    Using a roving creel survey over 12 months, 3 765 shore-anglers were checked for catch and fishing effort information and a further 603 shoreanglers were interviewed using a detailed questionnaire. Fishing effort was higher on weekends (119 anglers per count) than during the week (37 anglers per count). The total ...

  14. High organic carbon export precludes eutrophication responses in experimental rocky shore communities

    Barrón, C.; Marbu, N.; Duarte, C.M.; Pedersen, M.F.; Lindblad, C.; Kersting, K.; Moy, F.; Bokn, T.

    2003-01-01

    We studied the effect of nutrient inputs on the carbon (C) budget of rocky shore communities using a set of eight large experimental mesocosms. The mesocosms received a range of inorganic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) additions, at an N:P ratio of 16. These additions were designed to elevate the

  15. Data report of the first cruise of the Marion Off-shore Ecological Study (MOES-1)

    Duncombe-Rae, CM

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The first cruise of the Marion Off-shore Ecological Study (MOES-I), during April and May 1987, was a multi-disciplinary effort aimed at gaining a further understanding of the relationships between productivity and the environment in the vicinity...

  16. Benthic life on the tropical sandy shore: Miramar beach a case study

    Ingole, B.S.

    of shore-dwelling bivalve molluscs. The foot of intertidal and subtidal clams such as Mactra violacea and Meretrix spp. is relatively large and powerful. It can pull the shell below the sand surface very quickly symbolising the burrowing life style. Other...

  17. Long-term trends in the competitive shore fishery along the KwaZulu ...

    Twenty-four years (1977–2000) of competitive shore angling catch and effort data from the KwaZulu-Natal Coastal Anglers Union for the province of KwaZulu-Natal were analysed. Of a minimum of 117 species recorded, the most commonly caught species were dusky shark (Carcharhinus obscurus) (26%), milk shark ...

  18. Cross-shore flow on the inner-shelf off southwest Portugal

    Lamas, L.; Peliz, A.; Oliveira, P.; Dias, J.

    2012-04-01

    Velocity measurements from 4 bottom-mounted ADCP deployments (summers of 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2011) at a 12-m depth site off Sines, Portugal, complemented with time series of winds, waves and tides, are used to study the inner-shelf cross-shore flow dependence on wave, tidal and wind forcings. During these four summers, the dominating winds are from the north (upwelling-favorable), with strong diurnal sea breeze cycle throughout these periods. This quasi-steady wind circulation is sometimes interrupted by short event-like reversals. The observed records were split in different subsets according to tidal amplitude, wave height, cross- and along-shore wind magnitudes, and the vertical structure of the cross-shore flow was studied for each of these subsets. Despite different forcing conditions, the cross-shore velocity profiles usually show a vertical parabolic structure with maximum onshore flow at mid-depth, resembling the upwelling return flow for mid-shelf conditions, but atypical for the inner-shelf and in disagreement with other inner-shelf studies from other sites. We compare the observations with simplified 2D inner-shelf models and with results from other studies.

  19. On-site gamma dose rates at the Andreeva Bay shore technical base, northwest Russia

    Reistad, O.; Dowdall, M.; Standring, W. J. F.; Selnaes, O. G.; Hustveit, S.; Steinhusen, F.; Sorlie, A.

    The spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and radioactive waste (RAW) storage facility at Andreeva Bay shore technical base (STB) is one of the largest and most hazardous nuclear legacy sites in northwest Russia. Originally commissioned in the 1960s the facility now stores large amounts of SNF and RAW associated

  20. Near-shore wind power - protected seascapes, environmentalists' attitudes, and the technocratic planning perspective

    Wolsink, M.

    2010-01-01

    In contested wind farm developments, the dominant issue concerns scenic impact and the landscape at the proposed site. The number of large wind power schemes that have failed is growing. The case analysed here is a near-shore wind farm in the Dutch part of the Wadden Sea, in 2001 the largest wind

  1. 33 CFR 203.49 - Rehabilitation of Hurricane and Shore Protection Projects.

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection Projects. (a) Authority. The Chief of Engineers is authorized to rehabilitate any Federally authorized hurricane or shore protection structure damaged or destroyed by wind, wave, or water action of an... (exclusive of dredge mobilization and demobilization costs) exceeds $1 million and is greater than two...

  2. Research on Shore-Ship Photonic Link Performance for Two- Frequency-Band Signals

    Zuo, Yanqin; Cong, Bo

    2016-02-01

    Ka and Ku bands links for shore-ship communications suffer limited bandwidth and high loss. In this paper, photonics-based links are proposed and modeled. The principle of phase modulation (PM) is elaborated and analyzed. It is showed that PM can effectively suppress high-order inter-modulation distortion (IMD), reduce the insert loss and improve the reliability of the system.

  3. 76 FR 303 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of On-Shore Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

    2011-01-04

    ... leak detection requirements for all pipelines; whether to require the installation of emergency flow... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 195 [Docket ID PHMSA-2010-0229] RIN 2137-AE66 Pipeline Safety: Safety of On-Shore Hazardous Liquid...

  4. 76 FR 13445 - North Shore Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority

    2011-03-11

    ... Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority North Shore Railroad Company (NSRR), a... milepost 2.0 in Berwick, Columbia County, Pa. The line is leased by SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority (SEDA- COG). NSRR states that the line it proposes to operate is an extension of its existing line of...

  5. Effect of flat insoles with different shore A values on posture stability in diabetic neuropathy

    Van Geffen, J.A.; Dijkstra, P.U.; Hof, A.L.; Halbertsma, J.P.K.; Postema, K.

    The objective of the study was to determine whether insoles with a low Shore A value (15 degrees) as prescribed for patients with a diabetic neuropathy have a negative effect on posture stability because these insoles may reduce somatosensory input under the feet. It was conducted in the Center for

  6. 76 FR 21637 - Safety Zone; Ford Estate Wedding Fireworks, Lake St. Clair, Grosse Pointe Shores, MI

    2011-04-18

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Ford Estate Wedding Fireworks, Lake St. Clair, Grosse Pointe Shores, MI AGENCY: Coast... portion of Lake St. Clair River during the Ford Estate Wedding Fireworks. DATES: This rule is effective... vessels during the setup, loading, and launching of the Ford Estate Wedding Fireworks Display. The...

  7. Wind Turbines’ End-of-Life: Quantification and Characterisation of Future Waste Materials on a National Level

    Niklas Andersen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Globally, wind power is growing fast and in Sweden alone more than 3000 turbines have been installed since the mid-1990s. Although the number of decommissioned turbines so far is few, the high installation rate suggests that a similarly high decommissioning rate can be expected at some point in the future. If the waste material from these turbines is not handled sustainably the whole concept of wind power as a clean energy alternative is challenged. This study presents a generally applicable method and quantification based on statistics of the waste amounts from wind turbines in Sweden. The expected annual mean growth is 12% until 2026, followed by a mean increase of 41% until 2034. By then, annual waste amounts are estimated to 240,000 tonnes steel and iron (16% of currently recycled materials, 2300 tonnes aluminium (4%, 3300 tonnes copper (5%, 340 tonnes electronics (<1% and 28,000 tonnes blade materials (barely recycled today. Three studied scenarios suggest that a well-functioning market for re-use may postpone the effects of these waste amounts until improved recycling systems are in place.

  8. Review of Ecosystem Level Impacts of Emerald Ash Borer on Black Ash Wetlands: What Does the Future Hold?

    Randall K. Kolka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The emerald ash borer (EAB is rapidly spreading throughout eastern North America and devastating ecosystems where ash is a component tree. This rapid and sustained loss of ash trees has already resulted in ecological impacts on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and is projected to be even more severe as EAB invades black ash-dominated wetlands of the western Great Lakes region. Using two companion studies that are simulating short- and long-term EAB infestations and what is known from the literature, we synthesize our current limited understanding and predict anticipated future impacts of EAB on black ash wetlands. A key response to the die-back of mature black ash will be higher water tables and the potential for flooding and resulting changes to both the vegetation and animal communities. Although seedling planting studies have shown some possible replacement species, little is known about how the removal of black ash from the canopy will affect non-ash species growth and regeneration. Because black ash litter is relatively high in nitrogen, it is expected that there will be important changes in nutrient and carbon cycling and subsequent rates of productivity and decomposition. Changes in hydrology and nutrient and carbon cycling will have cascading effects on the biological community which have been scarcely studied. Research to address these important gaps is currently underway and should lead to alternatives to mitigate the effects of EAB on black ash wetland forests and develop management options pre- and post-EAB invasion.

  9. Predictive Modelling to Identify Near-Shore, Fine-Scale Seabird Distributions during the Breeding Season.

    Warwick-Evans, Victoria C; Atkinson, Philip W; Robinson, Leonie A; Green, Jonathan A

    2016-01-01

    During the breeding season seabirds are constrained to coastal areas and are restricted in their movements, spending much of their time in near-shore waters either loafing or foraging. However, in using these areas they may be threatened by anthropogenic activities such as fishing, watersports and coastal developments including marine renewable energy installations. Although many studies describe large scale interactions between seabirds and the environment, the drivers behind near-shore, fine-scale distributions are not well understood. For example, Alderney is an important breeding ground for many species of seabird and has a diversity of human uses of the marine environment, thus providing an ideal location to investigate the near-shore fine-scale interactions between seabirds and the environment. We used vantage point observations of seabird distribution, collected during the 2013 breeding season in order to identify and quantify some of the environmental variables affecting the near-shore, fine-scale distribution of seabirds in Alderney's coastal waters. We validate the models with observation data collected in 2014 and show that water depth, distance to the intertidal zone, and distance to the nearest seabird nest are key predictors in the distribution of Alderney's seabirds. AUC values for each species suggest that these models perform well, although the model for shags performed better than those for auks and gulls. While further unexplained underlying localised variation in the environmental conditions will undoubtedly effect the fine-scale distribution of seabirds in near-shore waters we demonstrate the potential of this approach in marine planning and decision making.

  10. Predictive Modelling to Identify Near-Shore, Fine-Scale Seabird Distributions during the Breeding Season.

    Victoria C Warwick-Evans

    Full Text Available During the breeding season seabirds are constrained to coastal areas and are restricted in their movements, spending much of their time in near-shore waters either loafing or foraging. However, in using these areas they may be threatened by anthropogenic activities such as fishing, watersports and coastal developments including marine renewable energy installations. Although many studies describe large scale interactions between seabirds and the environment, the drivers behind near-shore, fine-scale distributions are not well understood. For example, Alderney is an important breeding ground for many species of seabird and has a diversity of human uses of the marine environment, thus providing an ideal location to investigate the near-shore fine-scale interactions between seabirds and the environment. We used vantage point observations of seabird distribution, collected during the 2013 breeding season in order to identify and quantify some of the environmental variables affecting the near-shore, fine-scale distribution of seabirds in Alderney's coastal waters. We validate the models with observation data collected in 2014 and show that water depth, distance to the intertidal zone, and distance to the nearest seabird nest are key predictors in the distribution of Alderney's seabirds. AUC values for each species suggest that these models perform well, although the model for shags performed better than those for auks and gulls. While further unexplained underlying localised variation in the environmental conditions will undoubtedly effect the fine-scale distribution of seabirds in near-shore waters we demonstrate the potential of this approach in marine planning and decision making.

  11. Environmental chemicals in human milk: a review of levels, infant exposures and health, and guidance for future research

    LaKind, Judy S.; Amina Wilkins, A.; Berlin, Cheston M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this review is to introduce the reader to various science and policy aspects of the topic of environmental chemicals in human milk. Although information on environmental chemicals in human milk has been available since the 1950s, it is only relatively recently that public awareness of the issue has grown. This review on environmental chemicals in human milk provides a resource summarizing what is currently known about levels and trends of environmental chemicals in human milk, potential infant exposures, and benefits of breast-feeding relative to the risks of exposures to environmental chemicals. The term 'environmental chemicals', as it pertains to human milk, refers to many classes of exogenous chemicals that may be detected in human milk. For example, pharmaceutical agents and alcohol are environmental chemicals that have been found in human milk. Other chemicals, such as heavy metals and volatile organic compounds, have also been detected in human milk. Most research on environmental chemicals in human milk has concentrated on persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) chemicals. In this review, a description of human milk is provided, including a brief review of endogenous substances in human milk. Determinants of levels of PBTs are discussed, as are models that have been developed to predict levels of PBTs in human milk and associated body burdens in breast-feeding infants. Methodologies for human milk sampling and analysis, and concepts for consideration in interpretation and communication of study results, as developed by the Technical Workshop on Human Milk Surveillance and Research for Environmental Chemicals in the United States are described. Studies which have compared the health risks and benefits associated with breast-feeding and formula-feeding are discussed

  12. Social transactions with future generations for the management of high level radioactive waste in deep repositories: Reflections on institutional control and retrievability

    Heriard Dubreuil, G.; Schieber, C.; Schneider, T.; Viala, M.

    1999-01-01

    The management of high level radioactive waste and spent fuel is a key issue and one of the most sensitive aspect of radioactive waste management. Recognising that it is the responsibility of our generation to find a way to isolate the waste, deep geological disposals have been envisaged to provide a definitive solution to the problem, in order to avoid 'undue burden on future generations'. However, even if they are buried, the wastes still exist and human intrusion is still possible as well as releases into the environment in the very far future. At the same time, the ongoing reflections on the ethical aspects of disposals show that it is of great worth that we guarantee future generations the same right of control and responsibility that we ourselves enjoy. This paper presents some reflections on the social transactions associated with the management and design of geological repositories. It is focused on the mission of institutional control in the transmission to future generation of a safety patrimony, composed of the know-how and techniques that permit the human community to 'domesticate' and control the risk. As it appears that the efficiency and the confidence in the control system rely mainly on the capability of implementing corrective actions, some considerations on the role, the consequences and the implementation of retrievability are also presented

  13. Tourism development challenges on the Dead Sea shore

    Wendt Jan A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dead Sea along with Jerusalem belongs to one of the most well-known spots visited by tourists in Israel. Because of many factors, such as the water level of the Dead Sea at a depth of 430 m b.s.l. (in 2015, average salinity of 26%, hot springs and many healing salts located there, it is a unique tourist attraction on a global level. Its attractiveness is heightened by its proximity to other sites of interest, such as the Jewish fortress at Masada, Jericho, Qumran, where the Dead Sea Scrolls were found, as well as Petra, Madaba and Al-Karak on the Jordanian side of the Dead Sea. High salinity and a microclimate create perfect conditions for the development of health resorts and medical tourism. Extracting healing salts from its waters for the needs of the chemical industry is important for both the economy and medical tourism. However, as a consequence of the agricultural and urban use of the waters of the River Jordan, which flows into the Dead Sea, a persistent decrease in the lake water level has been observed over the last century. This has created a number of economic and political issues. The problems which still have to be resolved are associated with the Red Sea-Dead Sea Conduit (Canal, the division of Jordan’s water resources, conservation of the unique reservoir of the Dead Sea and the threat of hindering the development of tourism within the region. The presentation of these issues is the main aim of this research paper. The study is based on the analysis of changes in tourism flows, results of research studies and the prognosis of changes in the water level of the Dead Sea. It presents an assessment of the effects of this phenomenon on the tourist economy. At the current level of tourism flows within the region, the tourist capacity of local beaches will be exceeded in areas where the most popular tourist resorts are located. Increased expenditure on development of tourism infrastructure in the coastal zone can also be observed

  14. Evaluation of trophic state and plankton abundance from the environmental parameters of Visakhapatnam Harbour and near-shore waters, east coast of India

    Tripathy, S.C.; KusumaKumari, B.A.V.L.; Sarma, V.V.; Murty, T.V.R.

    The present work describes the nutrient indices of the Visakhapatnam harbour and near-shore waters. The inner channels of Visakhapatnam harbour are considered to be eutrophic while near-shore waters (coastal and inshore waters) associated...

  15. Utgrunden off-shore wind farm - Measurements of underwater noise

    Lindell, Hans

    2003-07-01

    Airicole, GE Wind Energy and SEAS/Energi E2 have initiated this project in order to achieve a better understanding on how offshore based wind farms effect the underwater noise. The main reason is to gain knowledge on how marine wildlife could be effected by this kind of installation. The measurements were performed at Utgrunden wind farm that is situated at the reef Utgrunden on the Swedish southeast coast. The farm consists of seven 1,5 MW turbines. Three hydrophones registered the underwater sound and four accelerometers the tower vibrations. The measurement campaign was conducted during a period from November 2002 to February 2003. The objectives with this project is to answer the following issues and its results are: 1. What is the character of sound from a single power station? - The turbines radiate sound mainly at a few dominating frequencies from 30 Hz up to 800 Hz. At frequencies below 3 Hz no contribution from the turbines can be detected due to the high background level from the waves and the low tower vibration level. 2. What are the sound generating mechanisms in the turbine? - Gearbox mesh frequency vibrations that are transmitted via the tower structure and radiated out to the water mainly generate the sound. Airborne blade sound is effectively dampened in the transition from air to water. 3. How does the sound attenuate with increasing distance at different frequencies? - The average attenuation per doubled distance for frequencies between 31 Hz and 722 Hz is approximately 4 dB in the measured positions. No clear frequency dependence could be found. 4. How does the sound pressure level vary with increasing wind speed? - With increasing wind speed, the sound pressure level increases and the dominating frequencies move upward due to increasing turbine rotational speed. 5. How does sound from different power stations interfere with each other and influence the over all sound image? - No clear tendencies of interference could be observed in this study

  16. Coastal zones : shifting shores, sharing adaptation strategies for coastal environments

    Hay, J.E. [Waikato Univ. (New Zealand); Morneau, F.; Savard, J.P. [Ouranos, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Madruga, R.P. [Centre of Investigation on the Global Economy (Cuba); Leslie, K.R. [Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (Belize); Agricole, W. [Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (Seychelles); Burkett, V. [United States Geological Survey (United States)

    2006-07-01

    A parallel event to the eleventh Conference of Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention of Climate Change was held to demonstrate examples of adaptation from around the world in the areas of food security, water resources, coastal zones, and communities/infrastructure. Panels on each theme presented examples from developing countries, countries in economic transition, and developed countries. These 4 themes were chosen because both mitigation and adaptation are essential to meeting the challenge of climate change. The objective of the event was to improve the knowledge of Canada's vulnerabilities to climate change, identify ways to minimize the negative effects of future impacts, and explore opportunities that take advantage of any positive impacts. This third session focused on how coastal communities are adapting to climate change in such places as Quebec, the Caribbean, and small Island States. It also presented the example of how a developed country became vulnerable to Hurricane Katrina which hit the coastal zone in the United States Gulf of Mexico. The presentations addressed the challenges facing coastal communities along with progress in risk assessment and adaptation both globally and in the Pacific. Examples of coastal erosion in Quebec resulting from climate change were presented along with climate change and variability impacts over the coastal zones of Seychelles. Cuba's vulnerability and adaptation to climate change was discussed together with an integrated operational approach to climate change, adaptation, biodiversity and land utilization in the Caribbean region. The lessons learned from around the world emphasize that adaptation is needed to reduce unavoidable risks posed by climate change and to better prepare for the changes ahead. refs., tabs., figs.

  17. Scour around monopile foundations for off-shore wind turbines

    Margheritini, Lucia; Frigaard, Peter; Martinelli, Luca

    2006-01-01

    The present paper aims to describe the scour hole process around large piles through laboratory tests under waves, unidirectional and tidal currents in time. The process for unidirectional and tidal currents has been compared. The tests have been carried out in a wave flume equipped with a two wa...... recirculation pump at the Hydraulic Laboratory at Aalborg University. The mobile bed around the model was leveled with an automatic laser profiler and the results are graphically displayed as maximum scour depths and eroded volumes....

  18. A universal model for predicting human migration under climate change: examining future sea level rise in Bangladesh

    Frankel Davis, Kyle; Bhattachan, Abinash; D’Odorico, Paolo; Suweis, Samir

    2018-06-01

    Climate change is expected to impact the habitability of many places around the world in significant and unprecedented ways in the coming decades. While previous studies have provided estimates of populations potentially exposed to various climate impacts, little work has been done to assess the number of people that may actually be displaced or where they will choose to go. Here we modify a diffusion-based model of human mobility in combination with population, geographic, and climatic data to estimate the sources, destinations, and flux of potential migrants as driven by sea level rise (SLR) in Bangladesh in the years 2050 and 2100. Using only maps of population and elevation, we predict that 0.9 million people (by year 2050) to 2.1 million people (by year 2100) could be displaced by direct inundation and that almost all of this movement will occur locally within the southern half of the country. We also find that destination locations should anticipate substantial additional demands on jobs (594 000), housing (197 000), and food (783 × 109 calories) by mid-century as a result of those displaced by SLR. By linking the sources of migrants displaced by SLR with their likely destinations, we demonstrate an effective approach for predicting climate-driven migrant flows, especially in data-limited settings.

  19. Estimation of future levels and changes in profitability: The effect of the relative position of the firm in its industry and the operating-financing disaggregation

    Borja Amor-Tapia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine how the relative position of a firm's Return on Equity (ROE in industries affects the predictability of the next-year ROE levels, and the ROE changes from year to year. Using Nissim and Penman breakdown into operating and financing drivers, the significant role of the industry factor is established, although changes in signs suggest subtle non-linear relations in the drivers. Our study avoids problems originating from negative signs by analyzing sorts and by making new regressions with disaggregated second-order drivers by signs. This way, our results provide evidence of some different patterns in the influence of the first-level drivers of ROE (the operating factor and the financing factor, and the second-level drivers (profit margin, asset turnover, leverage and return spread on future profitability, depending on the industry spread. The results on the role of contextual factors to improve the estimation of future profitability remain consistent for small and large firms, although adding some nuances.

  20. Metacognitive deficits predict future levels of negative symptoms in schizophrenia controlling for neurocognition, affect recognition, and self-expectation of goal attainment.

