WorldWideScience

Sample records for future fusion perspectives

  1. Fusion-fission dynamics and perspectives of future experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagrebaev, V.I.; Itkis, M.G.; Oganessian, Yu.Ts.

    2003-01-01

    The paper is focused on reaction dynamics of superheavy-nucleus formation and decay at beam energies near the Coulomb barrier. The aim is to review the things we have learned from recent experiments on fusion-fission reactions leading to the formation of compound nuclei with Z ≥ 102 and from their extensive theoretical analysis. Major attention is paid to the dynamics of formation of very heavy compound nuclei taking place in strong competition with the process of fast fission (quasifission). The choice of collective degrees of freedom playing a fundamental role and finding the multidimensional driving potential and the corresponding dynamic equation regulating the whole process are discussed. A possibility of deriving the fission barriers of superheavy nuclei directly from performed experiments is of particular interest here. In conclusion, the results of a detailed theoretical analysis of available experimental data on the 'cold' and 'hot' fusion-fission reactions are presented. Perspectives of future experiments are discussed along with additional theoretical studies in this field needed for deeper understanding of the fusion-fission processes of very heavy nuclear systems

  2. Industry perspectives on future directions in the fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniscalco, J.A.; Bell, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Industry is the ultimate recipient of the product of the fusion development program. However, budget trends are causing the program to lose it's focus on the energy goal, thus diminishing opportunities for a meaningful industrial role at a time when technical progress has been remarkable and scientific feasibility is being demonstrated. The findings of the Magnetic Fusion Advisory Committee Panel charged to report on industrial participation in fusion energy development are summarized. A recommendation of this panel was to increase intellectual involvement of industry in the development of fusion. Opportunities to achieve this include forming partnerships with national laboratories and universities, assigning industry responsibility for a complete scope of work, and assigning industry a major role in system studies and reactor design. These opportunities can be implemented without requiring large budget increases. Increasing the involvement of industry in the fusion program will provide both long and short-term benefits

  3. Results from levels 2/3 fusion implementations: issues, challenges, retrospectives, and perspectives for the future an annotated perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadar, Ivan; Bosse, Eloi; Salerno, John; Lambert, Dale A.; Das, Subrata; Ruspini, Enrique H.; Rhodes, Bradley J.; Biermann, Joachim

    2008-04-01

    Even though the definition of the Joint Director of Laboratories (JDL) "fusion levels" were established in 1987, published 1991, revised in 1999 and 2004, the meaning, effects, control and optimization of interactions among the fusion levels have not as yet been fully explored and understood. Specifically, this is apparent from the abstract JDL definitions of "Levels 2/3 Fusion" - situation and threat assessment (SA/TA), which involve deriving relations among entities, e.g., the aggregation of object states (i.e., classification and location) in SA, while TA uses SA products to estimate/predict the impact of actions/interactions effects on situations taken by the participant entities involved. Given all the existing knowledge in the information fusion and human factors literature, (both prior to and after the introduction of "fusion levels" in 1987) there are still open questions remaining in regard to implementation of knowledge representation and reasoning methods under uncertainty to afford SA/TA. Therefore, to promote exchange of ideas and to illuminate the historical, current and future issues associated with Levels 2/3 implementations, leading experts were invited to present their respective views on various facets of this complex problem. This paper is a retrospective annotated view of the invited panel discussion organized by Ivan Kadar (first author), supported by John Salerno, in order to provide both a historical perspective of the evolution of the state-of-the-art (SOA) in higher-level "Levels 2/3" information fusion implementations by looking back over the past ten or more years (before JDL), and based upon the lessons learned to forecast where focus should be placed to further enhance and advance the SOA by addressing key issues and challenges. In order to convey the panel discussion to audiences not present at the panel, annotated position papers summarizing the panel presentation are included.

  4. User's perspective on fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashworth, C.P.

    1976-01-01

    The need in fusion, from the electric utilities viewpoint, is for fusion to be a real option, not huge, complicated nuclear plants costing $10 billion each and requiring restructuring the energy industry to provide and use them. A course for future fusion reactor work in order to be a real option is discussed. The advantages of alternate concepts to the tokamak are presented

  5. Target technologies for laser inertial confinement fusion: state-of-the-art and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lin; Du Kai

    2013-01-01

    Targets are physical base of the laser inertial confinement fusion (ICF) researches. The quality of the targets has extremely important influences on the reliabilities and degree of precision of the ICF experimental results. The characteristics of the ICF targets, such as complexity and microscale, high precision, determine that the target fabrication process must be a system engineering. This paper presents progresses on the fabrication technologies of ICF targets. The existing problem and the future needs of ICF target fabrication technologies are also discussed. (authors)

  6. Future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    International involvement in particle physics is what the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) is all about. At the latest Future Perspectives meeting at Brookhaven from 5-10 October (after a keynote speech by doyen Viktor Weisskopf, who regretted the emergence of 'a nationalistic trend'), ICFA reviewed progress and examined its commitments in the light of the evolving world particle physics scene. Particular aims were to review worldwide accelerator achievements and plans, to survey the work of the four panels, and to discuss ICFA's special role in future cooperation in accelerator construction and use, and in research and development work for both accelerators and for detectors

  7. Cold fusion in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, L.

    1989-01-01

    Since early April a great deal of excitement has been created over the Fleischmann/Pons cold fusion experiment, which if it performs as advertised, could turn out to be mankind's best hope of heading off the energy crisis scheduled for early in the next century. Dozens of groups around the world are now attempting to duplicate the experiment to see if Fleischmann and Pons' discovery is an experimental mistake, an unknown electrochemical effect or a new kind of fusion reaction. This article puts the experiment into the perspective of today and looks at how it might affect the energy scene tomorrow if it should turn out to be commercially exploitable. (author)

  8. Future of fusion implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beardsworth, E.; Powell, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    For fusion to become available for commercial use in the 21st century, R and D must be undertaken now. But it is hard to justify these expenditures with a cost/benefit oriented assessment methodology, because of both the time-frame and the uncertainty of the future benefits. Focusing on the factors most relevant for current consideration of fusion's commercial prospects, i.e., consumption levels and the outcomes for fission, solar, and coal, many possible futures of the US energy system are posited and analyzed under various assumptions about costs. The Reference Energy System approach was modified to establish both an appropriate degree of detail and explicit time dependence, and a computer code used to organize the relevant data and to perform calculations of system cost (annual and discounted present value), resource use, and residuals that are implied by the consumptions levels and technology mix in each scenario. Not unreasonable scenarios indicate benefits in the form of direct cost savings, which may well exceed R and D costs, which could be attributed to the implementation of fusion

  9. Fusion: Energy for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    Fusion, which occurs in the sun and the stars, is a process of transforming matter into energy. If we can harness the fusion process on Earth, it opens the way to assuring that future generations will not want for heat and electric power. The purpose of this booklet is to introduce the concept of fusion energy as a viable, environmentally sustainable energy source for the twenty-first century. The booklet presents the basic principles of fusion, the global research and development effort in fusion, and Canada's programs for fusion research and development

  10. Liquid metals as alternative solution for the power exhaust of future fusion devices: status and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenen, J W; Philipps, V; Sergienko, G; Terra, A; Unterberg, B; Wegener, T; De Temmerman, G; Van den Bekerom, D C M; Federici, G; Strohmayer, G

    2014-01-01

    Applying liquid metals as plasma facing components for fusion power-exhaust can potentially ameliorate lifetime issues as well as limitations to the maximum allowed surface heat loads by allowing for a more direct contact with the coolant. The material choice has so far been focused on lithium (Li), as it showed beneficial impact on plasma operation. Here materials such as tin (Sn), gallium (Ga) and aluminum (Al) are discussed as alternatives potentially allowing higher operating temperatures without strong evaporation. Power loads of up to 25 MW m −2 for a Sn/W component can be envisioned based on calculations and modeling. Reaching a higher operating temperature due to material re-deposition will be discussed. Liquids typically face stability issues due to j × B forces, potential pressure and magnetohydrodynamic driven instabilities. The capillary porous system is used for stabilization by a mesh (W and Mo) substrate and replenishment by means of capillary action. (paper)

  11. Future with fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschfeld, F.

    1977-01-01

    This article reviews several current approaches to the development of nuclear fusion power sources by the year 2000. First mentioned is the only project to develop a nonpolluting, radiation-free source by using only natural and nonradioactive isotopes (nuclei of deuterium, helium 3 and boron) as ''advanced'' fuels. This system will also be capable of direct conversion of the released energy into electricity. Next described is the PACER concept, in which thermonuclear burning of deuterium occurs in fusion explosion taking place underground (e.g., in a salt dome). The released energy is absorbed in high-pressure steam which is then piped to a surface heat exchanger to provide steam for a turbogenerator. After filtration, the steam is returned. The PACER system also produces fissionable fuel. The balance of the article reviews three ''magnetic fusion'' approaches. Tokamak, mirror and theta pinch systems utilize magnetic fields to confine a plasma for either pulsed or steady-state operation. The tokamak and theta pinch are toroidal in shape, while the mirror can be thought of as a magnetic field configuration of roughly tubular shape that confines the plasma by means of higher fields at the ends than at its center. The tokamak approach accounts for about 65 percent of the magnetic fusion research and development, while theta pinches and mirrors represent about 15 percent each. Refs

  12. Some fusion perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNally, J.R. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the concepts of nuclear fusion reactions, advanced fusion fuels, environmental impacts, etc., are explored using the following general outline: I. Principles of Fusion (Nuclear Fuels and Reactions, Lawson Condition, n tau vs T, Nuclear Burn Characteristics); II. Magnetic Mirror Possibilities (the Ion Layer and Electron Layer, Exponential Build-up at MeV energies, Lorentz trapping at GeV energies); III. Pellet Fuel Fusion Prospects (Advanced Pellet Fuel Fusion Prospects, Burn Characteristics and Applications, Excitation-heating Prospects for Runaway Ion Temperatures). Inasmuch as the outline is very skeletal, a significant research and development effort may be in order to evaluate these prospects in more detail and hopefully ''harness the H-bomb'' for peaceful applications, the author concludes. 28 references

  13. The future of fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, John

    2001-01-01

    The population of the world is increasing, mainly in the developing world, and is projected to saturate within about 100 years at up to twice the present population of 6 billion people (Bos et al., World Population Projections: 1994-95 Edition, Published for the World Bank). Studies (Goldemberg and Johansson (Eds.), Energy as an Instrument for Socio-Economic Development United Nations Development Programme, New York, 1995, p. 9; United Nations Statistical Yearbooks, 10th issue; 1965; 20th issue; 1975, 22nd issue, 1977; 32nd issue, 1987; and 39th issue 1994, United Nations Publications; Sheffield, J. Technol. Forecasting Social Change 59 (1998) 55.) show that, historically, the population growth rate has varied inversely as the annual per capita energy use in most parts of the developing world, where per capita energy use is typically less than 1 t of oil equivalent energy per year. However, in areas with more than 2-3 t of oil equivalent of energy use per year per person, the growth rate is around zero. If this trend continues, a stable world population will require, allowing for energy efficiency improvements, some 2-3 times the present annual energy use. There is an abundance of energy in the world both exploited and potential to meet this need - fossil, fission, and renewables - but it is not evenly distributed, some are costly, and there are issues of environmental pollution in present use, that may limit use. Fusion energy is a potential longer-term source with attractive environmental features. It is the least-developed energy option and still faces a challenging development path, but there are many areas of the world that would benefit hugely from its deployment from the later part of the 21st century onward, and it is important to consider how it might be deployed. Most fusion power plant options considered today show an economy of scale, owing to the fixed distance needed for shielding fusion neutrons, tritium breeding and handling the heat loads. One

  14. Perspectives of fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, V.O.

    1984-01-01

    New and practically inexhaustible sources of energy must be developed for the period when oil, coal and uranium will become scarce and expensive. Nuclear fusion holds great promise as one of these practically inexhaustible energy sources. Based on the deuteriumtritium reaction with tritium obtained from naturally occuring lithium, which is also widely available in Europe, the accessible energy resources in the world are 3.10 12 to 3.10 16 toe; based on the deuterium-deuterium reaction, the deuterium content of the oceans corresponds to 10 20 toe. It is presently envisaged that in order to establish fusion as a large-scale energy source, three major thresholds must be reached: - Scientific feasibility, - Technical feasibility, i.e. the proof that the basic technical problems of the fusion reactor can be solved. - Commercial feasibility, i.e. proof that fusion power reactors can be built on an industrial scale, can be operated reliably and produce usable energy at prices competitive with other energy sources. From the above it is clear that the route to commercial fusion will be long and costly and involve the solution of extremely difficult technical problems. In view of the many steps which have to be taken, it appears unlikely that commercial fusion power will be in general use within the next 50 years and by that time world-wide expenditure on research, development and demonstration may well have exceeded 100 Bio ECU. (author)

  15. Future directions in fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses his analysis to quantify the priority of fusion R and D in the United States. The conclusion is that this priority has been essentially constant for 35 years with only two exceptions. He identifies four basic problems that must be solved. These problems are: to improve the scientific understanding of confinement concepts if we are going to have an energy source that can be utilized some day; to understand the physics of burning plasmas; to develop the materials for fusion use to realize the environmental potential of fusion; and to develop fusion nuclear technology. A response to these problems is given, based on the author's argument for international collaboration in fusion research

  16. U. S. Fusion Energy Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, John A.; Jassby, Dan; Larson, Scott; Pueyo, Maria; Rutherford, Paul H.

    2000-01-01

    Fusion implementation scenarios for the US have been developed. The dependence of these scenarios on both the fusion development and implementation paths has been assessed. A range of implementation paths has been studied. The deployment of CANDU fission reactors in Canada and the deployment of fission reactors in France have been assessed as possible models for US fusion deployment. The waste production and resource (including tritium) needs have been assessed. The conclusion that can be drawn from these studies is that it is challenging to make a significant impact on energy production during this century. However, the rapid deployment of fission reactors in Canada and France support fusion implementation scenarios for the US with significant power production during this century. If the country can meet the schedule requirements then the resource needs and waste production are found to be manageable problems

  17. Fusion - 2050 perspective (in Polish)

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2013-01-01

    The results of strongly exothermic reaction of thermonuclear fusion between nuclei of deuterium and tritium are: helium nuclei and neutrons, plus considerable kinetic energy of neutrons of over 14 MeV. DT nuclides synthesis reaction is probably not the most favorable one for energy production, but is the most advanced technologically. More efficient would be possibly aneutronic fusion. The EU by its EURATOM agenda prepared a Road Map for research and implementation of Fusion as a commercial method of thermonuclear energy generation in the time horizon of 2050.The milestones on this road are tokomak experiments JET, ITER and DEMO, and neutron experiment IFMIF. There is a hope, that by engagement of the national government, and all research and technical fusion communities, part of this Road Map may be realized in Poland. The infrastructure build for fusion experiments may be also used for material engineering research, chemistry, biomedical, associated with environment protection, power engineering, security, ...

  18. Thermonuclear fusion: Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhns, H.; Maisonnier, Ch.

    1992-01-01

    Thermonuclear Fusion holds great promises for becoming an important energy source for the future. Fusion research and development is undertaken in al major countries of the world. The European Community pursues fusion in a large programme which embraces all R and D in the field of magnetic confinement fusion in the Member States, and to which Sweden and Switzerland are fully associated. The long-term objective of the programme is the joint creation of safe, environmentally sound prototype reactors. The main R and D line of the Community Fusion Programme is fusion by toroidal magnetic confinement on the basis of the Tokamak concept. Some related concepts are also studied which possibly could offer advantages for a reactor, and keep-in-touch activities exist for other approaches. Several small and medium sized specialised devices in Associated Laboratories have been built by the Community Fusion Programme as well as the Joint European Torus (JET Joint Undertaking) which is the largest and the most successful fusion device in the world. Recently, fusion power in the megawatt range has been achieved in JET. The long timescale and the large effort needed for the development of fusion as an energy source have been important elements to foster international collaboration. Engineering Design Activities for an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are undertaken, under the auspices of the IAEA, by the European Community, Japan, the Russian Federation and the United States of America. The objective of ITER is to achieve self-sustained thermonuclear burn and its control under long-pulse operation and to provide basic data for the engineering of a demonstration fusion reactor. (author)

  19. Astrobiology: Future Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Owen, Toby; Becker, Luann; Blank, Jen; Brucato, John; Colangeli, Luigi; Derenne, Sylvie; Dutrey, Anne; Despois, Didier; Lazcano, Antonio; Robert, Francois

    2005-01-01

    Astrobiology, a new exciting interdisciplinary research field, seeks to unravel the origin and evolution of life wherever it might exist in the Universe. The current view of the origin of life on Earth is that it is strongly connected to the origin and evolution of our planet and, indeed, of the Universe as a whole. We are fortunate to be living in an era where centuries of speculation about the two ancient and fundamental problems: the origin of life and its prevalence in the Universe are being replaced by experimental science. The subject of Astrobiology can be approached from many different perspectives. This book is focused on abiogenic organic matter from the viewpoint of astronomy and planetary science and considers its potential relevance to the origins of life on Earth and elsewhere. Guided by the review papers in this book, the concluding chapter aims to identify key questions to motivate future research and stimulate astrobiological applications of current and future research facilities and space mi...

