WorldWideScience

Sample records for future issues related

  1. High energy density physics issues related to Future Circular Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N. A.; Burkart, F.; Schmidt, R.; Shutov, A.; Wollmann, D.; Piriz, A. R.

    2017-07-01

    A design study for a post-Large Hadron Collider accelerator named, Future Circular Collider (FCC), is being carried out by the International Scientific Community. A complete design report is expected to be ready by spring 2018. The FCC will accelerate two counter rotating beams of 50 TeV protons in a tunnel having a length (circumference) of 100 km. Each beam will be comprised of 10 600 proton bunches, with each bunch having an intensity of 1011 protons. The bunch length is of 0.5 ns, and two neighboring bunches are separated by 25 ns. Although there is an option for 5 ns bunch separation as well, in the present studies, we consider the former case only. The total energy stored in each FCC beam is about 8.5 GJ, which is equivalent to the kinetic energy of Airbus 380 (560 t) flying at a speed of 850 km/h. Machine protection is a very important issue while operating with such powerful beams. It is important to have an estimate of the damage caused to the equipment and accelerator components due to the accidental release of a partial or total beam at a given point. For this purpose, we carried out numerical simulations of full impact of one FCC beam on an extended solid copper target. These simulations have been done employing an energy deposition code, FLUKA, and a two-dimensional hydrodynamic code, BIG2, iteratively. This study shows that although the static range of a single FCC proton and its shower is about 1.5 m in solid copper, the entire beam will penetrate around 350 m into the target. This substantial increase in the range is due to the hydrodynamic tunneling of the beam. Our calculations also show that a large part of the target will be converted into high energy density matter including warm dense matter and strongly coupled plasmas.

  2. Some political issues related to future special nuclear materials production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peaslee, A.T. Jr.

    1981-08-01

    The Federal Government must take action to assure the future adequate supply of special nuclear materials for nuclear weapons. Existing statutes permit the construction of advanced defense production reactors and the reprocessing of commercial spent fuel for the production of special materials. Such actions would not only benefit the US nuclear reactor manufacturers, but also the US electric utilities that use nuclear reactors

  3. Future accelerators: physics issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1977-11-01

    High energy physics of the future using future accelerators is discussed. The proposed machines and instruments, physics issues and opportunities including brief sketches of outstanding recent results, and the way the proposed machines address these issues are considered. 42 references

  4. Inter-organizational future proof EHR systems A review of the security and privacy related issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Helma; Kalra, Dipak; Hasman, Arie; Talmon, Jan

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Identification and analysis of privacy and security related issues that occur when health information is exchanged between health care organizations. METHODS: Based on a generic scenario questions were formulated to reveal the occurring issues. Possible answers were verified in

  5. Specifying the Concept of Future Generations for Addressing Issues Related to High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermisch, Celine

    2016-12-01

    The nuclear community frequently refers to the concept of "future generations" when discussing the management of high-level radioactive waste. However, this notion is generally not defined. In this context, we have to assume a wide definition of the concept of future generations, conceived as people who will live after the contemporary people are dead. This definition embraces thus each generation following ours, without any restriction in time. The aim of this paper is to show that, in the debate about nuclear waste, this broad notion should be further specified and to clarify the related implications for nuclear waste management policies. Therefore, we provide an ethical analysis of different management strategies for high-level waste in the light of two principles, protection of future generations-based on safety and security-and respect for their choice. This analysis shows that high-level waste management options have different ethical impacts across future generations, depending on whether the memory of the waste and its location is lost, or not. We suggest taking this distinction into account by introducing the notions of "close future generations" and "remote future generations", which has important implications on nuclear waste management policies insofar as it stresses that a retrievable disposal has fewer benefits than usually assumed.

  6. Inter-organizational future proof EHR systems. A review of the security and privacy related issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Helma; Kalra, Dipak; Hasman, Arie; Talmon, Jan

    2009-03-01

    Identification and analysis of privacy and security related issues that occur when health information is exchanged between health care organizations. Based on a generic scenario questions were formulated to reveal the occurring issues. Possible answers were verified in literature. Ensuring secure health information exchange across organizations requires a standardization of security measures that goes beyond organizational boundaries, such as global definitions of professional roles, global standards for patient consent and semantic interoperable audit logs. As to be able to fully address the privacy and security issues in interoperable EHRs and the long-life virtual EHR it is necessary to realize a paradigm shift from storing all incoming information in a local system to retrieving information from external systems whenever that information is deemed necessary for the care of the patient.

  7. India's nuclear power programme present status, future prospects and related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Y.S.R.

    1998-01-01

    India is poorly placed in terms of world energy resources, while 16% of world's population lives in India, only 6% of coal and 0.6% of oil and gas reserves exist in the country. Moreover, the distribution of primary commercial energy resources is quite skewed. However, India is endowed with vast reserves of thorium. The energy potential of our modest uranium resources and sizeable thorium resources has been estimated to be six times that of our total coal reserves. Though during last fifty years since independence, India has made tremendous progress in the energy sector where the use of commercial energy has increased by ten folds. Electricity used during the same period has increased by eighty times. In spite of such an impressive growth the country, due to population growth, finds itself in the almost lowest bracket with regard to per capita consumption which is many fold lower than the world average. India as of today is a net energy importing country. The demand for energy, in particular electricity that has established to be the most efficient and convenient source, is projected to grow at 7-8% per annum for coming two decades. In such a demand scenario it is imperative that all the resources of energy must be judiciously utilised. However, with the depletion of fossil fuels and resulting possible price shocks a long-term energy security is required for the country. The paper deals with the role nuclear power can play in meeting the country's short term and long term demands, progress made and related issues. (author)

  8. Policy issues related to educating the future Israeli medical workforce: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbaum, Stephen C; Crome, Peter; Curry, Raymond H; Gershon, Elliot S; Glick, Shimon M; Katz, David R; Paltiel, Ora; Shapiro, Jo

    2015-01-01

    A 2014 external review of medical schools in Israel identified several issues of importance to the nation's health. This paper focuses on three inter-related policy-relevant topics: planning the physician and healthcare workforce to meet the needs of Israel's population in the 21(st) century; enhancing the coordination and efficiency of medical education across the continuum of education and training; and the financing of medical education. All three involve both education and health care delivery. The physician workforce is aging and will need to be replenished. Several physician specialties have been in short supply, and some are being addressed through incentive programs. Israel's needs for primary care clinicians are increasing due to growth and aging of the population and to the increasing prevalence of chronic conditions at all ages. Attention to the structure and content of both undergraduate and graduate medical education and to aligning incentives will be required to address current and projected workforce shortage areas. Effective workforce planning depends upon data that can inform the development of appropriate policies and on recognition of the time lag between developing such policies and seeing the results of their implementation. The preclinical and clinical phases of Israeli undergraduate medical education (medical school), the mandatory rotating internship (stáge), and graduate medical education (residency) are conducted as separate "silos" and not well coordinated. The content of basic science education should be relevant to clinical medicine and research. It should stimulate inquiry, scholarship, and lifelong learning. Clinical exposures should begin early and be as hands-on as possible. Medical students and residents should acquire specific competencies. With an increasing shift of medical care from hospitals to ambulatory settings, development of ambulatory teachers and learning environments is increasingly important. Objectives such as these

  9. Work-related reproductive, musculoskeletal and mental disorders among working women--history, current issues and future research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Reiko; Kitahara, Teruyo; Masuchi, Ayumi; Kasai, Setsuko

    2002-04-01

    According to the recent changes of working environments and socio-economical conditions, the proportion of working women are increasing in Japan. Characteristics of occupational workload and stress of Japanese working women are consistent with those in many industrialized countries except man-dominant culture. In this review we describe the history, current issues, and future research directions on occupational health of working women, especially focused on reproductive health, work-related musculo-skeletal disorders (WMSDs), and mental disorders. In the reproductive health survey, traditionally main concern was about pregnancy outcomes, then fecundity studies, such as time to pregnancy, became topics recently. Future research will be shifted to outcomes not only during pregnancy but also disorders of hormonal balance and climacterium or health conditions after menopause. WMSDs are reviewed on mainly gender difference and its causative factors. Historically, mental health of working women in Japan has focused on the job stress of nurses. We compare results with a lot of recent researches in Europe and U.S.A., where interaction between occupational stress and family roles were studied. It is not easy to predict the prospective status of female workers in Japan, but social, workplace and familial supports will enhance their health promotion.

  10. Future industrial issues for ANDRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auverlot, D.

    1998-01-01

    ANDRA manages industrially 90 % in volume of radioactive waste produced in France. This is short life waste of low and medium activity. In compliance with the law of 1991, which transformed it into a public body with an industrial and commercial character, ANDRA also heads aspect 2 of the research into the 10 % of remaining highly active long life waste, by attempting to evaluate the possibilities of storing it in deep geological layers, either reversibly or irreversibly. The industrial issues of the future for ANDRA can be in different forms, following three meeting of major importance for ANDRA and for the producers of nuclear waste. These are: the meeting of 2006, at the end of which, in compliance with the law of 1991, the Parliament must re-examine the question of the management of highly active, long life waste; the renewal of nuclear facilities; the future meeting concerning future generations. However, whatever these different stage and whatever the different types of waste considered, the single and major challenge with which ANDRA is confronted is to prove that it is capable of providing a sure danger-free management of all radioactive waste. In this context, it appears necessary, today, to intensify research into aspects 1 and 3 of the law of 1991, to respect the balance of the three aspects. This in fact constitutes an essential pledge of the credibility of the procedure instituted by the law: at present, to clearly specify the research into surface storing in the short or long terms; building the three laboratories, the authorization for which has been subject to public inquiry. And also to keep, for 2006, the largest possible choice of the geological environment. (author)

  11. Transmission access issues: Present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahl, P.K.; Gray, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, the electric industry has undergone dramatic changes as the federal and state governments have encouraged bulk power production by Independent Power Producers (IPPS) and Qualified Facilities (QFs). With decentralization and the consequent competition in the field of bulk power production, there has emerged the problem of non-utility generators (NUGS) and of transmission dependent utilities accessing the existing transmission systems owned by electric utilities. This paper presents current and future issues related to transmission access by IPPS, QFs and transmission dependent utilities. These issues include: (a) impact on system reliability, (b) impact of pricing strategies, (c) changes in state and federal regulations, (d) transmission proposals by various entities, (e) present access arrangements, (f) formation of the Western Systems Power Pool (WSPP), and (g) siting difficulties. The transmission access problem warrants consideration of transmission services, coordination among electric utilities, joint planning on a regional basis, and accommodation of IPPs and NUGs

  12. Future issues in international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Markin, J.T.; Mullen, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    The introduction of large bulk-handling facilities into the internationally safeguarded, commercial nuclear fuel cycle, increased concerns for radiation exposure, and the constant level of resources available to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are driving new and innovative approaches to international safeguards. Inspector resources have traditionally been allocated on a facility-type basis. Approaches such as randomization of inspections either within a facility or across facilities in a State or the application of a fuel-cycle approach within a State are being considered as means of conserving resources. Large bulk-handling facilities require frequent material balance closures to meet IAEA timeliness goals. Approaches such as near-real-time accounting, running book inventories, and adjusted running book inventories are considered as means to meet these goals. The automated facilities require that safeguards measures also be automated, leading to more reliance on operator-supplied equipment that must be authenticated by the inspectorate. New Non-Proliferation Treaty signatory States with advanced nuclear programs will further drain IAEA resources. Finally, the role of special inspections in IAEA safeguards may be expanded. This paper discusses these issues in terms of increasing safeguards effectiveness and the possible impact on operators. 14 refs

  13. Robustness-related issues in speaker recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Thomas Fang

    2017-01-01

    This book presents an overview of speaker recognition technologies with an emphasis on dealing with robustness issues. Firstly, the book gives an overview of speaker recognition, such as the basic system framework, categories under different criteria, performance evaluation and its development history. Secondly, with regard to robustness issues, the book presents three categories, including environment-related issues, speaker-related issues and application-oriented issues. For each category, the book describes the current hot topics, existing technologies, and potential research focuses in the future. The book is a useful reference book and self-learning guide for early researchers working in the field of robust speech recognition.

  14. Issues related to geothermal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesperance, G.O.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a number of potential barriers to geothermal development in Hawaii which have been overcome but some remain. Efforts continue to address issues relating to transmission, project economics, the regulatory process, resource verification, and public acceptance

  15. Cancer survivors. Work related issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Pamela N; Beck, Martha L; Stava, Charles; Sellin, Rena V

    2002-05-01

    New and more effective treatments for cancer have resulted in individuals living longer with a better quality of life. Many more survivors are employed in the workplace. Cancer is no longer only an issue for survivors and their families; it has become an issue for the employer and the workplace. This article describes survey results of 4,364 long term cancer survivors in which they were asked to respond to items describing their ability to work, job discrimination, and quality of life. Thirty-five percent of survivors were working at the time they completed the survey, and 8.5% considered themselves unable to work. This research has shown that age, gender, ethnic group, and cancer type affected the working status of the survivors. Of survivors continuing to work, 7.3% indicated they had experienced job discrimination. The results indicate most cancer survivors do not perceive employment related problems, and are readily assimilated into the work force. Job discrimination and the ability to work is a quality of life issue.

  16. Nuclear standards: current issues and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landis, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of the important issues that currently face the nuclear standards field is presented and a discussion of how each of these issues is being resolved is given. The economic benefits that properly developed standards produce are listed

  17. Gender relations and economic issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, D

    1993-10-01

    While most discussions of economic issues pay no explicit attention to gender relations, most economic policy is marked by male bias which provides women with an unequal access to resources. This situation exists because most economists, officials, and business managers lack the imagination to see the gender impact of economic issues and most women's groups and researchers lack the language to portray this connection. This article explores some aspects of this gap and aims to provide women with the ability to effectively discuss economic issues. After an introduction, the article considers the basic problem caused by the fact that the economy is defined primarily in terms of money-making activities. This leads to a male bias since much of women's work occurs outside of the monetary sphere. The next section looks at how a failure to understand the significance of gender relations will interfere with the fulfillment of policy objectives. This discussion is followed by a description of how cutbacks in government expenditures increase the burden on women who must replace the services. Problems with the option of the private-sector replacing government services, such as the fact that increasing disposable income in households does not guarantee that unpaid labor will be reduced and the fact that the private sector may fail to expand in a productive way, are covered. The article then touches on the new emphasis placed by some economists and policy makers on cooperative and interactive solutions to these problems and ends by mentioning three new initiatives which seek to build capacity for gender-aware economic analysis: the development of a training program at Manchester University in the UK, coordination of an international research workshop by the University of Utah in the US, and development of an international association for feminist economics based in the US.

  18. Future Leadership, Old Issues, New Methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Douglas

    2000-01-01

    ...) and elsewhere that the future command and leadership challenge will be significant. If a complete transformation of warfare occurs, as some posit, an accompanying transformation of command and leadership may likewise be required...

  19. Accounting-related transmission issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niehaus, M.; Bjorn, P.; Pate, G.

    1999-01-01

    Various initiatives have been undertaken by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to deregulate wholesale electric energy markets. These initiatives have focused on restructuring the transmission systems in the US and recently have culminated in a proposal requiring formation of and participation in regional transmission organizations. The overall form of regulation selected to determine rates for transmission entities as well as underlying regulatory decisions reached on key issues will have profound implications for transmission entities. For example, traditional cost-based regulation would require one set of accounting and reporting rules, while incentive-based regulation may not be subject to those same rules. An overview of some of the major accounting and financial reporting issues that will need to be considered is presented

  20. Neuroimaging. Recent issues and future progresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology of non-invasive neuroimaging techniques, include X-ray CT, magnetic resonance imaging, positron CT, etc. The trend of neuroimaging is from the diagnosis of the brain structural change to the functional localization of the brain function with accurate topographical data. Brain activation studies disclosed the responsible regions in the brain for various kinds of paradigms, including motor, sensory, cognitive functions. Another aspect of brain imaging shows the pathophysiological changes of the neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease by abnormal CBF or metabolism changes. It is very important to note that the neurotransmitter receptor imaging is now available for various kinds of transmitters. We recently developed a new tracer for nicotinic type acetylcholine receptor, which might be involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease and its treatment. In the near future, we will be able to visualize the proteins in the brain such as amyloid protein, which will make us to diagnose Alzheimer's patients accurately, and with respect to neuroscience research, not only neuronal functional localizations but also relationship between them will become important to disclose the functional aspects of the brain. (author)

  1. Certification Issues Relating to ABDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    design techniques, among them increased utilization of advanced fibre reinforced materials or advanced metal alloys with higher material allowables for...amount of approx. 30% in future, (Fig. 1.0-1), the wetted area will be made almost exclusively from thermoset composites like CFRP, which is used in...most cases as a combination of a high strength/modulus carbon fibre and a hot curing thermoset resin. A high percentage of modern fighter aircraft’s

  2. High energy density matter issues related to future circular collider. Simulations of full beam impact with a solid copper cylindrical target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, N.A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Burkart, F.; Schmidt, R.; Wollmann, D. [CERN-AB, Geneva (Switzerland); Shutov, A. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Piriz, A.R. [E.T.S.I. Industrials, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2017-11-15

    This paper presents numerical simulations of the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic response of a solid copper cylindrical target that is subjected to the full impact of one future circular collider (FCC) ultra-relativistic proton beam. The target is facially irradiated so that the beam axis coincides with the cylinder axis. The simulations have been carried out employing an energy deposition code, FLUKA, and a 2D hydrodynamic code, BIG2, iteratively. The simulations show that, although the static range of a single FCC proton and its shower in solid copper is ∝1.5 m, the full beam may penetrate up to 350 m into the target as a result of hydrodynamic tunnelling. Moreover, simulations also show that a major part of the target is converted into high energy density (HED) matter, including warm dense matter (WDM) and strongly coupled plasma. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Brain death and related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, M.; Mushtaq, S.; Jamil, K.; Ahmed, S.

    2003-01-01

    Concerns about the erroneous diagnosis of death and premature burial have been expressed from times immemorial. Patients with brain stem death have absolutely no chance of recovery. Brain death is considered at par with death in most of the countries. General public in most parts of the world shows reluctance to accept this concept due to different social, cultural and religious backgrounds and state of literacy and awareness. The criteria for the diagnosis of brain death have been established which include certain pre-conditions, exclusions and tests of the brain stem function. These criteria are universally accepted. The criteria in children are somewhat different from the adults. The subject is intimately related with organ transplantation. If the patients is registered as organ donor or the family consents, organs can be harvested from brain dead patients for transplantation. Pakistan is amongst the few countries where no legislation exists to accept brain death as being at par with death of an individual, and to facilitate and regulate, cadaveric organ donation and transplantation. (author)

  4. Fabric quality issues related to apparel merchandising

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Das, Sonali

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to develop an understanding of fabric quality related issues and research gaps relevant to apparel manufacturing and merchandising within the South African context. The specific focus is on fabric objective...

  5. Internet governance origins, current issues, and future possibilities

    CERN Document Server

    Balleste, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Internet Governance: Origins, Current Issues, and Future Possibilities provides an introductory, multidisciplinary account of the forces at work in the evolving concept of internet governance and includes computer history, Internet beginnings, institutions and stakeholders, proposed models of governance, and human rights.

  6. Informed Consent: Ethical Issues and Future Challenges in Clinical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angaran, David M.

    1989-01-01

    A look at pharmaceutical care needs in the future is the basis for discussion of the educational needs of clinical pharmacists. Issues discussed include the appropriate degree (bachelor's vs. doctoral), costs of instruction, faculty/student ratios, the pharmacy practice faculty as role models, and computer-assisted instruction. (MSE)

  7. Fuel Behavior Modeling Issues Associated with Future Fast Reactor Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yacout, A.M.; Hofman, G.L.; Lambert, J.D.B.; Kim, Y.S.

    2007-01-01

    Major issues of concern related to advanced fast reactor fuel behavior are discussed here with focus on phenomena that are encountered during irradiation of metallic fuel elements. Identification of those issues is part of an advanced fuel simulation effort that aims at improving fuel design and reducing reliance on conventional approach of design by experiment which is both time and resource consuming. (authors)

  8. Bridge to the future: nontraditional clinical settings, concepts and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, H S; Dowell, M A; Jackson, M A

    1995-11-01

    Healthcare restructuring in the wake of healthcare reform places greater emphasis on primary healthcare. Clinical education in acute care settings and existing community health agencies are not compatible with teaching basic concepts, principles and skills fundamental to nursing. Problems of clients in acute care settings are too complex and clients in the community are often too dispersed for necessary faculty support and supervision of beginning nursing students. Nontraditional learning settings offer the baccalaureate student the opportunity to practice fundamental skills of care and address professional skills of negotiation, assertiveness, organization, collaboration and leadership. An overview of faculty designed clinical learning experiences in nontraditional sites such as McDonald's restaurants, inner city churches, YWCA's, the campus community and homes are presented. The legal, ethical and academic issues associated with nontraditional learning settings are discussed in relation to individual empowerment, decision making and evaluation. Implications for the future address the role of the students and faculty as they interact with the community in which they live and practice.

  9. Issues related to field testing in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    This paper has brought out the unique properties of tuffs and related them to needs associated with their use as a host rock for a high level nuclear waste repository. Major issues of temperature, pore water, joints, and depositional patterns have been identified and related responses and impacts outlined in Table 1. Planned experiments have been outlined and their relationships to the rock mechanics issues summarized in Table 2. The conclusions from this paper are: (1) tuff is a complex rock and basic phenomenological understanding is incomplete; and (2) available field test facilities will be used for a series of experiments designed to improve phenomenological understanding and support repository design efforts

  10. Future issues in radiation protection: a Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation protection has always been a key effectiveness area in Ontario Hydro's nuclear power program. The overall collective and individual dose performance continues to be amongst the best in the world. However, several important issues are emerging and will continue to impact the way in which the radiation protection program is managed. These include proposed reductions in regulatory dose limits based on ICRP 60, worker and public perception of an increased level of radiation risk, an increased presence of organised labour in the formulation of radiation protection policy, our philosophy of self protection coming under challenge and the impact of heavily audited radiation protection practices and programs. Each of these issues will be discussed further in this paper. The Ontario Hydro ALARA program is briefly covered although it is considered not to be a future issue but rather a principle which has been incorporated into the design and operation of our stations for many years. (author). 10 figs

  11. Problems and Issues Related to Alternative Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilat, Mary

    1997-01-01

    Symposium participants identified policy issues in these areas related to alternative education for at-risk youth: choice, equity, public perception, definition, philosophy, stakeholder involvement, evaluation, staffing, curriculum, governance, and financing. Public discourse and policy discussion were considered essential to implementing…

  12. Addressing Measurement Issues Related to Bullying Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Deborah M.; Meter, Diana J.; Card, Noel A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we address measurement issues related to select aspects of bullying involvement with the goal of moving psychometrically sound measurement practices toward applied bullying research. We first provide a nontechnical introduction to psychometric considerations in measuring bullying involvement, highlighting the importance of…

  13. Female sex trafficking: conceptual issues, current debates, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkovska, Biljana; Siegel, Melissa; Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bos, Arjan E R

    2015-01-01

    Female sex trafficking is a pressing concern. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of relevant issues regarding the concept of female sex trafficking and research in the field of human trafficking, drawing on a variety of disciplines, including economics, gender and sexuality studies, psychology, sociology, law, and social work. We discuss the debates surrounding the definition of human trafficking, compare and contrast it with human smuggling, and outline connections between female sex trafficking and the issue of sex work and prostitution. We further discuss the history and current estimations of female sex trafficking. We then outline the main actors in female sex trafficking, including trafficked persons, traffickers, clients, and service providers, and we overview the trafficking process from recruitment to identification, recovery, and (re)integration. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future research that tie together the concepts of vulnerability, exploitation, and long-term recovery and (re)integration.

  14. Cloud Computing : Goals, Issues, SOA, Integrated Technologies and Future -scope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Madhu Viswanatham

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of networking infrastructure has provided a novel way to store and access resources in a reliable, convenient and affordable means of technology called the Cloud. The cloud has become so popular and established its dominance in many recent world innovations and has highly influenced the trend of the Business process Management with the advantage of shared resources. The ability to remain disaster tolerant, on-demand scalability, flexible deployment and cost effectiveness has made the future world technologies like Internet of Things, to determine the cloud as their data and processing center. However, along with the implementation of cloud based technologies, we must also address the issues involved in its realization. This paper is a review on the advancements, scopes and issues involved in realizing a secured cloud powered environments.

  15. Food and Health Some Current Issues and Future Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Gormley, T. R. (Thomas Ronan)

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with some of the many current issues and future trends in the area of food, diet and health in Europe. A complete coverage would be impossible in a short article in view of the extent and complexity of the food system and its major interaction with health. It is also important to stress at the outset that food/diet is only one component of health and other factors such as environment, overall lifestyle and genetics also play a major role. The genetic dimension is of particula...

  16. Neutrino physics today, important issues and the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parke, Stephen J.; /Fermilab

    2010-10-01

    The status and the most important issues in neutrino physics will be summarized as well as how the current, pressing questions will be addressed by future experiments. Since the discovery of neutrino flavor transitions by the SuperKamiokande experiment in 1998, which demonstrates that neutrinos change and hence their clocks tick, i.e. they are not traveling at the speed of light and hence are not massless, the field of neutrino physics has made remarkable progress in untangling the nature of the neutrino. However, there are still many important questions to answer.

  17. U.S.-China Relations: Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    China Relations: Policy Issues Congressional Research Service 8 Center; the U.S.-China Energy Efficiency Action Plan; and the U.S.-China Energy...January 25, 2010. 28 Liu Shengjun, “How to Better Use Forex Reserves,” China Daily, January 13, 2010. 29 Paul R. La Monica, “China Still Likes Us…For...or commercialization of carbon capture and sequestration technology, improve energy efficiency , or renewable energy sources. H.R. 2454 Waxman

  18. Attachment-related mental representations: introduction to the special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ross A

    2008-12-01

    Bowlby's concept of mental working models of self, attachment figures, and the social world has been theoretically generative as a bridge between early relational experience and the beliefs and expectations that color later relationships. Contemporary attachment researchers, following his example, are applying new knowledge of children's conceptual development to their study of attachment-related mental representations in children and adults. The contributors to this special issue highlight recent advances in how the mental representations arising from attachment security should be conceptualized and studied, and identify a number of important directions for future work. This paper introduces the special issue by summarizing the major ideas of Bowlby and his followers concerning the nature and development of mental working models, points of theoretical clarity and uncertainty, and challenges in assessing these representations, as well as profiling each of the contributions to this issue.

  19. Labour Rights Protection in Industrial Relations Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Adi Susanto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many violations of the terms of employment at Surabaya, employment protection  and working conditions for workers who are not provided by employers to the maximum, according to the legislation in force, while the legal protection for workers constrained because of the weakness in the system of employment law, both the substance and the culture built by governments and companies. How To Cite: Susanto, E. (2015. Labour Rights Protection in Industrial Relations Issues. Rechtsidee, 2(2, 109-120. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i2.78

  20. Ethical issues in trauma-related research: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Elana; Risch, Elizabeth; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

    2006-09-01

    ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING ABOUT TRAUMA-RELATED STUDIES requires a flexible approach that counters assumptions and biases about victims, assures a favorable ethical cost-benefit ratio, and promotes advancement of knowledge that can benefit survivors of traumatic stress. This paper reviews several ethical issues in the field of traumatic stress: benefit and risks in trauma-related research, whether trauma-related research poses unique risks and if so what those might be, informed consent and mandatory reporting, and supervision of trauma-related research. For each topic, we review potential ethical issues, summarize the research conducted thus far to inform ethical practice, and recommend future practice, research questions and policies to advance the field so that research on trauma can continue to be a win-win situation for all stakeholders in the research enterprise.

  1. Critical issues and future directions in sintering science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brook, R.J.; Tuan, W.H.; Xue, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The quality of available powders and the emphasis on direct microstructural observation have continued to improve the value of sintering studies for the processing of ceramics. Future concerns will relate to mechanisms for the correction of microstructural inhomogeneity so that pressureless processing of composites can be reliably achieved and to more systematic exploitation of dopants (sintering additives). These themes are illustrated using examples from the processing of alumina composites and doped barium titanate compositions

  2. Outstanding Issues and Future Directions of Inner Magnetospheric Research (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, P. C.

    2009-12-01

    Several research areas of the inner magnetosphere and ionosphere (MI) system have reached a state, where the coupling mechanisms can no longer be treated as boundary conditions or ad-hoc assumptions in our physical models. It is nothing new that our community has become increasingly aware of the necessity to use global measurements from multiple observation platforms and missions, in order to understand both the system as a whole as well as its individual subsystems. In this presentation we briefly review the current status and outstanding issues of inner MI research. We attempt to establish a working definition of the term "Systems Approach", then present observational tools and techniques that enable such an approach. Physical modeling plays a central role not only in understanding the mechanisms at work, but also in determining the key quantities to be measured. We conclude by discussing questions relevant to future directions. Are there new techniques that need more attention? Should multi-platform observations be included as a default component already at the mission-level in the future? Is solar minimum uninteresting from an MI perspective? Should we actively compare to magnetospheres of other planets? Examples of outstanding issues in inner MI research include the circulation of ionospheric plasma from low to high latitudes and its escape to the magnetosphere, where it is energized by magnetospheric processes and becomes a part of the plasma pressure that in turn affects the ionospheric and magnetospheric electric field. The electric field, in turn, plays a controlling role in the transport of both magnetospheric and ionospheric plasma, which is intimately linked with ionospheric conductance. The conductance, in turn, is controlled by thermospheric chemistry coupled with plasma flow and heating and magnetospheric precipitation and Joule heating. Several techniques have emerged as important tools: auroral imaging, inversions of ENA images to retrieve the

  3. Philosophical Issues in Ecology: Recent Trends and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Colyvan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Philosophy of ecology has been slow to become established as an area of philosophical interest, but it is now receiving considerable attention. This area holds great promise for the advancement of both ecology and the philosophy of science. Insights from the philosophy of science can advance ecology in a number of ways. For example, philosophy can assist with the development of improved models of ecological hypothesis testing and theory choice. Philosophy can also help ecologists understand the role and limitations of mathematical models in ecology. On the other side, philosophy of science will be advanced by having ecological case studies as part of the stock of examples. Ecological case studies can shed light on old philosophical topics as well as raise novel issues for the philosophy of science. For example, understanding theoretical terms such as "biodiversity" is important for scientific reasons, but such terms also carry political importance. Formulating appropriate definitions for such terms is thus not a purely scientific matter, and this may prompt a reevaluation of philosophical accounts of defining theoretical terms. We consider some of the topics currently receiving attention in the philosophy of ecology and other topics in need of attention. Our aim is to prompt further exchange between ecology and philosophy of science and to help set the agenda for future work in the philosophy of ecology. The topics covered include: the role of mathematical models, environmental problem formulation, biodiversity, and environmental ethics.

  4. Monetary Cooperation in East Asia: Major Issues and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai-Won Ryou

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The Asian currency crisis in 1997 and the launch of the euro in 1999 made the possibility and desirability of introducing a regional currency union in East Asia a point of debate. At present, the empirical findings and policy implications of previous studies are mixed. We are still in need of theoretical and empirical studies that capture the salient features of East Asia, and give us reliable recommendations for incentive structures, configurations and policy instruments in monetary cooperation in its various stages. This paper aims to review major conceptual and empirical issues relevant to monetary cooperation in East Asia, including proposals for a regional cooperative framework for exchange rate stability or forming a currency union in the region. East Asian countries have no experience with any type of monetary cooperation and all we have are hypothetical predictions. Nevertheless, East Asian countries may be on the brink of an historical evolution to economic and monetary integration, as Europe was half a century ago. The progressive integration of markets in East Asia has conferred a commonality of economic interest upon the countries in the region. As the economic structures of East Asian countries converge with one another through closer ties of trade, investment and finance, the necessity for monetary cooperation will be more likely to emerge in the future. Monetary cooperation in East Asia will be a long process. East Asian countries should make efforts to build collective institutions in the beginning.

  5. Environmental issues related to uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorber, D.M.; Chambers, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    This paper introduces the environmental issues (both real and perceived) associated with uranium exploration, mining, milling, and tailings management. As well, some of the issues pertaining to the closeout of uranium tailings areas are discussed. These issues have received considerable attention in Canada in public inquiries and hearings that have been held across the country. The major conclusions of some of these hearings are also noted

  6. Rib fracture repair: indications, technical issues, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Raminder; Diaz, Jose J; Trunkey, Donald D; Mayberry, John C

    2009-01-01

    Rib fracture repair has been performed at selected centers around the world for more than 50 years; however, the operative indications have not been established and are considered controversial. The outcome of a strictly nonoperative approach may not be optimal. Potential indications for rib fracture repair include flail chest, painful, movable rib fractures refractory to conventional pain management, chest wall deformity/defect, rib fracture nonunion, and during thoracotomy for other traumatic indication. Rib fracture repair is technically challenging secondary to the human rib's relatively thin cortex and its tendency to fracture obliquely. Nonetheless, several effective repair systems have been developed. Future directions for progress on this important surgical problem include the development of minimally invasive techniques and the conduct of multicenter, randomized trials.

  7. A Research on Issues Related to RFID Security and Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongki; Yang, Chao; Jeon, Jinhwan

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology for automated identification of objects and people. RFID systems have been gaining more popularity in areas especially in supply chain management and automated identification systems. However, there are many existing and potential problems in the RFID systems which could threat the technology's future. To successfully adopt RFID technology in various applications, we need to develop the solutions to protect the RFID system's data information. This study investigates important issues related to privacy and security of RFID based on the recent literature and suggests solutions to cope with the problem.

  8. U.S.-China Relations: Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    global issues on which the Obama Administration has sought to work with China are the international financial crisis, climate change, and nuclear non-proliferation. In remarks in July 2009, President Obama declared that partnership between the United States and China was a prerequisite for progress on many of the most pressing global challenges. Continuing major bilateral issues in the relationship include trade and...into the Obama Administration, U.S. officials point to some successes in their efforts to work with China on global issues , including

  9. Pertinent issues related to laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney C. Abreu

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: We describe the critical steps of the laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP technique and discuss how they impact upon the pertinent issues regarding prostate cancer surgery: blood loss, potency and continence. RESULTS: A major advantage of LRP is the reduced operative blood loss. The precise placement of the dorsal vein complex stitch associated with the tamponading effect of the CO2 pneumoperitoneum significantly decrease venous bleeding, which is the main source of blood loss during radical prostatectomy. At the Cleveland Clinic, the average blood loss of our first 100 patients was 322.5 ml, resulting in low transfusion rates. The continuous venous bleeding narrowed pelvic surgical field and poor visibility can adversely impact on nerve preservation during open radical prostatectomy. Laparoscopy, with its enhanced and magnified vision in a relatively bloodless field allows for excellent identification and handling of the neurovascular bundles. During open retropubic radical prostatectomy, the pubic bone may impair visibility and access to the urethral stump, and the surgeon must tie the knots relying on tactile sensation alone. Consequently, open prostatectomy is associated with a prolonged catheterization period of 2 - 3 weeks. Comparatively, during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy all sutures are meticulously placed and each is tied under complete visual control, resulting in a precise mucosa-to-mucosa approximation. CONCLUSION: The laparoscopic approach may represent a reliable less invasive alternative to the conventional open approach. Despite the encouraging preliminary anatomical and functional outcomes, prospective randomized comparative trials are required to critically evaluate the role of laparoscopy for this sophisticated and delicate operation.

  10. Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colaccino, J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed.

  11. Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colaccino, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed

  12. Issues related to cooperative implementation mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This note by the secretariat seeks to focus discussions on some key issues regarding the design and functioning of the three new mechanisms, such as issues concerning mandates, cross-cutting as well as issues concerning individual mechanisms. The note addresses each mechanism separately in view of different origins, approaches, participants and possible applications. Reference is, however, made to similarities among the mechanisms, in particular where coordination of work on methodological and institutional issues and inter-institutional collaboration are concerned. The note suggests, in its concluding part, elements of a work programme up to and, to some extent, beyond COP 4. It draws upon the views submitted by Parties (document FCCC/SB/1998/MISC.1), contains reflections by the secretariat and builds on its consultations with other organizations having activities, under way or planned, that could contribute to the design or operation of the mechanisms. (au)

  13. Trade-related Electronic Commerce Issues in the OECD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-In Yoon

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The trade committee of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD has begun the study of the trade related to electronic commerce since 1997. The scale of the study on one hand has avoided the fact of copy and duplication of WTO and its organizational principles, on the other hand it has played a supplementary and supportive function. At present, digital-related product, such as computers, software and travel is the key point to the trade which resorts to electronic commerce. It is predicted that this trend will go on. The study on electronic commerce could be summed up into three main components: First, according to the phase of the trade, it could be divided into advertisement, purchase, delivery and payment. Second, issues on electronic commerce in the international trade; such as the issue that leads to the unfairness and non-neutrality of the searching engine in international service trade. Besides, domain name, trademarks and the issue of middleman which exist at the moment in the electronic commerce are activated and will also be discussed. Third, issues of the trade policy related to the electronic commerce. For instance, the kernel principles which support the multi-trade regulation, including transparency, indiscrimination, anti-dumping, flexible trade, government arrangement, tariff and competition policy and so on. Under this background, we should explore way in formulating hypotheses with preconceived issues, validating the electronic commerce trade on the spot, actualizing the study on the application of electronic commerce coming with the GATS regulation, seeking the countermeasure in the future trade policy, such as benefit policy to the electronic commerce department and electronic commerce strategy approach of certain enterprises, etc.

  14. Key issues in space nuclear power challenges for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The future appears rich in missions that will extend the frontiers of knowledge, human presence in space, and opportunities for profitable commerce. Key to the success of these ventures is the availability of plentiful, cost effective electric power and assured, low cost access to space. While forecasts of space power needs are problematic, an assessment of future needs based on terrestrial experience has been made. These needs fall into three broad categories: survival, self sufficiency, and industrialization. The cost of delivering payloads to orbital locations from LEO to Mars has been determined and future launch cost reductions projected. From these factors, then, projections of the performance necessary for future solar and nuclear space power options has been made. These goals are largely dependent upon orbital location and energy storage needs. Finally the cost of present space power systems has been determined and projections made for future systems.

  15. Contemporary issues and future directions for research into pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, M; Baron, E

    2000-08-01

    The recent healthy increase in research into all aspects of gambling is noted. The dominant theme accounting for most of this research is the mental disorder model of pathological gambling and measures that have been derived from this conceptualization. It is suggested that an alternative approach focusing on the construct of choice or subjective control over gambling may be a research direction that will ensure that progress is maintained. In this paper a context for the discussion is provided by first identifying briefly fundamental conceptual and methodological issues associated with the mental disorder model. In particular it is argued that the heterogeneity of the diagnosis of pathological gambling makes the research task of assessing truly independent variables extremely difficult. Subsequently an illustrative schema is presented that demonstrates both the potential advantages and some of the complexities associated with the dependent variable of self-control over gambling behaviour. The main advantages are argued to be (a) the focus of research is narrowed to one potential cause of harmful impacts rather than the great diversity of impacts themselves, (b) prospective studies of regular gamblers in real gambling venues may be a key source of insight into the development of pathological gambling and (c) it promotes the development of theoretical links with the mainstream of the discipline of psychology. Despite the conceptual difficulties that may be associated with the variable of self-control, it is suggested that these may be overcome because contemporary research into the addictive behaviours has demonstrated considerable success in the definition and measurement of control and related themes such as craving, restraint and temptation.

  16. Global issues related to enteric viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desselberger, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Acute viral gastroenteritis is a major health issue worldwide and is associated with high annual mortality, particularly in children of developing countries. Rotaviruses, caliciviruses and astroviruses are the main causes. Accurate diagnoses are possible by recently developed molecular techniques. In many setups, zoonotic transmission is an important epidemiological factor. Treatment consists of rehydration and is otherwise symptomatic. The worldwide introduction of universal rotavirus vaccination of infants has significantly reduced rotavirus disease and mortality.

  17. Epidemiological issues related to dose reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    When a dose reconstruction is performed around some nuclear site, a decision has to be made as to whether an epidemiologic study should be performed there and, if so, what form the study should take. The goal of this paper is to provide an overview of epidemiologic and biostatistical issues that help determine whether an epidemiologic study around a nuclear facility is worthwhile doing from a scientific standpoint. We are all aware that public health and sociopolitical concerns often assume considerable importance in these decisions, but they will not be considered here. 27 refs., 2 tabs

  18. Environmental issues related to biomass: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, M.; Ranney, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    With public attention increasingly focused on environmentalism and climate change, there is enormous potential for the commercial use of biomass to accelerate. Renewable feedstocks such as biomass can provide more environmentally balanced sources of energy and other non-food products than fossil fuels. Biomass utilization is in a precarious position, however, with public attention increasingly focused on both its potential and the strength of the challenges it faces. The paper is divided into five sections. Section 2 briefly addresses economic environmental issues. The extent to which externalities are accounted for in the market price of fuels plays a significant role in determining both the ultimate size of biofuel markets and the extent of the environmental benefits of feedstock cultivation and conversion processes. Sections 3 through 4 catalogue the main hazards and benefits that are likely to arise in the large scale commercialization of biomass fuel and note where the major uncertainties lay. Environmental issues arise with the cultivation of each feedstock and with each step in the process of its conversion to fuel. Feedstocks are discussed in Section 3 in terms of three main groups; wastes, energy crops, and traditional agricultural crops. In Section 4, conversion processes are also divided into three groups, on the basis of the end energy carrier; gas, liquid, and solid and electricity. Section 5 is devoted to a conclusion and summary

  19. School Transportation Issues, Laws and Concerns: Implications for Future Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durick, Jody M.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly all building administrators are confronted with a variety of transportation issues. Challenges, concerns and questions can arise from various aspects, including student misbehaviors, transportation laws and its implications at the school level, to importance and implementation of a school bus safety program. As new and upcoming future…

  20. Introduction to the Special Issue “Sport for Social Inclusion: Critical Analyses and Future Challenges”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Haudenhuyse

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available “Sport for Social Inclusion: Critical Analyses and Future Challenges” brings together a unique collection of papers on the subject of sport and social inclusion. The special issue can be divided into three major parts. The first part consists of three papers tacking on a broad perspective on sport and social exclusion, with specific attention to austerity policies, sport-for-change and exclusion in youth sports. The second part of the special issue tackles specific themes (e.g., group composition and dynamics, volunteering, physical education, youth work, equality, public health and groups (e.g., people with disabilities, disadvantaged girls, youth in society in relation to sport and social exclusion. The third part consists of three papers that are related to issues of multiculturalism, migration and social inclusion. The special issue is further augmented with a book review on Mike Collins and Tess Kay’s Sport and social exclusion (2nd edition and a short research communication. The editors dedicate the special issue to Mike Collins (deceased.

  1. Environment issues and the future of the transport industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiller, J W [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (USA)

    1992-01-01

    The motor vehicle industry must make the necessary investment in products and technology to meet the competitive and environmental challenges of the future. Discussion is presented of: the history of motor vehicles, the relationship of motor vehicles to the environment, the state of climate change knowledge, future economic development and the transport sector, the changing structure of the motor vehicle fleet, traffic congestion, alternative fuels, investments in transport, the European Energy Charter, The US Energy Strategy, the North American free trade agreement, and the economics of the automobile industry in Japan/South East Asia and the developing countries. 61 refs., 29 figs., 28 tabs.

  2. Economic issues relating to power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.K.N.; Mohan, Rakesh

    1998-01-01

    Financial distress alongside high rates of growth, stagnant organizations coexistent with upgraded technologies, richly endowed regions marked by low levels of electricity consumption and the long wait for private power in face of mounting shortfalls are among the contradictions marking the power sector. Decades of public financing support could shore up the rates of growth but forms of past intervention failed to address critical institutional and regulatory issues. Key areas that need intervention have now been identified, although several are yet to be tackled. This paper discusses the more important of the problem areas holding up significant economic gains that could be realized through cost reductions, the needed levels of investments, operation of market forces and targeting of resources to promote equitable growth. The slow pace of progress is a matter for concern. Effectiveness of many of the policy initiatives of government is also dependent on providing well thought out policy supports. (author)

  3. Safety issues relating to the design of fusion power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasko, R.R.; Wong, K.Y.; Russell, S.B.

    1986-06-01

    In order to make fusion power a viable future source of energy, it will be necessary to ensure that the cost of power for fusion electric generation is competitive with advanced fission concepts. In addition, fusion power will have to live up to its original promise of being a more radiologically benign technology than fission, and be able to demonstrate excellent operational safety performance. These two requirements are interrelated, since the selection of an appropriate safety philosophy early in the design phase could greatly reduce or eliminate the capital costs of elaborate safety related and protective sytems. This paper will briefly overview a few of the key safety issues presently recognized as critical to the ultimate achievement of licensable, environmentally safe and socially acceptable fusion power facilities. 12 refs

  4. Experiences with OHP and Issues for the Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2000-01-01

    The OHSWG has by now moved from specifications to running code. This is an important step, not only because this is the only way of maturing the specifications, but also because it strengthens the credibility of the OHSWG. Showing that the ideas expressed by the OHSWG can be implemented is howeve...... are living in interesting times. Based on the experiences of developing the Arakne Environment, the author attempts to point out some worthwhile directions for future work within the OHSWG....

  5. Issues related to the Fermion mass problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakowski, Janusz Adam

    1998-09-01

    This thesis is divided into three parts. Each illustrates a different aspect of the fermion mass issue in elementary particle physics. In the first part, the possibility of chiral symmetry breaking in the presence of uniform magnetic and electric fields is investigated. The system is studied nonperturbatively with the use of basis functions compatible with the external field configuration, the parabolic cylinder functions. It is found that chiral symmetry, broken by a uniform magnetic field, is restored by electric field. Obtained result is nonperturbative in nature: even the tiniest deviation of the electric field from zero restores chiral symmetry. In the second part, heavy quarkonium systems are investigated. To study these systems, a phenomenological nonrelativistic model is built. Approximate solutions to this model are found with the use of a specially designed Pade approximation and by direct numerical integration of Schrodinger equation. The results are compared with experimental measurements of respective meson masses. Good agreement between theoretical calculations and experimental results is found. Advantages and shortcommings of the new approximation method are analysed. In the third part, an extension of the standard model of elementary particles is studied. The extension, called the aspon model, was originally introduced to cure the so called strong CP problem. In addition to fulfilling its original purpose, the aspon model modifies the couplings of the standard model quarks to the Z boson. As a result, the decay rates of the Z boson to quarks are altered. By using the recent precise measurements of the decay rates Z → bb and Z /to [/it c/=c], new constraints on the aspon model parameters are found.

  6. 40 CFR 300.220 - Related Title III issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Related Title III issues. 300.220 Section 300.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY... PLAN Planning and Preparedness § 300.220 Related Title III issues. Other related Title III requirements...

  7. Nuclear power and related safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdezco, Eulinia M.

    2009-01-01

    There are a cluster of trends that reinforce the importance of nuclear power on the world scene. Energy is the essential underpinning for economic and societal progress and, as the developing world advances, the demand for energy is growing significantly. At the same time, the carbon-intensive sources of energy on which the world has traditionally relied - in particular, coal, oil, and natural gas - pose grave threats because the growing concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will bring about climate and ocean acidification. At the same time, rising and volatile fossil fuel prices, coupled with concerns about the security of supplies of oil and gas, enhance interest in sources of energy that do not pose the same costs and risks. As an important part of the world's response to these threats, many countries are embarking on either new or expanded nuclear power programs, more commonly referred to as a nuclear renaissance. The construction of nuclear power plants is under consideration in over thirty countries that do not currently use nuclear power. For new entrants that may have experience in constructing and operating large-scale industrial and infrastructure projects, they may not be fully familiar with the unique requirements of nuclear power and may not be fully recognize the major commitments and understandings that they must assume. Additionally, an understanding of the full range of obligations may have diminished in those countries with only one or a few reactors and where nuclear construction has not been undertaken for a long time. It is therefore in the interest of all to ensure that every country with a nuclear power program has the resources, expertise, authority and capacity to assure safety in a complete and effective manner and is committed to doing so. This presentation will outline some of the more important national infrastructure considerations including nuclear safety issues for launching a nuclear power program. An update on the

  8. Future neutrino oscillation facilities: physics priorities and open issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondel, Alain

    2006-01-01

    The recent discovery that neutrinos have masses opens a wide new field of experimentation. Accelerator-made neutrinos are essential in this program. Ideas for future facilities include Superbeam, Beta-beam, or Neutrino Factory, each associated with one or several options for detector systems. We now begin a 'scoping study' aimed at determining a set of key R and D projects enabling the community to propose an ambitious accelerator neutrino program at the turn of this decade. As an introduction to this study, a set of physics priorities, a summary of the perceived virtues and shortcomings of the various options, and a number of open questions are presented

  9. Japanese issues on the future behavior of the geological environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Kaz; Nakatsuka, Noboru; Ishimaru, Tsuneari

    1994-01-01

    Comprehending and predicting the future states of the geological environment is very important in ensuring a safe geological disposal of high level radioactive wastes (HLW). This paper is one in a series of studies required to ascertain the existence of a geologically stable area in Japan over the long term. In particular, interest is focussed on the aspect of accumulating data on behavior patterns of selected natural phenomena which will enable predictions of future behavior of geological processes and finding of areas of long term stability. While this paper limits itself to the second and part of the third step, the overall flow-chart of study on natural processes and events which may perturb the geological environment entails three major steps. They include: (i) identification of natural processes and events relevant to long term stability of geological environment to be evaluated; (ii) characterization of the identified natural processes and events; and (iii) prediction of the probability of occurrence, magnitude and influence of the natural processes and events which may perturb the geological environment. (J.P.N)

  10. Sexuality in old age: key issues, gender differences and future proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Fernández-Rouco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a brief overview of some of the most important issues related to sexuality during old age. First, it presents the state of the current situation, in order to later explore some of the elements that have been considered key factors in experiencing sexuality, specifically in this stage of life, while exploring certain needs and difficulties. Similarly, some of the differences between men and women, within this context, are presented. Finally, future proposals aimed at better understanding this topic in old age are presented, with suggestions on how to improve wellbeing and care in regard to sexuality among the aging population.

  11. [Issues on business of genetic testing in near future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Fumio

    2009-06-01

    Since 1990's, a business condition that company sells genetic testing services directly to consumers without through medical facility, so called "direct-to-consumers (DTC) genetic testing", has risen. They provide genetic testing for obesity, disease susceptibility or paternity, etc. There are serious problems in this kind of business. Most of the providers do not make sales with face-to-face selling, and do through internet instead. They do not provide genetic counseling by certified genetic counselor or clinical geneticist. Most DTC genetic testing services for disease susceptibility or predispositions including obesity, lack scientific validity, clinical validity and clinical utility. And also including paternity genetic testing, they all have risks of ethical legal and social issues (ELSI) in genetic discrimination and/or eugenics. The specific problem in Japan is that the healthcare section of the government still has not paid attention and not taken seriously the requirement to deploy safety net.

  12. Summary of activities on CSS related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loriaux, E.

    1996-01-01

    In the Netherlands there are two nuclear power plants. One 60Mw BWR for research purposes in Dodewaard, and one PWR 450 Mw IN Borssele. Both of these NPPs are undergoing an extensive upgrading. These plants use several CSS-like systems. These systems are primarily aimed to support and monitor safe and correct operation of the process or to detect specific (e.g. mechanical) problems in an early stage. The NPP in Dodewaard is upgrading its training simulator and process presentation system (''Datalogger''). The activities related to the CRP are mainly within the framework of the Dodewaard plant. This final national report will give an overview of these activities with particular emphasis on the replacement of the Datalogger system. Some additional information is given on trends in CSSs as used in fossil power plants. (author). 2 figs

  13. Improve processes on healthcare: current issues and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jason C H; Dolan, Matt; Lin, Binshan

    2004-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) is a critical resource for improving today's business competitiveness. However, many healthcare providers do not proactively manage or improve the efficiency and effectiveness of their services with IT. Survival in a competitive business environment demands continuous improvements in quality and service, while rigorously maintaining core values. Electronic commerce continues its development, gaining ground as the preferred means of business transactions. Embracing e-healthcare and treating IT as a strategic tool to improve patient safety and the quality of care enables healthcare professionals to benefit from technology formerly used only for management purposes. Numerous improvement initiatives, introduced by both the federal government and the private sector, seek to better the status quo in IT. This paper examines the current IT climate using an enhanced "Built to Last" model, and comments on future IT strategies within the healthcare industry.

  14. Information resources for assessing health effects from chemical exposure: Challenges, priorities, and future issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigel, S. [National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Issues related to developing information resources for assessing the health effects from chemical exposure include the question of how to address the individual political issues relevant to identifying and determining the timeliness, scientific credibility, and completeness of such kinds of information resources. One of the important ways for agencies to share information is through connection tables. This type of software is presently being used to build information products for some DHHS agencies. One of the challenges will be to convince vendors of data of the importance of trying to make data files available to communities that need them. In the future, information processing will be conducted with neural networks, object-oriented database management systems, and fuzzy-set technologies, and meta analysis techniques.