    Lysaker, Paul H; Kukla, Marina; Dubreucq, Julien; Gumley, Andrew; McLeod, Hamish; Vohs, Jenifer L; Buck, Kelly D; Minor, Kyle S; Luther, Lauren; Leonhardt, Bethany L; Belanger, Elizabeth A; Popolo, Raffaele; Dimaggio, Giancarlo

    2015-10-01

    The recalcitrance of negative symptoms in the face of pharmacologic treatment has spurred interest in understanding the psychological factors that contribute to their formation and persistence. Accordingly, this study investigated whether deficits in metacognition, or the ability to form integrated ideas about oneself, others, and the world, prospectively predicted levels of negative symptoms independent of deficits in neurocognition, affect recognition and defeatist beliefs. Participants were 53 adults with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Prior to entry into a rehabilitation program, all participants completed concurrent assessments of metacognition with the Metacognitive Assessment Scale-Abbreviated, negative symptoms with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, neurocognition with the MATRICS battery, affect recognition with the Bell Lysaker Emotion Recognition Task, and one form of defeatist beliefs with the Recovery Assessment Scale. Negative symptoms were then reassessed one week, 9weeks, and 17weeks after entry into the program. A mixed effects regression model revealed that after controlling for baseline negative symptoms, a general index of neurocognition, defeatist beliefs and capacity for affect recognition, lower levels of metacognition predicted higher levels of negative symptoms across all subsequent time points. Poorer metacognition was able to predict later levels of elevated negative symptoms even after controlling for initial levels of negative symptoms. Results may suggest that metacognitive deficits are a risk factor for elevated levels of negative symptoms in the future. Clinical implications are also discussed. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Technologies for waste heat recovery in off-shore applications

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Haglind, Fredrik; Kandepu, Rambabu

    2013-01-01

    different technologies are presented, considering the Draugen platform in the North Sea as a base case. The Turboden 65-HRS unit is considered as representative of the organic Rankine cycle technology. Air bottoming cycles are analyzed and optimal design pressure ratios are selected. We also study a one...... pressure level steam Rankine cycle employing the once-through heat recovery steam generator without bypass stack. We compare the three technologies considering the combined cycle thermal efficiency, the weight, the net present value, the profitability index and payback time. Both incomes related to CO2...... of the unit is expected to be around 250 ton. The air bottoming cycle without intercooling is also a possible alternative due to its low weight (76 ton) and low investment cost (8.8 M$). However, cycle performance and profitability index are poorer, 12.1% and 0.75. Furthermore, the results suggest...

  2. Plutonium diffusion in the marine environment: a quantitative study on marine species of the channel shores, from Brest to Honfleur

    Fraizier, A.; Guary, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    Plutonium levels were measured on marine species of the Channel shores, from Cancale to Honfleur in 1975, from Brest to the Cap de La Hague in 1976. Measurements carried out on a lichen: Lichina pygmaea, two algae: Corallina officinalis and Fucus serratus, a spongiae: Hymeniacidon sanguinea and a crustacean: Balanus balanoides, showed the effect of waste disposal from a fuel reprocessing plant on the radioactivity levels of these organisms. This effect, decreasing progressively appeared at distances of at least 150 km from the point of release. As compared to the values observed for samples taken as the far west end of Brittany and also to the plutonium levels in the marine environment resulting from atmosphere fallout only, the levels observed in the studied area were higher and varying according to the geographic position, increasing by a factor of 100 near the emissary. These data are an actual instance of radioactive dispersal following disposal into the sea; they should bring valuable information for the assessment of the radiological capacity of a given coastal area [fr

  3. Temperature, productivity and sediment characteristics as drivers of seasonal and spatial variations of dissolved methane in the near-shore coastal areas (Belgian coastal zone, North Sea)

    Borges, Alberto V.; Speeckaert, Gaëlle; Champenois, Willy; Scranton, Mary I.; Gypens, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    replete sediments. In the off-shore stations with permeable sediments with a low OM content, the seasonal cycle of dissolved CH4 concentration showed a yearly peak following the chlorophyll-a spring peak. This suggests that in these OM poor sediments, methanogenesis depended on the delivery to the sediments of freshly produced OM. In both types of sediments, the seasonal cycle of dissolved CH4 concentrations was unrelated the seasonal cycles of DMS, and DMSP, despite the fact that these quantities were very high during the spring Phaeocystis globosa bloom. This suggests that in this shallow coastal environment CH4 production is overwhelmingly related to benthic processes and unrelated to DMS(P) transformations in the water column as recently suggested in several open ocean regions. The annual average CH4 emission was 41 mmol m-2 yr-1 in the most near-shore stations ( 4 km from the coast) and 10 mmol m-2 yr-1 in the most off-shore stations ( 23 km from the coast), 410-100 times higher than the average value in the open ocean (0.1 mmol m-2 yr-1). The strong control of CH4 concentrations by sediment OM content and by temperature suggests that marine coastal CH4 emissions, in particular shallow coastal areas, should respond in future to eutrophication and warming of climate. This is confirmed by the comparison of CH4 concentrations at five stations obtained in March in years 1990 and 2016, showing a decreasing trend consistent with alleviation of eutrophication in the area.

  4. Economic valuation of the visual externalities of off-shore wind farms

    Ladenburg, J.; Dubgaard, A.; Martensen, L.; Tranberg, J.

    2005-07-01

    The study is based on a mail survey including 700 households in a national sample, and 350 households in two sub samples in the Horns Rev and Nysted areas. In the choice experiment, four alternative off-shore wind farm distances from the coast were used namely: 8, 12, 18 and 50 km. Based on the respondents' choices between alternative locations of off-shore wind farms their willingness to pay (WTP) for increasing the distance was elicited using three different sub samples for each of the three locations. These sub samples were constructed using the full sample (B-model), a sample containing respondents who were certain in their choice (C-model) and finally a sample containing respondents, who according to a defined set of questions were considered consistent and rational in their choice (R-model). (au)

  5. Impact Assessment of an Off-Shore Wind Park on Sea Ducks

    Guillemette, M.; Larsen, J. K.; Clausager, I.

    of the study with a marked difference between Tunø Knob and Ringebjerg Sand in the size available. This was associated with a general impoverishment of the whole benthic community. This suggests that the decrease observed in sea duck abundance over the three years was caused by the availability of food supply......As part of the plan of the Danish government to expand off-shore wind energy production, The Ministry of Environment and Energy, in collaboration with ELSAM (an energy consortium), initiated a three-year study of the potential conflict between the Tunø Knob off-shore wind park and aquatic birds...... in 1994-97. Danish coastal waters support very large, internationally important concentrations of moulting, migrating and wintering sea ducks which depend on shallow water areas as major feeding habitats. Denmark is committed, in relation to international conventions and EU directives, to protect...

  6. Design and optimization of air bottoming cycles for waste heat recovery in off-shore platforms

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at comparing two methodologies to design an air bottoming cycle recovering the waste heat from the power generation system on the Draugen off-shore oil and gas platform. Firstly, the design is determined using the theory of the power maximization. Subsequently, the multi-objective......This paper aims at comparing two methodologies to design an air bottoming cycle recovering the waste heat from the power generation system on the Draugen off-shore oil and gas platform. Firstly, the design is determined using the theory of the power maximization. Subsequently, the multi....... Findings indicate that using the power production, the volume of the recuperator and the net present value as objective functions the optimal pressure ratio (2.52) and the exhaust gas temperature (178.8 °C) differ from the values (2.80 and 145.5 °C) calculated using the theory of the power maximization...

  7. Intertidal ecology of the sea shore near Tarapur Atomic Power Station

    Balani, M.C.

    1975-01-01

    Surveys were carried out between March 1969 and August 1970 to study the fauna and flora in the littoral zone of the sea shore near the Tarapur Atomic Power Station. The beach adjacent to the Station is rocky with a number of tidal pools inhabited by a variety of organisms whereas the beach to the south is mostly sandy and barren except for a small rocky stretch. The tidal range is 6 m and over a mile of beach is exposed during low tide. The near shore currents are very strong and have a clear northsouth oscillation with the changing tides. Less Atherina sp. fry were available near the Power Station in March 1970 than during the previous year. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed, including the effect of heated discharges on biota. The need is also emphasized to monitor the biota (Plankton, Nekton and Benthos) systematically for content of fission products released by the Power Station. (auth.)

  8. Cross-shore redistribution of nourished sand near a breaker bar

    Jacobsen, Niels Gjøl; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    the Engelund and Fredsøe deterministic concept. The methodology is as follows: a Dean/Bruun equilibrium profile is exposed to regular waves (chosen as H = 1.3 m and T = 4.8 s). These waves will form bars on the Dean/Bruun equilibrium profile, and the wave impact is continued until a quasi-steady behavior...... over the profile is consider as a means of imposing the net recirculation resulting from longshore nonuniformities or the impact of wind-induced shear stresses. The impact of wave height, irregularity in incident waves, and the size of the sediment grains on the cross-shore distribution of suspended...... bar can have both destructive and protective impacts on the original shoreward-located cross-shore profile....

  9. SYNCHRONIZATION OF NATIONAL GRID NETWORK WITH THE ELECTRICITY SHIPS NETWORK IN THE "SHORE TO SHIP" SYSTEM

    Dariusz TARNAPOWICZ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ‘Shore to ship’ system – ships’ power supply from the local electrical substations – is one of the effective ways to limit the negative impact of the ships lying in ports on the environment. Energy infrastructure of the port installation necessary to provide ships with power supply has to be designed so that different types of ships can use it. The important issue concerning ‘shore to ship’ system is the quality of power supply. This can be achieved via sustaining continuity of power supply while switching from the ships’ electrical network over to the national grid. In this article the author presents the way of synchronizing the national grid with the ships’ electrical network during ship’s lying in port. Such synchronization would allow for uninterruptible work of the ship’s electrical devices.

  10. The SusHouse project. Use and maintenance of clothing as an example. Environmental analysis of system-level future scenarios

    Knot, M.; Bras-Klapwijk, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    The SusHouse project assumed that system-level innovations are necessary for sustainable development, involving new arrangements and combined innovations in technology, organisation and behaviour. The life cycle analysis (LCA) method has been used and adapted to evaluate the potential of such complex system-level strategies to reduce environmental impact. This article explains and discusses this approach and presents some assessment results for the SusHouse research into clothing. The requirements and systems used were found to yield interesting insights into relevant solutions and strategies. The future scenarios for clothing promise major improvements in most of the environmental indicators, with particular contributions from changes in the quantity and quality of clothing consumed. The article recommends extending the approach with a 'turning points' analysis, because of the many uncertainties, as well as the use of more differentiated indicators and the inclusion of a focused trend analysis. 17 refs

  11. Increasing Shore-based Participation of Scientists & Students in Telepresence-enabled Nautilus Expeditions

    Bell, K. L. C.; Raineault, N.; Carey, S.; Eberli, G. P.; John, B. E.; Cheadle, M. J.; German, C. R.; Mirmalek, Z.; Pallant, A.

    2016-02-01

    As the US oceanographic research fleet shrinks, reducing seagoing opportunities for scientists and students, remote participation in cruises via telepresence will become increasingly vital. The Nautilus Exploration Program is improving the experience of shoreside participants through the development of new tools and methodologies for connecting them to expeditions in real time increasing accessibility to oceanographic cruises. The Scientist Ashore Program is a network of scientists around the world who participate in Exploration Vessel Nautilus expeditions from their own labs or homes. We have developed a suite of collaboration tools to allow scientists to view video and data in real time, as well as to communicate with ship-based and other shore-based participants to enable remote participation in cruises. Post-cruise, scientists and students may access digital data and biological and geological samples from our partner shore-based repositories: the University of Rhode Island Inner Space Center, Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology, and URI Marine Geological Samples Lab. We present examples of successful shore-based participation by scientists and students in Nautilus expeditions. In 2013, Drs. Cheadle and John stood watch 24/7 with ten undergraduate and graduate students at the University of Wyoming, recording geologic features and samples, during a cruise to the Cayman Rise. The Straits of Florida & Great Bahama Bank cruise was co-led by Dr. Eberli at the University of Miami in 2014, greatly complementing existing data. That same year, the ISC hosted four early career scientists and their twelve undergraduate students who led dives from shore in collaboration with Dr. Carey, Lead Scientist at sea on the Kick'em Jenny Volcano & the Barbados Mud Volcanoes cruise. In 2015, 12 Scientists Ashore worked in collaboration with the ship-based team on the exploration of Galapagos National Park, and more than 20 are working with OET on post-cruise data & sample analysis.

  12. Alcohol Content in the 'Hyper-Reality' MTV Show 'Geordie Shore'.

    Lowe, Eden; Britton, John; Cranwell, Jo

    2018-05-01

    To quantify the occurrence of alcohol content, including alcohol branding, in the popular primetime television UK Reality TV show 'Geordie Shore' Series 11. A 1-min interval coding content analysis of alcohol content in the entire DVD Series 11 of 'Geordie Shore' (10 episodes). Occurrence of alcohol use, implied use, other alcohol reference/paraphernalia or branding was recorded. All categories of alcohol were present in all episodes. 'Any alcohol' content occurred in 78%, 'actual alcohol use' in 30%, 'inferred alcohol use' in 72%, and all 'other' alcohol references occurred in 59% of all coding intervals (ACIs), respectively. Brand appearances occurred in 23% of ACIs. The most frequently observed alcohol brand was Smirnoff which appeared in 43% of all brand appearances. Episodes categorized as suitable for viewing by adolescents below the legal drinking age of 18 years comprised of 61% of all brand appearances. Alcohol content, including branding, is highly prevalent in the UK Reality TV show 'Geordie Shore' Series 11. Two-thirds of all alcohol branding occurred in episodes age-rated by the British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) as suitable for viewers aged 15 years. The organizations OfCom, Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) and the Portman Group should implement more effective policies to reduce adolescent exposure to on-screen drinking. The drinks industry should consider demanding the withdrawal of their brands from the show. Alcohol content, including branding, is highly prevalent in the MTV reality TV show 'Geordie Shore' Series 11. Current alcohol regulation is failing to protect young viewers from exposure to such content.

  13. Geographical positioning using laser optical instrument for near-shore underwater archaeological explorations

    Ganesan, P.

    carefully identified comers of the underwater artifacts) is found to be more accurate, faster, and reliable. This method can be effectively used only for shallow water near shore underwater archaeo- GLIMPSES OF MARINE ARCHAEOLOGY IN INDIA logical... Trak (placed over selected ground controi station) and a multi-prism (placed over carefully identified comers of the artifact). The standard survey procedures prescribed in the Laser Trak operation manual (Make III model) were used to carry out...

  14. The extant shore platform stromatolite (SPS facies association: a glimpse into the Archean?

    A. Smith

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Shore platform stromatolites (SPS were first noted at Cape Morgan on the south-east African seaboard. Since then they have been found growing discontinuously in rocky peritidal zones along the entire southern African seaboard. They have also been found on the southwest Australian coast, at Giant's Causeway in Northern Ireland, and more recently at Harris on the Scottish Hebridean Atlantic coast. In this paper SPS occurrence and SPS potential as analogues for Precambrian fossil stromatolites, as well as potential stromatolite occurrences in shore platform regions on Mars, are assessed. Sub-horizontal surfaces promote stromatolite development, while tufa develops on cliffs and steep rocky surfaces. Tufa and stromatolites are end members of a spectrum dictated by coastal topography. Extant SPS occur on well indurated shore platforms in high wave energy settings, often around or near headlands. They can be associated with boulder beaches, boulder ridges, storm swash terraces, coastal dunes, and peat bogs. In contrast to other extant stromatolites, SPS are produced primarily by mineral precipitation, although minor trapping and binding stromatolites do occur. From a geological perspective, SPS develop in mildly transgressive siliciclastic settings in various climatic and tidal regimes. We suggest that SPS could be preserved in the geological record as micritic lenses on palaeo-shore platform surfaces. SPS share many features with Precambrian stromatolites and are a valid modern analogue despite the widely different atmospheric and oceanic conditions of the Archean. We suggest that terraces associated with former oceanic or lacustrine flooding surfaces on Mars are potential targets in the search for palaeo-SPS on Mars.

  15. The Analysis Regarding the Building of a Hydraulic Power Plant on the Black Sea Shore

    Gheorghe Samoilescu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper represents the result of a research project regarding the construction of a wave driven hydraulic plant that is going to be installed on the Black Sea shore in the area of the city of Constanta. Several phases were analyzed: numerical simulations for the micro plant – wave energy theory; finite element simulation – results and conclusions; generating the blueprint for the construction of the plant.

  16. Simulation of the effects of Devils Lake outlet alternatives on future lake levels and water quality in the Sheyenne River and Red River of the North

    Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1992, Devils Lake in northeastern North Dakota has risen nearly 30 feet, destroying hundreds of homes, inundating thousands of acres of productive farmland, and costing more than $1 billion for road raises, levee construction, and other flood mitigation measures. In 2011, the lake level is expected to rise at least another 2 feet above the historical record set in 2010 (1,452.0 feet above the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929), cresting less than 4 feet from the lake's natural spill elevation to the Sheyenne River (1,458.0 feet). In an effort to slow the rising lake and reduce the chance of an uncontrolled spill, the State of North Dakota is considering options to expand a previously constructed outlet from the west end of Devils Lake or construct a second outlet from East Devils Lake. Future outlet discharges from Devils Lake, when combined with downstream receiving waters, need to be in compliance with applicable Clean Water Act requirements. This study was completed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health Division of Water Quality, to evaluate the various outlet alternatives with respect to their effect on downstream water quality and their ability to control future lake levels.

  17. Marine Fouling Assemblages on Offshore Gas Platforms in the Southern North Sea: Effects of Depth and Distance from Shore on Biodiversity.

    van der Stap, Tim; Coolen, Joop W P; Lindeboom, Han J

    2016-01-01

    Offshore platforms are known to act as artificial reefs, though there is on-going debate on whether this effect is beneficial or harmful for the life in the surrounding marine environment. Knowing what species exist on and around the offshore platforms and what environmental variables influence this species assemblage is crucial for a better understanding of the impact of offshore platforms on marine life. Information on this is limited for offshore platforms in the southern North Sea. This study aims to fill this gap in our knowledge and to determine how the composition and the abundance of species assemblages changes with depth and along a distance-from-shore gradient. The species assemblages on five offshore gas platforms in the southern North Sea have been inventoried using Remotely Operated Vehicles inspection footage. A total of 30 taxa were identified. A Generalised Additive Model of the species richness showed a significant non-linear relation with water depth (p = 0.001): from a low richness in shallow waters it increases with depth until 15-20 m, after which richness decreases again. Using PERMANOVA, water depth (p≤0.001), community age (p≤0.001) and the interaction between distance from shore and community age (p≤0.001) showed a significant effect on the species assemblages. Future research should focus on the effect additional environmental variables have on the species assemblages.

  18. Marine Fouling Assemblages on Offshore Gas Platforms in the Southern North Sea: Effects of Depth and Distance from Shore on Biodiversity.

    Tim van der Stap

    Full Text Available Offshore platforms are known to act as artificial reefs, though there is on-going debate on whether this effect is beneficial or harmful for the life in the surrounding marine environment. Knowing what species exist on and around the offshore platforms and what environmental variables influence this species assemblage is crucial for a better understanding of the impact of offshore platforms on marine life. Information on this is limited for offshore platforms in the southern North Sea. This study aims to fill this gap in our knowledge and to determine how the composition and the abundance of species assemblages changes with depth and along a distance-from-shore gradient. The species assemblages on five offshore gas platforms in the southern North Sea have been inventoried using Remotely Operated Vehicles inspection footage. A total of 30 taxa were identified. A Generalised Additive Model of the species richness showed a significant non-linear relation with water depth (p = 0.001: from a low richness in shallow waters it increases with depth until 15-20 m, after which richness decreases again. Using PERMANOVA, water depth (p≤0.001, community age (p≤0.001 and the interaction between distance from shore and community age (p≤0.001 showed a significant effect on the species assemblages. Future research should focus on the effect additional environmental variables have on the species assemblages.

  19. Marine Fouling Assemblages on Offshore Gas Platforms in the Southern North Sea: Effects of Depth and Distance from Shore on Biodiversity

    van der Stap, Tim; Coolen, Joop W. P.; Lindeboom, Han J.

    2016-01-01

    Offshore platforms are known to act as artificial reefs, though there is on-going debate on whether this effect is beneficial or harmful for the life in the surrounding marine environment. Knowing what species exist on and around the offshore platforms and what environmental variables influence this species assemblage is crucial for a better understanding of the impact of offshore platforms on marine life. Information on this is limited for offshore platforms in the southern North Sea. This study aims to fill this gap in our knowledge and to determine how the composition and the abundance of species assemblages changes with depth and along a distance-from-shore gradient. The species assemblages on five offshore gas platforms in the southern North Sea have been inventoried using Remotely Operated Vehicles inspection footage. A total of 30 taxa were identified. A Generalised Additive Model of the species richness showed a significant non-linear relation with water depth (p = 0.001): from a low richness in shallow waters it increases with depth until 15–20 m, after which richness decreases again. Using PERMANOVA, water depth (p≤0.001), community age (p≤0.001) and the interaction between distance from shore and community age (p≤0.001) showed a significant effect on the species assemblages. Future research should focus on the effect additional environmental variables have on the species assemblages. PMID:26745870

  20. The role of macrobiota in structuring microbial communities along rocky shores

    Catherine A. Pfister

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rocky shore microbial diversity presents an excellent system to test for microbial habitat specificity or generality, enabling us to decipher how common macrobiota shape microbial community structure. At two coastal locations in the northeast Pacific Ocean, we show that microbial composition was significantly different between inert surfaces, the biogenic surfaces that included rocky shore animals and an alga, and the water column plankton. While all sampled entities had a core of common OTUs, rare OTUs drove differences among biotic and abiotic substrates. For the mussel Mytilus californianus, the shell surface harbored greater alpha diversity compared to internal tissues of the gill and siphon. Strikingly, a 7-year experimental removal of this mussel from tidepools did not significantly alter the microbial community structure of microbes associated with inert surfaces when compared with unmanipulated tidepools. However, bacterial taxa associated with nitrate reduction had greater relative abundance with mussels present, suggesting an impact of increased animal-derived nitrogen on a subset of microbial metabolism. Because the presence of mussels did not affect the structure and diversity of the microbial community on adjacent inert substrates, microbes in this rocky shore environment may be predominantly affected through direct physical association with macrobiota.