  20. Fusion looks to the future - again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldrop, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    The $46 million budget cut in the US magnetic fusion program introduced a new approach that abandons the race to build a working power reactor in favor of a long-term emphasis on science, technology, and international cooperation. Administration policies which favor private funding for demonstration projects and general concern over the deficit have changed the overall fusion policy, although there is some concern among research groups that the program will become unfocused without its detailed timetable. If this happens, they see the program becoming even more vulnerable to future budget cuts. 2 references

  1. Future energy perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Christensen, J.M. [Risoe National Lab., Systems Analysis Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2002-10-01

    Future energy perspectives: 1) The global energy consumption will continue to grow primarily in developing countries, their share of global energy consumption will grow from approx. 35% in 1990 to 60% in 2050. 2) Policy focus will be primarily on environmental concerns in the industrial countries and on energy for development and access to energy for the poor in developing countries. 3) With global climate concerns and the implementation of the Kyoto protocol, global environment issues will have increased prominence in energy sector priorities. 4) Fossil fuel resources are on a global level still abundant and prices are expected to be relatively low in the short to medium term. 5) Energy supply security has for geopolitical reasons become an increasing concern especially in the US and the EU. 6) Significant investments are required to ensure development of new clean energy technologies for introduction in the medium to long term. 7) Market reforms are being implemented in almost all regions of the world changing both the investment and policy regimes. 8) International studies (IPCC and WEC) have analysed several alternative energy scenarios Alternative policies and priorities can lead to a wide range of different energy futures. 9) WEC middle scenario B, from 1990 to 2050; predicts growth in GDP 3.5 times and primary energy consumption 2.2 times and CO{sub 2} 1.5 times. This scenario is expecting supply to be dominated by fossil fuel (80% in 1990 and still 65% in 2050), with high share of natural gas and nuclear with slow growth in renewable energy. 10) A more radical scenario (C1) is expecting renewable energy such as biomass, solar and wind to contribute 27% in 2050; declining oil and coal; increased use of natural gas and a minor contribution from nuclear. A development path like this require significant near-term investments in technology research and development. 11) The large increase in global energy demand in the next century will require large investments

  2. Future energy perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsnaes, K.; Christensen, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Future energy perspectives: 1) The global energy consumption will continue to grow primarily in developing countries, their share of global energy consumption will grow from approx. 35% in 1990 to 60% in 2050. 2) Policy focus will be primarily on environmental concerns in the industrial countries and on energy for development and access to energy for the poor in developing countries. 3) With global climate concerns and the implementation of the Kyoto protocol, global environment issues will have increased prominence in energy sector priorities. 4) Fossil fuel resources are on a global level still abundant and prices are expected to be relatively low in the short to medium term. 5) Energy supply security has for geopolitical reasons become an increasing concern especially in the US and the EU. 6) Significant investments are required to ensure development of new clean energy technologies for introduction in the medium to long term. 7) Market reforms are being implemented in almost all regions of the world changing both the investment and policy regimes. 8) International studies (IPCC and WEC) have analysed several alternative energy scenarios Alternative policies and priorities can lead to a wide range of different energy futures. 9) WEC middle scenario B, from 1990 to 2050; predicts growth in GDP 3.5 times and primary energy consumption 2.2 times and CO 2 1.5 times. This scenario is expecting supply to be dominated by fossil fuel (80% in 1990 and still 65% in 2050), with high share of natural gas and nuclear with slow growth in renewable energy. 10) A more radical scenario (C1) is expecting renewable energy such as biomass, solar and wind to contribute 27% in 2050; declining oil and coal; increased use of natural gas and a minor contribution from nuclear. A development path like this require significant near-term investments in technology research and development. 11) The large increase in global energy demand in the next century will require large investments. The

  3. G8 decision on fusion would herald nuclear future

    CERN Multimedia

    Starck, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear fusion as a future abundant energy source would receive a boost if G8 leaders agree next month on the site for the world's first fusion test reactor, two nuclear scientists said on Wednesday (1 page)

  4. Heavy-ion fusion: Future promise and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudziak, D.J.; Saylor, W.W.; Pendergrass, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The previous several papers in this heavy-ion fusion special session have described work that has taken place as part of the Heavy-Ion Fusion Systems Assessment (HIFSA) project. Key technical issues in the design and costing of targets, accelerator systems, beam transport, reactor and balance-of-plant, and systems integration have been identified and described. The HIFSA systems model was used to measure the relative value of improvements in physics understanding and technology developments in many different areas. The result of this study has been to, within the limits of our 1986 imagination and creativity, define the ''most attractive'' future heavy-ion fusion (HIF) power plant at some time in the future (beyond the year 2020 in this case). The project has specifically avoided narrowing the focus to a point facility design; thus, the generic systems modeling capability developed in the process allows for a relative comparison among design options. The authors describe what are thought to be achievable breakthroughs and what the relative significance of the breakthroughs will be, although the specific mechanism for achieving some breakthroughs may not be clear at this point

  5. Perspective on the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, B.C.

    1990-01-01

    To anticipate future developments in the area of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) management, an understanding of the following questions is necessary: what are the current regulatory policies, and What is the view toward proposed changes that affect the treatment of disposal of LLRW? The problem preventing resolution is proponents for change versus proponents for maintaining tradition. The paper discusses the author's anticipations for crises to develop prior to a decision-making mode

  6. Fusion reactors as a future energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    A detailed update of fusion research concepts is given. Discussions are given for the following areas: (1) the magnetic confinement principle, (2) UWMAK I: conceptual design for a fusion reactor, (3) the inertial confinement principle, (4) the laser fusion power plant, (5) electron-induced fusion, (6) the long-term development potential of fusion reactors, (7) the symbiosis between fusion and fission reactors, (8) fuel supply for fusion reactors, (9) safety and environmental impact, and (10) accidents, and (11) waste removal and storage

  7. Fusion energy - an abundant energy source for the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusion energy is the fundamental energy source of the Universe, as the energy of the Sun and the stars are produced by fusion of e.g. hydrogen to helium. Fusion energy research is a strongly international endeavor aiming at realizing fusion energy production in power plants on Earth. Reaching...... this goal, mankind will have a sustainable base load energy source with abundant resources, having no CO2 release, and with no longlived radioactive waste. This presentation will describe the basics of fusion energy production and the status and future prospects of the research. Considerations...... of integration into the future electricity system and socio-economic studies of fusion energy will be presented, referring to the programme of Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF) under the European Fusion Energy Agreement (EFDA)....

  8. Fusion and its future in Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.C.

    1984-08-01

    This report was prepared by the Illinois Fusion Power Task Force under the sponsorship of the Governor's Commission on Sciences and Technology. The report presents the findings and recommendations of the Task Force, an explanation of the basic concepts of fusion, a summary of national and international programs and a description of ongoing fusion activities in Illinois

  9. Future directions in inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodner, S.E.

    1992-01-01

    The author discusses future directions for the ICF program. At this time there is still uncertainty on a number of key issues necessary to decide on what type of a National Ignition Facility should be constructed. Mechanisms are in place to answer these questions. The author offers his opinions of where the program is likely to proceed. Technology wise indications are that direct drive heating has the best chance of reaching ignition and high gain. This has the advantage of making all three major user programs happy, namely weapons physics, weapons effects, and electrical energy. The demand for and price of energy in the country will have a major impact on the way the program is developed. From the laser fusion side the most promising drivers at present seem to be KrF lasers, and a major concern for these systems is whether the peak to valley nonuniformities can be reduced to the 1 to 2% level when delivered to the target in order to avoid driving instabilities

  10. Perspectives on the future of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernoff, H.; Friedman, D.

    1990-01-01

    The US outlook on the future of nuclear power can be divided into three perspectives, here termed the macroeconomic perspective, the technological perspective, and the utility perspective (including independent power producers, or IPPs). A brief review of the macroeconomic and technological perspectives shows how differently the public, the media, politicians, and many nonutility advocates of nuclear power view the future of nuclear power (and, especially, the requirements for new orders) compared with the utilities and prospective IPPs

  11. A Discussion of Future Time Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Dennis M.

    2004-01-01

    A growing area of research in educational psychology is future time perspective and its relationship to desired educational outcomes. This article discusses and critiques five reviews of current research on future time perspective. Key questions addressed are when do individuals begin to articulate a future, how far into the future does this…

  12. Fusion--fission energy systems, some utility perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huse, R.A.; Burger, J.M.; Lotker, M.

    1974-01-01

    Some of the issues that are important in assessing fusion-- fission energy systems from a utility perspective are discussed. A number of qualitative systems-oriented observations are given along with some economic quantification of the benefits from fusion--fission hybrids and their allowed capital cost. (U.S.)

  13. Nuclear fusion an energetic option to the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medialdea Utande, A.; Sanchez Sanz, J.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear fusion is the energy source of the Sun and the rest of starts. The great availability of deuterium on Earth, the inherent safety of the reactions involved and the intrinsic environmental respect make fusion an attractive energy source for the future of making of man king. International promising contributions are making Fusion Science and Technology progress by leaps and bounds to achieve its long term goal of cost-effective energy-producing plasmas. (Author)

  14. Past, present and future of the fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbaum P, M.

    1992-01-01

    Among the alternate technologies that have acquired a special interest in the present decade, we find the nuclear fusion. Within this, the fusion reactors by magnetic confinement of the Tokamak type have shown an increasing technological progress during this period. For this reason, a new strategy, coordinated at international level, has been implemented for the specific development of the nuclear fusion reactors, aimed to face those scientific and technological aspects which still remain, and which will determine their future economic feasibility. (Author)

  15. Laser Fusion: status, future, and tritium control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, P.E.

    1978-11-01

    At Livermore the 10 kJ, 20 to 30 TW Shiva facility is now operational and producing regular new fusion results. Design work has begun on a 200 to 300 TW laser designed to carry the program through the first breakeven demonstration experiments in the mid-1980's. Confidence in reaching this goal is based on the significant progress we have made in state-of-the-art, high-power Nd:glass laser technology, in experimental laser fusion and laser plasma interaction physics, and in theoretical and analytical computer codes which reliably model and predict experimental results. For all of these experiments, a variety of fusion targets are being fabricated in the laboratory, and the control and handling of tritium is now a regular and routine part of ongoing inertial fusion experiments. Target design with gains of about 1000 have been studied and the means to mass produce such pellets at low cost are also being developed

  16. Inertial confinement fusion: present status and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Power from inertial confinement fusion holds much promise for society. This paper points out many of the benefits relative to combustion of hydrocarbon fuels and fission power. Potential problems are also identified and put in perspective. The progress toward achieving inertial fusion power is described and results of recent work at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are presented. Key phenomenological uncertainties are described and experimental goals for the Nova laser system are given. Several ICF reactor designs are discussed

  17. An Assessment of the Economics of Future Electric Power Generation Options and the Implications for Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delene, Jerry G.; Sheffield, John; Williams, Kent A.; Reid, R. Lowell; Hadley, Stan

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the potential range of electric power costs for some major alternatives to fusion electric power generation when it is ultimately deployed in the middle of the 21st century and, thus, offers a perspective on the cost levels that fusion must achieve to be competitive. The alternative technologies include coal burning, coal gasification, natural gas, nuclear fission, and renewable energy. The cost of electricity (COE) from the alternatives to fusion should be in a 30 to 53 mills/kW.h (1999 dollars) range if carbon sequestration is not needed, 30 to 61 mills/kW.h if sequestration is required, or as high as 83 mills/kW.h for the worst-case scenario for cost uncertainty. The reference COE range for fusion was estimated at 65 to 102 mills/kW.h for 1- to 1.3-GW(electric) scale power plants, based on the tokamak concept. Tokamak fusion costs will have to be reduced and/or cost-effective alternative nontokamak concepts devised before fusion will be competitive with the alternatives for the future production of electricity. Fortunately, there are routes to achieve this goal. Recent results from fusion experiments and developments in technology and engineering solutions indicate that lower cost fusion power plants are possible at the 1-GW(electric) level. Another general route for fusion to reduce costs is to go to large plant sizes [multigigawatts (electric)

  18. Future perspectives of radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Future perspectives of radiation chemistry are discussed by the analysis of the related information in detail as obtained from our recent surveys of publications and scientific meetings in radiation chemistry and its neighboring research fields, giving some examples, and are summarized as follows. (1) Traditionally important core-parts of radiation chemistry should be activated more. The corresponding research programs are listed in detail. (2) Research fields of physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, and technology in radiation research should interact more among them with each other. (3) Basic research of radiation chemistry should interact more with its applied research. (4) Interface research fields with radiation chemistry should be produced more with mutually common viewpoints and research interests between the two. Interfaces are not only applied research but also basic one.

  19. Economic and environmental performance of future fusion plants in comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamacher, T.; Saez, R.M.; Lako, P.

    2001-01-01

    If the good performance of fusion as technology with no CO 2 emission during normal operation and rather low external costs, reflecting the advantageous environmental and safety characteristics, are considered in future energy regulations, fusion can win considerable market shares in future electricity markets. The economic performance was elaborated for Western Europe for the time period till 2100. The software tool MARKAL widely used in energy research was used to simulate and optimise the development of the Western European energy system. Two different scenarios were considered, the main difference was the interest rate for investments. Stringent CO 2 -emission strategies lead to considerable market shares for fusion. As a comprehensive indicator of the environmental and safety performance of fusion plants the external costs following the ExternE method was used. External costs of fusion are rather low, much below the cost of electricity, and are in the same range as photovoltaics and wind energy. (author)

  20. Nuclear Fusion Fuel Cycle Research Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hongsuk; Koo, Daeseo; Park, Jongcheol; Kim, Yeanjin; Yun, Sei-Hun

    2015-01-01

    As a part of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project, we at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and our National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI) colleagues are investigating nuclear fusion fuel cycle hardware including a nuclear fusion fuel Storage and Delivery System (SDS). To have a better knowledge of the nuclear fusion fuel cycle, we present our research efforts not only on SDS but also on the Fuel Supply System (FS), Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP), Isotope Separation System (ISS), and Detritiation System (DS). To have better knowledge of the nuclear fusion fuel cycle, we presented our research efforts not only on SDS but also on the Fuel Supply System (FS), Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP), Isotope Separation System (ISS), and Detritiation System (DS). Our efforts to enhance the tritium confinement will be continued for the development of cleaner nuclear fusion power plants

  1. JET:Preparing the future in fusion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mlynář, Jan; Ongena, J.; Ďuran, Ivan; Hron, Martin; Pánek, Radomír; Petržílka, Václav; Žáček, František

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 54, suppl.C (2004), C28-C38 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology /21st/. Praha, 14.06.2004-17.06.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/04/0360 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : fusion, tokamak, JET EFDA, ITER Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.292, year: 2004

  2. A futures perspective in Dutch geography education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauw, Iris; Béneker, Tine

    2015-01-01

    Geography education offers many possibilities for futures education. In The Netherlands, a future perspective is obvious in the vision behind the curriculum for secondary education, but this perspective becomes thinner and less open when elaborated in the syllabus, textbooks and examinations. From

  3. Heavy-ion fusion: future promise and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudziak, D.J.; Saylor, W.W.; Pendergrass, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The previous papers in this heavy-ion fusion special session have described work performed as part of the Heavy-Ion Fusion Systems Assessment (HIFSA) Project. Key technical issues in the design and costing of targets, induction linacs, beam transport, reactor, balance of plant, and systems integration have been identified and described. The HIFSA systems model was used to measure the relative value of improvements in physics understanding and technology developments in many different areas. Within the limits of our 1986 knowledge and imagination, this study defines the most attractive heavy-ion fusion (HIF) power plant concepts. The project has deliberately avoided narrowing the focus to a point facility design; thus, the generic systems modeling capability developed in the process allows for relative comparisons among design options. We will describe what are thought to be achievable breakthroughs and what the relative significance of the breakthroughs will be, although the specific mechanism for achieving some breakthroughs may not be clear at this point. This degree of optimism concerning such breakthroughs is probably at least as conservative as that used in other fusion assessments

  4. The near future of nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, E.

    2000-01-01

    In this short article the author tries to find an explanation about the withdraw of the Usa from the ITER project. According to the author the American economy is not so flourishing as it seems, it is only the IT (information technologies) sector that is attracting huge foreign investments. Moreover state agencies such as Nasa have difficulties to recruit talented people because they are lured by easy money earned in the new economy. The whole of the ITER project has been reduced: the volume of plasma will be 840 m 3 (instead of 2000 m 3 ) for a fusion power of 500 MW (instead of 1500 MW). Canada is standing for hosting the building site. (A.C.)

  5. The role of fusion as a future power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kintner, E.E.; Hirsch, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    potentials of fusion power in relation to nuclear fission, solar and other future energy sources can be assessed in general terms. The probability of success in fusion development, while not susceptible to measurement, continues to improve. Fusion can be expected to play an increasingly important role in energy supply world-wide in the early decades of the 21st century. If a commercial scale demonstration reactor (greater than or equal to 500 MWe) operates successfully by 2000, it is reasonable to anticipate as many as 20 to 100 large (1000 MWe) plants by 2020 and an increasing percentage of fusion electrical generating stations thereafter

  6. Use of high temperature superconductors for future fusion magnet systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fietz, W H [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Technische Physik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Celentano, G; Della Corte, A [Superconductivity Division, ENEA - Frascati Research Center, Frascati (Italy); Goldacker, W; Heller, R; Komarek, P; Kotzyba, G; Nast, R; Obst, B; Schlachter, S I; Schmidt, C; Zahn, G [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Technische Physik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Pasztor, G; Wesche, R [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Villingen (Switzerland); Salpietro, E; Vostner, A [European Fusion Development Agreement, Close Support Unit, Garching (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    With the construction of ITER the feasibility of a fusion machine will be demonstrated. To commercialize fusion it is essential to keep losses as small as possible in future fusion power plants. One major component where losses can be strongly reduced is the cooling system. For example in ITER where efficiency is not a major goal, a cooling power of 64 kW at 4.4 K is foreseen taking more than 20 MW electric power. Considering the size of future commercial fusion machines this consumption of electric power for cooling will even be higher. With a magnet system working at 20 K a fusion machine would work more efficient by a factor of 5-10 with respect to electric power consumption for cryogenics. Even better than that, would be a machine with a magnet system operating at 65 K to 77 K. In this case liquid nitrogen could be used as coolant saving money for investment and operation costs. Such an increase in the operating temperature of the magnet system can be achieved by the use of High- Temperature Superconductors (HTS). In addition the use of HTS would allow much smaller efforts for thermal shielding and alternative thermal insulation concepts may be possible, e.g. for an HTS bus bar system. This contribution will give an overview about status, promises and challenges of HTS conductors on the way to an HTS fusion magnet system beyond ITER. (author)

  7. Role of nuclear fusion in future energy systems and the environment under future uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokimatsu, Koji; Fujino, Jun'ichi; Konishi, Satoshi; Ogawa, Yuichi; Yamaji, Kenji

    2003-01-01

    Debates about whether or not to invest heavily in nuclear fusion as a future innovative energy option have been made within the context of energy technology development strategies. This is because the prospects for nuclear fusion are quite uncertain and the investments therefore carry the risk of quite large regrets, even though investment is needed in order to develop the technology. The timeframe by which nuclear fusion could become competitive in the energy market has not been adequately studied, nor has roles of the nuclear fusion in energy systems and the environment. The present study has two objectives. One is to reveal the conditions under which nuclear fusion could be introduced economically (hereafter, we refer to such introductory conditions as breakeven prices) in future energy systems. The other objective is to evaluate the future roles of nuclear fusion in energy systems and in the environment. Here we identify three roles that nuclear fusion will take on when breakeven prices are achieved: (i) a portion of the electricity market in 2100, (ii) reduction of annual global total energy systems cost, and (iii) mitigation of carbon tax (shadow price of carbon) under CO 2 constraints. Future uncertainties are key issues in evaluating nuclear fusion. Here we treated the following uncertainties: energy demand scenarios, introduction timeframe for nuclear fusion, capacity projections of nuclear fusion, CO 2 target in 2100, capacity utilization ratio of options in energy/environment technologies, and utility discount rates. From our investigations, we conclude that the presently designed nuclear fusion reactors may be ready for economical introduction into energy systems beginning around 2050-2060, and we can confirm that the favorable introduction of the reactors would reduce both the annual energy systems cost and the carbon tax (the shadow price of carbon) under a CO 2 concentration constraint

  8. Fusion power in a future low carbon global electricity system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabal, H.; Lechón, Y.; Bustreo, C.