  15. Issues in contemporary and potential future molecular diagnostics for dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekaran, Shamala Devi; Soe, Hui Jen

    2017-03-01

    Dengue has been the most common arbovirus infection worldwide with 2.5 billion people living in over 100 endemic tropical and subtropical regions. Due to the high number of asymptomatic cases and the signs and symptoms being rather unspecific, dengue cases are often under-reported and might influence dengue surveillance programs. Therefore, a rapid, easy to use, inexpensive, and highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tool is essential for early and accurate diagnosis to ease the clinical management of patients as well as for the development of new interventions. Areas covered: This report discusses the contemporary dengue diagnostic tool, mainly from the aspect of molecular diagnosis where an overview of several nuclei acid amplification tests has been included. Potential molecular diagnostic tools such as biosensor and microarray are also discussed in this report. Expert commentary: Rapidness and accuracy in terms of sensitivity and specificity is imperative in dengue diagnosis for both clinical management and surveillance of dengue to ensure early treatment and corrective control measures can be carried out. In the next five years it is expected that there will be newer tests developed using not only the lateral flow techniques but more specifically biosensors and nanotechnology. These new technologies will have to be validated with the appropriate number and category of samples and to address the issue of cross-reactivity.

  16. Issues for the future. Putting the jigsaw together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Oxfam's efforts to support organizations working with disabled people in Bosnia highlight the necessity of taking into account other forms of disadvantage that increase vulnerability, such as gender, when planning interventions. When Oxfam began working in Bosnia in 1993, disability was widely perceived as a medical rather than a social development issue. An Oxfam-inspired inter-Association project set up the Lotos Resource Center to create badly needed joint social space and office space for vocational training. Realizing that it was difficult to reach women with disabilities, Oxfam representatives made home visits to encourage women to participate in activities. Oxfam also actively co-opted women to join the steering committee. This work gave Oxfam a better understanding of the fact that a diversity of needs exists for disabled men and women, for able-bodied women caring for disabled partners, and for women caring for disabled children. Lessons learned include 1) people with disabilities are not homogeneous in their needs; 2) it is essential to take positive action to involve disabled women; 3) gender and disability analysis must be inclusive and must consider different sources of marginalization or else marginalization will be reinforced; and 4) a basic rights approach provides a clear framework to understand dimensions of disadvantage within households.

  17. Issues and future directions of 'introduction of Risk Informed Regulation'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan (NSC) set up a taskforce for developing a scheme of Risk Informed Regulation (RIR) introduction, which had discussed various aspects of utilization of risk information in nuclear regulations. In the final report compiled in 2007, the taskforce identified the significance of RIR introduction from viewpoint of enhancement of rationality, consistency and transparency as well as appropriate allocation of regulatory resources in the nuclear safety regulation and major issues for the further promotion were as follows: NSC is to maintain the comprehensively promoting function of the RIR introduction with reviewing global trends and latest technological knowledge, regulatory bodies are to further enhance the RIR in inspection and operational area, utilities and industries are to utilize further risk information in their self-maintenance activities and to gather trouble information data, academic societies are to establish the standards for risk evaluation technology and RIR, and research institutes are to carry out safety research and risk training for risk-communicators. This article presented summary of the final report aiming at upgrading safety regulation with enhancement of RIR introduction. (T. Tanaka)

  18. Long-term proliferation and safeguards issues in future technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keisch, B.; Auerbach, C.; Fainberg, A.; Fiarman, S.; Fishbone, L.G.; Higinbotham, W.A.; Lemley, J.R.; O'Brien, J.

    1986-02-01

    The purpose of the task was to assess the effect of potential new technologies, nuclear and non-nuclear, on safeguards needs and non-proliferation policies, and to explore possible solutions to some of the problems envisaged. Eight subdivisions were considered: New Enrichment Technologies; Non-Aqueous Reprocessing Technologies; Fusion; Accelerator-Driven Reactor Systems; New Reactor Types; Heavy Water and Deuterium; Long-Term Storage of Spent Fuel; and Other Future Technologies (Non-Nuclear). For each of these subdivisions, a careful review of the current world-wide effort in the field provided a means of subjectively estimating the viability and qualitative probability of fruition of promising technologies. Technologies for which safeguards and non-proliferation requirements have been thoroughly considered by others were not restudied here (e.g., the Fast Breeder Reactor). The time scale considered was 5 to 40 years for possible initial demonstration although, in some cases, a somewhat optimistic viewpoint was embraced. Conventional nuclear-material safeguards are only part of the overall non-proliferation regime. Other aspects are international agreements, export controls on sensitive technologies, classification of information, intelligence gathering, and diplomatic initiatives. The focus here is on safeguards, export controls, and classification

  19. Long-term proliferation and safeguards issues in future technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keisch, B.; Auerbach, C.; Fainberg, A.; Fiarman, S.; Fishbone, L.G.; Higinbotham, W.A.; Lemley, J.R.; O' Brien, J.

    1986-02-01

    The purpose of the task was to assess the effect of potential new technologies, nuclear and non-nuclear, on safeguards needs and non-proliferation policies, and to explore possible solutions to some of the problems envisaged. Eight subdivisions were considered: New Enrichment Technologies; Non-Aqueous Reprocessing Technologies; Fusion; Accelerator-Driven Reactor Systems; New Reactor Types; Heavy Water and Deuterium; Long-Term Storage of Spent Fuel; and Other Future Technologies (Non-Nuclear). For each of these subdivisions, a careful review of the current world-wide effort in the field provided a means of subjectively estimating the viability and qualitative probability of fruition of promising technologies. Technologies for which safeguards and non-proliferation requirements have been thoroughly considered by others were not restudied here (e.g., the Fast Breeder Reactor). The time scale considered was 5 to 40 years for possible initial demonstration although, in some cases, a somewhat optimistic viewpoint was embraced. Conventional nuclear-material safeguards are only part of the overall non-proliferation regime. Other aspects are international agreements, export controls on sensitive technologies, classification of information, intelligence gathering, and diplomatic initiatives. The focus here is on safeguards, export controls, and classification.

  20. Ethical Legal and Social Issues of Biobanking: Past, Present, and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Marianna J

    2017-04-01

    The past 15 years has seen considerable changes in the research environment. These changes include the development of new sophisticated genetic and genomic technologies, a proliferation of databases containing large amount of genotypic and phenotypic data, and wide-spread data sharing among many institutions, nationally and internationally. These changes have raised new questions regarding how best to protect the participants of biobanking research. In response to these questions, best practices for addressing the legal, ethical, and social issues of biobanking have been developed. In addition, new ethical guidelines related to biobanking have been established, as well as new regulations regarding privacy and human subject protections. Finally, changes in the science and the research environment have raised complex ethical issues related to biobanking, such as questions about the most appropriate consent models to use for biobanking research, commercial use and ownership issues, and whether and how to return individual research results to biobank participants. This article reviews some of the developments over the past 15 years related to the ELSI of biobanking with a look toward the future.

  1. Current and Future Critical Issues in Rocket Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaz, Homayun K.; Dix, Jeff C.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this research was to tackle several problems that are currently of great importance to NASA. In a liquid rocket engine several complex processes take place that are not thoroughly understood. Droplet evaporation, turbulence, finite rate chemistry, instability, and injection/atomization phenomena are some of the critical issues being encountered in a liquid rocket engine environment. Pulse Detonation Engines (PDE) performance, combustion chamber instability analysis, 60K motor flowfield pattern from hydrocarbon fuel combustion, and 3D flowfield analysis for the Combined Cycle engine were of special interest to NASA. During the summer of 1997, we made an attempt to generate computational results for all of the above problems and shed some light on understanding some of the complex physical phenomena. For this purpose, the Liquid Thrust Chamber Performance (LTCP) code, mainly designed for liquid rocket engine applications, was utilized. The following test cases were considered: (1) Characterization of a detonation wave in a Pulse Detonation Tube; (2) 60K Motor wall temperature studies; (3) Propagation of a pressure pulse in a combustion chamber (under single and two-phase flow conditions); (4) Transonic region flowfield analysis affected by viscous effects; (5) Exploring the viscous differences between a smooth and a corrugated wall; and (6) 3D thrust chamber flowfield analysis of the Combined Cycle engine. It was shown that the LTCP-2D and LTCP-3D codes are capable of solving complex and stiff conservation equations for gaseous and droplet phases in a very robust and efficient manner. These codes can be run on a workstation and personal computers (PC's).

  2. Current issues and future prospects of dairy sector in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.J.; Naeem, M.; Abbas, A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore the current status of livestock resources, their status of utilisation and the future research concepts in dairy production and milk processing in Pakistan. Advances in the areas of genetics of dairy species, cow reproduction, nutrition, dairy chemistry, milk microbiology, processing technology and milk-based functional foods, have to be applied in Pakistan since the increase in Pakistan's population from 65 to 165 million over the past 3 decades is forecasted to an increase to 234 million by 2025. The need to increase food production means that competition for land and water resources will become more intense. The ecological sustainability of already fragile systems will be further challenged. Agro-industrial byproducts and non-conventional feed resources could be used for feeding of livestock, if farmers are trained accordingly. Situation may be significantly improved if fodder conservation techniques are introduced in livestock feeding systems. Pakistan needs a competitive and profitable dairy farming industry not just for economic but also environmental and social reasons. Productivity potential of local breeds is low and an attempt to genetically improve the local cattle through cross breeding has resulted in improvement in milk yield, acceleration in growth rates and higher prices; however, its discriminate use has been also associated with decreased immunity against temperature changes, disease and nutritional and environmental stresses prevailing in the region. The long-term effects of new systems (such as extended lactations, robot milking and all-year-round housing) will call for ever more intelligent approaches to the simultaneous achievement of quality systems that minimise environmental burdens, sustain high standards of health and welfare and deliver nutritionally valuable products into well organised food supply chains. Value addition, processing, packaging and marketing of milk, meat and eggs, backed up by

  3. Tritium : health risks, regulatory issues and the nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, D. B.; Garva, A.

    2010-10-01

    The refurbishment of existing reactors and proposed new build reactors in Canada has resulted in increased public opposition to nuclear power. This opposition has been fuelled by information provided to local groups by highly motivated national and international anti-nuclear groups who foster overstated and often incorrect views on the risks of low doses of radiation. Over the past several years, there has been increased scientific and public interest in the risks of low exposures to tritium. Scientific aspects which have received considerable attention include amongst others, behaviour in the environment, the possibility of increasing the relative biological effectiveness for tritium, the importance of organically bound tritium, and tritium dosimetry. In Canada at least, the perception of harm from exposures to low levels of tritium has been enhanced in the public mind by a proposal in one Province to lower the drinking water standard for tritium from 7,000 Bq/L to 20 Bq/L, which certain non-governmental organizations use to suggest the risks have been greatly underestimated in the past. Actually regulatory environment, the approval of local public of often a requirement for licensing a nuclear facility and thus it is important to ensure that correct information is not only available but available in a technically correct but easily understood form. This paper reviews the currently available scientific information on the risks from exposure to tritium and provides a context of the implications for regulatory actions and communications with the public. (Author)

  4. Air quality in Malaysia: impacts, management issues and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, M B; Jaafar, A B; Abdullah, A M; Ismail, M B; Hassan, M N; Abdullah, R; Johan, S; Noor, H

    2000-06-01

    evidence that biomass burning is the dominating source of particulate matter. The severity and extent of 1997's haze pollution was unprecedented, affecting some 300 million people across the region. The amount of economic costs suffered by Southeast Asian countries during this environmental disaster was enormous and is yet to be fully determined. Among the important sectors severely affected were air and land transport, shipping, construction, tourism and agro-based industries. The economic cost of the haze-related damage to Malaysia presented in this study include short-term health costs, production losses, tourism-related losses and the cost of avertive action. Although the cost reported here is likely to be underestimated, they are nevertheless significant (roughly RM1 billion). The general air quality of Malaysia since 1970 has deteriorated. Studies have shown that should no effective countermeasures be introduced, the emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in the year 2005 would increase by 1.4, 2.12, 1.47 and 2.27 times, respectively, from the 1992 levels.

  5. Technology assessment of future intercity passenger transporation systems. Volume 2: Identification of issues affecting intercity transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Papers on major issues and trends that affect the future of intercity transportation are presented. Specific areas covered include: political, social, technological, institutional, and economic mechanisms, the workings of which determine how future intercity transporation technologies will evolve and be put into service; the major issues of intercity transportation from the point of view of reform, including candidate transporation technologies; and technical analysis of trends affecting the evolution of intercity transportation technologies.

  6. Contemporary issues in anaphylaxis and the evolution of epinephrine autoinjectors: What will the future bring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, Paul A; Wallace, Dana V; Lieberman, Phillip L; Gregory, Sean M

    2017-10-01

    Food allergy and anaphylaxis appear to be increasing in the United States, especially in young children, and preparedness is paramount to successful emergency management in the community. Although the treatment of choice for anaphylaxis is epinephrine delivered by autoinjection, some devices are challenged by less user-friendly designs or pose the risk of injury, especially in young patients. Human factors engineering has played a larger role in the development of more recent epinephrine autoinjector technologies and will continue to play a role in the evolution and future design of epinephrine autoinjectors. To discuss contemporary issues related to the identification and management of anaphylaxis, current and future epinephrine autoinjector design, and unmet needs for the treatment of special populations, namely, young children weighing less than 15 kg. The literature was reviewed and select articles retrieved to support expert clinical opinions on the need for improved recognition of anaphylaxis, epinephrine autoinjector design, and unmet needs in special populations. Anaphylaxis may be underrecognized and poorly defined in infant- and toddler-aged children, current devices may not be adequate to safely treat these patients (ie, inappropriate needle length), and health care professionals may not be aware of these issues. As epinephrine autoinjector technology continues to evolve, device characteristics that promote safe, user-friendly experiences and give clinicians and their patients confidence to successfully treat anaphylaxis during an emergency, without injury, will be favored. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Recruitment of oncology nurses for Internet research: issues and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik; Lim, Hyun Ju; Bender, Melinda; Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Yang, Soon-Ok; Lee, Hungsa

    2006-11-03

    To provide future directions for Internet research based on issues raised during the recruitment process of an Internet survey of oncology nurses. Throughout the research process, the research staff recorded issues as they arose and wrote memos regarding recruitment issues and possible reasons for the issues. Weekly group discussions were conducted, and written records of the discussions were kept. The written memos and records were reviewed, and the content was analyzed. The recruitment issues included flexibility required, mutual trust, changing Internet dynamics, and potential selection bias. As the issues indicated, recruiting nurses for the study only through the Internet did not work well. For future Internet research, the authors suggest using multiple Internet and real settings for recruitment, a variety of strategies, the quota sampling method, and creative motivation strategies.

  8. On the Issue of Labor Relations Discontinuance by Staff Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheveleva A. A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to consideration of issues related to the procedure of labor law contract termination by staff reduction. The author, analyzing the judicial practice, gives practical recommendations on the procedure of employment relationships discontinuance

  9. Issues Raised in Relation to Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Nirex has undertaken various consultations with different stakeholders to identify their issues and concerns about radioactive waste management in general and specific aspects of Nirex's work. This paper will outline what dialogue techniques Nirex has undertaken and the issues and concerns that people have raised during the events. It will outline some of the work that Nirex is undertaking to address stakeholders' issues and concerns. Nirex has used a variety of dialogue techniques co-ordinated under the Nirex Involvement Programme to engage with stakeholders about the work we undertake. We are now trying to address the issues, concerns, scenarios and questions raised in our work programme. Key lessons that we have learned in undertaking the dialogues include: The importance of appropriate facilitation and organisation of meetings; The need for a clear purpose for meetings; Being flexible to the needs of the attendees and the issues they raise; Providing feedback to those who participate and following up issues. Through engaging with the public Nirex has learned that: Radioactive waste is not an everyday concern for people; The public can, will and want to engage with the issue of radioactive waste management. This includes engaging with the ethical debate. To facilitate this Nirex and others need to: Provide information in a neutral form outlining the pros and cons and including various people's opinions; Use proactive techniques to allow access and space for people to discuss the issues; Demonstrate how people's opinions have been taken into account. People understand the issues very differently to the way institutions understand them. There is a need for institutions to learn to understand public concerns and the ways in which the public understand issues, as well as for the public to understand the institutional positions better. We are using these insights to develop our future work in this area

  10. Public Relations Manager Involvement in Strategic Issue Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzen, Martha M.

    1995-01-01

    Reports on an exploratory study that seeks to build theoretical understanding of how public relations practitioner involvement in one type of strategic organizational decision making--strategic issue diagnosis--is related to shared values with top management, diagnosis accuracy, strategy pursued, and the power of the public relations function. (TB)

  11. Exploring work-related issues on corporate sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunoro, C M; Bolis, I; Sznelwar, L I

    2015-01-01

    In a research project about work-related issues and corporate sustainability conducted in Brazil, the goal was to better understand how work-related issues were addressed in the corporate context. Particularly, there are some specific initiatives that serve as guides to organizational decisions, which make their performance indicators for the context of corporate sustainability. 1) To explore the presence of work-related issues and their origins in corporate sustainability approach, analyzing a) corporate disclosures; b) sustainability guidelines that are identified as relevant in corporate disclosures; c) documents that are related to sustainable development and also identified as key-documents for these guidelines and initiatives. 2) To present the activity-centered ergonomics and psychodynamics of work contributions to work-related issues in a corporate sustainability approach. An exploratory study based on multiple sources of evidence that were performed from 2012 to 2013, including interviews with companies that engaged in corporate sustainability and document analysis using the content analysis approach. Work-related issues have been presented since the earliest sustainable development documents. It is feasible to construct an empirical framework for work-related issues and corporate sustainability approaches. 1) Although some authors argue that corporate sustainability has its roots based only on the environmental dimension, there is strong empirical evidence showing that social dimension aspects such as work-related issues have been present since the beginning. 2) Some indicators should be redesigned to more precisely translate the reality of some workplaces, particularly those indicators related to organizational design and mental health.

  12. Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Haldrup

    2017-01-01

    Currently both design thinking and critical social science experience an increased interest in speculating in alternative future scenarios. This interest is not least related to the challenges issues of global sustainability present for politics, ethics and design. This paper explores the potenti......Currently both design thinking and critical social science experience an increased interest in speculating in alternative future scenarios. This interest is not least related to the challenges issues of global sustainability present for politics, ethics and design. This paper explores...... the potentials of speculative thinking in relation to design and social and cultural studies, arguing that both offer valuable insights for creating a speculative space for new emergent criticalities challenging current assumptions of the relations between power and design. It does so by tracing out discussions...... of ‘futurity’ and ‘futuring’ in design as well as social and cultural studies. Firstly, by discussing futurist and speculative approaches in design thinking; secondly by engaging with ideas of scenario thinking and utopianism in current social and cultural studies; and thirdly by showing how the articulation...

  13. Issues related to a programme of activities under the CDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.

    2006-05-15

    Emissions of CO2 from the energy and land-use change and forestry sectors are responsible for the majority of emissions in non-Annex I Parties to the UNFCCC. Tackling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from these sectors is a key to slowing the growth in GHG emissions in non-Annex I countries. Implementing Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects can help achieve this aim, while also assisting non-Annex I countries to move towards sustainable development and Annex I countries achieve their emission commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. There has been rapid progress in the CDM over the last year - in terms of the number of projects in the pipeline and registered, and in terms of credits issued. However, some important sectors are notable by their small share in the CDM portfolio. Several countries have also called attention to the need to accelerate the process of approving CDM methodologies and projects. In order to improve the effectiveness of the CDM to achieve its dual objectives, the COP/MOP agreed a decision on 'further guidance relating to the clean development mechanism. This decision lays out guidance on how to improve the operation of the CDM, and includes provisions that allow: (1) Bundling of project activities; and (2) Project activities under a programme of activities, to be registered as a CDM project activity. At present, of the 172 currently registered CDM project activities, 27 involve programmes or bundles. These project activities can include more than one project type, be implemented in several locations, and/or occur in more than one sector. This paper assesses how project activities under a programme of activities under the CDM (referred to here as PCDM) could help to increase the effectiveness of the CDM by encouraging a wide spread of emission mitigation activities. This paper also explores the key issues that may need to be considered for the PCDM concept to be further implemented. The paper concludes that: (1) Key concepts and issues

  14. Future Directions in Public Relations Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalupa, Frank B.; Allen, T. Harrell

    1982-01-01

    Survey of public relations practitioners and educators shows strong agreement for (1) changes and improvements in public relations education; (2) more business courses and greater emphasis on social science research; and (3) separate degree programs, not public relations majors within a journalism degree. For journal availability, see CS 705 902.…

  15. Supply Issues for Science Academics in Australia: Now and in the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Daniel; Smith, T. Fred

    2010-01-01

    Australia, like the rest of the developed world, is in the midst of dealing with notable issues related to the age structure of its academic workforce. These issues are widespread and have been articulated in the Australian context most comprehensively by Hugo (2008). This paper investigates issues with demographic change and other key factors…

  16. 76 FR 63573 - Roundtable on Issues Relating to Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ...-10] Roundtable on Issues Relating to Conflict Minerals AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission... Consumer Protection Act (the ``Act''), which relates to reporting requirements regarding conflict minerals... of conflict minerals from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and adjoining countries. On December...

  17. Social justice issues related to uneven distribution of resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervin, Naomi E; Bell, Sue Ellen

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the social justice issues resulting from the uneven distribution of resources. In this article, justice theories are discussed in relation to two of these issues: lack of adequate food and shelter and inequitable access to an appropriate continuum of health care. Public health nurses have the obligation to deal with the results of poverty and the uneven distribution of resources, which pose a threat to the common good in the United States and throughout the global community.

  18. Climate policies in China, India and Brazil: current issues and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellevrat, Elie

    2012-07-01

    , voluntary ETS experiments in Brazil, and the Perform, Achieve and Trade (PAT) scheme in India to improve energy efficiency in the industry sector. Design issues are often related to the huge uncertainties in future economic development of these countries, as well as to the robustness of domestic statistical instruments (availability and quality of data). But they are learning fast and are already taking advantage from other international experiences in this task. (author)

  19. U.S.-Mexico Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    Time,” Economia , Fall 2003. 49 Esquivel, Gerardo, and José Antonio Rodríguez-López, “Technology, trade, and wage inequality in Mexico before and after...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress U.S.- Mexico Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and Implications...25 JAN 2012 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE U.S.- Mexico Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and

  20. Issues related to EM management of DOE spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, D.G.; Abashian, M.S.; Chakraborti, S.; Roberson, K.; Meloin, J.M.

    1993-07-01

    This document is a summary of the important issues involved in managing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) owned by the Department of Energy (DOE). Issues related to civilian SNF activities are not discussed. DOE-owned SNF is stored primarily at the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Savannah River Site (SRS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and West Valley Demonstration Project. Smaller quantities of SNF are stored at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There is a wide variety of fuel types, including both low and high enrichment fuels from weapons production, DOE reactors, research and development programs, naval programs, and universities. Most fuel is stored in pools associated with reactor or reprocessing facilities. Smaller quantities are in dry storage. Physical conditions of the fuel range from excellent to poor or severely damaged. An issue is defined as an important question that must be answered or decision that must be made on a topic or subject relevant to achieving the complimentary objectives of (a) storing SNF in compliance with applicable regulations and orders until it can be disposed, and (b) safely disposing of DOE's SNF. The purpose of this document is to define the issues; no recommendations are made on resolutions. As DOE's national SNF management program is implemented, a system of issues identification, documentation, tracking, and resolution will be implemented. This document is an initial effort at issues identification. The first section of this document is an overview of issues that are common to several or all DOE facilities that manage SNF. The common issues are organized according to specific aspects of spent fuel management. This is followed by discussions of management issues that apply specifically to individual DOE facilities. The last section provides literature references

  1. Issues related to the inter-utility transfer of material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    An option that utilities have for obtaining material is to procure the desired item(s) from another utility. There are several reasons utilities choose another utility as the procurement source including item obsolescence, prohibitive cost on the commercial market, and excessive lead time. This document provides information on the technical, quality, and commercial issues which utilities may need to address when selling material to or procuring material from other utilities. This report provides suggested approaches for each of the following technical and quality issues: Design considerations; item acceptability considerations; original supplier considerations; commercial grade item dedication considerations; reportability considerations; packaging, shipping, and storage considerations; documentation considerations; receipt inspection considerations. The information is provided primarily for the inter-utility transfer of safety-related material. Several of the topics, however, may also apply to the transfer of non-safety-related material. The report also provides considerations on commercial issues which may be addressed during the inter-utility transfer of materials

  2. Damaging the Future: The Health Rights of Children and the Issue of Short-Termism; Issues Facing Australian Bioethicists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton-Brown, Sally

    2018-07-01

    This article considers recent ethical topics in Australia relating to the health rights of children in the contexts of (1) detention centers, (2) vaccination, and (3) procreative liberty, within a wider framework of discussion of the competing rights of society, parents, the child, and future generations.

  3. An exploration of issues relating to feminism and nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, B; Biley, F C

    1992-08-01

    This paper explores the issue of feminism in relation to nursing and nurse education. As a result of this exploration, the authors suggest there is a need for a move away from traditional patriarchal approaches to nurse education, towards an educational programme based on empowerment principles that maximises the potential of feminine patterns of thinking.

  4. Issues relating to airborne applications of HTS SQUIDs

    CERN Document Server

    Foley, C P; Binks, R A; Lam, S H K; Du, J; Tilbrook, D L; Mitchell, E E; MacFarlane, J C; Lee, J B; Turner, R; Downey, M; Maddever, A

    2002-01-01

    Airborne application of HTS SQUIDs is the most difficult environment for their successful deployment. In order to operate with the sensitivity required for a particular application, there are many issues to be addressed such as the need for very wide dynamic range electronics, motion noise elimination, immunity to large changing magnetic fields and cultural noise sources. This paper reviews what is necessary to achieve an airborne system giving examples in geophysical mineral exploration. It will consider issues relating to device design and fabrication, electronics, dewar design, suspension system requirements and noise elimination methods.

  5. Issues relating to airborne applications of HTS SQUIDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, C P; Leslie, K E; Binks, R A; Lam, S H K; Du, J; Tilbrook, D L; Mitchell, E E; Macfarlane, J C; Lee, J B; Turner, R; Downey, M; Maddever, A

    2002-01-01

    Airborne application of HTS SQUIDs is the most difficult environment for their successful deployment. In order to operate with the sensitivity required for a particular application, there are many issues to be addressed such as the need for very wide dynamic range electronics, motion noise elimination, immunity to large changing magnetic fields and cultural noise sources. This paper reviews what is necessary to achieve an airborne system giving examples in geophysical mineral exploration. It will consider issues relating to device design and fabrication, electronics, dewar design, suspension system requirements and noise elimination methods

  6. Holdup-related issues in safeguarding of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1988-03-01

    Residual inventories of special nuclear materials (SNM) remaining in processing facilities (holdup) are recognized as an insidious problem for both safety and safeguards. This paper identifies some of the issues that are of concern to the safeguards community at-large that are related to holdup of SNM in large-scale process equipment. These issues range from basic technologies of SNM production to changing regulatory requirements to meet the needs of safeguarding nuclear materials. Although there are no magic formulas to resolve these issues, there are several initiatives that could be taken in areas of facility design, plant operation, personnel training, SNM monitoring, and regulatory guidelines to minimize the problems of holdup and thereby improve both safety and safeguards at nuclear material processing plants. 8 refs

  7. Assistance to States on Policies Related to Wind Energy Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Matthew, H; Decesaro, Jennifer; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2005-07-15

    This final report summarizes work carried out under agreement with the US Department of Energy, related to wind energy policy issues. This project has involved a combination of outreach and publications on wind energy, with a specific focus on educating state-level policymakers. Education of state policymakers is vitally important because state policy (in the form of incentives or regulation) is a crucial part of the success of wind energy. State policymakers wield a significant influence over all of these policies. They are also in need of high quality, non-biased educational resources which this project provided. This project provided outreach to legislatures, in the form of meetings designed specifically for state legislators and legislative staff, responses to information requests on wind energy, and publications. The publications addressed: renewable energy portfolio standards, wind energy transmission, wind energy siting, case studies of wind energy policy, avian issues, economic development, and other related issues. These publications were distributed to legislative energy committee members, and chairs, legislative staff, legislative libraries, and other related state officials. The effect of this effort has been to provide an extensive resource of information about wind information for state policymakers in a form that is useful to them. This non-partisan information has been used as state policymakers attempt to develop their own policy proposals related to wind energy in the states.

  8. Legal issues relating to the Ontario FIT contract - An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weizman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses the legal issues related to the Ontario FIT contract, which includes the FIT waiver agreement, WTO challenge, FIT extension, political risk assessment and issues related to unforeseen events beyond human control (force majeure). The risk of termination of the FIT waiver is omitted for convenience by OPA but timing implications relating to the FIT waiver are included. The binding agreement for supply of generating equipment is also presented and the term sheet for turbine equipment and bill of purchase being understood as binding agreements is questioned. Political risks relate to existing contracts, lawsuit risks and changes to the REA process. Change in government and the implications of minority government can be added to the political risks. A successful WTO challenge has been assumed and the possible implications are discussed. Some of them include risk to FIT contracts already issued; changes in DC requirements and in FIT contract pricing and re-pricing of construction and turbine equipment supply contracts if DC requirements are relaxed.

  9. Cross-cutting issues and future directions for the OCD spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Eric; Kim, Suah; Braun, Ashley; Simeon, Daphne; Zohar, Joseph

    2009-11-30

    The research planning agenda for DSM-V examined possible similarities in phenomenology, comorbidity, familial and genetic features, brain circuitry, and treatment response between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and several related disorders that are characterized by repetitive thoughts or behaviors. Such data support a re-examination of the DSM-IV-TR classification of OCD and the anxiety disorders, with possible inclusion of a group of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs) in DSM-V. Various disorders were systematically examined for inclusion in such a grouping, and later a smaller number were determined to meet threshold criteria for inclusion in the OCSDs. The disorders that were originally examined included OCD, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), Tourette's syndrome (TS) and other tic disorders, Sydenham's chorea, Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS), trichotillomania (TTM), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), autism, eating disorders, Huntington's and Parkinson's disease, impulse control disorders, as well as substance and behavioral addictions. Certain disorders such as BDD, OCPD, TS, and TTM share many commonalities with OCD in phenomenology, comorbidity, familial and genetic features, brain circuitry, and treatment response. Other disorders, such as the impulse control disorders (ICDs) share some common features with OCD, but also differ in many ways as well. The articles presented in this issue of Psychiatry Research are a result of this international collaboration, which examined diagnostic and classification issues of OCSDs for DSM-V in a conference titled "The Future of Psychiatric Diagnosis: Refining the Research Agenda: Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior Spectrum" held in June 2006 at the American Psychiatric Association's headquarters in Arlington, VA.

  10. Issues related to development of Indian photovoltaic market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaurey, A.; Laxminarayan, R.

    1993-01-01

    As is the case of most energy deficient countries in the tropics, India offers an enormous potential for use of photovoltaic (PV) systems. However, the demand in true commercial sense has not yet been created. The constraints for market development are not only related to the cost but also to several local parameters. The paper highlights these issues and constraints and suggests a market development strategy. (author)

  11. The united fund of materials about Chernobyl-related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashilov, A. V.; Borisevich, N.Ya.; Sobolev, O.V.

    2013-01-01

    The United Fund of materials about Chernobyl-related issues was created in Russian-Belarusian Information Center on the Problems of the Consequences of the Catastrophe at Chernobyl NPP branch RSRUE 'Institute of Radiology' Ministry for Emergency Situations of the Republic of Belarus. It contains accumulated during the post-Chernobyl period systematized maps, scientific and practical, educational, documentary, journalistic, artistic, photographic and other information. (authors)

  12. Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    China called for a boycott on Japanese goods and defaced Japanese retail stores. Japanese auto manufacturers experienced sharp declines in sales in...TPP is now an agreement under negotiation among the original four countries plus the United States, Australia, Canada, Mexico, Peru, Malaysia , and...Inside U.S. Trade, April 27, 2012. 44 World Trade Online , April 5, 2012. Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress Congressional Research Service 25

  13. DDoS Attacks in Cloud Computing: Issues, Taxonomy, and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Somani, Gaurav; Gaur, Manoj Singh; Sanghi, Dheeraj; Conti, Mauro; Buyya, Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    Security issues related to the cloud computing are relevant to various stakeholders for an informed cloud adoption decision. Apart from data breaches, the cyber security research community is revisiting the attack space for cloud-specific solutions as these issues affect budget, resource management, and service quality. Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack is one such serious attack in the cloud space. In this paper, we present developments related to DDoS attack mitigation solutions i...

  14. The future of bioenergy in Sweden. Background and summary of outstanding issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berndes, G.

    2006-01-01

    This report is intended to give a background to discussions about the future of bioenergy in Sweden, to be used by the Swedish Energy Agency in the planning of future efforts in the biofuel supply chain. An overview of the present supply and use of biomass in Sweden is given, and trends and prospects for increased use of bioenergy in Sweden are assessed. Both sources of increased bioenergy demand and possibilities for increased domestic supply are treated. Biomass contributes about 110 TWh, or one fifth of the Swedish energy supply. Biomass is mainly used for energy within the forest industry, in district heating plants, in the residential sector and for electricity production. More than 50% of the heat comes from biomass today. Based on a number of studies it is concluded that there is a potential for a substantial increase in the Swedish biofuel use, by introduction of new forest management practices and a re-orientation of agriculture. Calculations indicate that there is scope for a substantial increase in bioenergy use in Sweden and that the Swedish bioenergy potential is large enough to accommodate such an increase. However, related to the aspirations in the EC biofuel directive and the hopes that Sweden by taking early steps could become a major supplier of liquid biofuels in EU, it is also shown that Sweden to a significant extent would need to rely on imported bioenergy (biomass feedstock at the magnitude 100 TWh) in order to supply a biofuels industry capable of providing for the domestic market and also exporting substantial volumes of liquid biofuels to Europe. The prospects for a large-scale import of biofuels are discussed based on an analysis of the potential global biomass production and use in forestry and agriculture. A number of issues of great importance for increased biomass use are discussed - competitive land uses, availability of water, international trade rules, and international politics. The report also discusses additional and new uses of

  15. The future of bioenergy in Sweden. Background and summary of outstanding issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndes, G. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Energy and Environment; Magnusson, Leif [EnerGia Konsulterande Ingenjoerer AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-12-30

    This report is intended to give a background to discussions about the future of bioenergy in Sweden, to be used by the Swedish Energy Agency in the planning of future efforts in the biofuel supply chain. An overview of the present supply and use of biomass in Sweden is given, and trends and prospects for increased use of bioenergy in Sweden are assessed. Both sources of increased bioenergy demand and possibilities for increased domestic supply are treated. Biomass contributes about 110 TWh, or one fifth of the Swedish energy supply. Biomass is mainly used for energy within the forest industry, in district heating plants, in the residential sector and for electricity production. More than 50% of the heat comes from biomass today. Based on a number of studies it is concluded that there is a potential for a substantial increase in the Swedish biofuel use, by introduction of new forest management practices and a re-orientation of agriculture. Calculations indicate that there is scope for a substantial increase in bioenergy use in Sweden and that the Swedish bioenergy potential is large enough to accommodate such an increase. However, related to the aspirations in the EC biofuel directive and the hopes that Sweden by taking early steps could become a major supplier of liquid biofuels in EU, it is also shown that Sweden to a significant extent would need to rely on imported bioenergy (biomass feedstock at the magnitude 100 TWh) in order to supply a biofuels industry capable of providing for the domestic market and also exporting substantial volumes of liquid biofuels to Europe. The prospects for a large-scale import of biofuels are discussed based on an analysis of the potential global biomass production and use in forestry and agriculture. A number of issues of great importance for increased biomass use are discussed - competitive land uses, availability of water, international trade rules, and international politics. The report also discusses additional and new uses of

  16. Challenges and issues facing the future of nursing education: implications for ethnic minority faculty and students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sheila P; Davis, Danyetta D

    2010-01-01

    Current trends in higher education in the United States demand that nursing take stock of how it is prepared or being prepared to face challenges and issues impacting on its future. The intense effort made to attract students to pursue advanced training in science and engineering in the United States pales in comparison to the numbers of science and engineering majors produced yearly in international schools. As a result, more and more jobs are being outsourced to international markets. Could international outsourcing become a method of nursing education? Authors submit that to remain competitive, the nursing profession must attract a younger cohort of technologically savvy students and faculty reflective of the growing diverse population in the United States. Additionally, nursing programs in research universities face even more daunting challenges as it relates to mandates for funded research programs of educational units. This article offers suggestions and recommendations for nursing programs in higher education institutions on ways to attract and retain ethnic minorities and of how to harness the power of research to address burgeoning societal health challenges.

  17. Environmentally related taxes in OECD countries: issues and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Economic instruments, including environmentally related taxes, play an increasing role in the environmental policies of developed countries. This publication addresses the use of environmental taxes and their effectiveness in reducing environmental damage. It finds these taxes are a powerful tool for implementing environmental strategy. It also describes obstacles to increased use of such taxes (e.g. concerns about competitiveness and distributional effects) and suggests ways to overcome such barriers. Particular attention is given to issues and options related to taxes on greenhouse gases. 18 figs., 13 tabs.

  18. The Soldier-Cyborg Transformation: A Framework for Analysis of Social and Ethical Issues of Future Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-26

    government agency. STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT THE SOLDIER- CYBORG TRANSFORMATION: A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES OF FUTURE...UNCLASSIFIED USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT THE SOLDIER- CYBORG TRANSFORMATION: A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES OF FUTURE...P) Donald A. Gagliano, M.D. TITLE: THE SOLDIER CYBORG TRANSFORMATION: A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES OF FUTURE WARFARE

  19. Current safety issues related to research reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcala-Ruiz, F.

    2000-01-01

    The Agency has included activities on research reactor safety in its Programme and Budget (P and B) since its inception in 1957. Since then, these activities have traditionally been oriented to fulfil the Agency's functions and obligations. At the end of the decade of the eighties, the Agency's Research Reactor Safety Programme (RRSP) consisted of a limited number of tasks related to the preparation of safety related publications and the conduct of safety missions to research reactor facilities. It was at the beginning of the nineties when the RRSP was upgraded and expanded as a subprogramme of the Agency's P and B. This subprogramme continued including activities related to the above subjects and started addressing an increasing number of issues related to the current situation of research reactors (in operation and shut down) around the world such as reactor ageing, modifications and decommissioning. The present paper discusses some of the above issues as recognised by various external review or advisory groups (e.g., Peer Review Groups under the Agency's Performance Programme Appraisal System (PPAS) or the standing International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG)) and the impact of their recommendations on the preparation and implementation of the part of the Agency's P and B relating to the above subject. (author)

  20. Safety criteria for the future LMFBR's in France and main safety issues for the rapide 1500 project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justin, F.; Natta, M.; Orzoni, G.

    1985-04-01

    The main safety criteria for future LMFBR in France and the related issues for the RAPIDE 1500 project are presented and discussed. The evolutions with respect to SUPERPHENIX options and requirements are emphasized, in particular for the concerns of the prevention of core melt accidents, fuel damage limits and related required performances of the protection system, since one main option is not to consider whole core melt accidents in the containment design. One shall also point out the advantages of some mitigating features which were nevertheless added in the containment design, although without any explicit consideration for core melt accidents

  1. Contemporary Expert Debates on the SCO-Related Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Evgen'evich Denisov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its establishment the SCO has always attracted a lot of expert attention. The SCO Forum was founded in 2006 to bring together for annual debates experts from all member-states. Within this format in-depth discussions took place in April 2016 in Dushanbe, which hosted this year conference of the SCO Forum. Participating experts and officials reviewed problems of security, economic cooperation (including transport and water-energy issues and SCO enlargement, the latter being one of the most debatable. Experts presented some new thesis on all these problems, in particular on the enlargement issue. These new thesis are summed up in this article. Besides, the SCO Forum this year had many statements on the organization approaching a sort of new phase in its development. This line of discussions may lead in the future to even more active debates on SCO's role in the world. This article puts emphasis on the new elements of these debates and reviews major experts' attitudes within this line of discussion on the SCO being in front of a new stage of development.

  2. Turbulent times : Consequences for crisis management and related future research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, I.; Vos, Marita F.; Vos, Marita

    In this chapter, we will address the idea that organisational resilience calls for management across organisational and discipline borders. We will also discuss the need for related applied research and technological development. Finally, we will look into future research design.

  3. The Asilomar Survey: Stakeholders? Opinions on Ethical Issues Related to Brain-Computer Interfacing

    OpenAIRE

    Nijboer, Femke; Clausen, Jens; Allison, Brendan Z.; Haselager, Pim

    2011-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) research and (future) applications raise important ethical issues that need to be addressed to promote societal acceptance and adequate policies. Here we report on a survey we conducted among 145 BCI researchers at the 4th International BCI conference, which took place in May–June 2010 in Asilomar, California. We assessed respondents’ opinions about a number of topics. First, we investigated preferences for terminology and definitions relating to BCIs. Second, w...

  4. Review of spent fuel related issues in SKB's SR 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grambow, B.

    2000-01-01

    The solid waste form 'spent fuel' constitutes both the dominant radionuclide source as well as a first radionuclide retention barrier of a planned future high level nuclear waste isolation systems in deep granite formations. In order to evaluate the performance of spent fuel as part of the multibarrier containment system in a deep repository, the radionuclide release properties in groundwater must be predicted over very long time periods. Radionuclide release is not an inherent materials property of the fuel but depends, besides fuel specific parameters, mainly on time but as well on the geochemical and hydraulic environment of the disposal location. The study SR 97 documents the large effort of SKB to assess the long-term performance of a repository containing spent nuclear fuel. Scenario and consequence analyses are clearly described, considering major physical and chemical interactions of the various components of the multi-barrier isolation system. The approach attempts to assess both a realistic and a pessimistic evolution scenario. The present report attempts to evaluate whether this approach is thoroughly carried through to assess the performance of spent nuclear fuel in a repository. Main issues are radionuclide inventories and inventory distribution between structural parts of the fuel assembly and the fuel matrix, potential fuel alteration prior to water access, as well as models for fuel matrix dissolution and instant release fractions. Uncertainties in radionuclide inventories are discussed and were found for many radionuclides to be higher than assumed in SR 97. This is particularly true for Cl-36. This nuclide is a potential key biosphere dose contributor in various international safety assessments. Of particular importance are uncertainties related to the partition of radionuclides between metallic parts of the fuel assembly and the fuel matrix, since inventories of metallic parts are considered to be released instantaneously. Using C-14 as an

  5. Waste management regulatory compliance issues related to D ampersand D activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitch, J.P.; Arnold, S.E.; Burwinkle, T.; Daugherty, D.

    1994-01-01

    The waste management activities at ORNL related to the decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of radioactively contaminated buildings are divided into four categories: Operational facilities, inactive or surplus facilities, future facilities planning, and D ampersand D activities. This paper only discusses regulatory issues related to inactive or surplus facilities. Additionally, rather than attempting to address all resulting waste streams and related regulations, this paper highlights only a few of the ORNL waste streams that present key regulatory issues

  6. The Asilomar Survey: Stakeholders' Opinions on Ethical Issues Related to Brain-Computer Interfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, Femke; Clausen, Jens; Allison, Brendan Z; Haselager, Pim

    2013-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) research and (future) applications raise important ethical issues that need to be addressed to promote societal acceptance and adequate policies. Here we report on a survey we conducted among 145 BCI researchers at the 4 th International BCI conference, which took place in May-June 2010 in Asilomar, California. We assessed respondents' opinions about a number of topics. First, we investigated preferences for terminology and definitions relating to BCIs. Second, we assessed respondents' expectations on the marketability of different BCI applications (BCIs for healthy people, BCIs for assistive technology, BCIs-controlled neuroprostheses and BCIs as therapy tools). Third, we investigated opinions about ethical issues related to BCI research for the development of assistive technology: informed consent process with locked-in patients, risk-benefit analyses, team responsibility, consequences of BCI on patients' and families' lives, liability and personal identity and interaction with the media. Finally, we asked respondents which issues are urgent in BCI research.

  7. Mixing of immiscible fluids in chaotic flows and related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottino, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The basis goal of this work was to obtain a basic understanding of mixing of immiscible fluids leading to the determination of flow conditions which result in efficient breakup and dispersion of one mass of fluid in the bulk of another. Related issues were the prediction of the morphological structures and drop size distribution for a given set of operating conditions. The primary motivation for these investigations was to produce basic knowledge leading to increased understanding of industrial processes involving blending, agitation, emulsification, and dissolution

  8. Codes of practice and related issues in biomedical waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moy, D.; Watt, C. [Griffith Univ. (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    This paper outlines the development of a National Code of Practice for biomedical waste management in Australia. The 10 key areas addressed by the code are industry mission statement; uniform terms and definitions; community relations - public perceptions and right to know; generation, source separation, and handling; storage requirements; transportation; treatment and disposal; disposal of solid and liquid residues and air emissions; occupational health and safety; staff awareness and education. A comparison with other industry codes in Australia is made. A list of outstanding issues is also provided; these include the development of standard containers, treatment effectiveness, and reusable sharps containers.

  9. Diagnosis and management of Alzheimer's disease: past, present and future ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, S; Leuzy, A; Racine, E; Rosa-Neto, P

    2013-11-01

    There is great interest in the ethical issues associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias given the prevalence of AD and the evolving neuroscience landscape in matters of diagnoses and therapeutics. Much of the ethics discussion arises in the tension between the principle of not doing harm (principle of non-maleficence) in this vulnerable population and the development of effective treatments (principle of beneficence). Autonomy and capacity issues are also numerous, wide-ranging, and concern (1) day to day affairs such as driving safely and spending money wisely, (2) life-time events such as designating a legal representative in case of incapacity, making a will, (3) consenting to treatment and diagnostic procedures, (4) participating in research. The latter issue is particularly thorny and illustrates well the complexity of tackling concerns related to capacity. The impetus to protect AD patients has partly led to ethics regulation and policies making research on inapt patients more difficult because of stringent requirements for signed informed consent or for showing the value of the research to this specific patient population. New issues are arising that relate to earlier diagnosis using biomarkers and (possibly soon) the use of drugs that modify disease progression. We here summarize and discuss the different ethical issues associated with AD from a historical perspective, with emphasis on diagnostic and treatments issues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The future of scenarios: issues in developing new climate change scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitcher, Hugh M

    2009-01-01

    In September, 2007, the IPCC convened a workshop to discuss how a new set of scenarios to support climate model runs, mitigation analyses, and impact, adaptation and vulnerability research might be developed. The first phase of the suggested new approach is now approaching completion. This article discusses some of the issues raised by scenario relevant research and analysis since the last set of IPCC scenarios were created (IPCC SRES, 2000) that will need to be addressed as new scenarios are developed by the research community during the second phase. These include (1) providing a logic for how societies manage to transition from historical paths to the various future development paths foreseen in the scenarios, (2) long-term economic growth issues, (3) the appropriate GDP metric to use (purchasing power parity or market exchange rates), (4) ongoing issues with moving from the broad geographic and time scales of the emission scenarios to the finer scales needed for impacts, adaptation and vulnerability analyses and (5) some possible ways to handle the urgent request from the policy community for some guidance on scenario likelihoods. The challenges involved in addressing these issues are manifold; the reward is greater credibility and deeper understanding of an analytic tool that does much to form the context within which many issues in addition to the climate problem will need to be addressed.

  11. The future of scenarios: issues in developing new climate change scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Hugh M.

    2009-04-01

    In September, 2007, the IPCC convened a workshop to discuss how a new set of scenarios to support climate model runs, mitigation analyses, and impact, adaptation and vulnerability research might be developed. The first phase of the suggested new approach is now approaching completion. This article discusses some of the issues raised by scenario relevant research and analysis since the last set of IPCC scenarios were created (IPCC SRES, 2000) that will need to be addressed as new scenarios are developed by the research community during the second phase. These include (1) providing a logic for how societies manage to transition from historical paths to the various future development paths foreseen in the scenarios, (2) long-term economic growth issues, (3) the appropriate GDP metric to use (purchasing power parity or market exchange rates), (4) ongoing issues with moving from the broad geographic and time scales of the emission scenarios to the finer scales needed for impacts, adaptation and vulnerability analyses and (5) some possible ways to handle the urgent request from the policy community for some guidance on scenario likelihoods. The challenges involved in addressing these issues are manifold; the reward is greater credibility and deeper understanding of an analytic tool that does much to form the context within which many issues in addition to the climate problem will need to be addressed.

  12. The future of nuclear power after Sizewell B. 3 v.: v. 1 Economic issues; v. 2 Environmental and safety issues; v. 3 Public perception issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The three days of conference proceedings are published in three separate volumes. The first includes 7 papers relating to economic issues - those presented at the Sizewell-B public inquiry and the changes in the economic situation since the inquiry ended. The electricity demand, how this demand is to be met by nuclear and other fuel sources and how energy conservation might be an economic alternative to simply building more generating capacity are all issues discussed. The possible privatisation of the industry is also touched on. Volume two has 8 papers concerned with environmental and safety issues. These include the influence of the Sizewell-B decision on nuclear licensing and reactor safety, the technical and safety aspects of pressurized water reactors (PWR), the roles of British Nuclear Fuels and the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, and radiation protection and effluent discharge control. The six papers in volume 3 look at public perception issues - not only towards nuclear power but towards the public inquiry process. The local authority view, the Friends of the Earth case against the PWR, and technical expertise in the decision process are also topics covered. All the papers are indexed separately. (UK)

  13. Nuclear Power for Future Electricity Generation in Ghana: Issues and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyarko, B.J.B.; Akaho, E.H.K.; Ennison, I.

    2011-01-01

    Ghana's electricity demand has been estimated to be growing at a high rate of about 7% per annum over the last ten years. This is due to the relatively high population growth, economic aspiration of the country and the extension of electricity to rural areas. Electricity supply, on the contrary, has been unable to meet the demand due to high dependency on rain-fed hydropower plants, which started operating in 1965 and currently account for about 68% of the total installed capacity. Within the last 28 years, climatic changes and draughts have caused the nation to experience three major power crises. These climate changes resulted in low inflows and thus reduced power generation from hydropower systems. To complement the hydropower systems, the Government in 1997 installed thermal plants based on light crude oil. However, due to the high crude oil prices on the international market in recent times have made the operation of these plants very expensive. Ghana's crude oil find can boost its energy supply when the oil exploration begins somewhere in 2010. For rural cooking, domestic biomass is employed. Ghana has no domestic coal resources. The Government of Ghana is concerned with: limited further growth potential of domestic hydro; high cost of imported oil and gas and environmental issues associated with use of imported coal. Small Solar and wind generation exist in some sectors, but potential large-scale development is not envisioned for the near future. With these in mind, the President of Ghana set up a Committee involving Stakeholder Institutions to formulate the Nuclear Power Policy and develop the basic elements of Nuclear Infrastructure and to assess the viability of introducing the nuclear power option in Ghana's energy mix. Cabinet took a decision to include the nuclear power for electricity generation after the Committee submitted his report to the President in 2008. (author)

  14. Neuroimaging findings with MDMA/ecstasy: technical aspects, conceptual issues and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reneman, Liesbeth; de Win, Maartje M L; van den Brink, Wim; Booij, Jan; den Heeten, Gerard J

    2006-03-01

    Users of ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; MDMA) may be at risk of developing MDMA-induced injury to the serotonin (5-HT) system. Previously, there were no methods available for directly evaluating the neurotoxic effects of MDMA in the living human brain. However, development of in vivoneuroimaging tools have begun to provide insights into the effects of ecstasy on the human brain. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission computed tomography (PET) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) studies which have evaluated ecstasy's neurotoxic potential will be reviewed and discussed in terms of technical aspects, conceptual issues and future prospects. Although PET and SPECT may be limited by several factors such as the low cortical uptake and the use of a non-optimal reference region (cerebellum) the few studies conducted so far provide suggestive evidence that people who heavily use ecstasy are at risk of developing subcortical, and probably also cortical reductions in serotonin transporter (SERT) densities, a marker of 5-HT neurotoxicity. There seem to be dose-dependent and transient reductions in SERT for which females may be more vulnerable than males. 1H-MRS appears to be a less sensitive technique for studying ecstasy's neurotoxic potential. Whether individuals with a relatively low ecstasy exposure also demonstrate loss of SERT needs to be determined. Because most studies have had a retrospective design, in which evidence is indirect and differs in the degree to which any causal links can be implied, longitudinal studies in human ecstasy users are needed to draw definite conclusions.

  15. Exploring the implications of social change for human development: perspectives, issues and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin

    2015-02-01

    Researchers have investigated the implications of social change for human development from different perspectives. The studies published in this special section were conducted within Greenfield's theoretical framework (2009). The findings concerning links between specific sociodemographic features (e.g., commercial activities, schooling) and individual cognition and social behaviour are particularly interesting because they tap the underlying forces that drive human development. To further understand the issues in these studies and in the field, a pluralist-constructive perspective is discussed, which emphasises the integration of diverse values and practices in both Western and non-Western societies and its effects on the development of sophisticated competencies in individual adaptation to the changing global community. In addition, several issues are highlighted and some suggestions are provided for future explorations in this field. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  16. Issues in the future supply of electricity to the Northeast. [1985 and 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, P.M.; McCoy, T.H.; Rahman, S.