  1. Project management of the build of the shore test facility for the prototype of PWR II

    Clarkson, D.T.

    1987-01-01

    The PWR II is a new design of nuclear steam raising plant for the Royal Navy's submarines. It features improved engineering for safety, increased power, increased shock resistance, reduced noise transmission to sea and reduced manning requirement. It is to be tested in a new prototype testing facility, the Shore Test Facility, which is a section of submarine hull containing a prototype of the nuclear steam raising plant and its support system. It is installed at the Vulcan Naval Reactor Test establishment at Dounreay in Scotland. The function of the establishment is to test new designs of core and reactor plant, validate the mathematical models used in their design, develop improved methods of operation and maintenance of the plant and test new items of equipment. The Shore Test Facility was built in large sections at Barrow-in-Furness and transported to Scotland. The project management for the construction of the Shore Test Facility is explained. It involves personnel from the Royal Navy, and a large number of people working for the contractors involved in the buildings, transportation, operation and maintenance of the Facility. (U.K.)

  2. Locomotion of Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus (Gastropoda, Muricidae on a mixed shore of rocks and sand

    Marcos G. Papp

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixed shores of rocks and sand are appropriate systems for the study of limitations that the isolation of rocks may impose for gastropods that typically inhabit rocky shores. We marked 52 Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1767 snails on a mixed shore and found that 34 of them moved between rocks one to four times during 15 surveys in a period of 72 days. In the experiments, the snails moved on rock by continuous, direct, ditaxic, alternate undulations of the foot sole but on submerged sand they used slower arrhythmic discontinuous contractions of the foot sole. They switched between modes of locomotion in response to the type and topography of the substrate and possibly to water dynamics. In nature, snails moved between rocks forming aggregations where they oviposited. This may have masked other causes of movement, such as availability of prey. Most snails burrowed into the sand when the rocks became exposed during low tides. Further experiments are needed to explicitly address the possible causes of movements among rocks and burial.

  3. Host sharing and host manipulation by larval helminths in shore crabs: cooperation or conflict?

    Poulin, Robert; Nichol, Katherine; Latham, A David M

    2003-04-01

    Larval helminths of different species that share the same intermediate host and are transmitted by predation to the same definitive host may cooperate in their attempts to manipulate the behaviour of the intermediate host, while at the same time having conflicts of interests over the use of host resources. A few studies have indicated that intermediate hosts harbouring larval helminths have altered concentrations of neurotransmitters in their nervous system, and thus measuring levels of neurotransmitters in host brains could serve to assess the respective and combined effect of different helminth species on host behaviour. Here, we investigate potential cooperation and conflict among three helminths in two species of crab intermediate hosts. The acanthocephalan Profilicollis spp., the trematode Maritrema sp. and an acuariid nematode, all use Macrophthalmus hirtipes (Ocypodidae) as intermediate host, whereas Profilicollis and Maritrema also use Hemigrapsus crenulatus (Grapsidae). All three helminths mature inside gulls or other shore birds. There was a significant decrease in the mean volume of Profilicollis cystacanths as the intensity of infection by this parasite increased in H. crenulatus, the only host in which this was investigated; however, there was no measurable effect of other helminth species on the size of acanthocephalans, suggesting no interspecific conflict over resource use within crabs. There was, in contrast, evidence of a positive interspecific association between the two most common helminth species: numbers of Profilicollis and Maritrema were positively correlated among crabs, independently of crab size, in M. hirtipes but not H. crenulatus. More importantly, we found that the total number of larval helminths per crab correlated significantly, and negatively, with concentrations of serotonin in crab brains, again only in M. hirtipes; numbers of each parasite species separately did not covary in either crab species with serotonin or dopamine, the

  4. The Impacts of 3-D Earth Structure on GIA-Induced Crustal Deformation and Future Sea-Level Change in the Antarctic

    Powell, E. M.; Hay, C.; Latychev, K.; Gomez, N. A.; Mitrovica, J. X.

    2017-12-01

    Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) models used to constrain the extent of past ice sheets and viscoelastic Earth structure, or to correct geodetic and geological observables for ice age effects, generally only consider depth-dependent variations in Earth viscosity and lithospheric structure. A et al. [2013] argued that 3-D Earth structure could impact GIA observables in Antarctica, but concluded that the presence of such structure contributes less to GIA uncertainty than do differences in Antarctic deglaciation histories. New seismic and geological evidence, however, indicates the Antarctic is underlain by complex, high amplitude variability in viscoelastic structure, including a low viscosity zone (LVZ) under West Antarctica. Hay et al. [2016] showed that sea-level fingerprints of modern melting calculated using such Earth models differ from those based on elastic or 1-D viscoelastic Earth models within decades of melting. Our investigation is motivated by two questions: (1) How does 3-D Earth structure, especially this LVZ, impact observations of GIA-induced crustal deformation associated with the last deglaciation? (2) How will 3-D Earth structure affect predictions of future sea-level rise in Antarctica? We compute the gravitationally self-consistent sea level, uplift, and gravity changes using the finite volume treatment of Latychev et al. [2005]. We consider four viscoelastic Earth models: a global 1-D model; a regional, West Antarctic-like 1-D model; a 3-D model where the lithospheric thickness varies laterally; and a 3-D model where both viscosity and lithospheric thickness vary laterally. For our Last Glacial Maximum to present investigations we employ ICE6g [Peltier et al., 2015]. For our present-future investigations we consider a melt scenario consistent with GRACE satellite gravity derived solutions [Harig et al., 2015]. Our calculations indicate that predictions of crustal deformations due to both GIA and ongoing melting are strongly influenced by 3-D

  5. Bathymetry 1M GRID of St. John (South Shore - Area 1), US Virgin Islands, 2004, UTM 20 WGS84

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Grid with 1 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the south shore of St. John, US Virgin Islands. Due to the large file size...

  6. AFSC/NMML: Shore-based counts of the Eastern North Pacific gray whale stock from central California, 1967 - 2007

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has conducted shore-based counts of the Eastern North Pacific stock of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) 26 years from...

  7. Distribution of macroinvertebrates on intertidal rocky shores in Gorgona Island, Colombia (Tropical Eastern Pacific

    Edgardo Londoño-Cruz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organisms found on rocky shores must endure harsh environmental conditions during tidal changes but scientific studies on tropical rocky shores are scarce, particularly in Colombian shores. Here we describe the spatial distribution of macroinvertebrates associated to the intertidal rocky ecosystems of Gorgona Island, Colombia (Tropical Eastern Pacific. Sampling was carried out in four localities around the Island: La Ventana and La Camaronera (sampled during October 2010 and La Mancora and El Muelle (sampled during March 2011. Two methodologies were used: rapid ecological assessments for qualitative data and quadrats for quantitative data. The richness, abundance, diversity (Shannon-Wiener H’, and evenness (Pielou J’ of macroinvertebrates were determined for and compared between, using one way ANOVA, each locality and the three intertidal zones of La Ventana (see methods. One hundred twenty-one species of macroinvertebrates were found during the sampling period. In all localities, Mollusca was the richest and most abundant taxon (46% of the species and 59% of the individuals, followed by Crustacea (32% of the species and 33% of the individuals. The other groups accounted for the remaining 22% of the richness and 8% of the abundance. Several studies have demonstrated that mollusks and crustaceans are the richest and most abundant taxa in marine benthic communities. Most of the abundant species found were herbivores. The species composition varied among zones. The results of dominant species for each zone are consistent with the ones observed in other tropical rocky intertidal shores. All response variables showed a decreasing pattern from the low to the high intertidal (in La Ventana. Post-hoc results indicated that the high intertidal, the zone with the harshest environmental conditions, had significantly lower values than the other two zones for all response variables. Comparisons between the low intertidal zones of the different localities

  8. Natural and Human-Induced Variability in Barrier-Island Response to Sea Level Rise

    Miselis, Jennifer L.; Lorenzo-Trueba, Jorge

    2017-12-01

    Storm-driven sediment fluxes onto and behind barrier islands help coastal barrier systems keep pace with sea level rise (SLR). Understanding what controls cross-shore sediment flux magnitudes is critical for making accurate forecasts of barrier response to increased SLR rates. Here, using an existing morphodynamic model for barrier island evolution, observations are used to constrain model parameters and explore potential variability in future barrier behavior. Using modeled drowning outcomes as a proxy for vulnerability to SLR, 0%, 28%, and 100% of the barrier is vulnerable to SLR rates of 4, 7, and 10 mm/yr, respectively. When only overwash fluxes are increased in the model, drowning vulnerability increases for the same rates of SLR, suggesting that future increases in storminess may increase island vulnerability particularly where sediment resources are limited. Developed sites are more vulnerable to SLR, indicating that anthropogenic changes to overwash fluxes and estuary depths could profoundly affect future barrier response to SLR.

  9. Freedom's Shore

    Duncan, Russell

    protected the newly-freed slaves trying to build lives in the shattered but glorious aftermath of the war. In the end, Campbell lost to the patriarchs of white supremacy and was sent to work in a chain-gang labor camp while African Americans in his district were relegated to unequal and discriminatory...

  10. Vital arctic graphics. People and global heritage on our last wild shores

    Ahlenius, H.; Johnsen, K; Nellemann, C.

    2005-02-01

    Vital Arctic Graphics is a compilation of illustrations and case studies intended to describe the Arctic, the livelihoods of Arctic indigenous peoples and the future well-being of this region. It summarizes some of the key threats to the future sustainability of the Arctic including the rapid pace of climate change, worrying levels of persistent organic and heavy metal pollutants, and increasing natural resource exploration. The coastal regions are particularly important to the peoples of the Arctic and their current protection status is therefore given particular focus

  11. Low crested coastal defence structures on the Catalan coast of the Mediterranean Sea: how they compare with natural rocky shores

    Esperança Gacia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Erosion problems in coastal zones are increasingly threatening Mediterranean shores. In tourist areas such as the Catalan coast, there has been an increasing demand for the construction of low crested structures (LCS to maintain beaches for recreational purposes. We studied the composition of the biota from three LCS and compared it with that of nearby natural rocky shores. Our purpose was to assess the composition of the communities growing on the LCS at a regional scale and to explore potential patterns of community composition in LCS in relation to the nature of the surrounding coast (i.e. sand or rocky shore, distance from natural hard-bottom communities and orientation of the blocks within the structure. The communities growing on the LCS were similar to those from nearby natural shores but the diversity and the number of taxa was always lower. Sixty to 95% of the species present on natural rocky shores grew on LCS, and differences in the number of taxa between the natural and the artificial substrates increased with increasing distances between them. On the Catalan coast, LCS act as impoverished rocky shores that never become natural ‘climax’ communities.

  12. Primer and short-range releaser pheromone properties of premolt female urine from the shore crab Carcinus maenas.

    Ekerholm, Mattias; Hallberg, Eric

    2005-08-01

    The European shore crab Carcinus maenas is considered to rely on a female pheromone when mating. Evidence, however, is scarce on how the urine pheromone in itself affects males. We investigated male primer and releaser responses to female pheromones with methods that minimized effects from females, delivering female urine either as a pump-generated plume or deposited on a polyurethane sponge. We delivered the pheromone at different concentrations in far, near, and close/contact range to get a picture of how distance affects behavioral response. Our results show that substances in premolt female urine (PMU) function as primer and potent short-range releaser pheromones. Based on the olfactometer and sponge tests, we conclude that PMU stimulus in itself is sufficient to elicit increased search and mating-specific behaviors such as posing, posing search, cradle carrying, and stroking. Pheromone concentrations do not seem to be important for attenuating search and posing as long as the level is above a certain threshold concentration. Instead, pheromone levels seem to play a role in male acceptance of females, recruiting more males to respond, and generating better responses with increasing concentration.

  13. Modeling erosion and accretion along the Illinois Lake Michigan shore using integrated airborne, waterborne and ground-based method

    Mwakanyamale, K. E.; Brown, S.; Larson, T. H.; Theuerkauf, E.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Phillips, A.; Anderson, A.

    2017-12-01

    Sediment distribution at the Illinois Lake Michigan shoreline is constantly changing in response to increased human activities and complex natural coastal processes associated with wave action, short and long term fluctuations in lake level, and the influence of coastal ice. Understanding changes to volume, distribution and thickness of sand along the shore through time, is essential for modeling shoreline changes and predicting changes due to extreme weather events and lake-level fluctuation. The use of helicopter transient electromagnetic (HTEM) method and integration with ground-based and waterborne geophysical and geologic methods provides high resolution spatial rich data required for modeling the extent of erosion and accretion at this dynamic coastal system. Analysis and interpretation of HTEM, ground and waterborne geophysical and geological data identify spatial distribution and thickness of beach and lake-bottom sand. The results provide information on existence of littoral sand deposits and identify coastal hazards such as lakebed down-cutting that occurs in sand-starved areas.

  14. Power Flow Control through a Multi-Level H-Bridge-based Power Converter for Universal and Flexible Power Management in Future Electrical Grids

    Iov, Florin; Bifaretti, Steffano; Zanchetta, Pericle

    2008-01-01

    The paper proposes a novel power conversion system for Universal and Flexible Power Management (UNIFLEX-PM) in Future Electricity Network. The structure is based on three AC-DC converters each one connected to a different grid, (representing the main grid and/or various distributed generation...... systems) on the AC side, and linked together at DC side by suitable DC isolation modules. Each port of the UNIFLEX-PM system employs a conversion structure based on a three-phase 7-level AC-DC cascaded converter. Effective and accurate power flow control is demonstrated through simulation in Matlab...... and Simulink environment on a simplified model based on a two-port structure and using a Stationery Reference Frame based control solution. Control of different Power flow profiles has been successfully tested in numerous network conditions such as voltage unbalance, frequency excursions and harmonic...

  15. Transboundary geophysical mapping of geological elements and salinity distribution critical for the assessment of future sea water intrusion in response to sea level rise

    Joergensen, F.; Scheer, W.; Thomsen, S.

    2012-01-01

    Geophysical techniques are increasingly being used as tools for characterising the subsurface, and they are generally required to develop subsurface models that properly delineate the distribution of aquifers and aquitards, salt/freshwater interfaces, and geological structures that affect......, and sand aquifers are all examples of geological structures mapped by the geophysical data that control groundwater flow and to some extent hydrochemistry. Additionally, the data provide an excellent picture of the salinity distribution in the area and thus provide important information on the salt...... revealed. The mapped salinity distribution indicates preferential flow paths through and along specific geological structures within the area. The effects of a future sea level rise on the groundwater system and groundwater chemistry are discussed with special emphasis on the importance of knowing...

  16. Evaluating the potential for near-shore bathymetry on the Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, using Landsat 8 and WorldView-3 imagery

    Poppenga, Sandra K.; Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Gesch, Dean B.; Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Tyler, Dean J.

    2018-04-16

    Satellite-derived near-shore bathymetry (SDB) is becoming an increasingly important method for assessing vulnerability to climate change and natural hazards in low-lying atolls of the northern tropical Pacific Ocean. Satellite imagery has become a cost-effective means for mapping near-shore bathymetry because ships cannot collect soundings safely while operating close to the shore. Also, green laser light detection and ranging (lidar) acquisitions are expensive in remote locations. Previous research has demonstrated that spectral band ratio-based techniques, commonly called the natural logarithm approach, may lead to more precise measurements and modeling of bathymetry because of the phenomenon that different substrates at the same depth have approximately equal ratio values. The goal of this research was to apply the band ratio technique to Landsat 8 at-sensor radiance imagery and WorldView-3 atmospherically corrected imagery in the coastal waters surrounding the Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, to derive near-shore bathymetry that could be incorporated into a seamless topobathymetric digital elevation model of Majuro. Attenuation of light within the water column was characterized by measuring at-sensor radiance and reflectance at different depths and calculating an attenuation coefficient. Bathymetric lidar data, collected by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office in 2006, were used to calibrate the SDB results. The bathymetric lidar yielded a strong linear relation with water depths. The Landsat 8-derived SDB estimates derived from the blue/green band ratio exhibited a water attenuation extinction depth of 6 meters with a coefficient of determination R2=0.9324. Estimates derived from the coastal/red band ratio had an R2=0.9597. At the same extinction depth, SDB estimates derived from WorldView-3 imagery exhibited an R2=0.9574. Because highly dynamic coastal shorelines can be affected by erosion, wetland loss, hurricanes, sea-level rise, urban

  17. Future directions

    Lutz, R.J. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Topics presented concerning the future developments in risk analysis are: safety goals, US severe accident policy, code developments, research programs, analyses and operation action, linking with the deterministic analyses. Principle consideration in risk is defined as protection of both general population, and nearby residents. The principal goal should be consistent with risk of other man-caused activities, the cost benefit after minimum safety levels are achieved, and proportional to benefits to be gained

  18. Association of triiodothyronine levels with future development of metabolic syndrome in euthyroid middle-aged subjects: a 6-year retrospective longitudinal study.

    Kim, Hye Jeong; Bae, Ji Cheol; Park, Hyeong Kyu; Byun, Dong Won; Suh, Kyoil; Yoo, Myung Hi; Jae Hwan, Jee; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Min, Yong-Ki; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2017-04-01

    Several cross-sectional studies have reported that thyroid hormone levels are associated with cardiovascular risk markers and metabolic syndrome (MetS) even in euthyroid subjects. However, the prognostic role of serum thyroid hormone levels in the risk of incident MetS has not been elucidated. We aimed to investigate the associations of baseline serum thyroid hormone levels with the development of MetS in healthy subjects. This 6-year, cross-sectional, longitudinal and follow-up study was conducted in 12 037 euthyroid middle-aged subjects without MetS subjected to comprehensive health examinations. Subjects were grouped according to total triiodothyronine (T3) quartiles. The hazard ratio (HR) for the development of MetS according to T3 quartiles was estimated using Cox proportional hazards model. During the 6-year period, 3544 incident cases of MetS (29%) were identified. The proportion of subjects with incident MetS increased across the T3 quartiles ( P for trend <0.001). The HR and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the development of MetS were significantly higher in the highest T3 quartile compared with the lowest T3 quartile even after adjusting for confounding variables including gender, age and smoking (HR: 1.238, 95% CI: 1.128-1.358, P  < 0.001). In euthyroid middle-aged subjects, serum T3 levels are associated with increased risk for future development of MetS. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  19. Validation of on-site job-built guardrails with shoring jack as supports

    Lan, A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To protect themselves against fall hazards in a slab-column frame, workers use the row of shoring jacks installed at 1 m from the edge as supports for on-site built guardrails. Inspectors of the Quebec Workers Compensation Board (Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail (CSST have expressed concern about the safety and compliance of these on-site built guardrails with the Quebec Safety Code for the Construction Industry (S-2.1, r.4. Some workers have also inquired if the shoring jack can be used as an anchor for a travel restraint system. The present study describes how an evaluation method and a test protocol have been used to verify if guardrails built on-site, with shoring jacks as supports, are safe and comply with the requirements of S-2.1, r.4 and if the shoring jack can be used as an anchor point for a travel restraint system. The results of the study show 1 guardrails built on site with shoring jacks as supports, are safe and comply with S-2.1, r.4 and 2 shoring jacks used as supports for guardrails must not be used as an anchor for a travel restraint system.Para la protección contra el peligro de caída en altura durante la ejecución de la estructura de un edificio, los trabajadores utilizan puntales acodalados a dos forjados y situados a 1 metro del borde de forjado como apoyo de las barandillas de seguridad. Inspectores de la Quebec Workers Compensation Board (Commision de la santé et de la sécurité du travail (CSST han expresado su preocupación por la seguridad y el cumplimiento de estos sistemas de protección en la construcción conforme al Código de Seguridad de Quebec para la industria de la construcción (S-2.1, R.6. Así mismo algunos trabajadores han mostrado su inquietud sobre la utilización de los puntales como sistemas para limitar el desplazamiento. El presente estudio describe un método de evaluación y un procedimiento de ensayo que se han utilizado para verificar si las barandillas de seguridad

  20. Preliminary assessment of geologic materials to minimize biological intrusion of low-level waste trench covers and plans for the future

    Hakonson, T.E.; White, G.C.; Gladney, E.S.; Muller, M.