    2017-01-01

    Fusion is one of the technologies that may contribute to a future, low carbon, global energy supply system. In this article we investigate the role that it may play under different scenarios. The global energy model ETM (originally EFDA TIMES Model) has been used to analyse the participation...

  9. An Assessment of the Economics of Future Electric Power Generation Options and the Implications for Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delene, J.G.; Hadley, S.; Reid, R.L.; Sheffield, J.; Williams, K.A.

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the potential range of electric power costs for some major alternatives to fusion electric power generation when it is ultimately deployed in the middle of the 21st century and, thus, offers a perspective on the cost levels that fusion must achieve to be competitive. The alternative technologies include coal burning, coal gasification, natural gas, nuclear fission, and renewable energy. The cost of electricity (COE) from the alternatives to fusion should remain in the 30-50 mils/kWh (1999 dollars) range of today in carbon sequestration is not needed, 30-60 mils/kWh if sequestration is required, or as high as 75 mils/kWh for the worst-case scenario for cost uncertainty. The reference COE range for fusion was estimated at 70-100 nmils/kWh for 1- to 1.3-GW(e) scale power plants. Fusion costs will have to be reduced and/or alternative concepts derived before fusion will be competitive with the alternatives for the future production of electricity. Fortunately, there are routes to achieve this goal

  10. Personnel Safety for Future Magnetic Fusion Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Cadwallader

    2009-07-01

    The safety of personnel at existing fusion experiments is an important concern that requires diligence. Looking to the future, fusion experiments will continue to increase in power and operating time until steady state power plants are achieved; this causes increased concern for personnel safety. This paper addresses four important aspects of personnel safety in the present and extrapolates these aspects to future power plants. The four aspects are personnel exposure to ionizing radiation, chemicals, magnetic fields, and radiofrequency (RF) energy. Ionizing radiation safety is treated well for present and near-term experiments by the use of proven techniques from other nuclear endeavors. There is documentation that suggests decreasing the annual ionizing radiation exposure limits that have remained constant for several decades. Many chemicals are used in fusion research, for parts cleaning, as use as coolants, cooling water cleanliness control, lubrication, and other needs. In present fusion experiments, a typical chemical laboratory safety program, such as those instituted in most industrialized countries, is effective in protecting personnel from chemical exposures. As fusion facilities grow in complexity, the chemical safety program must transition from a laboratory scale to an industrial scale program that addresses chemical use in larger quantity. It is also noted that allowable chemical exposure concentrations for workers have decreased over time and, in some cases, now pose more stringent exposure limits than those for ionizing radiation. Allowable chemical exposure concentrations have been the fastest changing occupational exposure values in the last thirty years. The trend of more restrictive chemical exposure regulations is expected to continue into the future. Other issues of safety importance are magnetic field exposure and RF energy exposure. Magnetic field exposure limits are consensus values adopted as best practices for worker safety; a typical

  11. Personnel Safety for Future Magnetic Fusion Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, Lee

    2009-01-01

    The safety of personnel at existing fusion experiments is an important concern that requires diligence. Looking to the future, fusion experiments will continue to increase in power and operating time until steady state power plants are achieved; this causes increased concern for personnel safety. This paper addresses four important aspects of personnel safety in the present and extrapolates these aspects to future power plants. The four aspects are personnel exposure to ionizing radiation, chemicals, magnetic fields, and radiofrequency (RF) energy. Ionizing radiation safety is treated well for present and near-term experiments by the use of proven techniques from other nuclear endeavors. There is documentation that suggests decreasing the annual ionizing radiation exposure limits that have remained constant for several decades. Many chemicals are used in fusion research, for parts cleaning, as use as coolants, cooling water cleanliness control, lubrication, and other needs. In present fusion experiments, a typical chemical laboratory safety program, such as those instituted in most industrialized countries, is effective in protecting personnel from chemical exposures. As fusion facilities grow in complexity, the chemical safety program must transition from a laboratory scale to an industrial scale program that addresses chemical use in larger quantity. It is also noted that allowable chemical exposure concentrations for workers have decreased over time and, in some cases, now pose more stringent exposure limits than those for ionizing radiation. Allowable chemical exposure concentrations have been the fastest changing occupational exposure values in the last thirty years. The trend of more restrictive chemical exposure regulations is expected to continue into the future. Other issues of safety importance are magnetic field exposure and RF energy exposure. Magnetic field exposure limits are consensus values adopted as best practices for worker safety; a typical

  12. Introducing the book 'Cold fusion and the future'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothwell, Jed

    2006-01-01

    Cold fusion will be the ideal source of energy, provided its introduction can be handled properly. A few cells have shown power density and temperatures suitable for real-world applications. Once these cells can be replicated on demand, commercial development will be straightforward. Manufacturing should not be too demanding, so thousands of companies will compete, and costs will fall quickly. The transition from fossil fuel to cold fusion will be rapid. Many extraordinary new applications will become possible, and seemingly intractable problems such as global warming may be fixed. Some examples will be presented. Public support is essential to funding research, and commercialization. 'Cold Fusion and the Future' is the title of a new book by this author. This paper discusses a few of the topics in the book

  13. Perspective on the fusion-fission energy concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liikala, R.C.; Perry, R.T.; Teofilo, V.L.

    1978-01-01

    A concept which has potential for near-term application in the electric power sector of our energy economy is combining fusion and fission technology. The fusion-fission system, called a hybrid, is distinguished from its pure fusion counterpart by incorporation of fertile materials (uranium or thorium) in the blanket region of a fusion machine. The neutrons produced by the fusion process can be used to generate energy through fission events in the blanket or produce fuel for fission reactors through capture events in the fertile material. The performance requirements of the fusion component of hybrids is perceived as being less stringent than those for pure fusion electric power plants. The performance requirements for the fission component of hybrids is perceived as having been demonstrated or could be demonstrated with a modest investment of research and development funds. This paper presents our insights and observations of this concept in the context of why and where it might fit into the picture of meeting our future energy needs. A bibliography of hybrid research is given

  14. A perspective on future accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, B.

    1987-10-01

    Some of the physics and technical issues are discussed which must be resolved before a future linear collider can be built. These issues include the center of mass energy and luminosity required for research in the range desired, length and power requirements, and cost. It is proposed that research and development of such a machine should be done internationally. (LEW)

  15. A perspective on future accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1987-10-01

    Some of the physics and technical issues are discussed which must be resolved before a future linear collider can be built. These issues include the center of mass energy and luminosity required for research in the range desired, length and power requirements, and cost. It is proposed that research and development of such a machine should be done internationally

  16. Revised hypothesis and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norsk, P; Drummer, C; Christensen, N J

    2001-01-01

    Results from space have been unexpected and not predictable from the results of ground-based simulations. Therefore, the concept of how weightlessness and gravity modulates the regulation of body fluids must be revised and a new simulation model developed. The main questions to ask in the future...... are the following: Does weightlessness induce a diuresis and natriuresis during the initial hours of space flight leading to an extracellular and intravascular fluid volume deficit? Can sodium in excess be stored in a hitherto unknown way, particularly during space flight? Why are fluid and sodium retaining systems...

  17. Isobutane alkylation. Recent developments and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hommeltoft, Sven Ivar [Haldor Topsoe A/S, Nymoellevej 55, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark)

    2001-11-30

    In the isobutane alkylation, alkylated gasoline is obtained which is a valuable blending component for the gasoline pool. Thereby the C{sub 3}-C{sub 4} cut from the FCC units can be extensively used. Established technologies and recent developments will be reviewed and future perspectives will be given.

  18. IEC fusion: The future power and propulsion system for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Walter E.; Coventry, Matt; Miley, George H.; Nadler, Jon; Hanson, John; Hrbud, Ivana

    2000-01-01

    Rapid access to any point in the solar system requires advanced propulsion concepts that will provide extremely high specific impulse, low specific power, and a high thrust-to-power ratio. Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion is one of many exciting concepts emerging through propulsion and power research in laboratories across the nation which will determine the future direction of space exploration. This is part of a series of papers that discuss different applications of the Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion concept for both in-space and terrestrial use. IEC will enable tremendous advances in faster travel times within the solar system. The technology is currently under investigation for proof of concept and transitioning into the first prototype units for commercial applications. In addition to use in propulsion for space applications, terrestrial applications include desalinization plants, high energy neutron sources for radioisotope generation, high flux sources for medical applications, proton sources for specialized medical applications, and tritium production

  19. The challenge to keep nuclear fusion alive as a future energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'haeseleer, W.D.

    1999-01-01

    Few people are preoccupied with the energy issue. Indeed, inflation-corrected energy prices (in euros) are currently lower than before the first oil crisis of 1973; the annual growth rate of primary-energy use in the industrialized world has diminished considerably compared to before 1970, and oil and gas production is characterized by increased exploration activity and a wider geographical spread. Nevertheless, there is a real energy issue. If the greenhouse effect turns out to be real, then mankind should at least slow down the consumption of fossil fuels. Given the fact that world energy consumption (especially by the developing countries) will rise in the future, and that nuclear fission power has become unpopular in the western world, the idea reigning in some circles to cope with this situation by total reliance on energy savings and renewable energy sources comes close to wishful thinking. A realistic analysis makes it clear that there will be a need for large workhorses for electricity generation to keep the overall electricity grid sufficiently robust. From a global and long-term perspective, the logical conclusion is the following: because mankind cannot count on the continued use of fossil fuels (due to the finiteness of the resources combined with the possible climate change effects), our generation has the responsibility to develop alternative energy sources for the distant future. Many parallel lines of research and development therefore need be pursued; because of the uncertainties with other alternative sources, it would be irresponsible to kill some of these development lines. This holds for renewable sources, the nuclear fission breeder, and for nuclear fusion. A major hurdle for the survival of long term energy research and development is the liberalization of the electricity market. Because of the revolutionary changes taking place, utilities concentrate on cost cutting and short-term survival. In addition, they are no longer supposed to take

  20. Highlights from LHC experiments and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, P.

    2016-01-01

    The experiments at LHC are collecting a large amount of data in a kinematic of the (x, Q 2 ) variables never accessed before. Boosted by LHC analyses, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is experiencing an impressive progress in the last few years, and even brighter perspectives can be foreseen for the future data taking. A subset of the most recent results from the LHC experiments in the area of QCD (both perturbative and soft) are reviewed

  1. Nuclear fusion, an energy source of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppendoerfer, W.

    1994-01-01

    The paper discusses the possibility to obtain energy by nuclear fusion. It deals successively with: The physical bases of nuclear fusion, research and development with a view to harnessing nuclear fusion, properties of a fusion reactor, and programme and timetable to economic exploitation. (orig./UA) [de

  2. Challenges and the future of the fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    The need to develop new large energy resources is discussed. One of three inexhaustible energy resource possibilities is fusion energy, whose history and scientific goals are described. The current world-wide research and development program for fusion is outlined. As an example of today's perception of what fusion energy will be like, a commercial tokamak fusion electric powerplant is described. Special attention is devoted to some of the challenging material problems that face fusion power development. (Author) [pt

  3. Intelligible seminar on fusion reactors. (12) Next step toward the realization of fusion reactors. Future vision of fusion energy research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Kunihiko; Kurihara, Kenichi; Tobita, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    In the last session of this seminar the progress of research and development for the realization of fusion reactors and future vision of fusion energy research and development are summarized. The some problems to be solved when the commercial fusion reactors would be realized, (1) production of deuterium as the fuel, (2) why need the thermonuclear reactors, (3) environmental problems, and (4) ITER project, are described. (H. Mase)

  4. Divertor development for a future fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norajitra, Prachai

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fusion is considered as a future source of sustainable energy supply. In the first chapter, the physical principle of magnetic plasma confinement, and the function of a tokamak are described. Since the discovery of the H-mode in ASDEX experiment ''Divertor I'' in 1982, the divertor has been an integral part of all modern tokamaks and stellarators, not least the ITER machine. The goal of this work is to develop a feasible divertor design for a fusion power plant to be built after ITER. This task is particularly challenging because a fusion power plant formulates much greater demands on the structural material and the design than ITER in terms of neutron wall load and radiation. First several divertor concepts proposed in the literature e.g. the Power Plant Conceptual Study (PPCS) using different coolants are reviewed and analyzed with respect to their performance. As a result helium cooled divertor concept exhibited the best potential to come up to the highest safety requirements and therefore has been chosen for the design process. From the third chapter the necessary steps towards this goal are described. First, the boundary conditions for the arrangement of a divertor with respect to the fusion plasma are discussed, as this determines the main thermal and neutronic load parameters. Based on the loads material selection criteria are inherently formulated. In the next step, the reference design is defined in accordance with the established functional design specifications. The developed concept is of modular nature and consists of cooling fingers of tungsten using an impingement cooling in order to achieve a heat dissipation of 10 MW/m 2 . In the next step, the design was subjected to the thermal-hydraulic and thermo-mechanical calculations in order to analyze and improve the performance and the manufacturing technologies. Based on these results, a prototype was produced and experimentally tested on their cooling capacity, their thermo-cyclic loading

  5. Impact of fusion-fission hybrids on world nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalick, S.; Jansen, P.; Kessler, G.; Klumpp, P.

    1980-08-01

    An investigation has been conducted to examine the impact of fusion-fission hybrids on world nuclear future. The primary objectives of this investigation have been: (1) to determine whether hybrids can allow us to meet the projected nuclear component of the world energy demand within current estimates of uranium resources without fast breeders, and (2) to identify the preferred hybrid concept from a resource standpoint. The results indicate that hybrids have the potential to lower the world uranium demand to values well below the resource base. However, the time window for hybrid introduction is quite near and narrow (2000-2020). If historical market penetration rates are assumed, the demand will not be met within the resource base unless hybrids are coupled to the breeders. The results also indicate that from a resource standpoint hybrids which breed their own tritium and have a low blanket energy multiplication are preferable. (orig.) [de

  6. Impact of fusion-fission hybrids on world nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted to examine the impact of fusion-fission hybrids on world nuclear future. The primary objectives of this investigation have been (1) to determine whether hybrids can allow us to meet the projected nuclear component of the world energy demand within current estimates of uranium resources with or without fast breeders, and (2) to identify the preferred hybrid concept from a resource standpoint. The results indicate that hybrids have the potential to lower the world uranium demand to values well below the resource base. However, the time window for hybrid introduction is quite near and narrow (2000-2020). If historical market penetration rates are assumed, the demand will not be met within the resource base unless hybrides are coupled to the breeders. The results also indicate that from a resource standpaint hybrids which breed their own tritium and have a low blanket energy multiplication are preferable. (orig.) [de

  7. Impact of fusion-fission hybrids on world nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Jansen, P.; Kessler, G.; Klumpp, P.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted to examine the impact of fusion-fission hybrids on world nuclear future. The primary objectives of this investigation have been: (1) to determine whether hybrids can allow us to meet the projected nuclear component of the world energy demand within current estimates of uranium resources with or without fast breeders, and (2) to identify the preferred hybrid concept from a resource standpoint. The results indicate that hybrids have the potential to lower the world uranium demand to values well below the resource base. However, the time window for hybrid introduction is quite near and narrow (2000-2020). If historical market penetration rates are assumed, the demand will not be met within the resource base unless hybrids are coupled to the breeders. The results also indicate that from a resource standpoint hybrids which breed their own tritium and have a low blanket energy multiplication are preferable. (orig.) [de

  8. Biomolecular simulation: historical picture and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gunsteren, Wilfred F; Dolenc, Jozica

    2008-02-01

    Over the last 30 years, computation based on molecular models is playing an increasingly important role in biology, biological chemistry and biophysics. Since only a very limited number of properties of biomolecular systems are actually accessible to measurement by experimental means, computer simulation complements experiments by providing not only averages, but also distributions and time series of any definable, observable or non-observable, quantity. Biomolecular simulation may be used (i) to interpret experimental data, (ii) to provoke new experiments, (iii) to replace experiments and (iv) to protect intellectual property. Progress over the last 30 years is sketched and perspectives are outlined for the future.

  9. Endovascular Neurosurgery: Personal Experience and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Jean

    2016-09-01

    From Luessenhop's early clinical experience until the present day, experimental methods have been introduced to make progress in endovascular neurosurgery. A personal historical narrative, spanning the 1980s to 2010s, with a review of past opportunities, current problems, and future perspectives. Although the technology has significantly improved, our clinical culture remains a barrier to methodologically sound and safe innovative care and progress. We must learn how to safely practice endovascular neurosurgery in the presence of uncertainty and verify patient outcomes in real time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Material Challenges For Plasma Facing Components in Future Fusion Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, J; Pintsuk, G.; Rödig, M.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing attention is directed towards thermonuclear fusion as a possible future energy source. Major advantages of this energy conversion technology are the almost inexhaustible resources and the option to produce energy without CO2-emissions. However, in the most advanced field of magnetic plasma confinement a number of technological challenges have to be met. In particular high-temperature resistant and plasma compatible materials have to be developed and qualified which are able to withstand the extreme environments in a commercial thermonuclear power reactor. The plasma facing materials (PFMs) and components (PFCs) in such fusion devices, i.e. the first wall (FW), the limiters and the divertor, are strongly affected by the plasma wall interaction processes and the applied intense thermal loads during plasma operation. On the one hand, these mechanisms have a strong influence on the plasma performance; on the other hand, they have major impact on the lifetime of the plasma facing armour. In present-day and next step devices the resulting thermal steady state heat loads to the first wall remain below 1 MWm-2; the limiters and the divertor are expected to be exposed to power densities being at least one order of magnitude above the FW-level, i.e. up to 20 MWm-2 for next step tokamaks such as ITER or DEMO. These requirements are responsible for high demands on the selection of qualified PFMs and heat sink materials as well as reliable fabrication processes for actively cooled plasma facing components. The technical solutions which are considered today are mainly based on the PFMs beryllium, carbon or tungsten joined to copper alloys or stainless steel heat sinks. In addition to the above mentioned quasi-stationary heat loads, short transient thermal pulses with deposited energy densities up to several tens of MJm-2 are a serious concern for next step tokamak devices. The most frequent events are so-called Edge Localized Modes (type I ELMs) and plasma disruptions

  11. Future perspective and healthy lifestyle choices in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdemir-Ozdes, Aylin; Strickland-Hughes, Carla M; Bluck, Susan; Ebner, Natalie C

    2016-09-01

    Regardless of age, making healthy lifestyle choices is prudent. Despite that, individuals of all ages sometimes have difficulty choosing the healthy option. We argue that individuals' view of the future and position in the life span affects their current lifestyle choices. We capture the multidimensionality of future thinking by assessing 3 types of future perspective. Younger and older men and women (N = 127) reported global future time perspective, future health perspective, and perceived importance of future health-related events. They also rated their likelihood of making healthy lifestyle choices. As predicted, older participants indicated greater intention to make healthy choices in their current life than did younger participants. Compared to younger participants, older participants reported shorter global future time perspective and anticipated worse future health but perceived future health-related events as more important. Having a positive view of one's future health and seeing future health-related events as important were related to greater intention to make healthy lifestyle choices, but greater global future time perspective was not directly related to healthy choices. However, follow-up analyses suggested that greater global future time perspective indirectly affected healthy choices via a more positive view of future health. None of these relations were moderated by age. Individuals' perspective on the future is shown to be an important multidimensional construct affecting everyday healthy lifestyle choices for both younger and older adults. Implications for encouraging healthy choices across the adult life span are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Global perspectives on future nuclear energy utilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is presented as an overview of the nuclear sector from a global perspective. The aim is to show that nuclear power does have a future but that this will only be fully realised when the industry is able to demonstrate that it is part of the solution to the world's energy and environmental difficulties rather than part of the problem. The paper looks at the projected world energy demand as the population increases and countries develop, showing that nuclear power is required to meet this demand. In presenting nuclear power as a solution, the paper addresses the challenges facing us such as public confidence, environmental opposition, political issues and finance. It addresses the debate over reprocessing and direct disposal of irradiated nuclear fuel and looks at the competition from other fuels. The paper suggests how the industry might approach these issues such that nuclear power is indeed regarded globally as a solution to some of the worlds most pressing problems. (author)

  13. Future-concepts of HRM in perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neisig, Margit

    This article deals with a systemic perspective on the transition of HRM. The field of study adresses how four recent contributions on HRM transition might be understood according to the framework of the reflective business paradigm (Holmström, 2005). The contributions are building on different...... streams of applied research penetrating future-concepts. Each of the contributions is from highly influential knowledge institutions. The contributions are chosen as to illuminate different elements of the HRM transition. A Luhmann based approach is applied creating a meta-analysis (a third order analysis......) of how the four contributions on HRM transition might be understood according to the framework of the reflective society and business paradigm...