    1976-06-01

    This assessment of the problems of the electric sector is part of the BNL study on the Energy Future of the Northeast. Topics covered by the issue papers include the potential supply of energy to the Northeast from coal, oil, natural gas, liquefied natural gas, nuclear power, municipal waste, solar energy, and wind power, and the demand for energy in the Northeast from the industrial, transportation, and residential and commercial sectors. This paper compares energy demand projections derived in other parts of the Northeast Energy Perspectives Study to current utility projections; discusses major technical issues in capacity forecasting, including system load factors, outage rates, scale economies, unit sizes, and generation mix planning; discusses major siting constraints faced by each type of generation in the Northeast; and prepares preliminary forecasts of the number and type of new generation facilities necessary by 1985 and 2000, and an analysis of the implications for regional siting policy. (MCW)

  17. III-V nanoelectronics and related surface/interface issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Hideki

    2003-01-01

    The conventional logic gate architecture is not suitable for high-density integration of quantum devices which are non-robust and extremely structure- and charge-sensitive. In this paper, our novel hexagonal binary-decision-diagram (BDD) quantum circuit approach for III-V nanoelectronics is reviewed and related critical surface/interface issues for high-density integration are discussed. First, the basic concept and actual implementation method of our approach are explained, giving examples of novel BDD quantum integrated circuits where nanowire networks are controlled by nanoscale Schottky wrap gates. For high-density integration, growth of embedded sub-10 nm III-V quantum wire networks by selective molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on patterned substrates is described, including effects of atomic hydrogen irradiation and kinetic control of wire width. The key processing issue lies in understanding and control of nanostructure surfaces/interfaces. Behavior of nanoscale Schottky gates, recent scanning tunneling microscopy (STM)/scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) studies of surface states, and successful removal of surface states by MBE-grown silicon interface control layer are discussed

  18. Ethical issues related to epilepsy care in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chong-Tin; Avanzini, Giuliano

    2009-05-01

    There are three major issues of ethical concern related to epilepsy care in the developing world. First, is it ethical for a developing country to channel its limited resources from direct epilepsy care to research? The main considerations in addressing this question are the particular research questions to be addressed and whether such research will bring direct benefits to the local community. Second, in a country with limited resources, when does ignoring the high treatment gap become an ethical issue? This question is of particular concern when the community has enough resources to afford treatment for its poor, yet is not providing such care because of gross wastage and misallocation of the national resources. Third, do countries with plentiful resources have an ethical responsibility to help relieve the high epilepsy treatment gap of poor countries? Indeed, we believe that reasonable health care is a basic human right, and that human rights transcend national boundaries. Although health care is usually the responsibility of the nation-state, many modern states in the developing world are arbitrary creations of colonization. There is often a long process from the establishment of a political-legal state to a mature functional nation. During the long process of nation building, help from neighboring countries is often required.

  19. Kurdish men's experiences of migration-related mental health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taloyan, Marina; Al-Windi, Ahmad; Johansson, Leena Maria; Saleh-Stattin, Nuha

    2011-10-01

    The migration process may impose stress on the mental health of immigrants. To describe the experiences of immigrant men of Kurdish ethnicity during and after migration to Sweden with regard to mental health issues. Using the grounded theory method, we conducted a focus group interview with four Kurdish men and in-depth individual interviews with 10 other Kurdish men. A model with two major themes and interlinked categories was developed. The themes were (1) protective factors for good mental health (sense of belonging, creation and re-creation of Kurdish identity, sense of freedom, satisfaction with oneself) and (2) risk factors for poor mental health (worry about current political situation in the home country, yearning, lack of sense of freedom, dissatisfaction with Swedish society). The study provides insights into the psychological and emotional experiences of immigrant men of Kurdish ethnicity during and after migration to Sweden. It is important for primary health care providers to be aware of the impact that similar migration-related and life experiences have on the health status of immigrants, and also to be aware that groups are comprised of unique individuals with differing experiences and reactions to these experiences. The findings highlight the common themes of the men's experiences and suggest ways to ameliorate mental health issues, including feeling like one is seen as an individual, is a full participant in society, and can contribute to one's own culture.

  20. Road safety in a globalised and more sustainable world: current issues and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Stijn; Risser, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Although many countries have had considerable success in reducing traffic injuries over recent decades, there are still some fundamental problems in this area. At the same time, there is increasing focus on road safety research and policy development in the context of globalisation, sustainability, liveability and health. This special section presents a selection of papers that were presented at the annual ICTCT workshop held on the 8th and 9th of November 2012 in Hasselt, Belgium, and accepted for publication in Accident Analysis and Prevention following the journal's reviewing procedure. The aim of the ICTCT workshop was to analyse road safety facts, data and visions for the future in the wider context of current issues and future challenges in road safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Life cycle assessment of renewables: present issues, future outlook and implications for the calculation of external costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankl, P.

    2002-01-01

    In principle, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is certainly appropriate for estimating external costs of renewables, since major environmental impacts of the latter are generated in phases of the life cycle other than use. In practice however, several issues still remain. They are related to the availability and quality of Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data, to the frit technological development of renewable energy technologies (RET), to the existence of many different applications of the latter and to a strong dependency on local conditions. Moreover, a 'static' picture of present technologies is not enough for policy indications. Therefore some kind of dynamic LCA is needed. These LCA issues are reflected in the calculation of external costs. First, the paper discusses these issues on the examples of two main technologies, namely photovoltaic (PV) and wind. Second, it discusses the results of ExternE for these two specific technologies and gives an outlook for the future. Future needs for a better use of LCA as a support tool for the calcination of external costs are identified. Finally, a new research project funded by the European Commission focused on LCI of renewables is briefly introduced and presented. (author)

  2. Effect of splenectomy on liver cirrhosis and related surgical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KONG Degang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with liver fibrosis and cirrhosis experience certain changes in spleen morphology and function, and there is always a controversy over whether to perform splenectomy in patients with liver cirrhosis. As a surgical treatment of recurrent portal hypertension complicated by esophagogastric variceal bleeding, splenectomy can reduce portal venous pressure, reduce the possibility of gastrointestinal bleeding, and correct the reduced white blood cell count and platelet count. It can also protect the liver by improving liver function, promoting regeneration of hepatocytes, and inhibiting the progression of liver fibrosis. With reference to available clinical and laboratory data, this article reviews the effect of splenectomy on the cirrhotic liver and related issues such as selection of surgical procedures and prevention and treatment of postoperative complications, in order to promote splenectomy in patients with liver cirrhosis.

  3. [Physiological changes and related nursing care issues during hunger strike].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yeu-Shan; Chen, Shiu-Lien

    2005-08-01

    The use of hunger strike as a tool to assert grievances has been around for ages and has occasionally happened in the world. Hunger strikers' motives may differ, but their tool is the same--the voluntary refusal of food. Fasting not only results in body weight loss, but also in physiological and neurological function changes, and, of course, it may even threaten life. The health care of hunger strikers is complex. It involves medical staff, medical ethics and guidance for the management of the hunger strikers. Improper medical management may not only undermine the hunger striker's dignity but also risk further damage to his or her health. By understanding hunger strikers' physiological changes and related ethical issues, therefore, we aim to identify appropriate forms of nursing care management and guidance for the care of hunger strikers.

  4. Vestibular and balance issues following sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valovich McLeod, Tamara C; Hale, Troy D

    2015-01-01

    To review relevant literature regarding the effect of concussion on vestibular function, impairments, assessments and management strategies. REASONING: Dizziness and balance impairments are common following sport-related concussion. Recommendations regarding the management of sport-related concussion suggest including tests of balance within the multifactorial assessment paradigm for concussive injuries. The literature was searched for guidelines and original studies related to vestibular impairments following concussion, oculomotor and balance assessments and treatment or rehabilitation of vestibular impairments. The databases searched included Medline, CINAHL, Sport Discus and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews through October 2013. Dizziness following concussion occurs in ∼67-77% of cases and has been implicated as a risk factor for a prolonged recovery. Balance impairments also occur after concussion and last 3-10 days post-injury. Assessments of balance can be done using both clinical and instrumented measures with success. Vestibular rehabilitation has been shown to improve outcomes in patients with vestibular impairments, with one study demonstrating success in decreasing symptoms and increasing function following concussion. Best practices suggest that the assessment of vestibular function through cranial nerve, oculomotor and balance assessments are an important aspect of concussion management. Future studies should evaluate the effectiveness of vestibular rehabilitation for improving patient outcomes.

  5. Compiler issues associated with safety-related software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinauer, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    A critical issue in the quality assurance of safety-related software is the ability of the software to produce identical results, independent of the host machine, operating system, or compiler version under which the software is installed. A study is performed using the VIPRE-0l, FREY-01, and RETRAN-02 safety-related codes. Results from an IBM 3083 computer are compared with results from a CYBER 860 computer. All three of the computer programs examined are written in FORTRAN; the VIPRE code uses the FORTRAN 66 compiler, whereas the FREY and RETRAN codes use the FORTRAN 77 compiler. Various compiler options are studied to determine their effect on the output between machines. Since the Control Data Corporation and IBM machines inherently represent numerical data differently, methods of producing equivalent accuracy of data representation were an important focus of the study. This paper identifies particular problems in the automatic double-precision option (AUTODBL) of the IBM FORTRAN 1.4.x series of compilers. The IBM FORTRAN version 2 compilers provide much more stable, reliable compilation for engineering software. Careful selection of compilers and compiler options can help guarantee identical results between different machines. To ensure reproducibility of results, the same compiler and compiler options should be used to install the program as were used in the development and testing of the program

  6. Addressing security issues related to virtual institute distributed activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2008-03-01

    One issue confounding the development and experimentation of distributed modeling and simulation environments is the inability of the project team to identify and collaborate with resources, both human and technical, from outside the United States. This limitation is especially significant within the human behavior representation area where areas such as cultural effects research and joint command team behavior modeling require the participation of various cultural and national representatives. To address this limitation, as well as other human behavior representation research issues, NATO Research and Technology Organization initiated a project to develop a NATO virtual institute that enables more effective and more collaborative research into human behavior representation. However, in building and operating a virtual institute one of the chief concerns must be the cyber security of the institute. Because the institute "exists" in cyberspace, all of its activities are susceptible to cyberattacks, subterfuge, denial of service and all of the vulnerabilities that networked computers must face. In our opinion, for the concept of virtual institutes to be successful and useful, their operations and services must be protected from the threats in the cyber environment. A key to developing the required protection is the development and promulgation of standards for cyber security. In this paper, we discuss the types of cyber standards that are required, how new internet technologies can be exploited and can benefit the promulgation, development, maintenance, and robustness of the standards. This paper is organized as follows. Section One introduces the concept of the virtual institutes, the expected benefits, and the motivation for our research and for research in this area. Section Two presents background material and a discussion of topics related to VIs, uman behavior and cultural modeling, and network-centric warfare. Section Three contains a discussion of the

  7. Study of Mothers' Anxieties Related to Their Children's Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgar, Sengul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to study anxieties of mothers related to their children's future. Qualitative method was used in order to study anxieties of mothers from different socio-economic levels. Sample of the study participants are 129 mothers living in Istanbul. 32 of those mothers are from upper socio-economic level, 57, from middle…

  8. Malaysian public perception towards nuclear power energy-related issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misnon, Fauzan Amin; Hu, Yeoh Siong; Rahman, Irman Abd.; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia had considered nuclear energy as an option for future electricity generation during the 9th Malaysia Development Plan. Since 2009, Malaysia had implemented a number of important preparatory steps towards this goal, including the establishment of Nuclear Power Corporation of Malaysia (MNPC) as first Nuclear Energy Programme Implementing Organization (NEPIO) in Malaysia. In light of the establishment of MNPC, the National Nuclear Policy was formulated in 2010 and a new comprehensive nuclear law to replace the existing Atomic Energy Licensing Act (Act 304) is currently in the pipeline. Internationally, public acceptance is generally used to gauge the acceptance of nuclear energy by the public whenever a government decides to engage in nuclear energy. A public survey was conducted in between 14 March 2016 to 10 May 2016 focusing on the Malaysian public acceptance and perception towards the implementation of nuclear energy in Malaysia. The methodology of this research was aim on finding an overview of the general knowledge, public-relation recommendation, perception and acceptance of Malaysian towards the nuclear power development program. The combination of information gathered from this study can be interpreted as an indication of the complexity surrounding the development of nuclear energy and its relationship with the unique background of Malaysian demography. This paper will focus mainly on energy-related section in the survey in comparison with nuclear energy.

  9. Pain-related psychological issues in hand therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasaki, Tokiko; Pelletier, René; Bourbonnais, Daniel; Harris, Patrick; Choinière, Manon

    Literature review. Pain is a subjective experience that results from the modulation of nociception conveyed to the brain via the nervous system. Perception of pain takes place when potential or actual noxious stimuli are appraised as threats of injury. This appraisal is influenced by one's cognitions and emotions based on her/his pain-related experiences, which are processed in the forebrain and limbic areas of the brain. Unarguably, patients' psychological factors such as cognitions (eg, pain catastrophizing), emotions (eg, depression), and pain-related behaviors (eg, avoidance) can influence perceived pain intensity, disability, and treatment outcomes. Therefore, hand therapists should address the patient pain experience using a biopsychosocial approach. However, in hand therapy, a biomedical perspective predominates in pain management by focusing solely on tissue healing. This review aims to raise awareness among hand therapists of the impact of pain-related psychological factors. This literature review allowed to describe (1) how the neurophysiological mechanisms of pain can be influenced by various psychological factors, (2) several evidence-based interventions that can be integrated into hand therapy to address these psychological issues, and (3) some approaches of psychotherapy for patients with maladaptive pain experiences. Restoration of sensory and motor functions as well as alleviating pain is at the core of hand therapy. Numerous psychological factors including patients' beliefs, cognitions, and emotions alter their pain experience and may impact on their outcomes. Decoding the biopsychosocial components of the patients' pain is thus essential for hand therapists. Copyright © 2018 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Key Health Information Technologies and Related Issues for Iran: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmat, Morteza; Ayatollahi, Haleh; Maleki, Mohammadreza; Saghafi, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    Planning for the future of Health Information Technology (HIT) requires applying a systematic approach when conducting foresight studies. The aim of this study was to identify key health information technologies and related issues for Iran until 2025. This was a qualitative study and the participants included experts and policy makers in the field of health information technology. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted and data were analyzed by using framework analysis and MAXQDA software. The findings revealed that the development of national health information network, electronic health records, patient health records, a cloud-based service center, interoperability standards, patient monitoring technologies, telehealth, mhealth, clinical decision support systems, health information technology and mhealth infrastructure were found to be the key technologies for the future. These technologies could influence the economic, organizational and individual levels. To achieve them, the economic and organizational obstacles need to be overcome. In this study, a number of key technologies and related issues were identified. This approach can help to focus on the most important technologies in the future and to priorities these technologies for better resource allocation and policy making.

  11. Analysis on European Future of Macedonia: The Greek Obstacles on the Name Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdula Azizi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Macedonia as a candidate for admission to the European Union (EU hasdifficulty in meeting the criteria for membership, but also in solving problems thatarise with the name of the country. In the framework of this paper will analyzeinternational relationsMacedonia-EU, in particular importance will be given tothe impact that makesGreece from within as a member of the EU. Also, willanalyze the decision of the International Court of Justice relating to compliancewith the Interim Agreement betweenGreece andMacedonia, its potential impacts,and will analyze the opinions of citizens about this issue. At the end, conclusionsand recommendations are issued in order to facilitate the path ofMacedoniatowards the EU.

  12. Monitoring asthma in childhood: management-related issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart L. Rottier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Management-related issues are an important aspect of monitoring asthma in children in clinical practice. This review summarises the literature on practical aspects of monitoring including adherence to treatment, inhalation technique, ongoing exposure to allergens and irritants, comorbid conditions and side-effects of treatment, as agreed by the European Respiratory Society Task Force on Monitoring Asthma in Childhood. The evidence indicates that it is important to discuss adherence to treatment in a non-confrontational way at every clinic visit, and take into account a patient's illness and medication beliefs. All task force members teach inhalation techniques at least twice when introducing a new inhalation device and then at least annually. Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke, combustion-derived air pollutants, house dust mites, fungal spores, pollens and pet dander deserve regular attention during follow-up according to most task force members. In addition, allergic rhinitis should be considered as a cause for poor asthma control. Task force members do not screen for gastro-oesophageal reflux and food allergy. Height and weight are generally measured at least annually to identify individuals who are susceptible to adrenal suppression and to calculate body mass index, even though causality between obesity and asthma has not been established. In cases of poor asthma control, before stepping up treatment the above aspects of monitoring deserve closer attention.

  13. Do medical students require education on issues related to plagiarism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Joe; Jacob, Molly

    2015-01-01

    In the course of our professional experience, we have seen that many medical students plagiarise. We hypothesised that they do so out of ignorance and that they require formal education on the subject. With this objective in mind, we conducted a teaching session on issues related to plagiarism. As a part of this, we administered a quiz to assess their baseline knowledge on plagiarism and a questionnaire to determine their attitudes towards it. We followed this up with an interactive teaching session, in which we discussed various aspects of plagiarism. We subjected the data obtained from the quiz and questionnaire to bivariate and multivariate analysis. A total of 423 medical students participated in the study. Their average score for the quiz was 4.96±1.67 (out of 10). Age, gender and years in medical school were not significantly associated with knowledge regarding plagiarism. The knowledge scores were negatively correlated with permissive attitudes towards plagiarism and positively correlated with attitudes critical of the practice. Men had significantly higher scores on permissive attitudes compared to women . In conclusion, we found that the medical students' knowledge regarding plagiarism was limited. Those with low knowledge scores tended to have permissive attitudes towards plagiarism and were less critical of the practice. We recommend the inclusion of formal instruction on this subject in the medical curriculum, so that this form of academic misconduct can be tackled.

  14. Long term energy-related environmental issues of copper production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, S. [University of Chile, Santiago (Chile). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Maldonado, P.; Barrios, A.; Jaques, I. [University of Chile, Santiago (Chile). Energy Research Program

    2002-02-01

    Primary copper production is a major activity in the mining sector of several countries. However, it is highly energy-intensive and poses important environmental hazards. In the case of Chile, the world's largest copper producer (40% of world total), we examine its energy consumption and energy-related environmental implications over a time horizon of 25 years. Concerning the latter, we focus on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions, one of the most debated environmental issues. This paper follows up our previous report in which the current situation was analyzed and a particular technical option for improving the energy efficiency and concurrently reducing GHG emissions was discussed. Estimated reference or base (BS) and mitigation (MS) scenarios are developed for the period ending in 2020. The former assesses the energy demand projected in accordance with production forecasts and specific energy consumption patterns (assuming that energy efficiency measures are adopted 'spontaneously') with their resultant GHG emissions, while the latter assumes induced actions intended to reduce emissions by adopting an aggressive policy of efficient energy use. For the year 2020, the main results are: (i) BS, 1214 t of CO{sub 2}/ton of refined copper content (49% lower than in 1994); (ii) MS, 1037 t of CO{sub 2}/t of refined copper content (56% lower than in 1994). CO{sub 2} emissions have been estimated considering both fuel and electricity process requirements. (author)

  15. Long term energy-related environmental issues of copper production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, S.; Maldonado, P.; Barrios, A.; Jaques, I.

    2002-01-01

    Primary copper production is a major activity in the mining sector of several countries. However, it is highly energy-intensive and poses important environmental hazards. In the case of Chile, the world's largest copper producer (40% of world total), we examine its energy consumption and energy-related environmental implications over a time horizon of 25 years. Concerning the latter, we focus on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions, one of the most debated environmental issues. This paper follows up our previous report in which the current situation was analyzed and a particular technical option for improving the energy efficiency and concurrently reducing GHG emissions was discussed. Estimated reference or base (BS) and mitigation (MS) scenarios are developed for the period ending in 2020. The former assesses the energy demand projected in accordance with production forecasts and specific energy consumption patterns (assuming that energy efficiency measures are adopted 'spontaneously') with their resultant GHG emissions, while the latter assumes induced actions intended to reduce emissions by adopting an aggressive policy of efficient energy use. For the year 2020, the main results are: (i) BS, 1214 t of CO 2 /ton of refined copper content (49% lower than in 1994); (ii) MS, 1037 t of CO 2 /t of refined copper content (56% lower than in 1994). CO 2 emissions have been estimated considering both fuel and electricity process requirements. (author)

  16. Atmospheric Weathering of Historic Monuments and Their Related Conservation Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner-Saltık Emine N.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric environment affects the materials of historic monuments and their structure starting from the time of their construction. Daily and seasonal changes in temperature and humidity, wind, snow and rainfall, soluble salts carried by water, biological agents, pollutant gases and particulate matter are some of the agents in atmospheric environment that introduce weathering by physical, chemical and biological processes in the materials of the monuments such as natural building stones, bricks, mortars and plasters, mud brick etc. The weathering processes need to be well diagnosed by identification of main mechanisms of decay and major responsible agents, degree and depth of deterioration expressed with measurable parameters of physical, physicomechanical properties, and micro structural changes together with their distribution on the monument. Success of conservation treatments strongly depend on those diagnostic studies and compatibility of the treatments with the deteriorated and relatively sound parts of the historic materials. Current approach to materials conservation is to be able to make minimum intervention to historic material by targeting the conservation treatment to the deteriorated area for the purpose of controlling the deterioration factors and achieving compatible and durable conservation of historical material. In this presentation, two examples of diagnostic research and conservation treatments based on and guided by the diagnostic results are summarized concerning historic stone monuments exposed to atmospheric environment since more than two thousand years. The first example is on the marble walls of Temple of Augustus in Ankara exposed to polluted urban atmosphere. The second example is on the limestone statues of Nemrut Mount Monument in Adıyaman-Turkey, exposed to rural atmosphere with harsh climatic conditions. Finally, a brief discussion on current research issues related to historic materials conservation in

  17. The Concept of Cultural Relativity in Moral Judgments Concerning Gender-Related Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, D. R.; And Others

    The comparative study was designed to determine whether cultural relativism and ethical reasoning develop in a hierarchical manner when applied to culturally different phenomena. The phenomena investigated were moral judgments concerning gender-related issues. Thirty-six first through sixth-grade students from two private schools and 130…

  18. Issues in radiology related to the new technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkin, M.

    1982-01-01

    A number of interrelated issues facing radiology have been highlighted by our new technologies. The issues discussed in this presentation are: subspecialization of radiology; the use of economic analyses (CEA/CBA) to judge the cost effectiveness of radiologic procedures, the alleged overuse of radiologic examinations; and the need for the diagnostic radiologist to become more actively involved in patient management

  19. Methodological Issues in HIV-Related Social Research in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Methodological Issues in HIV/AIDS Social Research in Nigeria ... convaincue au commencement de l'étude qu'une étude sur l'interaction entre le VIH/sida et les questions sensibles comme les ..... One of the vexed issues was the requirement.

  20. Academic plastic surgery: a study of current issues and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetrenne, Eleonore; Kosins, Aaron M; Wirth, Garrett A; Bui, Albert; Evans, Gregory R D; Wells, James H

    2008-06-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the role of a full-time academic plastic surgeon, (2) to define the indicators predictive of a successful career in academic plastic surgery, and (3) to understand the current issues that will affect future trends in the practice of academic plastic surgery. A questionnaire was developed to evaluate the role of current full-time academic plastic surgeons and to understand the current issues and future challenges facing academic plastic surgery. Each plastic surgery program director in the United States was sent the survey for distribution among all full-time academic plastic surgeons. Over a 6-week period, responses from 143 full-time academic plastic surgeons (approximately 31%) were returned. Fifty-three percent of respondents had been academic plastic surgeons for longer than 10 years. Seventy-three percent of respondents defined academic plastic surgeons as clinicians who are teachers and researchers. However, 53% of respondents believed that academic plastic surgeons were not required to teach or practice within university hospitals/academic centers. The 3 factors reported most frequently as indicative of a successful career in academic plastic surgery were peer recognition, personal satisfaction, and program reputation. Dedication and motivation were the personal characteristics rated most likely to contribute to academic success. Forty-four percent of respondents were unable to identify future academic plastic surgeons from plastic surgery residency applicants, and 27% were not sure. Most (93%) of the respondents believed that academic surgery as practiced today will change. The overall job description of a full-time academic plastic surgeon remains unchanged (teacher and researcher). Whereas peer recognition, personal satisfaction, and program reputation were most frequently cited as indicative of a successful plastic surgery career, financial success was rated the least indicative. Similarly, whereas the

  1. Breaking bad news: issues relating to nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, Clare

    2014-07-15

    The breaking of bad news was traditionally regarded to be the time when a doctor and nurse sat down with a patient and family members to provide information about, for example, a life-limiting diagnosis or a poor prognosis. However, breaking bad news is now generally accepted as a process, not a one-off event, and is considered to refer to any bad, sad or difficult information that alters patients' perceptions of their present and future. Nurses have an important role in the process of providing information and helping patients prepare for, receive, understand and cope with the bad news they have been given. This article aims to help nurses understand the process of breaking bad news and discuss the challenges and difficulties that nurses can face when they are involved with patients who have been given bad news. It also provides guidance with regard to preparing for breaking bad news, giving difficult information, responding to possible reactions, and supporting patients and their relatives after they have received bad news.

  2. Some statistical issues important to future developments in human radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeth, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Using his two years experience at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation at Hiroshima, the author tries to outline some of the areas of statistics where methodologies relevant to the future developments in human radiation research are likely to be found. Problems related to statistical analysis of existing data are discussed, together with methodological developments in non-parametric and semi-parametric regression modelling, and interpretation and presentation of results. (Author)

  3. Highlights from panel discussion on key issues for future developments in microwave processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gac, F.D.; Iskander, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on highlights from a panel discussion on Key Issues for Future Development in Microwave Processing. Although the panelists represented a mix of individuals from government, academia, and industry, only one aspect of industry was represented, namely microwave system manufacturers. For further panel discussions, it is recommended that the materials manufacturing (i.e., microwave user) sector also be represented. Three important points emerged from the panel discussion. The first deals with the credibility and usability of information, be it dielectric property measurements, experimental procedures, or microwave processing results. Second, a considerable communication and education gap continues to exist between the materials community and microwave engineers. Finally, a more realistic approach should be taken in identifying where microwave processing makes sense

  4. Quantum Dots for Cancer Research: Current Status, Remaining Issues, and Future Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Min; Peng, Chun-wei; Pang, Dai-Wen; Li, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a major threat to public health in the 21st century because it is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis, cancer invasion, and metastasis remain unclear. Thus, the development of a novel approach for cancer detection is urgent, and real-time monitoring is crucial in revealing its underlying biological mechanisms. With the optical and chemical advantages of quantum dots (QDs), QD-based nanotechnology is helpful in constructing a biomedical imaging platform for cancer behavior study. This review mainly focuses on the application of QD-based nanotechnology in cancer cell imaging and tumor microenvironment studies both in vivo and in vitro, as well as the remaining issues and future perspectives

  5. LABOUR MARKET INTEGRATION ISSUES RELATED TO MIGRANTS ARRIVING TO HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Miklos Komives

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration flows appearing in the recent years have gained central relevance in Hungary. Previously people were having no opinion about the current situation of issues related to migration but the increased media attention lead to the development of mixed attitudes among people. Some people feel sorry for the families who are coming from the war zones and lost their homes, others have fear of losing their position at work, or their families because of the acts they have heard from the media and they are hostile to the issue of integration whether it is about education or the labour market. According to the statistical data; in the third quarter of 2015, more than hundred thousand asylum-seekers arrived to Hungary, which dropped drastically in the fourth quarter caused by the significant transformation of the asylum process. This study is intended to serve two objectives: first describe the comprehensive picture of labour market attitudes towards migrants and secondly to identify factors that affect the employment of foreigners in Hungary using secondary data sources. Based on this analysis those questions can be formulated, which may constitute a basis for further labour market researches for the integration of migrants. From our point of view there are vital aspects of the migrants’ successful social integration; we have to integrate the migrants who are coming to our country and plan to stay for a longer time to the field of education and the labour market. The social integration of migrants in a country is closely linked to employment, to the integration into the labour market, and in many cases one of the obstacles in this regard is the prejudiced behaviour and negative attitudes towards migrants which manifests itself as the discrimination in the labour market. The results of the European Commission confirm that in Hungary the ethnicity as a variable appears to be the second on the list of the most serious discrimination factors

  6. Report on the international symposium on radiological issues for Fukushima's revitalized future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Nobuhiro

    2015-12-01

    On May 30 - 31, 2015, the fourth and last convention entitled 'International Symposium on Radiological Issues for Fukushima's Revitalized Future' was held in Iizaka Onsen, Fukushima city, under auspices of Institute of Environmental Radioactivity at Fukushima University and other organizations. The following four subjects were the main topics of this symposium: Decontamination/radioactive waste; Environmental radiation/external exposure; Marine/agricultural products, food, internal exposure; and Issues at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP site. The program included 2 invited lectures by overseas guest speakers, 12 oral presentations, 80 poster presentations, and 2 panel discussion sessions, in which over 600 participants consisting of researchers, experts, community dwellers, and young students had lively discussion in a warm and friendly atmosphere. It is noteworthy that several poster presentations were given by high school and junior college students in Fukushima in this international symposium. This report is a collection of the presentation slides and the transcriptions of Q and A sessions for oral lectures as well as the transcriptions of the panel discussion sessions. (J.P.N.)

  7. Future fuel cycle and reactor strategies. Key issue paper no. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The scope of this paper includes those issues that are expected to remain or become important in the time period from 2015 to 2050. Events in this time frame are difficult to predict with any certainty, so the framework of this paper is necessarily somewhat speculative. The paper includes consideration of all facets of nuclear energy utilization, from ore extraction to final disposal of waste products. The paper first addresses the factors influencing the choice of reactor and fuel cycle. It then goes on to address the quantitatively largest category of reactor types expected to be important during the period; that is, thermal reactors burning uranium and plutonium fuel in various forms. The fast reactor type is then discussed both as stand-alone technology and as technology used in combination with thermal reactors. Thorium fuel use is discussed briefly. This paper is concentrated on the ``medium variant`` energy growth scenario identified in Key Issue Paper No. 1. The effects of either higher or lower growth could, of course, profoundly change the future development of the nuclear power industry. 31 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs.

  8. A review study of maintenance and management issues in Malaysian commercial building towards sustainable future practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Baharum, Faizal; Ibrahim, Siti Halipah; Riazi, Salman Riazi Mehdi

    2017-10-01

    Good management of the building will be able to influence the quality of the buildings that remain long, safe and beautiful without any damage and problems. This research paper aims to explore the issue of maintenance and management that appear in managing the commercial building in Malaysian construction and property industry. The data in this research has been gathered through the reviewing process of secondary data such as journals, proceeding, thesis etc. in the area that related to maintenance and management issue in commercial building. As highlighted by previous study, building a good management can ensure that the facilities available in the building are well and meet the standard. Thus, exposure to the problems and needs in the management of the building would be able to improve the quality of building management systems to be more effective and fulfil the client needs and features.

  9. Construct validity-Current issues and recommendations for future hand hygiene research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Jun Rong Jeffrey

    2017-05-01

    Health care-associated infection is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Hand hygiene is widely regarded as an effective prevention strategy. Often, hand hygiene research is designed and conducted by health care practitioners who may lack formal training in research methods, particularly in the area of social science. In a research context, a construct is a concept that can be measured or observed in some way. A construct can be directly or indirectly measured. For example, height can be directly measured by centimeters, whereas depression can be indirectly measured by a scale of 20 items. Every construct needs to be operationalized by measure(s) to make it a variable. Hence, construct validity refers to the degree of fit between the construct of interest and its operational measure. However, issues with construct validity often weaken the translation from construct to measure(s). This article will (1) describe the common threats to construct validity pertaining to hand hygiene research, (2) identify practical limitations in current research design, and (3) provide recommendations to improve construct validity in future hand hygiene research. By understanding how construct validity may affect hand hygiene research design, there is great potential to improve the validity of future hand hygiene research findings. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Family-friendliness in business as a key issue for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzer, Erich

    2012-01-01

    These days family-friendliness is a key issue for the future of businesses. Investments in a family conscious personnel policy are considered as forward-looking decisions in companies. This happens against the background of a sustainable personnel policy in times of a decrease in the number of employable persons, an increasing shortage of skilled workers and an ageing workforce. Family-friendly working conditions are becoming a key factor in the competition for staff. When choosing an employer, family-friendliness has become a crucial topic. Employment participation and skills of women, especially of mothers, have greatly increased. To facilitate the realisation of their wish to return to paid employment, however, measures to reconcile work and family are required. Family-conscious measures have been proven to lead to higher employee productivity. Job satisfaction and motivation of employees and accumulation of human capital increase, absenteeism declines, the return of investment rises. Fields of activity for family-friendly measures in companies range from working arrangements, parental leave and re-entry programmes and various child care offers to services for families. In connection with the demographic development the demand for a better reconciliation of work and elder care should in future become ever more important, just as the upkeep of the occupational skills and working capacity of an ageing workforce. Family-friendliness has to become an integral part of corporate culture.

  11. Alarm systems in the nuclear industry - survey of the working situation and identification of future research issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, Anna; Osvalder, Anna-Lisa; Holmstroem, Conny; Dahlman, Sven

    2004-01-01

    Safety issues are important in the control of industrial processes. An essential part for interpreting and avoiding hazardous situations is the alarm system and its design. To increase the knowledge and to develop new design solutions this doctoral project was initiated. The work has been divided into three stages and this paper presents the results of the first stage. The objective of stage one was to investigate how operators in both nuclear and non-nuclear plants work. A comparison between different branches of industry was also performed. From these results a future research issue has been identified. The methods used were observations, interviews and a literature study. The results showed that the operators are satisfied with the performance of the alarm system during normal operating conditions. However, several problems could also be identified but most of them are already well-known in the nuclear industry. Since these problems are well known but still exist, this result contributes to the basic hypothesis that a theoretical basis is lacking for the design of the alarm system. The proposed issue for forthcoming work is therefore to collect and compile existing knowledge about the human information processing and alarm systems, and combine the knowledge from these areas. With a better understanding of the relation between these areas it is possible to develop new design solutions which are better adapted to the human capabilities and limitations. This would support operator performance which in turn increases plant performance and safety. (Author)

  12. Experimental tests of general relativity: recent progress and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turyshev, S G

    2009-01-01

    Einstein's general theory of relativity is the standard theory of gravity, especially where the needs of astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology, and fundamental physics are concerned. As such, this theory is used for many practical purposes involving spacecraft navigation, geodesy, and time transfer. We review the foundations of general relativity, discuss recent progress in tests of relativistic gravity, and present motivations for the new generation of high-accuracy tests of new physics beyond general relativity. Space-based experiments in fundamental physics are presently capable of uniquely addressing important questions related to the fundamental laws of nature. We discuss the advances in our understanding of fundamental physics that are anticipated in the near future and evaluate the discovery potential of a number of recently proposed space-based gravitational experiments. (reviews of topical problems)

  13. Current issues and related activities in seismic hazard analysis in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong-Moon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-Rim; Chang, Chun-Joong

    1997-03-01

    This paper discusses some technical issues identified from the seismic hazard analyses for probabilistic safety assessment on the operating Korean nuclear power plants and the related activities to resolve the issues. Since there are no strong instrumental earthquake records in Korea, the seismic hazard analysis is mainly dependent on the historical earthquake records. Results of the past seismic hazard analyses show that there are many uncertainties in attenuation function and intensity level and that there is a need to improve statistical method. The identification of the activity of the Yangsan Fault, which is close to nuclear power plant sites, has been an important issue. But the issue has not been resolved yet in spite of much research works done. Recently, some capable faults were found in the offshore area of Gulupdo Island in the Yellow Sea. It is anticipated that the results of research on both the Yangsan Fault and reduction of uncertainty in seismic hazard analysis will have an significant influence on seismic design and safety assessment of nuclear power plants in the future. (author)

  14. Current issues and related activities in seismic hazard analysis in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jeong-Moon; Lee, Jong-Rim; Chang, Chun-Joong.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses some technical issues identified from the seismic hazard analyses for probabilistic safety assessment on the operating Korean nuclear power plants and the related activities to resolve the issues. Since there are no strong instrumental earthquake records in Korea, the seismic hazard analysis is mainly dependent on the historical earthquake records. Results of the past seismic hazard analyses show that there are many uncertainties in attenuation function and intensity level and that there is a need to improve statistical method. The identification of the activity of the Yangsan Fault, which is close to nuclear power plant sites, has been an important issue. But the issue has not been resolved yet in spite of much research works done. Recently, some capable faults were found in the offshore area of Gulupdo Island in the Yellow Sea. It is anticipated that the results of research on both the Yangsan Fault and reduction of uncertainty in seismic hazard analysis will have an significant influence on seismic design and safety assessment of nuclear power plants in the future. (author)

  15. Engineering approach to relative quantitative assessment of safety culture and related social issues in NPP operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivokon, V.; Gladyshev, M.; Malkin, S.

    2005-01-01

    The report is devoted to presentation of engineering approach and software tool developed for Safety Culture (SC) assessment as well as to the results of their implementation at Smolensk NPP. The engineering approach is logic evolution of the IAEA ASSET method broadly used at European NPPs in 90-s. It was implemented at Russian and other plants including Olkiluoto NPP in Finland. The approach allows relative quantitative assessing and trending the aspects of SC by the analysis of evens features and causes, calculation and trending corresponding indicators. At the same time plant's operational performances and related social issues, including efficiency of plant operation and personnel reliability, can be monitored. With the help of developed tool the joint team combined from personnel of Smolensk NPP and RRC 'Kurchatov Institute' ('KI') issued the SC self-assessment report, which identifies: families of recurrent events, main safety and operational problems ; their trends and importance to SC and plant efficiency; recommendations to enhance SC and operational performance

  16. Issues related to choosing a guard force structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averbach, C.; Cusack, J.; Green, L.; Higinbotham, W.; Indusi, J.; Marcuse, W.; Weinstock, E.

    1975-01-01

    The establishment of a federal security force has been suggested as an additional step to protect nuclear material. The force would be given the responsibility for guarding nuclear facilities and shipments of nuclear materials. A study to identify the issues that are relevant to choosing between the private guard forces that are presently employed by industry or a guard force under federal authority is summarized. To examine the issues which would be relevant, three possible types of security force structures were selected for comparison: a federal force under central authority, a private guard force employed by or under contract to a facility, and a private arrangement to employ local police officers similar to the arrangement for armed guards at airports. The issues were divided into seven categories: (1) legal considerations, (2) liability, (3) staffing and operations, (4) costs, (5) relationship to off-site forces, (6) management and control, and (7) transportation. (U.S.)

  17. Issues related to choosing a guard force structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerback, C.; Cusack, J.; Green, L.; Higinbotham, W.; Indusi, J.; Marcuse, W.; Weinstock, E.

    1975-01-01

    The establishment of a federal security force has been suggested as an additional step to protect nuclear material. The force would be given the responsibility for guarding nuclear facilities and shipments of nuclear materials. This paper summarizes a study to identify the issues that are relevant to choosing between the private guard forces that are presently employed by industry or a guard force under federal authority. To examine the issues which would be relevant, three possible types of security force structures were selected for comparison: a federal force under central authority, a private guard force employed by or under contract to a facility, and a private arrangement to employ local police officers similar to the arrangement for armed guards at airports. The issues were divided into seven categories: (1) Legal Considerations, (2) Liability, (3) Staffing and Operations, (4) Costs, (5) Relationship to Off-site Forces, (6) Management and Control, (7) Transportation

  18. Future land-use related water demand in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tamara; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Cameron, D. Richard

    2016-01-01

    Water shortages in California are a growing concern amidst ongoing drought, earlier spring snowmelt, projected future climate warming, and currently mandated water use restrictions. Increases in population and land use in coming decades will place additional pressure on already limited available water supplies. We used a state-and-transition simulation model to project future changes in developed (municipal and industrial) and agricultural land use to estimate associated water use demand from 2012 to 2062. Under current efficiency rates, total water use was projected to increase 1.8 billion cubic meters(+4.1%) driven primarily by urbanization and shifts to more water intensive crops. Only if currently mandated 25% reductions in municipal water use are continuously implemented would water demand in 2062 balance to water use levels in 2012. This is the first modeling effort of its kind to examine regional land-use related water demand incorporating historical trends of both developed and agricultural land uses.

  19. Issues related to public perception of radioactive waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    Public perceptions about radioactive waste are generally rather or even strongly negative. They are also very poorly informed. This is rather unfortunate as it is these perceptions that appear to greatly influence the Public views on nuclear energy in general. This, in turn, has had an influence on political decisions. On the other hand, in a very clear majority of the Member States of the European Union, the Public have already indicated that they would be ready to accept the important role of nuclear in their future energy mix as long as all the radioactive wastes can be safely managed. However perceptions about nuclear energy and radioactive waste should be seen in the context of the Public wider perceptions on energy and, in particular, the role in the future of different sources. It may be wrong for political decisions on nuclear energy in the future to rely to heavily on the Public perceptions. (author)

  20. Jordan: U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-25

    bring about a compromise solution to Iraq’s sectarian violence and insurgency. Nevertheless, should the Administration heed the main recommendations of...Committee (NLC), a New York-based human rights advocacy group, issued a 161-page report alleging sweatshop -like conditions in 28 out of 100 Qualified

  1. Relating Social Inclusion and Environmental Issues in Botanic Gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergou, Asimina; Willison, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Botanic gardens have been evolving, responding to the changing needs of society, from their outset as medicinal gardens of monasteries and university gardens to more recently as organizations that contribute to the conservation of plant genetic resources. Considering that social and environmental issues are deeply intertwined and cannot be tackled…

  2. Neglected Issues Relating to African Health Systems: An Incentive ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Several issues that affect access to and quality of health care for the poor and ... Conferences will be held at local, district and national levels to share the results of the ... Minister Bibeau announces appointments of IDRC's President and new ...

  3. Teacher-Student Sexual Relations: Key Risks and Ethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Researching actual or purported sexual contact between teachers and students raises many difficult ethical issues, questions and dilemmas, which may help to explain why few have ventured into the field. This experientially based paper addresses key problem areas under the headings of: the ethics of researching a sensitive taboo topic; the ethics…

  4. Ecological Issues Related to Children's Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Jerry; Kohler, Maxie

    2009-01-01

    Issues concerning the health and safety of children and youth occur at multiple levels. Bronfenbrenner (1995) proposed an ecological systems approach in which multiple systems interact to enhance or diminish children's development. The same systems are at work in health promotion. The authors present and review articles that reflect the multiple…

  5. Thinking, Relating and Choosing: Resolving the issue of Faith ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Which is worse: Doing evil or being evil? If we are free to define ourselves through our choices, as existentialism posits, then the latter is worse. This paper attempts to resolve the issue of the difference between religious (group) ethics and the ethics of a person of faith that embraces individuals with an existential ...

  6. Current issues in libraries, information science and related fields

    CERN Document Server

    Woodsworth, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This volume is unusual in that the theme is quite broad in scope yet focused on a specific topic; innovations and boundary-pushing studies in areas not usually found in library literature. It examines the periphery of the field surveyed in previous volumes. The chapters are grouped in two categories: professional issues and transforming services.

  7. Representations of the Americans with Disabilities Act Employment-Related Issues in the Wall Street Journal (1990-2008): A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer, Michal; Rimmerman, Arie

    2012-01-01

    This feasibility study examines the coverage of employment-related issues related to people with disabilities in the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. The study is a first in a series of future studies focusing on disability issues in the international economic media. A survey of 39 newspaper articles published in the "Wall Street…

  8. Organizational Decline Research Review: Challenges and Issues for a Future Research Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antônio Ribeiro Serra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Organizational decline is related to the deterioration of the resource base and performance of an organization for a sustained period of time. Although some studies have been conducted, it remains an understudied phenomenon, despite its importance. The study of organizational decline is faced with challenges to improving and increasing research. In this study, we analyze the scientific field of organizational decline in business and management journals with a high impact factor. We conducted a mixed-method study: a bibliometric study of a sample of 214 articles, and a qualitative study with 41 authors. We used an analysis of citations, co-citations and factor analysis. This enabled the identification of the most influential works and their conceptual approaches. The interviews with the authors were analyzed using content analysis, which complemented our understanding of the challenges and problems facing the theme. The results show that organizational decline can be organized into three different aspects: organizational decline itself; studies on turnaround; and mortality. Specific challenges to overcome are related to a better definition, cognitive issues and other issues on decision-making and specific methodological problems. In addition, it is necessary to evaluate whether theories that explain growth are also able to explain decline.

  9. Future trends and emerging issues for nanodelivery systems in oral and oropharyngeal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irimie AI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra Iulia Irimie,1 Laura Sonea,2 Ancuta Jurj,3 Nikolay Mehterov,4,5 Alina Andreea Zimta,2,3 Liviuta Budisan,3 Cornelia Braicu,3 Ioana Berindan-Neagoe2,3,6 1Department of Prosthodontics and Dental Materials, Faculty of Dental Medicine, 2MedFuture Research Center for Advanced Medicine, 3Research Center for Functional Genomics and Translational Medicine, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 4Department of Medical Biology, Medical University of Plovdiv, 5Technological Center for Emergency Medicine, Plovdiv, Bulgaria; 6Department of Functional Genomics and Experimental Pathology, Ion Chiricuta Oncology Institute, Cluj-Napoca, Romania Abstract: Oral cancer is a prevalent cancer type on a global scale, whose traditional treatment strategies have several drawbacks that could in the near future be overcome through the development of novel therapeutic and prognostic strategies. Nanotechnology provides an alternative to traditional therapy that leads to enhanced efficiency and less toxicity. Various nanosystems have been developed for the treatment of oral cancer, including polymeric, metallic, and lipid-based formulations that incorporate chemotherapeutics, natural compounds, siRNA, or other molecules. This review summarizes the main benefits of using these nanosystems, in parallel with a particular focus on the issues encountered in medical practice. These novel strategies have provided encouraging results in both in vitro and in vivo studies, but few have entered clinical trials. The use of nanosystems in oral cancer has the potential of becoming a valid therapeutic option for patients suffering from this malignancy, considering that clinical trials have already been completed and others are currently being developed. Keywords: oral cancer, nanoparticle, lipidic nanosystems, polymeric micelles, dendrimers

  10. South Africa: Current Issues and U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ploch, Lauren

    2008-01-01

    .... With Africa's largest Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and a government eager to play an active role in the promotion of regional peace and stability, South Africa is poised to have a substantial impact on the economic and political future of Africa...

  11. Relational Interventions for Child Maltreatment: Past, Present, & Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Sheree L.; Gravener-Davis, Julie A.; Guild, Danielle J.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that child maltreatment has significant deleterious effects for the individual as well as for society. We briefly review research regarding the impact of child maltreatment on the attachment relationship, highlighting the need for relational interventions for maltreated children and their families to effectively thwart negative developmental cascades that are so often observed in the context of child maltreatment. Next, historical and contemporaneous perspectives on relational interventions for individuals with histories of child maltreatment are discussed with attention to the empirical evidence for and the current evidence-based status of several relationally based interventions for child maltreatment. Differential sensitivity to the environment is then discussed as a theoretical framework with important implications for interventions for individuals who have been reared in maltreating environments. Current research on neurobiology and maltreatment is then reviewed, with an emphasis on the need for future investigations on genetic variants, epigenetics, and the efficacy of relational interventions for maltreated children. We conclude with a discussion of the tenets of developmental psychopathology, their implications for relational interventions for child maltreatment, and recommendations for advancing the development, provision, and evaluation of relational interventions for individuals with histories of child maltreatment. PMID:24342858

  12. Structural Integrity and Aging-Related Issues of Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    inherently damage lolerant , any damage- inspection in critical locations where tests have indicated tolerant features in airframe design only enhances...required, so European Rotorcraft Forum. Marseilles, France, 15- that helicopters are equipped with such features as fly- 17 September 1998 . by-wire and...fatigue Evaluation of structural integrity issues of aging helicopters. The Structure," 29 April, 1998 . extended safe-life approach encompasses the best

  13. Issues related to the use of genetic material and information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarelli, E; Jacobs, L A

    2000-04-01

    To review issues regarding the use of genetic materials and information. Professional literature, regional and federal legislation. An analysis is provided of the relationship among advances in genetic technology, use of genetic material and information, and the development of laws that protect the interests of donors, researchers, and insurers. Rapid technological achievements have generated complex questions that are difficult to answer. The Human Genome Project began and the scientific discoveries were put to use before adequate professional and public debate on the ethical, legal, social, and clinical issues. The term "proper use" of genetic material and information is not defined consistently. An incomplete patchwork of protective state and federal legislation exists. Many complicated issues surround the use and potential misuse of genetic material and information. Rapidly advancing technology in genetics makes it difficult for regulations that protect individuals and families to keep pace. Oncology nurses need to recognize their role as change agents, understand genetic technology, and advocate for patients by participating in the debate on the proper use and prevention of misuse of genetic material and information.

  14. New Generation Discovery: A Systematic View for Its Development, Issues and Future

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Yi

    2012-11-01

    Collecting, storing, discovering, and locating are integral parts of the composition of the library. To fully utilize the library and achieve its ultimate value, the construction and production of discovery has always been a central part of the library’s practice and identity. That is the reason why the new generation (also called the next-generation discovery) discovery gets such striking effect since it came into library automation arena. However, when we talk about the new generation of discovery in the library domain, we should see it in the entirety of the library as one of its organic parts and consider its progress along with the evolution of the whole library world. We should have a deeper understanding about its relationship and interaction with the internet, the rapidly changing digital environment, and the elements and the chain of library services. To address above issues, this paper overviews the different versions of the definition for the new generation discovery by combining our own understanding. The paper also gives our own description for its properties and characteristics. The paper points out what challenges, which extends the technology domain to commercial interests and business strategy, are faced by the discovery applications, and how library and library professionals deal with those challenges. Finally, the paper elaborates on the promise brought by the new discovery development and what the next exploration might be for its future.

  15. LEGAL ISSUES RELATED TO THE SHARIAH ADVISORY COUNCIL IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhashimah Mohd Yasin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia has always aspired to be the hub for Islamic banking and finance. Various measures have been, and are being, carried out to promote Malaysia as an international Islamic banking and financial centre. As the backbone for this, the national Shariah Advisory Council (SAC has been established under the auspices of the Central Bank of Malaysia Act 1958 (CBMA. Under the CBMA, the SAC has been conferred a statutory function as the authority for the ascertainment of Islamic law for the purposes of Islamic banking, as well as business and other types of Islamic financial businesses. In 2009, the CBMA 1958 was replaced and repealed. With the coming into force of the CBMA 2009, the role and functions of the SAC was reinforced and upgraded in terms of appointments of members and, most importantly, that the Shariah rulings pursuant to any reference made to the SAC by the Civil court or arbitrator concerning Shariah matters shall be binding on the Islamic financial institutions as well as on the court and any arbitrator. The issue of whether or not the SAC is the final arbiter on Islamic banking and finance disputes or, in other words, there is no longer a process of judicial review where it involves Shariah matters, will be the highlight of this paper. To what extent does the post CBMA 2009 solve the binding nature of the SAC upon the Civil courts of Malaysia as its rulings and directives are only relevant to ‘Shariah’ issues? What would be the situations if the issues of the Islamic banking and finance cases are deemed not to amount to a ‘Shariah’ issue, but are purely on banking, land matters or contractual interpretations? Has there any actual legal reform been brought about by this amendment or is it merely a cosmetic changes? If the court were to be bound by the SAC rulings, does this not usurp the independence of the judiciary which is the corner stone of the principle of separation of powers between the executive, the legislature and

  16. Human resource issues related to an expanding nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    The IAEA Technical Working Group on Training and Qualification of Nuclear Power Plant Personnel recommended that the IAEA develop guidelines on human resource management (including staffing) and training/education programmes for new nuclear power plant (NPP) designs. This recommendation was made in recognition that these future NPPs may have significantly different needs in this area compared to operating plants, and if so, NPP operating organizations should integrate these needs into their planning for future NPP projects. This report is primarily intended for use by NPP operating organizations that already have units in operation and that are considering adding to their fleet. Therefore, the addition of both new and current designs are addressed in this report. However, it should also be of value to those organizations that are considering the initial implementation of nuclear power, as well as decision makers in government, and in other nuclear industry organizations

  17. Current status and future expectation concerning probabilistic risk assessment of NPPs. 1. Features and issues of probabilistic risk assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) could play an important role in assuring safety of NPPs. However PRA had not always effectively used, which was indicated in Japanese government's report on Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. At the Risk Technical Committee (RTC) of Standards Committee of Atomic Energy Society of Japan, preparation of standards (implementing criteria) focusing on PRA methodology and investigation on basic philosophy for use of PRA had been in progress. Based on activities of RTC, a serial in three articles including this described current status and future expectation concerning probabilistic risk assessment of NPPs. This article introduced features and issues of PRA methodology related to the use of PRA. Features of PRA methodology could be shown as (1) systematic and comprehensive understanding of risk, (2) support of grading approach, (3) identification of effective safety upgrade measures and (4) quantitative understanding of effects of uncertainty. Issues of PRA methodology were (1) extension of PRA application area, (2) upgrade of PRA methodology, (3) quality assurance of PRA, (4) treatment of uncertainty and (5) quantitative evaluation criteria. (T. Tanaka)

  18. Editorial volume 3 - issue 3: The future of the Learning Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yngve Nordkvelle

    2007-12-01

    participation and reflexivity in the social construction of the development of educational technology”. Larsen, Hole and Fahlvik demonstrate how this is a dynamic developmental process. The last paper has a different topic, but relates to the first article in the sense that if the technology is the same, different users approach it differently. The authors: Neil Anderson, Carolyn Timms and Lyn Courtney of James Cook University address the rural/urban distinction in a complex project, investigated in several aspects. If the difference is systematic and in conflict with educational and political aims, the alarm goes off. In this case the troubling news are that students in rural areas are less interested in adopting new technologies. References:Brown, D. (2007 Mashing up the Once and Future CMS. Educause Review. March/April (s.7-8 McInnis, C. (2001 Inaugural proffesorial lecture. Signs of disengagement? The changing undergraduate experience in Australian universities. http://eprints.unimelb.edu.au/archive /00000094/01/InaugLec23_8_01.pdf Zemsky, R. & Massy, W.F (2004 Thwarted Innovation. What happened to e-learning and why? http://www.irhe.upenn.edu/Docs/Jun2004/ThwartedInnovation.pdf

  19. Dealing with quantum weirdness: Holism and related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elby, A.R.

    1995-12-01

    Various issues are discussed in interpretation of quantum mechanics. All these explorations point toward the same conclusion, that some systems are holistically connected, i.e., some composite systems have properties that cannot, even in principle, be reduced to the properties of its subsystems. This is argued to be the central metaphysical lesson of quantum theory; this will remain pertinent even if quantum mechanics gets replaced by a superior theory. Chap. 2 discusses nonlocality and rules out hidden-variable theories that approximately reproduce the perfect correlations of quantum mechanics, as well as theories that obey locality conditions weaker than those needed to derive Bell's inequality. Chap. 3 shows that SQUID experiments can rule out non-invasive measurability if not macrorealism. Chap. 4 looks at interpretational issues surrounding decoherence, the dissipative interaction between a system and its environment. Decoherence klcan help ''modal'' interpretations pick out the desired ''preferred'' basis. Chap. 5 explores what varieties of causation can and cannot ''explain'' EPR correlations. Instead of relying on ''watered down'' causal explanations, we should instead develop new, holistic explanatory frameworks

  20. The approach of nuclear related issues by the press

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manetti, Cristiane Teixeira; Tanimoto, Katia Suemi; Hiromoto, Goro

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear energy has always been a polemic issue, and it is usually more intensely associated, by the general public, to the risks than to the benefits from its use; in this sense, the mass media have clearly had its share of responsibility for public opinion formation. This paper presents a report on the coverage of the nuclear issue in the press, identifying the amount of negative and positive views on the subject, as well as the people involved in the process. The analysis comprises the period from February 2007 to February 2008, right after the edition of the 4th IPCC Report. From that sample, 172 texts published in widely known newspapers and magazines, most of them from Sao Paulo State, were identified. The analyzed speeches were classified according to five information sources: specialists, users, authorities, protagonists and entrepreneurs. It was noted the predominance of positive articles, mainly due to the weight of the favorable speeches by authorities, cited as the most frequent in this paper. (author)

  1. Environmental issues related to oil and gas access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniuk, T.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation discussed the environmental issues that petroleum companies face in northeast British Columbia. Petroleum exploration, development, production, abandonment and transportation activities in the province must follow provincial and federal regulations as well as government policies and guidelines which define environmental assessment, protection, and mitigation standards. A discussion about the regulatory framework in British Columbia can be found in the 'British Columbia Oil and Gas Handbook' which is available on the INTERNET at http://natural.gov.bc.ca/handpubs/oilgashb/bcoghb.htm. It was suggested that companies wishing to conduct drilling or exploration activities in sensitive areas should allow extra time (up to one year) to obtain approval for such activities. British Columbia's environmental setting includes five zones - the Alpine Tundra, the Spruce-Willow-Birch zone, the Engelmannn Spruce-Subalpine Fir forests, the Sub-Boreal Spruce zone, and the Boreal White and Black Spruce zone. Four discrete oil and gas guideline zones with differing standards have been developed. These are: (1) the Northern Rocky Mountains, (2) the Northeastern Slopes, (3) the Southeastern Slopes, and (4) the Northern Plains. A set of interim environmental guidelines are in effect to direct activity away from any sensitive area. Three sub-regional land use planning areas have also been established in the Prince George Forest Region which includes Dawson Creek, Fort St. John and Fort Nelson. Petroleum operators in these regions are obliged to deal with issues regarding aboriginal involvement, stream crossings, access management, and air quality. 40 refs

  2. The approach of nuclear related issues by the press

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manetti, Cristiane Teixeira; Tanimoto, Katia Suemi; Hiromoto, Goro [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: cristianemanetti@hotmail.com, e-mail: katia_tanimoto@hotmail.com, e-mail: hiromoto@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear energy has always been a polemic issue, and it is usually more intensely associated, by the general public, to the risks than to the benefits from its use; in this sense, the mass media have clearly had its share of responsibility for public opinion formation. This paper presents a report on the coverage of the nuclear issue in the press, identifying the amount of negative and positive views on the subject, as well as the people involved in the process. The analysis comprises the period from February 2007 to February 2008, right after the edition of the 4th IPCC Report. From that sample, 172 texts published in widely known newspapers and magazines, most of them from Sao Paulo State, were identified. The analyzed speeches were classified according to five information sources: specialists, users, authorities, protagonists and entrepreneurs. It was noted the predominance of positive articles, mainly due to the weight of the favorable speeches by authorities, cited as the most frequent in this paper. (author)

  3. Addressing Issues of Broadening Participation Highlighted in the Report on the Future of Undergraduate Geoscience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaris, J. R.; Manduca, C. A.; Macdonald, H.; Iverson, E. A. R.