    1981-01-01

    The long-term integrity of low-level waste shallow land burial sites is dependent on the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological factors that modify the waste containment system. Past research on low-level waste shallow land burial methods has emphasized physical (i.e., water infiltration, soil erosion) and chemical (radionuclide leaching) processes that can cause radionuclide transport from a waste site. Preliminary results demonstrate that a sandy backfill material offers little resistance to root and animal intrusion through the cover profile. However, bentonite clay, cobble, and cobble-gravel combinations do reduce plant root and animal intrusion through cover profiles compared with sandy backfill soil. However, bentonite clay barrier systems appear to be degraded by plant roots through time. Desiccation of the clay barrier by invading plant roots may limit the usefulness of bentonite clay as a moisture and/or biological carrier unless due consideration is given to this interaction. Future experiments are described that further examine the effect of plant roots on clay barrier systems and that determine the effectiveness of proposed biological barriers on larger scales and under various stress conditions

  1. Shore Shapers: Introducing children and the general public to biogeomorphological processes and geodiversity

    Naylor, Larissa; Coombes, Martin; Sewell, Jack; White, Anissia

    2014-05-01

    Coastal processes shape the coast into a variety of eye-catching and enticing landforms that attract people to marvel at, relax and enjoy coastal geomorphology. Field guides to explain these processes (and the geodiversity that results) to the general public and children are few and far between. In contrast, there is a relative wealth of resources and organised activities introducing people to coastal wildlife, especially on rocky shores. These biological resources typically focus on the biology and climatic controls on their distribution, rather than how the biology interacts with its physical habitat. As an outcome of two recent rock coast biogeomorphology projects (www.biogeomorph.org/coastal/coastaldefencedbiodiversity and www.biogeomorph.org/coastal/bioprotection ), we produced the first known guide to understanding how biogeomorphological processes help create coastal landforms. The 'Shore Shapers' guide (www.biogeomorph.org/coastal/shoreshapers) is designed to: a) bring biotic-geomorphic interactions to life and b) introduce some of the geomorphological and geological controls on biogeomorphic processes and landform development. The guide provides scientific information in an accessible and interactive way - to help sustain children's interest and extend their learning. We tested a draft version of our guide with children, the general public and volunteers on rocky shore rambles using social science techniques and of 74 respondents, 75.6% were more interested in understanding how rock pools (i.e. coastal landforms) develop after seeing the guide. Respondents' opinions about key bioprotective species also changed as a result of seeing the guide - 58% of people found barnacles unattractive before they saw the guide whilst 36% of respondents were more interested in barnacles after seeing the guide. These results demonstrate that there is considerable interest in more educational materials on coastal biogeomorphology and geodiversity.

  2. Estimation of future levels and changes in profitability: The effect of the relative position of the firm in its industry and the operating-financing disaggregation

    Borja Amor-Tapia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine how the relative position of a firm’s Return on Equity (ROE in industries affects the predictability of the next-year ROE levels, and the ROE changes from year to year. Using Nissim and Penman breakdown into operating and financing drivers, the significant role of the industry factor is established, although changes in signs suggest subtle non-linear relations in the drivers. Our study avoids problems originating from negative signs by analyzing sorts and by making new regressions with disaggregated second-order drivers by signs. This way, our results provide evidence of some different patterns in the influence of the first-level drivers of ROE (the operating factor and the financing factor, and the second-level drivers (profit margin, asset turnover, leverage and return spread on future profitability, depending on the industry spread. The results on the role of contextual factors to improve the estimation of future profitability remain consistent for small and large firms, although adding some nuances En este trabajo examinamos si la posición relativa del ROE de la empresa en el sector afecta a la estimación del nivel de ROE en el a˜no posterior, y a la estimación de su variación. Empleando el desglose operativo-financiero de Nissim y Penman, encontramos que el factor sectorial es significativo, aunque las variaciones de los signos sugieren la presencia de relaciones no lineales. Nuestro trabajo evita los problemas generados por los signos negativos en los ratios al emplear cuantiles y realizar regresiones independientes para los diferentes signos que toman las variables. De esta forma, los resultados muestran diferentes patrones en el impacto de los inductores del ROE de primer nivel (los factores operativo y financiero y de segundo nivel (margen de resultados, rotaciones de los activos, endeudamiento y diferencial de rentabilidad sobre la rentabilidad futura, dependiendo del diferencial de rentabilidad con

  3. INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS FOR SMALL SCALE VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINES USED IN HARBOURS AND SHORE AREAS

    IONESCU Raluca Dora

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyse the wind turbine solutions implemented in harbours and on shore areas. Also a thorough study of the blade design solutions for small power Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs has been conducted, with their advantages and disadvantages, in order to find the best solution that minimises the loads and helps with the self-starting capabilities of the wind turbine. First are presented all the solutions, next are discussed several research results for each solution and, in the end, a combination of solutions is chosen for our new small power VAWT with a pre-dimensioning analysis.

  4. Profilicollis botulus (Van Cleave, 1916) from diving ducks and shore crabs of British Columbia.

    Ching, H L

    1989-02-01

    Adults of Profilicollis botulus were found in 6 species of diving ducks in British Columbia including 3 new hosts: common goldeneye, Bucephala clangula (L.); Barrow's goldeneye, B. islandica (Gmelin); and greater scaup, Aythya marila (L.). The identification of the species was verified by the examination of co-types and specimens from eider ducks, Somateria mollissima (L.), from Scotland and oldsquaw, Clangula hyemalis (L.), from New Brunswick. Cystacanths from the hairy shore crab, Hemigrapsus oregonensis (Dana), were similar in morphology to those from Carcinus maenas (L.) from Scotland.

  5. The need for integrated off-shore, real-time information and management systems

    Morley, L W

    1981-07-01

    Integrated planning, in which data from ships, aircraft, data buoys, and shore or satellite-borne radar are used for ocean surveillance is urged. The Atlantic coast of Canada is used as an example of the inefficiency of current management methods. Traffic control, search and rescue missions, pollution control, weather forecasting, and fisheries management are directed by separate government agencies, each with its own information system. A coordinated approach would reduce waste and allow full advantage to be taken of technological developments, e.g., satellites, unknown when the agencies were created.

  6. Sound Propagation Around Off-Shore Wind Turbines. Long-Range Parabolic Equation Calculations for Baltic Sea Conditions

    Johansson, Lisa

    2003-07-01

    Low-frequency, long-range sound propagation over a sea surface has been calculated using a wide-angel Cranck-Nicholson Parabolic Equation method. The model is developed to investigate noise from off-shore wind turbines. The calculations are made using normal meteorological conditions of the Baltic Sea. Special consideration has been made to a wind phenomenon called low level jet with strong winds on rather low altitude. The effects of water waves on sound propagation have been incorporated in the ground boundary condition using a boss model. This way of including roughness in sound propagation models is valid for water wave heights that are small compared to the wave length of the sound. Nevertheless, since only low frequency sound is considered, waves up to the mean wave height of the Baltic Sea can be included in this manner. The calculation model has been tested against benchmark cases and agrees well with measurements. The calculations show that channelling of sound occurs at downwind conditions and that the sound propagation tends towards cylindrical spreading. The effects of the water waves are found to be fairly small.

  7. Future developments in biliary stenting

    Hair CD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Clark D Hair,1 Divyesh V Sejpal21Department of Medicine, Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Section of Gastroenterology, Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, North Shore University Hospital, Manhasset, NY, USAAbstract: Biliary stenting has evolved dramatically over the past 30 years. Advancements in stent design have led to prolonged patency and improved efficacy. However, biliary stenting is still affected by occlusion, migration, anatomical difficulties, and the need for repeat procedures. Multiple novel plastic biliary stent designs have recently been introduced with the primary goals of reduced migration and improved ease of placement. Self-expandable bioabsorbable stents are currently being investigated in animal models. Although not US Food and Drug Administration approved for benign disease, fully covered self-expandable metal stents are increasingly being used in a variety of benign biliary conditions. In malignant disease, developments are being made to improve ease of placement and stent patency for both hilar and distal biliary strictures. The purpose of this review is to describe recent developments and future directions of biliary stenting.Keywords: plastic stents, self-expandable metal stents, drug eluting stents, bioabsorbable stents, malignant biliary strictures, benign biliary strictures

  8. Near shore seismic movements induced by seaquakes using the boundary element method

    Manuel Carbajal-Romero; Norberto Flores-Guzmán; J.Efraín Rodríguez-Sánchez; Andriy Kryvko

    2017-01-01

    This study quantifies seismic amplifications in near-shore arising from seaquakes.Within the Boundary Element Method,boundary elements are used to irradiate waves and force densities obtained for each element.Huygens Principle is implemented since the diffracted waves are constructed at the boundary from which they are radiated,which is equivalent to Somigliana's theorem.Application of boundary conditions leads to a system of integral equations of the Fredholm type of second kind and zero order.Several numerical configurations are analyzed:The first is used to verify the present formulation with ideal sea floor configurations to estimate seismic amplifications.With the formulation verified,simple slope configurations are studied to estimate spectra of seismic motions.It is found that P-waves can produce seismic amplifications from 1.2 to 3.9 times the amplitude of the incident wave.SV-waves can generate seismic amplifications up to 4.5 times the incident wave.Another relevant finding is that the highest amplifications are at the shore compared to the ones at the sea floor.

  9. Visual analysis of uncertainties in ocean forecasts for planning and operation of off-shore structures

    Hollt, Thomas; Magdy, Ahmed; Chen, Guoning; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Hansen, Charles D.; Hadwiger, Markus

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel integrated visualization system that enables interactive visual analysis of ensemble simulations used in ocean forecasting, i.e, simulations of sea surface elevation. Our system enables the interactive planning of both the placement and operation of off-shore structures. We illustrate this using a real-world simulation of the Gulf of Mexico. Off-shore structures, such as those used for oil exploration, are vulnerable to hazards caused by strong loop currents. The oil and gas industry therefore relies on accurate ocean forecasting systems for planning their operations. Nowadays, these forecasts are based on multiple spatio-temporal simulations resulting in multidimensional, multivariate and multivalued data, so-called ensemble data. Changes in sea surface elevation are a good indicator for the movement of loop current eddies, and our visualization approach enables their interactive exploration and analysis. We enable analysis of the spatial domain, for planning the placement of structures, as well as detailed exploration of the temporal evolution at any chosen position, for the prediction of critical ocean states that require the shutdown of rig operations. © 2013 IEEE.

  10. Conceptual Inadequacy of the Shore and Johnson Axioms for Wide Classes of Complex Systems

    Constantino Tsallis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is by now well known that the Boltzmann-Gibbs-von Neumann-Shannon logarithmic entropic functional (\\(S_{BG}\\ is inadequate for wide classes of strongly correlated systems: see for instance the 2001 Brukner and Zeilinger's {\\it Conceptual inadequacy of the Shannon information in quantum measurements}, among many other systems exhibiting various forms of complexity. On the other hand, the Shannon and Khinchin axioms uniquely mandate the BG form \\(S_{BG}=-k\\sum_i p_i \\ln p_i\\; the Shore and Johnson axioms follow the same path. Many natural, artificial and social systems have been satisfactorily approached with nonadditive entropies such as the \\(S_q=k \\frac{1-\\sum_i p_i^q}{q-1}\\ one (\\(q \\in {\\cal R}; \\,S_1=S_{BG}\\, basis of nonextensive statistical mechanics. Consistently, the Shannon 1948 and Khinchine 1953 uniqueness theorems have already been generalized in the literature, by Santos 1997 and Abe 2000 respectively, in order to uniquely mandate \\(S_q\\. We argue here that the same remains to be done with the Shore and Johnson 1980 axioms. We arrive to this conclusion by analyzing specific classes of strongly correlated complex systems that await such generalization.

  11. Natural attenuation of trichloroethene and its degradation products at a lake-shore site

    An, Youn-Joo; Kampbell, Donald H.; Weaver, James W.; Wilson, John T.; Jeong, Seung-Woo

    2004-01-01

    Subsurface contamination by trichloroethene (TCE) was detected at a Michigan National Priorities List (NPL) site in 1982. The TCE plume resulted from the disposal of spent solvent and other chemicals at an industrial facility located in the eastern shore of Lake Michigan. TCE degradation products of three dichloroethene (DCE) isomers, vinyl chloride (VC) and ethene were present. The plume was depleted of oxygen and methanogenic at certain depths. Transects of the plume were sampled by slotted auger borings the year after the TCE plume was first discovered. Water samples were also taken from lake sediments to a depth of 12 m about 100 m offshore. Later samples were taken along the shoreline of the lake with a hand-driven probe. Later in 1998 water was taken from sediments about 3-m from the shoreline. The average concentration of each chemical and net apparent base coefficient between appropriate pairs of transects between the lower site and lakeshore were calculated. Loss rates were then calculated from an analytical solution of the two-dimensional advective-dispersive-reactive transport equation. Net apparent rate coefficients and a set of coupled reaction rate equations were used to extract the apparent loss coefficients. This study showed the field evidence for natural attenuation of TCE. - Field investigation of TCE contamination at a lake-shore site indicates that TCE is anaerobically degrading under ambient conditions

  12. Intraguild predation by shore crabs affects mortality, behavior, growth, and densities of California horn snails

    Lorda, J.; Hechinger, R.F.; Cooper, S. D.; Kuris, A. M.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    The California horn snail, Cerithideopsis californica, and the shore crabs, Pachygrapsus crassipesand Hemigrapsus oregonensis, compete for epibenthic microalgae, but the crabs also eat snails. Such intraguild predation is common in nature, despite models predicting instability. Using a series of manipulations and field surveys, we examined intraguild predation from several angles, including the effects of stage-dependent predation along with direct consumptive and nonconsumptive predator effects on intraguild prey. In the laboratory, we found that crabs fed on macroalgae, snail eggs, and snails, and the size of consumed snails increased with predator crab size. In field experiments, snails grew less in the presence of crabs partially because snails behaved differently and were buried in the sediment (nonconsumptive effects). Consistent with these results, crab and snail abundances were negatively correlated in three field surveys conducted at three different spatial scales in estuaries of California, Baja California, and Baja California Sur: (1) among 61 sites spanning multiple habitat types in three estuaries, (2) among the habitats of 13 estuaries, and (3) among 34 tidal creek sites in one estuary. These results indicate that shore crabs are intraguild predators on California horn snails that affect snail populations via predation and by influencing snail behavior and performance.

  13. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Off-Shore Wind Energy Project’s Risks

    Sayed Amir Hamzeh Mirkheshti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of wind power can solve the issue of growing power consumption with insufficient distribution facilities. Based on an extensive research on more than 20 studies, this study explores the risks associated with off-shore wind energy in Persian Gulf in Iran. This paper tries to identify the risks in related off-shore wind energy project, in order to specify which variables have the most impact on project by qualitative analysis through application of the impact and the possibility of every risk. A survey was conducted in order to determine the relative importance of variables and risks. Certain key components in completion of the project should be taken into account such as technology, research team, expert teams (personnel that have a good knowledge of this industry, and choosing the right spot where the wind farms will be located. The objective of this paper is to present the variables encountered in wind power project and to highlight the risks that must be controlled by the project developers, project team, supply chain actors, manufacturers, and all the stockholders involved in successful completion of a project.

  14. Investigating Potential Strategies for Increasing Tourism Competiveness at the Black Sea Shore

    Adina-Roxana Munteanu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During 2009-2011 the tourism industry at the Black Sea shore experienced a significant downturn as a direct result of the global economic crisis and a shy growth in 2012-2013 period. In this context of difficult macroeconomic conditions and a hardly predictable number of tourists, the suppliers of tourism services need a constant revision of strategy in order to increase their competitiveness and adapt to external market conditions. The main objective of this study is to investigate the competitive strategies that hotels managers in Mamaia resort, Romania, could adopt considering customers` expectations and hospitality industry best practices. In order to achieve this, a best practice benchmarking analysis was performed considering several locations on the seaside in France, Italy, Spain and Turkey. Following this analysis, several strategies are drafted, such as: use of social media, creation of packaged deals, targeting the business segment and advertising by using the cultural and historical context of the location. Moreover, a short survey among social media users revealed some of the tourists` expectations regarding their holidays at the Romanian Black Sea shore, such as quality of accommodation facilities, personalized services and entertainment possibilities.

  15. The off-shore Transport of China Coastal Current over Taiwan Bank in Winter

    Liao, E.; Yan, X. H.; Oey, L. Y.; Jiang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    In winter, an off-shore flow of China Coastal Current can be inferred from satellite and in-situ data over the Taiwan Bank. The dynamics related to this off-shore flow have not been previously explained and are examined here using observations and model. Influenced by southward wind stress and opposing pressure gradient, currents over the Taiwan Bank can be classified into three regimes. The southward China Coastal Current flows pass the Taiwan Bank when the wind stress is stronger than a critical value which depends on the opposite pressure gradient force. The coastal current turns northward under a weak wind stress. Two opposite currents converge over the bank and a branch of the coastal current then turns into the northward warm current when these two forces are in balance. Analysis of the vorticity balance shows that the cross-isobath movement is related to a negative bottom stress curl over the Taiwan Bank. Both bottom Ekman transport and shear and curvature vorticity related to the weak bottom slope over the Taiwan Bank contribute to the bottom stress curl. Composite analyses using observations tend to support the model results.

  16. Visual analysis of uncertainties in ocean forecasts for planning and operation of off-shore structures

    Hollt, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    We present a novel integrated visualization system that enables interactive visual analysis of ensemble simulations used in ocean forecasting, i.e, simulations of sea surface elevation. Our system enables the interactive planning of both the placement and operation of off-shore structures. We illustrate this using a real-world simulation of the Gulf of Mexico. Off-shore structures, such as those used for oil exploration, are vulnerable to hazards caused by strong loop currents. The oil and gas industry therefore relies on accurate ocean forecasting systems for planning their operations. Nowadays, these forecasts are based on multiple spatio-temporal simulations resulting in multidimensional, multivariate and multivalued data, so-called ensemble data. Changes in sea surface elevation are a good indicator for the movement of loop current eddies, and our visualization approach enables their interactive exploration and analysis. We enable analysis of the spatial domain, for planning the placement of structures, as well as detailed exploration of the temporal evolution at any chosen position, for the prediction of critical ocean states that require the shutdown of rig operations. © 2013 IEEE.

  17. INFLUENCE OF ECOLOGICAL GROUP COMPOSITION, PLANTATION SPACING AND ARRANGEMENT IN THE RESTORATION OF RIPARIAN FOREST ON RESERVOIR SHORES

    Alvaro Augusto Vieira Soares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to assess the effect of spacing, arrangement and ecological group composition of planted seedlings on the restoration process of artificial reservoir shores in southeastern Brazil. The assessments were performed 12 years after the settlement of the experiment in which five mixed stand models were tested. First, a general evaluation of the stand was performed when we surveyed the overstory and understory, seed bank and soil for chemical analysis.Then, the restoration indicators survival of planted trees, basal area and density of the tree community, litter accumulated on the soil and canopy closure index were utilized to compare the plantation models and to assess the influence the experimental factors on these parameters. In the general analysis, we found that the studied stand presents low diversity, poor regeneration, and seed bank dominated mostly by one planted exotic tree species and weeds, which may jeopardize the self- maintenance of the stand in the future. The factor that most influenced the models was the ecological group composition with the best performance found for models in which both pioneer and non-pioneer groups were used. Probably, the plantation arrangement and spacing did not have greater influence due to both plant mortality and natural regeneration that has developed to this age. Hence, it is not recommended the use of only pioneer species in the implantation of riparian forest and the proportion of 50% pioneers and 50% non-pioneers using as much species as possible is indicated for areas that might present constraints for the natural regeneration.

  18. Amount and metal composition of midgut gland metallothionein in shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) after exposure to cadmium in the food

    Pedersen, Knud Ladegaard; Bach, Louise Thornhøj; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Crabs were fed with Cd in concentrations of 1.1–5.1 μg g −1 food. • Metallothionein concentrations only increased at 5.1 μg g −1 . • Cd contents of metallothionein increased linearly with exposure. • A marked influence by the variable Cu contents on metal composition was recorded. • Digestive gland metallothionein is a poor biomarker for Cd exposure. - Abstract: Accumulation of cadmium in aquatic invertebrates may compromise human food safety and anthropogenic additions of cadmium to coastal areas cause concern. Induction of crustacean metallothionein has been suggested as a useful biomarker for contamination of the aquatic environment with cadmium. We investigated how exposure to low concentrations of cadmium in the food affects the subcellular binding of cadmium with the shore crab Carcinus maenas as model organism. Approximately 80% of the assimilated cadmium was bound in the soluble fraction of the midgut gland and of this, 82% was found in the metallothionein fraction. Metallothionein synthesis was only induced at the highest exposure level. However, the number of cadmium atoms bound per molecule of metallothionein increased linearly with exposure, from approximately 0.18 in the control group to 1.4 in a group administered food containing 5.1 μg Cd g −1 . We noted a marked interaction between the presence of copper and zinc in the midgut gland and the binding of cadmium. The usefulness of crustacean midgut gland metallothionein as a biomarker for cadmium exposure at modest levels was questioned since exposures at levels producing significant increases in the tissue contents of the metal did not result in elevated concentrations of metallothionein in the midgut gland

  19. A model integrating longshore and cross-shore processes for predicting long-term shoreline response to climate change

    Vitousek, Sean; Barnard, Patrick; Limber, Patrick W.; Erikson, Li; Cole, Blake

    2017-01-01

    We present a shoreline change model for coastal hazard assessment and management planning. The model, CoSMoS-COAST (Coastal One-line Assimilated Simulation Tool), is a transect-based, one-line model that predicts short-term and long-term shoreline response to climate change in the 21st century. The proposed model represents a novel, modular synthesis of process-based models of coastline evolution due to longshore and cross-shore transport by waves and sea-level rise. Additionally, the model uses an extended Kalman filter for data assimilation of historical shoreline positions to improve estimates of model parameters and thereby improve confidence in long-term predictions. We apply CoSMoS-COAST to simulate sandy shoreline evolution along 500 km of coastline in Southern California, which hosts complex mixtures of beach settings variably backed by dunes, bluffs, cliffs, estuaries, river mouths, and urban infrastructure, providing applicability of the model to virtually any coastal setting. Aided by data assimilation, the model is able to reproduce the observed signal of seasonal shoreline change for the hindcast period of 1995-2010, showing excellent agreement between modeled and observed beach states. The skill of the model during the hindcast period improves confidence in the model's predictive capability when applied to the forecast period (2010-2100) driven by GCM-projected wave and sea-level conditions. Predictions of shoreline change with limited human intervention indicate that 31% to 67% of Southern California beaches may become completely eroded by 2100 under sea-level rise scenarios of 0.93 to 2.0 m.