  14. Training in urological robotic surgery. Future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sherbiny, Ahmed; Eissa, Ahmed; Ghaith, Ahmed; Morini, Elena; Marzotta, Lucilla; Sighinolfi, Maria Chiara; Micali, Salvatore; Bianchi, Giampaolo; Rocco, Bernardo

    2018-01-01

    As robotics are becoming more integrated into the medical field, robotic training is becoming more crucial in order to overcome the lack of experienced robotic surgeons. However, there are several obstacles facing the development of robotic training programs like the high cost of training and the increased operative time during the initial period of the learning curve, which, in turn increase the operative cost. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy is the most commonly performed robotic surgery. Moreover, robotic surgery is becoming more popular among urologic oncologists and pediatric urologists. The need for a standardized and validated robotic training curriculum was growing along with the increased number of urologic centers and institutes adopting the robotic technology. Robotic training includes proctorship, mentorship or fellowship, telementoring, simulators and video training. In this chapter, we are going to discuss the different training methods, how to evaluate robotic skills, the available robotic training curriculum, and the future perspectives.

  15. The Relationships among Imagination, Future Imagination Tendency, and Future Time Perspective of Junior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Min-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the study were to investigate the relationships among imagination, future imagination tendency, and future time perspective of junior high school students, then to explore the future time perspective which is predicted by background variables, imaginative qualities, and future imagination tendency. The subjects were 331 from…

  16. Primary energy: present status and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thielheim, K O

    1982-01-01

    A survey of the base-load energy sources available to humans is presented, starting from the point of view that all energy used is ultimately derived from nuclear processes within the sun. Specific note is made of European energy options, noting the large dependence on imported oil. Detailed exploration of available nuclear fuel resources is carried out, with attention given to fission, fusion, and breeder reactor plants and to the state-of-the-art and technology for each. The problems of nuclear waste disposal are discussed, and long term burial in salt domes is outlined as a satisfactory method of containing the materials for acceptable periods of time. The CO/sub 2/ greenhouse effect hazards caused by increased usage of coal-derived fuels are considered and precautions to be taken on a global scale to ameliorate the warming effects are recommended. The limitations to hydropower are examined, as are those of tidal power. Solar cells are projected to be produced in GW quantities by the year 2000, while wind-derived electricity is predicted to provide a minimum of 5% of the world energy needs in the future.

  17. Advanced smart tungsten alloys for a future fusion power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litnovsky, A.; Wegener, T.; Klein, F.; Linsmeier, Ch; Rasinski, M.; Kreter, A.; Tan, X.; Schmitz, J.; Mao, Y.; Coenen, J. W.; Bram, M.; Gonzalez-Julian, J.

    2017-06-01

    The severe particle, radiation and neutron environment in a future fusion power plant requires the development of advanced plasma-facing materials. At the same time, the highest level of safety needs to be ensured. The so-called loss-of-coolant accident combined with air ingress in the vacuum vessel represents a severe safety challenge. In the absence of a coolant the temperature of the tungsten first wall may reach 1200 °C. At such a temperature, the neutron-activated radioactive tungsten forms volatile oxide which can be mobilized into atmosphere. Smart tungsten alloys are being developed to address this safety issue. Smart alloys should combine an acceptable plasma performance with the suppressed oxidation during an accident. New thin film tungsten-chromium-yttrium smart alloys feature an impressive 105 fold suppression of oxidation compared to that of pure tungsten at temperatures of up to 1000 °C. Oxidation behavior at temperatures up to 1200 °C, and reactivity of alloys in humid atmosphere along with a manufacturing of reactor-relevant bulk samples, impose an additional challenge in smart alloy development. First exposures of smart alloys in steady-state deuterium plasma were made. Smart tungsten-chroimium-titanium alloys demonstrated a sputtering resistance which is similar to that of pure tungsten. Expected preferential sputtering of alloying elements by plasma ions was confirmed experimentally. The subsequent isothermal oxidation of exposed samples did not reveal any influence of plasma exposure on the passivation of alloys.

  18. Perspective steels for generation IV and fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartosva, I.; Cizek, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we focus on the F/M steel Eurofer, the European candidate material for the future fusion reactor and for the strengthening we consider oxides of yttrium. The oxides of yttrium and complex yttrium titanium oxides reinforce the material by forming more or less stable obstacles to dislocations, and by promoting grain refinement by pinning grain boundaries. It appears that part of the yttrium titanium oxides particles dissolves from about 600 grad C while pure Yttria particles are stable at least to 1000 grad C in the steel. The aims of this study are the following: 1) Prove the positive effect of strengthening by yttrium oxides. 2) Measure the hardness of base Eurofer and ODS version by Vickers hardness test (HV). 3) Investigate the behaviour of steels at different annealing temperatures and the changes in strength. 4) Assess defects in microstructure by Coincidence Doppler Broadening (CDB) and Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) at chosen annealing temperatures. (authors)

  19. A Perspective on Equipment Design for Fusion Remote Handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, S.; Haist, B.; Hamilton, D.

    2006-01-01

    For 8 years, JET remote operations have become more capable and confident. Many tasks have been successfully completed, even those never intended to be remote maintenance activities. The general approach to the provision of remote handling equipment at JET has been the preferred use of commercially-off-the-shelf equipment. In the areas of electrical, electronic, software and control this approach has been generally achievable. However, in the area of mechanical equipment it has been more difficult. In particular the RH tooling has been almost entirely bespoke as its requirements are highly sensitive to the design of the JET component being handled and there are many design variations. Hence, JET has required the design and manufacture of over 700 types of bespoke RH equipment. This paper will discuss the experience of introducing and developing remote handling mechanical equipment for JET. The paper will cover the relationship between the remote handling equipment and the JET component design and the potential for improving the design function. A major lesson from the introduction of remote handling to JET has been demonstration of the very close interdependency of the design of JET components with design of remote handling tooling. The JET remote handling manual was originally introduced as the vehicle to ensure remote handling compatibility by the introduction of standards. Experience has shown that in general the remote handling manual approach has been insufficient. Future fusion machines will be much more complex than JET and will demand even greater remote handling compatibility. This paper will discuss possible methods for improving this process. Equipment operating in a high radiation environment must be dependable It may spend part of its time in areas that would be extremely difficult to recover from in the case of failure. The equipment may also have a high duty cycle to minimise shutdown times and probably cannot be manually inspected on a frequent

  20. Japanese perspective of fusion nuclear technology from ITER to DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Satoru; Takatsu, Hideyuki

    2007-01-01

    The world fusion community is now launching construction of ITER, the first nuclear-grade fusion machine in the world. In parallel to the ITER program, Broader Approach (BA) activities are to be initiated in this year by EU and Japan, mainly at Rokkasho BA site in Japan, as complementary activities to ITER toward DEMO. The BA activities include IFMIFEVEDA (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility-Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities) and DEMO design activities with generic technology R and Ds, both of which are critical to the rapid development of DEMO and commercial fusion power plants. The Atomic Energy Commission of Japan reviewed on-going third phase fusion program and issued the results of the review, 'On the policy of Nuclear Fusion Research and Development' in November 2005. In this report, it is anticipated that the ITER will be made operational in a decade and the programmatic objective can be met in the succeeding seven or eight years. Under this condition, the report presents a roadmap toward the DEMO and beyond and R and D items on fusion nuclear technology, indispensable for fusion energy utilization, are re-aligned. In the present paper, Japanese view and policy on ITER and beyond is summarized mainly from the viewpoints of nuclear fusion technology, and a minimum set of R and D elements on fusion nuclear technology, essential for fusion energy utilization, is presented. (orig.)

  1. Our Continent, Our Future: African Perspectives on Structural ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Our Continent, Our Future: African Perspectives on Structural Adjustment ... Our Continent, Our Future presents the emerging African perspective on this complex issue. ... approach to structural adjustment, and it does so with the input and support ... Committee of the Association of African Universities, the International Board ...

  2. Our Continent, Our Future: African Perspectives on Structural ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Our Continent, Our Future: African Perspectives on Structural Adjustment ... Our Future presents the emerging African perspective on this complex issue. ... This important book should be read by students, professors, academics, and ... the Council for the Development of Social Research in Africa in Dakar, Senegal.

  3. Future Time Perspective in Sociocultural Contexts: A Discussion Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Huy P.

    2009-01-01

    Future time perspective (FTP) serves as a strong motivational force for individuals to engage in activities that may be instrumental in future outcomes. There has been a voluminous body of research studies, to date, that explored the importance of FTP. This article discusses FTP from sociocultural perspectives. Based on previous empirical…

  4. Smart homes - current features and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Marie; Campo, Eric; Estève, Daniel; Fourniols, Jean-Yves

    2009-10-20

    In an ageing world, maintaining good health and independence for as long as possible is essential. Instead of hospitalization or institutionalization, the elderly and disabled can be assisted in their own environment 24h a day with numerous 'smart' devices. The concept of the smart home is a promising and cost-effective way of improving home care for the elderly and the disabled in a non-obtrusive way, allowing greater independence, maintaining good health and preventing social isolation. Smart homes are equipped with sensors, actuators, and/or biomedical monitors. The devices operate in a network connected to a remote centre for data collection and processing. The remote centre diagnoses the ongoing situation and initiates assistance procedures as required. The technology can be extended to wearable and in vivo implantable devices to monitor people 24h a day both inside and outside the house. This review describes a selection of projects in developed countries on smart homes examining the various technologies available. Advantages and disadvantages, as well as the impact on modern society, are discussed. Finally, future perspectives on smart homes as part of a home-based health care network are presented.

  5. Remote sensing of ecosystem health: opportunities, challenges, and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoqin; Xu, Dandan; Guo, Xulin

    2014-11-07

    Maintaining a healthy ecosystem is essential for maximizing sustainable ecological services of the best quality to human beings. Ecological and conservation research has provided a strong scientific background on identifying ecological health indicators and correspondingly making effective conservation plans. At the same time, ecologists have asserted a strong need for spatially explicit and temporally effective ecosystem health assessments based on remote sensing data. Currently, remote sensing of ecosystem health is only based on one ecosystem attribute: vigor, organization, or resilience. However, an effective ecosystem health assessment should be a comprehensive and dynamic measurement of the three attributes. This paper reviews opportunities of remote sensing, including optical, radar, and LiDAR, for directly estimating indicators of the three ecosystem attributes, discusses the main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system, and provides some future perspectives. The main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system are: (1) scale issue; (2) transportability issue; (3) data availability; and (4) uncertainties in health indicators estimated from remote sensing data. However, the Radarsat-2 constellation, upcoming new optical sensors on Worldview-3 and Sentinel-2 satellites, and improved technologies for the acquisition and processing of hyperspectral, multi-angle optical, radar, and LiDAR data and multi-sensoral data fusion may partly address the current challenges.

  6. Remote Sensing of Ecosystem Health: Opportunities, Challenges, and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoqin Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining a healthy ecosystem is essential for maximizing sustainable ecological services of the best quality to human beings. Ecological and conservation research has provided a strong scientific background on identifying ecological health indicators and correspondingly making effective conservation plans. At the same time, ecologists have asserted a strong need for spatially explicit and temporally effective ecosystem health assessments based on remote sensing data. Currently, remote sensing of ecosystem health is only based on one ecosystem attribute: vigor, organization, or resilience. However, an effective ecosystem health assessment should be a comprehensive and dynamic measurement of the three attributes. This paper reviews opportunities of remote sensing, including optical, radar, and LiDAR, for directly estimating indicators of the three ecosystem attributes, discusses the main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system, and provides some future perspectives. The main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system are: (1 scale issue; (2 transportability issue; (3 data availability; and (4 uncertainties in health indicators estimated from remote sensing data. However, the Radarsat-2 constellation, upcoming new optical sensors on Worldview-3 and Sentinel-2 satellites, and improved technologies for the acquisition and processing of hyperspectral, multi-angle optical, radar, and LiDAR data and multi-sensoral data fusion may partly address the current challenges.

  7. Remote Sensing of Ecosystem Health: Opportunities, Challenges, and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoqin; Xu, Dandan; Guo, Xulin

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining a healthy ecosystem is essential for maximizing sustainable ecological services of the best quality to human beings. Ecological and conservation research has provided a strong scientific background on identifying ecological health indicators and correspondingly making effective conservation plans. At the same time, ecologists have asserted a strong need for spatially explicit and temporally effective ecosystem health assessments based on remote sensing data. Currently, remote sensing of ecosystem health is only based on one ecosystem attribute: vigor, organization, or resilience. However, an effective ecosystem health assessment should be a comprehensive and dynamic measurement of the three attributes. This paper reviews opportunities of remote sensing, including optical, radar, and LiDAR, for directly estimating indicators of the three ecosystem attributes, discusses the main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system, and provides some future perspectives. The main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system are: (1) scale issue; (2) transportability issue; (3) data availability; and (4) uncertainties in health indicators estimated from remote sensing data. However, the Radarsat-2 constellation, upcoming new optical sensors on Worldview-3 and Sentinel-2 satellites, and improved technologies for the acquisition and processing of hyperspectral, multi-angle optical, radar, and LiDAR data and multi-sensoral data fusion may partly address the current challenges. PMID:25386759

  8. Stat-of-the art of nuclear fusion and its future outlook in

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelaziz, M.E.; Elnadi, A.M.; Masoud, M.; Elshaer, M.A.; Khalil, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    The study in this project is carried out with the objective of being able to present a clear view for the state-of-the art of nuclear fusion as one of the most promising coming energy source and its future outlook in Egypt. The study introduce a summary of the world energy problem and the advantages of thermonuclear fusion energy compared to other energy sources. A description of the two main techniques of confining plasma in the fusion experiments, namely the magnetic and the inertial confinement. These techniques are discussed and investigated through linear pinches and tokamaks. Tokamaks showed to be a promising machines for achieving the controlled thermonuclear fusion power reactor. Recent development of the research on laser fusion together with fast progress in pellet and laser technology suggest that it may be possible to achieve laser fusion power reactor. The story of the strange phenomena of cold fusion, muon-catalyzed fusion, and cold fusion in condensed matter are also studied and showed to be non promising. The project study in details the future fusion reactor, its nuclear engineering and its safety and environmental aspects. The study is based on the magnetic fusion using the tokamak configuration. The positive safety and environmental aspects of fusion reactors, if exist, is also investigated. Status of plasma physics and nuclear fusion activities and strategies in the developing countries (including egypt and the arab countries) are reviewed, besides, some national programmes are proposed. In addition, the status of international activities in plasma technology and its application are represented. Future outlook for egyptian programmes on different plasma technologies are studied. Finally, conclusions and recommendations are presented which summarized the principle achiements and future research opportunities in nuclear fusion activities. In fact, it must be emphasized that fusion is an exciting and challenging field of research -the most

  9. Present status and future prospects for direct drive laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodner, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    If one assumes that the best short wavelength laser will have an efficiency of 5--7%, and if one assumes that reasonable cost electricity requires that the product of laser efficiency and pellet gain be greater than 10--15, then pellet grains for laser fusion must be at least 150--300. The only laser fusion concept with any potential for energy applications then seems to be directly driven targets with moderately thin shells and 1/4 micron KrF laser light. This direct drive concept has potential pellet energy gains of 200--300

  10. Circumferential fusion is dominant over posterolateral fusion in a long-term perspective: cost-utility evaluation of a randomized controlled trial in severe, chronic low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soegaard, Rikke; Bünger, Cody E; Christiansen, Terkel

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Cost-utility evaluation of a randomized, controlled trial with a 4- to 8-year follow-up. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incremental cost per quality-adjusted-life-year (QALY) when comparing circumferential fusion to posterolateral fusion in a long-term, societal perspective. SUMMARY...... OF BACKGROUND DATA: The cost-effectiveness of circumferential fusion in a long-term perspective is uncertain but nonetheless highly relevant as the ISSLS prize winner 2006 in clinical studies reported the effect of circumferential fusion superior to the effect of posterolateral fusion. A recent trial found...... no significant difference between posterolateral and circumferential fusion reporting cost-effectiveness from a 2-year viewpoint. METHODS: A total of 146 patients were randomized to posterolateral or circumferential fusion and followed 4 to 8 years after surgery. The mean age of the cohort was 46 years (range...

  11. A Perspective on Remote Handling Operations and Human Machine Interface for Remote Handling in Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haist, B.; Hamilton, D.; Sanders, St.