    2015-12-01

    The final report for the Summit on the Future of Geoscience Education lays out a consensus on issues that must be tackled by the geoscience community collectively if there are to be enough qualified people to fill the large number of expected geoscience job vacancies over the coming decade. Focus areas cited in the report include: Strengthening the connections between two-year colleges and four-year institutions Sharing and making use of successful recruitment and retention practices for students from underrepresented groups Making students aware of high-quality job prospects in the geosciences as well as its societal relevance The InTeGrate STEP Center for the Geosciences, the Supporting and Advancing Geoscience Education at Two-Year Colleges (SAGE 2YC) program, and the Building Strong Geoscience Departments (BSGD) project together have developed a suite of web resources to help faculty and program leaders begin to address these and other issues. These resources address practices that support the whole student, both in the classroom and as a part of the co-curriculum as well as information on geoscience careers, guidance for developing coherent degree programs, practical advice for mentoring and advising, and many others. In addition to developing web resources, InTeGrate has also undertaken an effort to profile successful program practices at a variety of institutions. An analysis of these data shows several common themes (e.g. proactive marketing, community building, research experiences) that align well with the existing literature on what works to support student success. But there are also indications of different approaches and emphases between Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs) and Primarily White Institutions (PWIs) as well as between different kinds of MSIs. Highlighting the different strategies in use can point both MSIs and PWIs to possible alternate solutions to the challenges their students face. InTeGrate - http

  4. China's coastal wetlands: conservation history, implementation efforts, existing issues and strategies for future improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhigao; Sun, Wenguang; Tong, Chuan; Zeng, Congsheng; Yu, Xiang; Mou, Xiaojie

    2015-06-01

    China has approximately 5.80×10(6)ha coastal wetlands by 2014, accounting for 10.82% of the total area of natural wetlands. Healthy coastal wetland ecosystems play an important role in guaranteeing the territory ecological security and the sustainable development of coastal zone in China. In this paper, the natural geography and the past and present status of China's coastal wetlands were introduced and the five stages (1950s-1970s, 1980s-1991, 1992-2002, 2003-2010 and 2011-present) of China's coastal wetlands conservation from the foundation of the People's Republic in 1949 to present were distinguished and reviewed. Over the past decades, China has made great efforts in coastal wetland conservation, as signified by the implementation of coastal wetland restoration projects, the construction of coastal wetland nature reserves, the practice of routine ecological monitoring and two national wetland surveys, the promulgation of local wetland conservation statutes and specific regulations, the coordination mechanism to enhance management capacity, the wide development of coastal wetland research and public participation, and the extensive communication to strengthen international cooperation. Nonetheless, six major issues recently emerged in China's coastal wetland conservation are evidently existed, including the increasing threats of pollution and human activities, the increasing adverse effects of threaten factors on ecosystem function, the increasing threats of coastal erosion and sea-level rising, the insufficient funding for coastal wetlands conservation, the imperfect legal and management system for coastal wetlands, and the insufficient education, research and international cooperation. Although the threats and pressures on coastal wetlands conservation are still apparent, the future of China's coastal wetlands looks promising since the Chinese government understands that the sustainable development in coastal zone requires new attitudes, sound policies and

  5. Can the Stock Market anticipate Future Operating Performance? Evidence from Equity Rights Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, M.R.; Roosenboom, P.G.J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines whether the stock market valuation impact of rights issues is consistent with subsequent operating performance of issuing firms. Analysing a sample of rights issues in the Netherlands, we find that a significant stock price decline takes place with the announcement of rights

  6. Quality of life issues relating to endocrine treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1999-01-01

    for measuring health-related quality of life should assess both overall and disease-specific quality of life. Data from two large studies of bicalutamide monotherapy show that this non-steroidal antiandrogen is associated with significant health-related quality of life advantages in the treatment of patients...

  7. Methodological issues related to studies of lead mobilization during menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkowitz Gertrud S.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available While there has been a substantial decline in lead exposure in the United States during the past two decades, mobilization of existing lead stored in bone potentially represents an important endogenous source of exposure for menopausal women. It has been hypothesized that lead may be mobilized from skeletal stores during conditions of high bone turnover, such as during menopause. However, such mobilization has not been documented in prospective studies. This discussion is focussed on some of the methodological difficulties to be anticipated in longitudinal studies of lead mobilization specific to menopause and the issues that need to be taken into account when evaluating the results of such studies. To evaluate whether lead mobilization occurs during menopause, a prospective repeated measures design is needed using X-ray fluorescence analysis of lead in bone and serial measurements of blood lead. Potential confounders and effect modifiers also need to be taken into account in the statistical analysis.

  8. PRECISION MEASUREMENT OF MUON G-2 AND ACCELERATOR RELATED ISSUES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BROWN, H.N.; BUNCE, G.; CAREY, R.M.; CUSHMAN, P.; DANBY, G.T.; DEBEVEC, P.T.; DEILE, M.; DENG, H.; DENINGER, W.; DHAWAN, S.K.; MENG, W.

    2001-01-01

    A precision measurement of the anomalous g value, a μ =(g-2)/2, for the positive muon has been made using high intensity protons available at the Brookhaven AGS. The result based on the 1999 data a μ =11659202(14)(6) x 10 10 (1.3ppm) is in good agreement with previous measurements and has an error one third that of the combined previous data. The current theoretical value from the standard model is a μ (SM)=11659159.6(6.7) x 10 10 (0.57 ppm) and differ by over 2.5 standard deviation with experiment. Issues with reducing systematic errors and enhancing the injection and storage efficiencies are discussed

  9. Survey on Issues related to National Nuclear Promotion Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Byungchool; Lee, Youngjoon; Lee, Youngcheol; Jeong, I. K.; Kim, Hyunjun; Kim, Youngsoo; Yun, Sungwon; Moon, Keehwan; Chung, Whansam

    2013-06-01

    Ο Major issues surrounding nuclear are including suspicions about nuclear safety, spent-fuel management, acquiring the advanced R and D capabilities and making the nuclear a creative industry Ο Solid measures for securing safety should be formulated and implemented for reducing public anxiety of nuclear use Ο The long-term R and D performance system from a scientific perspective should be established for expanding Research and Development for safer use of nuclear Ο The spent-fuel management policy should be determined through publicizing process Ο Establishing small and medium enterprises-oriented supply system of reactors and SMRs and Encouraging the radiation fusion technology industrialization for promoting creative industry utilizing nuclear

  10. Ethical issues related to caring for low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Mary S; Passmore, Denise; Cline, Genieveve; Maguire, Denise

    2014-09-01

    Currently preterm births are the leading causes of newborn deaths and newborn mortality in developed countries. Infants born prematurely remain vulnerable to many acute complications and long-term disabilities. There is a growing concern surrounding the moral and ethical implications of the complex and technological care being provided to extremely low birth weight infants in neonatal intensive care units in the developed nations. The purpose of this study was to describe the ethical and moral issues that neonatal intensive care nurses experience when caring for low birth weight preterm infants and their families. A phenomenological method design was used to describe the lived experiences of nurses with ethical and moral issues encountered in the neonatal intensive care unit. One-on-one, semi-structured interviews using open-ended questions were used to gather data from the participants. The setting for this study was a 97-bed neonatal intensive care. A total of 16 female nurses were interviewed. Approval to conduct the research study was obtained from the institutional review board of the hospital where the study was conducted. Formal signed consent was obtained from each participant. To ensure confidentiality, each participant was asked to choose a confederate name to be used in the interview and the transcriptions. The thematic analysis identified five recurring themes: (a) at the edge of viability, (b) infant pain and discomfort, (c) crucial decisions, (d) communicating with parents, and (e) letting go. Neonatal intensive care unit nurses indicated that they often had challenges to their own sense of morality as they struggled to protect the infant from pain and unnecessary discomfort, provide care to an infant and their family whom they thought was faced with a lifetime of challenges and poor health, accepting decisions made by parents, and feeling as if parents were not adequately informed about outcomes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Revised classification/nomenclature of vitiligo and related issues: the Vitiligo Global Issues Consensus Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzedine, K; Lim, H W; Suzuki, T; Katayama, I; Hamzavi, I; Lan, C C E; Goh, B K; Anbar, T; Silva de Castro, C; Lee, A Y; Parsad, D; van Geel, N; Le Poole, I C; Oiso, N; Benzekri, L; Spritz, R; Gauthier, Y; Hann, S K; Picardo, M; Taieb, A

    2012-05-01

    During the 2011 International Pigment Cell Conference (IPCC), the Vitiligo European Taskforce (VETF) convened a consensus conference on issues of global importance for vitiligo clinical research. As suggested by an international panel of experts, the conference focused on four topics: classification and nomenclature; definition of stable disease; definition of Koebner's phenomenon (KP); and 'autoimmune vitiligo'. These topics were discussed in seven working groups representing different geographical regions. A consensus emerged that segmental vitiligo be classified separately from all other forms of vitiligo and that the term 'vitiligo' be used as an umbrella term for all non-segmental forms of vitiligo, including 'mixed vitiligo' in which segmental and non-segmental vitiligo are combined and which is considered a subgroup of vitiligo. Further, the conference recommends that disease stability be best assessed based on the stability of individual lesions rather than the overall stability of the disease as the latter is difficult to define precisely and reliably. The conference also endorsed the classification of KP for vitiligo as proposed by the VETF (history based, clinical observation based, or experimentally induced). Lastly, the conference agreed that 'autoimmune vitiligo' should not be used as a separate classification as published evidence indicates that the pathophysiology of all forms of vitiligo likely involves autoimmune or inflammatory mechanisms. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Revised classification/nomenclature of vitiligo and related issues: the Vitiligo Global Issues Consensus Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzedine, K.; Lim, H. W.; Suzuki, T.; Katayama, I.; Hamzavi, I.; Lan, C. C. E.; Goh, B. K.; Anbar, T.; de Castro, C. Silva; Lee, A. Y.; Parsad, D.; van Geel, N.; Le Poole, I. C.; Oiso, N.; Benzekri, L.; Spritz, R.; Gauthier, Y.; Hann, S. K.; Picardo, M.; Taieb, A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary During the 2011 International Pigment Cell Conference (IPCC), the Vitiligo European Taskforce (VETF) convened a consensus conference on issues of global importance for vitiligo clinical research. As suggested by an international panel of experts, the conference focused on four topics: classification and nomenclature; definition of stable disease; definition of Koebner’s phenomenon (KP); and ‘autoimmune vitiligo’. These topics were discussed in seven working groups representing different geographical regions. A consensus emerged that segmental vitiligo be classified separately from all other forms of vitiligo and that the term ‘vitiligo’ be used as an umbrella term for all non-segmental forms of vitiligo, including ‘mixed vitiligo’ in which segmental and non-segmental vitiligo are combined and which is considered a subgroup of vitiligo. Further, the conference recommends that disease stability be best assessed based on the stability of individual lesions rather than the overall stability of the disease as the latter is difficult to define precisely and reliably. The conference also endorsed the classification of KP for vitiligo as proposed by the VETF (history based, clinical observation based, or experimentally induced). Lastly, the conference agreed that ‘autoimmune vitiligo’ should not be used as a separate classification as published evidence indicates that the pathophysiology of all forms of vitiligo likely involves autoimmune or inflammatory mechanisms. PMID:22417114

  13. Resources for our Future. Key issues and best practices in resource efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weterings, R.; Bastein, T.; Tukker, A. [TNO, Delft (Netherlands); Rademaker, M.; De Ridder, M. [The Hague Centre for Strategic studies HCSS, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    This book provides an analysis of the issues surrounding international resources and inspiring accounts of industrial best practices. The book consists of two distinct parts. The first part of the book brings together the results of years of research into the geopolitical, economic and ecological dimensions of material scarcity and resource efficiency. Chapter 2 discusses the main challenges and constraints related to the use of energy resources, water and land, industrial and metallic minerals, construction minerals and biotic resources, including water use and ecosystem degradation. The chapter also addresses important linkages between these various resources. Chapter 3 describes the international trends that are shaping the geopolitics of natural resources and looks at the implications for Europe and the Netherlands. Chapter 4 presents a wide range of strategies by which governments, producers and consumers may contribute to the more sustainable use of natural resources. The second part of the book describes 21 inspiring best practices in resource efficiency in a variety of industrial sectors. Based on a series of interviews with industrial pioneers, these chapters relate their first-hand experiences in improving resource efficiency. These business cases demonstrate that innovation and entrepreneurship can result in substantial improvements in resource efficiency. Chapter 5 focuses on best practices in the built environment, where substantial amounts of energy and minerals are used. Chapter 6 presents four ambitious strategies to promote sustainable food production and consumption. Chapter 7 describes recent developments in the chemical process industry, which produces most of the ingredients, compounds and semi-products for the vast range of products used by society. Chapter 8 provides four examples of the state-of-the-art in resource efficiency in the metal and high-tech industries. This chapter presents four business cases highlighting the benefits of the

  14. Safety issues to be taken into account in designing future nuclear fusion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrault, Didier, E-mail: didier.perrault@irsn.fr

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Assess if decay heat removal is a safety function. • Re-study accidents considered for ITER and identify those specific to DEMO. • Limit tritium inventory and optimize main gaseous tritium release routes. • Take into account constraints related to requirements of waste disposal routes. - Abstract: For several years now, the French “Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire” has been carrying out expertise of ITER fusion facility safety files at the request of the French “Autorité de Sûreté Nucléaire”. As part of the lengthy process which should lead to mastering nuclear fusion, different fusion facility projects are currently under study throughout the world to be ready to continue building on the work which will take place in the ITER facility. On the basis of the experience acquired during the ITER safety expertise, the IRSN has carried out a preliminary study of the safety issues which seem necessary to take into account right from the earliest design phase of these DEMO facilities. The issues studied have included the decay heat removal, exposure to ionizing radiation, potential accidents, and effluent releases and waste. The study shows that it will be important to give priority to the following actions, given that their results would have a major influence on the design: assess if decay heat removal is a safety function, re-study the accidents considered in the context of the ITER project and identify those specific to DEMO, and optimize each of the main routes for gaseous tritium releases.

  15. Trade-related Electronic Commerce Issues in the OECD

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-In Yoon

    1998-01-01

    The trade committee of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has begun the study of the trade related to electronic commerce since 1997. The scale of the study on one hand has avoided the fact of copy and duplication of WTO and its organizational principles, on the other hand it has played a supplementary and supportive function. At present, digital-related product, such as computers, software and travel is the key point to the trade which resorts to electronic commerce...

  16. Current Issues in the Neurology and Genetics of Learning-Related Traits and Disorders: Introduction to the Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilger, Jeffrey W.

    2001-01-01

    This introductory article briefly describes each of the following eight articles in this special issue on the neurology and genetics of learning related disorders. It notes the greater appreciation of learning disability as a set of complex disorders with broad and intricate neurological bases and of the large individual differences in how these…

  17. Invited review: gender issues related to spaceflight: a NASA perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harm, D. L.; Jennings, R. T.; Meck, J. V.; Powell, M. R.; Putcha, L.; Sams, C. P.; Schneider, S. M.; Shackelford, L. C.; Smith, S. M.; Whitson, P. A.

    2001-01-01

    This minireview provides an overview of known and potential gender differences in physiological responses to spaceflight. The paper covers cardiovascular and exercise physiology, barophysiology and decompression sickness, renal stone risk, immunology, neurovestibular and sensorimotor function, nutrition, pharmacotherapeutics, and reproduction. Potential health and functional impacts associated with the various physiological changes during spaceflight are discussed, and areas needing additional research are highlighted. Historically, studies of physiological responses to microgravity have not been aimed at examining gender-specific differences in the astronaut population. Insufficient data exist in most of the discipline areas at this time to draw valid conclusions about gender-specific differences in astronauts, in part due to the small ratio of women to men. The only astronaut health issue for which a large enough data set exists to allow valid conclusions to be drawn about gender differences is orthostatic intolerance following shuttle missions, in which women have a significantly higher incidence of presyncope during stand tests than do men. The most common observation across disciplines is that individual differences in physiological responses within genders are usually as large as, or larger than, differences between genders. Individual characteristics usually outweigh gender differences per se.

  18. A Survey of Solver-Related Geometry and Meshing Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, James; Daniel, Derick; Gudenkauf, Jared; Hine, David; Sideroff, Chris

    2016-01-01

    There is a concern in the computational fluid dynamics community that mesh generation is a significant bottleneck in the CFD workflow. This is one of several papers that will help set the stage for a moderated panel discussion addressing this issue. Although certain general "rules of thumb" and a priori mesh metrics can be used to ensure that some base level of mesh quality is achieved, inadequate consideration is often given to the type of solver or particular flow regime on which the mesh will be utilized. This paper explores how an analyst may want to think differently about a mesh based on considerations such as if a flow is compressible vs. incompressible or hypersonic vs. subsonic or if the solver is node-centered vs. cell-centered. This paper is a high-level investigation intended to provide general insight into how considering the nature of the solver or flow when performing mesh generation has the potential to increase the accuracy and/or robustness of the solution and drive the mesh generation process to a state where it is no longer a hindrance to the analysis process.

  19. Legal issues related to adolescent pregnancy: current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, A M

    1986-09-01

    Adolescent pregnancies have risen in recent years. Options open to the pregnant adolescent are: terminating the pregnancy; giving birth to the child out of wedlock; keeping the baby; giving the baby up for adoption; and marriage before or after the birth of the baby. Each of these options carries certain legal ramifications, since the adolescent patients have not reached the age of majority. The state or the parents usually assume the role of decision making on behalf of the adolescent or assist in the decision making process. Court rulings since the early seventies have legalized abortion and enlarged the rights of minors seeking termination of their pregnancies. Both parents and minors have rights under the certain state laws; parent have the right to notification, minors have the right to privacy. Keeping the child, out of wedlock, might result in legal battles over custody and/or establishing financial support from the father. Some adolescent mothers give up their children for adoption. There are 2 legal procedures that have to be accomplished before a child can be adopted: termination of the rights of the natural parents and adoption proceedings. If the parents marry after the birth of the child, the child is then considered legitimate and the father does not have to go through the process of adopting the child. Other issues requiring parental or individual consent include consent to treatment, contraception, or sterilization. In the case of forcible rape or incest, the physician is required to report incidents to law enforcement officials.

  20. Dynamic Relation Mechanism between Cotton Future Price and Stock Price of Related Listed Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Dynamic relation mechanism between ZCE cotton futures price and related listed company stock price has been studied based on the metastock historical data in January 1st,2007 to September 1st,2010,Johansen co-integration analysis,Vector error correction model,Granger causality test and variance decomposition method.The results indicated that:long-term equilibrium relationship existed between ZCE cotton futures price and Xinsai share stock price while which changed in the same tendency and speed in the long-term.Cotton futures price is the main reason for the changing of Xinsai share stock price.The lead-lag relationship in changing course had been confirmed that existed between ZCE cotton futures price and the Xinsai share stock price.Meanwhile,the forward pass mechanism of price changing information had been found only from the ZCE cotton futures market to the stock market while showing asymmetry.Conclusions of the study can be used for cotton and related corporate to hedge business risks by the cotton price changes.

  1. Ethical issues related to biomonitoring studies on children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Merlo, Domenico Franco; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2007-01-01

    Human biomonitoring is a promising tool for assessing environmental exposure and its potential relation with biomarkers, diseases and/or disorders in humans including children. Research with children is essential; however, if the research questions can be resolved by recruitment of adults it is n...

  2. Fuzzy Relational Databases: Representational Issues and Reduction Using Similarity Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prade, Henri; Testemale, Claudette

    1987-01-01

    Compares and expands upon two approaches to dealing with fuzzy relational databases. The proposed similarity measure is based on a fuzzy Hausdorff distance and estimates the mismatch between two possibility distributions using a reduction process. The consequences of the reduction process on query evaluation are studied. (Author/EM)

  3. Cognitive determinants of energy balance-related behaviours : measurement issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremers, Stef P J; Visscher, Tommy L S; Seidell, Jacob C; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    The burden of disease as a result of overweight and obesity calls for in-depth examination of the main causes of behavioural actions responsible for weight gain. Since weight gain is the result of a positive energy balance, these behavioural actions are referred to as 'energy balance-related

  4. American intergovernmental relations: foundations, perspectives, and issues, 5th ed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Toole, Laurence J.; Christensen, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    With the addition of brand new co-editor, Robert Christensen, this trusted reader is back in a fresh and insightful fifth edition. To the general structure that has made American Intergovernmental Relations so enduring, the editors have added a new section that incorporates the importance of law and

  5. Editorial : Introduction to Energy Strategy Reviews theme issueFuture Energy Systems and Market Integration of Wind Power”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lund, H.; Weijermars, R.

    2013-01-01

    Energy Strategy Reviews (ESR) provides a peer-reviewed publication platformto evaluate strategy options for tomorrow’s energy systems. The focus in this special issue is on “Future Energy Systems and Market Integration of Wind Power” and possible solutions are highlighted from the strategy viewpoint

  6. Stakeholders' perspective on issues and challenges associated with care and treatment of aging-related cognitive impairment disorders in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Monika; Islam, Amina M; Thompson, James P; Matchar, David B

    2011-11-01

    An expanding elderly population poses challenges for the provision of care and treatment for age-related physical and mental disorders. Cognitive impairment (CI)/dementia is one such mental disorder that is on the rise in Singapore and has concomitant implications for social and health systems. The objective of this study is to understand the perspectives of prominent stakeholders about current and future issues and challenges associated with CI/dementia among the elderly in Singapore. Using indepth interviews, this qualitative study obtained the views of multiple stakeholders on issues and challenges associated with CI/dementia in Singapore. The 30 individuals interviewed as part of the study included clinicians, policy-makers, researchers, community workers, administrators, and caregivers. Using a framework approach, interview texts were indexed into domains and issues by utilizing NVivo 9.0 software. The stakeholders expressed concerns related to multiple domains of the CI/dementia care system: attitude and awareness, economics, education, family caregiving, inputs to care system, living arrangements, prevention, screening and diagnosis, and treatment and management of care. Within each domain, multiple issues and challenges were identified by respondents. The study identifies a complex set of inter-related issues and challenges that are associated with the care and treatment of people with CI/dementia. The results suggest that CI and dementia profoundly affect patients, families, and communities and that the issues related to the two disorders are truly system-wide. These findings lay the foundation for utilization of a systems approach to studying CI/dementia and provide an analytic framework for future research on complex health care issues.

  7. Quality of life issues relating to endocrine treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1999-01-01

    Recent interest has focused on the use of hormone therapy in prostate cancer for both the management of patients with non-metastatic disease and as a neoadjuvant or adjuvant to curative therapies. This has resulted in patients with fewer symptoms being treated for longer periods of time. Endocrine...... treatments for prostate cancer, such as castration, combined androgen blockade and non-steroidal antiandrogen monotherapy, have shown similar results in terms of time to progression and survival. The main difference between these treatments is their impact on patients' quality of life. Instruments...... for measuring health-related quality of life should assess both overall and disease-specific quality of life. Data from two large studies of bicalutamide monotherapy show that this non-steroidal antiandrogen is associated with significant health-related quality of life advantages in the treatment of patients...

  8. Environmental risks of HBCDD from construction and demolition waste: a contemporary and future issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Yang, Ziliang; Fang, Yanyan; Yang, Yufei; Tang, Zhenwu; Wang, Xingrun; Die, Qingqi; Gao, Xingbao; Zhang, Fengsong; Wang, Qi; Huang, Qifei

    2015-11-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), as one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants (BFRs), is of great concern globally because of its persistence in the environment and negative impacts on humans and animals. HBCDD has been mainly used in flame-retarded expanded (EPS) and extruded (XPS) polystyrene foams for insulation in the construction industry. Most of these products will become a part of the construction and demolition (C&D) waste at the end of their life cycle (30-50 years) which is typically disposed of into landfills or incineration. However, the recycling of this material takes quite a low share compared with landfill and incineration. Consequently, high environmental risks will exist in these disposal approaches due to the HBCDD in C&D waste. Currently, XPS or EPS products containing HBCDD in the construction industry have not reached the end of their life cycle in most countries. Relatively little attention has been paid to this emergency issue by either the government or public. Furthermore, C&D waste is most likely disposed of by direct dumping, simple stacking, or open burning in developing countries. Therefore, this paper highlights the global environmental risks of HBCDD from C&D waste. Areas of research for key problems of HBCDD contained in C&D waste are suggested to help control and finally eliminate the impact.

  9. Global hydrobelts: improved reporting scale for water-related issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meybeck, M.; Kummu, M.; Dürr, H. H.

    2012-08-01

    Questions related to water such as its availability, water needs or stress, or management, are mapped at various resolutions at the global scale. They are reported at many scales, mostly along political or continental boundaries. As such, they ignore the fundamental heterogeneity of the hydroclimate and the natural boundaries of the river basins. Here, we describe the continental landmasses according to eight global-scale hydrobelts strictly limited by river basins, defined at a 30' (0.5°) resolution. The belts were defined and delineated, based primarily on the annual average temperature (T) and runoff (q), to maximise interbelt differences and minimise intrabelt variability. The belts were further divided into 29 hydroregions based on continental limits. This new global puzzle defines homogeneous and near-contiguous entities with similar hydrological and thermal regimes, glacial and postglacial basin histories, endorheism distribution and sensitivity to climate variations. The Mid-Latitude, Dry and Subtropical belts have northern and southern analogues and a general symmetry can be observed for T and q between them. The Boreal and Equatorial belts are unique. The hydroregions (median size 4.7 Mkm2) contrast strongly, with the average q ranging between 6 and 1393 mm yr-1 and the average T between -9.7 and +26.3 °C. Unlike the hydroclimate, the population density between the North and South belts and between the continents varies greatly, resulting in pronounced differences between the belts with analogues in both hemispheres. The population density ranges from 0.7 to 0.8 p km-2 for the North American Boreal and some Australian hydroregions to 280 p km-2 for the Asian part of the Northern Mid-Latitude belt. The combination of population densities and hydroclimate features results in very specific expressions of water-related characteristics in each of the 29 hydroregions. Our initial tests suggest that hydrobelt and hydroregion divisions are often more

  10. Review: Groundwater resources and related environmental issues in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Aibing; Zhang, Yilong; Zhang, Eryong; Li, Zhenghong; Yu, Juan; Wang, Huang; Yang, Jianfeng; Wang, Yao

    2018-05-01

    As an important component of water resources, groundwater plays a crucial role in water utilization in China and an irreplaceable role in supporting economic and social development, especially in the northern arid and semi-arid plains and basin areas, which are densely populated and relatively short of surface-water resources. This paper comprehensively reviews and discusses the regional hydrogeological conditions, the temporal and spatial distribution of groundwater, the groundwater quality, and the actuality of groundwater exploitation and utilization in China. Meanwhile, aiming at the environmental problems induced by overexploitation to meet the sharply increasing water demand, this paper puts forward the major tasks for the next few years in terms of groundwater exploitation control, conservation and management.

  11. Main safety issues related to IPSN severe accident research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeComte, C.

    1991-01-01

    The work performed at IPSN concerning accident studies on nuclear installations is focused on the characterization of accidental sequences with three major aims: prevention, mitigation, and organization of counter-measures. As criteria to optimize all efforts made to improve nuclear safety, the radioactive dispersal in the environment must be quantified as function of internal and external radioactive products transfers. During the short-term phase of the accident, potential radioactive releases can be evaluated by the realistic code system ESCADRE. This system is validated by numerous analytical studies related to containment and fission product behavior. It will be further qualified by the results of the global experiments performed in the PHEBUS FP facility at IPSN

  12. Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noridin, J. S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L. W.; James, R.; Berdan, G.

    1987-09-01

    The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  13. Some issues related to evidence-based implantology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar E Carlsson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews relevant dental literature to answer some frequent questions related to evidence-based implantology. There are hundreds of implant systems on the market, but the majority lack clinical documentation. Recommended number of implants for full-arch fixed prostheses is four or five in the mandible but at least six in the maxilla. Less expensive implant-retained overdentures make implant treatment available to a greater portion of edentulous subjects. Mandibular overdentures on two implants, and even one implant, have shown excellent long-term outcomes. In the maxilla, less than four implants are not recommended for good results. Single implant restorations have good prognosis, but placement of the implant should be postponed until adulthood. Osseointegrated implants have revolutionized clinical dentistry. However, in a global perspective, implants make up only a small part of all prosthodontic treatment. Knowledge and skill in conventional prosthodontics must be maintained as it will remain the most common part of the specialty.

  14. Results from levels 2/3 fusion implementations: issues, challenges, retrospectives, and perspectives for the future an annotated perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadar, Ivan; Bosse, Eloi; Salerno, John; Lambert, Dale A.; Das, Subrata; Ruspini, Enrique H.; Rhodes, Bradley J.; Biermann, Joachim

    2008-04-01

    Even though the definition of the Joint Director of Laboratories (JDL) "fusion levels" were established in 1987, published 1991, revised in 1999 and 2004, the meaning, effects, control and optimization of interactions among the fusion levels have not as yet been fully explored and understood. Specifically, this is apparent from the abstract JDL definitions of "Levels 2/3 Fusion" - situation and threat assessment (SA/TA), which involve deriving relations among entities, e.g., the aggregation of object states (i.e., classification and location) in SA, while TA uses SA products to estimate/predict the impact of actions/interactions effects on situations taken by the participant entities involved. Given all the existing knowledge in the information fusion and human factors literature, (both prior to and after the introduction of "fusion levels" in 1987) there are still open questions remaining in regard to implementation of knowledge representation and reasoning methods under uncertainty to afford SA/TA. Therefore, to promote exchange of ideas and to illuminate the historical, current and future issues associated with Levels 2/3 implementations, leading experts were invited to present their respective views on various facets of this complex problem. This paper is a retrospective annotated view of the invited panel discussion organized by Ivan Kadar (first author), supported by John Salerno, in order to provide both a historical perspective of the evolution of the state-of-the-art (SOA) in higher-level "Levels 2/3" information fusion implementations by looking back over the past ten or more years (before JDL), and based upon the lessons learned to forecast where focus should be placed to further enhance and advance the SOA by addressing key issues and challenges. In order to convey the panel discussion to audiences not present at the panel, annotated position papers summarizing the panel presentation are included.

  15. Sleep-related Issues for Recovery and Performance in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölling, Sarah; Duffield, Rob; Erlacher, Daniel; Venter, Ranel; Halson, Shona L

    2018-04-13

    The body of research that reports the relevance of sleep in high-performance sports is growing steadily. While the identification of sleep cycles and diagnosis of sleep disorders is limited to lab-based assessment via polysomnography, the development of activity-based devices estimating sleep patterns provides greater insight into the sleep behaviour of athletes in ecological settings. Overall, small sleep quantity and/or poor quality appears to exist in many athletic populations, though this may be related to training and competition context. Typical sleep-affecting factors are the scheduling of training sessions and competitions as well as impaired sleep-onset as a result of increased arousal prior to competition or due to the use of electronic devices before bedtime. Further challenges are travel demands which may be accompanied by jet-lag symptoms and disruption of sleep habits. Promotion of sleep may be approached via behavioural strategies, such as sleep hygiene, extending night-time sleep or daytime napping. Pharmacological interventions should be limited to clinically-induced treatments as evidence among healthy and athletic populations is lacking. To optimise and manage sleep in athletes, it is recommended to implement routine sleep monitoring on an individual basis.

  16. Modernism and Postmodernism: A Study of the Islamic Teachings with Special Reference to the Related Issues of Pakistani Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Abdul Muhaimin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study elaborates the difference and connection between modernism and postmodernism eras while highlighting their backgrounds. The research highlights the teachings of Islam in terms of modernism and postmodernism. The research brings to light the influence of modernism and postmodernism on Muslim societies. What are the far reaching impacts of the modernism and postmodernism eras of Muslim societies and how well a common Muslim is equipped to address the issues related to postmodernism. The study primarily focuses on the related issues in Pakistani society and explains the role and the influence of religious scholars of their understanding of the terms modernism and postmodernism. The study focuses on the awareness of the ’Ulamā in addressing these global challenges and subsequently the future of Pakistani society. The study has an element of quantitative research and it indicates towards the on ground realities on the issue with the help of a latest survey on modernism and postmodernism.

  17. Fuel design and operational experience in Loviisa NPP, future trends in fuel issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasvirta, R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes the past operational experience of nuclear fuel with reference to most significant design changes during the years. In general, the fuel behaviour in Loviisa NPP in terms of leaking fuel assemblies has been good. The major improvements by fuel design changes in Lovissa NPP, including rod elongation margin, change in the pellet design and manufacturing process, upper grid modifications, change of material in the spacer grids and reduction of the shroud tube thickness are discussed and related to the number of failed fuel assemblies. The detailed investigation of fuel failure rates as function of different fuel and operation characteristics allows to classify the leaking fuel assemblies according to the cause of failure. In a brief discussion concerning new changes in the safety guide for nuclear design limits, re-issued by the Finnish Safety Authority (STUK), the frequencies for class 1 and class 2 accidents are determined. Another change in this guide is the introduction of design limits for the number of fuel rods experiencing DNB in class 1 accidents and number of failed rods in class 2 accidents. It is concluded that as far as normal operation is concerned, there seems to be sufficiently large margin between present operational limits in Loviisa and the design limits. The real limits do not come from fuel behaviour in the normal operation or operational occurrences but from the accident behaviour. At the moment, fuel assembly burnup extension beyond 45 MWd/kgU is clearly out of the question before further information and positive results are obtained on high burnup fuel behaviour in accident conditions

  18. New Generation Discovery: A Systematic View for Its Development, Issues and Future

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Yi; Ali, Haider

    2012-01-01

    and interaction with the internet, the rapidly changing digital environment, and the elements and the chain of library services. To address above issues, this paper overviews the different versions of the definition for the new generation discovery by combining

  19. Policy issues facing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and prospects for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, J.

    1999-01-01

    This report is divided into the following 5 sections: (1) Background; (2) Major Issues Facing Ratification of CTBT; (3) Current Status on CTBT Ratification; (4) Status of CTBT Signatories and Ratifiers; and (5) CTBT Activities Not Prohibited. The major issues facing ratification of CTBT discussed here are: impact on CTBT of START II and ABM ratification; impact of India and Pakistan nuclear tests; CTBT entry into force; and establishment of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization

  20. Key issues of the common French-German safety approach for future PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, W.; Rohde, J.; Gros, G.; Queniart, D.

    1996-01-01

    The general common safety approach issued in May 1993 contains safety objectives, general principles and already some technical principles. Based on general safety approach, detailed recommendations have been developed in 1994 on key issues such as: system design and use of PSA; integrity of the primary circuit; external hazards; severe accidents and containment design; radiological consequences of reference accidents and low pressure core melt accidents. A selection of the detailed recommendations is presented in the full paper. (author)

  1. Policy issues facing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and prospects for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, J.

    1999-04-01

    This report is divided into the following 5 sections: (1) Background; (2) Major Issues Facing Ratification of CTBT; (3) Current Status on CTBT Ratification; (4) Status of CTBT Signatories and Ratifiers; and (5) CTBT Activities Not Prohibited. The major issues facing ratification of CTBT discussed here are: impact on CTBT of START II and ABM ratification; impact of India and Pakistan nuclear tests; CTBT entry into force; and establishment of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization.

  2. Mental health issues from rising sea level in a remote coastal region of the Solomon Islands: current and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asugeni, James; MacLaren, David; Massey, Peter D; Speare, Rick

    2015-12-01

    There is little published research about mental health and climate change in the Pacific, including Solomon Islands. Solomon Islands has one of the highest rates of sea-level rise globally. The aim of this research was to document mental health issues related to sea-level rise for people in East Malaita, Solomon Islands. A cross-sectional study was carried out in six low-lying villages in East Malaita, Solomon Islands. The researcher travelled to villages by dugout canoe. In addition to quantitative, closed-ended questions, open-ended questions with villagers explored individual and community responses to rising sea level. Of 60 people asked, 57 completed the questionnaire. Of these, 90% reported having seen a change in the weather patterns. Nearly all participants reported that sea-level rise is affecting them and their family and is causing fear and worry on a personal and community level. Four themes emerged from the qualitative analysis: experience of physical impacts of climate change; worry about the future; adaptation to climate change; government response needed. Given predictions of ongoing sea-level rise in the Pacific it is essential that more research is conducted to further understand the human impact of climate change for small island states which will inform local, provincial and national-level mental health responses. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  3. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Unique issues related to environmental claims... issues related to environmental claims. Claims for property damage, personal injury, or death arising in... reported by USARCS to the Environmental Law Division of the Army Litigation Center and the Environmental...

  4. PROGNOSTICAL COMPETENCE OF THE FUTURE TEACHERS-ACTORS: TO THE ISSUE OF THE CONCEPT DEFINITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viktorovna Tsalko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper on the basis of the notions of competence, forecasting, prognostical competence the author’s definition of future actors-teachers’ prognostical competence is developed. Under prognostic competence of future actors-teachers we understand a special competence that allows the subject, engaged in professional activities as a performer of roles in the theater (movies, TV, as well as performing teaching activities in the field of arts, to receive the necessary anticipatory information about the phenomenon under investigation (on performing roles in the theatre, films, and television, on the learning process and actors-teachers training. Components of prognostical competence as a type of competencies (cognitive, instrumental and operational and motivational-value are singled out. The feature of the future actor-teacher’s professional activities in the context of prognostical competence is viewed. It is the simultaneous solving the artistic-creative, organizational and teaching-upbringing problems.Purpose. The purpose of the paper is the definition of prognostical competence of future teachers-actors.Methodology. In the research the methods of theoretical level are used: comparison, analysis and synthesis, generalization, concretization; analytical methods; idealization and modeling.Result. The result of the research is the development of the author’s concept of «prognostical competence of the future teachers-actors».Practical implications. Application of the results: The results may be applied to the work of teachers-actors’ trainers as well as the researchers in Pedagogy.

  5. Proceedings of the workshop on future control station designs and human performance issues in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear community is currently at a stage where new reactors are being built, advanced reactors are being planned, and existing reactors are undergoing various forms of modernization of their control stations. Nuclear power plants are characterised by a high degree of complexity, where efficient and safe performance is dependent on both a sound technical design and effective teamwork and work practices. Team interactions have long traditions in current nuclear power plants. The way people operate and maintain the plants may need to accommodate technical advances associated with control station modernization and advanced plant control stations. The nuclear community likely to see the introduction of new designs, new tools to support the staff, changes to staffing types and levels, concepts of operation for new reactors that are different from current reactors, e.g., multi-unit control, possible remote operation, distributed decision making, and cooperation across distances. Based on recent experience, there is limited knowledge about human performance issues with regard to upgraded control rooms. However, even less knowledge exists regarding operation and maintenance of control stations for future and more advanced reactor designs. In order to explore these issues, the CSNI Special Experts' Group on Human and Organisational Factors (SEGHOF), now the Working Group on Human and Organizational Factors (WGHOF), and the Halden Reactor Project (HRP) hosted a joint workshop which provided an international forum for utilities, vendors, research bodies and regulators to discuss human performance issues related to control stations for future nuclear power plant designs and for modified control rooms for existing plants. The Norwegian petroleum industry also shared their experiences, especially with integrated and distributed operations among off-shore and on-shore control centres. There were 74 participants from 20 countries at the workshop. Twenty-two papers were

  6. Pathways to a Sustainable Future: A Curriculum Guide for Maine Schools Exploring Waste Management Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chewonki Foundation, Wiscasset, ME.

    This action guide is designed to help students and teachers become aware of the concepts and issues of waste management, and to motivate them to action in the classroom, school, home, and community. The guide emphasizes interdisciplinary activities that concentrate on the process of problem solving. Activities are identified by appropriate grade…

  7. Global Trends and Future Warfare (Strategic Insights. Special Issue, October 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    across the Indian Ocean and Asia-Pacific Regions     change” through the use of military force, under the rubric of “Responsibility to Protect.” The...rationalizations of their attacks. Consider, for example, this 11 August 2002 communiqué issued in response to the development of genetically modified organisms

  8. Future issues in transplantation ethics: ethical and legal controversies in xenotransplantation, stem cell, and cloning research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Robyn S

    2008-07-01

    With little prospect of developing a sufficient supply of human transplantable organs to meet the large and growing demand, attention has turned to xenotransplantation, as well as stem cell and cloning research, as possible approaches for alleviating this allograft shortage. This article explores ethical and legal issues that surround developments in these fields.

  9. Can the Stock Market Anticipate Future Operating Performance? Evidence from Equity Rights Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul; Roosenboom, Peter

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines whether the stock market valuation impact is consistent with subsequent operating performance of firms. We use data for equity rights offerings - the widely adopted flotation method in the Netherlands. We first examine the stock market announcement effect of rights issues and

  10. Theory and History, Questions and Methodology: Current and Future Issues in Research into ICT in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Anne; Jones, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Serious criticisms of research in information and communications technology (ICT) in education have been published recently in both the UK and the USA. This paper addresses several issues raised in these commentaries: a lack of sound theoretical underpinnings to our research, persistent neglect of the history of our sub-discipline, the choice of…

  11. Future Time Perspective Impacts Gain-Related but Not Loss-Related Intertemporal Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tian; Tan, Yuxin; Gong, Xianmin; Yin, Shufei; Qiu, Fangshu; Hu, Xue

    2018-01-01

    Future time perspective (FTP) modulates individuals' temporal orientation in selecting their motivations and goals, which widely influences their cognitions and behaviors. However, it remains unclear how FTP exactly affects intertemporal choice. To clarify the effect of FTP on intertemporal choice, 90 college students ( M age = 21.70, SD = 1.23) were randomly assigned to the limited FTP condition (16 males, 29 females) and the open-ended FTP condition (17 males, 28 females). In the limited FTP condition, participants were instructed to imagine their states of being 70 years old, whereas in the open-ended FTP condition, they were instructed to describe their current states. All participants then completed a series of intertemporal choice tasks, in which they chose from gain- and loss-related choices occurring at various time points. Results showed that the participants who received the future-imagining manipulation had more limited FTP compared with those who did not receive the manipulation, which confirmed the validity of the FTP manipulation. A 2 (FTP: limited vs. open-ended) × 2 (type of choice: gain vs. loss) repeated measures ANOVA on discount rate revealed a significant interaction between these two factors. The participants in the limited FTP condition had higher discount rates on gain-related choices but showed no difference on loss-related choices compared with the participants under the open-ended FTP condition. The results suggest that limited FTP could lower individuals' future orientation (i.e., willingness to delay an outcome) on gain-related, but not on loss-related, intertemporal decision-making.

  12. The Asilomar Survey: Stakeholders' Opinions on Ethical Issues Related to Brain-Computer Interfacing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Femke; Clausen, Jens; Allison, Brendan Z.; Haselager, Pim

    2013-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) research and (future) applications raise important ethical issues that need to be addressed to promote societal acceptance and adequate policies. Here we report on a survey we conducted among 145 BCI researchers at the 4th International BCI conference, which took place

  13. The Asilomar Survey: Stakeholders’ Opinions on Ethical Issues Related to Brain-Computer Interfacing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, F.; Clausen, J.; Allison, B.Z.; Haselager, W.F.G.

    2013-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) research and (future) applications raise important ethical issues that need to be addressed to promote societal acceptance and adequate policies. Here we report on a survey we conducted among 145 BCI researchers at the 4th International BCI conference, which took place

  14. Future Public Policy and Ethical Issues Facing the Agricultural and Microbial Genomics Sectors of the Biotechnology Industry: A Roundtable Discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diane E. Hoffmann

    2003-09-12

    On September 12, 2003, the University of Maryland School of Law's Intellectual Property and Law & Health Care Programs jointly sponsored and convened a roundtable discussion on the future public policy and ethical issues that will likely face the agricultural and microbial genomics sectors of the biotechnology industry. As this industry has developed over the last two decades, societal concerns have moved from what were often local issues, e.g., the safety of laboratories where scientists conducted recombinant DNA research on transgenic microbes, animals and crops, to more global issues. These newer issues include intellectual property, international trade, risks of genetically engineered foods and microbes, bioterrorism, and marketing and labeling of new products sold worldwide. The fast paced nature of the biotechnology industry and its new developments often mean that legislators, regulators and society, in general, must play ''catch up'' in their efforts to understand the issues, the risks, and even the benefits, that may result from the industry's new ways of conducting research, new products, and novel methods of product marketing and distribution. The goal of the roundtable was to develop a short list of the most significant public policy and ethical issues that will emerge as a result of advances in these sectors of the biotechnology industry over the next five to six years. More concretely, by ''most significant'' the conveners meant the types of issues that would come to the attention of members of Congress or state legislators during this time frame and for which they would be better prepared if they had well researched and timely background information. A concomitant goal was to provide a set of focused issues for academic debate and scholarship so that policy makers, industry leaders and regulators would have the intellectual resources they need to better understand the issues and concerns at stake. The

  15. Regulatory compliance issues related to the White Oak Creek Embayment time-critical removal action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, M.; Kimmel, B.L.

    1992-01-01

    In September 1990, Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems) discovered high levels of Cesium-137 present in surface sediments at the mouth of White Oak Creek (WOC) Embayment. WOC receives the majority of surface water drainage from Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Following this discovery, the Department of Energy (DOE) and Energy Systems pursued stabilizing sediment migration under provisions of the National Contingency Plan (NCP) Section 300.400 et. seq. as a time-critical removal action. However, significant uncertainty exists concerning the applicability of NCP procedural requirements designed for conducting US EPA-led, Superfund-financed response actions, because NCP Subpart K dealing with response actions at federal facilities has not been promulgated. In addition, relatively new guidance exists from DOE concerning National Environmental Policy Act documentation requirements for categorical exclusions associated with conducting removal actions at DOE facilities. A proactive approach was taken to identify issues and involve appropriate state and federal regulatory agencies. This approach required achieving consensus among all involved parties and identification of all applicable or relevant and appropriate regulatory requirements related to the removal action. As a result, this project forms a framework for conducting future time-critical removal actions at federal facilities

  16. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: historical, ethical, and legal issues associated with prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiman, Beth; Pillai, Aiswarya Lekshmi Pillai Chandran; Benghiac, Ana Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The long-term effects of many drugs are unknown. Established risks are communicated to patients who participate in clinical trials during the informed consent process. However, unknown and unanticipated side effects of medications may occur years after treatment. Patients with metastatic bone cancer experience an imbalance between tumor cells and the bone marrow microenvironment. Increased cytokine release, osteoclastic activity, and uncoupled osteoblastic activity lead to weakened bone structure and osteolytic lesions. The bisphosphonates are a class of drugs available in IV and oral formulations to treat and prevent bone loss and decrease the risk of skeletal-related events. Intravenous bisphosphonates such as zoledronic acid and pamidronate disodium are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of bone pain and hypercalcemia of malignancy and the prevention of painful bone fractures in patients with metastatic bone cancer. Oral bisphosphonates such as alendronate, risedronate, and etidronate are used to reduce the risk of skeletal fractures in patients with osteoporosis and in breast cancer. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a rare but painful complication of treatment characterized by infection, exposed bone, and poor wound healing. In this article, we discuss BRONJ and identify past, present, and future ethical and legal issues surrounding bisphosphonate administration.

  17. GRS/ISTec strategy for the treatment of gas-related issues for repositories located in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller-Lyda, I.; Javeri, V.; Muller, W.

    2001-01-01

    The treatment of gas-related issues for repositories located in rock salt by GRS and ISTec has followed a strategy which has been developed with increasing complexity and degree of detail in the past. The strategy today clearly indicates the direction to establish a comprehensive safety case and the work that remains to be done. For gas generation mainly long-term aspects are an issue to increase accuracy of predictions. Physical modelling especially for HLW is still incomplete with regard to the coupling of fluid flow with geomechanics, solution/precipitation effects and geochemistry. The appropriate tools to transform the physical models into numerical solutions are at hand in principle but have to be further developed collaterally to the physical modelling. The first full-scale demonstration of safety regarding gas issues in rock salt will have to be provided for the licensing of the Morsleben repository shut-down in the near future. (authors)

  18. A Framework for Guiding Future Citizens to Think Critically about Nature of Science and Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoubian, Hagop A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I introduce a framework for guiding future citizens to think critically about nature of science (NOS) and "with" NOS as they engage in socioscientific decision making. The framework, referred to as the critical thinking--nature of science (CT-NOS) framework, explicates and targets both NOS as a learning objective and NOS…

  19. Petroleum product pricing in Asian developing countries: Lessons from the past and future issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper looks at the pricing of petroleum products in ten Asian developing countries using a data series for 1973--1992. Prices of petroleum products are compared with international prices. Differential prices are measured with respect to diesel prices. It is found that energy prices are used as instruments for revenue earnings. Pricing policies vary widely among countries and neighbors have different fuel prices. Countries try to align the local prices of petroleum products in line with international prices but with a lag of 1--2 years. The wave of liberalization and privatization is sweeping many developing countries. Additionally, environmental issues are gaining importance even in developing countries. The paper also discusses these emerging issues that need to be taken into account in the petroleum product pricing

  20. Participant priorities for future market development : IMO public consultation report : issue 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    As part of the Independent Electricity Market Operator's (IMO) consultation process on market development priorities, a workshop was held in January 2002 to put forward several market design issues. The 112 delegates included market participants and other stakeholders representing consumers, environmental interest groups and the financial community. The nine main market design issues that need to be addressed over the next several years are: (1) the energy forward market, (2) the capacity reserve market, (3) location marginal pricing, (4) a capability for full assignment of physical bilateral contracts, (5) the export of operating reserve, (6) moving to real time bidding, (7) encouraging dispatchability and demand side responsiveness, (8) transmission expansion, and (9) introducing markets in ancillary services. Sections of the market rules have been deferred to after market opening, and several market development obligations have been placed on the IMO, such as recommendations on the need for location pricing and its implementation timetable. It is expected that significant resources, such as staff, will be required to ensure a smooth opening of the electricity market. It is also noted that US initiatives will affect the IMO's business environment. Prior to the workshop, the participants were asked to rank the nine potential priority issues. The rankings are included in the appendix. Results indicate that location marginal pricing ranks as the first priority, followed by energy forwards market, and then the capacity reserves market. Transmission expansion ranked sixth overall. Harmonisation with the US Northeast was also mentioned in reference to the implementation of day ahead market, location marginal pricing and the implementation of capacity reserve markets. The next step in this IMO consultation process is the development of a work-plan for managing the issues over the medium term. 2 tabs., 1 fig., 4 appendices

  1. Toxicology of metals and metalloids: Promising issues for future studies in environmental health and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The function and behavior of chemical elements in ecosystems and in human health probably comprise one of the most studied issues and a theme of great interest and fascination in science. Hot topics are emerging on an annual basis in this field. Bearing this in mind, some promising themes to explore in the field of metals and metalloids in the environment and in toxicology are highlighted and briefly discussed herein.