  20. Amount and metal composition of midgut gland metallothionein in shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) after exposure to cadmium in the food

    Pedersen, Knud Ladegaard; Bach, Louise Thornhøj; Bjerregaard, Poul, E-mail: poul@biology.sdu.dk

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Crabs were fed with Cd in concentrations of 1.1–5.1 μg g⁻¹ food. • Metallothionein concentrations only increased at 5.1 μg g⁻¹. • Cd contents of metallothionein increased linearly with exposure. • A marked influence by the variable Cu contents on metal composition was recorded. • Digestive gland metallothionein is a poor biomarker for Cd exposure. - Abstract: Accumulation of cadmium in aquatic invertebrates may compromise human food safety and anthropogenic additions of cadmium to coastal areas cause concern. Induction of crustacean metallothionein has been suggested as a useful biomarker for contamination of the aquatic environment with cadmium. We investigated how exposure to low concentrations of cadmium in the food affects the subcellular binding of cadmium with the shore crab Carcinus maenas as model organism. Approximately 80% of the assimilated cadmium was bound in the soluble fraction of the midgut gland and of this, 82% was found in the metallothionein fraction. Metallothionein synthesis was only induced at the highest exposure level. However, the number of cadmium atoms bound per molecule of metallothionein increased linearly with exposure, from approximately 0.18 in the control group to 1.4 in a group administered food containing 5.1 μg Cd g⁻¹. We noted a marked interaction between the presence of copper and zinc in the midgut gland and the binding of cadmium. The usefulness of crustacean midgut gland metallothionein as a biomarker for cadmium exposure at modest levels was questioned since exposures at levels producing significant increases in the tissue contents of the metal did not result in elevated concentrations of metallothionein in the midgut gland.

  1. Distribution and behaviour of transuranic elements in the physical and biological compartments of the Channel French shore

    Germain, P.; Miramand, P.; Camus, H.; Grenaut, C.

    1983-09-01

    Biological samples (algae, suspension-feeder mollusks living in contact with sediments, annelids), sediments and sea water were taken at 5 stations along the Channel shore from 1978 to 1981 in order to determine 239 + 240 Pu, 238 Pu, 241 Am and 244 Cm levels. In Northern Cotentin, radioactivity levels for 239 + 240 Pu, 238 Pu and 241 Am, were respectively about 1-10, 0.5-7 and 1-19 pCi kg -1 fresh weight in biological samples; 24-90, 11-28 and 24-31 pCi kg -1 dry weight in sediments; 1-7, 5-40 and 2-15 fCi l -1 in sea water. For stations far from the La Hague outlet (Seine river and Mont Saint-Michel bays) levels for 239 + 240 Pu, 238 Pu and 241 Am were respectively about 0.3-5, 0.1-2 and 0.2-3 pCi kg -1 fresh weight in biological samples; 30-80, 5-26 and 14-40 pCi kg -1 dry weight in sediments and 1-3, 3-4 and 3-8 fCi l -1 in sea water. Labelling of industrial wastes was demonstrated by the values of the 238 Pu/ 239 + 240 Pu ratios. The evolution of plutonium isotopes in sea water and in the other environmental compartments and the bioavailability of americium are discussed. Sediment-animal transfers are quantified and their processes specified. An assessment of plutonium and americium hazards from ingestion of mollusks shows that the ingested activity represents 1.1 10 -4 only of the ALI (ingestion) recommended by ICRP for members of the public [fr

  2. Robonaut 2 and Watson: Cognitive Dexterity for Future Exploration

    Badger, Julia M.; Strawser, Philip; Farrell, Logan; Goza, S. Michael; Claunch, Charles A.; Chancey, Raphael; Potapinski, Russell

    2018-01-01

    Future exploration missions will dictate a level of autonomy never before experienced in human spaceflight. Mission plans involving the uncrewed phases of complex human spacecraft in deep space will require a coordinated autonomous capability to be able to maintain the spacecraft when ground control is not available. One promising direction involves embedding intelligence into the system design both through the employment of state-of-the-art system engineering principles as well as through the creation of a cognitive network between a smart spacecraft or habitat and embodiments of cognitive agents. The work described here details efforts to integrate IBM's Watson and other cognitive computing services into NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC)'s Robonaut 2 (R2) anthropomorphic robot. This paper also discusses future directions this work will take. A cognitive spacecraft management system that is able to seamlessly collect data from subsystems, determine corrective actions, and provide commands to enable those actions is the end goal. These commands could be to embedded spacecraft systems or to a set of robotic assets that are tied into the cognitive system. An exciting collaboration with Woodside provides a promising Earth-bound testing analog, as controlling and maintaining not normally manned off-shore platforms have similar constraints to the space missions described.

  3. To better know the biological behaviour of future nuclear materials: a need to maintain a good level of protection against ionising radiation

    Guillaumont, R.; Metivier, H.

    2007-01-01

    An important program of research, called 'Generation IV' is currently developed at an international level to prepare the launching of reactors for the future. Its objective is to satisfy the growing needs in electric power within the framework for a sustainable development. One of the major aspects of this program is the search and the development for new nuclear materials containing fissile/fertile isotopes. Unfortunately, one realizes today that for many compounds considered to be used to manufacture these materials, there are no radio-toxicologic data, allowing to the occupational physicist to evaluate the real risk in the event of contaminations and to prescribe adapted therapeutic de-corporation. An emergency revival of 'workplace' studies, where are or will be handled these compounds or materials is mandatory. The lesson of the past showed that the prevision in radioprotection was rather difficult and that an experimental validation of the behaviour of hazardous heavy elements both in vitro and in vivo was necessary. (authors)

  4. Effects of Changing Weather, Oceanographic Conditions, and Land Uses on Spatio-Temporal Variation of Sedimentation Dynamics along Near-Shore Coral Reefs

    Abimarie Otaño-Cruz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation is a critical threat to coral reefs worldwide. Major land use alteration at steep, highly erodible semi-arid islands accelerates the potential of soil erosion, runoff, and sedimentation stress to nearshore coral reefs during extreme rainfall events. The goal of this study was to assess spatio-temporal variation of sedimentation dynamics across nearshore coral reefs as a function of land use patterns, weather and oceanographic dynamics, to identify marine ecosystem conservation strategies. Sediment was collected at a distance gradient from shore at Bahia Tamarindo (BTA and Punta Soldado (PSO coral reefs at Culebra Island, Puerto Rico. Sediment texture and composition were analyzed by dry sieving and loss-on-ignition techniques, and were contrasted with environmental variables for the research period (February 2014 to April 2015. Rainfall and oceanographic data were analyzed to address their potential role on affecting sediment distribution with BEST BIO-ENV, RELATE correlation, and linear regression analysis. A significant difference in sedimentation rate was observed by time and distance from shore (PERMANOVA, p < 0.0100, mostly attributed to higher sediment exposure at reef zones closer to shore due to strong relationships with coastal runoff. Sedimentation rate positively correlated with strong rainfall events (Rho = 0.301, p = 0.0400 associated with storms and rainfall intensity exceeding 15 mm/h. At BTA, sediment deposited were mostly composed of sand, suggesting a potential influence of resuspension produced by waves and swells. In contrast, PSO sediments were mostly composed of silt-clay and terrigenous material, mainly attributed to a deforestation event that occurred at adjacent steep sub-watershed during the study period. Spatial and temporal variation of sedimentation pulses and terrigenous sediment input implies that coral reefs exposure to sediment stress is determined by local land use patterns, weather, and

  5. High-resolution onshore-offshore morpho-bathymetric records of modern chalk and granitic shore platforms in NW France

    Duperret, Anne; Raimbault, Céline; Le Gall, Bernard; Authemayou, Christine; van Vliet-Lanoë, Brigitte; Regard, Vincent; Dromelet, Elsa; Vandycke, Sara

    2016-07-01

    Modern shore platforms developed on rocky coasts are key areas for understanding coastal erosion processes during the Holocene. This contribution offers a detailed picture of two contrasted shore-platform systems, based on new high-resolution shallow-water bathymetry, further coupled with aerial LiDAR topography. Merged land-sea digital elevation models were achieved on two distinct types of rocky coasts along the eastern English Channel in France (Picardy and Upper-Normandy: PUN) and in a NE Atlantic area (SW Brittany: SWB) in NW France. About the PUN case, submarine steps, identified as paleo-shorelines, parallel the actual coastline. Coastal erosive processes appear to be continuous and regular through time, since mid-Holocene at least. In SWB, there is a discrepancy between contemporary coastline orientation and a continuous step extending from inland to offshore, identified as a paleo-shoreline. This illustrates a polyphased and inherited shore platform edification, mainly controlled by tectonic processes.

  6. Mollusc life and death assemblages on a tropical rocky shore as proxies for the taphonomic loss in a fossil counterpart

    Sørensen, Anne Mehlin; Surlyk, Finn

    2013-01-01

    a lower taxonomic agreement to the death assemblage than found in previous published studies. Rocky shore life and death assemblages thus appear to show lower taxonomic agreement compared to muddy or sandy shelf assemblages due to the mix after death with the sandy beach assemblage. A hypothetical fossil......Comparison of a modern rocky shore mollusc life assemblage from Thailand with the associated death assemblage, and interpretation of the fossilization potential of the latter, are used to investigate the fidelity in reconstruction of ancient analogues. The fauna from the death assemblage represents...... species from the rocky shore and the associated sandy pocket beaches, and only a few exotic species from other, completely different habitats are present. The environmental fidelity between the life and death assemblage is thus high, with the majority of species from the death assemblage representing...

  7. Survey of radiological contaminants in the near-shore environment at the Hanford Site 100-N Area reactor

    Van Verst, S.P.; Albin, C.L.; Patton, G.W.; Blanton, M.L.; Poston, T.M.; Cooper, A.T.; Antonio, E.J.

    1998-09-01

    Past operations at the Hanford Site 100-N Area reactor resulted in the release of radiological contaminants to the soil column, local groundwater, and ultimately to the near-shore environment of the Columbia River. In September 1997, the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) and the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) initiated a special study of the near-shore vicinity at the Hanford Site's retired 100-N Area reactor. Environmental samples were collected and analyzed for radiological contaminants ( 3 H, 90 Sr, and gamma/ emitters), with both the WDOH and SESP analyzing a portion of the samples. Samples of river water, sediment, riverbank springs, periphyton, milfoil, flying insects, clam shells, and reed canary grass were collected. External exposure rates were also measured for the near-shore environment in the vicinity of the 100-N Area. In addition, samples were collected at background locations above Vernita Bridge

  8. THE USE OF GENERATING SETS WITH lNG GAS ENGINES IN “SHORE TO SHIP” SYSTEMS

    Dariusz TARNAPOWICZ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The main sources of air pollution in ports are ships, on which electrical energy is produced in the autonomous gener-ating sets Diesel-Generator. The most effective way to reduce harmful exhaust emissions from ships is to exclude marine generating sets and provide the shore-side electricity in “Shore to Ship” system. The main problem in the implementa-tion of power supply for ships from land is connected with matching parameters of voltage in onshore network with marine network. Currently, the recommended solution is to supply ships from the onshore electricity network with the use of power electronic converters. This article presents an analysis of the „Shore to Ship” system with the use of gener-ating sets with LNG gas engines. It shows topologies with LNG – Generator sets, environmental benefits of such a solu-tion, advantages and disadvantages.

  9. Data summary for the near-shore sediment characterization task of the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program

    Levine, D.A.; Hargrove, W.W.; Campbell, K.R.; Wood, M.A.; Rash, C.D.

    1994-10-01

    This report presents the results of the Near-Shore Sediment Characterization Task of the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP). The goals of the task were to (1) determine the extent to which near-shore surface sediments are contaminated by releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and (2) provide data for the Watts Bar Reservoir Interagency Permitting Group (WBRIPG) to evaluate the human health risks from exposure to sediments during and following dredging operations. The data collected for this task are also to be used in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RLTS) for the CR-ERP operable units (Lower Watts Bar and Clinch River) to characterize the human health risk associated with exposure to near-shore sediments throughout the Watts Bar Reservoir

  10. Standards of Justice for Human Being and Doing in Kim Stanley Robinson’s 2312 and C. S. Friedman’s This Alien Shore

    Claire P. Curtis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The creation of superior societies and communities in which bodies live better and thrive depends on richly detailed accounts of imagined societies including flexible theories of justice that can be used to evaluate them. Both Kim Stanley Robinson’s '2312' (2012 and C. S. Friedman’s 'This Alien Shore' (1998 attempt to rethink what bodies can do and be, by exploring ways of living together among those with different, and differently compatible, bodies. The novels are set in future spacefaring societies away from the Earth, which nevertheless struggle with the fact of Earth’s existence. Each novel describes radical cognitive and bodily change: chosen alteration in '2312' and environmental transformation in 'This Alien Shore'. In each novel, the body, and what bodies can do and be, is a central issue. But how might we evaluate the societies these novels describe to gauge their contributions to articulating desires for a better way of being? In this article I employ Martha Nussbaum’s ‘capabilities approach’ (encompassing life, bodily health, bodily integrity, senses, emotions, reason, affiliation, play, other species, control over environment to think about justice in the articulation of evaluative standards. In so doing the analysis I develop addresses some key questions raised by these novels, including: Whose body will matter? Will there be bodily norms? How will communities confront different bodily abilities? How can we enhance our own thinking about how to live in and among bodies? How does (and should the idea of the body politic change when our expectations about bodies changes?

  11. A simple model to estimate the impact of sea-level rise on platform beaches

    Taborda, Rui; Ribeiro, Mónica Afonso

    2015-04-01

    Estimates of future beach evolution in response to sea-level rise are needed to assess coastal vulnerability. A research gap is identified in providing adequate predictive methods to use for platform beaches. This work describes a simple model to evaluate the effects of sea-level rise on platform beaches that relies on the conservation of beach sand volume and assumes an invariant beach profile shape. In closed systems, when compared with the Inundation Model, results show larger retreats; the differences are higher for beaches with wide berms and when the shore platform develops at shallow depths. The application of the proposed model to Cascais (Portugal) beaches, using 21st century sea-level rise scenarios, shows that there will be a significant reduction in beach width.

  12. Study of physiological and genotoxic status of fish populations of Azerbaijan shore of the Caspian sea

    Kasimov, R.Yu.; Palatnikov, G.M.; Mekhtiev, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : According to the studies conducted on Ecotox program of Caspian Ecological program, littoral waters of Azerbaijan and Iran are characterized with high content of heavy metals and organic compounds. Actually, all these substances are not just toxicants but mutagens as well. Taking into account these considerations, it appears important to be aware of physiological and genotoxic status of fish populations dwelling along Azerbaijan shore of the Caspian Sea for present time. The purpose of proposed project is collecting data concerning actual physiological and genotoxic status of fish populations dwelling in the littoral zone of Azerbaijan shore of the Caspian Sea. That will present the real picture of ecological status of ichtyofauna in Azerbaijan sector of the Caspian Sea and give grounds to conduct comparative analysis of changes while conducting all kinds of activities in the sea with the data provided within this project's frames. For this purpose we offer to conduct studies of fish populations along Azerbaijan littoral zone of the Caspian Sea beginning from north ones, sharing all shore into 5-6 points where fish catches should be done. Not less than 5 specimens of attached-dwelling fish, for instance gobies, are planned to catch in each of defined points. Blood samples for genotoxic analysis and samples of muscles, livers and gills for immunochemical and histopathological analysis will be taken. Along with this in these points the analysis of water - oxygen content, ph, salinity, temperature will be realized. Physiological status of fish will be evaluated by determination of serotonin-modulating protein content in ELISA-test. This analysis gives precise estimation of serotonergic system status that is very sensitive to adverse conditions. The second test - histopathological tissue studies gives grounds to determine functional status of internal organs of caught fish. The third test - micronuclei counting in erythrocytes. This technique allows

  13. Transboundary geophysical mapping of geological elements and salinity distribution critical for the assessment of future sea water intrusion in response to sea level rise

    F. Jørgensen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical techniques are increasingly being used as tools for characterising the subsurface, and they are generally required to develop subsurface models that properly delineate the distribution of aquifers and aquitards, salt/freshwater interfaces, and geological structures that affect groundwater flow. In a study area covering 730 km2 across the border between Germany and Denmark, a combination of an airborne electromagnetic survey (performed with the SkyTEM system, a high-resolution seismic survey and borehole logging has been used in an integrated mapping of important geological, physical and chemical features of the subsurface. The spacing between flight lines is 200–250 m which gives a total of about 3200 line km. About 38 km of seismic lines have been collected. Faults bordering a graben structure, buried tunnel valleys, glaciotectonic thrust complexes, marine clay units, and sand aquifers are all examples of geological structures mapped by the geophysical data that control groundwater flow and to some extent hydrochemistry. Additionally, the data provide an excellent picture of the salinity distribution in the area and thus provide important information on the salt/freshwater boundary and the chemical status of groundwater. Although the westernmost part of the study area along the North Sea coast is saturated with saline water and the TEM data therefore are strongly influenced by the increased electrical conductivity there, buried valleys and other geological elements are still revealed. The mapped salinity distribution indicates preferential flow paths through and along specific geological structures within the area. The effects of a future sea level rise on the groundwater system and groundwater chemistry are discussed with special emphasis on the importance of knowing the existence, distribution and geometry of the mapped geological elements, and their control on the groundwater salinity distribution is assessed.

  14. Estimating the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance contribution to future sea level rise using the regional atmospheric climate model MAR

    X. Fettweis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the sea level rise (SLR originating from changes in surface mass balance (SMB of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS, we present 21st century climate projections obtained with the regional climate model MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional, forced by output of three CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 general circulation models (GCMs. Our results indicate that in a warmer climate, mass gain from increased winter snowfall over the GrIS does not compensate mass loss through increased meltwater run-off in summer. Despite the large spread in the projected near-surface warming, all the MAR projections show similar non-linear increase of GrIS surface melt volume because no change is projected in the general atmospheric circulation over Greenland. By coarsely estimating the GrIS SMB changes from GCM output, we show that the uncertainty from the GCM-based forcing represents about half of the projected SMB changes. In 2100, the CMIP5 ensemble mean projects a GrIS SMB decrease equivalent to a mean SLR of +4 ± 2 cm and +9 ± 4 cm for the RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios respectively. These estimates do not consider the positive melt–elevation feedback, although sensitivity experiments using perturbed ice sheet topographies consistent with the projected SMB changes demonstrate that this is a significant feedback, and highlight the importance of coupling regional climate models to an ice sheet model. Such a coupling will allow the assessment of future response of both surface processes and ice-dynamic changes to rising temperatures, as well as their mutual feedbacks.

  15. [Localization of NADPH-diaphorase in the brain of the shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus].

    Kotsiuba, E P

    2005-01-01

    The presence and localization of NADPH-diaphorase in the cerebral ganglion of the shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus was investigated with histochemical and electron histochemical methods. The reactivity of this enzyme was found in the deutrocerebrum, mainly in neuropils of olfactory lobes, the lateral antennular neuropil, a laterodorsal group of cells, and in the oculomotor nerve nucleus. Ultrastructural localization of the enzyme was detected in neurons on the perinuclear membrane, and in membranes of endoplasmic reticulum, in mitochondria and cytosol. The enzyme was found in axons of the antennular nerve, and in terminals of receptor axons in the glomerulus. The obtained data testify to participation of NO in perception and processing of the olfactory information.

  16. What history reveals about Forge River pollution on Long Island, New York's south shore.

    Swanson, R Lawrence; Brownawell, B; Wilson, Robert E; O'Connell, Christine

    2010-06-01

    Fifty years ago, the Forge River and Moriches Bay, of Long Island's south shore lagoonal system, achieved notoriety when their polluted conditions were alluded to in a report of the US President's Science Advisory Committee (1965). The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution investigated the bay throughout the 1950s, identifying duck farming as the cause of "objectionable", "highly contaminated" conditions of these waters. Much has changed: duck farming declined; the river was dredged to remove polluted sediments, improve navigation; and barrier island inlets stabilized. Yet, the river remains seasonally eutrophic. Why? This paper reviews what occurred in the Forge River watershed. While governments aggressively curtailed the impacts of duck pollution, they failed to manage development and sewage pollution. The Forge experience indicates that watershed management is a continuing governmental responsibility as development accelerates. Otherwise, we will always be looking for that instantaneous remediation that is usually not affordable and is socially contentious.

  17. Benthic status of near-shore fishing grounds in the central Philippines and associated seahorse densities.

    Marcus, J E; Samoilys, M A; Meeuwig, J J; Villongco, Z A D; Vincent, A C J

    2007-09-01

    Benthic status of 28 near-shore, artisanal, coral reef fishing grounds in the central Philippines was assessed (2000-2002) together with surveys of the seahorse, Hippocampus comes. Our measures of benthic quality and seahorse densities reveal some of the most degraded coral reefs in the world. Abiotic structure dominated the fishing grounds: 69% of the benthos comprised rubble (32%), sand/silt (28%) and dead coral (9%). Predominant biotic structure included live coral (12%) and Sargassum (11%). Rubble cover increased with increasing distance from municipal enforcement centers and coincided with substantial blast fishing in this region of the Philippines. Over 2 years, we measured a significant decrease in benthic 'heterogeneity' and a 16% increase in rubble cover. Poor benthic quality was concomitant with extremely low seahorse densities (524 fish per km(2)). Spatial management, such as marine reserves, may help to minimize habitat damage and to rebuild depleted populations of seahorses and other reef fauna.

  18. Cosmopolitanism and Subversion of 'Home' in Caryl Phillips's A Distant Shore

    Alan McCluskey

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The novels of Caryl Phillips have most commonly been approached from post-colonial theoretical perspectives, a trend which appears entirely appropriate given their recurrent themes of immigration, ethnic discrimination and the legacy of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. However, the analysis below contends that the publication of A Distant Shore marked a change of direction in Phillips's oeuvre towards a less formally experimental but thematically more cosmopolitan form of writing that conspicuously sets out to subvert and redefine the idea of 'home'. Using the critical frameworks of Avtar Brah, Paul Gilroy and Jacques Derrida, the discussion will illustrate how Phillips critically re-imagines the notion 'home' in order to signify an inclusive space of cosmopolitan conviviality and openness.