    2006-01-01

    A large-scale fusion device presents many challenges to the remote handling operations team. This paper is based on unique operational experience at JET and gives a perspective on remote handling task development, logistics and resource management, as well as command, control and human-machine interface systems. Remote operations require an accurate perception of a dynamic environment, ideally providing the operators with the same unrestricted knowledge of the task scene as would be available if they were actually at the remote work location. Traditional camera based systems suffer from a limited number of viewpoints and also degrade quickly when exposed to high radiation. Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality software offer great assistance. The remote handling system required to maintain a tokamak requires a large number of different and complex pieces of equipment coordinating to perform a large array of tasks. The demands on the operator's skill in performing the tasks can escalate to a point where the efficiency and safety of operations are compromised. An operations guidance system designed to facilitate the planning, development, validation and execution of remote handling procedures is essential. Automatic planning of motion trajectories of remote handling equipment and the remote transfer of heavy loads will be routine and need to be reliable. This paper discusses the solutions developed at JET in these areas and also the trends in management and presentation of operational data as well as command, control and HMI technology development offering the potential to greatly assist remote handling in future fusion machines. (author)

  12. Historical Perspective on the United States Fusion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, Stephen O.

    2005-01-01

    Progress and Policy is traced over the approximately 55 year history of the U. S. Fusion Program. The classified beginnings of the effort in the 1950s ended with declassification in 1958. The effort struggled during the 1960s, but ended on a positive note with the emergence of the tokamak and the promise of laser fusion. The decade of the 1970s was the 'Golden Age' of fusion, with large budget increases and the construction of many new facilities, including the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Shiva laser. The decade ended on a high note with the passage of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act of 1980, overwhelming approved by Congress and signed by President Carter. The Act called for a '$20 billion, 20 year' effort aimed at construction of a fusion Demonstration Power Plant around the end of the century. The U. S. Magnetic Fusion Energy program has been on a downhill slide since 1980, both in terms of budgets and the construction of new facilities. The Inertial Confinement Fusion program, funded by Department of Energy Defense Programs, has faired considerably better, with the construction of many new facilities, including the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

  13. Possible futures for the development of a fusion demonstration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, S.P.

    1976-01-01

    As indicated by the Fusion Planning Bulletins, the Division of Controlled Thermonuclear Research is becoming involved in planning with alternative scenarios. The Center for Energy Studies at the University of Texas at Austin has been involved with such planning for several years and has examined various scenarios for fusion power development using the Partitive Analytical Forecasting (PAF) technique. The most recent studies compare the long-term plan presented in WASH-1290, Fusion Power by Magnetic Confinement, with other plans that have been proposed, such as the plan proposed by Kulcinski and Conn of the University of Wisconsin. The study indicates that some of the alternative plans do have possibilities to shorten the required time for the completion of a demonstration fusion plant without increased costs or a decrease in the likelihood of success. The current efforts of the project are in the planning exercises recently completed by committees set up by the DCTR. Further comparisons of alternative scenarios will be performed as part of this effort

  14. Laser fusion and future energy sources - some recent results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hora, H.

    1979-01-01

    While the laser fusion is at present producing more genuine fusion neutrons than the tokamak with magnetic confinement, if use of short laser pulses is preferred, the then appearing nonlinear effect causes considerable complications. Nonlinear processes for the preferred geometry of perpendicular incidence can avoid the problems of resonance absorption, while parametric instabilities have no quantitative influence on the energy balance. The early stages of interaction show the generation of thick 'cold' compressing plasma blocks which can be used for a nonlinear force fast pusher compression of high efficiency (low entropy production). A short time interaction results in a fast thermalization of the plasma corona by soliton decay and this provides the necessary condition for Nuckolls' gasdynamic ablation compression. For longer duration of high intensity irradiation, a pulsation of reflectivity and thermalization will complicate the interaction

  15. Materials technology for fusion - Current status and future requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.E.; Bloom, E.E.; Clinard, F.W. Jr.; Smith, D.L.; Stevenson, R.D.; Wolfer, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    The general status of the materials research and development activities currently under way in support of controlled thermonuclear fusion reactors in the United States is reviewed. In the area of magnetic confinement configurations, attention is given to development programs for first wall materials, which are at various stages for possible austenitic stainless steels, high-strength Fe-Ni-Cr alloys, reactive and refractory metal alloys, specially designed long-range ordered and rapidly solidified alloys, and ferritic/martensitic steels, and for tritium breeding materials, electrical insulators, ceramics, and coolants. The development of materials for inertial confinement reactors is also surveyed in relation to the protection scheme employed for the first wall and the effects of pulsed neutron irradiation. Finally, the materials requirements and selection procedures for the ETF/INTOR and Starfire tokamak reactor designs are examined. Needs for the expansion of research on nonfirst-wall materials and inertial confinement fusion reactor material requirements are pointed out

  16. Bioreactor design and optimization – a future perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist

    2011-01-01

    Bioreactor design and optimisation are essential in translating the experience gained from lab or pilot scale experiments to efficient production processes in industrial scale bioreactors. This article gives a future perspective on bioreactor design and optimisation, where it is foreseen...

  17. Future Perspectives of the Implementation of EU Urban Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olejnik Aleksandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is an overview of opinions and recommendations adopted in the European Union vis-à-vis urban policy. The author analyses the Pact of Amsterdam and future perspectives of the implementation of EU Urban Agenda.

  18. A Review on the Incidence, Interaction, and Future Perspective on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Review on the Incidence, Interaction, and Future Perspective on Zika Virus ..... Two of the ten reported cases were imported from El Salvador ..... activities for multi-sectorial response to ZIKV spread ..... Submit good quality color images.

  19. Visual perspective in remembering and episodic future thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Kathleen B; Wooldridge, Cynthia L; Rice, Heather J; Berg, Jeffrey J; Szpunar, Karl K

    2016-01-01

    According to the constructive episodic simulation hypothesis, remembering and episodic future thinking are supported by a common set of constructive processes. In the present study, we directly addressed this assertion in the context of third-person perspectives that arise during remembering and episodic future thought. Specifically, we examined the frequency with which participants remembered past events or imagined future events from third-person perspectives. We also examined the different viewpoints from which third-person perspective events were remembered or imagined. Although future events were somewhat more likely to be imagined from a third-person perspective, the spatial viewpoint distributions of third-person perspectives characterizing remembered and imagined events were highly similar. These results suggest that a similar constructive mechanism may be at work when people remember events from a perspective that could not have been experienced in the past and when they imagine events from a perspective that could not be experienced in the future. The findings are discussed in terms of their consistency with--and as extensions of--the constructive episodic simulation hypothesis.

  20. Recent Accomplishments and Future Directions in US Fusion Safety & Environmental Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Petti; Brad J. Merrill; Phillip Sharpe; L. C. Cadwallader; L. El-Guebaly; S. Reyes

    2006-07-01

    The US fusion program has long recognized that the safety and environmental (S&E) potential of fusion can be attained by prudent materials selection, judicious design choices, and integration of safety requirements into the design of the facility. To achieve this goal, S&E research is focused on understanding the behavior of the largest sources of radioactive and hazardous materials in a fusion facility, understanding how energy sources in a fusion facility could mobilize those materials, developing integrated state of the art S&E computer codes and risk tools for safety assessment, and evaluating S&E issues associated with current fusion designs. In this paper, recent accomplishments are reviewed and future directions outlined.

  1. Mechanistic perspective of mitochondrial fusion: tubulation vs. fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Henriques, Mafalda; Anton, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial fusion is a fundamental process driven by dynamin related GTPase proteins (DRPs), in contrast to the general SNARE-dependence of most cellular fusion events. The DRPs Mfn1/Mfn2/Fzo1 and OPA1/Mgm1 are the key effectors for fusion of the mitochondrial outer and inner membranes, respectively. In order to promote fusion, these two DRPs require post-translational modifications and proteolysis. OPA1/Mgm1 undergoes partial proteolytic processing, which results in a combination between short and long isoforms. In turn, ubiquitylation of mitofusins, after oligomerization and GTP hydrolysis, promotes and positively regulates mitochondrial fusion. In contrast, under conditions of mitochondrial dysfunction, negative regulation by proteolysis on these DRPs results in mitochondrial fragmentation. This occurs by complete processing of OPA1 and via ubiquitylation and degradation of mitofusins. Mitochondrial fragmentation contributes to the elimination of damaged mitochondria by mitophagy, and may play a protective role against Parkinson's disease. Moreover, a link of Mfn2 to Alzheimer's disease is emerging and mutations in Mfn2 or OPA1 cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2A neuropathy or autosomal-dominant optic atrophy. Here, we summarize our current understanding on the molecular mechanisms promoting or inhibiting fusion of mitochondrial membranes, which is essential for cellular survival and disease control. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial dynamics and physiology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Physics Perspectives for a Future Circular Collider: FCC-ee

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The lectures will briefly discuss the parameters of a Future Circular Collider, before addressing in detail the physics perspectives and the challenges for the experiments and detector systems. The main focus will be on ee and pp collisions, but opportunities for e—p physics will also be covered. The FCC physics perspectives will be presented with reference to the ongoing LHC programme, including the physics potential from future upgrades to the LHC in luminosity and possibly energy.  

  3. Placing Motivation and Future Time Perspective Theory in a Temporal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Joke; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Lens, Willy; Lacante, Marlies

    2004-01-01

    An overview of the conceptual development of future time perspective theory [Nuttin, J. R. (1984). "Motivation, Planning and Action: A Relational Theory of Behavior," Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ; Nuttin, J., and Lens, W. (1985). "Future Time Perspective and Motivation: Theory and Research Method," Leuven University Press and Erlbaum, Leuven, Belgium…

  4. The recent progress of laser fusion research and future scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, C.

    1986-01-01

    The plasma compression of spherical fuel pellets is performed by irradiation laser beams on the surface of targets. The short wavelength laser or Xray is effective to get high coupling of laser and plasmas without preheating. The implosion uniformity is essentially important to attain the high compression. As for the direct implosion, the multibeam irradiation is necessary to keep a good uniformity of illumination. Extremely high aspect ratio targets are successfully imploded withy neutron yield 10/sup 12/ or more. The shock wave multiplexing is introduced by tailored laser pulses synchronizing with the compression stagnation. Implosion instability seems to be prevented by this scheme. Energy recovering by nuclear fusion is about 10/sup -3/ of the incident laser beam. The indirect implosion using the Cannonball target is very effective to keep the high absorption and the implosion uniformity. However the suprathermal electrons are increased especially at the region of the beam inlet holes. The larger cavity irradiated by the shorter wavelength laser indicates the better results. The Xray conversion by laser is intensively studied using metal targets. Magnetically Insulated Inetially Confined Fusion (MICF) is tested by using CO/sub 2/ lasers. The basic structure of the MICF target is a double shell structure. The irradiation of laser beams through holes of the outer shell produces a toroidal magnetic field due to the current loop produced by the ejected hot electrons. Self organized magnetic field is expected to confine the plasma energy. Plasmas are preserved by the inertial confinement scheme. The experimental results are very interesting to design a hybrid fusion device

  5. Driven by the future : Future time perspective across life domains and cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andre, L.

    2018-01-01

    Contemplating about the future is inevitable for our life and goal strivings. Consequently, Future Time Perspective (FTP) – individuals’ attitudes towards the future as a motivator for attitudes and behaviors – has been researched across disciplines and life domains. However, little is known about

  6. Tertiary proton diagnostics in future inertial confinement fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremer, S.; Verdon, C.P.; Petrasso, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, it was proposed to use energetic (up to 31 MeV) tertiary protons produced during the final stage of inertial confinement fusion implosions to measure the fuel areal density of compressed deuterium endash tritium (DT). The method is based on seeding the fuel with 3 He. The reaction of 3 He ions with the energetic knock-on deuterons, produced via the elastic scattering of 14.1 MeV neutrons, is a source of very energetic protons capable of escaping from very large areal density targets. This work presents results of detailed time-dependent Monte Carlo simulations of the nuclear processes involved in producing and transporting these protons through imploding targets proposed for direct-drive experiments on OMEGA [D. K. Bradley et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 1870 (1998)] and the National Ignition Facility [S. W. Haan et al., Phys. Plasmas 2, 2480 (1995)]. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  7. Plasma facing materials and components for future fusion devices - development, characterization and performance under fusion specific loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik

    2006-04-15

    The plasma exposed components in existing and future fusion devices are strongly affected by the plasma material interaction processes. These mechanisms have a strong influence on the plasma performance; in addition they have major impact on the lifetime of the plasma facing armour and the joining interface between the plasma facing material (PFM) and the heat sink. Besides physical and chemical sputtering processes, high heat quasi-stationary fluxes during normal and intense thermal transients are of serious concern for the engineers who develop reliable wall components. In addition, the material and component degradation due to intense fluxes of energetic neutrons is another critical issue in D-T-burning fusion devices which requires extensive RandD. This paper presents an overview on the materials development and joining, the testing of PFMs and components, and the analysis of the neutron irradiation induced degradation.

  8. Plasma facing materials and components for future fusion devices - development, characterization and performance under fusion specific loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, J.

    2006-01-01

    The plasma exposed components in existing and future fusion devices are strongly affected by the plasma material interaction processes. These mechanisms have a strong influence on the plasma performance; in addition they have major impact on the lifetime of the plasma facing armour and the joining interface between the plasma facing material (PFM) and the heat sink. Besides physical and chemical sputtering processes, high heat quasi-stationary fluxes during normal and intense thermal transients are of serious concern for the engineers who develop reliable wall components. In addition, the material and component degradation due to intense fluxes of energetic neutrons is another critical issue in D-T-burning fusion devices which requires extensive RandD. This paper presents an overview on the materials development and joining, the testing of PFMs and components, and the analysis of the neutron irradiation induced degradation

  9. Plasma facing materials and components for future fusion devices—development, characterization and performance under fusion specific loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, J.

    2006-04-01

    The plasma exposed components in existing and future fusion devices are strongly affected by the plasma material interaction processes. These mechanisms have a strong influence on the plasma performance; in addition they have major impact on the lifetime of the plasma facing armour and the joining interface between the plasma facing material (PFM) and the heat sink. Besides physical and chemical sputtering processes, high heat quasi-stationary fluxes during normal and intense thermal transients are of serious concern for the engineers who develop reliable wall components. In addition, the material and component degradation due to intense fluxes of energetic neutrons is another critical issue in D-T-burning fusion devices which requires extensive R&D. This paper presents an overview on the materials development and joining, the testing of PFMs and components, and the analysis of the neutron irradiation induced degradation.

  10. Superconductivity Engineering and Its Application for Fusion 3.Superconducting Technology as a Gateway to Future Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Katsuhiko

    Hopes for achieving a new source of energy through nuclear fusion rest on the development of superconducting technology that is needed to make future equipments more energy efficient as well as increase their performance. Superconducting technology has made progress in a wide variety of fields, such as energy, life science, electronics, industrial use and environmental improvement. It enables the actualization of equipment that was unachievable with conventional technology, and will sustain future “IT-Based Quality Life Style”, “Sustainable Environmental” and “Advanced Healthcare” society. Besides coil technology with high magnetic field performance, superconducting electoronics or device technology, such as SQUID and SFQ-circuit, high temperature superconducting material and advanced cryogenics technology might be great significance in the history of nuclear fusion which requires so many wide, high and ultra technology. Superconducting technology seems to be the catalyst for a changing future society with nuclear fusion. As society changes, so will superconducting technology.

  11. Discussion on Safety Analysis and Regulatory Framework for the Future Fusion Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Myoung-suk; Oh, Kyemin; Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This study aims to secure the core original technologies and expand the base of domestic specialist at a fusion area by pursuing and developing nonprocurement technologies for ITER. From this project, the latest technical data and experiences have been recorded for the development of the safety regulation and safety-related design criteria of the future fusion reactors in Korea. In this context, this paper discusses on the progress of surveying the ITER licensing process and regulatory issues revealed. The regulation and licensing process for a fusion power plant has been expected to be quite different due to unique and unforeseen properties differently from the conventional nuclear facilities. To overcome this, not only various safety issues should be analyzed, but safety objectives, regulatory requirements, and design variables should also be established in detailed design phase. We expect our survey will contribute on the discussion to establish general and technical safety principles for national fusion power plant technology plans.

  12. Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Mahaffey, James A

    2012-01-01

    As energy problems of the world grow, work toward fusion power continues at a greater pace than ever before. The topic of fusion is one that is often met with the most recognition and interest in the nuclear power arena. Written in clear and jargon-free prose, Fusion explores the big bang of creation to the blackout death of worn-out stars. A brief history of fusion research, beginning with the first tentative theories in the early 20th century, is also discussed, as well as the race for fusion power. This brand-new, full-color resource examines the various programs currently being funded or p

  13. Looking to the future (perspectives of oncopediatry)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durnov, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    The 30-year experience of children oncology in Russia is analyzed using the Central Research Institute of Children Oncology as an example. The experience allows to look into the future of children oncology. A great attention is paid and will continue to be paid to the study of parents-child-tumor link (age of parents, disease incidence during pregnancy, occupation of parents, etc). The role of radiation techniques of diagnostics and treatment in children oncology will diminish in the future. The preference will be given to laboratory diagnostic techniques and medicamentous therapy. As regards radiation treatment techniques, the preference will be given to laser therapy and radiation surgery

  14. Pressure ulcer research : current and future perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bader, D.L.; Bouten, C.V.C.; Colin, D.; Oomens, C.W.J.

    2005-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date scientific account of all aspects related to pressure ulcers and pressure ulcer research, as well as evidence-based knowledge of pressure ulcer aetiology. Further, it describes current and future tools for evaluating patients at risk. It comprises 20 chapters by

  15. Advocacy: Perspectives of Future Nurse Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OʼConnor, Mary

    Advocacy is a core competency of the nurse, and especially the nurse leader. It is a multidimensional concept that requires knowledge, experience, self-confidence, and above all, courage. This article describes and illustrates the perspectives of nursing administration graduate students, as they depict advocacy in many relationships. These include advocacy for the patient, family, self, community, organization, profession, and society. The themes that emerged from narratives written by these nurse leaders were the development of courage and the finding of their voices. Stories demonstrate participants' courage to speak up despite feeling conflicted due to issues of autonomy, moral distress, or fear of retribution. Implications for nurse administrators to support advocacy at all levels are presented.

  16. Future time perspective in institutionalized adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Claudia Carcelén Velarde

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study describes the future goals and concerns of institutionalized adolescents, and also identifies their attitudes towards the past, the present and the future, comparing them with a group of non-institutionalized adolescents with similar characteristics. It is a descriptive study with a transversal design, of 34 institutionalized and 41 non-institutionalized adolescents between 15 to 17 years old. The instruments were the Motivational Induction Method (MIM and the Time Attitude Scale (TAS (Nuttin, 1985. Goals are related to interpersonal contacts, the self-realization and the self. Institutionalized adolescents show more goals related to the development of aptitudes and a major necessity of interpersonal contacts associated with the fear of the damage caused by settling these relationships.