  2. Future Money-Related Worries among Adolescents after Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerner, Susan Silverberg; Korn, Marcella; Dennison, Renee Peltz; Witthoft, Sara

    2011-01-01

    The present research examined adolescents' views of their future with respect to money and financial well-being via an open-ended question and inductive content analysis. The participants were adolescents (N = 255) whose parents were divorced between 5 and 24 months at the time of data collection. The most common worries pertained to (a) being…

  3. Future Directions in Research on Mathematics-Related Teacher Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutovac, Sonja; Kaasila, Raimo

    2018-01-01

    Mathematics education research has placed great emphasis on teacher identity, examining both pre- and in-service teachers, and within these cohorts, specialised mathematics teachers and non-specialists such as elementary teachers. Extensive research has already been done; hence, this paper discusses possible future directions for research on…

  4. Assessment of combustion and related issues in the DWPF and ITP waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsberg, T.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents a review of the safety analyses described in the DWPF Safety Analysis Report, the combustion analysis of the ITP Tanks 48 and 49, and presents conclusions drawn from interviews staff on issues related to accident analysis, in particular on issues related to combustion phenomena. The major objectives of this report are to clarify the issues related to the modes of combustion and expected loads on process vessels and structures and, in addition, to offer recommendations which would improve the defense-in-depth posture of the DWPF

  5. The future of nuclear energy in relation with climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautray, R.

    2001-01-01

    Electronuclear energy associated with hydrogen production can replace fossil fuels while emitting as few greenhouse gases as renewable energies. Besides waste management for which a solution has to be rapidly demonstrated, other key issues are to be examined to complete the demonstration of the viability of electronuclear energy. First, waste management and evolution of plutonium and its daughters must be considered together. A basic study has already been performed but what else to be done is huge and cannot be achieved in France (because of its geological and geographic features, because of the rural distribution of its population, etc.), except if a substantial and quite focused endeavour could bring concerned populations and workers, protection and confidence - which requires from the latter, represented by their elected representatives and thus by a public authority, that they work out 'a general protection and confidence criterion for concerned populations and workers'. The unique solution in order to protect public health from a potential major danger is to bury as soon as possible all of the ultimate waste products, keeping in mind all of the unfavourable factors such as residual power of these products, their mobility in the confining geological beds and then through aquifers. There are so many categories of waste products whose treatment requires different durations, that storing is necessary in order to make them compatible after sorting by means of chemical separation (called reprocessing). Among all of these potential risks, the present-day most serious one, by far, is that of plutonium and its daughters, which are the most potentially radio-toxic. The unique solution consists in a separation of plutonium (and its daughters), followed by its fissions until a rather complete reduction in a product able to be buried after dilution in a matrix (for example, vitrification). But that solution faces serious handicaps. The examination of waste products and

  6. Giftedness Counseling in Germany: Consultation Reasons and Issues and Their Relations to Gender, Age, and Aptitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannig, Nele; Koop, Christine

    2016-01-01

    In Germany, parents can request counseling and assessment of school-related learning and behavioral issues from either independent counseling centers or school-based ones. Focusing on giftedness consultations at independent counseling centers, the goal of this study is to provide a detailed description of the reasons for and the issues discussed…

  7. Some critical issues in special needs education as they relate to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines five critical issues in special education as they relate to visual impairment vis a vis mercy killing (euthanasia), gender, seclusion, castration and genetic engineering. Literature in the five stated issues was reviewed to provide an insight into these areas with particular reference to visual impairment.

  8. An Exploratory Study of Global Issues Impacting the Future of Tourism in Aruba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin S. Murphy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide competition, international foreign policy, changing demographics and the global environment emerged as primary concerns by participants in the think tanks on Visioning the Future of Aruba. The general goal of these forums was to identify and describe the forces driving change, competitive methods and core competencies that will impact the Aruban tourism industry in the next ten years. To achieve these objectives, thirty-five leaders of the Aruban tourism industry gathered for a series of think tank forums over a two year period. The results of the forums demonstrated that there is a distinct link between environmental forces and the impact that those forces have on tourism businesses located in Aruba. The tourism industry in Aruba is facing major challenges in a rapidly changing environment. Participants acknowledged the increasing difficulty associated with maintaining a competitive advantage in the tourism industry and asserted that it will be necessary to engage in creative new competitive methods as an investment in the future of Aruba. Specifically, the group agreed four future competitive methods were in need of development: ecologically responsible destination, sustainable development, safety & security, and sustainable growth & competitiveness.

  9. Climate change issues of Nepal: challenges and perspectives for future generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regmi, M.R.; Khanal, H.S.

    2009-01-01

    In Nepal Climate change has implications on reduction of snow pack on the mountains, water supply shortages, increase forest fires, increase in extreme weather, increase demand for irrigation, decreases power generation; wells dry up due to lower water table. Climate change seeks the two actions on the mitigation of greenhouse gases and adaptation to the climate change. This paper also describes the climate change issues of Nepal. In addition it deals with the potential threats of climate change to water Supply, agriculture and food security, temperature increase, run-off patterns, glacial melt and floods. (author)

  10. Russian-American relations and the future of arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenin, D.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the progressive drift of the US-Russia nuclear military policies, the implications for Russia of the US missile defense program (MDP) and its progress in the framework of President Bush administration, Russia's strategy and tactics to incite the US to continue strategic weapons reduction, the Russian theater missile defense (TMD) proposal and its philosophy, and the future necessary collaboration between the US, the EU and Russia to deal with the challenge of proliferation. (J.S.)

  11. Russian-American relations and the future of arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trenin, D

    2001-07-01

    This article describes the progressive drift of the US-Russia nuclear military policies, the implications for Russia of the US missile defense program (MDP) and its progress in the framework of President Bush administration, Russia's strategy and tactics to incite the US to continue strategic weapons reduction, the Russian theater missile defense (TMD) proposal and its philosophy, and the future necessary collaboration between the US, the EU and Russia to deal with the challenge of proliferation. (J.S.)

  12. Russian-American relations and the future of arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trenin, D

    2001-07-01

    This article describes the progressive drift of the US-Russia nuclear military policies, the implications for Russia of the US missile defense program (MDP) and its progress in the framework of President Bush administration, Russia's strategy and tactics to incite the US to continue strategic weapons reduction, the Russian theater missile defense (TMD) proposal and its philosophy, and the future necessary collaboration between the US, the EU and Russia to deal with the challenge of proliferation. (J.S.)

  13. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dumbaugh, Kerry

    2007-01-01

    .... policy makers have adopted tougher stances on issues involving China and U.S.-China relations, concerned about the impact of the PRC's strong economic growth and a more assertive international diplomacy...

  14. 75 FR 64710 - Joint Public Roundtable on Issues Related to the Clearing of Credit Default Swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... certain issues related to the clearing of Credit Default Swaps in the context of the Agencies rulemaking... comments must be in English or be accompanied by an English translation. All submissions provided to either...

  15. Information Operations, Electronic Warfare, and Cyberwar: Capabilities and Related Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Clay

    2007-01-01

    .... It also suggests related policy issues of potential interest to Congress. For military planners, the control of information is critical to military success, and communications networks and computers are of vital operational importance...

  16. Synopsis of the 3. biennial Charting our Energy Future Forum 2004 : addressing climate change : issues and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guelke, C.

    2004-01-01

    This forum explored issues facing the energy industry in British Columbia, Western Canada and the Pacific Northwest. It promoted discussions and actions to advance energy technology and policy development. The environment and sustainability panel focused on challenges of the new realities, such as water issues arising from climate change; moving toward a clean energy future; and electronic tools that determine the impact and effects of resource choices and sustainable solutions. The marketing panel focused on the needs of technology developers to speed up commercialization of high efficiency power electronics; hydrogen from hydrocarbons; hybrid liquid fuels and electric engines. The funding and assistance panel focused on federal tax incentives; the industrial research assistance program; and moving toward a sustainable infrastructure through neighbourhood energy storefronts. The investment panel discussed the issues facing investment and control; funding requirements; and investment in distributed generation. It was concluded that sustainable development depends on the efficient use of the world's natural resources and that electricity utility policy should adopt a long term vision that includes cogeneration, renewable energy sources and the use of hydro systems as an energy storage system. It was also suggested that coal and nuclear power will be needed to meet future energy needs

  17. Direct-Acting Antivirals for the Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C: Open Issues and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Bok Chae

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, two direct-acting antivirals (DAAs show well-established efficacy against hepatitis C virus (HCV, namely, first-wave protease inhibitors telaprevir and boceprevir. Most clinical trials have examined DAAs in combination with standard of care (SOC regimens. Future therapeutic drugs were divided into three categories. They are second-wave protease inhibitors, second-generation protease inhibitors, and polymerase inhibitors. Second-wave protease inhibitors are more improved form and can be administered once a day. Oral drug combinations can be favored because interferon (IFN not only has to be given as intradermal injection, but also can cause several serious side effects. Combination of drugs with different mechanisms shows a good sustained virological response (SVR. But several mutations are associated with viral resistance to DAAs. Therefore, genotypic resistance data may provide insights into strategies aimed at maximizing SVR rates and minimizing resistance. Combined drug regimens are necessary to prevent the emergence of drug-resistant HCV. Many promising DAA candidates have been identified. Of these, a triple regimen containing sofosbuvir shows promise, and treatment with daclatasvir plus asunaprevir yields a high SVR rate (95%. Oral drug combinations will be standard of care in the near future.

  18. An overview of economic and technical issues related to LWR MOX fuel usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, J.P.; Varley, G.; Goldstein, L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper will present comparisons of the economics of MOX versus UO 2 fuels. In addition to the economics of the front end, the scope of the comparison will include the back end of the fuel cycle. Management of spent MOX fuel assemblies presents utilities with some technical issues that can complicate spent fuel pool operation. Alternative spent fuel management methods, such as dry storage of spent MOX fuel assemblies, will also be discussed. Differences in decay heat loads versus time for spent MOX and UO 2 fuel assemblies will be presented. This difference is one of the main problems confronting spent fuel managers relative to MOX. The difference in decay heat loads will serve as the basis for a performance overview of the various spent fuel technologies available today. The economics of the front end of MOX will be presented relative to UO 2 fuel. Availability of MOX manufacturing capability will also be discussed, along with a discussion of its impact on future MOX fabrication prices. The in-core performance of MOX will be compared to that of UO 2 fuel with similar performance characteristics. The information will include highlights of nuclear design and related operational considerations such as: Reactivity reduction with burnup is slower for MOX fuel than for UO 2 fuel; Spectral hardening resulting in lower control rod worths and a lower soluble boron worth; and more negative moderator, void and fuel temperature coefficients. A comparison of Westinghouse and ABB-CE core designs for use on disposition of weapons MOX in 12- and 18-month cycles will be presented. (author)

  19. Future vegetation types and related main processes for Olkiluoto site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, R.

    2007-07-01

    This working report summarizes current knowledge of the land up-lift induced vegetation succession and future vegetation types on Olkiluoto Island and its surroundings. The report is based on generic literature and site-specific studies concerning Olkiluoto Island. Current vegetation on Olkiluoto Island and typical succession lines on different soil types are described, as well as main factors affecting the succession. Most relevant materials on hand are listed. Some problems and possible areas to be emphasized before using the data in modelling work are pointed out. (orig.)

  20. Faculty Development for Simulation Programs: Five Issues for the Future of Debriefing Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Adan; Grant, Vincent; Dieckmann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    STATEMENT: Debriefing is widely recognized as a critically important element of simulation-based education. Simulation educators obtain and/or seek debriefing training from various sources, including workshops at conferences, simulation educator courses, formal fellowships in debriefings, or thro...... be used to improve debriefing quality within programs? (5) How can we individualize debriefing training opportunities to the learning needs of our educators?......STATEMENT: Debriefing is widely recognized as a critically important element of simulation-based education. Simulation educators obtain and/or seek debriefing training from various sources, including workshops at conferences, simulation educator courses, formal fellowships in debriefings......, or through advanced degrees. Although there are many options available for debriefing training, little is known about how faculty development opportunities should be structured to maintain and enhance the quality of debriefing within simulation programs. In this article, we discuss 5 key issues to help shape...

  1. Health care administration in the year 2000: practitioners' views of future issues and job requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, R P; Brooke, P P; Finstuen, K; Riley, P

    1993-01-01

    This research identifies the most important domains in health care administration (HCA) from now to the year 2000 and differentiates job skill, knowledge, and ability requirements necessary for successful management. Fellows of the American College of Healthcare Executives from about half of the United States responded to two iterations of a Delphi mail inquiry. Fellows identified 102 issues that were content-analyzed into nine domains by an HCA expert panel. Domains, in order of ranked importance, were cost/finance, leadership, professional staff interactions, health care delivery concepts, accessibility, ethics, quality/risk management, technology, and marketing. In the second Delphi iteration, Fellows reviewed domain results and rated job requirements on required job importance. Results indicated that while a business orientation is needed for organizational survival, an equal emphasis on person-oriented skills, knowledge, and abilities is required.

  2. Greener energy solutions for a sustainable future: issues and challenges for Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamzam Jaafar, M.; Kheng, Wong Hwee E-mail: edwong@ptm.org.my; Kamaruddin, Norhayati

    2003-09-01

    This paper examines the intricacy of energy policies, issues and challenges woven into the development of the energy sector in Malaysia. As highlighted in the Third Outline Perspective Plan (OPP3) and the Eighth Malaysia Plan (8MP) unveiled in April 2001, efforts will be intensified to moderate the growth of energy demand and to develop renewable energy as the fifth fuel in electricity generation. Whilst the general energy policy thrust for the next ten years remains unchanged, concerted efforts will be made to usher the energy sector development on a greener path. With a projected average economic growth rate of 7.5% per year in the 2001-2005 period, resource rich Malaysia would have to cater for the 7.8% yearly increase in final energy demand. Total primary energy supply is projected to grow at an average of 7.2% per year in the same period. Against the backdrop of a growing need for coal and piped natural gas imports and Malaysia becoming a net crude oil importer in 2008, greater challenges lie ahead for the energy sector. This implies that Peninsular Malaysia may become a net importer of fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal) sooner than expected. Higher utilization rate of natural gas as the 'green' fuel will be encouraged in electricity and non-electricity sectors. Furthermore, fiscal incentives in Budget 2001 to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency provide a timely boost for implementation of the new fifth fuel strategy. Although the overall approach in addressing energy issues and challenges hinges on the precautionary principle, the main thrust of energy sector development in Malaysia will continue to focus on adequacy, quality and security of energy supply and the promotion of its efficient utilization with minimum negative impacts on the environment.

  3. Greener energy solutions for a sustainable future: issues and challenges for Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaafar, Mohammad Zamzam; Wonghwee Kheng; Kamaruddin, Norhayati [Kawasan Institusi Bangi, Pusat Tenaga Malaysia (Malaysia Energy Centre), Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2003-09-01

    This paper examines the intricacy of energy policies, issues and challenges woven into the development of the energy sector in Malaysia. As highlighted in the Third Outline Perspective Plan (OPP3) and the Eighth Malaysia Plan (8MP) unveiled in April 2001, efforts will be intensified to moderate the growth of energy demand and to develop renewable energy as the fifth fuel in electricity generation. Whilst the general energy policy thrust for the next ten years remains unchanged, concerted efforts will be made to usher the energy sector development on a greener path. With a projected average economic growth rate of 7.5% per year in the 2001-2005 period, resource rich Malaysia would have to cater for the 7.8% yearly increase in final energy demand. Total primary energy supply is projected to grow at an average of 7.2% per year in the same period. Against the backdrop of a growing need for coal and piped natural gas imports and Malaysia becoming a net crude oil importer in 2008, greater challenges lie ahead for the energy sector. This implies that Peninsular Malaysia may become a net importer of fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal) sooner than expected. Higher utilization rate of natural gas as the 'green' fuel will be encouraged in electricity and non-electricity sectors. Furthermore, fiscal incentives in Budget 2001 to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency provide a timely boost for implementation of the new fifth fuel strategy. Although the overall approach in addressing energy issues and challenges hinges on the precautionary principle, the main thrust of energy sector development in Malaysia will continue to focus on adequacy, quality and security of energy supply and the promotion of its efficient utilization with minimum negative impacts on the environment. (Author)

  4. Greener energy solutions for a sustainable future: issues and challenges for Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamzam Jaafar, M.; Kheng, Wong Hwee; Kamaruddin, Norhayati

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the intricacy of energy policies, issues and challenges woven into the development of the energy sector in Malaysia. As highlighted in the Third Outline Perspective Plan (OPP3) and the Eighth Malaysia Plan (8MP) unveiled in April 2001, efforts will be intensified to moderate the growth of energy demand and to develop renewable energy as the fifth fuel in electricity generation. Whilst the general energy policy thrust for the next ten years remains unchanged, concerted efforts will be made to usher the energy sector development on a greener path. With a projected average economic growth rate of 7.5% per year in the 2001-2005 period, resource rich Malaysia would have to cater for the 7.8% yearly increase in final energy demand. Total primary energy supply is projected to grow at an average of 7.2% per year in the same period. Against the backdrop of a growing need for coal and piped natural gas imports and Malaysia becoming a net crude oil importer in 2008, greater challenges lie ahead for the energy sector. This implies that Peninsular Malaysia may become a net importer of fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal) sooner than expected. Higher utilization rate of natural gas as the 'green' fuel will be encouraged in electricity and non-electricity sectors. Furthermore, fiscal incentives in Budget 2001 to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency provide a timely boost for implementation of the new fifth fuel strategy. Although the overall approach in addressing energy issues and challenges hinges on the precautionary principle, the main thrust of energy sector development in Malaysia will continue to focus on adequacy, quality and security of energy supply and the promotion of its efficient utilization with minimum negative impacts on the environment

  5. Greener energy solutions for a sustainable future: issues and challenges for Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaafar, Mohammad Zamzam; Wonghwee Kheng; Kamaruddin, Norhayati

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the intricacy of energy policies, issues and challenges woven into the development of the energy sector in Malaysia. As highlighted in the Third Outline Perspective Plan (OPP3) and the Eighth Malaysia Plan (8MP) unveiled in April 2001, efforts will be intensified to moderate the growth of energy demand and to develop renewable energy as the fifth fuel in electricity generation. Whilst the general energy policy thrust for the next ten years remains unchanged, concerted efforts will be made to usher the energy sector development on a greener path. With a projected average economic growth rate of 7.5% per year in the 2001-2005 period, resource rich Malaysia would have to cater for the 7.8% yearly increase in final energy demand. Total primary energy supply is projected to grow at an average of 7.2% per year in the same period. Against the backdrop of a growing need for coal and piped natural gas imports and Malaysia becoming a net crude oil importer in 2008, greater challenges lie ahead for the energy sector. This implies that Peninsular Malaysia may become a net importer of fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal) sooner than expected. Higher utilization rate of natural gas as the 'green' fuel will be encouraged in electricity and non-electricity sectors. Furthermore, fiscal incentives in Budget 2001 to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency provide a timely boost for implementation of the new fifth fuel strategy. Although the overall approach in addressing energy issues and challenges hinges on the precautionary principle, the main thrust of energy sector development in Malaysia will continue to focus on adequacy, quality and security of energy supply and the promotion of its efficient utilization with minimum negative impacts on the environment. (Author)

  6. Safety related requirements on future nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niehaus, F.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear power has the potential to significantly contribute to the future energy supply. However, this requires continuous improvements in nuclear safety. Technological advancements and implementation of safety culture will achieve a safety level for future reactors of the present generation of a probability of core-melt of less than 10 -5 per year, and less than 10 -6 per year for large releases of radioactive materials. There are older reactors which do not comply with present safety thinking. The paper reviews findings of a recent design review of WWER 440/230 plants. Advanced evolutionary designs might be capable of reducing the probability of significant off-site releases to less than 10 -7 per year. For such reactors there are inherent limitations to increase safety further due to the human element, complexity of design and capability of the containment function. Therefore, revolutionary designs are being explored with the aim of eliminating the potential for off-site releases. In this context it seems to be advisable to explore concepts where the ultimate safety barrier is the fuel itself. (orig.) [de

  7. The future of the Mediterranean from impacts of climate change to adaptation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnan, A.; Garnaud, B.; Bille, R.; Gemenne, F.; Hallegatte, St.

    2009-01-01

    the fight against climate change must be considered for the short, medium and long term at the crossroads of climatic, socioeconomic and environmental issues. This is particularly true in the Mediterranean. The region's rapid growth in recent decades, while delivering significant positive impacts for the living conditions of the population, has however largely occurred at the expense of the environmental balance, which is essential for human well-being, and has often contributed to an increase in social and economical disparity, which are characteristic of the Mediterranean basin today. Major pressures and threats already place a heavy demand on the resources and activities of the Mediterranean. Climate change will accentuate these pressures, but will not change their nature. The aim therefore is to act upstream of these pressures and threats to reduce their effect and to avoid the occurrence of new ones. As the Mediterranean offers a diverse range of cultural, political, economical and environmental circumstances, it is expected that the impacts of climate change will take contrasting forms, as should the possible solutions. The Mediterranean therefore appears to be a priority for adaptation, and also serves as a laboratory for testing measures that could be implemented elsewhere in the world. This report aims to provide a general framework for the implementation of adaptation in the Mediterranean context, based on a number of important clarifications and accompanied by operational recommendations. In the first part (section 2) the scientific basis of the study will be set, notably from the works of the IPCC. We will assess the major climatic evolutions predicted for the Mediterranean over the coming century, concentrating on temperatures, rainfall regimes and variation of sea level. This will lead us to present (section 3) the induced physical impacts and to study the consequences on natural resources and human activities. We will then explore the central topic

  8. THE ISSUE OF FORMING FUTURE MUSIC TEACHERS’ PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE BY COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY TOOLS IN THE THEORY OF NATIONAL ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Gavrilova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with theoretical aspects of forming future music teachers’ professional competence by computer technology tools. The concept of professional competence has become a major criterion of preparing students for professional activities. The issue of the article is relevant as the competence approach has become a basis of implementing computer technologies into future music teachers’ training. The authors give a detailed analysis of implementing computer technologies into musical education. The special attention is paid to using a computer in musical education and making electronic pedagogical resources. The aim of the article is to outline the directions of national art research in the process of implementing computer tools that is one of the most efficient ways of updating process of future music teachers’ training. The article reveals theoretical aspects of forming future music teachers’ professional competence by computer technology tools. The authors point out that implementing musical and computer technologies into music art practice is realized in some directions: using a computer as a new musical instrument in composers, sound engineers, and arrangers’ activities; using a computer for studying the quality of music sound, analysing sounds and music compositions, spectral analysis of acoustic characteristics of singers’ voice; studying ancient music manuscripts due to digital technology; developing hardware and software for music education. A distinct direction of research is the pedagogical aspect of using a computer in music education (music and the use of special software for recording and editing music, the use of multimedia to enhance visibility in education, development of e-learning resources, etc.. The authors conclude that implementing computer technologies into future music teachers’ training makes this process more efficient. In the authors’ opinion the widespread introduction of distance learning

  9. Greener energy solutions for a sustainable future: issues and challenges for Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd. Zamzam Jaafar; Wong Hwee Kheng; Norhayati Kamaruddin [Pusat Tenaga Malaysia, Kajang (Malaysia)

    2003-09-01

    The paper examines the intricacy of energy policies, issues and challenges woven into the development of the energy sector in Malaysia. As highlighted in the Third Outline Perspective Plan (OPP3) and the Eighth Malaysia Plan (8MP) unveiled in April 2001, efforts will be intensified to moderate the growth of energy demand and to develop renewable energy as the fifth fuel in electricity generation. Whilst the general energy policy thrust for the next ten years remains unchanged, concerted efforts will be made to usher the energy sector development on a greener path. With a projected average economic growth rate of 7.5% per year in the 2001 2005 period, resource rich Malaysia would have to cater for the 7.8% yearly increase in final energy demand. Total primary energy supply is projected to grow at an average of 7.2% per year in the same period. Against the backdrop of a growing need for coal and piped natural gas imports and Malaysia becoming a net crude oil importer in 2008, greater challenges lie ahead for the energy sector. This implies that Peninsular Malaysia may become a net importer of fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal) sooner than expected. Higher utilization rate of natural gas as the green fuel will be encouraged in electricity and non-electricity sectors. 8 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Health services research and data linkages: issues, methods, and directions for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Cathy J; Penberthy, Lynne; Devers, Kelly J; Holden, Debra J

    2010-10-01

    Research on pressing health services and policy issues requires access to complete, accurate, and timely patient and organizational data. This paper describes how administrative and health records (including electronic medical records) can be linked for comparative effectiveness and health services research. We categorize the major agents (i.e., who owns and controls data and who carries out the data linkage) into three areas: (1) individual investigators; (2) government sponsored linked data bases; and (3) public-private partnerships that facilitate linkage of data owned by private organizations. We describe challenges that may be encountered in the linkage process, and the benefits of combining secondary databases with primary qualitative and quantitative sources. We use cancer care research to illustrate our points. To fill the gaps in the existing data infrastructure, additional steps are required to foster collaboration among institutions, researchers, and public and private components of the health care sector. Without such effort, independent researchers, governmental agencies, and nonprofit organizations are likely to continue building upon a fragmented and costly system with limited access. Discussion. Without the development and support for emerging information technologies across multiple health care settings, the potential for data collected for clinical and transactional purposes to benefit the research community and, ultimately, the patient population may go unrealized. The current environment is characterized by budget and technical challenges, but investments in data infrastructure are arguably cost-effective given the need to reform our health care system and to monitor the impact of health reform initiatives. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  11. Animal Models of Virus-Induced Neurobehavioral Sequelae: Recent Advances, Methodological Issues, and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bortolato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Converging lines of clinical and epidemiological evidence suggest that viral infections in early developmental stages may be a causal factor in neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism-spectrum disorders. This etiological link, however, remains controversial in view of the lack of consistent and reproducible associations between viruses and mental illness. Animal models of virus-induced neurobehavioral disturbances afford powerful tools to test etiological hypotheses and explore pathophysiological mechanisms. Prenatal or neonatal inoculations of neurotropic agents (such as herpes-, influenza-, and retroviruses in rodents result in a broad spectrum of long-term alterations reminiscent of psychiatric abnormalities. Nevertheless, the complexity of these sequelae often poses methodological and interpretational challenges and thwarts their characterization. The recent conceptual advancements in psychiatric nosology and behavioral science may help determine new heuristic criteria to enhance the translational value of these models. A particularly critical issue is the identification of intermediate phenotypes, defined as quantifiable factors representing single neurochemical, neuropsychological, or neuroanatomical aspects of a diagnostic category. In this paper, we examine how the employment of these novel concepts may lead to new methodological refinements in the study of virus-induced neurobehavioral sequelae through animal models.

  12. Reading in a Digital Age: Issues and Future of Reading on the Web among Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Ju Lin Chang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available “Reading on the Internet” or digital reading has been a controversial issue in recent years as more and more young adults spent more time on Internet, and engaged in reading activities which may differ from the traditional conception of reading. More importantly, some observe that digital reading seems to have negative impacts on students’ reading capabilities at the individual level and citizens’ literacy at the national level. How can we understand the phenomenon of reading in a digital age? Online activities are facilitating or hindering the development of reading capabilities of young adults? What do we mean when we evaluate the reading capabilities in a digital age? This paper explores the pros and cons of reading on the Internet or digital reading, the technological, social and economic forces that influence those viewpoints, and discusses the findings of some empirical studies. The implications from this study for educational policy makers and educators conclude this paper. [Article content in Chinese; Extended abstract in English

  13. European future natural gas demand and supply diversification: key issues for Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Elschner, E.

    1996-01-01

    After the breakdown of the former Soviet Union and the COMECON the demarcation line between western Europe and central/eastern Europe has disappeared. The central and eastern European economies as a whole and their gas industries as well as the western European gas companies are preparing for the future enlarged market in creating the prerequisites to participate successfully in such a market and to seize the opportunities this market is offering. The framework for this future European Gas Market has to be created now. The European gas industries and gas markets are in transition and are in a process of reshaping, with the following challenges: (1) In Central and Eastern European countries: To complete the privatization and restructuring process from centrally-planned economies to market-oriented structures with deregulated prices, market-oriented tariff systems and new legal and regulatory frameworks. These are the essential prerequisites for an integration of the central and eastern European countries into a single European gas market and the basis for an effective and successful trans border gas co-operation between east and west. (2) In western European countries: To pursue nearly similar processes of restructuring which are underway: privatization by reducing state participation and influence in gas and energy companies, with the accent on liberalization and deregulation of market structures with fewer market entry barriers, and more competition by reducing the influence of state or private monopolies. Gas companies are undertaking cost-efficiency measures to be prepared to meet the requirements of more competitive market structures and also of a more advanced internationalized gas business. The fundamental rules on which western European gas industries based their operations up to now have to be reconsidered. The old western European structures which have developed under the shelter of governmental protection are under pressure from several sources. EU energy

  14. Back to the Future: International Education in Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerness, Martin D.; Beaman, Ronda

    1994-01-01

    Finds few offerings of university courses emphasizing international public relations across the United States, despite global trends underlining increased internationalization. Argues that individuals and organizations must take account of those trends to stay abreast of the changing environment. (SR)

  15. Experience with environmental issues in GM crop production and the likely future scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaugitsch, Helmut

    2002-02-28

    In the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, standards for risk assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been set. The criteria and information basis for the risk assessment of GMOs have been modified by the EU Directive 2001/18/EC. Various approaches to further improve the criteria for environmental risk assessment of GMOs are described in this study. Reports on the ecological impacts of the cultivation of certain non-transgenic crop plants with novel or improved traits as analogy models to transgenic plants showed that the effects of agricultural practice can be at least equally important as the effects of gene transfer and invasiveness, although the latter currently play a major role in risk assessment of transgenic crops. Based on these results the applicability of the methodology of 'Life Cycle Analysis (LCA)' for genetically modified plants in comparison with conventionally bred and organically grown crop plants was evaluated. The methodology was regarded as applicable with some necessary future improvements. In current projects, the assessment of toxicology and allergenicity of GM crops are analysed, and suggestions for standardization are developed. Based on results and recommendations from these efforts there are still the challenges of how to operationalize the precautionary principle and how to take into account ecologically sensitive ecosystems, including centres of origin and centres of genetic diversity.

  16. Selected legal and institutional issues related to Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanda, V. P.

    1979-06-01

    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), an attractive alternative to traditional energy sources, is still in the early stages of development. To facilitate OTEC commercialization, it is essential that a legal and institutional framework be designed now so as to resolve uncertainties related to OTEC development, primarily involving jurisdictional, regulatory, and environmental issues. The jurisdictional issues raised by OTEC use are dependent upon the site of an OTEC facility and its configuration; i.e., whether the plant is a semipermanent fixture located offshore or a migrating plant ship that provides a source of energy for industry at sea. These issues primarily involve the division of authority between the Federal Government and the individual coastal states. The regulatory issues raised are largely speculative: they involve the adaptation of existing mechanisms to OTEC operation. Finally, the environmental issues raised center around compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) as well as international agreements. 288 references.

  17. Uranium and nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This seminar focussed on the major issues affecting the future of the entire nuclear fuel cycle. In particular it covered issues bearing on the formation of public policy in relation to the use of uranium as an energy source: economic risk, industrial risks, health effects, site selection, environmental issues, and public acceptance

  18. Multiple system responses program: Identification of concerns related to a number of specific regulatory issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, G.A.; Casada, M.L.; Palko, L.E.; Roberts, M.W.

    1989-10-01

    This document describes the activities and results of the Multiple System Responses (MSR) program conducted by the Nuclear Operations Analysis Center (NOAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of the MSR program was to gather and review documentation for several unresolved safety issues and related programs of interest, and from that documentation, describe any additional potential safety concerns. The MSR program provides information that will aid the NRC staff in making an assessment of the relative safety significance of the concerns through the established prioritization process. Judgments were not made regarding the validity of the concerns expressed by others. Rather, the concerns were documented and potential safety issues were developed and defined as specifically as possible. Twenty-one potential safety issues were developed from the documented concerns. Additional information was gathered to support the NRC efforts in reviewing these issues for prioritization. 73 refs., 2 tabs

  19. CRIEPI's research results (2006-2011) and clarified future issues on alteration behavior of bentonite barrier by alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Shingo; Nakamura, Kunihiko; Tanaka, Yukihisa; Hironaga, Michihiko

    2013-01-01

    In radioactive waste disposal facilities, bentonite barrier would be altered by alkaline solutions which arise by leaching of cementitious materials. Consequently suitable properties of the bentonite barrier would be degraded for a long time period. In CRIEPI, the investigation on the alteration of the bentonite under alkaline conditions was started in 2006, and several CRIEPI reports have been published. Specifically, we have investigated the kinetics of montmorillonite dissolution, the mineralogical alteration of compacted bentonite (with high- and low-dry density) and the change of permeability of the compacted bentonite (with high- and low-dry density) during alteration under the alkaline conditions. Furthermore, stability of saponite, which has similar physical properties to the bentonite, under the alkaline conditions was also examined. In this report, we show the outline of those research results, and lay out the clarified future issues extracted from our results. Ten clarified future issues were divided three categories as follows: 1) the estimation of the alteration behavior of the bentonite by alkaline solutions, 2) the elucidation of the mechanism of physical properties (e.g., permeability, swelling properties and mechanistic properties) change of the compacted bentonites during alteration, and 3) the development of the model building and simulation technology concerning the change in physical properties during alteration under alkaline conditions. (author)

  20. The Future of Transatlantic Security Relations. Colloquium Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Atlantic. My generation made quite a nice living with papers and articles whose titles did not begin with the words “ Gender , Race, and Class” but...M.A. in Modern History and International Relations from the Utrecht University, The Netherlands. TYSON VOELKEL currently is a student in the George

  1. Popper and Dingle on special relativity and the issue of symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Allen Clark

    2012-02-01

    Karl Popper and Herbert Dingle engaged in a fascinating debate concerning the kind of theory the special theory of relativity is. One of the issues was whether applications of the theory could be made consistent with the principle of relativity, a cornerstone of the theory itself. The principle of relativity seems to imply some sort of symmetry in results obtained for similar experiments as observed in two different inertial reference frames. Peter Hayes has recently dealt with the Dingle-Popper debate on this matter, as well as other issues. The present paper seeks to clarify what kind of symmetry is appropriate in a situation discussed by Popper, Dingle, and Hayes.

  2. Ethical, legal and clinical aspects of live surgery in urology - contemporary issues and a glimpse of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumpanas, Alin Adrian; Ferician, Ovidiu Catalin; Latcu, Silviu Constantin; Pricop, Catalin; Bardan, Razvan Tiberiu

    2017-01-01

    Beside dry and wet lab training, simulators, video tapes, fellowships and clinical visits, live surgery has gained popularity during the last years, being an attraction point at large scientific meetings and at postgraduate courses as well. This type of surgical training raises both ethical and legal issues. Thus, there are professional societies that have banned such meetings, mainly due to safety reasons for the patient. The current article aims to identify and to discuss ethical and legal issues related to the topic, advantages, disadvantages and weak points of this emerging challenge for modern medicine, trying to analyze the issues from all relevant points of view: those of the patient, the surgeon and the session attendant.

  3. Information Retrieval System Design Issues in a Microcomputer-Based Relational DBMS Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Dietmar

    1992-01-01

    Outlines the file structure requirements for a microcomputer-based information retrieval system using FoxPro, a relational database management system (DBMS). Issues relating to the design and implementation of such systems are discussed, and two possible designs are examined in terms of space economy and practicality of implementation. (15…

  4. University Intervention into Community Issues as Dialogic Public Relations: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Jamie M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines a study of the wastewater collection and treatment issues of Little Rock and North Little Rock, Arkansas by University of Arkansas at Little Rock personnel and how it constitutes dialogic public relations. The paper defines dialogic public relations using Kent and Taylor's work and then uses their criteria to describe how this…

  5. 76 FR 52731 - On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of... consumer protection and civil rights laws and regulations related to air transportation. The Enforcement... travelers, and to ensure safe and adequate service in air transportation. Filing a complaint using a web...

  6. Introduction to the Special Issue: New and Interdisciplinary Approaches to Linguistic Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasopoulos, Panos; Bylund, Emanuel; Casasanto, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This Special Issue of "Language Learning" presents an interdisciplinary state-of-the-art overview of current approaches to linguistic relativity. It contains empirical and theoretical studies and reflections on linguistic relativity from a variety of perspectives, such as associative learning, conceptual transfer, multilingual awareness,…

  7. Difficulties are multiplying - topical legal issues relating to nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strassburg, W.

    1985-01-01

    The report points out topical legal issues relating to nuclear waste disposal, yet leaves no doubt that the technical-scientific concept for nuclear waste disposal incorporated into the nuclear energy law in 1976 was a success. Nonetheless it is desirable that there should be persistent efforts especially on the part of parliament when issuing legislation or statutory orders to reach greater clearness and thus predictability in areas where technology has been proven by many years of practice. (orig./HSCH) [de

  8. THE PRACTICE OF ECT IN INDIA : ISSUES RELATING YO THE ADMINISTRATION OF ECT

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, A.K.; Andrade, Chittaranjan; Reddy, M. Venkataswamy

    1992-01-01

    A questionnaire on ECT, tapping altitudes, opinions and usage, was mailed to all medical members of the Indian Psychiatric Society whose addresses were known; 263 (28.8%) responded. This paper, the first in a series that presents the results of the survey, provides demographic data on the respondents and covers issues relating to the administration of ECT. Specific issues discussed include the ECT personnel, location of the ECT facility, certain ECT prescription patterns, psychiatrist-patient...

  9. The Future of U.S.-India Naval Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    key personalities in the United States have also played a critical role in fostering or slowing the pace of relations between the two countries ...strong preference for bilateral mil-to-mil engagements with regional (i.e., Indian Ocean and Western Pacific littoral) countries . The MoD and Chiefs of...bilateral training operation with the Indian navy. Ronald Reagan is operating in the western Pacific Ocean. U.S. Navy photo caption: CHENNAI, India

  10. Current and future research on corrosion and thermalhydraulic issues of HLM cooled reactors and on LMR fuels for fast reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, J.U.; Konings, R.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Heavy liquid metals (HLM) such as lead (Pb) or lead-bismuth eutectic (Pb-Bi) are currently investigated world-wide as coolant for nuclear power reactors and for accelerator driven systems (ADS). Besides the advantages of HLM as coolant and spallation material, e.g. high boiling point, low reactivity with water and air and a high neutron yield, some technological issues, such as high corrosion effects in contact with steels and thermalhydraulic characteristics, need further experimental investigations and physical model improvements and validations. The paper describes some typical HLM cooled reactor designs, which are currently considered, and outlines the technological challenges related to corrosion, thermalhydraulic and fuel issues. In the first part of the presentation, the status of presently operated or planned test facilities related to corrosion and thermalhydraulic questions will be discussed. First approaches to solve the corrosion problem will be given. The approach to understand and model thermalhydraulic issues such as heat transfer, turbulence, two-phase flow and instrumentation will be outlined. In the second part of the presentation, an overview will be given of the advanced fuel types that are being considered for future liquid metal reactor (LMR) systems. Advantages and disadvantages will be discussed in relation to fabrication technology and fuel cycle considerations. For the latter, special attention will be given to the partitioning and transmutation potential. Metal, oxide and nitride fuel materials will be discussed in different fuel forms and packings. For both parts of the presentation, an overview of existing co-operations and networks will be given and the needs for future research work will be identified. (authors)

  11. The photovoltaic industry on the path to a sustainable future--environmental and occupational health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhiyi, Bouchra; Labrèche, France; Zayed, Joseph

    2014-12-01

    As it supplies solar power, a priori considered harmless for the environment and human health compared with fossil fuels, the photovoltaic (PV) industry seems to contribute optimally to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and, overall, to sustainable development. However, considering the forecast for rapid growth, its use of potentially toxic substances and manufacturing processes presenting health and safety problems may jeopardize its benefits. This paper aims to establish a profile of the PV industry in order to determine current and emerging environmental and health concerns. A review of PV system life cycle assessments, in light of the current state of the industry and its developmental prospects, reveals information deficits concerning some sensitive life cycle indicators and environmental impacts, together with incomplete information on toxicological data and studies of workers' exposure to different chemical and physical hazards. Although solar panel installation is generally considered relatively safe, the occupational health concerns related to the growing number of hazardous materials handled in the PV industry warrants an all-inclusive occupational health and safety approach in order to achieve an optimal equilibrium with sustainability. To prevent eco-health problems from offsetting the benefits currently offered by the PV industry, manufacturers should cooperate actively with workers, researchers and government agencies toward improved and more transparent research, the adoption of specific and stricter regulations, the implementation of preventive risk management of occupational health and safety and, lastly, greater responsibilization toward PV systems from their design until their end of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The role of time and time perspective in age-related processes: Introduction to the special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Helene H; Isaacowitz, Derek M

    2016-09-01

    There currently appears to be a general consensus on the relationship between time perspective and aging, such that (a) future time is perceived as more limited with age and (b) older people are more present-focused and less future-focused than younger people. At the same time, there are debates about whether these age differences are positively related to well-being and to what extent there are boundary conditions beyond which these age differences would cease to occur. The 8 manuscripts included in this Special Issue attempt to shed light on these debates. In doing so, they refine the dominant theoretical perspective on the topic-socioemotional selectivity theory-and introduce new theoretical perspectives. New measures and methodologies for studying time perspective and aging are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Built-in future: integration, technical and market-development issues for PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordmann, T.

    2005-01-01

    Although large ground-mounted multi-megawatt photovoltaic plants have become common, it is argued that integration of photovoltaics into the fabric of buildings is their optimum use. In Germany, with its well-established grid network, there is a marked imbalance in the deployment of photovoltaics and only 1% are integrated into the roofs or facades of buildings. A similar pattern is found in most other countries in central Europe and the article seeks to discover the reasons for this. The situation in Japan is different in that the relatively high cost of electricity has encouraged a robust market for domestic photovoltaics. It is argued that the market for building-integrated photovoltaics in Europe has massive potential

  14. Some issues related to the development of nuclear power plant in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panggabean, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Indonesia being a member of ASEAN belongs to the group of developing country. If Indonesia decides to embark on the establishment of nuclear power plan then the country will have no choice but to discuss the following issues: Safe operation of the plant and management of the nuclear waste. Safe operation of the power plant is important not only from the point of view of hazards to human being, or economic loss, or even death, but equally important it is also from the psychological point of view in that not to loose the society's confidence in the overall nuclear power plant programme in the future. The issue of safe operation involves both a safely designed system as well as skilled personnels to execute a well designed operation procedure. The issue of nuclear safety is getting more and more attention lately for various, some due to a deep concern about the quality of the inherent safety of the nuclear power plant to be built, others may just use their emotion to ask question like ''what its''. The issue of nuclear waste is as fundamental as the plant safety. Common people make very little difference between an atomic bomb and waste from a nuclear power plant. Another issue is one of transfer of technology which needs to be tied up with the overall industrialization process, meaning that embarking on nuclear power programme needs to contribute to local industrial activities, at least for some parts or components which can be manufactured locally. (author)

  15. Current knowledge and trends in age-related macular degeneration: today's and future treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez-Montoya, Raul; Oliver, Scott C N; Olson, Jeffrey L; Fine, Stuart L; Mandava, Naresh; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo

    2013-09-01

    To address the most dynamic and current issues concerning today's treatment options and promising research efforts regarding treatment for age-related macular degeneration. This review is aimed to serve as a practical reference for more in-depth reviews on the subject. An online review of the database PubMed and Ovid were performed, searching for the key words age-related macular degeneration, AMD, VEGF, treatment, PDT, steroids, bevacizumab, ranibizumab, VEGF-trap, radiation, combined therapy, as well as their compound phrases. The search was limited to articles published since 1985. All returned articles were carefully screened, and their references were manually reviewed for additional relevant data. The web page www.clinicaltrials.gov was also accessed in search of relevant research trials. A total of 363 articles were reviewed, including 64 additional articles extracted from the references. At the end, only 160 references were included in this review. Treatment for age-related macular degeneration is a very dynamic research field. While current treatments are mainly aimed at blocking vascular endothelial growth factor, future treatments seek to prevent vision loss because of scarring. Promising efforts have been made to address the dry form of the disease, which has lacked effective treatment.

  16. General Relativity and Cosmology: Unsolved Questions and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Debono

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For the last 100 years, General Relativity (GR has taken over the gravitational theory mantle held by Newtonian Gravity for the previous 200 years. This article reviews the status of GR in terms of its self-consistency, completeness, and the evidence provided by observations, which have allowed GR to remain the champion of gravitational theories against several other classes of competing theories. We pay particular attention to the role of GR and gravity in cosmology, one of the areas in which one gravity dominates and new phenomena and effects challenge the orthodoxy. We also review other areas where there are likely conflicts pointing to the need to replace or revise GR to represent correctly observations and consistent theoretical framework. Observations have long been key both to the theoretical liveliness and viability of GR. We conclude with a discussion of the likely developments over the next 100 years.

  17. Pediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Recent solutions, unresolved issues, and future research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Maria Grazia; Mandato, Claudia; Poeta, Marco; Vajro, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children is becoming a major health concern. A “multiple-hit” pathogenetic model has been suggested to explain the progressive liver damage that occurs among children with NAFLD. In addition to the accumulation of fat in the liver, insulin resistance (IR) and oxidative stress due to genetic/epigenetic background, unfavorable lifestyles, gut microbiota and gut-liver axis dysfunction, and perturbations of trace element homeostasis have been shown to be critical for disease progression and the development of more severe inflammatory and fibrotic stages [non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)]. Simple clinical and laboratory parameters, such as age, history, anthropometrical data (BMI and waist circumference percentiles), blood pressure, surrogate clinical markers of IR (acanthosis nigricans), abdominal ultrasounds, and serum transaminases, lipids and glucose/insulin profiles, allow a clinician to identify children with obesity and obesity-related conditions, including NAFLD and cardiovascular and metabolic risks. A liver biopsy (the “imperfect” gold standard) is required for a definitive NAFLD/NASH diagnosis, particularly to exclude other treatable conditions or when advanced liver disease is expected on clinical and laboratory grounds and preferably prior to any controlled trial of pharmacological/surgical treatments. However, a biopsy clearly cannot represent a screening procedure. Advancements in diagnostic serum and imaging tools, especially for the non-invasive differentiation between NAFLD and NASH, have shown promising results, e.g., magnetic resonance elastography. Weight loss and physical activity should be the first option of intervention. Effective pharmacological treatments are still under development; however, drugs targeting IR, oxidative stress, proinflammatory pathways, dyslipidemia, gut microbiota and gut liver axis dysfunction are an option for patients who are unable to comply with the recommended

  18. Containment-emergency-sump performance. Technical findings related to Unresolved Safety Issue A-43

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This report summarizes key technical findings related to the Unresolved Safety Issue A-43, Containment Emergency Sump Performance, and provides recommendations for resolution of attendant safety issues. The key safety questions relate to: (a) effects of insulation debris on sump performance; (b) sump hydraulic performance as determined by design features, submergence, and plant induced effects, and (c) recirculation pump performance wherein air and/or particulate ingestion can occur. The technical findings presented in this report provide information relevant to the design and performance evaluation of the containment emergency sump

  19. Some problems relating to application of safeguards in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolchenkov, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    By the end of this century there will have been a considerable increase in the amount of nuclear material and the number of facilities subject to IAEA safeguards. The IAEA will therefore be faced with problems due to the increased volume of safeguards activity, the application of safeguards to new types of facility and to large facilities, the optimization of the existing IAEA safeguards system and so on. The authors analyse the potential growth in the IAEA's safeguards activities up to the year 2000 and consider how to optimize methods for the application of safeguards, taking into account a number of factors relating to a State's nuclear activity, the application of full-scope IAEA safeguards etc. On the basis of a hypothetical model of the nuclear fuel cycle that allows for the factors considered as part of the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE), the authors assess the possible risk of diversion as a function of a full-scope safeguards effort. They also examine possible conceptual approaches to safeguarding large-scale facilities such as fuel reprocessing and uranium enrichment plants. (author)

  20. 75 FR 62514 - Notice of Availability of Report on Data Access and Privacy Issues Related to Smart Grid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Notice of Availability of Report on Data Access and Privacy Issues Related to... report entitled, ``Data Access and Privacy Issues Related to Smart Grid Technologies.'' In this report... report entitled, ``Data Access and Privacy Issues Related to Smart Grid Technologies,'' DOE considered...

  1. Framing Islam-related issues during GE13: An analysis of Malaysian mainstream newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aini Maznina A.Manaf

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The two major political coalitions in Malaysia are Barisan Nasional  (BN and Pakatan Rakyat (PR, which are dominated by the Malay-Muslim majority. During the 13th national election, to gain public votes, the government used mainstream newspapers to frame Islam-related issues. This research focuses on the characterisation and information reported about Islam and Muslims during the 13th General Election. Using content analysis, we examine the coverage of such issues by the mainstream newspapers: Berita Harian, Utusan Malaysia, New Straits Times, and The Star. This analysis aims to provide a holistic review of the scope of the coverage during the period with a focus on how the Malaysian government framed Islam-related issues through the print media in order to gain the Malay votes. A total of 178 news articles were analysed, from which we found that 15 dominant issues were reported in the newspapers during that period. Among the most frequently reported Islam-related issues were hudud (prescribed punishments, Islamic state, and kalimah Allah (the word “Allah”, which were predominantly covered by the Malay newspapers. In addition, the data indicated that most of the news were inclined towards supporting the ruling coalition, i.e., Barisan Nasional.

  2. Love versus abuse: crossgenerational sexual relations of minors: a gay rights issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graupner, H

    1999-01-01

    The question discussed is how far crossgenerational sexual relations with or by minors could be considered to be a gay rights issue. The author discusses the issue from the perspective of general principles found in the case-law of the European Court on Human Rights. These principles suggest that the basic right to privacy should be interpreted as providing comprehensive protection of the right of children and adolescents to sexual self-determination, namely both the right to effective protection from (unwanted) sex and abuse on the one hand and the right to (wanted) sex on the other. The analysis is based upon the findings of natural and social science as well as an extensive international survey of national legal provisions and it leads to the conclusion that consensual sexual relations of and with adolescents over 14 (out of relations of authority) should be qualified a gay rights issue; likewise (as the exception to the rule) the possibility of filtering out cases from prosecution where a contact/relation is proven (beyond reasonable doubt) as consensual and harmless even though the minor involved is under 14. The legalization of (objectively consensual) sexual relations with persons under 14 as such, however, should not be considered to be a gay rights issue.

  3. 17 CFR 260.7a-25 - Words relating to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Words relating to the future. 260.7a-25 Section 260.7a-25 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... § 260.7a-25 Words relating to the future. Unless the context clearly shows otherwise, whenever words...

  4. Patients' Perspectives on Information and Communication About Sexual and Relational Issues in Rheumatology Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helland, Ylva; Dagfinrud, Hanne; Haugen, Mona-Iren; Kjeken, Ingvild; Zangi, Heidi

    2017-06-01

    Men and women with rheumatic diseases report a significantly negative impact on multiple areas of life, including sexuality. Research indicates that patients want to discuss sexual issues with health professionals (HPs) in rheumatology care but these issues are rarely addressed in consultations. The objective of the present study was to explore patients' experiences of communication with HPs about disease-related sexual issues, their perceptions of the relevance of these issues in rheumatology care and their preferences for how these topics should be handled. A qualitative design was used and 18 semi-structured interviews were performed, including eight women and ten men with inflammatory rheumatic joint diseases, aged 29-62 years. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed thematically. Four main themes were derived from the interviews: (i) relevance of sexual issues; (ii) vital conditions for communication; (iii) individual preferences in mode and timing of information and communication; and (iv) benefits of information and communication. The participants expressed that, although sexual issues are relevant, necessary conditions for good communication are largely lacking. HPs' knowledge, experience and personal skills, as well as having sufficient time were essential. HPs lack of initiating sexual topics contributed to uncertainty about whether their sexual challenges were disease related and whether it was a legitimate topic to discuss in rheumatology care. Patients wanted HPs to possess knowledge about possible disease-related challenges in sexual life and intimate relationships, and to facilitate communication about these aspects. There is a need to develop practice guidelines to enable HPs to integrate sexual issues as an aspect of healthcare delivery in a patient-friendly manner. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Environmental issues related to commercialization of CulnSe{sub 2}- based photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberspacher, C. [UNISUN, Newbury Park, CA (United States); Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1996-07-01

    One of the most promising materials for low-cost thin film photovoltaic cells is copper indium selenide (CuInSe{sub 2} or CIS). As with any new material, successful commercialization of CIS photovoltaic (PV) technology will require attention to environmental issues related to the sources of raw materials, their usage, and the disposal and/or recycling of products at the end of their useful life. This paper focuses on three specific environmental issues related to CIS technology: (i) Economics of the use and re-use of materials; (ii) regulations on environmental disposal and waste handling, and (iii) logistics and economics of recycling and disposing of products by industries faced with comparable environmental issues.