  19. The fraternal complex between psychoanalysis and myth A literary example: Strange Shores

    Marco Liotta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The field of siblings relationship, initially considered in psychoanalysis mostly in its interaction with the oedipal dynamics, knows today important developments so that the "fraternal complex" has achieved its own independence. The paper aims to investigate the “fraternal complex” both in psychoanalytic area , from the Freudian perspective to contemporary authors, and in myth and literature. It is traced the birth and development of this concept showing how its different facets had been largely anticipated by the myth, especially Jewish myth. The second part of the article focuses on a literary example, “Strange Shores" by A. Indriðason, that offers many ideas to explore some of the dynamics of the fraternal complex in its intersection with fundamental issues in the field of psychoanalysis as the symbol, the double, the shadow, the guilt and the mourning.  

  20. Heather Shore, Artful Dodgers : Youth and Crime in early 19th century London

    Ward, John

    2007-01-01

    Artful Dodgers : Youth and Crime in early 19th century LondonPar Heather ShoreThe Boydell press, Woodridge, 2002, 193 p. Cet ouvrage d’une historienne universitaire, dont la première édition date de 1999, se propose d’étudier l’émergence de la catégorie des « délinquants juvéniles » au cours de la première moitié du XIXème siècle. L’auteur compare les représentations de ces mineurs véhiculées par les autorités publiques, les réformateurs et dans l’opinion publique avec les réalités de leur vi...

  1. Radioactivity of a portion of the Channel shore: new data on sources and transports from marine aerosols and sprays to the continent

    Fraizier, Albert; Baron, Yves.

    1982-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain further knowledge on radionuclide transports of marine aerosols from the ocean to the land. The interpretation of the results using the particles trapped by a vegetal, took into account the two sources of radionuclides-atmospheric fallout and disposal of industrial discharges into the sea. Both sources contributed to increasing activity levels along the shore at various degrees which were measured. As compared with the marine environment, similar distributions were noticed (including a number of particular features). The methodology can be used to supplement a study of effluent dispersion into the marine environment. The commited dose equivalent from this pathway was estimated to be below 1/1000 of the I.C.R.P. limits from the members of the public [fr

  2. Large-scale spatial distribution patterns of gastropod assemblages in rocky shores.

    Patricia Miloslavich

    Full Text Available Gastropod assemblages from nearshore rocky habitats were studied over large spatial scales to (1 describe broad-scale patterns in assemblage composition, including patterns by feeding modes, (2 identify latitudinal pattern of biodiversity, i.e., richness and abundance of gastropods and/or regional hotspots, and (3 identify potential environmental and anthropogenic drivers of these assemblages. Gastropods were sampled from 45 sites distributed within 12 Large Marine Ecosystem regions (LME following the NaGISA (Natural Geography in Shore Areas standard protocol (www.nagisa.coml.org. A total of 393 gastropod taxa from 87 families were collected. Eight of these families (9.2% appeared in four or more different LMEs. Among these, the Littorinidae was the most widely distributed (8 LMEs followed by the Trochidae and the Columbellidae (6 LMEs. In all regions, assemblages were dominated by few species, the most diverse and abundant of which were herbivores. No latitudinal gradients were evident in relation to species richness or densities among sampling sites. Highest diversity was found in the Mediterranean and in the Gulf of Alaska, while highest densities were found at different latitudes and represented by few species within one genus (e.g. Afrolittorina in the Agulhas Current, Littorina in the Scotian Shelf, and Lacuna in the Gulf of Alaska. No significant correlation was found between species composition and environmental variables (r≤0.355, p>0.05. Contributing variables to this low correlation included invasive species, inorganic pollution, SST anomalies, and chlorophyll-a anomalies. Despite data limitations in this study which restrict conclusions in a global context, this work represents the first effort to sample gastropod biodiversity on rocky shores using a standardized protocol across a wide scale. Our results will generate more work to build global databases allowing for large-scale diversity comparisons of rocky intertidal assemblages.

  3. Uptake and retention of 124Sb in the common mussel, shrimp and shore crab

    Weers, A.W. van

    1981-01-01

    The uptake of radioactive antimony from water and food by mussels, shrimps and shore crabs and the subsequent loss in non-radioactive sea water were studied with 124 Sb. The concentration factors of about 0.6 for mussels and 2.5 for shrimps, reached by direct uptake from sea water, remained considerably below stable-antimony concentration factors reported for these organisms. The loss of 124 Sb after uptake of the radionuclide by mussels during 19 and 32 days respectively, could be described by a loss from two compartments with different rates. The distribution of the radionuclide in the animals did not change during the retention period. Antimony-124 taken up from sea water by shrimps was largely accounted for by adsorption to the exoskeleton, as was shown by the effect of moulting on the time course of subsequent loss in non-radioactive sea water. Antimony-124 applied to freeze-dried mussel flesh that was fed to shrimps was lost according to a single exponential function. The mean biological half-life of 124 Sb elimination was about 10 days. Two components were shown to be present in the retention of 124 Sb in two groups of shore crabs, one of which was fed freeze-dried shrimps spiked with 124 Sb, while the second group received shrimps labelled by uptake of 124 Sb with food. The only significant difference between the two groups was a longer mean biological half-life of the short-lived component in the second group. In shrimps and crabs only a small fraction of 124 Sb taken up with food ends up in the exoskeleton. About 45% of retained activity in crabs was found in the digestive gland. (author)

  4. Observations of beach cusp evolution using a stationary, shore-based lidar system

    O'Dea, A.; Whitesides, E. T.; Brodie, K.; Spore, N.

    2016-12-01

    Although beach cusps are common features on beaches around the world, questions still remain regarding the range of conditions in which they form, the initial forcing conditions under which they form, and the erosive or accretionary nature of cusp events. While many prior studies have focused on the formation and morphology of beach cusps, many of these are limited in the spatial extent of observations, in their spatial or temporal resolution, or in the availability of accompanying hydrodynamic data. In this study, beach cusp formation and evolution is investigated using an automated lidar system that provides hourly three-dimensional scans of subaerial beach topography with high spatial resolution ([O(1 cm)]). The stationary lidar scanner is mounted on a 4-m tower located on the crest of a shore-backing dune on an Atlantic Ocean beach near Duck, North Carolina. The device measures a 237°-framescan of the nearshore region over a 15 minute period each hour. Individual scans are coregistered to a baseline scan using an iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm and then filtered to remove noise, dune vegetation, and water. To assess the accuracy of the coregistration algorithm, the 3-dimensional location of five permanent reflectors near the device are found for each scan and compared to their measured GPS location. Precisely coregistered scans allow for an assessment of elevation change across cuspate features in addition to traditional measurements of cusp wavelength. Beach cusp events are assessed over a three month period from September through November 2015. Wave and current data from a cross-shore array of sensors deployed continuously throughout the three month period as well as from two alongshore arrays of ADV sensors deployed from October 13 through November 1 are used to determine the forcing conditions under which the cusps formed and evolved. Funded by the USACE Coastal Field Data Collection Program.

  5. Forced wave induced by an atmospheric pressure disturbance moving towards shore

    Chen, Yixiang; Niu, Xiaojing

    2018-05-01

    Atmospheric pressure disturbances moving over a vast expanse of water can induce different wave patterns, which can be determined by the Froude number Fr. Generally, Fr = 1 is a critical value for the transformation of the wave pattern and the well-known Proudman resonance happens when Fr = 1. In this study, the forced wave induced by an atmospheric pressure disturbance moving over a constant slope from deep sea to shore is numerically investigated. The wave pattern evolves from a concentric-circle type into a triangular type with the increase of the Froude number, as the local water depth decreases, which is in accord with the analysis in the unbounded flat-bottom cases. However, a hysteresis effect has been observed, which implies the obvious amplification of the forced wave induced by a pressure disturbance can not be simply predicted by Fr = 1. The effects of the characteristic parameters of pressure disturbances and slope gradient have been discussed. The results show that it is not always possible to observe significant peak of the maximum water elevation before the landing of pressure disturbances, and a significant peak can be generated by a pressure disturbance with small spatial scale and fast moving velocity over a milder slope. Besides, an extremely high run-up occurs when the forced wave hits the shore, which is an essential threat to coastal security. The results also show that the maximum run-up is not monotonously varying with the increase of disturbance moving speed and spatial scale. There exists a most dangerous speed and scale which may cause disastrous nearshore surge.

  6. Multi-disciplinary investigation into the role of regional event beds in near-shore landslides

    Vardy, M. E.; L'Heureux, J.; Vanneste, M. W.; Longva, O.; Forsberg, C. F.; Steiner, A.

    2012-12-01

    Near-shore landslides in fjords are a widely observed geohazard with a potential for causing damage through tsunami generation and the removal of near-shore infrastructure. Often these events cross the border between terrestrial and submarine landslides, involving the failure of material on the shoreline and foreshore slope. Here we focus on a multi-disciplinary investigation of the 1996 landslide near Finneidfjord, Norway. This event back-stepped 100-150 m inland, removing a 250 m long section of the main north-south highway and several houses, at a cost of four human lives. Acquisition of an extensive and multidisciplinary data set, including high-resolution swath bathymetry, 2D/3D seismic data, multiple short (up to 6 m) and two long (12 m and 14 m, respectively) sediment cores and in situ Free-Fall Piezocone Penetrometer (FF-CPTU) profiles complemented with geotechnical laboratory data, has provided a detailed analysis of both the landslide morphology and stratigraphic controls. Correlating the geophysical (include remote physical properties inverted from seismic reflection profiles), geological and geotechnical data identifies the landslide glide plane as a thin (< 0.5 m), laminated, clay-rich bed with high pore water content (45 - 65 %) and low shear strength (4 - 8 kPa), deposited as a result of terrestrial quick-clay landslides in the hinterland. The relative weakness of the layer is thought to be a result of both the rapid deposition and excess pore pressure caused by artesian groundwater flow. Together, these act as preconditioning factors for failure, controlling the failure depth and probability if not the exact timing of the event.

  7. Design and optimization of air bottoming cycles for waste heat recovery in off-shore platforms

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Theory of power maximization used to design an air bottoming cycle. • Theory of power maximization extended by a multi-objective optimization method. • Three objective functions considered: net power output, recuperator volume and net present value. • Comparison between the theory of power maximization and the multi-objective optimization method. • Case study: a methodology applied to recover exhaust heat on off-shore platforms. - Abstract: This paper aims at comparing two methodologies to design an air bottoming cycle recovering the waste heat from the power generation system on the Draugen off-shore oil and gas platform. Firstly, the design is determined using the theory of the power maximization. Subsequently, the multi-objective optimization approach is employed to maximize the economic revenue, the compactness and the power production of the air bottoming cycle. The system compactness is assessed by introducing a detailed model of the shell and tube recuperator and including geometric quantities in the set of optimization variables. Findings indicate that using the power production, the volume of the recuperator and the net present value as objective functions the optimal pressure ratio (2.52) and the exhaust gas temperature (178.8 °C) differ from the values (2.80 and 145.5 °C) calculated using the theory of the power maximization. The highest net present value (2.8 M$) is found for a volume of the recuperator of 128 m 3 . Thus, it can be concluded that the multi-objective optimization approach enables extending the theory of power maximization bridging the gap between a mere optimization of the thermodynamic cycle and the practical feasibility of a power generation system

  8. Chironomidae of semiaquatic lake shore habitats in the Karelian Isthmus (northwestern Russia

    Andrey Przhiboro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Shores of lentic waters are poorly studied as habitats of Chironomidae. We investigated floating shore marsh surrounding the lakes Bol’shoe Rakovoe (Äyräpäänjärvi or Eteläjärvi and Okhotnich’e (Muolaanlampi, shallow mesotrophic wetlands in the Karelian Isthmus. Our research aimed to identify species structure of immature chironomid assemblages in this peculiar habitat and to provide their quantitative assessment. Five sites of the water margin zone (a 20-m part of floating marsh adjoining the lake littoral were studied using two techniques, quantitative samples taken with a grab-net and laboratory rearings of adults from substrata. Thirty-two samples were taken in July and October; 2970 emerging chironomid adults were identified. Nineteen species were found, 3 of Tanypodinae, 10 of Orthocladiinae and 6 of Chironominae. Tavastia yggdrasilia, Thienemanniella minuscula and Polypedilum trigonus are first recorded from Russia, and 8 more species, from NW Russia. Orthocladiinae accounted for over 99% emerging adults, with 3 species predominant and numerous on all sites, Paraphaenocladius impensus, Limnophyes minimus and L. natalensis. Species structure is discussed and compared with the data on similar habitats. Chironomid larvae were most numerous macroinvertebrates. Mean abundance of chironomid immatures varied from 1246 to 32060 ind./m2, mean biomass, 0.104 to 3.591 g(wet weight/m2, depending on site and season. In July, Chironomidae comprised 3-15% of Diptera biomass and 1-5% of macroinvertebrates biomass; in October, 13-49% and 7-20%, respectively.doi: 10.5324/fn.v31i0.1410.Published online: 17 October 2012.

  9. How a 10-day heatwave impacts barley grain yield when superimposed onto future levels of temperature and CO2 as single and combined factors

    Heinz Ingvordsen, Cathrine; Lyngkjær, Michael F.; Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo

    2018-01-01

    Heatwaves pose a threat to crop production and are predicted to increase in frequency, length and intensity as a consequence of global warming. Future heatwaves will occur in addition to the ongoing increase of mean temperature and CO2. To test effects of heatwaves superimposed to future climate ...... exposure, leading to a strong decline in the harvest index. Our results strongly emphasize the need to produce heatwave resilient cultivars....

  10. Mercury Sources and Cycling in the Great Lakes: Dramatic Changes Resulting from Altered Atmospheric Loads and the Near-Shore Shunt

    Krabbenhoft, D. P.; DeWild, J. F.; Maglio, M. M.; Tate, M. T.; Ogorek, J. M.; Hurley, J. P.; Lepak, R.

    2013-12-01

    there have been large declines in surface water total Hg concentrations (50-75%) across the Great Lakes since about 2000, an observation in agreement with concurrent declines in atmospheric deposition. In addition to a decline in inputs, we hypothesize that appreciable increases in volatilization of gaseous Hg have occurred. Mercury volatilization is directly related to water clarity (via the photo-reduction process), which has increased substantially in the Great Lakes since the invasion of zebra mussels and quagga mussels. Finally, although substantial declines in total aqueous Hg levels are apparent, fish mercury levels over the same time period appear to be relatively steady, and in some locations increasing. We submit this apparent discordance is also the outcome of the invasive mussels, which have caused near-shore eutrophication and off-shore oligotrophication commonly referred to as the near-shore shunt. Initial sampling by this project has revealed that these eutrophied zones are markedly enriched in MeHg. Therefore, it appears that while the open water regions of the Great Lakes appear to have experienced significant aqueous Hg declines, fish Hg levels may be responding to a new site of methylation in the near-shore zone.

  11. Hemigrapsus takanoi Asakura and Watanabe, 2005 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Grapsoidea): first records of the brush-clawed shore crab from Great Britain

    Wood, C. A.; Bishop, J. D. D.; Davies, Clare J.; Delduca, E. L.; Hatton, J. C.; Herbert, Roger J.H.; Clark, P. F.

    2015-01-01

    The brush-clawed shore crab is reported from the River Medway, Kent and the River Colne, Essex, England. These represent the first records of Hemigrapsus takanoi Asakura and Watanabe, 2005 from Great Britain. If H. takanoi becomes established in GB, it may pose a threat to populations of the native shore crab Carcinus maenas.

  12. Opportunities for peak shaving the energy demand of ship-to-shore quay cranes at container terminals

    H. Geerlings; Robert Heij; dr. J.H.R. van Duin

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the results of both a qualitative and a quantitative study on the possibilities for peak shaving the energy demand of ship-to-shore (STS) cranes at container terminals. The objective is to present an energy consumption model that visualizes the energy demand of STS cranes and to

  13. Opportunities for peak shaving the energy demand of ship-to-shore quay cranes at container terminals

    Geerlings, Harry; van Duin, Ron

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the results of both a qualitative and a quantitative study on
    the possibilities for peak shaving the energy demand of ship-to-shore (STS) cranes at container terminals. The objective is to present an energy consumption model that visualizes the energy demand of STS cranes and

  14. First GB records of the invasive Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus from Glamorgan, Wales and Kent, England.

    Seeley, B; Sewell, J; Clark, PF

    2015-01-01

    The present contribution reports on the capture of two adult male specimens of the Asian/Japanese shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus (de Haan, 1835) from Glamorgan, south Wales and Kent, southern England. These represent the first records of this species from mainland Great Britain.

  15. Increase in density of genetically diverse invasive Asian shore crab (Hemigrapsus sanguineus) populations in the Gulf of Maine.

    Lord, Joshua P; Williams, Larissa M

    2017-04-01

    Hemigrapsus sanguineus , the Asian shore crab, has rapidly replaced Carcinus maenas , the green crab, as the most abundant crab on rocky shores in the northwest Atlantic since its introduction to the United States (USA) in 1988. The northern edge of this progressing invasion is the Gulf of Maine, where Asian shore crabs are only abundant in the south. We compared H. sanguineus population densities to those from published 2005 surveys and quantified genetic variation using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. We found that the range of H. sanguineus had extended northward since 2005, that population density had increased substantially (at least 10-fold at all sites), and that Asian shore crabs had become the dominant intertidal crab species in New Hampshire and southern Maine. Despite the significant increase in population density of H. sanguineus , populations only increased by a factor of 14 in Maine compared to 70 in southern New England, possibly due to cooler temperatures in the Gulf of Maine. Genetically, populations were predominantly composed of a single haplotype of Japanese, Korean, or Taiwanese origin, although an additional seven haplotypes were found. Six of these haplotypes were of Asian origin, while two are newly described. Large increases in population sizes of genetically diverse individuals in Maine will likely have a large ecological impact, causing a reduction in populations of mussels, barnacles, snails, and other crabs, similar to what has occurred at southern sites with large populations of this invasive crab species.

  16. Albirhodobacter marinus gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Rhodobacteraceae isolated from sea shore water of Visakhapatnam, India

    Nupur; Bhumika, V.; Srinivas, T.N.R.; AnilKumar, P.

    A novel marine, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain N9 sup(T), was isolated from a water sample of the sea shore at Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh (India). Strain N9 sup(T) was found to be positive for oxidase and catalase...

  17. 77 FR 53197 - Brandon Shores LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    2012-08-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2510-000] Brandon Shores LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Brandon...

  18. The role of shore crabs and mussel density in mussel losses at a commercial intertidal mussel plot after seeding

    Capelle, Jacob J.; Scheiberlich, Gerard; Wijsman, Jeroen W.M.; Smaal, Aad C.

    2016-01-01

    Mussel losses peak after relaying seed on culture plots. The present paper is an attempt to examine the role of shore crab predation and initial mussel density on mussel losses in mussel bottom culture using an intertidal culture plot as a case study. Because of their small size and loose

  19. Are rocky shore ecosystems affected by nutrient-enriched seawater? Some preliminary results from a mesocosm experiment

    Bokn, T.L.; Moy, F.E.; Christie, H.; Engelbert, S.; Karez, R.; Kersting, K.; Kraufvelin, P.; Lindblad, C.; Marba, N.; Pedersen, M.F.; Sorensen, K.

    2002-01-01

    The response of rocky shore ecosystems to increased nutrient availability was examined in eight land-based mesocosms designed for hard-bottom littoral communities built at Marine Research Station Solbergstrand (Norway). The average seawater volume in each basin was 9 m3 with an average water

  20. 76 FR 1666 - Susquehanna Union Railroad Company-Control Exemption-North Shore Railroad Company, Nittany & Bald...

    2011-01-11

    ... rail transportation system that will continue to meet the needs of the shipping public. 49 U.S.C. 10101... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [STB FD 35343] Susquehanna Union... 49 U.S.C. 11323(a)(4) to acquire 100% stock control of 6 Class III railroads: North Shore Railroad...

  1. Energy futures

    Treat, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This book provides fifteen of the futures industry's leading authorities with broader background in both theory and practice of energy futures trading in this updated text. The authors review the history of the futures market and the fundamentals of trading, hedging, and technical analysis; then they update you with the newest trends in energy futures trading - natural gas futures, options, regulations, and new information services. The appendices outline examples of possible contracts and their construction

  2. A Laboratory Simulation of Parental Investment Decisions: The Role of Future Reproductive Opportunities and Quality of Offspring in Determining Levels of Parental Investment

    Stefanie L. Turner

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Hagen's Defection Hypothesis (2002 predicts that a mother's age and the quality of her offspring are critical factors in determining her investment in her newborn. We tested this hypothesis using hamster races in which 113 college student participants received a hamster (“offspring” and 10 poker chips (“resources” to “invest” into the hamster based on information about the quality of the hamster and about the possibility of future races. Subjects invested the most in low quality offspring when they expected to run only one race and the least in low quality offspring when they expected more racing opportunities in the future. Offspring quality affected investment differently depending on the presence or absence of future investment opportunities and the sex of the subject. Overall, the results supported Hagen's model of parental investment and also suggest that parental investment may be explained by conscious as well as unconscious decision-making.