  17. Perspectives at the future accelerator facility FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroth, J.

    2005-01-01

    The future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt will provide ideal conditions for a diverse research programme addressing various aspects of strongly interacting systems, fundamental interactions and dense plasmas. The projected complex combines two new synchrotrons with various storage rings, foresees cooling of beams and permits fixed target as well as in-beam experiments. This presentation will focus on the future research activities at FAIR, which can be grouped into 5 research areas: the structure and reactions of rare isotopes, hadron physics with brilliant antiproton beams, nuclear matter at high densities, atomic physics of antimatter and in strong electromagnetic fields, and laser as well as ion induced plasma physics. Emphasis will be put on the experimental installations addressing nuclear physics with relevance for astrophysics. (author)

  18. Perspectives on future high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1996-01-01

    The author states two general ways in which one must proceed in an attempt to forecast the future of high energy physics. The first is to utilize the state of knowledge in the field and thereby provide theoretical and experimental guidance on future directions. The second approach is technical, namely, how well can one do in going to higher energies with present techniques or new accelerator principles. He concludes that the future strategy is straightforward. The present accelerator facilities must be upgraded and run to produce exciting and forefront research. At the same time, the theoretical tools should be sharpened both extrapolating from lower energies (100 GeV) to high (multi TeV) and vice versa. The US should be involved in the LHC, both in the accelerator and experimental areas. There should be an extensive R and D program on accelerators for a multi-TeV capability, emphasizing e + e - and μ + μ - colliders. Finally, the international cooperative activities should be strengthened and maintained

  19. Perspectives on future high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samios, N.P.

    1996-12-31

    The author states two general ways in which one must proceed in an attempt to forecast the future of high energy physics. The first is to utilize the state of knowledge in the field and thereby provide theoretical and experimental guidance on future directions. The second approach is technical, namely, how well can one do in going to higher energies with present techniques or new accelerator principles. He concludes that the future strategy is straightforward. The present accelerator facilities must be upgraded and run to produce exciting and forefront research. At the same time, the theoretical tools should be sharpened both extrapolating from lower energies (100 GeV) to high (multi TeV) and vice versa. The US should be involved in the LHC, both in the accelerator and experimental areas. There should be an extensive R and D program on accelerators for a multi-TeV capability, emphasizing e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}} colliders. Finally, the international cooperative activities should be strengthened and maintained.

  20. Physics perspectives for a Future Circular Collider: FCC-hh/eh - Physics-Perspectives

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The lectures will briefly discuss the parameters of a Future Circular Collider, before addressing in detail the physics perspectives and the challenges for the experiments and detector systems. The main focus will be on ee and pp collisions, but opportunities for e—p physics will also be covered. The FCC physics perspectives will be presented with reference to the ongoing LHC programme, including the physics potential from future upgrades to the LHC in luminosity and possibly energy.

  1. Automotive fuels. Quality current and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avella, F.

    1999-01-01

    In the present paper, a general view of the automotive fuel characteristics and of the influence of the most important fuel parameters on the engine performance and emissions are presented. At short term, the future scenario is conditioned by the application of the next European Directive on fuel specifications, that will came into effect on 1 January 2000. The composition of liquid fuels shall be subject to modifications nd restrictions to meet the new specifications Among alternative fuels, natural gas and Lpg (liquefied petroleum gases) are the most interesting in the view point of environmental protection. Biodiesel constitutes a potential and valid alternative to mineral gas oil in diesel engines [it

  2. Future Perspective : Design Process of Perfume Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    In a world where technology develops at a rapid speed a packaging designer should have the ability to adapt to the challenges in a world where the packaging landscape might look far more different from today. This thesis will look at possible future scenarios relating to resources, infrastructure and consumer behaviour in the year 2050. It will then go on to discuss the emergence of new packaging materials pitted to replace plastic, as well as take a look at printed electronics in packaging a...

  3. Future HEP Accelerators: The US Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Pushpalatha [Fermilab; Shiltsev, Vladimir [Fermilab

    2015-11-02

    Accelerator technology has advanced tremendously since the introduction of accelerators in the 1930s, and particle accelerators have become indispensable instruments in high energy physics (HEP) research to probe Nature at smaller and smaller distances. At present, accelerator facilities can be classified into Energy Frontier colliders that enable direct discoveries and studies of high mass scale particles and Intensity Frontier accelerators for exploration of extremely rare processes, usually at relatively low energies. The near term strategies of the global energy frontier particle physics community are centered on fully exploiting the physics potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN through its high-luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC), while the intensity frontier HEP research is focused on studies of neutrinos at the MW-scale beam power accelerator facilities, such as Fermilab Main Injector with the planned PIP-II SRF linac project. A number of next generation accelerator facilities have been proposed and are currently under consideration for the medium- and long-term future programs of accelerator-based HEP research. In this paper, we briefly review the post-LHC energy frontier options, both for lepton and hadron colliders in various regions of the world, as well as possible future intensity frontier accelerator facilities.

  4. Inertial fusion energy: A clearer view of the environmental and safety perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latkowski, J.F.

    1996-11-01

    If fusion energy is to achieve its full potential for safety and environmental (S ampersand E) advantages, the S ampersand E characteristics of fusion power plant designs must be quantified and understood, and the resulting insights must be embodied in the ongoing process of development of fusion energy. As part of this task, the present work compares S ampersand E characteristics of five inertial and two magnetic fusion power plant designs. For each design, a set of radiological hazard indices has been calculated with a system of computer codes and data libraries assembled for this purpose. These indices quantify the radiological hazards associated with the operation of fusion power plants with respect to three classes of hazard: accidents, occupational exposure, and waste disposal. The three classes of hazard have been qualitatively integrated to rank the best and worst fusion power plant designs with respect to S ampersand E characteristics. From these rankings, the specific designs, and other S ampersand E trends, design features that result in S ampersand E advantages have been identified. Additionally, key areas for future fusion research have been identified. Specific experiments needed include the investigation of elemental release rates (expanded to include many more materials) and the verification of sequential charged-particle reactions. Improvements to the calculational methodology are recommended to enable future comparative analyses to represent more accurately the radiological hazards presented by fusion power plants. Finally, future work must consider economic effects. Trade-offs among design features will be decided not by S ampersand E characteristics alone, but also by cost-benefit analyses. 118 refs., 35 figs., 35 tabs

  5. Future cyclotron systems : an industrial perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, N.R.; Dickie, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    The use of commercial cyclotron systems for the production of radioisotopes continues to grow on a world-wide scale. Improvements in technology have significantly increased the production capabilities of modem cyclotron-based isotope production facilities. In particular, the change to negative ion acceleration and new high power systems have resulted in dramatic improvements in reliability, increases in capacity, and decreases in personnel radiation dose. As more and more older machines are retired decisions regarding their replacement are made based on several factors including the market's potential and the cyclotron system's abilities. Taking the case of the recently upgraded TR30 cyclotron at TRIUMF/Nordion, we investigate the requirements industrial/medical users are likely to impose on future commercial cyclotron systems and the impact this will have on cyclotron technology by the end of the century. (author)

  6. Future cyclotron systems: An industrial perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, N.R.; Dickie, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    The use of commercial cyclotron systems for the production of radioisotopes continues to grow on a world-wide scale. Improvements in technology have significantly increased the production capabilities of modern cyclotron-based isotope production facilities. In particular, the change to negative ion acceleration and new high power systems have resulted in dramatic improvements in reliability, increases in capacity, and decreases in personnel radiation dose. As more and more older machines are retired, decisions regarding their replacement are made based on several factors including the market's potential and the cyclotron system's abilities. Taking the case of the recently upgraded TR30 cyclotron at TRIUMF/Nordion, the authors investigate the requirements industrial/medical users are likely to impose on future commercial cyclotron systems and the impact this will have on cyclotron technology by the end of the century

  7. CT colonography: current status in Europe and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefere, P.; Gryspeerdt, S.; Yoshida, H.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we review the current status of CT colonography (CTC) in Europe and future perspectives of CTC including fecal tagging and CAD. There are several large multi-centre studies that have been initiated. Fecal tagging has gradually become a prerequisite to perform state-of-the-art CTC. However, CAD for fecal-tagging CTC remains a subject for future research. (orig.)

  8. Future directions in international financial integration research - A crowdsourced perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lucey, B.M.; Vigne, S.A.; Ballester, L.; Barbopoulos, L.; Brzeszczynski, J.; Carchano, O.; Dimic, N.; Fernandez, V.; Gogolin, F.; González-Urteaga, A.; Goodell, J.W.; Helbing, P.; Ichev, R.; Kearney, F.; Laing, E.

    2018-01-01

    This paper is the result of a crowdsourced effort to surface perspectives on the present and future direction of international finance. The authors are researchers in financial economics who attended the INFINITI 2017 conference in the University of Valencia in June 2017 and who participated in the crowdsourcing via the Overleaf platform. This paper highlights the actual state of scientific knowledge in a multitude of fields in finance and proposes different directions for future research.

  9. The international thermonuclear experimental reactor and the future of nuclear fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Chuanhong

    2010-01-01

    Energy shortage and environmental problems are now the two largest challenges for human beings. Magnetic confinement nuclear fusion, which has achieved great progress since the 1990's, is anticipated to be a way to realize an ideal source of energy in the future because of its abundance, environmental compatibility, and zero carbon release. Exemplified by the construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the development of nuclear fusion energy is now in its engineering phase, and should be realized by the middle of this century if all objectives of the ITER project are met. (author)

  10. Inertial fusion research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: program status and future applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Hogan, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Laser Fusion Program are to understand and develop the science and technology required to utilize inertial confinement fusion (ICF) for both military and commercial applications. The results of recent experiments are described. We point out the progress in our laser studies, where we continue to develop and test the concepts, components, and materials for present and future laser systems. While there are many potential commercial applications of ICF, we limit our discussions to electric power production

  11. Tourism Curriculum in a Global Perspective: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanacharoensil, Walanchalee

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes the development of tourism curricula over the past 20 years from the perspective of global tourism. The paper proposes a generic framework for a future tourism curriculum on the basis of a review of literature in the American, British, and other European contexts. The proposed tourism curriculum aims to create well-rounded…

  12. Future Time Perspective and Motivational Categories in Argentinean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Stella Maris; Rapetti, Maria Virginia

    2006-01-01

    This study is based on a sample of 332 Argentinean teenagers in their last year of secondary school. In the context of the relational theory of motivation, an attempt is made to determine the motivational categories best predicting Future Time Perspective (FTP) extension. The influence of the sex, locus of control, social class, and school ethos…

  13. National space legislation : future perspectives for Malaysian Space Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saari, Che Zuhaida Binti

    2014-01-01

    This research studies the future perspectives for Malaysian space law. It aims at demonstrating the development of Malaysian outer space activities inclusive of her status with respect to United Nations space conventions and her membership of international and regional space-related organizations.

  14. Greenhouse mechanization: State of the art and future perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art and future perspective of greenhouse mechanization. Driving forces for mechanization are identified. Dutch greenhouse crop production is used as an example. Analysis of a generic crop production process combined with a review of the state of the art in

  15. Achondroplasia: Current Options and Future Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouali, Houda; Latrech, Hanane

    2015-06-01

    Achondroplasia is a human bone genetic disorder of the growth plate and is the most common form of inherited disproportionate short stature. It is inherited as an autosomal dominant disease with essentially complete penetrance. Of these most have the same point mutation in the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) which is a negative regulator of bone growth. The clinical and radiological features of achondroplasia can easily be identified; they include disproportionate short stature with rhizomelic shortening, macrocephaly with frontal bossing, midface hypoplasia, lumbar hyperlordosis, and a trident hand configuration. The majority of achondroplasts have a normal intelligence, but many social and medical complications may compromise a full and productive life. Some of them have serious health consequences related to hydrocephalus, craniocervical junction compression, or upper-airway obstruction. In this article, we discuss a number of treatments from the surgical limb lengthening approach and the Recombinant Growth Hormone (rhGH) treatment, to future treatments, which include the Natriuretic Peptide C-type (CNP). The discussion is a comparative study of the complications and drawbacks of various experiments using numerous strategies.

  16. Perspective on future therapy of vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumpas, D T; Kritikos, H D; Daskalakis, N G

    2000-10-01

    This article summarizes recent advances in the management of various vasculitic syndromes and discusses potential new therapies based on a better understanding of their pathogenesis and natural history. Current efforts for optimization of testing for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and improvement of diagnostic criteria will certainly have a significant impact on future therapy. Biologic agents such as interferon-alpha are already in use in various vasculitides, whereas others, such as inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, are in phase I clinical trials. Agents that selectively inhibit distinct steps in the pathogenesis of vasculitis are in preclinical or early clinical stages of development. Newer (mycophenolate mofetil, leflunamide) or older (methotrexate, azathioprine) immunosuppresive agents are finding new roles in the management of vasculitides. For patients with severe vasculitis, short-term use of cytotoxic agents, such as cyclophosphamide, alone or in combination with biologic agents, may expedite remission, which could then be better maintained with other, less toxic (and less expensive) immunosuppressive agents, such as methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, and leflunamide. For patients with mild or moderately severe vasculitis, these latter agents alone may be adequate. New therapeutic studies in vasculitis should better address the impact of therapy on health-related quality of life and its long-term toxicity.

  17. Future vaccines and a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, S L

    1997-12-13

    Advances in medical biotechnology mean that vaccines to prevent more than 75 infectious diseases are being or have been developed. Vaccination is unfortunately not reliant purely on biotechnology but also on politics and resources. Countries with the greatest demand for vaccines have the least ability to pay for or produce them. Health-care Infrastructure and diagnostic facilities also hamper immunisation projects in developing countries. Charitable organisations are relied on heavily to support such projects but the challenge to ensure all infants are immunised against the most common infections of childhood is still enormous. Difficulties that present themselves now should not prevent us looking into future possibilities such as immunisation during pregnancy and targeting of children for immunisation against sexually transmitted diseases. Other avenues for research are in administration of vaccines. A move to mucosal immunisation rather than use of the syringe and needle would be positive both economically and from the point of view of risk of needle contamination. Plant science may also provide a new vehicle for vaccines by engineering plants such as the banana tree to be naturally bioencapsulated vaccines. Prospects for control and eradication of infectious disease in the next century are certainly good.

  18. Portable FAIMS: Applications and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Michael T; Boock, Jared J; Kemperman, Robin H J; Wei, Michael S; Beekman, Christopher R; Yost, Richard A

    2017-11-01

    Miniaturized mass spectrometry (MMS) is optimal for a wide variety of applications that benefit from field-portable instrumentation. Like MMS, field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) has proven capable of providing in situ analysis, allowing researchers to bring the lab to the sample. FAIMS compliments MMS very well, but has the added benefit of operating at atmospheric pressure, unlike MS. This distinct advantage makes FAIMS uniquely suited for portability. Since its inception, FAIMS has been envisioned as a field-portable device, as it affords less expense and greater simplicity than many similar methods. Ideally, these are simple, robust devices that may be operated by non-professional personnel, yet still provide adequate data when in the field. While reducing the size and complexity tends to bring with it a loss of performance and accuracy, this is made up for by the incredibly high throughput and overall convenience of the instrument. Moreover, the FAIMS device used in the field can be brought back to the lab, and coupled to a conventional mass spectrometer to provide any necessary method development and compound validation. This work discusses the various considerations, uses, and applications for portable FAIMS instrumentation, and how the future of each applicable field may benefit from the development and acceptance of such a device.

  19. Waste management strategy for nuclear fusion power systems from a regulatory perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, R.A.

    1977-12-06

    A waste management strategy for future nuclear fusion power systems is developed using existing regulatory methodology. The first step is the development of a reference fuel cycle. Next, the waste streams from such a facility are identified. Then a waste management system is defined to safely handle and dispose of these wastes. The future regulator must identify the decisions necessary to establish waste management performance criteria. The data base and methodologies necessary to make these decisions must then be developed. Safe management of nuclear fusion wastes is not only a technological challenge, but encompasses significant social, political, and ethical questions as well.

  20. Waste management strategy for nuclear fusion power systems from a regulatory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    A waste management strategy for future nuclear fusion power systems is developed using existing regulatory methodology. The first step is the development of a reference fuel cycle. Next, the waste streams from such a facility are identified. Then a waste management system is defined to safely handle and dispose of these wastes. The future regulator must identify the decisions necessary to establish waste management performance criteria. The data base and methodologies necessary to make these decisions must then be developed. Safe management of nuclear fusion wastes is not only a technological challenge, but encompasses significant social, political, and ethical questions as well

  1. Status and perspectives of heavy ion inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, R.

    1989-04-01

    For energy production by inertial confinement fusion the heavy ion accelerator is the most promising driver candidate. A conceptual design study, HIBALL, showed for the first time that a concept of an accelerator driven power station should be feasible. Two accelerator concepts, an rf-linac with storage rings and an induction linac, both investigated in the framework of national programs during the last decade, can be seriously taken into account as driver candidates. Two accelerator facilities now under construction or design, SIS/ESR at GSI and MBE-4/ISLE at LBL, are conceived to study key issues of both driver concepts. Present activities and some new ideas on driver concepts are reviewed. (orig.)

  2. Biocrystallography in Switzerland: achievements and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grütter, Markus G

    2014-01-01

    The first protein crystallography group in Switzerland was installed at the Biozentrum of the University of Basel approximately 40 years ago. Since then protein crystallography has grown and matured remarkably and is now established in the molecular biology, biochemistry or biological medicine departments of most major Swiss Universities as well as in the pharmaceutical industry and in biotech startup companies. Swiss X-ray biocrystallography groups have made remarkable contributions from the beginning and have brought Switzerland to the forefront in biostructural research during the last 5 to 10 years. Switzerland has now a leading position in the areas of supramolecular complexes, membrane proteins and structure-based drug design in pharmaceutical and biotech industries. Protein crystallography on the outer membrane protein ompF as well as the development of the lipidic cubic phase crystallization methodology has been pioneered at the Biozentrum. The latter found its somewhat late recognition through the recent explosion in structure determinations of the seven transmembrane helix G-coupled receptors. Highlights from Swiss structural biology groups in the field of supramolecular complexes include the structures of ribosomal particles, of the nucleosome and the pilus assembly complex of uropathogenic E. coli. On the membrane protein side advances in the field of ABC transporters and ion channels are world-recognized achievements of Swiss structural biology. Dedicated laboratories at many academic and industrial institutions, their current research programs, the availability of excellent infrastructure and the continuing efforts to build new facilities such as the SwissFEL indicate an even brighter future for structural biology in Switzerland.

  3. Nuclear fusion and its large potential for the future world energy supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ongena Jef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the energy problem in the world is presented. The colossal task of ‘decarbonizing’ the current energy system, with ~85% of the primary energy produced from fossil sources is discussed. There are at the moment only two options that can contribute to a solution: renewable energy (sun, wind, hydro, etc. or nuclear fission. Their contributions, ~2% for sun and wind, ~6% for hydro and ~5% for fission, will need to be enormously increased in a relatively short time, to meet the targets set by policy makers. The possible role and large potential for fusion to contribute to a solution in the future as a safe, nearly inexhaustible and environmentally compatible energy source is discussed. The principles of magnetic and inertial confinement are outlined, and the two main options for magnetic confinement, tokamak and stellarator, are explained. The status of magnetic fusion is summarized and the next steps in fusion research, ITER and DEMO, briefly presented.