  6. Environmental issues related to commercialization of CulnSe2- based photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberspacher, C.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    One of the most promising materials for low-cost thin film photovoltaic cells is copper indium selenide (CuInSe 2 or CIS). As with any new material, successful commercialization of CIS photovoltaic (PV) technology will require attention to environmental issues related to the sources of raw materials, their usage, and the disposal and/or recycling of products at the end of their useful life. This paper focuses on three specific environmental issues related to CIS technology: (i) Economics of the use and re-use of materials; (ii) regulations on environmental disposal and waste handling, and (iii) logistics and economics of recycling and disposing of products by industries faced with comparable environmental issues

  7. Anticipating issues related to increasing preimplantation genetic diagnosis use: a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzman, Robert; Appelbaum, Paul S; Chung, Wendy; Sauer, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Increasing use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) poses numerous clinical, social, psychological, ethical, legal and policy dilemmas, many of which have received little attention. Patients and providers are now considering and using PGD for a widening array of genetic disorders, and patients may increasingly seek 'designer babies.' In the USA, although governmental oversight policies have been discussed, few specific guidelines exist. Hence, increasingly, patients and providers will face challenging ethical and policy questions of when and for whom to use PGD, and how it should be financed. These issues should be better clarified and addressed through collection of data concerning the current use of PGD in the USA, including factors involved in decision making about PGD use, as well as the education of the various communities that are, and should be, involved in its implementation. Improved understanding of these issues will ultimately enhance the development and implementation of future clinical guidelines and policies.

  8. What is the Future of Pediatric Neurology in Canada? Resident and Faculty Perceptions of Training and Workforce Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doja, Asif; Clarkin, Chantalle; Whiting, Sharon; Moharir, Mahendranath

    2016-07-01

    Pediatric neurology trainee numbers have grown considerably in Canada; recent research, however, has shown that the number of pediatric neurology graduates is outpacing the need for future pediatric neurologists. The purpose of this study was to seek the opinion of pediatric neurology program directors and trainees regarding possible solutions for this issue. Two focus groups were convened during the Canadian Neurological Sciences Federation annual congress in June 2012; one consisted of current and former program directors, and the other of current pediatric neurology trainees. Groups were asked for their perceptions regarding child neurology manpower issues in Canada as well as possible solutions. Focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed for analysis. Theme-based qualitative analysis was used to analyze the transcripts. Major themes emerging from both focus groups included the emphasis on community pediatric neurology as a viable option for trainees, including the need for community mentors; recognizing the needs of underserviced areas; and establishing academic positions for community preceptors. The need for career mentoring and support structures during residency training was another major theme which arose. Program directors and trainees also gave examples of ways to reduce the current oversupply of trainees in Canada, including limiting the number of trainees entering programs, as well as creating a long-term vision of child neurology in Canada. A nationwide dialogue to discuss the supply and demand of manpower in academic and community pediatric neurology is essential. Career guidance options for pediatric neurology trainees across the country merit further strengthening.

  9. Key issues of public relations of Europe: findings from the European Communication Monitor 2007-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verčič, D.; Verhoeven, P.; Zerfass, A.

    2014-01-01

    European Communication Monitor is the largest longitudinal research project in public relations practice in the world. Data collected annually from 2007 to 2014 show that practitioners perceive five issues as the most important for their work: linking business strategy and communication, coping with

  10. Introducing GaLA: Serious Game potentials, challenges and TEL-related issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Earp, Jeffrey; Klemke, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Earp, J., & Klemke, R. (2011, 21 September). Introducing GaLA: Serious Game potentials, challenges and TEL-related issues. Presented at TEL-Think-Tank Workshop at the 6th European conference on Technology enhanced learning: towards ubiquitous learning (EC-TEL 2011), Palermo, Italy.

  11. Allostatic Load: Single Parents, Stress-Related Health Issues, and Social Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johner, Randy L.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the possible relationships between allostatic load (AL) and stress-related health issues in the low-income single-parent population, using both a population health perspective (PHP) and a biological framework. A PHP identifies associations among such factors as gender, income, employment, and social support and their…

  12. How Do Learners in Developed and Developing Countries Relate to Environmental Issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out in the framework of earlier research on environmental education for sustainability, using data collected in the ROSE Project. Attention was focused mainly on students' responses to sections and items related to environmental issues, regarding their countries' degree of development. The research questions dealt…

  13. A Study of Current Trends and Issues Related to Technical/Engineering Design Graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Aaron C.; Scales Alice

    2000-01-01

    Presents results from a survey of engineering design graphics educators who responded to questions related to current trends and issues in the profession of graphics education. Concludes that there is a clear trend in institutions towards the teaching of constraint-based modeling and computer-aided manufacturing. (Author/YDS)

  14. Fundamental issues in the manufacturing of nanoelectromechanical (NEMS) and related nanosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.; Alapatt, G.F.; Gupta, N.; Poole, K.F.

    2011-01-01

    Nanostructures in dimension below about 10 nm show interesting properties because of the effect of low-dimension physics. However, to utilize these properties in practice to commercialize NEMS and related nano-systems require an extremely precise manufacturing process. This paper briefly evaluates the fundamental issues involved in manufacturing the nano-scale systems.

  15. 78 FR 9020 - Wireline Competition Bureau Seeks Further Comment on Specific Issues Related to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... adjust the Remote Areas Fund usage allowance requirement to reflect consumer behavior, and if so, how... files, audio format), send an email to [email protected] or call the Consumer & Governmental Affairs Bureau... issues relating to the implementation of the Remote Areas Fund as a portable consumer subsidy program, as...

  16. Legal and Ethical Issues Related to the Management of Cultural Heritage in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Justin

    in space. The United Nations Outer Space Treaty of 1967 -the primary document governing how nations act in outer space -is now hopelessly out-of-date. There is no mention in the treaty of cultural heritage (the UNESCO convention that concerns international protection of cultural heritage on Earth was not completed until 1970), nor was there any recognition of the role private groups and individuals might play in space exploration. This paper will outline key legal and ethical issues related to cultural heritage management and protection. It will also suggest some ways in which culturally significant sites in space can be protected for future study and even touristic appreciation.

  17. Cancer patient perceptions on the ethical and legal issues related to biobanking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Zubin; Claudio, Jaime O; Rachul, Christen; Wang, Jean C Y; Minden, Mark D; Caulfield, Timothy

    2013-03-08

    Understanding the perception of patients on research ethics issues related to biobanking is important to enrich ethical discourse and help inform policy. We examined the views of leukemia patients undergoing treatment in clinics located in the Princess Margaret Hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. An initial written survey was provided to 100 patients (64.1% response rate) followed by a follow-up survey (62.5% response rate) covering the topics of informed consent, withdrawal, anonymity, incidental findings and the return of results, ownership, and trust. The majority (59.6%) preferred one-time consent, 30.3% desired a tiered consent approach that provides multiple options, and 10.1% preferred re-consent for future research. When asked different questions on re-consent, most (58%) reported that re-consent was a waste of time and money, but 51.7% indicated they would feel respected and involved if asked to re-consent. The majority of patients (62.2%) stated they had a right to withdraw their consent, but many changed their mind in the follow-up survey explaining that they should not have the right to withdraw consent. Nearly all of the patients (98%) desired being informed of incidental health findings and explained that the information was useful. Of these, 67.3% of patients preferred that researchers inform them and their doctors of the results. The majority of patients (62.2%) stated that the research institution owns the samples whereas 19.4% stated that the participants owned their samples. Patients had a great deal of trust in doctors, hospitals and government-funded university researchers, moderate levels of trust for provincial governments and industry-funded university researchers, and low levels of trust towards industry and insurance companies. Many cancer patients surveyed preferred a one-time consent although others desired some form of control. The majority of participants wanted a continuing right to withdraw consent and nearly all wanted to be

  18. Awareness of legal and social issues related to reproductive health among adolescent girls in rural Varanasi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansal, Sangeeta; Singh, Sweta; Kumar, Alok

    2017-01-01

    Data on awareness of adolescent's on the legal and social issues/acts related to reproductive health, especially in rural areas, are scarce. The aim of the present cross-sectional study is to assess the awareness level of legal and social issues related to reproductive health and its association with the various individual and family/household level characteristics. 650 adolescent girls in the age group of 15-19 years were interviewed with the help of pretested and semistructured questionnaire and focus group discussions were also conducted for qualitative findings in Chiraigaon block of district Varanasi. It was observed that 42.9% of the respondents were aware of legal age of marriage, 14.9% knew about the right age of childbearing. Dowry prohibition act and domestic violence act were known to 46% and 27% respondents, respectively, and only 2.6% were aware of medical termination of pregnancy act. Logistic regression analysis shows the significant effect of education on awareness of legal age of marriage, right age of childbearing, domestic violence, and dowry prohibition acts, which is also supported by qualitative findings. All the important legal issues/acts should be included in high school curriculum and female teachers should be involved in training program for adolescents. Role of mass media in creating awareness about these issues in their routine programs should be ascertained. Accredited Social Health Activist and Anganwadi workers should be aware of and include these issues/acts in adolescent meetings.

  19. Proceedings - Limits of Acceptable Change and related planning processes: Progress and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen F. McCool; David N. Cole

    1997-01-01

    Experience with Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC) and related planning processes has accumulated since the mid-1980's. These processes were developoed as a means of dealing with recreation carrying capacity issues in wilderness and National Parks. These processes clearly also have application outside of protected areas and to issues other than recreation...

  20. Problems in complying with regulations related to low activity materials: Nuclear fuel cycle issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coates, R.

    1997-01-01

    The range of issues relating to exemption and clearance within the nuclear fuel cycle is reviewed. It is concluded that current regulatory systems and the underpinning technical criteria are potentially inflexible and over-conservative, resulting in an imbalance in the use of society's resources. Proposals are developed for establishing practical requirements which would ensure that resource allocation is commensurate with the magnitude of the risks and in broad proportion to the other risks affecting society. Such an approach would be consistent with the concept of sustainability and could support wider public acceptance of these issues. Within this approach the practical distinction between exemption and clearance is challenged. (author)

  1. Personalized medicine and the role of health economics and outcomes research: issues, applications, emerging trends, and future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, John C

    2013-01-01

    illuminate issues related to the intersection of personalized medicine and comparative effectiveness; use of personalized medicine approaches in drug development; methodological challenges; and payer approaches to evaluation and reimbursement of pharmacodiagnostics in the United States and Europe. It concludes with a look ahead, underscoring current controversies yet to be resolved along with their implications for further research and policy. It is hoped that these articles will help inform the daily challenges faced by the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) community as it collectively addresses what promises to be a new era in drug development and health care delivery. Copyright © 2013, International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Climate and climate-related issues for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeslund, Jens-Ove

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to document current scientific knowledge of the climate-related conditions and processes relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment SR-Can. The report also includes a concise background description of the climate system. The report includes three main chapters: A description of the climate system (Chapter 2); Identification and discussion of climate-related issues (Chapter 3); and, A description of the evolution of climate-related conditions for the safety assessment (Chapter 4). Chapter 2 includes an overview of present knowledge of the Earth climate system and the climate conditions that can be expected to occur in Sweden on a 100,000 year time perspective. Based on this, climate-related issues relevant for the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository are identified. These are documented in Chapter 3 'Climate-related issues' to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment. Finally, in Chapter 4, 'Evolution of climate-related conditions for the safety assessment' an evolution for a 120,000 year period is presented, including discussions of identified climate-related issues of importance for repository safety. The documentation is from a scientific point of view not exhaustive, since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of a safety assessment. As further described in the SR-Can Main Report and in the Features Events and Processes report, the content of the present report has been audited by comparison with FEP databases compiled in other assessment projects. This report follows as far as possible the template for documentation of processes regarded as internal to the repository system. However, the term processes is not used in this report, instead the term issue has been used. Each issue includes a set of processes together resulting in the behaviour of a

  3. Climate and climate-related issues for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeslund, Jens-Ove (comp.)

    2006-11-15

    The purpose of this report is to document current scientific knowledge of the climate-related conditions and processes relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment SR-Can. The report also includes a concise background description of the climate system. The report includes three main chapters: A description of the climate system (Chapter 2); Identification and discussion of climate-related issues (Chapter 3); and, A description of the evolution of climate-related conditions for the safety assessment (Chapter 4). Chapter 2 includes an overview of present knowledge of the Earth climate system and the climate conditions that can be expected to occur in Sweden on a 100,000 year time perspective. Based on this, climate-related issues relevant for the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository are identified. These are documented in Chapter 3 'Climate-related issues' to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment. Finally, in Chapter 4, 'Evolution of climate-related conditions for the safety assessment' an evolution for a 120,000 year period is presented, including discussions of identified climate-related issues of importance for repository safety. The documentation is from a scientific point of view not exhaustive, since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of a safety assessment. As further described in the SR-Can Main Report and in the Features Events and Processes report, the content of the present report has been audited by comparison with FEP databases compiled in other assessment projects. This report follows as far as possible the template for documentation of processes regarded as internal to the repository system. However, the term processes is not used in this report, instead the term issue has been used. Each issue includes a set of processes together resulting in the

  4. News Related to Future GDP Growth as a Risk Factor in Equity Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Vassalou, Maria

    2001-01-01

    A model that includes a factor that captures news related to future Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth along with the market factor can explain the cross-section of equity returns about as well as the Fama-French model can. Furthermore, the Fama-French factors HML and SMB appear to contain mainly news related to future GDP growth. When news related to future GDP growth is present in the asset-pricing model, HML and SMB lose their ability to explain the cross-section.

  5. Challenges and future direction of molecular research in air pollution-related lung cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahadin, Maizatul Syafinaz; Ab Mutalib, Nurul Syakima; Latif, Mohd Talib; Greene, Catherine M; Hassan, Tidi

    2018-04-01

    Hazardous air pollutants or chemical release into the environment by a variety of natural and/or anthropogenic activities may give adverse effects to human health. Air pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), heavy metals and particulate matter (PM) affect number of different human organs, especially the respiratory system. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reported that ambient air pollution is a cause of lung cancer. Recently, the agency has classified outdoor air pollution as well as PM air pollution as Group 1 carcinogens. In addition, several epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between air pollutants to lung cancer risks and mortality. However, there are only a few studies examining the molecular effects of air pollution exposure specifically in lung cancer due to multiple challenges to mimic air pollution exposure in basic experimentation. Another major issue is the lack of adequate adjustments for exposure misclassification as air pollution may differ temporo-spatially and socioeconomically. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to review the current molecular understanding of air pollution-related lung cancer and potential future direction in this challenging yet important research field. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Islamic Religious Leaders in Israel as Social Agents for Change on Health-Related Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Dar, Michal; Obeid, Samira

    2017-12-01

    Islamic religious leaders (IRLs) have the potential to influence health education, health promotion, and positive health outcomes among their own communities. This study aims to examine the role and effectiveness of Arab Muslim religious leaders, in Israel, as social agents for change on health-related issues, focusing on reduction in infant mortality, prematurity, and congenital malformations attributed to consanguineous marriage. A self-administrated questionnaire was distributed to 127 IRLs, in 2012, to gain insights into practice, attitudes, and perceptions of IRLs toward their role as social agents for change on health-related issues. The results indicate that two-thirds (58%) of the surveyed IRLs have provided frequent advice on issues related to preventing infant mortality, congenital malformation, and prematurity over the past two years. Most IRLs indicated that they have keen interest in their communities' health matters (97%) and regard dealing with them as part of their job (85%). The study identified three enabling factors that had significant influence on the IRLs' attitude. These influences are: awareness and knowledge of the health issues, the perception that these issues and their impact on the community are part of their responsibility, and the empowerment they felt through the participation in the Ministry of Health (Northern Region Health Office) educational seminar series, in the year 2000. The main conclusion from this study indicates that IRLs are effective social agents for change and that the educational interventions can be a useful and effective strategy to encourage IRLs to cooperate with health providers and promote public health among their own communities.

  7. Relations between Self Regulation, Future Time Perspective and the Delay of Gratification in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Suleyman

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted on 508 (331 female, 144 male) first grade university students in order to investigate the relations between self regulation, the future time perspectives, and the delay of gratification in the academic field. A future time perspective scale, an academic delay of gratification scale and a motivational strategies for…

  8. Google and Women's Health-Related Issues: What Does the Search Engine Data Reveal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baazeem, Mazin; Abenhaim, Haim

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the gaps in public knowledge of women's health related issues has always been difficult. With the increasing number of Internet users in the United States, we sought to use the Internet as a tool to help us identify such gaps and to estimate women's most prevalent health concerns by examining commonly searched health-related keywords in Google search engine. We collected a large pool of possible search keywords from two independent practicing obstetrician/gynecologists and classified them into five main categories (obstetrics, gynecology, infertility, urogynecology/menopause and oncology), and measured the monthly average search volume within the United States for each keyword with all its possible combinations using Google AdWords tool. We found that pregnancy related keywords were less frequently searched in general compared to other categories with an average of 145,400 hits per month for the top twenty keywords. Among the most common pregnancy-related keywords was "pregnancy and sex' while pregnancy-related diseases were uncommonly searched. HPV alone was searched 305,400 times per month. Of the cancers affecting women, breast cancer was the most commonly searched with an average of 247,190 times per month, followed by cervical cancer then ovarian cancer. The commonly searched keywords are often issues that are not discussed in our daily practice as well as in public health messages. The search volume is relatively related to disease prevalence with the exception of ovarian cancer which could signify a public fear.

  9. Leveraging People-Related Maturity Issues for Achieving Higher Maturity and Capability Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buglione, Luigi

    During the past 20 years Maturity Models (MM) become a buzzword in the ICT world. Since the initial Crosby's idea in 1979, plenty of models have been created in the Software & Systems Engineering domains, addressing various perspectives. By analyzing the content of the Process Reference Models (PRM) in many of them, it can be noticed that people-related issues have little weight in the appraisals of the capabilities of organizations while in practice they are considered as significant contributors in traditional process and organizational performance appraisals, as stressed instead in well-known Performance Management models such as MBQA, EFQM and BSC. This paper proposes some ways for leveraging people-related maturity issues merging HR practices from several types of maturity models into the organizational Business Process Model (BPM) in order to achieve higher organizational maturity and capability levels.

  10. Ethical issues related to computerised family medical histories in sickle cell disease: Inforare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franrenet, Sandra; Duchange, Nathalie; Galactéros, Fréderic; Quantin, Catherine; Cohen, Olivier; Nzouakou, Ruben; Sudraud, Sophie; Hervé, Christian; Moutel, Grégoire

    2010-10-01

    The Inforare project aims to set up a system for the sharing of clinical and familial data, in order to study how genes are related to the severity of sickle cell disease. While the computerisation of clinical records represents a valuable research goal, an ethical framework is necessary to guarantee patients' protection and their rights in this developing field. Issues relating to patient information during the Inforare study were analysed by the steering committee. Several major concerns were discussed by the committee and formalized in the patients' information letter: educating patients to aid the recruitment of family members, rules of confidentiality and the disclosure of aggregate, individual and unexpected research results. This paper presents the main issues addressed.

  11. Experimental programs and facilities for ASTRID development related to the Severe Accident Issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Journeau, C.; Suteau, C.; Trotignon, L.; Willermoz, G.; Ducros, G.; Courouau, J.L.; Ruggieri, J.M.; Serre, F.

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive experimental program has been launched in order to gain new data in support of the severe accident studies related to the ASTRID demonstrator. The main new issues with respect to the historic experimental database are mainly related to new design options: heterogeneous core with thick pins; new materials; new severe accident mitigation systems such as - corium discharge channels; - core-catcher with sacrificial materials; - some issues remaining open as Fuel Coolant Interaction. Experiments are needed both in-pile and out of pile: - Depending on the objectives, the out of pile experiments can be conducted - with simulant; - with prototypic corium; - or with irradiated fuel. A new large scale corium facility, FOURNAISE, must be built to fulfill this program. Already, experimental R&D started in existing facilities, such as VITI or CORRONA

  12. Shared constitutional risks for maternal vascular-related pregnancy complications and future cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L. Berends (Anne); C.J.M. de Groot (Christianne); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); M.P.S. Sie (Mark); S.H. Benneheij (Sofie); R. Pal (Richard); R. Heydanus (Rogier); B.A. Oostra (Ben); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractMaternal predisposition to vascular and metabolic disease may underlie both vascular-related pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction, as well as future maternal cardiovascular disease. We aimed to substantiate this hypothesis with biochemical and

  13. An interpretation of schedule 1 of the Radioactive Substances Act 1993 and related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.; Wakerley, M.W.

    2000-09-01

    Schedule 1 of the UK's Radioactive Substances Act 1993 was originally Schedule 3 of the 1960 Act of the same name. It is possible that different methods are currently being employed to interpret how Schedule 1 should be used. This report provides an interpretation and guidance on this and related issues. It is primarily for technical specialists already familiar with the workings of the Act. This report covers the period 1999/2000

  14. Using Agent Based Distillation to Explore Issues Related to Asymmetric Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    official definition of asymmetric warfare , considering that its use was redundant to irregular warfare [30]. 2 Such as the Lanchester Equations...RTP-MP-MSG-069 23 - 1 Using Agent Based Distillation to Explore Issues Related to Asymmetric Warfare Martin Adelantado, Jean-Michel Mathé...shows that both conventional and asymmetric warfare are characterised by nonlinear behaviours and that engagement is a Complex Adaptive System (CAS

  15. Materials compatibility issues related to thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faget, N. M.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to results obtained to date in developmental investigations of a thermal energy storage (TES) system for the projected NASA Space Station's solar dynamic power system; these tests have concentrated on issues related to materials compatibility for phase change materials (PCMs) and their containment vessels' materials. The five PCMs tested have melting temperatures that correspond to the operating temperatures of either the Brayton or Rankine heat engines, which were independently chosen for their high energy densities.

  16. Methodological and theoretical issues in the comparative analysis of gender relations in Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    S Walby

    1994-01-01

    The aim in this paper is to contribute to the development of a research agenda for the comparative analysis of gender relations in Western Europe. Its focus is the clarification of the methodological and theoretical issues involved. Several different indices of gender inequality are assessed. It is argued that it is important to distinguish between the form and degree of patriarchy, rather than assuming that these are closely associated. Data from the EC and Scandinavia are used to illustrate...

  17. Human–environment interactions in urban green spaces — A systematic review of contemporary issues and prospects for future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabisch, Nadja; Qureshi, Salman; Haase, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    Scientific papers on landscape planning underline the importance of maintaining and developing green spaces because of their multiple environmental and social benefits for city residents. However, a general understanding of contemporary human–environment interaction issues in urban green space is still incomplete and lacks orientation for urban planners. This review examines 219 publications to (1) provide an overview of the current state of research on the relationship between humans and urban green space, (2) group the different research approaches by identifying the main research areas, methods, and target groups, and (3) highlight important future prospects in urban green space research. - Highlights: • Reviewed literature on urban green pins down a dearth of comparative studies. • Case studies in Africa and Russia are marginalized – the Europe and US dominate. • Questionnaires are used as major tool followed by GIS and quantitative approaches. • Developing countries should contribute in building an urban green space agenda. • Interdisciplinary, adaptable and pluralistic approaches can satiate a knowledge gap

  18. Human–environment interactions in urban green spaces — A systematic review of contemporary issues and prospects for future research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabisch, Nadja, E-mail: nadja.kabisch@geo.hu-berlin.de [Institute of Geography, Humboldt-University Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Department of Urban and Environmental Sociology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Qureshi, Salman [Institute of Geography, Humboldt-University Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany); School of Architecture, Birmingham Institute of Art and Design, Birmingham City University, The Parkside Building, 5 Cardigan Street, Birmingham B4 7BD (United Kingdom); Haase, Dagmar [Institute of Geography, Humboldt-University Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Department of Computational Landscape Ecology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    Scientific papers on landscape planning underline the importance of maintaining and developing green spaces because of their multiple environmental and social benefits for city residents. However, a general understanding of contemporary human–environment interaction issues in urban green space is still incomplete and lacks orientation for urban planners. This review examines 219 publications to (1) provide an overview of the current state of research on the relationship between humans and urban green space, (2) group the different research approaches by identifying the main research areas, methods, and target groups, and (3) highlight important future prospects in urban green space research. - Highlights: • Reviewed literature on urban green pins down a dearth of comparative studies. • Case studies in Africa and Russia are marginalized – the Europe and US dominate. • Questionnaires are used as major tool followed by GIS and quantitative approaches. • Developing countries should contribute in building an urban green space agenda. • Interdisciplinary, adaptable and pluralistic approaches can satiate a knowledge gap.

  19. Tooth wear and erosion: methodological issues in epidemiological and public health research and the future research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganss, C; Young, A; Lussi, A

    2011-09-01

    This paper addresses methodological issues in the field of tooth wear and erosion research including the epidemiological indices, and identifies future work that is needed to improve knowledge about tooth wear and erosion. The paper is result of the work done at the meetings of the Special Interest Group "Tooth Surface Loss and Erosion" at the 2008, 2009 and 2010 conferences of the European Association for Dental Public Health, and the Workshop "Current Erosion indices- flawed or valid" which took place in Basel in 2007. Although there is consensus about the definition and the diagnostic criteria of various forms of tooth wear, gaps in research strategies have been identified. A basic problem is that fundamental concepts of wear and erosion as an oral health problem, have not yet been sufficiently defined. To a certain extent, tooth wear is a physiological condition, and there is no consensus as to whether it can be regarded as a disease. Furthermore, the multitude of indices and flaws in existing indices, make published data difficult to interpret. Topics for the research agenda are: the initiation of a consensus process towards an internationally accepted index, and the initiation of data collection on the prevalence of various forms of wear on a population-based level. There should be an emphasis on promoting communication between basic and clinical sciences, and the area of Public Health Dentistry. Furthermore, the question of whether tooth wear is a public health problem remains open for debate.

  20. Finding online health-related information: usability issues of health portals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurel Koybasi, Nergis A; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2012-01-01

    As Internet and computers become widespread, health portals offering online health-related information become more popular. The most important point for health portals is presenting reliable and valid information. Besides, portal needs to be usable to be able to serve information to users effectively. This study aims to determine usability issues emerging when health-related information is searched on a health portal. User-based usability tests are conducted and eye movement analyses are used in addition to traditional performance measures. Results revealed that users prefer systematic, simple and consistent designs offering interactive tools. Moreover, content and partitions needs to be shaped according to the medical knowledge of target users.

  1. Future Contingents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Hasle., Per F. V.

    2015-01-01

    contingent statements. The problem of future contingents is interwoven with a number of issues in theology, philosophy, logic, semantics of natural language, computer science, and applied mathematics. The theological issue of how to reconcile the assumption of God's foreknowledge with the freedom and moral...... accountability of human beings has been a main impetus to the discussion and a major inspiration to the development of various logical models of time and future contingents. This theological issue is connected with the general philosophical question of determinism versus indeterminism. Within logic, the relation...... about the future. Finally, it should be mentioned that temporal logic has found a remarkable application in computer science and applied mathematics. In the late 1970s the first computer scientists realised the relevance of temporal logic for the purposes of computer science (see Hasle and Øhrstrøm 2004)....

  2. Future Contingents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Hasle., Per F. V.

    2011-01-01

    contingent statements. The problem of future contingents is interwoven with a number of issues in theology, philosophy, logic, semantics of natural language, computer science, and applied mathematics. The theological issue of how to reconcile the assumption of God's foreknowledge with the freedom and moral...... accountability of human beings has been a main impetus to the discussion and a major inspiration to the development of various logical models of time and future contingents. This theological issue is connected with the general philosophical question of determinism versus indeterminism. Within logic, the relation...... about the future. Finally, it should be mentioned that temporal logic has found a remarkable application in computer science and applied mathematics. In the late 1970s the first computer scientists realised the relevance of temporal logic for the purposes of computer science (see Hasle and Øhrstrøm 2004)....

  3. Proceedings of the fifth national symposium on environment: focal theme environmental issues related to mining, milling and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, V.N.; Bapat, V.N.; Desai, M.V.M.

    1996-02-01

    The fifth National Symposium on Environment was held in Calcutta from February 28 to March 1, 1996. It focused on environmental issues related to mining, milling and metallurgy. Some of the topics covered are coal mining and related environmental issues, chromium mining and associated environmental problems, heavy metals especially nuclear materials and the environmental management strategies, arsenic contamination in water in West Bengal areas and radiological issues related to fertilizers and gypsum industries. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately. refs., figs., tabs

  4. Teacher formation related to socio-scientific issues: complexity, contributions and limitations of an educational practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariuce Campos de Moraes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This reflection refers to teacher formation related to socio-scientific issues. Whereas such matters take into account the impact of scientific development in society, including ethical aspects and encompass dilemmas involving a wide range of prospects for its resolution, we propose analysis of the complexity that is inherent in their teaching. Thus, we aimed to analyze different spaces and teaching time that produce and are produced in close linkage between theory and practice, as well as their contributions and limitations. The study required a dynamic conversation system that led to the analysis indicators. The issue of sustainability was shown to be feasible for educational planning as cover technical and scientific knowledge, ethical, social and economic pressures. The collective production allowed understand arguments and reflective-creative processes. The lived relations in schools has accompanied and limited the ideas expressed on the socio-scientific issues. We understand that the simultaneity of research and reflection in the sociocultural context has strengthened teacher formation.

  5. Survey of Indian issues in the state of New Mexico relating to uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandevender, S.G.; Barsumian, L.; Gurbaxani, S.H.

    1979-11-01

    Estimates of Indian uranium resources range from 11 to 50% of the US total resources. About 17% of New Mexico's reserves are known to be on Indian lands. New Mexico has produced almost half of the nation's uranium supply; over half of the known reserves are located within the state. However, the state has virtually no jurisdiction over development of Indian uranium. As a result, economic and environmental impacts on the state are beyond its control. The lack of state and federal control over these impacts is influencing how the Indians allow development to proceed. The impacts of Indian uranium development also influence state control of non-Indian. To the extent that these controls affect the availability of uranium concentrate, DOE needs to understand the issues involved. This issue paper identifies some of the related problems for both the Indians and the state and explores the reasons behind them

  6. Unsolved issues related to thermal-hydraulics in the suppression chamber during Fukushima Daiichi accident progressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizokami, Shinya; Yamada, Daichi; Honda, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Daisuke; Yamanaka, Yasunori

    2016-01-01

    On 11 March 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami hit the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. The Fukushima Daiichi Units 1-3 lost all DC and AC power supplies, which set in motion a chain of events that led to releases of radioactivity to the environment. Since then, TEPCO has made many efforts to investigate the accident progressions and the status of the reactors and containment vessels. However, there still exist several tens of unsolved issues to be investigated for the fully understanding of the accident. In this paper, we introduce the unsolved issues related to thermal-hydraulics in the suppression chamber during the Fukushima Daiichi accident progressions. Especially, in Units 2 and 3, there are possibilities that thermal stratification inside their suppression chambers played an important role. It is important that these phenomena are addressed following both theoretical and experimental approaches as support to severe accident simulations. (author)

  7. Current ethical and legal issues in health-related direct-to-consumer genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Emilia; Kalokairinou, Louiza; Howard, Heidi Carmen

    2017-09-01

    A variety of health-related genetic testing is currently advertized directly to consumers. This article provides a timely overview of direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC GT) and salient ethical issues, as well as an analysis of the impact of the recently adopted regulation on in vitro diagnostic medical devices on DTC GT. DTC GT companies currently employ new testing approaches, report on a wide spectrum of conditions and target new groups of consumers. Such activities raise ethical issues including the questionable analytic and clinical validity of tests, the adequacy of informed consent, potentially misleading advertizing, testing in children, research uses and commercialization of genomic data. The recently adopted regulation on in vitro diagnostic medical devices may limit the offers of predisposition DTC GT in the EU market.

  8. Issues relating to the siting of tritium-fueled fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, H.J.; Holland, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    A preconceptual design study and safety analysis of the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) was conducted in 1984 for the Department of Energy. This paper summarizes the calculations and comparisons related to TFCX siting and environmental issues such as radiological doses to the public living near the facility. Included are discussions of (a) routine and accidental releases of tritium, (b) routine releases of activated air, (c) direct radiation (including ''skyshine''), and (d) seismic criteria. Other potential issues are also discussed including the amount of tritium that might be retained in the graphite armor in the torus, the possible severity of magnet accidents, and the extent of damage due to plasma disruptions. The conclusions drawn from these calculations should be applicable to some of the other planned ignited core experiments that have operating parameters similar to those of TFCX

  9. Issues relating to the siting of tritium-fueled fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, H.J.; Holland, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    A preconceptual design study and safety analysis of the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) was conducted in 1984 for the Department of Energy. This paper summarizes the calculations and comparisons related to TFCX siting and environmental issues such as radiological doses to the public living near the facility. Included are discussions of (a) routine and accidental releases of tritium, (b) routine releases of activated air, (c) direct radiation (including skyshine), and (d) seismic criteria. Other potential issues are also discussed including the amount of tritium that might be retained in the graphite armor in the torus, the possible severity of magnet accidents, and the extent of damage due to plasma disruptions. The conclusions drawn from these calculations should be applicable to some of the other planned ignited core experiments that have operating parameters similar to those of TFCX

  10. Examining the support needs of ageing family carers in developing future plans for a relative with an intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Laurence; Truesdale-Kennedy, Maria; Ryan, Assumpta; McConkey, Roy

    2012-09-01

    Planning for the future care of adults with an intellectual disability after the main family carer ceases their care, continues to be a sensitive and difficult time posing challenges for service providers internationally. Limited research has been undertaken on this topic because until recently, people with intellectual disability usually pre-deceased their parents. This study examined ageing carers' preferences for future care and the support systems required to make such future plans. The study was conducted in one region of the United Kingdom with a high proportion of family carers. A mixed methods design was employed. In Stage 1, a structured questionnaire was used to collate information on the health, caregiving demands and future planning preferences of 112 parent and sibling carers; aged 60-94 years. In Stage 2, 19 in-depth semistructured interviews were undertaken with a sample of carers to explore a range of issues around future planning. Over half of the carers were lone carers, mainly female, with many reporting a wide range of health problems. A third of these carers reported that their caregiving resulted in high levels of anxiety. The main preference of the carers was for the person to remain in the family home, with either the family and/or paid staff to support them. A minority of parent carers preferred the person to move into the home of a sibling, although some favoured the person moving to a residential facility with other people with intellectual disabilities. The majority of carers did not want their relative to move into an older people's residential/nursing facility. In the qualitative data, four main themes were identified around future planning: unremitting apprehension, the extent of planning, obstacles encountered and solutions for future planning. Avoidance, lack of guidance and a lack of appropriate residential provision were cited as obstacles to making future plans compounded by the emotional upset experienced by carers in thinking

  11. The historical aspects and current issues of the development of Russian-Lithuanian economic relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin Gennady

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on development of Russian-Lithuanian economic ties. The research and practical significance of this study lies in the identification of the sources of modern Russian-Lithuanian economic cooperation and the prospects of future mutually beneficial economic relations. The first attempt at establishing economic relations was made in 1919. However, young Lithuanian Republic gravitated towards the West, severing ties with the Russian market. However, the initiatives of Lithuanian authorities did not result in successful state building, and the economic situation remained unchanged. The USSR leadership made an effort to improve the living conditions in post-war Lithuania. There were some mistakes made in the relations with the local population that resulted in Lithuanians’ resistance to sovietisation. However, in the conditions of post-war restoration of national economy and acute deficit of material and human resources, the Soviet leadership managed not only to reform and develop a socialistic economy in Lithuania but also to turn it into an industrial republic with developed agriculture and modern manufacturing facilities, whose major industries manufactured products used in nuclear and space technologies, aviation and navigation. The research shows that the post-Soviet period led to a dramatic change in Russian-Lithuanian economic relations; however, these relations retained potential for future development.

  12. Current research issues related to post-wildfire runoff and erosion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, John A.; Shakesby, Richard A.; Robichaud, Peter R.; Cannon, Susan H.; Martin, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    Research into post-wildfire effects began in the United States more than 70 years ago and only later extended to other parts of the world. Post-wildfire responses are typically transient, episodic, variable in space and time, dependent on thresholds, and involve multiple processes measured by different methods. These characteristics tend to hinder research progress, but the large empirical knowledge base amassed in different regions of the world suggests that it should now be possible to synthesize the data and make a substantial improvement in the understanding of post-wildfire runoff and erosion response. Thus, it is important to identify and prioritize the research issues related to post-wildfire runoff and erosion. Priority research issues are the need to: (1) organize and synthesize similarities and differences in post-wildfire responses between different fire-prone regions of the world in order to determine common patterns and generalities that can explain cause and effect relations; (2) identify and quantify functional relations between metrics of fire effects and soil hydraulic properties that will better represent the dynamic and transient conditions after a wildfire; (3) determine the interaction between burned landscapes and temporally and spatially variable meso-scale precipitation, which is often the primary driver of post-wildfire runoff and erosion responses; (4) determine functional relations between precipitation, basin morphology, runoff connectivity, contributing area, surface roughness, depression storage, and soil characteristics required to predict the timing, magnitudes, and duration of floods and debris flows from ungaged burned basins; and (5) develop standard measurement methods that will ensure the collection of uniform and comparable runoff and erosion data. Resolution of these issues will help to improve conceptual and computer models of post-wildfire runoff and erosion processes.

  13. Greenland as a self-governing sub-national territory in international relations: past, current and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackrén, Maria; Jakobsen, Uffe

    2015-01-01

    Greenland was used by the US as a platform and as an extended arm within its security and foreign policy during the World War II and the cold war. After this things changed, although Greenland remained important in Danish-US relations under the umbrella of NATO. Nowadays, the geostrategic position...... of Greenland between North America and Europe is gaining fresh prominence in the race for natural resources in the Arctic. Many issues arise from the prospective opening of the Arctic, all of which may have fateful impacts on future development in the region. Climate change, claims related to the extension....... This article reviews developments from the World War II to the present regarding international relations from a Greenlandic perspective. As a self-governing sub-national territory within the realm of Denmark, Greenland does not have the ultimate decision-making power within foreign and security policy. The new...

  14. Review of spent fuel related issues in SKB's SR 97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grambow, B. [Ecole des Mines de Nantes (France). SUBATECH-Laboratory

    2000-12-01

    The solid waste form 'spent fuel' constitutes both the dominant radionuclide source as well as a first radionuclide retention barrier of a planned future high level nuclear waste isolation systems in deep granite formations. In order to evaluate the performance of spent fuel as part of the multibarrier containment system in a deep repository, the radionuclide release properties in groundwater must be predicted over very long time periods. Radionuclide release is not an inherent materials property of the fuel but depends, besides fuel specific parameters, mainly on time but as well on the geochemical and hydraulic environment of the disposal location. The study SR 97 documents the large effort of SKB to assess the long-term performance of a repository containing spent nuclear fuel. Scenario and consequence analyses are clearly described, considering major physical and chemical interactions of the various components of the multi-barrier isolation system. The approach attempts to assess both a realistic and a pessimistic evolution scenario. The present report attempts to evaluate whether this approach is thoroughly carried through to assess the performance of spent nuclear fuel in a repository. Main issues are radionuclide inventories and inventory distribution between structural parts of the fuel assembly and the fuel matrix, potential fuel alteration prior to water access, as well as models for fuel matrix dissolution and instant release fractions. Uncertainties in radionuclide inventories are discussed and were found for many radionuclides to be higher than assumed in SR 97. This is particularly true for Cl-36. This nuclide is a potential key biosphere dose contributor in various international safety assessments. Of particular importance are uncertainties related to the partition of radionuclides between metallic parts of the fuel assembly and the fuel matrix, since inventories of metallic parts are considered to be released instantaneously. Using C-14 as

  15. A systematic review of methodology applied during preclinical anesthetic neurotoxicity studies: important issues and lessons relevant to the design of future clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disma, Nicola; Mondardini, Maria C; Terrando, Niccolò; Absalom, Anthony R; Bilotta, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical evidence suggests that anesthetic agents harm the developing brain thereby causing long-term neurocognitive impairments. It is not clear if these findings apply to humans, and retrospective epidemiological studies thus far have failed to show definitive evidence that anesthetic agents are harmful to the developing human brain. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the preclinical studies published over the past decade, with a focus on methodological issues, to facilitate the comparison between different preclinical studies and inform better design of future trials. The literature search identified 941 articles related to the topic of neurotoxicity. As the primary aim of this systematic review was to compare methodologies applied in animal studies to inform future trials, we excluded a priori all articles focused on putative mechanism of neurotoxicity and the neuroprotective agents. Forty-seven preclinical studies were finally included in this review. Methods used in these studies were highly heterogeneous-animals were exposed to anesthetic agents at different developmental stages, in various doses and in various combinations with other drugs, and overall showed diverse toxicity profiles. Physiological monitoring and maintenance of physiological homeostasis was variable and the use of cognitive tests was generally limited to assessment of specific brain areas, with restricted translational relevance to humans. Comparison between studies is thus complicated by this heterogeneous methodology and the relevance of the combined body of literature to humans remains uncertain. Future preclinical studies should use better standardized methodologies to facilitate transferability of findings from preclinical into clinical science. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Hospital Malnutrition Related to Fasting and Underfeeding: Is It an Ethical Issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas Moya, Diego; Plascencia Gaitán, Alejandra; Ornelas Camacho, Denisse; Arenas Márquez, Humberto

    2016-06-01

    Hospital malnutrition is a relevant clinical issue present in about 50% of patients that is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and cost of care. Because of the relation of malnutrition with chronic and acute inflammatory processes secondary to disease, nutrition therapy is considered an important medical treatment. However, there is little discussion about the impact of another critical issue related to hospital malnutrition, that is, lack of appropriate food or nutrition therapy given to the patients. Unnecessary fasting practices and the use of inappropriate nutrition prescriptions result in underfeeding that can be a related or direct cause of hospital malnutrition, independent of disease or inflammatory state. Suboptimal prescription of oral, enteral, and parenteral nutrition should be analyzed and discussed from an ethical perspective since this practice has the potential to harm patients. In addition, absence or inadequate provision of nutrition may present barriers for improved patient outcomes and could be prevented by simply recognizing lack of knowledge, skills, or experience in nutrition and entrusting nutrition prescription to interdisciplinary teams with clinicians well prepared in nutrition sciences. This article reviews potential barriers to the prevention or treatment of hospital malnutrition and proposes specific actions that can help clinicians to overcome and implement optimal nutrition not just as medical therapy but also as a basic comfort care that may help patients nutritionally, clinically, physically, and emotionally. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  17. Current issues relating to psychosocial job strain and cardiovascular disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theorell, T; Karasek, R A

    1996-01-01

    The authors comment on recent reviews of cardiovascular job strain research by P. L. Schnall and P. A. Landsbergis (1994), and by T. S. Kristensen (1995), which conclude that job strain as defined by the demand-control model (the combination of contributions of low job decision latitudes and high psychological job demands) is confirmed as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in a large majority of studies. Lack of social support at work appears to further increase risk. Several still-unresolved research questions are examined in light of recent studies: (a) methodological issues related to use of occupational aggregate estimations and occupational career aggregate assessments, use of standard scales for job analysis and recall bias issues in self-reporting; (b) confounding factors and differential strengths of association by subgroups in job strain-cardiovascular disease analyses with respect to social class, gender, and working hours; and (c) review of results of monitoring job strain-blood pressure associations and associated methodological issues.

  18. Environmental, health and safety issues related to commercializing CuInSe{sub 2}-based photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberspacher, C. [UNISUN, Newbury Park, CA (United States); Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowtiz, P.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Photovoltaics technology is rapidly evolving towards a new generation of low-cost thin film technologies. One of the most promising materials in this new generation is copper indium selenide (CuInSe{sub 2} or CIS). As with any new material, successful commercialization of CIS photovoltaic (PV) technology will require attention to environmental, health and safety issues, including consideration of the sources, usage, and end-of-product-life disposal and/or recycling of the constituent materials. This work focuses on three specific environmental, health and safety (EH and S) issues related to CIS PV: (1) economics are analyzed to determine their impact on materials use and re-use; (2) Federal and California State environmental disposal and waste handling regulations are analyzed to evaluate their impact on PV module manufacturing and end-of-life module handling; and (3) the logistics and economics of product recycling and waste disposal by industries with comparable EH and S issues are examined to quantify the corresponding options available for handling, disposing of and/or recycling manufacturing by-products and end-of-life modules.

  19. Impact of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) on patient health-related behaviors and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polen, Hyla H; Khanfar, Nile M; Clauson, Kevin A

    2009-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry spends billions of dollars annually on direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA). Patient perspectives on the impact of televised DTCA on health-related behaviors and issues were assessed by means of a 68-question survey. 58.6% of respondents believed that DTCA allowed consumers to have a more active role in managing their health. However, 27.6% felt DTCA caused confusion, and an alarming 17.8% of respondents stopped taking their medication because of concerns about serious side effects mentioned in DTCA. Overall, participants believed DTCA plays a useful role in health self-management; however, a considerable percentage thought that the cost outweighs the benefits.

  20. Text mining of cancer-related information: review of current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasić, Irena; Livsey, Jacqueline; Keane, John A; Nenadić, Goran

    2014-09-01

    This paper reviews the research literature on text mining (TM) with the aim to find out (1) which cancer domains have been the subject of TM efforts, (2) which knowledge resources can support TM of cancer-related information and (3) to what extent systems that rely on knowledge and computational methods can convert text data into useful clinical information. These questions were used to determine the current state of the art in this particular strand of TM and suggest future directions in TM development to support cancer research. A review of the research on TM of cancer-related information was carried out. A literature search was conducted on the Medline database as well as IEEE Xplore and ACM digital libraries to address the interdisciplinary nature of such research. The search results were supplemented with the literature identified through Google Scholar. A range of studies have proven the feasibility of TM for extracting structured information from clinical narratives such as those found in pathology or radiology reports. In this article, we provide a critical overview of the current state of the art for TM related to cancer. The review highlighted a strong bias towards symbolic methods, e.g. named entity recognition (NER) based on dictionary lookup and information extraction (IE) relying on pattern matching. The F-measure of NER ranges between 80% and 90%, while that of IE for simple tasks is in the high 90s. To further improve the performance, TM approaches need to deal effectively with idiosyncrasies of the clinical sublanguage such as non-standard abbreviations as well as a high degree of spelling and grammatical errors. This requires a shift from rule-based methods to machine learning following the success of similar trends in biological applications of TM. Machine learning approaches require large training datasets, but clinical narratives are not readily available for TM research due to privacy and confidentiality concerns. This issue remains the main

  1. Relative efficacy of drugs: an emerging issue between regulatory agencies and third-party payers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Hans-Georg; Bloechl-Daum, Brigitte; Abadie, Eric; Barnett, David; König, Franz; Pearson, Steven

    2010-04-01

    Drug regulatory agencies have traditionally assessed the quality, safety and efficacy of drugs, and the current paradigm dictates that a new drug should be licensed when the benefits outweigh the risks. By contrast, third-party payers base their reimbursement decisions predominantly on the health benefits of the drug relative to existing treatment options (termed relative efficacy; RE). Over the past decade, the role of payers has become more prominent, and time-to-market no longer means time-to-licensing but time-to-reimbursement. Companies now have to satisfy the sometimes divergent needs of both regulators and payers, and to address RE during the pre-marketing stages. This article describes the current political background to the RE debate and presents the scientific and methodological challenges as they relate to RE assessment. In addition, we explain the impact of RE on drug development, and speculate on future developments and actions that are likely to be required from key players.

  2. 17 CFR 230.488 - Effective date of registration statements relating to securities to be issued in certain business...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... statements relating to securities to be issued in certain business combination transactions. 230.488 Section... REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Investment Companies; Business Development Companies § 230.488 Effective date of registration statements relating to securities to be issued in certain business combination...

  3. US National Climate Assessment (NCA) Scenarios for Assessing Our Climate Future: Issues and Methodological Perspectives Background Whitepaper for Participants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Richard H.; Engle, Nathan L.; Hall, John; Jacobs, Kathy; Lempert, Rob; Mearns, L. O.; Melillo, Jerry; Mote, Phil; O' Brien, Sheila; Rosenzweig, C.; Ruane, Alex; Sheppard, Stephen; Vallario, Robert W.; Wiek, Arnim; Wilbanks, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    This whitepaper is intended to provide a starting point for discussion at a workshop for the National Climate Assessment (NCA) that focuses on the use and development of scenarios. The paper will provide background needed by participants in the workshop in order to review options for developing and using scenarios in NCA. The paper briefly defines key terms and establishes a conceptual framework for developing consistent scenarios across different end uses and spatial scales. It reviews uses of scenarios in past U.S. national assessments and identifies potential users of and needs for scenarios for both the report scheduled for release in June 2013 and to support an ongoing distributed assessment process in sectors and regions around the country. Because scenarios prepared for the NCA will need to leverage existing research, the paper takes account of recent scientific advances and activities that could provide needed inputs. Finally, it considers potential approaches for providing methods, data, and other tools for assessment participants. We note that the term 'scenarios' has many meanings. An important goal of the whitepaper (and portions of the workshop agenda) is pedagogical (i.e., to compare different meanings and uses of the term and make assessment participants aware of the need to be explicit about types and uses of scenarios). In climate change research, scenarios have been used to establish bounds for future climate conditions and resulting effects on human and natural systems, given a defined level of greenhouse gas emissions. This quasi-predictive use contrasts with the way decision analysts typically use scenarios (i.e., to consider how robust alternative decisions or strategies may be to variation in key aspects of the future that are uncertain). As will be discussed, in climate change research and assessment, scenarios describe a range of aspects of the future, including major driving forces (both human activities and natural processes

  4. Discussing matters of sexual health with children: what issues relating to disclosure of parental HIV status reveal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sara Liane; Fielding, Katherine; Avalos, Ava; Gaolathe, Tendani; Dickinson, Diana; Geissler, Paul Wenzel

    2009-03-01

    Little is published about the disclosure of parents' own HIV status to their children in Africa. Research shows that keeping family secrets from children, including those related to a parent's HIV status, can be detrimental to their psychological well-being and to the structure of the family. Further, children with HIV-positive parents have been shown to be more vulnerable to poorer reproductive health outcomes. This qualitative study in Botswana conducted in-depth interviews among 21 HIV-positive parents on antiretroviral therapy. The data revealed that parents found discussing the issue of HIV with children difficult, including disclosing their own HIV status to them. Reasons for disclosing included: children being HIV positive, the rest of the family knowing, or the parent becoming very sick. Reasons for not disclosing included: believing the child to be too young, not knowing how to address the issue of HIV, that it would be "too painful" for the child/ren. Concern that other people might find out about their status or fear of children experiencing stigmatising behaviour. Interviews elucidated the difficulty that parents have in discussing their own HIV status and more general sexual health issues with their children. Parents and other guardians require support in managing age-appropriate disclosure to their children. This may further enable access to forums that can help children cope with their fears about the future and develop life skills in preparation for dealing with relationships of a sexual nature and sexual health as children move into adulthood. In developing such support mechanisms, changing family roles in Botswana need to be taken into consideration and the role of other family members in the upbringing of children in Tswana society need to be recognised and utilised.

  5. Developing a research agenda on ethical issues related to using social media in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Samantha A; Van Veghel, Dennis; Dekker, Lukas

    2015-07-01

    The consequences of using publicly available social media applications specifically for healthcare purposes are largely unaddressed in current research. Where they are addressed, the focus is primarily on issues of privacy and data protection. We therefore use a case study of the first live Twitter heart operation in the Netherlands, in combination with recent literature on social media from other academic fields, to identify a wide range of ethical issues related to using social media for health-related purposes. Although this case reflects an innovative approach to public education and patient centeredness, it also illustrates the need for institutions to weigh the various aspects of use and to develop a plan to deal with these on a per case basis. Given the continual development of technologies, researchers may not yet be able to oversee and anticipate all of the potential implications. Further development of a research agenda on this topic, the promotion of guidelines and policies, and the publication of case studies that reveal the granularity of individual situations will therefore help raise awareness and assist physicians and institutions in using social media to support existing care services.

  6. Power system technical performance issues related to the application of long HVAC cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiechowski, on behalf of Cigre WG C4.502, W.; Sluis, L. V. der; Ohno, Teruo

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the progress of work of Cigre Working Group C4.502 “Power system technical performance issues related to the application of long HVAC cables”. The primary goal of the WG C4.502 is to write a technical brochure that will serve as practical guide for performing studies necessary...... for assessing the technical performance of HV/EHV systems with large share of AC cable lines. This paper besides providing a background for formulation of WG C4.502 and its overall aim, describes the tasks that were accomplished before the interim report was submitted to Study Committee C4 System Technical...... Performance in August 2010. The work in the WG is ongoing and final report will be ready according to the time schedule in 2012. The focus of this paper is in particular to show all issues related to system technical performance with assigned weights in terms of their importance and/or uniqueness for cable...