  3. A global analysis of erosion of sandy beaches and sea-level rise: An application of DIVA

    Hinkel, Jochen; Nicholls, Robert J.; Tol, Richard S. J.; Wang, Zheng B.; Hamilton, Jacqueline M.; Boot, Gerben; Vafeidis, Athanasios T.; McFadden, Loraine; Ganopolski, Andrey; Klein, Richard J. T.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a first assessment of the global effects of climate-induced sea-level rise on the erosion of sandy beaches, and its consequent impacts in the form of land loss and forced migration of people. We consider direct erosion on open sandy coasts and indirect erosion near selected tidal inlets and estuaries, using six global mean sea-level scenarios (in the range of 0.2-0.8 m) and six SRES socio-economic development scenarios for the 21st century. Impacts are assessed both without and with adaptation in the form of shore and beach nourishment, based on cost-benefit analysis that includes the benefits of maintaining sandy beaches for tourism. Without nourishment, global land loss would amount to about 6000-17,000 km2 during the 21st century, leading to 1.6-5.3 million people being forced to migrate and migration costs of US 300-1000 billion (not discounted). Optimal beach and shore nourishment would cost about US 65-220 billion (not discounted) during the 21st century and would reduce land loss by 8-14%, forced migration by 56-68% and the cost of forced migration by 77-84% (not discounted). The global share of erodible coast that is nourished increases from about 4% in 2000 to 18-33% in 2100, with beach nourishment being 3-4 times more frequent than shore nourishment, reflecting the importance of tourism benefits. In absolute terms, with or without nourishment, large countries with long shorelines appear to have the largest costs, but in relative terms, small island states appear most impacted by erosion. Considerable uncertainty remains due to the limited availability of basic coastal geomorphological data and models on a global scale. Future work should also further explore the effects of beach tourism, including considering sub-national distributions of beach tourists.

  4. Futuring for Future Ready Librarians

    Figueroa, Miguel A.

    2018-01-01

    Futurists and foresight professionals offer several guiding principles for thinking about the future. These principles can help people to think about the future and become more powerful players in shaping the preferred futures they want for themselves and their communities. The principles also fit in well as strategies to support the Future Ready…

  5. Forecasts of county-level land uses under three future scenarios: a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA Assessment

    David N. Wear

    2011-01-01

    Accurately forecasting future forest conditions and the implications for ecosystem services depends on understanding land use dynamics. In support of the 2010 Renewable Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment, we forecast changes in land uses for the coterminous United States in response to three scenarios. Our land use models forecast urbanization in response to the...

  6. Summary of high level international symposium on ''the role of the IAEA: future directions and challenges'' Hofburg, Vienna, 20 October 1997

    1998-02-01

    On the occasion of the 40th anniversary of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Austrian Federal Government, in collaboration with the Agency, convened a Symposium on the Agency's future at which a number of distinguished speakers took part in a panel discussion in the presence of an invited audience. This brochure contains a summary overview of the event

  7. Predictors of future fasting and 2-h post-OGTT plasma glucose levels in middle-aged men and women-the Inter99 study

    Faerch, K; Vaag, A; Witte, D R

    2009-01-01

    PG levels. Among the anthropometric variables, large waist circumference was the strongest predictor of increased FPG levels in men, whereas high body mass index (BMI) was the strongest predictor of increased FPG levels in women. In both men and women, BMI and waist circumference were equally strong...... elevations of FPG levels were different from those predicting elevations of 2hPG levels in men and women. METHODS: We used baseline and 5-year follow-up data from middle-aged men and women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) at baseline in the Danish population-based Inter99 study (n = 3164). Anthropometric...... and non-anthropometric baseline predictors of the 5-year FPG and 2hPG levels were estimated in linear regression models stratified by gender. RESULTS: In men, but not in women, smoking and family history of diabetes predicted increased FPG levels, whereas high physical activity predicted a decline in 2h...

  8. Future accelerators (?)

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  9. The Role of Infragravity Waves in Near-Bed Cross-Shore Sediment Flux in the Breaker Zone

    Samantha Kularatne

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Results from a series of field experiments, conducted to investigate the influence of infragravity waves (from wave groups, ripple type and location relative to the breaker line on cross-shore suspended sediment flux close to the sea bed in nearshore environments, are presented. The field data were collected from Cable Beach (Broome and Mullaloo Beach in Western Australia and Chilaw in Sri Lanka. These beaches experience different incident wave, tidal and morphological conditions, with Cable Beach having a 10-m spring tidal range, whilst the other two beaches have tidal ranges <1.0 m. Measurements included simultaneous records of surface elevation, two-dimensional horizontal current velocities and suspended sediment concentrations, together with half-hourly observations of the seabed topography. Although most of the data sets were obtained just outside of the surf zone, a few results from inside of the surf zone were also included. A significant correlation between wave groups and suspended sediment concentration was found at all of the measurement sites, either with or without bed ripples. The direction and magnitude of cross-shore suspended sediment flux varied with location with respect to the breaker line; however, other parameters, such as bed ripples and velocity skewness, could have influenced this result. In Broome, where the measurement location with respect to the breaker line varied with the tidal cycle, the cross-shore sediment flux due to swell waves was shoreward inside and just outside of the surf zone and seaward farther offshore of the breaker line. Further, sediment flux due to swell waves was onshore when the seabed was flat and offshore over post-vortex ripples. Sediment flux due to swell waves was onshore when the normalised velocity skewness towards the shore was high (positive; the flux was offshore when the skewness was lower, but positive, suggesting the influence of other parameters, such as ripples and grain size. The

  10. Systematic analysis of rocky shore platform morphology at large spatial scale using LiDAR-derived digital elevation models

    Matsumoto, Hironori; Dickson, Mark E.; Masselink, Gerd

    2017-06-01

    Much of the existing research on rocky shore platforms describes results from carefully selected field sites, or comparisons between a relatively small number of selected sites. Here we describe a method to systematically analyse rocky shore morphology over a large area using LiDAR-derived digital elevation models. The method was applied to 700 km of coastline in southwest England; a region where there is considerable variation in wave climate and lithological settings, and a large alongshore variation in tidal range. Across-shore profiles were automatically extracted at 50 m intervals around the coast where information was available from the Coastal Channel Observatory coastal classification. Routines were developed to automatically remove non-platform profiles. The remaining 612 shore platform profiles were then subject to automated morphometric analyses, and correlation analysis in respect to three possible environmental controls: wave height, mean spring tidal range and rock strength. As expected, considerable scatter exists in the correlation analysis because only very coarse estimates of rock strength and wave height were applied, whereas variability in factors such as these can locally be the most important control on shoreline morphology. In view of this, it is somewhat surprising that overall consistency was found between previous published findings and the results from the systematic, automated analysis of LiDAR data: platform gradient increases as rock strength and tidal range increase, but decreases as wave height increases; platform width increases as wave height and tidal range increase, but decreases as rock strength increases. Previous studies have predicted shore platform gradient using tidal range alone. A multi-regression analysis of LiDAR data confirms that tidal range is the strongest predictor, but a new multi-factor empirical model considering tidal range, wave height, and rock strength yields better predictions of shore platform gradient

  11. Cross-Shore Environmental Gradients in the Western Mediterranean Coast and Their Influence on Nearshore Phytoplankton Communities

    Gotzon Basterretxea

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available During summer, when oligotrophic conditions prevail offshore in the Mediterranean Sea, enhanced phytoplankton stripes are often observed in nearshore waters. In this study, we examine the cross-shore hydrographic variability and the associated microbial plankton communities in this zone. Detailed cross-shore underway sampling at 47 coastal sites spread along the Balearic and Catalan coasts revealed the widespread existence of narrow bands of warm and decreased salinity water beholding high phytoplankton biomass (up to 50-fold vs. offshore chlorophyll. Most intense physical and biological anomalies along these transects were generally constrained to the first hundred meters from the shoreline (i.e., a transition zone starting at ~400 m. We use Principal Component Analysis (PCA and k-means cluster analysis to categorize temperature, salinity and chlorophyll (T, S and Chl in three main types of cross-shore trends. Prevalence of exponential-shaped Chl trends was observed particularly in areas with shoreward directed winds (B1-type. The other two trends (B2 and B3 presented variations off the coast produced by alongshore structures like river plumes, city outfalls and other features. Exponential-shaped cross-shore chlorophyll distribution (B1-type accumulated 90% of the total transect Chl variation in the first 367 ± 190 m from the shoreline, whereas this distance was variable in the other profile types. Repeated daily sampling at one site with this transect typology revealed that wind forcing variations produced fast response on cross-shore T and S properties. Chl was less sensitive to changes at this time-scale. Phytoplankton communities exhibited site-dependent responses to the nearshore environment. Pico- and nanoplankton assemblages, typically dominating coastal assemblages during summer in the Mediterranean Sea, showed lower cross-shore variation. Conversely, larger response to nearshore conditions was observed in microplankton populations

  12. Future migratory behaviour predicted from premigratory levels of gill Na+/K(+-)ATPase activity in individual wild brown trout ( Salmo trutta )

    Nielsen, C.; Aarestrup, Kim; Norum, U.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between premigratory gill Na+/K(+-)ATPase activity, determined at two dates during spring, and future migratory behaviour was investigated using non-lethal gill biopsies and PIT-tagging in wild brown trout (Salmo trutta) from two tributaries. No significant relationship between......(-1)), with an average of 91 % of the predictions being correct. The present study shows that a non-lethal premigratory biochemical measurement can successfully select individual brown trout with high probability of migration...... was obtained. The ability of this regression model from the tributaries to predict future migratory behaviour in an independent group of trout caught in early April in the mainstream was evaluated. A threshold probability of migration was used to predict the behaviour of the mainstream individuals as either...

  13. On flavonoid accumulation in different plant parts: Variation patterns among individuals and populations in the shore campion (Silene littorea.

    Jose Carlos Del Valle

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of anthocyanins in flowers and fruits is frequently attributed to attracting pollinators and dispersers. In vegetative organs, anthocyanins and other non-pigmented flavonoids such as flavones and flavonols may serve protective functions against UV radiation, cold, heat, drought, salinity, pathogens and herbivores; thus, these compounds are usually produced as a plastic response to such stressors. Although the independent accumulation of anthocyanins in reproductive and vegetative tissues is commonly postulated due to differential regulation, the accumulation of flavonoids within and among populations has never been thoroughly compared. Here, we investigated the shore campion (Silene littorea, Caryophyllaceae which exhibits variation in anthocyanin accumulation in its floral and vegetative tissues. We examined the in-situ accumulation of flavonoids in floral (petals and calyxes and vegetative organs (leaves from 18 populations representing the species’ geographic distribution. Each organ exhibited considerable variability in the content of anthocyanins and other flavonoids both within and among populations. In all organs, anthocyanin and other flavonoids were correlated. At the plant level, the flavonoid content in petals, calyxes and leaves was not correlated in most of the populations. However, at the population level, the mean amount of anthocyanins in all organs was positively correlated, which suggests that the variable environmental conditions of populations may play a role in anthocyanin accumulation. These results are unexpected because the anthocyanins are usually constitutive in petals, yet contingent to environmental conditions in calyxes and leaves. Anthocyanin variation in petals may influence pollinator attraction and subsequent plant reproduction, yet the amount of anthocyanins may be a direct response to environmental factors. In populations on the west coast, a general pattern of increasing accumulation of

  14. Microbial communities and fecal indicator bacteria associated with Cladophora mats on beach sites along Lake Michigan shores.

    Olapade, Ola A; Depas, Morgan M; Jensen, Erika T; McLellan, Sandra L

    2006-03-01

    A high biomasses of Cladophora, a filamentous green alga, is found mainly during the summer along the shores of Lake Michigan. In this study, the abundance and persistence of the fecal indicator bacterium Escherichia coli and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) on Cladophora mats collected at Lake Michigan beaches were evaluated using both culture-based and molecular analyses. Additionally, 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing were used to examine the bacterial community composition. Overall, E. coli was detected in all 63 samples obtained from 11 sites, and the average levels at most beaches ranged from 2,700 CFU/100 g (wet weight) of Cladophora to 7,500 CFU/100 g of Cladophora. However, three beaches were found to have site average E. coli densities of 12,800, 21,130, and 27,950 CFU/100 g of Cladophora. The E. coli levels in the lake water collected at the same time from these three sites were less than the recommended U.S. Environmental Protection Agency limit, 235 CFU/100 ml. E. coli also persisted on Cladophora mats in microcosms at room temperature for more than 7 days, and in some experiments it persisted for as long as 28 days. The SRB densities on Cladophora mats were relatively high, ranging from 4.4x10(6) cells/g (6.64 log CFU/g) to 5.73x10(6) cells/g (6.76 log CFU/g) and accounting for between 20% and 27% of the total bacterial counts. Partial sequences of the 16S rRNA gene clones revealed a phylogenetically diverse community, in which the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides cluster and the low-G+C-content gram-positive bacteria were the dominant organisms, accounting for 40% and 12.8%, respectively, of the total clone library. These results further reveal the potential public health and ecological significance of Cladophora mats that are commonly found along the shoreline of Lake Michigan, especially with regard to the potential to harbor microorganisms associated with fecal pollution and odor-causing bacteria.

  15. 234Th/238U disequilibrium in near-shore sediment: particle reworking and diagenetic time scales

    Aller, R.C.; Cochran, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    The distribution of 234 Th (tsub(1.2)=24.1 days) in excess of its parent 238 U in the upper layers of near-shore sediment makes possible the evaluation of short-term sediment reworking and diagenetic rates. 234 Th has a maximum residence time in Long Island Sound water of 1.4 days. Seasonal measurement of 234 Th/ 238 U disequilibrium in sediment at a single station in central Long Island Sound demonstrates rapid particle reworking and high 234 Thsub(XS)(>1 dpm/g) in the upper 4 cm of sediment with slower, irregular reworking and low 234 Thsub(XS) to at least 12 cm. The rate of rapid particle reworking varies seasonally and is highest in the fall. The rapidly mixed zone is characterized by steep gradients in sediment chemistry implying fast reactions spanned by 234 Th decay time scales. 238 U is depleted in the upper mixed zone and shows addition in reducing sediment at depth. (Auth.)

  16. Patterns of Spatial Variation of Assemblages Associated with Intertidal Rocky Shores: A Global Perspective

    Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Miloslavich, Patricia; Palomo, Gabriela; Iken, Katrin; Konar, Brenda; Pohle, Gerhard; Trott, Tom; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Herrera, César; Hernández, Alejandra; Sardi, Adriana; Bueno, Andrea; Castillo, Julio; Klein, Eduardo; Guerra-Castro, Edlin; Gobin, Judith; Gómez, Diana Isabel; Riosmena-Rodríguez, Rafael; Mead, Angela; Bigatti, Gregorio; Knowlton, Ann; Shirayama, Yoshihisa

    2010-01-01

    Assemblages associated with intertidal rocky shores were examined for large scale distribution patterns with specific emphasis on identifying latitudinal trends of species richness and taxonomic distinctiveness. Seventy-two sites distributed around the globe were evaluated following the standardized sampling protocol of the Census of Marine Life NaGISA project (www.nagisa.coml.org). There were no clear patterns of standardized estimators of species richness along latitudinal gradients or among Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs); however, a strong latitudinal gradient in taxonomic composition (i.e., proportion of different taxonomic groups in a given sample) was observed. Environmental variables related to natural influences were strongly related to the distribution patterns of the assemblages on the LME scale, particularly photoperiod, sea surface temperature (SST) and rainfall. In contrast, no environmental variables directly associated with human influences (with the exception of the inorganic pollution index) were related to assemblage patterns among LMEs. Correlations of the natural assemblages with either latitudinal gradients or environmental variables were equally strong suggesting that neither neutral models nor models based solely on environmental variables sufficiently explain spatial variation of these assemblages at a global scale. Despite the data shortcomings in this study (e.g., unbalanced sample distribution), we show the importance of generating biological global databases for the use in large-scale diversity comparisons of rocky intertidal assemblages to stimulate continued sampling and analyses. PMID:21179546

  17. The presence and near-shore transport of human fecal pollution in Lake Michigan beaches

    Molloy, S.L.; Liu, L.B.; Phanikumar, M.S.; Jenkins, T.M.; Wong, M.V.; Rose, J.B.; Whitman, R.L.; Shively, D.A.; Nevers, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    The Great Lakes are a source of water for municipal, agricultural and industrial use, and support significant recreation, commercial and sport fishing industries. Every year millions of people visit the 500 plus recreational beaches in the Great Lakes. An increasing public health risk has been suggested with increased evidence of fecal contamination at the shoreline. To investigate the transport and fate of fecal pollution at Great Lakes beaches and the health risk associated with swimming at these beaches, the near-shore waters of Mt Baldy Beach, Lake Michigan and Trail Creek, a tributary discharging into the lake were examined for fecal pollution indicators. A model of surf zone hydrodynamics coupled with a transport model with first-order inactivation of pollutant was used to understand the relative importance of different processes operating in the surf zone (e.g. physical versus biological processes). The Enterococcus human fecal pollution marker, which targets a putative virulence factor, the enterococcal surface protein (esp) in Enterococcus faecium, was detected in 2/28 samples (7%) from the tributaries draining into Lake Michigan and in 6/30 samples (20%) from Lake Michigan beaches. Preliminary analysis suggests that the majority of fecal indicator bactateria variation and water quality changes at the beaches can be explained by inputs from the influential stream and hydrometeorological conditions. Using modeling methods to predict impaired water quality may help reduce potential health threats to recreational visitors.

  18. Investigation of scour adjacent to submerged geotextiles used for shore protection

    Gorton, Alicia M.; Herrington, Thomas O.; Smith, Ernest R.

    2018-01-03

    This study presents the results of an experimental investigation of morphology change in the vicinity of submerged geotextiles placed within the surf zone. The study was motivated by the emerging use of submerged geotextile tubes for shore protection, shoreline stabilization, and surf amenity enhancement and the need to understand the mechanisms responsible for scour in the vicinity of these structures to preserve their structural integrity and reduce their structural failure. A movable bed physical model experiment was conducted at the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center’s Large-scale Sediment Transport Facility (LSTF) to develop empirical formulations to predict the mean scour depth adjacent to geotextiles under oblique wave-breaking conditions as a function of the maximum Keulegan-Carpenter, Shields, and Reynolds numbers. The observed scour in the vicinity of the geotextiles was also compared to a previous study of scour in the vicinity of submerged cylinders. Formulations developed by Cataño-Lopera and García (2006) relating the Keulegan-Carpenter, Shields, and Reynolds numbers to the scour depth were used to predict the scour observed during the LSTF experiment. Results show that the formulations of Cataño-Lopera and García (2006) over-predict the observed scour when calculated using the maximum Keulegan-Carpenter, Shields, and Reynolds numbers. New, modified expressions of Cataño-Lopera and García (2006) were developed for use in oblique random wave fields.

  19. The Role of Bed Roughness in Wave Transformation Across Sloping Rock Shore Platforms

    Poate, Tim; Masselink, Gerd; Austin, Martin J.; Dickson, Mark; McCall, Robert

    2018-01-01

    We present for the first time observations and model simulations of wave transformation across sloping (Type A) rock shore platforms. Pressure measurements of the water surface elevation using up to 15 sensors across five rock platforms with contrasting roughness, gradient, and wave climate represent the most extensive collected, both in terms of the range of environmental conditions, and the temporal and spatial resolution. Platforms are shown to dissipate both incident and infragravity wave energy as skewness and asymmetry develop and, in line with previous studies, surf zone wave heights are saturated and strongly tidally modulated. Overall, the observed properties of the waves and formulations derived from sandy beaches do not highlight any systematic interplatform variation, in spite of significant differences in platform roughness, suggesting that friction can be neglected when studying short wave transformation. Optimization of a numerical wave transformation model shows that the wave breaker criterion falls between the range of values reported for flat sandy beaches and those of steep coral fore reefs. However, the optimized drag coefficient shows significant scatter for the roughest sites and an alternative empirical drag model, based on the platform roughness, does not improve model performance. Thus, model results indicate that the parameterization of frictional drag using the bottom roughness length-scale may be inappropriate for the roughest platforms. Based on these results, we examine the balance of wave breaking to frictional dissipation for rock platforms and find that friction is only significant for very rough, flat platforms during small wave conditions outside the surf zone.

  20. Ontogenetic scaling of the olfactory antennae and flicking behavior of the shore crab, Hemigrapsus oregonensis.

    Waldrop, Lindsay D

    2013-07-01

    Malacostracan crustaceans such as crabs flick antennae with arrays of olfactory sensilla called aesthetascs through the water to sense odors. Flicking by crabs consists of a quick downstroke, in which aesthetascs are deflected laterally (splayed), and a slower, reversed return stroke, in which aesthetascs clump together. This motion causes water to be flushed within and then held in between aesthetascs to deliver odor molecules to olfactory receptors. Although this odor sampling method relies on a narrow range of speeds, sizes, and specific arrangements of aesthetascs, most crabs dramatically change these during ontogeny. In this study, the morphometrics of the aesthetascs, array, and antennae and the flicking kinematics of the Oregon shore crab, Hemigrapsus oregonensis (Decapoda: Brachyura), are examined to determine their scaling relationships during ontogeny. The morphometrics of the array and antennae increase more slowly than would be predicted by isometry. Juvenile crabs' aesthetascs splay relatively further apart than adults, likely due to changing material properties of aesthetasc cuticle during growth. These results suggest that disproportionate growth and altered aesthetasc splay during flicking will mediate the size changes due to growth that would otherwise lead to a loss of function.

  1. A tetrodotoxin-binding protein in the hemolymph of shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus: purification and properties.