  4. Introducing the book 'Cold fusion and the future'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, Jed

    2006-07-01

    Cold fusion will be the ideal source of energy, provided its introduction can be handled properly. A few cells have shown power density and temperatures suitable for real-world applications. Once these cells can be replicated on demand, commercial development will be straightforward. Manufacturing should not be too demanding, so thousands of companies will compete, and costs will fall quickly. The transition from fossil fuel to cold fusion will be rapid. Many extraordinary new applications will become possible, and seemingly intractable problems such as global warming may be fixed. Some examples will be presented. Public support is essential to funding research, and commercialization. 'Cold Fusion and the Future' is the title of a new book by this author. This paper discusses a few of the topics in the book.

  5. Vitamin D in asthma and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang H

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Haidong Huang,1 Konstantinos Porpodis,2 Paul Zarogoulidis,2,3 Kalliopi Domvri,2 Paschalina Giouleka,2 Antonis Papaiwannou,2 Stella Primikyri,2 Efi Mylonaki,2 Dionysis Spyratos,2 Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt,4 Ioannis Kioumis,2 Konstantinos Zarogoulidis2 1Department of Respiratory Diseases, Changhai Hospital/First Affiliated Hospital of the Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Pulmonary Department, “G Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 3Department of Interventional Pneumology, Ruhrlandklinik, West German Lung Center, University Hospital, University Duisburg–Essen, Essen, Germany; 4II Medical Clinic, “Coburg” Hospital, University of Würzburg, Coburg, Germany Abstract: Humans have the ability to synthesize vitamin D during the action of ultraviolet (UV radiation upon the skin. Apart from the regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism, another critical role for vitamin D in immunity and respiratory health has been revealed, since vitamin D receptors have also been found in other body cells. The term “vitamin D insufficiency” has been used to describe low levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D that may be associated with a wide range of pulmonary diseases, including viral and bacterial respiratory infection, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer. This review focuses on the controversial relationship between vitamin D and asthma. Also, it has been found that different gene polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor have variable associations with asthma. Other studies investigated the vitamin D receptor signaling pathway in vitro or in experimental animal models and showed either a beneficial or a negative effect of vitamin D in asthma. Furthermore, a range of epidemiological studies has also suggested that vitamin D insufficiency is associated with low lung function. In the future, clinical trials in different asthmatic

  6. Recent developments in IFE safety and tritium research and considerations for future nuclear fusion facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, Susana; Anklam, Tom; Meier, Wayne; Campbell, Patrick; Babineau, Dave; Becnel, James; Taylor, Craig; Coons, Jim

    2016-01-01

    licensing activities, and summarize our most recent thoughts on safety and tritium considerations for future nuclear fusion facilities.

  7. Recent developments in IFE safety and tritium research and considerations for future nuclear fusion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, Susana, E-mail: reyes20@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Anklam, Tom; Meier, Wayne; Campbell, Patrick [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Babineau, Dave; Becnel, James [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Taylor, Craig; Coons, Jim [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    licensing activities, and summarize our most recent thoughts on safety and tritium considerations for future nuclear fusion facilities.

  8. Perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schaffhauser, A. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This report offers perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry. These perspectives will be used in further research to assess the prospects for Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). The perspectives are developed first by examining economic, political and regulatory, societal, technological, and environmental trends that are (1) national and global in scope and (2) directly related to the electric utility industry. Major national and global trends include increasing global economic competition, increasing political and ethnic strife, rapidly changing technologies, and increasing worldwide concern about the environment. Major trends in the utility industry include increasing competition in generation; changing patterns of electricity demand; increasing use of information technology to control power systems; and increasing implementation of environmental controls. Ways in which the national and global trends may directly affect the utility industry are also explored. The trends are used to construct three global and national scenarios- ``business as usual,`` ``technotopia future,`` and ``fortress state`` -and three electric utility scenarios- ``frozen in headlights,`` ``megaelectric,`` and ``discomania.`` The scenarios are designed to be thought provoking descriptions of potential futures, not predictions of the future, although three key variables are identified that will have significant impacts on which future evolves-global climate change, utility technologies, and competition. While emphasis needs to be placed on understanding the electric utility scenarios, the interactions between the two sets of scenarios is also of interest.

  9. Perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonn, B.; Schaffhauser, A.

    1994-04-01

    This report offers perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry. These perspectives will be used in further research to assess the prospects for Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). The perspectives are developed first by examining economic, political and regulatory, societal, technological, and environmental trends that are (1) national and global in scope and (2) directly related to the electric utility industry. Major national and global trends include increasing global economic competition, increasing political and ethnic strife, rapidly changing technologies, and increasing worldwide concern about the environment. Major trends in the utility industry include increasing competition in generation; changing patterns of electricity demand; increasing use of information technology to control power systems; and increasing implementation of environmental controls. Ways in which the national and global trends may directly affect the utility industry are also explored. The trends are used to construct three global and national scenarios- ''business as usual,'' ''technotopia future,'' and ''fortress state'' -and three electric utility scenarios- ''frozen in headlights,'' ''megaelectric,'' and ''discomania.'' The scenarios are designed to be thought provoking descriptions of potential futures, not predictions of the future, although three key variables are identified that will have significant impacts on which future evolves-global climate change, utility technologies, and competition. While emphasis needs to be placed on understanding the electric utility scenarios, the interactions between the two sets of scenarios is also of interest

  10. CT myocardial perfusion imaging: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong Hyun; Kim, Young-Hak

    2017-07-01

    Computed tomography myocardial perfusion (CTP) combined with coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) may constitute a "1-stop shop" for the noninvasive diagnosis of hemodynamically significant coronary stenosis during a single CT examination. CTP shows high diagnostic performance and provides incremental value over CCTA for the detection of hemodynamically significant coronary stenosis in patients with a high Agatston calcium score or coronary artery stents. Future studies should determine the optimal protocol and clinical value of CTP for guiding revascularization strategy and prognostication. In this article, we review the current status and future perspectives of CTP, focusing on technical considerations, clinical applications, and future research topics.

  11. Office of Fusion Energy Sciences. A ten-year perspective (2015-2025)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-12-01

    The vision described here builds on the present U.S. activities in fusion plasma and materials science relevant to the energy goal and extends plasma science at the frontier of discovery. The plan is founded on recommendations made by the National Academies, a number of recent studies by the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC), and the Administration’s views on the greatest opportunities for U.S. scientific leadership.This report highlights five areas of critical importance for the U.S. fusion energy sciences enterprise over the next decade: 1) Massively parallel computing with the goal of validated whole-fusion-device modeling will enable a transformation in predictive power, which is required to minimize risk in future fusion energy development steps; 2) Materials science as it relates to plasma and fusion sciences will provide the scientific foundations for greatly improved plasma confinement and heat exhaust; 3) Research in the prediction and control of transient events that can be deleterious to toroidal fusion plasma confinement will provide greater confidence in machine designs and operation with stable plasmas; 4) Continued stewardship of discovery in plasma science that is not expressly driven by the energy goal will address frontier science issues underpinning great mysteries of the visible universe and help attract and retain a new generation of plasma/fusion science leaders; 5) FES user facilities will be kept world-leading through robust operations support and regular upgrades. Finally, we will continue leveraging resources among agencies and institutions and strengthening our partnerships with international research facilities.

  12. Fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    This textbook covers the physics and technology upon which future fusion power reactors will be based. It reviews the history of fusion, reaction physics, plasma physics, heating, and confinement. Descriptions of commercial plants and design concepts are included. Topics covered include: fusion reactions and fuel resources; reaction rates; ignition, and confinement; basic plasma directory; Tokamak confinement physics; fusion technology; STARFIRE: A commercial Tokamak fusion power plant. MARS: A tandem-mirror fusion power plant; and other fusion reactor concepts

  13. Time perspective and attitude-behaviour consistency in future-oriented behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabinovich, A.; Morton, T.; Postmes, T.

    The authors propose that the salience of a distant-future time perspective, compared to a near-future time perspective, should increase attitude-behaviour and attitude-intention consistency for future-oriented behaviours. To test this prediction, time perspective was experimentally manipulated in

  14. Future studies and research in Egypt. Overview, examples, perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goell, Edgar

    2012-02-15

    During the last decade there have been several distinct activities and efforts with regards to future research in Egypt. Several institutions and capacities have been created. Although these capacities do not always meet high scientific standards, their results and studies offer important and well-grounded elements for future-oriented discussions and political decisions. Not least because of the Egypt revolt which started in January 2011 and the ongoing complex and conflicting societal struggles in Egypt the objective needs as well as the demand for systematic future thinking and future studies will very likely increase further. For that reason this report presents an overview about the context conditions, experiences and forms of future research in Egypt. The major challenges as well as the major issues are described. The main part is the description of the most important institutions, which are conducting future research, their projects and in addition two concrete projects, which try to practice Sustainable Development in different ways. Finally, several (self-)critical assessments and perspectives from selected experts of the future research community in Egypt will be presented.

  15. Telescope-based cavity for negative ion beam neutralization in future fusion reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Donatella; Hreibi, Ali; Chaibi, Walid

    2018-03-01

    In future fusion reactors, heating system efficiency is of the utmost importance. Photo-neutralization substantially increases the neutral beam injector (NBI) efficiency with respect to the foreseen system in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) based on a gaseous target. In this paper, we propose a telescope-based configuration to be used in the NBI photo-neutralizer cavity of the demonstration power plant (DEMO) project. This configuration greatly reduces the total length of the cavity, which likely solves overcrowding issues in a fusion reactor environment. Brought to a tabletop experiment, this cavity configuration is tested: a 4 mm beam width is obtained within a ≃1.5  m length cavity. The equivalent cavity g factor is measured to be 0.038(3), thus confirming the cavity stability.

  16. Status of fusion technology development in JAERI stressing steady-state operation for future reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Shinzaburo

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports on the progress of the fusion reactor technologies developed at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and expected to lead to a future steady state operation reactor. In particular, superconducting coil technology for plasma confinement, NBI and RF systems technology for plasma control and current drive, fueling and pumping systems technology for particle control, heat removal technology, and development of long life materials are highlighted as the important key elements for the future steady state operation. It will be discussed how these key technologies have already been developed by the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) technology R and D as well as by the Japanese domestic program, and which technologies are planned for the near future

  17. Activities of the O&M committee history & future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulis, D.S.

    1996-12-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Committee on Operation and Maintenance of Nuclear Power Plants, hereafter referred to as the O&M Committee, formed in June 1975 when the American National Standard Institute`s Committee on Reactor Plants and their Maintenance was disbanded. The O&M Committee`s history, structure, current focus and future perspectives will be presented. The purpose of this paper is to give information to industry and the public of the Committee`s on-going effort to make accurate and timely responses to the needs of the nuclear industry.

  18. From the Bevalac to RHIC: Recent results and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.W.

    1992-09-01

    There has been considerable theoretical progress and experimental development in the study of relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions towards understanding the equation of state of nuclear, hadronic and partonic matter. At high energies, research has concentrated on the search for the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) and possible chiral symmetry restoration. In these lectures I comment on similarities and trends observed in recent results over a wide range of incident energies and attempt to provide a common framework where possible. I also point out future perspectives in the search for the QGP at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), and in Particular focus on one experiment to be undertaken

  19. The perspectives of fusion energy: The roadmap towards energy production and fusion energy in a distributed energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naulin, Volker; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Korsholm, Søren Bang

    2014-01-01

    at very high temperature where all matter is in the plasma state as the involved energies are orders of magnitude higher than typical chemical binding energies. It is one of the great science and engineering challenges to construct a viable power plant based on fusion energy. Fusion research is a world...... The presentation will discuss the present status of the fusion energy research and review the EU Roadmap towards a fusion power plant. Further the cost of fusion energy is assessed as well as how it can be integrated in the distributed energy system......Controlled thermonuclear fusion has the potential of providing an environmentally friendly and inexhaustible energy source for mankind. Fusion energy, which powers our sun and the stars, is released when light elements, such as the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium, fuse together. This occurs...

  20. Future perspectives of resin-based dental materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandt, Klaus D; Sigusch, Bernd W

    2009-08-01

    This concise review and outlook paper gives a view of selected potential future developments in the area of resin-based biomaterials with an emphasis on dental composites. A selection of key publications (1 book, 35 scientific original publications and 1 website source) covering the areas nanotechnology, antimicrobial materials, stimuli responsive materials, self-repairing materials and materials for tissue engineering with direct or indirect relations and/or implications to resin-based dental materials is critically reviewed and discussed. Connections between these fields and their potential for resin-based dental materials are highlighted and put in perspective. The need to improve shrinkage properties and wear resistance is obvious for dental composites, and a vast number of attempts have been made to accomplish these aims. Future resin-based materials may be further improved in this respect if, for example nanotechnology is applied. Dental composites may, however, reach a completely new quality by utilizing new trends from materials science, such as introducing nanostructures, antimicrobial properties, stimuli responsive capabilities, the ability to promote tissue regeneration or repair of dental tissues if the composites were able to repair themselves. This paper shows selected potential future developments in the area of resin-based dental materials, gives basic and industrial researchers in dental materials science, and dental practitioners a glance into the potential future of these materials, and should stimulate discussion about needs and future developments in the area.

  1. Time counts: future time perspective, goals, and social relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Frieder R; Carstensen, Laura L

    2002-03-01

    On the basis of postulates derived from socioemotional selectivity theory, the authors explored the extent to which future time perspective (FTP) is related to social motivation, and to the composition and perceived quality of personal networks. Four hundred eighty German participants with ages ranging from 20 to 90 years took part in the study. In 2 card-sort tasks, participants indicated their partner preference and goal priority. Participants also completed questionnaires on personal networks and social satisfaction. Older people, as a group, perceived their future time as more limited than younger people. Individuals who perceived future time as being limited prioritized emotionally meaningful goals (e.g., generativity, emotion regulation), whereas individuals who perceived their futures as open-ended prioritized instrumental or knowledge-related goals. Priority of goal domains was found to be differently associated with the size, composition, and perceived quality of personal networks depending on FTP. Prioritizing emotion-regulatory goals was associated with greater social satisfaction and less perceived strain with others when participants perceived their future as limited. Findings underscore the importance of FTP in the self-regulation of social relationships and the subjective experience associated with them.

  2. New design of cable-in-conduit conductor for application in future fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jinggang; Wu, Yu; Li, Jiangang; Liu, Fang; Dai, Chao; Shi, Yi; Liu, Huajun; Mao, Zhehua; Nijhuis, Arend; Zhou, Chao; Yagotintsev, Konstantin A.; Lubkemann, Ruben; Anvar, V. A.; Devred, Arnaud

    2017-11-01

    The China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is a new tokamak device whose magnet system includes toroidal field, central solenoid (CS) and poloidal field coils. The main goal is to build a fusion engineering tokamak reactor with about 1 GW fusion power and self-sufficiency by blanket. In order to reach this high performance, the magnet field target is 15 T. However, the huge electromagnetic load caused by high field and current is a threat for conductor degradation under cycling. The conductor with a short-twist-pitch (STP) design has large stiffness, which enables a significant performance improvement in view of load and thermal cycling. But the conductor with STP design has a remarkable disadvantage: it can easily cause severe strand indentation during cabling. The indentation can reduce the strand performance, especially under high load cycling. In order to overcome this disadvantage, a new design is proposed. The main characteristic of this new design is an updated layout in the triplet. The triplet is made of two Nb3Sn strands and one soft copper strand. The twist pitch of the two Nb3Sn strands is large and cabled first. The copper strand is then wound around the two superconducting strands (CWS) with a shorter twist pitch. The following cable stages layout and twist pitches are similar to the ITER CS conductor with STP design. One short conductor sample with a similar scale to the ITER CS was manufactured and tested with the Twente Cable Press to investigate the mechanical properties, AC loss and internal inspection by destructive examination. The results are compared to the STP conductor (ITER CS and CFETR CSMC) tests. The results show that the new conductor design has similar stiffness, but much lower strand indentation than the STP design. The new design shows potential for application in future fusion reactors.

  3. Time perspective and attitude-behaviour consistency in future-oriented behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Anna; Morton, Thomas; Postmes, Tom

    2010-03-01

    The authors propose that the salience of a distant-future time perspective, compared to a near-future time perspective, should increase attitude-behaviour and attitude-intention consistency for future-oriented behaviours. To test this prediction, time perspective was experimentally manipulated in three studies. Across studies, participants in the distant-future time perspective condition demonstrated a strong positive relationship between attitudes towards future-oriented behaviours (saving and environmental protection) and corresponding intentions, as well as between attitudes and behaviour. In the near-future time perspective condition, the relationship between attitudes and intentions and attitudes and behaviour was significantly weaker than in the distant-future time perspective condition. The theoretical implications of these results and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  4. Utilization management in radiology, part 2: perspectives and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duszak, Richard; Berlin, Jonathan W

    2012-10-01

    Increased utilization of medical imaging in the early part of the last decade has resulted in numerous efforts to reduce associated spending. Recent initiatives have focused on managing utilization with radiology benefits managers and real-time order entry decision support systems. Although these approaches might seem mutually exclusive and their application to radiology appears unique, the historical convergence and broad acceptance of both programs within the pharmacy sector may offer parallels for their potential future in medical imaging. In this second installment of a two-part series, anticipated trends in radiology utilization management are reviewed. Perspectives on current and future potential roles of radiologists in such initiatives are discussed, particularly in light of emerging physician payment models. Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Limitation of fusion power plant installation on future power grids under the effect of renewable and nuclear power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Shutaro, E-mail: takeda.shutarou.55r@st.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Advanced Integrated Studies in Human Survivability, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Kyoto (Japan); Sakurai, Shigeki [Graduate School of Advanced Integrated Studies in Human Survivability, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Kyoto (Japan); Yamamoto, Yasushi [Faculty of Engineering Science, Kansai University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Kasada, Ryuta; Konishi, Satoshi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Future power grids would be unstable due to renewable and nuclear power sources. • Output interruptions of fusion plant would cause disturbances to future grids. • Simulation results suggested they would create limitations in fusion installation. • A novel diagram was presented to illustrate this suggested limitation. - Abstract: Future power grids would be unstable because of the larger share of renewable and nuclear power sources. This instability might bring some additional difficulties to fusion plant installation. Therefore, the authors carried out a quantitative feasibility study from the aspect of grid stability through simulation. Results showed that the more renewable and nuclear sources are linked to a grid, the greater disturbance the grid experiences upon a sudden output interruption of a fusion power plant, e.g. plasma disruption. The frequency deviations surpassed 0.2 Hz on some grids, suggesting potential limitations of fusion plant installation on future grids. To clearly show the suggested limitations of fusion plant installations, a novel diagram was presented.