  7. The Issues of Human Rights in the India-U.S. Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharov Aleksey I.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a brief overview of India-U.S. relations during the period of Narendra Modi’s government and Barack Obama’s administration. The author analyzes the dynamics of cooperation development after the victory of Bharatiya Janata Party in the 2014 Parliamentary elections in India and studies the key directions of bilateral agenda. The current condition of India-U.S. strategic dialogue and the influence of human rights issues on the countries’ cooperation are characterized. Since 2014 the states’ cooperation has been growing rapidly. The bilateral investment, trade and economic interdependence have significantly increased. Some experts and mass media note that Barack Obama and Narendra Modi are having friendly relations. From a different angle, a number of agreements between countries still remain unaccomplished. For instance, the U.S. support for India’s permanent seat in the United Nations Security Council, its accession to APEC and the implementation of nuclear deal have yet to be turned into achievement. Together with strengthening the bilateral strategic dialogue, the U.S. has intensified the criticism of India’s human rights record. The main part of it includes the cases of religious intolerance, which are observed in the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom reports and the remarks given by U.S. lawmakers and official representatives, including the Ambassador to India. Washington’s careful attention to the human rights issues and religious violence in particular is one of the major irritants in the U.S.-India relations. The engagement of Indian Americans in the local U.S. politics and their lobbying efforts in the context of U.S.-India relations are revealed. The author outlines the near-terms perspectives of bilateral cooperation.

  8. Familienfreundlichkeit als Zukunftsfrage in Unternehmen [Family-friendliness in business as a key issue for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stutzer, Erich

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] These days family-friendliness is a key issue for the future of businesses. Investments in a family conscious personnel policy are considered as forward-looking decisions in companies. This happens against the background of a sustainable personnel policy in times of a decrease in the number of employable persons, an increasing shortage of skilled workers and an ageing workforce. Family-friendly working conditions are becoming a key factor in the competition for staff. When choosing an employer, family-friendliness has become a crucial topic. Employment participation and skills of women, especially of mothers, have greatly increased. To facilitate the realisation of their wish to return to paid employment, however, measures to reconcile work and family are required.Family-conscious measures have been proven to lead to higher employee productivity. Job satisfaction and motivation of employees and accumulation of human capital increase, absenteeism declines, the return of investment rises. Fields of activity for family-friendly measures in companies range from working arrangements, parental leave and re-entry programmes and various child care offers to services for families. In connection with the demographic development the demand for a better reconciliation of work and elder care should in future become ever more important, just as the upkeep of the occupational skills and working capacity of an ageing workforce. Family-friendliness has to become an integral part of corporate culture. [german] Familienfreundlichkeit wird heute als wesentliche Zukunftsfrage für Unternehmen diskutiert und Investitionen in eine familienbewusste Personalpolitik gelten als zukunftsweisende Entscheidungen in Unternehmen. Dies geschieht vor dem Hintergrund einer zukunftsfähigen Personalpolitik in Zeiten zurückgehender Erwerbspersonenzahlen, eines zunehmenden Fachkräftemangels und der Alterung der Belegschaften. Familienfreundliche Arbeitsbedingungen werden

  9. Teaching design in the first years of a traditional mechanical engineering degree: methods, issues and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Arlindo; Fontul, Mihail; Henriques, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Engineering design is known as an answer to an ill-defined problem. As any answer to an ill-defined problem, it can never be completely right or absolutely wrong. The methods that universities use to teach engineering design, as a consequence of this, suffer from the same fate. However, the accumulated experience with the 'chalk and talk' teaching tradition has led to a reality in which the employers of fresh graduates are not happy with the engineers they are getting. Part of their complaints are related with the inability of recently graduate engineers to work in problems where the boundaries are not well defined, are interdisciplinary, require the use of effective communication and integrate non-technical issues. These skills are mostly absent from traditional engineering curricula. This paper demonstrates the implementation of engineering design perspectives enhancing some of the aforementioned skills in a traditional mechanical engineering curriculum. It emphasises in particular a design project that is tackled in a sequence of conventional courses with a focus that depends on the course objectives and disciplinary domain. This transdisciplinary design project conveys the idea (and effectively implements it concurrently) that design is multidisciplinary.

  10. Some of the issues of modern Russian historiography towards Kazakh-Dzhungarian relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turganzhan Tulebaev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between Kazakh people and the Dzhungar Khanate in the 17th - the first half of the 18th centuries was an important milestone in the development of Kazakh sovereignty. Kazakh Khanate had its own place in the development of international relations of the Central Asian countries. The historiography of this problem is very wide. For many years many researchers of post-Soviet, Western, Central Asian countries dedicated their work to this issue. Russian historiography is notable among others for its features. The article discusses some concepts of the modern Russian scientists regarding Kazakh-Dzhungarian relations. Russian historiography of Kazakh-Dzhungarian relations started to develop from the pre-revolutionary period and continues to these days. Kazakhstan scientists of the Soviet period also contributed to the study of international relations in Central Asia in the 17th-18th centuries in line with the required methodological and ideological direction. However, at present in connection with the sovereignization and becoming independent states of the post-Soviet countries, there is some differentiation in the areas of Russian and Kazakh social sciences and humanities. Today our society intentionally seeks to rethink the key milestones of the passed way, know itself and define its new place in the contemporary reality. Therefore, the Russian research on the history of international relations is especially relevant to the public

  11. Identification of unresolved safety issues relating to nuclear power plants. Report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The report describes the review undertaken over the last year that resulted in identifying 17 issues as Unresolved Safety Issues. In addition, the report provides specific discussions of why certain issues were not included. The report also provides a brief background discussion describing Section 210 of the Energy Reorganization Act and the NRC program for the resolution of generic issues described in NUREG-0410

  12. Direct and indirect land use changes issues in European sustainability initiatives: State-of-the-art, open issues and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Stappen, Florence; Brose, Isabelle; Schenkel, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Facing climate change and growing energy prices, the use of bioenergy is continuously increasing in order to diminish greenhouse gas emissions, secure energy supply and create employment in rural areas. Because the production of biomass or biofuels, wherever it takes place, comes along with externalities, positive or negative, the need for biomass and bioenergy sustainability criteria is more than ever felt. Research on sustainability criteria and certification systems has started through several national and international initiatives. Considering the benefits of an increased use of bioenergy but also the urge for limiting potential negative environmental and socio-economic impacts, the aim of these initiatives was to make the first move regarding bioenergy sustainability, while waiting for the European legislation to regulate this crucial issue. Land use changes, whether direct or indirect, are one of the most important consequences of bioenergy production. While direct land use changes are more easily assessed locally, indirect land use changes exceed the company level and need to be considered at a global scale. Methodologies for dealing with direct and indirect land use changes are proposed among others in the European, Dutch, British and German sustainability initiatives. This paper aims at presenting and comparing those four European initiatives, with a focus on their propositions for direct and indirect land use changes assessment. Key issues are discussed and recommendations are made for steps to overcome identified difficulties in accurately assessing the effects of indirect land use change due to bioenergy production.

  13. Climate and climate-related issues for the safety assessment SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this report is to document current scientific knowledge on climate and climate-related conditions, relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository, to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment SR-Site. The report also presents a number of dedicated studies on climate and selected climate-related processes of relevance for the assessment of long term repository safety. Based on this information, the report presents a number of possible future climate developments for Forsmark, the site selected for building a repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden (Figure 1-1). The presented climate developments are used as basis for the selection and analysis of SR-Site safety assessment scenarios in the SR-Site main report /SKB 2011/. The present report is based on research conducted and published by SKB as well as on research reported in the general scientific literature

  14. Climate and climate-related issues for the safety assessment SR-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to document current scientific knowledge on climate and climate-related conditions, relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository, to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment SR-Site. The report also presents a number of dedicated studies on climate and selected climate-related processes of relevance for the assessment of long term repository safety. Based on this information, the report presents a number of possible future climate developments for Forsmark, the site selected for building a repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden (Figure 1-1). The presented climate developments are used as basis for the selection and analysis of SR-Site safety assessment scenarios in the SR-Site main report /SKB 2011/. The present report is based on research conducted and published by SKB as well as on research reported in the general scientific literature

  15. The role of large scale storage in a GB low carbon energy future: Issues and policy challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenewald, Philipp; Cockerill, Tim; Contestabile, Marcello; Pearson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Large scale storage offers the prospect of capturing and using excess electricity within a low carbon energy system, which otherwise might have to be wasted. Incorporating the role of storage into current scenario tools is challenging, because it requires high temporal resolution to reflect the effects of intermittent sources on system balancing. This study draws on results from a model with such resolution. It concludes that large scale storage could become economically viable for scenarios with high penetration of renewables. As the proportion of intermittent sources increases, the optimal type of storage shifts towards solutions with low energy related costs, even at the expense of efficiency. However, a range of uncertainties have been identified, concerning storage technology development, the regulatory environment, alternatives to storage and the stochastic uncertainty of year-on-year revenues. All of these negatively affect the cost of finance and the chances of successful market uptake. We argue, therefore, that, if the possible wider system and social benefits from the presence of storage are to be achieved, stronger and more strategic policy support may be necessary. More work on the social and system benefits of storage is needed to gauge the appropriate extent of support measures. - Highlights: → Time resolved modelling shows future potential for large scale power storage in GB. → The value of storage is highly sensitive to a range of parameters. → Uncertainty over the revenue from storage could pose a barrier to investment. → To realise wider system benefits stronger and more strategic policy support may be necessary.

  16. Does functional MRI detect activation in white matter? A review of emerging evidence, issues, and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawryluk, Jodie R.; Mazerolle, Erin L.; D'Arcy, Ryan C. N.

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive technique that allows for visualization of activated brain regions. Until recently, fMRI studies have focused on gray matter. There are two main reasons white matter fMRI remains controversial: (1) the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI signal depends on cerebral blood flow and volume, which are lower in white matter than gray matter and (2) fMRI signal has been associated with post-synaptic potentials (mainly localized in gray matter) as opposed to action potentials (the primary type of neural activity in white matter). Despite these observations, there is no direct evidence against measuring fMRI activation in white matter and reports of fMRI activation in white matter continue to increase. The questions underlying white matter fMRI activation are important. White matter fMRI activation has the potential to greatly expand the breadth of brain connectivity research, as well as improve the assessment and diagnosis of white matter and connectivity disorders. The current review provides an overview of the motivation to investigate white matter fMRI activation, as well as the published evidence of this phenomenon. We speculate on possible neurophysiologic bases of white matter fMRI signals, and discuss potential explanations for why reports of white matter fMRI activation are relatively scarce. We end with a discussion of future basic and clinical research directions in the study of white matter fMRI. PMID:25152709

  17. Scientific and ethical issues related to deep brain stimulation for disorders of mood, behavior, and thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabins, Peter; Appleby, Brian S; Brandt, Jason; DeLong, Mahlon R; Dunn, Laura B; Gabriëls, Loes; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Haber, Suzanne N; Holtzheimer, Paul E; Mari, Zoltan; Mayberg, Helen S; McCann, Evelyn; Mink, Sallie P; Rasmussen, Steven; Schlaepfer, Thomas E; Vawter, Dorothy E; Vitek, Jerrold L; Walkup, John; Mathews, Debra J H

    2009-09-01

    A 2-day consensus conference was held to examine scientific and ethical issues in the application of deep brain stimulation for treating mood and behavioral disorders, such as major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and Tourette syndrome. The primary objectives of the conference were to (1) establish consensus among participants about the design of future clinical trials of deep brain stimulation for disorders of mood, behavior, and thought and (2) develop standards for the protection of human subjects participating in such studies. Conference participants identified 16 key points for guiding research in this growing field. The adoption of the described guidelines would help to protect the safety and rights of research subjects who participate in clinical trials of deep brain stimulation for disorders of mood, behavior, and thought and have further potential to benefit other stakeholders in the research process, including clinical researchers and device manufactures. That said, the adoption of the guidelines will require broad and substantial commitment from many of these same stakeholders.

  18. A qualitative study exploring issues related to medication management in residential aged care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Nizaruddin M

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mariani Ahmad Nizaruddin, Marhanis-Salihah Omar, Adliah Mhd-Ali, Mohd Makmor-Bakry Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background: Globally, the population of older people is on the rise. As families are burdened with the high cost of care for aging members, demand is increasing for medical care and nursing homes. Thus, medication management is crucial to ensure that residents in a care center benefit and assist the management of the care center in reducing the burden of health care. This study is aimed to qualitatively explore issues related to medication management in residential aged care facilities (RACFs.Participants and methods: A total of 11 stakeholders comprising health care providers, administrators, caretakers and residents were recruited from a list of registered government, nongovernmental organization and private RACFs in Malaysia from September 2016 to April 2017. An exploratory qualitative study adhering to Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Studies was conducted. In-depth interview was conducted with consent of all participants, and the interviews were audio recorded for later verbatim transcription. Observational analysis was also conducted in a noninterfering manner.Results and discussion: Three themes, namely medication use process, personnel handling medications and culture, emerged in this study. Medication use process highlighted an unclaimed liability for residents’ medication by the RACFs, whereas personnel handling medications were found to lack sufficient training in medication management. Culture of the organization did affect the medication safety and quality improvement. The empowerment of the residents in their medication management was limited. There were unclear roles and responsibility of who manages the medication in the nongovernment-funded RACFs, although they were well structured in the private nursing homes.Conclusion: There are important issues

  19. Health-equity issues related to childhood obesity: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Clemencia M; Stines, Elsie M; Granado, Herta S

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this scoping review was to determine the health-equity issues that relate to childhood obesity. Health-equity issues related to childhood obesity were identified by analyzing food environment, natural and built environment, and social environment. The authors searched Medline, PubMed, and Web of Science, using the keywords "children" and "obesity." Specific terms for each environment were added: "food desert," "advertising," "insecurity," "price," "processing," "trade," and "school" for food environment; "urban design," "land use," "transportation mode," "public facilities," and "market access" for natural and built environment; and "financial capacity/poverty," "living conditions," "transport access," "remoteness," "social support," "social cohesion," "working practices," "eating habits," "time," and "social norms" for social environment. Inclusion criteria were studies or reports with populations under age 12, conducted in the United States, and published in English in 2005 or later. The final search yielded 39 references (16 for food environment, 11 for built environment, and 12 for social environment). Most food-environment elements were associated with obesity, except food insecurity and food deserts. A natural and built environment that hinders access to physical activity resources and access to healthy foods increased the risk of childhood obesity. Similarly, a negative social environment was associated with childhood obesity. More research is needed on the effects of food production, living conditions, time for shopping, and exercise, as related to childhood obesity. Most elements of food, natural and built, and social-environments were associated with weight in children under age 12, except food insecurity and food deserts. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  20. Projecting future temperature-related mortality in three largest Australian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yuming; Li, Shanshan; Liu, De Li; Chen, Dong; Williams, Gail; Tong, Shilu

    2016-01-01

    We estimated net annual temperature-related mortality in Brisbane, Sydney and Melbourne in Australia using 62 global climate model projections under three IPPC SRES CO_2 emission scenarios (A2, A1B and B1). In all cities, all scenarios resulted in increases in summer temperature-related deaths for future decades, and decreases in winter temperature-related deaths. However, Brisbane and Sydney will increase the net annual temperature-related deaths in the future, while a slight decrease will happen in Melbourne. Additionally, temperature-related mortality will largely increase beyond the summer (including January, February, March, November and December) in Brisbane and Sydney, while temperature-related mortality will largely decrease beyond the winter in Melbourne. In conclusion, temperature increases for Australia are expected to result in a decreased burden of cold-related mortality and an increased burden of heat-related mortality, but the balance of these differences varied by city. In particular, the seasonal patterns in temperature-related deaths will be shifted. - Temperature increases result in a decreased burden of cold-related mortality and an increased burden of heat-related mortality, but the balance of these differences varied by city in Australia.

  1. Use of a web site to increase knowledge and awareness of hunger-related issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Sharla; Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the current level of knowledge and awareness of hunger-related issues among a convenience sample of Delawareans. We also assessed whether raising knowledge and awareness of the hunger problem through the FBD's newly designed web site would encourage participation in antihunger activities. Via e-mail, 1,719 individuals were invited to participate in a three-phase, online survey, and 392 agreed. Phase-I questions were answered prior to viewing the web site, phase II (n=217) immediately afterward, and phase III (n=61) six weeks later. Responses indicated a high level of awareness about general hunger issues but specific knowledge proved to be at a lower level. No statistically significant differences were noted when data were collapsed across gender, age, educational level, or work setting. In a six-week post-survey, 41% of subjects were motivated by the web site to engage in an antihunger activity; 34% had told others about the web site and indicated it may be a useful tool in antihunger outreach efforts for the FBD.

  2. Common Issues Seen in Paediatric Diabetes Clinics, Psychological Formulations, and Related Approaches to Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Deeb

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic disease and its management is associated with multiple challenges. This is particularly the case in children and adolescents. Factors that contribute to difficulties in managing diabetes in youth include psychological characteristics, family dynamics, and social behavior. The purpose of this article is to highlight some psychological issues in children and adolescents with diabetes. We aim to present selected case scenarios encountered by health professionals and to provide tips on strategies for managing psychological aspect of diabetes. We tackle the psychological issues related to diabetes under four main categories: maladaptive disorders, eating disorders, family psychopathology, and family dysfunction. Psychotherapy and psychoanalysis are useful modalities in diabetes management. The psychological intervention is aimed at supporting patients and families to reach a balance between a normal family routine and a good glycemic control. We demonstrate unique requirements in coordinating care for children and adolescents with diabetes and highlight the importance of encouraging a positive behavior. Managing diabetes in children and adolescents needs to be in the form of a collaborative work between health care professionals, children and adolescents, and their families. Caring, supportive family backed up by experienced multidisciplinary team is the best approach to prevent psychological difficulties.

  3. Common Issues Seen in Paediatric Diabetes Clinics, Psychological Formulations, and Related Approaches to Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, Asma; Akle, Mariette; Al Ozairi, Abdulla; Cameron, Fergus

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease and its management is associated with multiple challenges. This is particularly the case in children and adolescents. Factors that contribute to difficulties in managing diabetes in youth include psychological characteristics, family dynamics, and social behavior. The purpose of this article is to highlight some psychological issues in children and adolescents with diabetes. We aim to present selected case scenarios encountered by health professionals and to provide tips on strategies for managing psychological aspect of diabetes. We tackle the psychological issues related to diabetes under four main categories: maladaptive disorders, eating disorders, family psychopathology, and family dysfunction. Psychotherapy and psychoanalysis are useful modalities in diabetes management. The psychological intervention is aimed at supporting patients and families to reach a balance between a normal family routine and a good glycemic control. We demonstrate unique requirements in coordinating care for children and adolescents with diabetes and highlight the importance of encouraging a positive behavior. Managing diabetes in children and adolescents needs to be in the form of a collaborative work between health care professionals, children and adolescents, and their families. Caring, supportive family backed up by experienced multidisciplinary team is the best approach to prevent psychological difficulties.

  4. Use of a web site to increase knowledge and awareness of hunger-related issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Sharla; Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the current level of knowledge and awareness of hunger-related issues among a convenience sample of Delawareans. We also assessed whether raising knowledge and awareness of the hunger problem through the FBD's newly designed web site would encourage participation in antihunger activities. Via e-mail, 1,719 individuals were invited to participate in a three-phase, online survey, and 392 agreed. Phase-I questions were answered prior to viewing the web site, phase II (n=217) immediately afterward, and phase III (n=61) six weeks later. Responses indicated a high level of awareness about general hunger issues but specific knowledge proved to be at a lower level. No statistically significant differences were noted when data were collapsed across gender, age, educational level, or work setting. In a six-week post-survey, 41% of subjects were motivated by the web site to engage in an antihunger activity; 34% had told others about the web site and indicated it may be a useful tool in antihunger outreach efforts for the FBD. PMID:14651376

  5. Materials-related issues in the safety and licensing of nuclear fusion facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, N.; Merrill, B.; Cadwallader, L.; Di Pace, L.; El-Guebaly, L.; Humrickhouse, P.; Panayotov, D.; Pinna, T.; Porfiri, M.-T.; Reyes, S.; Shimada, M.; Willms, S.

    2017-09-01

    Fusion power holds the promise of electricity production with a high degree of safety and low environmental impact. Favourable characteristics of fusion as an energy source provide the potential for this very good safety and environmental performance. But to fully realize the potential, attention must be paid in the design of a demonstration fusion power plant (DEMO) or a commercial power plant to minimize the radiological hazards. These hazards arise principally from the inventory of tritium and from materials that become activated by neutrons from the plasma. The confinement of these radioactive substances, and prevention of radiation exposure, are the primary goals of the safety approach for fusion, in order to minimize the potential for harm to personnel, the public, and the environment. The safety functions that are implemented in the design to achieve these goals are dependent on the performance of a range of materials. Degradation of the properties of materials can lead to challenges to key safety functions such as confinement. In this paper the principal types of material that have some role in safety are recalled. These either represent a potential source of hazard or contribute to the amelioration of hazards; in each case the related issues are reviewed. The resolution of these issues lead, in some instances, to requirements on materials specifications or to limits on their performance.

  6. Methods uncovering usability issues in medication-related alerting functions: results from a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcilly, Romaric; Vasseur, Francis; Ammenwerth, Elske; Beuscart-Zephir, Marie-Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at listing the methods used to evaluate the usability of medication-related alerting functions and at knowing what type of usability issues those methods allow to detect. A sub-analysis of data from this systematic review has been performed. Methods applied in the included papers were collected. Then, included papers were sorted in four types of evaluation: "expert evaluation", "user- testing/simulation", "on site observation" and "impact studies". The types of usability issues (usability flaws, usage problems and negative outcomes) uncovered by those evaluations were analyzed. Results show that a large set of methods are used. The largest proportion of papers uses "on site observation" evaluation. This is the only evaluation type for which every kind of usability flaws, usage problems and outcomes are detected. It is somehow surprising that, in a usability systematic review, most of the papers included use a method that is not often presented as a usability method. Results are discussed about the opportunity to provide usability information collected after the implementation of the technology during their design process, i.e. before their implementation.

  7. Present knowledge and perspectives on the role of copper in brake materials and related environmental issues: A critical assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straffelini, Giovanni; Ciudin, Rodica; Ciotti, Alessandro; Gialanella, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    This critical review presents several aspects related to the use of copper as a main component in brake pads in road vehicles. The compositions of these materials are attracting increasing interest and concern due to the relative contribution of wear products to particulate matter emissions in the environment as a result of braking action even though there has been a reduction in exhaust products from internal combustion engines. We review the data on the main wear mechanisms in brake systems and highlight the positive role of copper. However, similar to other heavy metal emissions, even the release of copper into the atmosphere may have important environmental and health effects. Thus, several replacement strategies are being pursued, and the positive and negative features will be critically reviewed. Additionally, the future perspectives in materials development will be discussed. - Highlights: • Copper in brake pad materials: role and concerns. • Environmental and health impact of copper. • Copper replacement in frictional brake materials. • International legislation and standards on the above issues. - Importance of copper in brake pad materials and concern as regards environmental and health impact of its emission as brake wear product.

  8. A Review of Existing Relational Aggression Programs: Strengths, Limitations, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Stephen S.; Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Crick, Nicki R.

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that involvement in relational aggression is associated with serious adjustment problems, including concurrent and future social maladjustment (e.g., problematic friendships; rejection), internalizing problems (e.g., depressive symptoms), and school avoidance. Despite the burgeoning literature focusing on the harmful and damaging…

  9. Aspects of the future Physics teachers imaginary related to problem solving and Nuclear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirza Pavan Sorpreso

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we try to put in evidence some aspects of the future Physics teachers imaginary when they are is related to work with problem solving and with Nuclear Physics inclusion in High School. We show that this imaginary is evidenced and suffers displacements from specific conditions of production.

  10. Aspects of the application of issue Estoppel on directors’ fiduciary duties in South Africa: possible lessons from the United Kingdom and related jurisdictions Royal Sechaba case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Chitimira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The doctrine of estoppel precludes a person (asserter from asserting something different or contrary to what is implied by a previous action, conduct or statement of that person or by a previous pertinent judicial determination. While there are various types of estoppel, this article is primarily focused on the application of issue estoppel in relation to certain aspects of the directors’ fiduciary duties in South Africa (s 76 of the Companies Act 71 of 2008 (Companies Act 2008, in light of the judgment in Royal Sechaba v Coote (366/2013 [2014] ZASCA 85 (30 May 2014 (Royal Sechaba case. Issue estoppel could be defined to include instances where a person is precluded from re-litigating or raising a particular issue in a cause of action that was previously decided by a final judgment of a competent court between the same parties in future cases that have a different cause of action involving such parties. Issue estoppel is closely related to res judicata. For instance,both issue estoppel and res judicata are generally aimed at preventing the re-litigation of the same issues and same cause of actions that were previously decided by a final judgment in the relevant courts between same parties. Nonetheless, it is widely acknowledged that the application these two concepts is quite different in practice. For instance, some jurisdictions such as the United Kingdom (UK and South Africa employs English law and Roman-Dutch law (common law principles respectively, to distinguish between issue estoppel and res judicata. Likewise, similar common law principles are employed in the United States of America (USA, Canada and Australia to distinguish res judicata and issue estoppel in various ways. For example, issue estoppel is sometimes referred to as collateral estoppel, issue preclusion, claim preclusion or cause of action estoppel in USA, Canada and Australia. Despite this, it should be noted that a detailed discussion of the different requirements, merits

  11. How to govern physician-hospital exchanges: contractual and relational issues in Belgian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybou, Jeroen; Gemmel, Paul; Annemans, Lieven

    2014-07-01

    Our aim was to investigate contractual mechanisms in physician-hospital exchanges. The concepts of risk-sharing and the nature of physician-hospital exchanges - transactional versus relational - were studied. Two qualitative case studies were performed in Belgium. Hospital executives and physicians were interviewed to develop an in-depth understanding of contractual and relational issues that shape physician-hospital contracting in acute care hospitals. The underlying theoretical concepts of agency theory and social exchange theory were used to analyse the data. Our study found that physician-hospital contracting is highly complex. The contract is far more than an economic instrument governing financial aspects. The effect of the contract on the nature of exchange - whether transactional or relational - also needs to be considered. While it can be argued that contractual governance methods are increasingly necessary to overcome the difficulties that arise from the fragmented payment framework by aligning incentives and sharing financial risk, they undermine the necessary relational governance. Relational qualities such as mutual trust and an integrative view on physician-hospital exchanges are threatened, and may be difficult to sustain, given the current fragmentary payment framework. Since health care policy makers are increasing the financial risk borne by health care providers, it can be argued that this also increases the need to share financial risk and to align incentives between physician and hospital. However, our study demonstrates that while economic alignment is important in determining physician-hospital contracts, the corresponding impact on working relationships should also be considered. Moreover, it is important to avoid a relationship between hospital and physician predominantly characterized by transactional exchanges thereby fostering an unhealthy us-and-them divide and mentality. Relational exchange is a valuable alternative to contractual

  12. MASTERING EFFECTIVE BUSINESS COMMUNICATION WRITING SKILLS BY FUTURE INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS PROFESSIONALS

    OpenAIRE

    Vasylyshyna, N. M.

    2016-01-01

    The article under consideration is related to the problem of mastering writing skills by future international relations professionals. The problem is that for the last ten years its performance has declined in comparison with other foreign сommunication skills at all key stages. In our investigation, the history of teaching-of-writing approaches over the last 50 years was characterised by five phases, some elements of which have been and continue to be concurrent in the best practice. Modern ...

  13. Clean coal technology choices relating to the future supply and demand of electricity in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennon, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    The finalization of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has catalysed a high degree of debate and interest in the future of coal-fired power generation. Fossil fuel combustion is responsible for a significant percentage of pollutants emitted globally, and coal will continue to play a major role in the energy portfolios of many countries. This is particularly true for developing countries. This fact has resulted in a major focus on technologies which improve the efficiency of coal combustion and conversion to electrical energy, as well as technologies which directly of indirectly reduce overall emissions. The issues around clean coal technologies (CCT) and their evolution, development and uptake in both developed and developing countries are complex. This paper addresses these issues in a Southern African context, viewed from the policy perspective of developing countries and presented in a framework of electricity supply and demand considerations in the region. The principal climate change policy elements proposed for South Africa are presented in the context of the current electricity supply and demand situation in the region. These are presented in the context of Eskom's Integrated Electricity Planning (IEP) process including the environmental considerations inherent in decision-making processes. The potential future of the CCT, barriers to their introduction and potential measures to facilitate their accelerated adoption are discussed. (author). 4 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

  14. Balancing access to health data and privacy: a review of the issues and approaches for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Julia; Schur, Claudia

    2010-10-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in the types of microdata, and this holds great promise for health services research. However, legislative efforts to protect individual privacy have reduced the flow of health care data for research purposes and increased costs and delays, affecting the quality of analysis. This paper provides an overview of the challenges raised by concerns about data confidentiality in the context of health services research, the current methodologies used to ensure data security, and a description of one successful approach to balancing access and privacy. Materials and Methods. We analyze the issues of access and privacy using a conceptual framework based on balancing the risk of reidentification with the utility associated with data analysis. The guiding principle should be to generate released data that are as close to the maximum acceptable risk as possible. HIPAA and other privacy measures can perhaps be seen as having had the effect of lowering the "maximum acceptable risk" level and rendering some data unreleasable. We discuss the levels of risk and utility associated with different types of data used in health services research and the ability to link data from multiple sources as well as current models of data sharing and their limitations. One particularly compelling approach is to establish a remote access "data enclave," where statistical protections are applied to the data, technical protections ensure compliance with data-sharing requirements, and operational controls limit researchers' access to the data they need for their specific research questions. We recommend reducing delays in access to data for research, increasing the use of remote access data enclaves, and disseminating knowledge and promulgating standards for best practices related to data protection. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  15. Several issues related to regional environmental investigation to inland nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Xinshan; Zhang Xiaofeng

    2010-01-01

    Based on the goal of carrying out regional environmental investigation and review of recent environmental investigations toward inland nuclear power plant(NPP) site, and combined with the characteristics between inland and coastal sites, this paper is to make deeply analysis on population distribution, environmental characteristics, feasibility of performing emergency plan, characteristics of received water and external human-induced incident of NPP vicinity, then advance several significant issues related regional environmental investigation to inland sites, and make comparison with the investigation to coastal sites. Meantime, on guarantee of the integrity of collected materials during investigation, this paper also makes several proposals to provide reference for carrying out regional environmental investigation to inland NPP site. (authors)

  16. Hinkley Point 'C' power station public inquiry: proof of evidence on local site related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammon, K.M.

    1988-09-01

    A public inquiry has been set up to examine the planning application made by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) for the construction of a 1200 MW Pressurized Water Reactor power station at Hinkley Point (Hinkley Point ''C'') in the United Kingdom, adjacent to an existing nuclear power station. The CEGB evidence to the Inquiry on local site related issues begins by setting the proposed development within the context of local authority planning policies for the area. The implications of the development in terms of overall land needs, construction, access, buildings and works both temporary and permanent, are described. Environmental impacts, aesthetic and socio-economic factors are considered including possible effects on agriculture, nature conservation, water supply, transport and employment. (UK)

  17. Senior Seminar Focusing on Societal Issues Related to Chemistry and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Harold B., III; Johnston, Murray V.; Panar, Manuel

    2000-12-01

    The lack of a clearly defined content or structure provided the opportunity to transform a one-credit, pass-fail senior seminar course into a meaningful capstone experience for chemistry and biochemistry majors. In addition to individual and class exercises associated with employment, graduate school, communication skills, and professional ethics, small groups of students worked together to create informative Web sites that took positions on important societal issues related to chemistry. Each group presented a seminar and responded to questions from their peers and two or more unannounced visitors, "wild cards" who often had expertise in the seminar topic. Throughout the course, the instructors placed particular emphasis on developing students' ability to work cooperatively, locate and evaluate information, make informed judgments based on available information, and logically develop and defend their positions. Input from a retired industrial chemist helped define these skill elements.

  18. Surface Modeling, Grid Generation, and Related Issues in Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Yung K. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Steering Committee for Surface Modeling and Grid Generation (SMAGG) sponsored a workshop on surface modeling, grid generation, and related issues in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions at Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, May 9-11, 1995. The workshop provided a forum to identify industry needs, strengths, and weaknesses of the five grid technologies (patched structured, overset structured, Cartesian, unstructured, and hybrid), and to exchange thoughts about where each technology will be in 2 to 5 years. The workshop also provided opportunities for engineers and scientists to present new methods, approaches, and applications in SMAGG for CFD. This Conference Publication (CP) consists of papers on industry overview, NASA overview, five grid technologies, new methods/ approaches/applications, and software systems.

  19. Ice issues relating to the Kashagan phase II development, North Caspian Sea.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croasdale, Ken [KRCA, Calgary (Canada); Verlaan, Paul [Shell Development Kashagan, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    The ice conditions in the north Caspian Sea are challenging for the Kashagan field development. The climatic conditions of the area are extreme, with cold winters (-30 degrees C) and hot summers (+40 degrees C). The presence and the quantity of ice are also highly variable from year to year. This paper investigated the major ice-related issues affecting the Kashagan structures and pipelines. An extensive description of the ice environment was provided. Ice design criteria for the offshore rock islands, the pipelines and the layout of the ice protection barriers around the islands were presented. It was found that the ice design methods used in Arctic areas have required some adaptations to meet Caspian conditions. All the islands were designed with an ice encroachment zone to reduce the hazardous effect of the ice rubble encroaching. Rock sloped barriers and steel barriers were implanted around the islands to protect the logistical areas.

  20. Projecting Future Heat-Related Mortality under Climate Change Scenarios: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Adrian Gerard; Wang, Xiaoming; Vaneckova, Pavla; FitzGerald, Gerard; Tong, Shilu

    2011-01-01

    Background: Heat-related mortality is a matter of great public health concern, especially in the light of climate change. Although many studies have found associations between high temperatures and mortality, more research is needed to project the future impacts of climate change on heat-related mortality. Objectives: We conducted a systematic review of research and methods for projecting future heat-related mortality under climate change scenarios. Data sources and extraction: A literature search was conducted in August 2010, using the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, ProQuest, and Web of Science. The search was limited to peer-reviewed journal articles published in English from January 1980 through July 2010. Data synthesis: Fourteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Most projections showed that climate change would result in a substantial increase in heat-related mortality. Projecting heat-related mortality requires understanding historical temperature–mortality relationships and considering the future changes in climate, population, and acclimatization. Further research is needed to provide a stronger theoretical framework for projections, including a better understanding of socioeconomic development, adaptation strategies, land-use patterns, air pollution, and mortality displacement. Conclusions: Scenario-based projection research will meaningfully contribute to assessing and managing the potential impacts of climate change on heat-related mortality. PMID:21816703

  1. A qualitative study exploring issues related to medication management in residential aged care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Nizaruddin, Mariani; Omar, Marhanis-Salihah; Mhd-Ali, Adliah; Makmor-Bakry, Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Globally, the population of older people is on the rise. As families are burdened with the high cost of care for aging members, demand is increasing for medical care and nursing homes. Thus, medication management is crucial to ensure that residents in a care center benefit and assist the management of the care center in reducing the burden of health care. This study is aimed to qualitatively explore issues related to medication management in residential aged care facilities (RACFs). A total of 11 stakeholders comprising health care providers, administrators, caretakers and residents were recruited from a list of registered government, nongovernmental organization and private RACFs in Malaysia from September 2016 to April 2017. An exploratory qualitative study adhering to Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Studies was conducted. In-depth interview was conducted with consent of all participants, and the interviews were audio recorded for later verbatim transcription. Observational analysis was also conducted in a noninterfering manner. Three themes, namely medication use process, personnel handling medications and culture, emerged in this study. Medication use process highlighted an unclaimed liability for residents' medication by the RACFs, whereas personnel handling medications were found to lack sufficient training in medication management. Culture of the organization did affect the medication safety and quality improvement. The empowerment of the residents in their medication management was limited. There were unclear roles and responsibility of who manages the medication in the nongovernment-funded RACFs, although they were well structured in the private nursing homes. There are important issues related to medication management in RACFs which require a need to establish policy and guidelines.

  2. A focus on the state of the art of food waste/losses issue and suggestions for future researches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriana, Cinzia

    2017-10-01

    Today, the role of the supply chain (SC) strategies in Food-Waste/Losses (F-W/L) generation is neglected, because F-W/L are generally considered an unavoidable consequence of accidental events. Therefore, only operating plans are today put into practice, which aim at reducing the impact of product losses along the SC. This involves that structured analyses and strategic SC approaches are not available for the prevention/minimization of F-W/L. The paper aims at changing the perspective, and promoting the hypothesis that generation of F-W/L mainly depends on the SC strategies put into practice that are usually optimized on the basis of the market demand. The paper considers the F-W/L an intrinsic characteristic of the SC, which must be put in relation with the market demand and the shelf life of products, for given boundary conditions (legal constraints, politic decisions, climatic and micro macro-economic factors). Thus, the paper aims at reviewing the state of the art of the F-W/L issue, and proposing new research topics in the field of the prevention and minimization of F-W/L, by focusing on: (i) the forecasting of F-W/L, the implementation of adaptive-holistic approaches that model the non-stationary and holistic behaviour of the phenomenon; (ii) the determination of analytical conditions that entail the generation of F-W/L, in relation to the implementation of specific SC strategies; (iii) the study of mathematical models for the assessment of the shelf life, and the evaluation of innovative technologies, which enable the shelf life monitoring; (iv) the study of new shelf life-dependent demand models based on the consumer-utility theory; (v) the redesign of the logistic SC management models, by proposing new SC coordination models, planning and replenishment strategies, and pricing models, for the prevention/minimization of the predictable component of F-W/L; (vi) the design of new risk assessment plans for the management of the accidental component of F

  3. Issues related to symptomatic and disease-modifying treatments affecting cognitive and neuropsychiatric comorbidities of epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Kayal, Amy R.; Bath, Kevin G.; Berg, Anne T.; Galanopoulou, Aristea S.; Holmes, Gregory L.; Jensen, Frances E.; Kanner, Andres M.; O’Brien, Terence J.; Whittemore, Vicky H.; Winawer, Melodie R.; Patel, Manisha; Scharfman, Helen E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Many symptoms of neurologic or psychiatric illness—such as cognitive impairment, depression, anxiety, attention deficits, and migraine—occur more frequently in people with epilepsy than in the general population. These diverse comorbidities present an underappreciated problem for people with epilepsy and their caregivers because they decrease quality of life, complicate treatment, and increase mortality. In fact, it has been suggested that comorbidities can have a greater effect on quality of life in people with epilepsy than the seizures themselves. There is increasing recognition of the frequency and impact of cognitive and behavioral comorbidities of epilepsy, highlighted in the 2012 Institute of Medicine report on epilepsy. Comorbidities have also been acknowledged, as a National Institutes of Health (NIH) Benchmark area for research in epilepsy. However, relatively little progress has been made in developing new therapies directed specifically at comorbidities. On the other hand, there have been many advances in understanding underlying mechanisms. These advances have made it possible to identify novel targets for therapy and prevention. As part of the International League Against Epilepsy/American Epilepsy Society workshop on preclinical therapy development for epilepsy, our working group considered the current state of understanding related to terminology, models, and strategies for therapy development for the comorbidities of epilepsy. Herein we summarize our findings and suggest ways to accelerate development of new therapies. We also consider important issues to improve research including those related to methodology, nonpharmacologic therapies, biomarkers, and infrastructure. PMID:23909853

  4. Complexity Triggered by Economic Globalisation— The Issue of On-Line Betting-Related Match Fixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Andreff

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Complexity in mainstream economics consists in high intermediary consumption of mathematics. A new approach to complexity economics dwells upon path-dependent global systems; their emergence and evolving organisation. The focus here is on the complexity of the real economic world due to globalisation. On-line betting related match-fixing is a case in point about which the article presents non-exhaustive empirical evidence and shows how it is analysed with the standard model of the economics of crime. There is no room for complexity in such an individualistic approach to corrupt behaviour applied to bet-related fixes. A more complex model is sketched based on interactions between a global (though underground market for fixes and the actual partly legal, partly illegal global sport betting market. These interactions exhibit how complex is the issue of combating betting-related match fixing. Reviewing those major policies envisaged for containing the latter—prohibition; sanctions; regulation; privatisation (betting rights—the article opts for a global ‘Sportbettobin’ tax on sport betting gains; in the same vein as the famous Tobin tax on international capital transfers. The novelty in this approach is a variable (increasing rate applied to increasing tranches of taxation (gains which should dry up the worst cases of on-line bettingrelated match fixing.

  5. State of the Art, Unresolved Issues, and Future Research Directions in the Fight against Hepatitis C Virus: Perspectives for Screening, Diagnostics of Resistances, and Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Trucchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV still represents a major public health threat, with a dramatic burden from both epidemiological and clinical points of view. New generation of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs has been recently introduced in clinical practice promising to cure HCV and to overcome the issues related to the interferon-based therapies. However, the emergence of drug resistance and the suboptimal activity of DAAs therapies against diverse HCV genotypes have been observed, determining treatment failure and hampering an effective control of HCV spread worldwide. Moreover, these treatments remain poorly accessible, particularly in low-income countries. Finally, effective screening strategy is crucial to early identifying and treating all HCV chronically infected patients. For all these reasons, even though new drugs may contribute to impacting HCV spread worldwide a preventive HCV vaccine remains a cornerstone in the road to significantly reduce the HCV spread globally, with the ultimate goal of its eradication. Advances in molecular vaccinology, together with a strong financial, political, and societal support, will enable reaching this fundamental success in the coming years. In this comprehensive review, the state of the art about these major topics in the fight against HCV and the future of research in these fields are discussed.

  6. Strengthening national coal transitions to raise climate ambition. Issue Brief. Part of the 'Coal Transitions: Research and Dialogue on the Future of Coal' Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, Oliver

    2017-11-01

    The issue of coal transitions is coming into focus in both national and international climate policy discussions. There are several drivers of this. At one level, the Paris Agreement marked a significant shift in the pace, scope and ambition of global climate change mitigation action. Consequently, it is now clear that coal will need to play a more and more diminished role in the global energy mix in the coming decades, despite carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies. It is also increasingly clear that non-climate policy-related factors, such as rapid declines in the cost of renewable energy and battery storage, will continue to challenge the previously strong role of steam coal in the global energy mix (Randall, 2015). The business-as-usual scenario is therefore evolving quickly and the downside risks to coal demand appear to be increasing. The accumulation of these factors has in turn led to a call for an assurance of 'just transition', especially from stakeholders-notably coal sector workers and their communities-whose economic livelihoods depend on the future of an industry that will be in decline. In this context, parties to the UNFCCC will be called upon via the Facilitative Dialogue of 2018 to re-evaluate the adequacy progress and subsequently to revise their levels of ambition in their nationally determined contributions (NDCs). This moment presents an important opportunity for governments to raise the overall ambition of their policies on coal transition. But how should they do this? (author)

  7. Radioactive iodine (131I) therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer in Japan. Current issues with historical review and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Tatsuya; Kudo, Takashi; Kinuya, Seigo

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI, 131 I) has been used as a therapeutic agent for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with over 50 years of history. Recently, it is now attracting attention in medical fields as one of the molecular targeting therapies, which is known as targeted radionuclide therapy. Radioactive iodine therapy (RIT) for DTC, however, is now at stake in Japan, because Japan is confronting several problems, including the recent occurrence of the Great East Japan Disaster (GEJD) in March 2011. RIT for DTC is strictly limited in Japan and requires hospitalization. Because of strict regulations, severe lack of medical facilities for RIT has become one of the most important medical problems, which results in prolonged waiting time for Japanese patients with DTC, including those with distant metastasis, who wish to receive RIT immediately. This situation is also due to various other factors, such as prolonged economic recession, super-aging society, and subsequent rapidly changing medical environment. In addition, due to the experience of atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japanese people have strong feeling of ''radiophobia ''. There is fear that GEJD and related radiation contamination may worsen this feeling, which might be reflected in more severe regulation of RIT. To overcome these difficulties, it is essential to collect and disclose all information about the circumstances around this therapy in Japan. In this review, we would like to look at this therapy through several lenses, including historical, cultural, medical, and socio-economic points of view. We believe that clarifying the problems is sure to lead to the resolution of this complicated situation. We have also included several recommendations for future improvements. (author)

  8. Evaluation of systems interactions in nuclear power plants: Technical findings related to Unresolved Safety Issue A-17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, D.

    1989-05-01

    This report presents a summary of the activities related to Unresolved Safety Issue (USI)A-17, ''Systems Interactions in Nuclear Power Plants,'' and also includes the NRC staff's conclusions based on those activities. The staff's technical findings provide the framework for the final resolution of this unresolved safety issue. The final resolution will be published later as NUREG-1229. 52 refs., 4 tabs

  9. 17 CFR 240.3a43-1 - Customer-related government securities activities incidental to the futures-related business of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customer-related government securities activities incidental to the futures-related business of a futures commission merchant registered with the Commodity Futures Trading Commission. 240.3a43-1 Section 240.3a43-1 Commodity and Securities...

  10. THE FUTURE OF IRAN-CHINA RELATIONS: AN ALLIANCE OR PURE COOPERATION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Dolatabadi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The future of the Iranian political relations with other countries  especially China in the post-nuclear-agreementera is of serious  importance in the Iranian foreign policy in the Rouhani  administration. Despite turbulences in the relations of the two  countries in recent years, theirs have been stronger than the trade  relations between Iran and western countries. For this reason, the  shift from ordinary to strategic relations between Iran and China is  attracting serious attention in the political circles in Iran. The  supporters argue for the present and future stance of China in the  international society and its constructive role during the western- imposed sanctions against Iran. The opponents refer to the poorer  Chinese technology as opposed to their Western rivals and to  ambivalent and at time anti-Iranian stances Beijing adopted in the  Iranian nuclear problem. The question this paper seeks to answer is  whether there is a possibility of the promotion of the relations of the  two countries in future and the possible obstacles in the way.

  11. Resolution of issues related to alternative RCS injection in the absence of containment sump recirculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles L Kling; Stephen S Barshay; Mathew C Jacob; Michael J Friedman

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: On June 9, 2003 the US NRC issued Bulletin No. 2003-01 that deals with the potential impact of debris blockage on containment sump recirculation at PWRs during a Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA). In response to the bulletin, the Omaha Public Power District (OPPD) is in the process of developing procedural and operational strategies for their Fort Calhoun Station (FCS) to address the issues raised. Westinghouse provided engineering support to OPPD in identifying and resolving issues related to alternative means of supplying safety injection water to the reactor coolant system (RCS) in the absence of containment sump recirculation. Nuclear power plants are designed to protect the core following a LOCA by providing a continuous supply of cooling water to the core. In the long term, the Refueling Water Storage Tank (RWST) inventory will be depleted and core heat removal accomplished via recirculation of water previously injected into the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) and collected in the containment sump. Debris generated within the containment as a result of the impingement of fluid jets in the Zone of Influence (ZOI) of the RCS break and containment wash down may find its way into the containment sump. As the safety injection pumps take suction from the sump, in the recirculation mode of operation, the debris suspended in the sump water could begin to accumulate in the sump screen that is located in the recirculation path. Should sufficient debris accumulate on the sump screen, a flow blockage could potentially develop. This would result in insufficient safety injection pump NPSH, thereby impairing the recirculation mode of injection into RCS. Potential debris blockage and prevention of sump recirculation may be addressed by refilling the RWST with water and injecting this water directly into the core. This paper identifies and attempts to resolve several issues related to this alternative mode of RCS injection. In particular, the

  12. Application of Radiation Chemistry to Some Selected Technological Issues Related to the Development of Nuclear Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrowski, Krzysztof; Skotnicki, Konrad; Szreder, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    The most important contributions of radiation chemistry to some selected technological issues related to water-cooled reactors, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes, and fuel evolution during final radioactive waste disposal are highlighted. Chemical reactions occurring at the operating temperatures and pressures of reactors and involving primary transients and stable products from water radiolysis are presented and discussed in terms of the kinetic parameters and radiation chemical yields. The knowledge of these parameters is essential since they serve as input data to the models of water radiolysis in the primary loop of light water reactors and super critical water reactors. Selected features of water radiolysis in heterogeneous systems, such as aqueous nanoparticle suspensions and slurries, ceramic oxides surfaces, nanoporous, and cement-based materials, are discussed. They are of particular concern in the primary cooling loops in nuclear reactors and long-term storage of nuclear waste in geological repositories. This also includes radiation-induced processes related to corrosion of cladding materials and copper-coated iron canisters, dissolution of spent nuclear fuel, and changes of bentonite clays properties. Radiation-induced processes affecting stability of solvents and solvent extraction ligands as well oxidation states of actinide metal ions during recycling of the spent nuclear fuel are also briefly summarized.

  13. Economy, Geopolitics, environment: the triple gas issue in the relations between the Eu and Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourguignon, D.

    2008-01-01

    With the political tinge it has recently acquired, natural gas has taken a central position in the relations between the EU and Russia Besides energy security, the issue has three levels: the first is the opening of markets or the maintaining of monopolies, as much in Russia as in the European Union. The line of fracture is complex, and at present, in spite of rhetoric support on the opening of markets, it is rather their protection which is on the agenda. The second level is that of energy diplomacy Brussels and Moscow come face to face primarily in Central Asia, on the basis of interests and using diametrically opposite instrument. However, their policies are characterised by weighty constraints. The third level is that of the fight against climatic change. Soaring in this field, there are several convergencies between the policies of Brussels and Moscow, particularly in terms of energy efficiency. With this new order, gas could watch itself grow in significance, or otherwise drop, in which case the relation between the EU and Russian would not go uninfluenced. (author)

  14. Summary of tank information relating salt well pumping to flammable gas safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caley, S.M.; Mahoney, L.A.; Gauglitz, P.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Hanford Site has 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing radioactive wastes that are complex mixes of radioactive and chemical products. Active use of these SSTs was phased out completely by November 1980, and the first step toward final disposal of the waste in the SSTs is interim stabilization, which involves removing essentially all of the drainable liquid from the tank. Stabilization can be achieved administratively, by jet pumping to remove drainable interstitial liquid, or by supernatant pumping. To date, 116 tanks have been declared interim stabilized; 44 SSTs have had drainable liquid removed by salt well jet pumping. Of the 149 SSTs, 19 are on the Flammable Gas Watch List (FGWL) because the waste in these tanks is known or suspected, in all but one case, to generate and retain mixtures of flammable gases, including; hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and ammonia. Salt well pumping to remove the drainable interstitial liquid from these SSTs is expected to cause the release of much of the retained gas, posing a number of safety concerns. The scope of this work is to collect and summarize information, primarily tank data and observations, that relate salt well pumping to flammable gas safety issues. While the waste within FGWL SSTs is suspected offering flammable gases, the effect of salt well pumping on the waste behavior is not well understood. This study is being conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company as part of the Flammable Gas Project at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Understanding the historical tank behavior during and following salt well pumping will help to resolve the associated safety issues

  15. The Reasoned Arguments of a Group of Future Biotechnology Technicians on a Controversial Socio-Scientific Issue: Human Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonneaux, Laurence; Chouchane, Habib

    2011-01-01

    We tried to determine the reasoning behind the stances taken by a group of 19-21-year-old students on the controversial issue of the feasibility and acceptability of human gene therapy. The students were in training at a biotechnology institute. We organised classroom debates, punctuated by phases of epistemological "disturbances". We…

  16. Issues of work intensity, pace, and sustainability in relation to work context and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter-Brick, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    This article raises issues about work intensity, pace, and sustainability during physical activity, focusing attention on the nature of work in labor-intensive societies, the management of exertion in habitual tasks, and the health and broad socioeconomic correlates of alternative ways to regulate work patterns. At the heart of this review are concerns to document human adaptability (in terms of the physical and behavioral management of heavy work) and to renew debate regarding the conceptualization and measurement of work intensity (variously evaluated in absolute or relative terms, as indexed by oxygen consumption, energy expenditure, percentage maximal work capacity, heart rate elevation, time and motion indicators, or physiological cost). Three questions are examined: Is heavy work primarily a matter of time or energy intensity? How is heavy work habitually sustained? What is the bigger picture relating work performance to work context and to nutritional or health status? It is argued that many arduous activities, such as carrying loads, demand endurance over time rather than intensive effort per unit time, and that work pace management lies in regulating both the rate of work and the time in rest during physical activity. Furthermore, strategies that maximize long-term endurance (adopted by "tortoises") and those that maximize short-term productivity (adopted by "hares") are appropriate to different work contexts (e.g., a subsistence or wage-labor economy) and suit individuals with different health status and ability. Thus, work intensity is an important aspect of the links between physical activity, health, productivity, and society, as noted in literature reviewing objectives for sustainable development and public health messages for disease risk management. These areas of scholarship are underresearched, partly because consensus has been slow in agreeing on which are the best measures of work pace and work intensity for use in field situations, and which

  17. NULIFE - its Role in Implementing Strategic Research of LTO related to PLIM Issues in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintamaa, R.