    Nagashima, Yuji; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Shimakura, Kuniyoshi; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2002-06-01

    The shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus hemolymph contains soluble proteins that bind tetrodotoxin (TTX) and are responsible for high resistance of the crab to TTX. The TTX-binding protein was purified from the hemolymph by ultrafiltration, lectin affinity chromatography and gel filtration HPLC. The purified protein gave only one band in native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), confirming its homogeneity. Its molecular weight was estimated to be about 400k by gel filtration HPLC, while it was estimated to be about 82k under non-reducing conditions and about 72 and 82k under reducing conditions by SDS-PAGE, indicating that the TTX-binding protein was composed of at least two distinct subunits. The TTX-binding protein was an acidic glycoprotein with pI 3.5, abundant in Asp and Glu but absent in Trp, and contained 6% reducing sugar and 12% amino sugar. The protein selectively bound to TTX, with a neutralizing ability of 6.7 mouse unit TTX/mg protein, but not to paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins. However, its neutralizing activity was almost lost by treatments with enzymes (protease XIV, thermolysin, trypsin, amyloglucosidase and alpha-amylase) and denaturing agents (1% SDS, 1% dithiothreitol, 8 M urea and 6 M guanidine hydrochloride), suggesting the involvement of both proteinaceous and sugar moieties in the binding to TTX and the importance of the steric conformation of the TTX-binding protein. Copright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  2. A STUDY OF RECOVERING A REED ECOSYSTEM USING POROUS CONCRETE IN THE LAKE BIWA SHORE

    Takeda, Naho; Kato, Hayato; Okamoto, Takahisa; Kojima, Takayuki

    In this study, reed planting tests were carried out at the Biyo-center, an experiment station on the Lake Biwa shore, in order to evaluate the feasibility of a planting method with porous concrete (PoC method). Reed planting tests with coconut-fiber mats (mat method), which were generally used around Lake Biwa, were simultaneously carried out to compare with the PoC method. The reeds planted by the PoC method grew better than the ones planted by the mat method, and the number of reeds which were washed away by waves was smaller than that planted by the mat method. The result of the observation of reeds planted in the PoC showed plant maturation, and reeds could ta ke root into the PoC without interference with the voids of the PoC. As a result, it was shown that the reed planting tests with the PoC method was simple and effective, so it would become in harmony with the environment around Lake Biwa.

  3. The ARGO Project: assessing NA-TECH risks on off-shore oil platforms

    Capuano, Paolo; Basco, Anna; Di Ruocco, Angela; Esposito, Simona; Fusco, Giannetta; Garcia-Aristizabal, Alexander; Mercogliano, Paola; Salzano, Ernesto; Solaro, Giuseppe; Teofilo, Gianvito; Scandone, Paolo; Gasparini, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    ARGO (Analysis of natural and anthropogenic risks on off-shore oil platforms) is a 2 years project, funded by the DGS-UNMIG (Directorate General for Safety of Mining and Energy Activities - National Mining Office for Hydrocarbons and Georesources) of Italian Ministry of Economic Development. The project, coordinated by AMRA (Center for the Analysis and Monitoring of Environmental Risk), aims at providing technical support for the analysis of natural and anthropogenic risks on offshore oil platforms. In order to achieve this challenging objective, ARGO brings together climate experts, risk management experts, seismologists, geologists, chemical engineers, earth and coastal observation experts. ARGO has developed methodologies for the probabilistic analysis of industrial accidents triggered by natural events (NA-TECH) on offshore oil platforms in the Italian seas, including extreme events related to climate changes. Furthermore the environmental effect of offshore activities has been investigated, including: changes on seismicity and on the evolution of coastal areas close to offshore platforms. Then a probabilistic multi-risk framework has been developed for the analysis of NA-TECH events on offshore installations for hydrocarbon extraction.

  4. Conceptual design of a 10 MW shore-based OTEC plant

    Stevens, H. C.; Genens, L.; Panchal, C. B.

    1984-09-01

    A 1982 study of a 10 MWe shore-based closed-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTFC) plant at Keahole Point, Hawaii, is updated to reflect advances in technology that have occurred over the past two years. Design options that show promise for reducing the capital cost of the plant are presented. The options studied include the heat exchangers, the number and size of the cold-water pipes (CWP), the materials and method of construction of the CWP, deployment technique. In all cases, the new options are within modest extrapolations of the current state of the art. Thermal-hydraulic optimization codes were developed and used to upgrade and improve the design, and to focus on those components where significant cost reductions are possible. The power system was improved with more cost-effective heat exchangers and a more water-efficient design. An advanced cold-water pipe option was selected that uses compact, brazed-aluminum heat exchangers. Options for parallel or bundled pipes of smaller (2 meter) diameter were reviewed. It was found that the smaller diameters present fewer fabrication problems, and potentially simpler deployment methods. Also studied were various options for CWP materials and construction.

  5. Mapping South Baltic Near-Shore Bathymetry Using Sentinel-2 Observations

    Chybicki Andrzej

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most promising new applications of remote observation satellite systems (RO is the near-shore bathymetry estimation based on spaceborn multispectral imageries. In recent years, many experiments aiming to estimate bathymetry in optically shallow water with the use of remote optical observations have been presented. In this paper, optimal models of satellite derived bathymetry (SDB for relatively turbid waters of the South Baltic Sea were presented. The obtained results were analysed in terms of depth error estimation, spatial distribution, and overall quality. The models were calibrated based on sounding (in-situ data obtained by a single-beam echo sounder, which was retrieved from the Maritime Office in Gdynia, Poland. The remote observations for this study were delivered by the recently deployed European Space Agency Sentinel-2 satellite observation system. A detailed analysis of the obtained results has shown that the tested methods can be successfully applied for the South Baltic region at depths of 12-18 meters. However, significant limitations were observed. The performed experiments have revealed that the error of model calibration, expressed in meters (RMSE, equals up to 10-20% of the real depth and is, generally, case dependent. To overcome this drawback, a novel indicator of determining the maximal SDB depth was proposed. What is important, the proposed SDB quality indicator is derived only on the basis of remotely registered data and therefore can be applied operationally.

  6. The Psychopharmacology Algorithm Project at the Harvard South Shore Program: An Algorithm for Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

    Abejuela, Harmony Raylen; Osser, David N

    2016-01-01

    This revision of previous algorithms for the pharmacotherapy of generalized anxiety disorder was developed by the Psychopharmacology Algorithm Project at the Harvard South Shore Program. Algorithms from 1999 and 2010 and associated references were reevaluated. Newer studies and reviews published from 2008-14 were obtained from PubMed and analyzed with a focus on their potential to justify changes in the recommendations. Exceptions to the main algorithm for special patient populations, such as women of childbearing potential, pregnant women, the elderly, and those with common medical and psychiatric comorbidities, were considered. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are still the basic first-line medication. Early alternatives include duloxetine, buspirone, hydroxyzine, pregabalin, or bupropion, in that order. If response is inadequate, then the second recommendation is to try a different SSRI. Additional alternatives now include benzodiazepines, venlafaxine, kava, and agomelatine. If the response to the second SSRI is unsatisfactory, then the recommendation is to try a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI). Other alternatives to SSRIs and SNRIs for treatment-resistant or treatment-intolerant patients include tricyclic antidepressants, second-generation antipsychotics, and valproate. This revision of the GAD algorithm responds to issues raised by new treatments under development (such as pregabalin) and organizes the evidence systematically for practical clinical application.

  7. Patterns of Mass Mortality among Rocky Shore Invertebrates across 100 km of Northeastern Pacific Coastline.

    Laura J Jurgens

    Full Text Available Mass mortalities in natural populations, particularly those that leave few survivors over large spatial areas, may cause long-term ecological perturbations. Yet mass mortalities may remain undocumented or poorly described due to challenges in responding rapidly to unforeseen events, scarcity of baseline data, and difficulties in quantifying rare or patchily distributed species, especially in remote or marine systems. Better chronicling the geographic pattern and intensity of mass mortalities is especially critical in the face of global changes predicted to alter regional disturbance regimes. Here, we couple replicated post-mortality surveys with preceding long-term surveys and historical data to describe a rapid and severe mass mortality of rocky shore invertebrates along the north-central California coast of the northeastern Pacific Ocean. In late August 2011, formerly abundant intertidal populations of the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, a well-known ecosystem engineer, and the predatory six-armed sea star (Leptasterias sp. were functionally extirpated from ~100 km of coastline. Other invertebrates, including the gumboot chiton (Cryptochiton stelleri the ochre sea star (Pisaster ochraceus, and subtidal populations of purple sea urchins also exhibited elevated mortality. The pattern and extent of mortality suggest the potential for long-term population, community, and ecosystem consequences, recovery from which may depend on the different dispersal abilities of the affected species.

  8. Volatile organic chemicals of a shore-dwelling cyanobacterial mat community.

    Evans, W G

    1994-02-01

    The main components of a cyanobacterial mat community of a hypersaline lake shore consist of edaphic, mat-forming strains (ecophenes), and littoral strains ofOscillatoria animalis Agardh andO. subbrevis Schmidle, other microorganisms associated with these cyanobacteria, several species ofBembidion (Carabidae: Coleoptera), and two halophytic flowering plants:Puccinellia nuttalliana (salt meadow grass) andSalicornia europaea rubra (samphire). The volatile organic compounds of this community are a blend of those emitted by each of these components such as the C17 alka(e)nes, geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol,β-cyclocitral,β-ionone, dimethyl sulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide of cyanobacteria and associated microorganisms; alcohols, esters, and aldehydes usually associated with flowering plants; and possibly some insect-derived esters, particularly isopropyl tetradecanoate. The dominant compounds were: C11, C13, C15, and C17 alka(e)nes, methyl esters of C16 and C18:2 acids, isopropyl tetradecanoate, heptanal, 3-octanone and 2-nonanone, the acyclic terpene linalool, and the alcohols 1-heptanol, 1-hexanol, 1-octanol, 3-hexen-1-ol, and 2-octen-1-ol. It is concluded that this community may be distinguished from related communities by its repertoire of volatile organic compounds.

  9. Animal diversity in Baltic rocky shore macroalgae: can Cladophora glomerata compensate for lost Fucus vesiculosus?

    Kraufvelin, Patrik; Salovius, Sonja

    2004-10-01

    The substitution of canopy-forming perennial algae by annual filamentous algae is a common phenomenon on eutrophicated rocky shores with potential consequences for marine biodiversity. In the upper littoral of the northern Baltic Sea, this process is exemplified by decreased occurrence of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus and increased amounts of filamentous algae (e.g. Cladophora glomerata and Pilayella littoralis). In this study, macrofauna communities of F. vesiculosus and C. glomerata during summer have been compared and the effects on littoral macroinvertebrates of a total or partial replacement of F. vesiculosus by C. glomerata have been estimated. The animal abundance and biomass were higher in C. glomerata than in corresponding amounts of F. vesiculosus (g dwt). Similar results were also obtained when animal abundance and biomass were extrapolated to algal cover per m 2 rocky substrate in the study area. Margalef's species richness was, on the other hand, higher in F. vesiculosus, whereas the Shannon-Wiener diversity was the same. The results indicate that C. glomerata maintains a high diversity of macroinvertebrates in the upper littoral zone of the northern Baltic Sea during summer. A possible substitution of F. vesiculosus by C. glomerata does not immediately affect macroinvertebrate diversity negatively in the littoral zone, although, it is difficult to assess the full consequences due to lack of comparable algal data at wider temporal and spatial scales.

  10. Strangers on the Doorstep: Hostility and Hospitality in A Distant Shore

    Lin Ching-Huan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the rising hostility against immigrants / refugees and growing demand for hospitality, in both regional and transnational senses, in Caryl Phillips’s novel A Distant Shore, set in a local place in North England. I think that the author, in examining the parallel conditions of being a stranger in a village and an outsider to the nation, shows that the demands of hospitality are similarly urgent whether sought by nationals or foreigners though these are calibrated differently in terms of scales of belonging. My broader argument is that hospitality is an ethical practice of everyday life that requires continual renegotiation. Inspired by Levinasian ethics, I turn to Derrida’s and Rosello’s meditations on hospitality, which emphasise the metaphorical nature of the host-guest relationship and the tension it inscribes between the finiteness of politics and the infinity of ethics. By exploring the complex relationship between politics and ethics as this is made manifest in the literary representations of ordinary British citizens’ everyday practices, I suggest that this novel not only deals with the UK’s domestic tensions of multiculturalism and ethnic conflict, but also critically reflects on its bewildered (but hardly new attitude toward the ongoing transnational integration of the new Europe in the postwar period.

  11. Patterns of spatial variation of assemblages associated with intertidal rocky shores: a global perspective.

    Juan José Cruz-Motta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Assemblages associated with intertidal rocky shores were examined for large scale distribution patterns with specific emphasis on identifying latitudinal trends of species richness and taxonomic distinctiveness. Seventy-two sites distributed around the globe were evaluated following the standardized sampling protocol of the Census of Marine Life NaGISA project (www.nagisa.coml.org. There were no clear patterns of standardized estimators of species richness along latitudinal gradients or among Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs; however, a strong latitudinal gradient in taxonomic composition (i.e., proportion of different taxonomic groups in a given sample was observed. Environmental variables related to natural influences were strongly related to the distribution patterns of the assemblages on the LME scale, particularly photoperiod, sea surface temperature (SST and rainfall. In contrast, no environmental variables directly associated with human influences (with the exception of the inorganic pollution index were related to assemblage patterns among LMEs. Correlations of the natural assemblages with either latitudinal gradients or environmental variables were equally strong suggesting that neither neutral models nor models based solely on environmental variables sufficiently explain spatial variation of these assemblages at a global scale. Despite the data shortcomings in this study (e.g., unbalanced sample distribution, we show the importance of generating biological global databases for the use in large-scale diversity comparisons of rocky intertidal assemblages to stimulate continued sampling and analyses.

  12. Plutonium diffusion in the marine environment: a quantitative study on marine species of the channel shores, from Brest (St Mathieu Point) to Honfleur

    Fraizier, Albert; Guary, J.-C.

    1977-03-01

    Plutonium levels were measured on marine species of the Channel shores, from Cancale to Honfleur in 1975, from Brest to the Cap de La Hague in 1976. Measurements carried out on a lichen: Lichina pygmaea, two algae: Corallina officinalis and Fucus serratus, a spongiae: Hymeniacidon sanguinea and a crustacean: Balamus balanoides, showed the effect of waste disposal from La Hague fuel reprocessing plant on the radioactivity levels of these organisms. This effect, decreasing progressively, appeared at distances of about 150 km from the point of release. As compared to value observed for samples taken at the far West of Brittany and to plutonium levels in the marine environment resulting from atmospheric fallout only, the levels observed in the studied area were higher and varying according to the geographic position, increasing by a factor of 100 near the emissary. These data are an actual instance of radioactive dispersal following disposal into the sea; they should bring valuable information for the assessment of the radiological capacity of a given coastal area [fr

  13. Changes in the selection differential exerted on a marine snail during the ontogeny of a predatory shore crab.

    Pakes, D; Boulding, E G

    2010-08-01

    Empirical estimates of selection gradients caused by predators are common, yet no one has quantified how these estimates vary with predator ontogeny. We used logistic regression to investigate how selection on gastropod shell thickness changed with predator size. Only small and medium purple shore crabs (Hemigrapsus nudus) exerted a linear selection gradient for increased shell-thickness within a single population of the intertidal snail (Littorina subrotundata). The shape of the fitness function for shell thickness was confirmed to be linear for small and medium crabs but was humped for large male crabs, suggesting no directional selection. A second experiment using two prey species to amplify shell thickness differences established that the selection differential on adult snails decreased linearly as crab size increased. We observed differences in size distribution and sex ratios among three natural shore crab populations that may cause spatial and temporal variation in predator-mediated selection on local snail populations.

  14. Discovery of Maritrema jebuensis n. sp. (Digenea: Microphallidae) from the Asian Shore Crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, in Korea.

    Chung, Ok-Sik; Lee, Hye-Jung; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Lee, Seung-Ha; Park, Il-Yong; Oh, Sang-Ah; Chai, Jong-Yil; Seo, Min

    2010-12-01

    Maritrema spp. (Digenea: Microphallidae) are parasites of birds, but have not been found in the Republic of Korea. In this study, metacercariae of Maritrema sp. were discovered in the Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, caught in the mud-flats of Jebu-do, Hwasung-gun, Gyeonggi-do, and the adult flukes were confirmed by experimental infection into mice. Based on the symmetric ribbon-like vitellarium, adult flukes of Maritrema sp. were identified, but did not belong to previously described species in terms of the following morphologic characteristics: ceca reaching to the lateral wall at the anterior border of the ovary; ventral sucker larger than oral sucker; a prominent metraterm; and vitellarium forming a complete ring. Hence, we named this microphallid M. jebuensis n. sp. after the island where the second intermediate hosts were collected. From this study, it has been shown that Maritrema sp. is distributed in Korea and transmitted by the Asian shore crab, H. sanguineus.

  15. Effect of pollution on diversity of marine gastropods and its role in trophic structure at Nasese Shore, Suva, Fiji Islands

    Dissanayake Mudiyanselage Suratissa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ocean supplies a significant amount of food to human population. However, marine ecosystem is under a threat due to the increasing marine pollution. Fiji Islands, located in South Pacific sea, are experiencing such a threat. Therefore, this study aims to determine the effects of pollution on the diversity of marine gastropods in Nasese Shore, Suva, Fiji Islands. A detailed opportunistic survey was conducted; 85 species of marine gastropods molluscas were recorded belonging to 29 families in four different habitats (Habitat 1, Habitat 2, Habitat 3 and Habitat 4 at Nasese Shore during April–September 2014. Compared with Habitat 4, all three other habitats were polluted by frequently added sewages and domestic effluents via artificial and natural creeks to the coastal area. Therefore, diversity and abundance of the gastropods were significantly lower in those three habitats. Furthermore, a higher human consumption rate for some of the gastropods was observed.

  16. Dynamic performance of a combined gas turbine and air bottoming cycle plant for off-shore applications

    Benato, Alberto; Pierobon, Leonardo; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    and a combined gas turbine coupled with an air bottoming cycle plant. The case study is the Draugen off-shore oil and gas platform, located in the North Sea, Norway. The normal electricity demand is 19 MW, currently covered by two gas turbines generating each 50% of the power demand, while the third turbine......When the Norwegian government introduced the CO2 tax for hydrocarbon fuels, the challenge became to improve the performance of off-shore power systems. An oil and gas platform typically operates on an island (stand-alone system) and the power demand is covered by two or more gas turbines. In order...... to improve the plant performance, a bottoming cycle unit can be added to the gas turbine topping module, thus constituting a combined cycle plant. This paper aims at developing and testing the numerical model simulating the part-load and dynamic behavior of a novel power system, composed of two gas turbines...

  17. New data on structure and radiological age of formations of Lapland granulite belt (Kandalaksha Shore of the White Sea)

    Sukhanov, M K; Terekhov, E N; Levitskij, V I

    1987-01-01

    The structure and radiological age of granulite belt rocks along the White Sea shore from West to East have been investigated by the uranium-lead thermoisochronous method. The age of granulite metamorphism in the White Sea shore and Kola blocks, which separate the granulite belt, is estimated as 2.5-2.7 milliard years; the boundary for metamorphic transformations (1.8 milliard years) is distinctly fixed for granulite belt rocks. The most ancient values for ages have been obtained by zircons of biotite gneisses -2.7-2.8 milliard years, and from granite shingles in conglomerates, in zircons of which the value of 2.9 milliard years is fixed.

  18. Teledetection study and isotopic measurements of hydrological relations between sea and continent for different types of shore

    Leveque, P.C.; Beliard, C.; Gros, J.C.; Maurin, C.; Severac, J.

    An attempt was made to determine the chief variations, behavior and development of fresh water masses in the zone of contact with sea water. The methods used involved chemical and isotopic (Cl, Na, K, Br, T, 14 C, 18 O) analyses and teledetection: colored aerial photographs, infrared emission from land and water, natural radioactivity measurements. The results were classified in morphological and structural types of shore: sandy coastline of homogeneous apparent permeability and karstic coasts [fr

  19. Field evaluation of remote wind sensing technologies: Shore-based and buoy mounted LIDAR systems

    Herrington, Thomas [Stevens Inst. of Technology, Hoboken, NJ (United States)

    2017-11-03

    the evaluation of LIDAR-based wind measurement systems to validate the accuracy of remotely measured wind data in marine applications. Specifically, the test-bed will be utilized to systematically evaluate the capability of emerging scanning LIDAR and buoy mounted vertically profiling LIDAR by: (1) Evaluating a fixed scanning LIDAR against land-based 50 and 60 meter high meteorological masts fitted with research quality cup-vane and/or sonic anemometers; (2) Evaluating a buoy mounted vertically profiling LIDAR fixed on land and floating in a sheltered bay against a co-located 60 meter high meteorological mast fitted with a research quality cup-vane and/or sonic anemometers and the fixed scanning LIDAR; and (3) Offshore field evaluation of both LIDAR platforms through a comparison of the fixed scanning LIDAR data and data obtained by the buoy mounted LIDAR located 10 miles offshore. The proposed research will systematically validate Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) based wind measurement systems and assess the temporal and spatial variability of the offshore wind resource in the Mid-Atlantic east of New Jersey. The goal of the proposed project is to address the technical and commercial challenges of the offshore wind energy industry by validating and assessing cost-effective, over ocean wind resource characterization technologies. The objective is to systematically evaluate the capability of both scanning and vertically profiling LIDARs to accurately measure 3D wind fields through comparison with fixed met masts and intercomparison among LIDAR platforms. Once validated, data collected by both buoy mounted vertically profiling LIDARs and shore-based, pulsed horizontally scanning LIDARs can be used to accurately assess offshore wind resources and to quantify the spatial and temporal variability in the offshore wind fields. One of the fundamental research questions to be addressed in phase 1 is the assessment of various measurement and data processing schemes to

  20. Geoscientific investigations on the Indian coast: Their application to interpret the paleoclimates and future sea level changes with special reference to greenhouse effect

    Nigam, R.; Hashimi, N.H.; Pathak, M.C.

    Objectives of this paper are: (1) To delineate the paleo sea level fluctuations and erosional environmental changes along the Indian Coast and their relationship with the changing coastline and human settlements in the recent past. (2) To study...