    2011-01-01

    The European network of excellence NULIFE (Nuclear plant life prediction) has been launched under the Euratom Framework Programme with a clear focus on integrating safety-oriented research on materials, structures and systems and exploiting the results of this integration through the production of harmonised lifetime assessment methods. NULIFE will help provide a better common understanding of the factors affecting the lifetime of nuclear power plants which, together with associated management methods, will help facilitate safe and economic long term operation of existing nuclear power plants. In addition, NULIFE will help in the development of design criteria for future generations of nuclear power plant. NULIFE was kicked-off in October 2006 and will work over a 5-year period to create a single organization structure, capable of providing harmonised research and development (R and D) at European level to the nuclear power industry and the related safety authorities. Led by VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland), the project has a total budget in excess of 8 million euros, with over 40 partners drawn from leading research institutions, technical support organisations, power companies and manufacturers throughout Europe. NULIFE also involves many industrial organizations and, in addition to their R and D contributions, these take part in a dedicated End User Group. The importance of the long term operation of the plants has been recognized at European level, in the strategic research agenda of SNE TP (Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform). In NULIFE, the joint EU-wide coordinated research strategy for plant life integrity management and long term operation has been defined. Based on NULIFE business plan, the discussion of long-term business plan, operational model and statutes of the future NULIFE institute has been started. NULIFE maintains the sustainability of nuclear power by focusing on the continued, 60+ years of safe operation of nuclear power

  18. Repeating Marx: Introduction to the Special Issue “Karl Marx @ 200: Debating Capitalism & Perspectives for the Future of Radical Theory”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This introduction sets out the context of the special issue “Karl Marx @ 200: Debating Capitalism & Perspectives for the Future of Radical Theory”, which was published on the occasion of Marx’s bicentenary on 5 May 2018. First, we give a brief overview of contemporary capitalism’s development and its crises. Second, we argue that it is important to repeat Marx today. Third, we reflect on lessons learned from 200 years of struggles for alternatives to capitalism. Fourth, we give an overview of the contributions in this special issue. Taken together, the contributions in this special issue show that Marx’s theory and politics remain key inspirations for understanding exploitation and domination in 21st-century society and for struggles that aim to overcome these phenomena and establishing a just and fair society. We need to repeat Marx today.

  19. Introduction to the special issue: 50th anniversary of APA Division 28: The past, present, and future of psychopharmacology and substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, William W; Sigmon, Stacey C; Evans, Suzette M

    2016-08-01

    This is an introduction to the special issue "50th Anniversary of APA Division 28: The Past, Present, and Future of Psychopharmacology and Substance Abuse." Taken together, the scholarly contributions included in this special issue serve as a testament to the important work conducted by our colleagues over the past five decades. Division 28 and its members have advanced and disseminated knowledge on the behavioral effects of drugs, informed efforts to prevent and treat substance abuse, and influenced education and policy issues more generally. As past and current leaders of the division, we are excited to celebrate 50 years of Division 28 and look forward to many more successful decades for our division and its members. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Vocational technical and adult education: Status, trends and issues related to electronic delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, D.

    1973-01-01

    Data are analyzed, and trends and issues are discussed to provide information useful to the systems designer who wishes to identify and assess the opportunities for large scale electronic delivery in vocational/technical and adult education. Issues connected with vocational/technical education are investigated, with emphasis on those issues in the current spotlight which are relevant to the possibilities of electronic delivery. The current role of media is examined in vocational/technical instruction.

  1. Meeting Future Workforce Needs. Report from the Study Group (Twenty-Fifth Institute on Rehabilitation Issues, Washington, DC, May 1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Jean, Ed.

    This document is intended to help the rehabilitation professional identify and understand current and future labor market trends and their implications for persons with disabilities. Strategies, methods, and tools are included that counselors can immediately use as they prepare persons with disabilities for the workforce. Chapter 1 examines…

  2. Utility-Scale Future, Continuum Magazine: Clean Energy Innovation at NREL, Spring 2011, Issue 1 Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-08-01

    This quarterly magazine is dedicated to stepping beyond the technical journals to reveal NREL's vital work in a real-world context for our stakeholders. Continuum provides insights into the latest and most impactful clean energy innovations, while spotlighting those talented researchers and unique facilities that make it all happen. This edition focuses on creating a utility-scale future.

  3. An Investigation for the Future Educators' Attitudes towards the Environmental Issues in the Context of Ecocentrism and Anthropocentrism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumusak, Ahmet; Özbas, Serap; Sargin, Seyit Ahmet; Baltaci, Furkan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it was revealed that the factors influencing the future educators' attitudes towards the environment. The survey was conducted between 2013-2014, on the freshman and the senior students studying in two different education faculties providing training within the boundaries of Turkish Cypriot. As a result, it has been found that…

  4. Football Players' Perceptions of Future Risk of Concussion and Concussion-Related Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Christine M; Kroshus, Emily; Kiernan, Patrick T; Mendel, David; Meehan, William P

    2017-02-15

    Concussion is increasingly recognized as a risk of participation in contact and collision sports. There have been few examinations of athletes' perceptions of their susceptibility to concussion or concussion-related health consequences. We examine college football players' perceptions of their risk of sustaining a concussion and concussion-related health consequences in their future, whether these perceptions change over time, and how concussion history is related to perceived future risk of concussion and concussion-related health consequences. A survey was administered to National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Championship Series athletes on 10 teams in 2013 and to nine of those teams in 2014. Athletes answered questions assessing their perceptions of concussion and potential concussion-related health consequences. Approximately 40% of athletes believed there was a strong possibility that they would sustain a concussion in the future, while approximately one-in-four thought a concussion would make them miss a few games. About one-in-10 athletes predicted dementia, Alzheimer's disease, or chronic traumatic encephalopathy would develop from concussions. These beliefs were stronger among athletes who had sustained previous concussions. Across the two years studied, athletes' perceptions of the risk of concussion and missing a few games because of concussion decreased significantly. Overall, a substantial proportion of college football players believe they will have long-term health consequences as a result of sustaining sport-related concussions. The true incidence and prevalence of many of these outcomes are unknown. Further research is needed to determine whether athletes have an accurate perception of the risks of these outcomes developing.

  5. Future Directions in Research on Racism-Related Stress and Racial-Ethnic Protective Factors for Black Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Shawn C T; Neblett, Enrique W

    2017-01-01

    Research on racism-related stress and racial-ethnic protective factors represents an important enterprise for optimizing the mental health of African American and other racial and ethnic minority youth. However, there has been a relative dearth of work on these factors in the clinical psychology research literature, and more work is needed in outlets such as these. To this end, the current article adopts a developmental psychopathology framework and uses recent empirical findings to outline our current understanding of racism-related stress and racial-ethnic protective factors (i.e., racial identity, racial socialization, Africentric worldview) for African American youth. We then provide nine recommendations-across basic, applied, and broader/cross-cutting research lines-that we prioritize as essential to advancing the future scientific investigation of this crucial research agenda. Within and across these recommendations, we issue a charge to researchers and clinicians alike, with the ultimate goal of alleviating the negative mental health impact that racism-related stress can have on the well-being and mental health of African American and other racial and ethnic minority youth.

  6. Doubly-Special Relativity: Facts, Myths and Some Key Open Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Amelino-Camelia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available I report, emphasizing some key open issues and some aspects that are particularly relevant for phenomenology, on the status of the development of “doubly-special” relativistic (“DSR” theories with both an observer-independent high-velocity scale and an observer-independent small-length/large-momentum scale, possibly relevant for the Planck-scale/quantum-gravity realm. I also give a true/false characterization of the structure of these theories. In particular, I discuss a DSR scenario without modification of the energy-momentum dispersion relation and without the қ-Poincaré Hopf algebra, a scenario with deformed Poincaré symmetries which is not a DSR scenario, some scenarios with both an invariant length scale and an invariant velocity scale which are not DSR scenarios, and a DSR scenario in which it is easy to verify that some observable relativistic (but non-special-relativistic features are insensitive to possible nonlinear redefinitions of symmetry generators.

  7. Issues and recommendations related to replacement of CFC-114 at the uranium enrichment gaseous diffusion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, B.L.; Banaghan, E.

    1993-01-01

    The operating uranium enrichment gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) in Portsmouth, Ohio and Paducah, Kentucky, which are operated for the United States Department for Energy by Martin Marietta Energy Systems (MMES), currently use a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-114) as the primary process stream coolant. Due to recent legislation embodied in the Clean Air Act, the production of this and other related chlorofluorocarbons (CFCS) are to be phased out with no production occurring after 1995. Since the plants lose approximately 500,000 pounds per year of this process stream coolant through various leaks, the GDPs are faced with the challenge of identifying a replacement coolant that will allow continued operation of the plants. MMES formed the CFC Task Team to identify and solve the various problems associated with identifying and implementing a replacement coolant. This report includes a review of the work performed by the CFC Task Team, and recommendations that were formulated based on this review and upon original work. The topics covered include; identifying a replacement coolant, coolant leak detection and repair efforts, coolant safety concerns, coolant level sensors, regulatory issues, and an analytical decision analysis

  8. Xylitol: a review on bioproduction, application, health benefits, and related safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ur-Rehman, Salim; Mushtaq, Zarina; Zahoor, Tahir; Jamil, Amir; Murtaza, Mian Anjum

    2015-01-01

    Xylitol is a pentahydroxy sugar-alcohol which exists in a very low quantity in fruits and vegetables (plums, strawberries, cauliflower, and pumpkin). On commercial scale, xylitol can be produced by chemical and biotechnological processes. Chemical production is costly and extensive in purification steps. However, biotechnological method utilizes agricultural and forestry wastes which offer the possibilities of economic production of xylitol by reducing required energy. The precursor xylose is produced from agricultural biomass by chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis and can be converted to xylitol primarily by yeast strain. Hydrolysis under acidic condition is the more commonly used practice influenced by various process parameters. Various fermentation process inhibitors are produced during chemical hydrolysis that reduce xylitol production, a detoxification step is, therefore, necessary. Biotechnological xylitol production is an integral process of microbial species belonging to Candida genus which is influenced by various process parameters such as pH, temperature, time, nitrogen source, and yeast extract level. Xylitol has application and potential for food and pharmaceutical industries. It is a functional sweetener as it has prebiotic effects which can reduce blood glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol level. This review describes recent research developments related to bioproduction of xylitol from agricultural wastes, application, health, and safety issues.

  9. Modelling approaches to thermal pollution in inland aquatic systems and issues related to its environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadevan, T.N.; Nair, R.N.; Sadasivan, S.

    2002-01-01

    Guidelines for the safe discharge of thermal effluents in aquatic environmental systems both surface water and marine coastal out falls has become very relevant to Indian environmental conditions with its rich biodiversity. While aquatic ecology may form the basis for such guidelines, the need for regulatory approach to the related issues has become the prime mover in thermal discharge problems. This is more so since the impacts considered are under short term and long term exposure conditions where the bio acclimatization and thermal stress factors may come to cross roads. Constant temperatures and cyclic temperature elevations also causes differential thermal stress which could be site specific. The recent notification by the Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) revising the temperature limit for discharge of condenser cooling water from thermal power plants into coastal areas using sea water from 5 deg to 7 degC over and above the ambient temperature of the receiving water bodies. Discussions on whether the limiting temperature is to be achieved at the point of discharge or within a specified zone of the thermal plume is currently being debated. The act also stipulates installation of cooling towers using water from rivers, lakes and reservoirs irrespective of the plant location and capacity. For existing thermal plants the rise in temperature of the condenser cooling water from inlet to the let of the condenser shall not be more than 10 degC. (author)

  10. Containment Emergency Sump Performance. Technical findings related to Unresolved Safety Issue A-43. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This report summarizes key technical findings related to Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-43, Containment Emergency Sump Performance. Both BWRs and PWRs are considered in this report. Emergency core cooling systems require a clean, reliable water source to maintain long-term recirculation following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). PWRs rely on the containment emergency sump to provide such a water supply to residual heat removal pumps and containment spray pumps. BWRs rely on pump suction intakes in the suppression pool or wet well to provide water to residual heat removal and core spray systems. Thus, the technical findings in this report provide information on post-LOCA recirculation. These findings have been derived from extensive experimental studies, generic plant studies, and assessments of sumps used for long-term cooling. Results of hydraulic tests have shown that the potential for air ingestion is less severe than previously hypothesized. The effects of debris blockage on NPSH margin must be dealt with on a plant-specific basis. These findings have been used to develop revisions to Regulatory Guide 1.82 and Standard Review Plan Section 6.2.2 (NUREG-0800)

  11. Something fishy? News media presentation of complex health issues related to fish consumption guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Amelia; Clegg Smith, Katherine; Guallar, Eliseo

    2010-11-01

    The news media are an important source of dietary information. Understanding news content, particularly the portrayal of risks and benefits of certain foods, is relevant for effective public health communication. Fish consumption may reduce risk for CVD and aid neonatal development, but recent work shows public confusion about the benefits of fish, challenged by the evidence of mercury and other contaminants in fish. We present an analysis of the messages about fish in US news media over 15 years, identifying trends in coverage and highlighting implications of current messaging. We conducted a descriptive text analysis and coded for manifest content: locality of focus, story frame, reference to studies, inclusion of government guidelines and portrayal of uncertainty. We identified chronological patterns and analysed the data for statistically significant relationships between media source and content. News stories were selected from five daily newspapers and five television networks (1993-2007). We analysed 310 health-related news stories on fish. Risk messages outweighed benefit messages four to one, and health benefits only became prominent after 2002. No difference existed in coverage topic by news source. Fish consumption has increasingly become a national issue. With the bulk of messages about fish consumption focused on risk, the benefits may be lost to consumers. This gap creates a need for public health to work with news media to more effectively communicate benefits and risks around fish consumption and health and to consider options for communicating tailored information where it can be more readily utilised.

  12. Evaluation of the performance of diagnosis-related groups and similar casemix systems: methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, G; Reid, B

    2001-05-01

    With the increasing recognition and application of casemix for managing and financing healthcare resources, the evaluation of alternative versions of systems such as diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) has been afforded high priority by governments and researchers in many countries. Outside the United States, an important issue has been the perceived need to produce local versions, and to establish whether or not these perform more effectively than the US-based classifications. A discussion of casemix evaluation criteria highlights the large number of measures that may be used, the rationale and assumptions underlying each measure, and the problems in interpreting the results. A review of recent evaluation studies from a number of countries indicates that considerable emphasis has been placed on the predictive validity criterion, as measured by the R2 statistic. However, the interpretation of the findings has been affected greatly by the methods used, especially the treatment and definition of outlier cases. Furthermore, the extent to which other evaluation criteria have been addressed has varied widely. In the absence of minimum evaluation standards, it is not possible to draw clear-cut conclusions about the superiority of one version of a casemix system over another, the need for a local adaptation, or the further development of an existing version. Without the evidence provided by properly designed studies, policy-makers and managers may place undue reliance on subjective judgments and the views of the most influential, but not necessarily best informed, healthcare interest groups.

  13. Legal Issues Related to Donation of Organs, Tissues and Cells of Human Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Mironov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific developments, positive changes in attitude of the man and the new legal framework allow the donation of organs, tissues and cells of human origin. In this context it is necessary to clarifywhether the donation covered by the special law is, legally, one and the same as that covered by the Romanian Civil Code in force and qualified the successor’s right to accept or reject late withdrawals for transplantation. The right to life and physical integrity is personal patrimony; it is a subjective civil right that has no economic content and it cannot be measured in money. Consequently, the content of these rights can not be expressed in money, the property does not belong to their owner. Given the above view, "the right of disposal" to donation of organs, tissues and cells of human origin is an attribute of ownership, right to life and physical integrity, as a personal right that is an intimate attribute patrimonial related to the person’s right to dispose of his body as it wishes, within the law. Addressing these issues it is necessary to clarify the legal consequences of donating organs, tissues and cells of human origin, considering that medical activities are becoming more numerous.

  14. Monitoring, Tracking, and Recording Pancreas-Related Health Issues in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysikos, Theofilos; Zisi, Iliana; Katsini, Christina; Raptis, George E.; Kotsopoulos, Stavros

    2017-11-01

    The monitoring of pancreas-related health issues in real-time and outside the medical room is a challenge in the wide e-health domain. This paper introduces WHEAMO, a novel e-health platform which employs medical implants (biosensors), which function as antennas, planted in the pancreas. WHEAMO uses wireless in-body propagation to track, monitor, and record critical parameters, such as glucose. The signal reaches the skin and then it is propagated in an indoor environment (e.g., medical room) over to a terminal equipped with adaptive, user-configurable, and intelligent mechanisms which provide personalized recommendations to varying WHEAMO users (e.g., medical personnel, health care workers, patients). The personalized nature of the provided recommendations is based on patients unique characteristics via a sophisticated knowledge-base. The fundamentals of in-body and on-body wireless propagation and channel characterization have been studied in a series of published works. Researchers have tested both electric-field (dipole) and magnetic-field (patch, loop) antennas. Another important aspect concerns the frequency band in which the signal propagation will occur. Among the frequencies that have gathered scientific and academic interest are the Medical Implant Communication Service (MICS) band at 402-405 MHz, the 900 MHz channel and the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio band at 2.45 GHz.

  15. Some Theoretical and Methodological Problems Related to Studying the Future of Adult Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilija Lavrnja

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The following paper first discusses some epistemological and theoretically methodological initial theses for a futurological research in education. In analysing them, the author first dwells upon different orientations and doctrines for futuro logical research work (rational detenninism and indetenninism, agnosticism and probabil· ism. This article is focusing upon possibilities and limits of hypotheses, related to the educational development in the future. In doing so, re-orientation or reconstruction of knowledge, educational phenomena and pedagogical thinking related to the education as a factor inducing individual and social development are taken into account.

  16. Gender Issues and Related Social Stigma Affecting Patients with a Disorder of Sex Development in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Angela Ann; Kulshreshtha, Bindu; Shabir, Iram; Marumudi, Eunice; George, Tony Sam; Sagar, Rajesh; Mehta, Manju; Ammini, Ariachery C

    2017-02-01

    Children with disorders of sex development (DSD) manifest at birth with malformed genitalia or later with atypical pubertal development. Those born with malformed genitalia are often diagnosed at birth. However, in resource-poor countries like India, where not all births are supervised by healthcare workers, some of these children remain undiagnosed until puberty or even later. The aim of this study was to assess the gender issues and psychosocial problems of children with DSD. Participants included 205 children with DSD (103 with 46,XX DSD and 102 with 46,XY DSD). Both the children with DSD and their parents underwent semistructured interviews by a clinical psychologist. The birth of a child with DSD was perceived as a major medical and social problem by parents from all socioeconomic strata. Mothers were distressed as many believed the DSD condition was transmitted through the mother. Children who were not diagnosed and treated during infancy or early childhood experienced considerable social discrimination not only from relatives and friends but also from medical and paramedical staff in hospitals. Several patients had been operated during infancy without an etiological diagnosis and without provision of adequate information to the parents. Some children had problems related to complications of surgery. Most teenage patients with 5α-reductase-2 deficiency reared as females presented with gender dysphoria, while children with androgen insensitivity (except for one) or with gonadal dysgenesis developed a gender identity concordant with their gender of rearing. Parents of children with DSD preferred a male gender assignment for their children (if that was possible) because of the social advantages of growing up male in a patriarchal society.

  17. Public health issues related with the consumption of food obtained from genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparini, Andrea; Romano-Spica, Vincenzo

    2004-01-01

    Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are a fact of modern agriculture and a major field of discussion in biotechnology. As science incessantly achieves innovative and unexpected breakthroughs, new medical, political, ethical and religious debates arise over the production and consumption of transgenic organisms. Despite no described medical condition being directly associated with a diet including approved GM crops in large exposed populations such as 300,000,000 Americans and a billion Chinese, public opinion seems to look at this new technology with either growing concern or even disapproval. It is generally recognized that a high level of vigilance is necessary and highly desirable, but it should also be considered that GMOs are a promising new challenge for the III Millennium societies, with remarkable impact on many disciplines and fields related to biotechnology. To acquire a basic knowledge on GMO production, GM-food consumption, GMO interaction with humans and environment is of primary importance for risk assessment. It requires availability of clear data and results from rigorous experiments. This review will focus on public health risks related with a GMO-containing diet. The objective is to summarize state of the art research, provide fundamental technical information, point out problems and perspectives, and make available essential tools for further research. Are GMO based industries and GMO-derived foods safe to human health? Can we consider both social, ethical and public health issues by means of a constant and effective monitoring of the food chain and by a clear, informative labeling of the products? Which are the so far characterized or alleged hazards of GMOs? And, most importantly, are these hazards actual, potential or merely contrived? Several questions remain open; answers and solutions belong to science, to politics and to the personal opinion of each social subject.

  18. Beyond chronological age. Examining perceived future time and subjective health as age-related mediators in relation to work-related motivations and well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, D.T.A.M.; Lange, A.H. de; Jansen, P.G.W.; Dikkers, J.S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Since workforces across the world are aging, researchers and organizations need more insight into how and why occupational well-being, together with work-related attitudes and motivations, change with age. Lifespan theories point to subjective health and future time perspective (i.e. an individual's

  19. Beyond chronological age : Examining perceived future time and subjective health as age-related mediators in relation to work-related motivations and well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, T.A.M.; de Lange, A.H.; Jansen, P.G.W.; Dikkers, J.S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Since workforces across the world are aging, researchers and organizations need more insight into how and why occupational well-being, together with work-related attitudes and motivations, change with age. Lifespan theories point to subjective health and future time perspective (i.e. an individual's

  20. Oil prices, speculation, and fundamentals. Interpreting causal relations among spot and futures prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, Robert K.; Ullman, Ben

    2009-01-01

    A consensus that the world oil market is unified begs the question, where do innovations in oil prices enter the market? Here we investigate where changes in the price of crude oil originate and how they spread by examining causal relationships among prices for crude oils from North America, Europe, Africa, and the Middle East on both spot and futures markets. Results indicate that innovations first appear in spot prices for Dubai-Fateh and spread to other spot and futures prices while other innovations first appear in the far month contract for West Texas Intermediate and spread to other exchanges and contracts. Links between spot and futures markets are relatively weak and this may have allowed the long-run relationship between spot and future prices to change after September 2004. Together, these results suggest that market fundamentals initiated a long-term increase in oil prices that was exacerbated by speculators, who recognized an increase in the probability that oil prices would rise over time. (author)

  1. Steam generator thermal hydraulic design & functional architecture features and related operational and reliability issues requiring consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klarner, R.G.

    2012-01-01

    Proper thermal hydraulic design and functional architecture are critical to successful steam generator operation and long term reliability. The evolution of steam generators has been a gradual learning process that has benefited from continuous industry operational experience (OPEX). Inadequate thermal hydraulic design can lead to numerous degradation mechanisms such as excessive deposition, corrosion, flow and level instabilities, fluid-elastic instabilities and tube wear. The functional architecture determines the health of the tube bundle and the other internals during manufacturing, handling and operation. It also determines thermal performance as well as establishing global thermal-hydraulic characteristics such as water level shrink and swell response. This paper discusses the range of operational and reliability issues and relates them to the thermal hydraulic attributes and functional architecture of steam generators (many SG reliability issues are further discussed in other presentations at this conference). In pursuing such issues, the paper focuses on the four major features of the equipment, identifying in each case the goals and requirements such features must meet. Typical approaches and the means by which such requirements are addressed in current equipment are discussed. The four features are: 1. Tubing Material and Tube Bundle Heat Transfer Performance; a. Two materials are in current use – Alloy 690 TT and Alloy 800. Both are good materials with excellent performance records which serve their owners very well (the reliability attributes of Alloy 800 and 690 are discussed in other papers at this conference). Caution is advised in the supply of any material: – material quality is only assured by what is specified to material suppliers in procurement specifications – i.e. - all the knowledge and research in the world assures nothing if its findings are not reflected in procurement requirements. b. Heat transfer performance in addition to being

  2. Conflict resolution and Y2K problems. How biomaterials will face up to the real issues of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D

    1999-12-01

    At the end of this century, the medical device industry has achieved some notable successes, yet achieves so little in terms of significant functional replacement and reconstruction of the body. This is partly because of the materials that are used. This article addresses the main points of concern and highlights the way in which medical devices of the future will be based on different principles and will deploy different tactics in the search for safe and reliable treatments of disease and injury.

  3. How Older Adults and Their Families Perceive Family Talk about Aging-Related EOL Issues: A Dialectical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbert, Nichole; Child, Jeffrey T; Lin, Mei-Chen; Savery, Carol; Bosley, Tammy

    2017-04-17

    For older adults, approaching end-of-life (EOL) brings unique transitions related to family relationships. Unfortunately, most families greatly underestimate the need to discuss these difficult issues. For example, parents approaching EOL issues often struggle with receiving assistance from others, avoiding family conflict, and maintaining their sense of personhood. In addition, discussions of EOL issues force family members to face their parents' mortality, which can be particularly difficult for adult children to process emotionally. This study explored aging issues identified by aging parents and their families as they traverse these impending EOL changes. Ten focus groups of seniors ( n = 65) were conducted. Focus groups were organized according to race (African-American/European-American), gender, and whether the older adult was living independently or in an assisted care facility. When asked open-ended questions about discussing aging and EOL issues with family members, participants revealed tensions that led us to consider Relational Dialectics Theory as a framework for analysis. The predominant tension highlighted in this report was certainty versus uncertainty, with the two sub-themes of sustained life versus sustained personhood and confronting versus avoiding EOL issues. For these data, there were more similarities than differences as a result of gender, race, or living situation than one might expect, although culture and financial status were found to be influential in the avoidance of EOL discussions. The results of this study help to provide additional insight into relational dialectics related to aging, EOL, and the importance of communication in facilitating family coping.

  4. The Impact of Future Emissions Changes on Air Pollution Concentrations and Related Human Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajczyk, U.; Suppan, P.; Williams, M.

    2015-12-01

    Quantification of potential health benefits of reductions in air pollution on the local scale is becoming increasingly important. The aim of this study is to conduct health impact assessment (HIA) by utilizing regionally and spatially specific data in order to assess the influence of future emission scenarios on human health. In the first stage of this investigation, a modeling study was carried out using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with Chemistry to estimate ambient concentrations of air pollutants for the baseline year 2009, and for the future emission scenarios in southern Germany. Anthropogenic emissions for the baseline year 2009 are derived from the emission inventory provided by the Netherlands Organization of Applied Scientific Research (TNO) (Denier van der Gon et al., 2010). For Germany, the TNO emissions were replaced by gridded emission data with a high spatial resolution of 1/64 x 1/64 degrees. Future air quality simulations are carried out under different emission scenarios, which reflect possible energy and climate measures in year 2030. The model set-up included a nesting approach, where three domains with horizontal resolution of 18 km, 6 km and 2 km were defined. The simulation results for the baseline year 2009 are used to quantify present-day health burdens. Concentration-response functions (CRFs) for PM2.5 and NO2 from the WHO Health risks of air Pollution in Europe (HRAPIE) project were applied to population-weighted mean concentrations to estimate relative risks and hence to determine numbers of attributable deaths and associated life-years lost. In the next step, future health impacts of projected concentrations were calculated taking into account different emissions scenarios. The health benefits that we assume with air pollution reductions can be used to provide options for future policy decisions to protect public health.

  5. The development of a gender identity psychosocial clinic: treatment issues, logistical considerations, interdisciplinary cooperation, and future initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, Scott F; Spack, Norman P

    2011-10-01

    Few interdisciplinary treatment programs that tend to the needs of youth with gender nonconforming behaviors, expressions, and identities exist in academic medical centers with formal residency training programs. Despite this, the literature provides evidence that these youth have higher rates of poor psychosocial adjustment and suicide attempts. This article explores the logistical considerations involved in developing a specialized interdisciplinary service to these gender minority youth in accordance with the existing treatment guidelines.Demographic data will be presented and treatment issues will be explored. The impact that a specialized interdisciplinary treatment program has on clinical expansion, research development, education and training, and community outreach initiatives is discussed.

  6. METHODOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF TEACHING FUTURE ECONOMISTS TO READ ENGLISH TEXTS RELATED TO PROFESSIONAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ліліана Білогорка

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of reading competence in the structure of English professionally oriented communicative competence has been analysed; types of economics texts which should be used in teaching future economists – scientific economics texts, texts of professional economics activity, educational economics texts, texts of non-professional economics activity have been defined; the necessity of using not only authentic, but also semi-authentic and adapted texts in teaching future economists to read English texts related to professional area has been grounded; bachelor’s level requirements for students’ knowledge and skills in skimming, scanning reading and reading for detail have been defined; direct (cognitive and compensatory and indirect (metacognitive, affective and social learning strategies to enhance the quality of text reading have been specified in the article.

  7. Large-scale Water-related Innovative Renewable Energy Projects and the Water Framework Directive : Legal Issues and Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hees, S.R.W.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses two legal issues that relate to the conflict between the interest of protecting water quality under the Water Framework Directive (WFD), versus the interest of promoting the use of innovative water-related renewable energy, with regard to the quota in the Renewable Energy

  8. Large-scale Water-related Innovative Renewable Energy Projects and the Habitats and Birds Directives: Legal Issues and Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hees, S.R.W.

    This article discusses two legal issues that relate to the conflict between the interest of protecting habitats and species under the Habitats and Birds Directives, versus the interest of promoting the use of innovative water-related renewable energy, with regard to the quota in the Renewable Energy

  9. 78 FR 33843 - Request for Comments on Issues Related to Incidental Findings That Arise in the Clinical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... specific bioethical, legal, and social issues related to potential scientific and technological advances... related areas of science and technology. The Bioethics Commission is charged with identifying and... establishing ``no return'' policies, or stipulations in advance of clinical intervention, research, and/or...

  10. Compensation for environmental asbestos-related diseases in South Africa: a neglected issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntombizodwa Ndlovu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environmentally acquired asbestos-related diseases (ARDs are of concern globally. In South Africa, there is widespread contamination of the environment due to historical asbestos mining operations that were poorly regulated. Although the law makes provision for the compensation of occupationally acquired ARDs, compensation for environmentally acquired ARDs is only available through the Asbestos Relief Trust (ART and Kgalagadi Relief Trust, both of which are administered by the ART. This study assessed ARDs and compensation outcomes of environmental claims submitted to the Trusts. Methods: The personal details, medical diagnoses, and exposure information of all environmental claims considered by the Trusts from their inception in 2003 to April 2010 were used to calculate the numbers and proportions of ARDs and compensation awards. Results: There were 146 environmental claimants of whom 35 (23.9% had fibrotic pleural disease, 1 (0.7% had lung cancer, and 77 (52.7% had malignant mesothelioma. 53 (36.3% claimants were compensated: 20 with fibrotic pleural disease and 33 with mesothelioma. Of the 93 (63.7% claimants who were not compensated, 33 had no ARDs, 18 had fibrotic pleural disease, 1 had lung cancer, and 44 had mesothelioma. In addition to having ARDs, those that were compensated had qualifying domestic (33; 62.2% or neighbourhood (20; 37.8% exposures to asbestos. Most of the claimants who were not compensated had ARDs but their exposures did not meet the Trusts’ exposure criteria. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the environmental impact of asbestos mining on the burden of ARDs. Mesothelioma was the most common disease diagnosed, but most cases were not compensated. This highlights that there is little redress for individuals with environmentally acquired ARDs in South Africa. To stop this ARD epidemic, there is a need for the rehabilitation of abandoned asbestos mines and the environment. These issues may not be unique to

  11. Invariance of molecular charge transport upon changes of extended molecule size and several related issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Bâldea

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As a sanity test for the theoretical method employed, studies on (steady-state charge transport through molecular devices usually confine themselves to check whether the method in question satisfies the charge conservation. Another important test of the theory’s correctness is to check that the computed current does not depend on the choice of the central region (also referred to as the “extended molecule”. This work addresses this issue and demonstrates that the relevant transport and transport-related properties are indeed invariant upon changing the size of the extended molecule, when the embedded molecule can be described within a general single-particle picture (namely, a second-quantized Hamiltonian bilinear in the creation and annihilation operators. It is also demonstrates that the invariance of nonequilibrium properties is exhibited by the exact results but not by those computed approximately within ubiquitous wide- and flat-band limits (WBL and FBL, respectively. To exemplify the limitations of the latter, the phenomenon of negative differential resistance (NDR is considered. It is shown that the exactly computed current may exhibit a substantial NDR, while the NDR effect is absent or drastically suppressed within the WBL and FBL approximations. The analysis done in conjunction with the WBLs and FBLs reveals why general studies on nonequilibrium properties require a more elaborate theoretical than studies on linear response properties (e.g., ohmic conductance and thermopower at zero temperature. Furthermore, examples are presented that demonstrate that treating parts of electrodes adjacent to the embedded molecule and the remaining semi-infinite electrodes at different levels of theory (which is exactly what most NEGF-DFT approaches do is a procedure that yields spurious structures in nonlinear ranges of current–voltage curves.

  12. A Qualitative Study of Service Provision for Alcohol Related Health Issues in Mid to Later Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Haighton

    Full Text Available Epidemiological surveys over the last 20 years show a steady increase in the amount of alcohol consumed by older age groups. Physiological changes and an increased likelihood of health problems and medication use make older people more likely than younger age groups to suffer negative consequences of alcohol consumption, often at lower levels. However, health services targeting excessive drinking tend to be aimed at younger age groups. The aim of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of experiences of, and attitudes towards, support for alcohol related health issues in people aged 50 and over.Qualitative interviews (n = 24, 12 male/12 female, ages 51-90 years and focus groups (n = 27, 6 male/21 female, ages 50-95 years were carried out with a purposive sample of participants who consumed alcohol or had been dependent.Participants' alcohol misuse was often covert, isolated and carefully regulated. Participants tended to look first to their General Practitioner for help with alcohol. Detoxification courses had been found effective for dependent participants but only in the short term; rehabilitation facilities were appreciated but seen as difficult to access. Activities, informal groups and drop-in centres were endorsed. It was seen as difficult to secure treatment for alcohol and mental health problems together. Barriers to seeking help included functioning at a high level, concern about losing positive aspects of drinking, perceived stigma, service orientation to younger people, and fatalistic attitudes to help-seeking. Facilitators included concern about risk of fatal illness or pressure from significant people.Primary care professionals need training on improving the detection and treatment of alcohol problems among older people. There is also a compelling need to ensure that aftercare is in place to prevent relapse. Strong preferences were expressed for support to be provided by those who had experienced alcohol problems themselves.

  13. Compensation for environmental asbestos-related diseases in South Africa: a neglected issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndlovu, Ntombizodwa; Naude, Jim teWater; Murray, Jill

    2013-01-24

    Environmentally acquired asbestos-related diseases (ARDs) are of concern globally. In South Africa, there is widespread contamination of the environment due to historical asbestos mining operations that were poorly regulated. Although the law makes provision for the compensation of occupationally acquired ARDs, compensation for environmentally acquired ARDs is only available through the Asbestos Relief Trust (ART) and Kgalagadi Relief Trust, both of which are administered by the ART. This study assessed ARDs and compensation outcomes of environmental claims submitted to the Trusts. The personal details, medical diagnoses, and exposure information of all environmental claims considered by the Trusts from their inception in 2003 to April 2010 were used to calculate the numbers and proportions of ARDs and compensation awards. There were 146 environmental claimants of whom 35 (23.9%) had fibrotic pleural disease, 1 (0.7%) had lung cancer, and 77 (52.7%) had malignant mesothelioma. 53 (36.3%) claimants were compensated: 20 with fibrotic pleural disease and 33 with mesothelioma. Of the 93 (63.7%) claimants who were not compensated, 33 had no ARDs, 18 had fibrotic pleural disease, 1 had lung cancer, and 44 had mesothelioma. In addition to having ARDs, those that were compensated had qualifying domestic (33; 62.2%) or neighbourhood (20; 37.8%) exposures to asbestos. Most of the claimants who were not compensated had ARDs but their exposures did not meet the Trusts' exposure criteria. This study demonstrates the environmental impact of asbestos mining on the burden of ARDs. Mesothelioma was the most common disease diagnosed, but most cases were not compensated. This highlights that there is little redress for individuals with environmentally acquired ARDs in South Africa. To stop this ARD epidemic, there is a need for the rehabilitation of abandoned asbestos mines and the environment. These issues may not be unique to South Africa as many countries continue to mine and use

  14. Legal issues relating to the use of surrogate mothers in the practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Bioethics and Law. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 1 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. SOME STATISTICAL ISSUES RELATED TO MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION MODELING OF BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a fast and effective technique, the multiple linear regression (MLR) method has been widely used in modeling and prediction of beach bacteria concentrations. Among previous works on this subject, however, several issues were insufficiently or inconsistently addressed. Those is...

  16. Technical findings related to Generic Issue 23: Reactor coolant pump seal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruger, C.J.; Luckas, W.J. Jr.

    1989-03-01

    Reactor coolant pumps contain mechanical seals to limit the leakage of pressurized coolant from the reactor coolant system to the containment. These seals have the potential to leak, and a few have degraded and even failed resulting in a small break loss of coolant accident (LOCA). As a result, ''Reactor Coolant Pump Seal Failure,'' Generic Issue 23 was established. This report summarizes the findings of a technical investigation generated as part of the program to resolve this issue. These technical findings address the various fact-finding issue tasks developed for the action plan associated with the generic issue, namely background information on seal failure, evaluation of seal cooling, and mechanical- and maintenance-induced failure mechanisms. 46 refs., 15 figs., 14 tabs

  17. Biometric Identifiers and Border Security: 9/11 Commission Recommendations and Related Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morgan, Daniel; Krouse, William

    2005-01-01

    .... This report provides an overview of biometric technologies and the major U.S. biometric border screening systems, including US-VISIT, and discusses issues such as cost, performance, and user acceptance...

  18. A study on the establishment of nuclear cooperative relations and future direction between Korea and Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. J.; Yun, S. W.; Ko, H. S

    2000-10-01

    This study was carried out in order to review the cooperation with Egypt and establish and activate the cooperative relations with Egypt. Recent policy trends in the use and development of nuclear energy in Egypt, were investigated including introduction of nuclear power plant, and cooperative relations between two nations were also established under the implementation of the project. It was agreed through exchanges of visits of nuclear cooperation delegation; 1) exchange of visits of cooperation delegation, 2) invitation of egypt experts to policy seminar 3) cooperation between relevant nuclear related organizations of two countries, 4) future cooperation fields and directions between two countries. It is recommended that cooperation with Egypt be implemented systematically through the long term based on national basic cooperation directions and integrated strategies.

  19. A study on the establishment of nuclear cooperative relations and future direction between Korea and Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. J.; Yun, S. W.; Ko, H. S.

    2000-10-01

    This study was carried out in order to review the cooperation with Egypt and establish and activate the cooperative relations with Egypt. Recent policy trends in the use and development of nuclear energy in Egypt, were investigated including introduction of nuclear power plant, and cooperative relations between two nations were also established under the implementation of the project. It was agreed through exchanges of visits of nuclear cooperation delegation; 1) exchange of visits of cooperation delegation, 2) invitation of egypt experts to policy seminar 3) cooperation between relevant nuclear related organizations of two countries, 4) future cooperation fields and directions between two countries. It is recommended that cooperation with Egypt be implemented systematically through the long term based on national basic cooperation directions and integrated strategies

  20. CONTEMPORARY ISSUES RELATED TO ILLICIT DRUG TRAFFICKING AND CONSUMPTION TARGETING THE NATIONAL SECURITY OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan MARINESCU

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A serious social problem is drug use, which is very widespread all over the world. Drugs are a terrible problem whose seriousness becomes more visible every day. Problems caused by drug abuse and illegal trafficking are among the most serious problems faced by the world today but also threatening future generations. After the First World War, drugs began to be consumed on a large scale. Up to the end of the 30s, they were legal. Their marketing over time has led to enormous profits outlaw, making drugs an invaluable source for the black market. Scourge illicit drug trafficking from South America and the Middle East comprised the whole the planet. Governments have begun to allocate more resources to the fight against drugs, but the processes were slow because the problem was very complex. The impact was very high among young people who out of curiosity, terrible or solidarity with the entourage, have begun to consume. The Romanian society was caught by surprise by this drug scourge, coming out so very serious problems both in justice and in the medical world. Weak reactions and untrained authorities have favored the phenomenon of drug abuse that has come to be devastating. Drug use is a high-risk activity. Optimism and illusion of maintaining self-control is also dangerous because it affects reasoning. The drug consumer becomes not only an unfortunate person, but also a social problem. Changes made by traffickers are evident in street-related lawsuits: thefts, arsonists, assassinations. We are all affected in some way by drug trafficking. The extent of the problem current narcotics outweighs the concerns of the police forces and the medical world, constituting a threat to the economic and social order of the world.

  1. Granulocyte-monocyte adsorptive apheresis in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease: results, practical issues, safety, and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruuska, T; Wewer, V; Lindgren, F

    2009-01-01

    and to assess practical issues. METHODS: Retrospective data on 37 children treated with GMA were collected. In all, 22 children had ulcerative colitis (UC), 13 Crohn's disease (CD), and 2 had indeterminate colitis (IC). Their mean age was 13.2 years, range 5-17 years, and mean duration of disease was 2.4 years......, range 1 month to 6 years. Indication for treatment in the UC group was SD in 11 cases, SR in 6 cases, and other reasons in 5 cases. The corresponding numbers in the CD group were SD in 8 cases, SR in 2 cases, and other reasons in 3 cases. In the IC group, 1 had SD and 1 was refractory to steroids...

  2. 17 CFR 1.18 - Records for and relating to financial reporting and monthly computation by futures commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... financial reporting and monthly computation by futures commission merchants and introducing brokers. 1.18... UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Minimum Financial and Related Reporting Requirements § 1.18 Records for and relating to financial reporting and monthly computation by futures commission merchants and...

  3. FutureCoast: "Listen to your futures"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Eklund, K.; Thacher, S.; Orlove, B. S.; Diane Stovall-Soto, G.; Brunacini, J.; Hernandez, T.

    2014-12-01

    Two science-arts approaches are emerging as effective means to convey "futurethinking" to learners: systems gaming and experiential futures. FutureCoast exemplifies the latter: by engaging participants with voicemails supposedly leaking from the cloud of possible futures, the storymaking game frames the complexities of climate science in relatable contexts. Because participants make the voicemails themselves, FutureCoast opens up creative ways for people to think about possibly climate-changed futures and personal ways to talk about them. FutureCoast is a project of the PoLAR Partnership with a target audience of informal adult learners primarily reached via mobile devices and online platforms. Scientists increasingly use scenarios and storylines as ways to explore the implications of environmental change and societal choices. Stories help people make connections across experiences and disciplines and link large-scale events to personal consequences. By making the future seem real today, FutureCoast's framework helps people visualize and plan for future climate changes. The voicemails contributed to FutureCoast are spread through the game's intended timeframe (2020 through 2065). Based on initial content analysis of voicemail text, common themes include ecosystems and landscapes, weather, technology, societal issues, governance and policy. Other issues somewhat less frequently discussed include security, food, industry and business, health, energy, infrastructure, water, economy, and migration. Further voicemail analysis is examining: temporal dimensions (salient time frames, short vs. long term issues, intergenerational, etc.), content (adaptation vs. mitigation, challenges vs. opportunities, etc.), and emotion (hopeful, resigned, etc. and overall emotional context). FutureCoast also engaged audiences through facilitated in-person experiences, geocaching events, and social media (Tumblr, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube). Analysis of the project suggests story

  4. Repeating Marx: Introduction to the Special Issue “Karl Marx @ 200: Debating Capitalism & Perspectives for the Future of Radical Theory”

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Fuchs; Lara Monticelli

    2018-01-01

    This introduction sets out the context of the special issue “Karl Marx @ 200: Debating Capitalism & Perspectives for the Future of Radical Theory”, which was published on the occasion of Marx’s bicentenary on 5 May 2018. First, we give a brief overview of contemporary capitalism’s development and its crises. Second, we argue that it is important to repeat Marx today. Third, we reflect on lessons learned from 200 years of struggles for alternatives to capitalism. Fourth, we give an overview of...

  5. Issues related to the USEPA probabilistic standard for geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okrent, D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper asks whether some of the fundamental bases for the 1985 USEPA standard on disposal of high level radioactive wastes (40 CFR Part 191) warrant re-examination. Similar questions also apply to the bases for the radioactive waste disposal requirements proposed by most other countries. It is suggested that the issue of intergenerational equity has been dealt with from too narrow a perspective. Not only should radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous waste disposal be regulated from a consistent philosophic basis, but the regulation of waste disposal itself should be embedded in the broader issues of intergenerational conservation of options, conservation of quality, and conservation of access. (author). 25 refs

  6. Discussion of some issues in assessing nuclear and radiation environmental impacts and in related assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang

    1998-01-01

    The author discusses some noticeable issues in drafting assessment report of nuclear and radiation environmental impacts and relevant aspects needed to be considered from the point of view of comprehensive environmental assessment. The considerable issue are principles of radioactive waste management, optimization of radiation protection and collective dose, and uncertainty of the assessment. Implementing reporting system on assessment of nuclear and radiation environmental impacts would improve environmental protection for nuclear and radiation facilities. However, trade's, regional , country and global assessment of environmental impacts has to be enhanced. For this purpose, it is necessary to develop methodology of qualitative and quantitative comprehensive assessment

  7. Can integrative catchment management mitigate future water quality issues caused by climate change and socio-economic development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honti, Mark; Schuwirth, Nele; Rieckermann, Jörg; Stamm, Christian

    2017-03-01

    The design and evaluation of solutions for integrated surface water quality management requires an integrated modelling approach. Integrated models have to be comprehensive enough to cover the aspects relevant for management decisions, allowing for mapping of larger-scale processes such as climate change to the regional and local contexts. Besides this, models have to be sufficiently simple and fast to apply proper methods of uncertainty analysis, covering model structure deficits and error propagation through the chain of sub-models. Here, we present a new integrated catchment model satisfying both conditions. The conceptual iWaQa model was developed to support the integrated management of small streams. It can be used to predict traditional water quality parameters, such as nutrients and a wide set of organic micropollutants (plant and material protection products), by considering all major pollutant pathways in urban and agricultural environments. Due to its simplicity, the model allows for a full, propagative analysis of predictive uncertainty, including certain structural and input errors. The usefulness of the model is demonstrated by predicting future surface water quality in a small catchment with mixed land use in the Swiss Plateau. We consider climate change, population growth or decline, socio-economic development, and the implementation of management strategies to tackle urban and agricultural point and non-point sources of pollution. Our results indicate that input and model structure uncertainties are the most influential factors for certain water quality parameters. In these cases model uncertainty is already high for present conditions. Nevertheless, accounting for today's uncertainty makes management fairly robust to the foreseen range of potential changes in the next decades. The assessment of total predictive uncertainty allows for selecting management strategies that show small sensitivity to poorly known boundary conditions. The identification

  8. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF FORMING A PROFESSIONAL IMAGE OF THE FUTURE PUBLIC RELATIONS SPECIALIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Mikhailovna Semenova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the organization of research work on forming professional image of the future public relations specialist. The purposes of the work were to study components of students’ image, to test the concept of a professional image of the specialist, and also to process and evaluate the results. The author has presented three phases of experimental research: statement, formative and evaluative. As a result, a positive trend of forming a professional image was found. The conceptual model of forming a professional image of the future experts tested in the course of experiment has shown to be highly effective, while new methods of training (training, workshops, panel discussions, action games, etc. have substantially improved the level of development of a professional image. The results can be used in the training and retraining of specialists of higher education and people whose profession related to communications.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-48

  9. Effects of implementation of problem-based learning tutorials on fifth-year pharmacy students and future issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Atsuko; Morone, Mieko; Azuma, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    At Tohoku Pharmaceutical University, problem-based learning (PBL) tutorials were incorporated into "prescription analysis" and "case analysis" for fifth-year students in 2010 with the following objectives: ① application and confirmation of acquired knowledge and skills, and acquisition of ② communication ability, ③ presentation ability, ④ cooperativeness through groupwork, and ⑤ information collecting ability. In the present study, we conducted a questionnaire survey on a total of 158 fifth-year students in order to investigate the educational benefits of PBL tutorials. The results showed that the above five objectives of PBL tutorials were being achieved, and confirmed the educational benefits expected of PBL tutorials. In contrast, it was found to be necessary to improve the contents of scenarios and lectures, time allocation regarding schedules, the learning environment, the role of tutors, and other matters. In order to maximize the educational benefits of PBL tutorials, it will be necessary in the future to continue to conduct surveys on students and make improvements to the curriculum based on survey results.

  10. Sustaining and growing the rural nursing and midwifery workforce: understanding the issues and isolating directions for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Karen L; Mills, Jane E

    2011-01-01

    Nurses and midwives represent the largest group of health professionals in the Australian health care system. In rural environments nurses and midwives make up a greater proportion of the health workforce than in urban settings, which makes their role in service provision even more significant. The role and scope of these nurses and midwives' practice is by necessity more generalist than specialist, which results in disciplinary strengths and weaknesses. As generalist health professionals they work in diverse settings such as public hospitals, multi-purpose services, community health, aged care and in non-government and private for profit and no-profit organisations including general practices. Their scope of practice covers prevention, intervention and rehabilitation and is lifespan inclusive. Rural nurses and midwives are older than their metropolitan based counterparts, work part-time and traditionally have limited access to professional development often due to ineffective locum relief programs. Workplace inflexibility, access to acceptable housing and partner employment are factors cited as inhibitors to growing this workforces. The future of the rural nursing and midwifery workforce will only be secured if Government invests to a greater degree in both education and training and the development of a nationally agreed remuneration scale that allows for part-time work.

  11. Power plants 2020+. Power plant options for the future and the related demand for research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This short overview already demonstrates that in the foreseeable future all generation options - nuclear power, fossil-fired power plants and renewable sources of energy - will continue to be applied. If, however, due to climate protection targets, energy conversion processes are to be to switched to CO 2 -free or -low carbon energy sources, comprehensive research endeavours will be required in order to advance existing technology options and to adjust them to changing conditions. This paper is bound to recommend individual fields of research from the viewpoint of the VGB Scientific Advisory Board for the period 2020 and beyond. Firstly, the generation structure in the European high-voltage grid and its development until 2020 will be considered, then the research demand for - Hard coal- and lignite-fired power plants, - Renewables-based electricity generation (wind, solar energy) and - Nuclear-based electricity generation will be outlined briefly, listing the main technology issues to be answered by researchers in order to increase efficiency and to settle any ''loose ends''. Apart from generation technologies, the options for storing electrical energy will also be dealt with. These options can contribute to make the feed-in of renewables-based electricity more permanent and sustainable. (orig.)

  12. Surveillance of social and geographic inequalities in housing-related issues: the case of the Eastern Townships, Quebec (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mathieu; Généreux, Mélissa; Laverdière, Emélie; Vanasse, Alain

    2014-05-06

    Even though health inequalities are conditioned by many aspects of the environment, much of the existing research focuses on the social environment. This emphasis has the effect to neglect other environmental aspects such as its physical dimension. The physical environment, which is linked to housing conditions, may contribute to the uneven distribution of health. In this study, we examined 19 housing-related issues among a representative sample of 2,000 adults residing in a Quebec (Canada) health region characterized by a mix of rural, semi-rural, and urban areas. The distribution of these issues was examined according to socioeconomic and geographic indicators of social position. Summary measures of inequalities were assessed. Our results showed that the prevalence of nearly all housing-related issues was higher among low-income households compared to more affluent ones. Highly educated individuals showed better housing conditions, whereas different issues tended to cluster in deprived or densely populated areas. To conclude, we observed steep gradients between social class and poor housing conditions. This may explain a substantial part of health inequality on the regional scale. The surveillance of housing-related issues is therefore essential to properly inform and mobilize local stakeholders and to develop interventions that target vulnerable groups on this level.

  13. Ethical Issues Relative to Autonomy and Personal Control in Independent and Cognitively Impaired Elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Virginia Hill; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discusses ethical issues surrounding health care for independent elders, those in long-term care, and those with cognitive impairments, as well as death, dying, euthanasia, and assisted suicide. Suggests that nurses should focus on older adults' choice, autonomy, and personal control. (SK)

  14. Forces and Issues Related to Curriculum and Instruction, 7-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Alan R.; Crosswhite, F. Joe

    1970-01-01

    This unit is divided into three chapters concerned with Emerging Issues: 1890-1920," Mathematics Education on the Defensive: 1920-45," and Reform, Revolution, and Reaction." Of particular interest are discussions of the aims and impact of the Report of the Committee of Ten," The 1923 Report" and the Cambridge Report.…

  15. Secondary School Students' Interests, Attitudes and Values Concerning School Science Related to Environmental Issues in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitto, Anna; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Byman, Reijo; Meisalo, Veijo

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between students' interests in environmental issues, attitudes to environmental responsibility and biocentric values in school science education. The factors were investigated within the framework of three moderators: gender, school and residential area of the school. The survey was carried out using the…

  16. Turkish Preservice Teachers' Perceptions of Children's Picture Books Reflecting LGBT-Related Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedeoglu, Hakan; Ulusoy, Mustafa; Lamme, Linda L.

    2012-01-01

    This research study focuses on Turkish preservice teachers' perceptions of children's picture books containing lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender issues to lend support to encouraging diversity in teacher education programs and elementary school classrooms. The authors proposed that reading, listening, and responding to diverse children's…

  17. Teachers' Controversial Issue Decisions Related to Race, Gender, and Religion during the 2008 Presidential Election

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journell, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    Using the 2008 Presidential Election as a case of curricular controversy, the author describes how six high school government teachers responded to the racial, gender, and religious diversity included on the presidential tickets of the two major political parties. Teachers had to decide whether the issue of Americans challenging the tradition of…

  18. An Exploration of School Leadership Issues Relating to the "December Dilemma"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Anna L.; Vasek, Austin; Davis, Derek

    2012-01-01

    School leadership is required to navigate difficult issues concerning the religious liberties of their students. December is a month filled with secular and religious holidays. It is the one month on the school calendar filled with joyous cultural celebrations. However, it can also become a quandary for leadership when attempting to balance the…

  19. The issue of energy security in relations between the European Union and Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O V Shabelnikova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on cooperation between the European Union and the Republic of Azerbaijan on energy issues. The author analyzes the EU initiatives and projects for the Black Sea and Caspian Sea region as well as the questions of delivery diversification of the Azerbaijani gas to the European markets.

  20. The Press Relations of a Local School District: An Analysis of the Emergence of School Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jon R.; Guenter, Cornelius

    Press coverage of a suburban midwest school district is analyzed as a set of time series of observations including the amount and quality of coverage. Possible shifts in these series because of the emergence of controversial issues are analyzed statistically using the Integrated Moving Average Time Series Model. Evidence of significant shifts in…