  6. Identification of future engineering-development needs of alternative concepts for magnetic-fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    A qualitative identification of future engineering needs of alternative fusion concepts (AFCs) is presented. These needs are assessed relative to the similar needs of the tokamak in order to emphasize differences in required technology with respect to the well documented mainline approach. Although nearly thirty AFCs can be identified as being associated with some level of reactor projection, redirection, refocusing, and general similarities can be used to generate a reduced AFC list that includes only the bumpy tori, stellarators, reversed-field pinches, and compact toroids. Furthermore, each AFC has the potential of operating as a conventional (low power density, superconducting magnets) or a compact, high-power-density (HPD) system. Hence, in order to make tractable an otherwise difficult task, the future engineering needs for the AFCs are addressed here for conventional versus compact approaches, with the latter being treated as a generic class and the former being composed of bumpy tori, stellarators, reversed-field pinches, and compact toroids

  7. Needs and Requirements for Future Research Reactors (ORNL Perspectives)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilas, Germina; Bryan, Chris; Gehin, Jess C.

    2016-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) is a vital national and international resource for neutron science research, production of radioisotopes, and materials irradiation. While HFIR is expected to continue operation for the foreseeable future, interest is growing in understanding future research reactors features, needs, and requirements. To clarify, discuss, and compile these needs from the perspective of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) research and development (R&D) missions, a workshop, titled ''Needs and Requirements for Future Research Reactors'', was held at ORNL on May 12, 2015. The workshop engaged ORNL staff that is directly involved in research using HFIR to collect valuable input on the reactor's current and future missions. The workshop provided an interactive forum for a fruitful exchange of opinions, and included a mix of short presentations and open discussions. ORNL staff members made 15 technical presentations based on their experience and areas of expertise, and discussed those capabilities of the HFIR and future research reactors that are essential for their current and future R&D needs. The workshop was attended by approximately 60 participants from three ORNL directorates. The agenda is included in Appendix A. This document summarizes the feedback provided by workshop contributors and participants. It also includes information and insights addressing key points that originated from the dialogue started at the workshop. A general overview is provided on the design features and capabilities of high performance research reactors currently in use or under construction worldwide. Recent and ongoing design efforts in the US and internationally are briefly summarized, followed by conclusions and recommendations.

  8. Needs and Requirements for Future Research Reactors (ORNL Perspectives)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilas, Germina [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bryan, Chris [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gehin, Jess C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-10

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) is a vital national and international resource for neutron science research, production of radioisotopes, and materials irradiation. While HFIR is expected to continue operation for the foreseeable future, interest is growing in understanding future research reactors features, needs, and requirements. To clarify, discuss, and compile these needs from the perspective of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) research and development (R&D) missions, a workshop, titled “Needs and Requirements for Future Research Reactors”, was held at ORNL on May 12, 2015. The workshop engaged ORNL staff that is directly involved in research using HFIR to collect valuable input on the reactor’s current and future missions. The workshop provided an interactive forum for a fruitful exchange of opinions, and included a mix of short presentations and open discussions. ORNL staff members made 15 technical presentations based on their experience and areas of expertise, and discussed those capabilities of the HFIR and future research reactors that are essential for their current and future R&D needs. The workshop was attended by approximately 60 participants from three ORNL directorates. The agenda is included in Appendix A. This document summarizes the feedback provided by workshop contributors and participants. It also includes information and insights addressing key points that originated from the dialogue started at the workshop. A general overview is provided on the design features and capabilities of high performance research reactors currently in use or under construction worldwide. Recent and ongoing design efforts in the US and internationally are briefly summarized, followed by conclusions and recommendations.

  9. A perspective on the future public health practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Phil; Carlisle, Sandra; Hannah, Margaret; Lyon, Andrew; Reilly, David

    2012-09-01

    In the centuries following the Enlightenment, scientific and technological developments gave 'modern people' an unprecedented ability to understand, predict and control the natural world. This has brought health and social benefits unimaginable to our ancestors and sets us apart from all previous generations. Yet there is a wide-ranging body of evidence that suggests that modernity is now in decline, largely because its methods and mindset are increasingly recognized as unsustainable. Problems are manifest in the emergence of new public health epidemics such as obesity and addictive behaviours, the loss of well-being and increase in anxiety and depression in affluent society, and the persistence of ever-widening health and social inequalities at national and global levels. Still larger problems now confront us, such as climate change, peak oil and the loss of biodiversity, all of which are linked to the 'modern' way of life. We are potentially faced with the collapse of certain aspects of modern society: we are certainly faced with the prospect of inevitable change. While the broad public health community has an important role to play in developing workable solutions to such daunting problems, we argue that some profound changes will be needed in order for us to cope successfully. No blueprints for dealing with change exist, which means that we will need to learn our way into the future. In this paper we take a perspective on the role and nature of the future practitioner in public health and health promotion. We argue that future practitioners will need to develop new ways of thinking, being and doing; new perspectives and new forms of understanding the world. We believe our discipline - and people generally - to be capable of such development, as insights from multiple sources tell us that human nature is malleable, not fixed. We use this analysis to trace, as examples, the imagined lives of five women living in different eras over the course of history in a

  10. Choices for A Brighter Future: Perspectives on Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NREL

    1999-09-30

    The report discusses the perspectives on the evolving U.S. electricity future, the renewable electric technology portfolio, the regional outlook, and the opportunities to move forward. Renewables are at a critical juncture as the domestic electricity marketplace moves toward an era of increased choice and greater diversity. The cost and performance of these technologies have improved dramatically over the past decade, yet their market penetration has stalled as the power industry grapples with the implications of the emerging competitive marketplace. Renewable energy technologies already contribute to the global energy mix and are ready to make an even greater contribution in the future. However, the renewables industry faces critical market uncertainties, both domestically and internationally, as policy commitments to renewables at both the federal and state levels are being reshaped to match the emerging competitive marketplace. The energy decisions that we make, or fail to make, today will have long-lasting implications. We can act now to ensure that renewable energy will play a major role in meeting the challenges of the evolving energy future. We have the power to choose.

  11. Problematic Internet use, maladaptive future time perspective and school context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Aguado, María J; Martín-Babarro, Javier; Falcón, Laia

    2018-05-01

    Spain is among the European countries with the highest prevalence of adolescents at risk of Internet addiction, a problem that could be linked to youth unemployment and leaving education early. This research evaluated the role of three variables relative to school context on Problematic Internet Use (PIU) and on the relationship between PIU and Maladaptive Future Time Perspective (MFTP, defined as an excessive focus on the present and a fatalistic attitude towards the future, a variable that had not previously been studied in terms of its relationship to adolescents' PIU). The study was carried out with 1288 adolescents, aged 12 to 16 years old, enrolled at 31 secondary schools in Madrid, Spain. As expected, we found that MFTP and hostile treatment by teachers were associated with an increase in PIU, whereas school appreciation was associated with a decrease in PIU. In addition, hostile treatment by teachers had a moderate effect on the MFTP-PIU relationship. In order to prevent PIU it is important to foster confidence in adolescents in their own potential to build the future from the present through positive interaction with teachers, stimulating an appreciation of school within these digital natives' peer group culture.

  12. A future perspective on technological obsolescenceat NASA, Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcintyre, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    The present research effort was the first phase of a study to forecast whether technological obsolescence will be a problem for the engineers, scientists, and technicians at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). There were four goals of the research: to review the literature on technological obsolescence; to determine through interviews of division chiefs and branch heads Langley's perspective on future technological obsolescence; to begin making contacts with outside industries to find out how they view the possibility of technological obsolescence; and to make preliminary recommendations for dealing with the problem. A complete description of the findings of this research can be reviewed in a technical report in preparation. The following are a small subset of the key findings of the study: NASA's centers and divisions vary in their missions and because of this, in their capability to control obsolescence; research-oriented organizations within NASA are believed by respondents to keep up to date more than the project-oriented organizations; asked what are the signs of a professional's technological obsolescence, respondents had a variety of responses; top performing scientists were viewed as continuous learners, keeping up to date by a variety of means; when asked what incentives were available to aerospace technologists for keeping up to data, respondents specified a number of ideas; respondents identified many obstacles to professionals' keeping up to date in the future; and most respondents expressed some concern for the future of the professionals at NASA vis a vis the issue of professional obsolescence.

  13. The Sustainable Nuclear Future: Fission and Fusion E.M. Campbell Logos Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, E. Michael

    2010-02-01

    Global industrialization, the concern over rising CO2 levels in the atmosphere and other negative environmental effects due to the burning of hydrocarbon fuels and the need to insulate the cost of energy from fuel price volatility have led to a renewed interest in nuclear power. Many of the plants under construction are similar to the existing light water reactors but incorporate modern engineering and enhanced safety features. These reactors, while mature, safe and reliable sources of electrical power have limited efficiency in converting fission power to useful work, require significant amounts of water, and must deal with the issues of nuclear waste (spent fuel), safety, and weapons proliferation. If nuclear power is to sustain its present share of the world's growing energy needs let alone displace carbon based fuels, more than 1000 reactors will be needed by mid century. For this to occur new reactors that are more efficient, versatile in their energy markets, require minimal or no water, produce less waste and more robust waste forms, are inherently safe and minimize proliferation concerns will be necessary. Graphite moderated, ceramic coated fuel, and He cooled designs are reactors that can satisfy these requirements. Along with other generation IV fast reactors that can further reduce the amounts of spent fuel and extend fuel resources, such a nuclear expansion is possible. Furthermore, facilities either in early operations or under construction should demonstrate the next step in fusion energy development in which energy gain is produced. This demonstration will catalyze fusion energy development and lead to the ultimate development of the next generation of nuclear reactors. In this presentation the role of advanced fission reactors and future fusion reactors in the expansion of nuclear power will be discussed including synergies with the existing worldwide nuclear fleet. )

  14. Future perspectives of nutrigenomics foods: benefits vs. risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dilip

    2009-02-01

    Nutrigenomics, defined as the application of high-throughput genomics tools in nutrition research is now past its incubation phase. The poorly understood associations of diet and disease prevention in particular will likely be the single most important catalyst to its accelerated and continued growth. Whether the goal of matching foods to individual genotypes to improve the health of those individuals can be attained, and personalised nutrigenomic foods enter the world's food markets, depends on numerous hurdles being overcome: some scientific in nature, some' technical and others related to consumer, market or ethical issues. Public adoption of new technologies is an important determinant for their success. Many of the drivers behind the trend in personalisation of food are now known, particularly ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) are the major drivers. Future development in the field of nutrigenomics undoubtedly will place its seemingly huge potential in better perspective. From the scientific responsibility point of view, one hopes that the new perspectives to be gained and progress to be made in this field will be so managed as to take the public at large on board, if we are to avoid another nutrition education disaster of the genetically modified organism type and dimension.

  15. Micronutrient bioavailability: Dietary Reference Intakes and a future perspective1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a review of how the challenge of bioavailability was approached in establishing the Dietary Reference Intakes, with a special focus on folic acid, vitamin B-12, β-carotene, iron, selenium, and zinc, the targeted micronutrients for this workshop. In a future perspective, the necessity of having a clear working definition of bioavailability is emphasized. The bioavailability of micronutrients should be considered, with advantage, under subheadings determined by the broad factors that affect bioavailability. Special emphasis is given to giving greater and specific attention to factors involved in the maintenance of homeostasis. These factors, it is argued, are best considered separately from even a broad definition of bioavailability and have the potential to provide new insights into some micronutrient requirements. PMID:20200261

  16. Nuclear and radiochemistry in China. Present status and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, W.Q.; Zhao, Y.L.; Chai, Z.F.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear and radiochemistry is one of the frontier areas of chemistry with high impact on national security, energy supply, scientific advances, social and economic development. Nuclear and radiochemistry in China is now experiencing a renaissance, which is being strongly motivated by China's huge demand for nuclear energy. With this in review, the progress in nuclear and radiochemistry of China is selectively addressed. Some hot topics have been summarized and the main research results achieved by Chinese scientists in this field are highlighted, with emphasis on the basic nuclear chemistry, actinide and trans-actinide chemistry, chemistry of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, radioanalytical chemistry, environmental radiochemistry and radiopharmaceutical chemistry, etc. Some measures about how to promote the radiochemical education and research in China are suggested, and future perspectives are briefly outlined as well. (orig.)

  17. Clean Coal Technologies in China: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyan Chang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Coal is the dominant primary energy source in China and the major source of greenhouse gases and air pollutants. To facilitate the use of coal in an environmentally satisfactory and economically viable way, clean coal technologies (CCTs are necessary. This paper presents a review of recent research and development of four kinds of CCTs: coal power generation; coal conversion; pollution control; and carbon capture, utilization, and storage. It also outlines future perspectives on directions for technology research and development (R&D. This review shows that China has made remarkable progress in the R&D of CCTs, and that a number of CCTs have now entered into the commercialization stage.

  18. Food reward system: current perspectives and future research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Alonso, Miguel; Woods, Stephen C; Pelchat, Marcia; Grigson, Patricia Sue; Stice, Eric; Farooqi, Sadaf; Khoo, Chor San; Mattes, Richard D; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2015-05-01

    This article reviews current research and cross-disciplinary perspectives on the neuroscience of food reward in animals and humans, examines the scientific hypothesis of food addiction, discusses methodological and terminology challenges, and identifies knowledge gaps and future research needs. Topics addressed herein include the role of reward and hedonic aspects in the regulation of food intake, neuroanatomy and neurobiology of the reward system in animals and humans, responsivity of the brain reward system to palatable foods and drugs, translation of craving versus addiction, and cognitive control of food reward. The content is based on a workshop held in 2013 by the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute.

  19. Apoptosis imaging: current state of the art and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Feng; Wang Zizheng

    2007-01-01

    This review provides a critical and thorough overview of the radionpharmaceutical development and in vivo evaluation of all apoptosis-detecting radioligands that emerged so far, along with these possible applications in nuclear medicine. Radiolabelled annexin bears the promise of becoming a clinically applied radio-pharmaceutical with potential applications in cardiology and oncology. Visualization of cell death is important in pathologies such as myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Furthermore, radiolabelled annexin may be developed as a tool for monitoring cell death-induceing or cell death-preventing therapies. Some future perspective are presented with the aim of promoting the development of potential new strategies in pursuit of the idealcell death-detecting radioligand. (authors)

  20. Marine Transportation in Turkey and A Future Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet BALIK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Maritime transportation is one of the indicator and determining sectors of state economies. It’s shaped in parallel with the economic structure of the coastal countries in increasing or decreasing volumes. Especially with a significant advantage in international trade, sea transport is increasingly been competitive with other modes of transport. Considering the geographic location of Turkey, evaluating from criticial perspectives and developing meaningful proposals for effective solutions to such issues as strenghtening the alternative routes in seaborne trade and privitazing the ports that are to make further technological investments will enable to take effective and proactive measures concerning the future of this industry. In this study, the existing and likely expansions in the structure of shipping industry both in Turkey and in the world have been examined. In this examination, certain secondary data sets, such as the relevant literature and the recent statistical data, have been used.

  1. Unraveling the plant microbiome: looking back and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele eBerg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Most eukaryotes develop close interactions with microorganisms that are essential for their performance and survival. Thus, eukaryotes and prokaryotes in nature can be considered as meta-organisms or holobionts. Consequently, microorganisms that colonize different plant compartments contain the plant’s second genome. In this respect, many studies in the last decades have shown that plant-microbe interactions are not only crucial in understanding plant growth and health, but also for sustainable crop production in a changing world. This mini-review acting as editorial presents retrospectives and future perspectives for plant microbiome studies as well as information gaps in this emerging research field. In addition, the contribution of this research topic to the solution of various issues is discussed.

  2. The retroperitoneal interfascial planes: current overview and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kazuo; Nakao, Shota; Nakamuro, Makoto; Huang, Tai-Ping; Nakano, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    Recently, the concept of interfascial planes has become the prevalent theory among radiologists for understanding the retroperitoneal anatomy, having replaced the classic tricompartmental theory. However, it is a little known fact that the concept remains incomplete and includes embryological errors, which have been revised on the basis of our microscopic study. We believe that the concept not only provides a much clearer understanding of the retroperitoneal anatomy, but it also allows further development for diagnosis and treatment of retroperitoneal injuries and diseases, should it become an accomplished theory. We explain the history and outline of the concept of interfascial planes, correct common misunderstandings about the concept, explain the unconsciously applied therapeutic procedures based on the concept, and present future perspectives of the concept using our published and unpublished data. This knowledge could be essential to acute care physicians and surgeons sometime soon.

  3. Computer-assisted Orthopaedic Surgery: Current State and Future Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyan eZheng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduced about two decades ago, computer-assisted orthopaedic surgery (CAOS has emerged as a new and independent area, due to the importance of treatment of musculoskeletal diseases in orthopaedics and traumatology, increasing availability of different imaging modalities, and advances in analytics and navigation tools. The aim of this paper is to present the basic elements of CAOS devices and to review state-of-the-art examples of different imaging modalities used to create the virtual representations, of different position tracking devices for navigation systems, of different surgical robots, of different methods for registration and referencing, and of CAOS modules that have been realized for different surgical procedures. Future perspectives will also be outlined.

  4. Polycystic ovary syndrome: current status and future perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmess, Erin K.; Naz, Rajesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a widespread reproductive disorder that encompasses many associated health conditions and has an impact on various metabolic processes. PCOS is depicted by hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and anovulation. It increases the risk of insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. The etiology of the disease remains unclear, and the subjective phenotype makes a united diagnosis difficult among physicians. It seems to be a familial genetic syndrome caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. It can be linked with metabolic disorders in first-degree family members. PCOS is the cause of up to 30% of infertility in couples seeking treatment. Currently, there is no cure for PCOS. Despite the growing incidence of this syndrome, limited research has been done that encompasses the entirety of PCOS spectrum. In this review, the current status and possible future perspective will be discussed. PMID:24389146

  5. Future on the ITER program. On a branch of research on nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaike, Akira

    2000-01-01

    As a huge cost for research and development of nuclear fusion is required, some international cooperative research such as ITER program have been intended to promote, to which Japanese response is required. As the program can be understood on its meaning at a viewpoint of promotion of basic science, concept on a key of energy problem is not insufficient yet And, its effect on technical problems and environment cannot be neglected Here was shown some proposals necessity for discussion on how the program had to be promoted under consideration of these problems. When a large scale program consuming national budget will be carried out, it is natural that agreement of national peoples must be obtained. Regretfully, in Japan discussion on science program above all nuclear policy has scarcely been experienced at citizens' levels, and some bitter experiences, where the concerned have promoted it in one side under a concept without any change once decided, have been pressured without any response to scientific advancements and social changes. Therefore, future plan on the nuclear fusion must be carried out a number of thorough discussion at a wide range from various viewpoints such as its realizing feasibility, safety, economics, and so forth, to promote careful adaptabilities. And, the concerned under promotion of the program and the relatives in the academic community seem to have a responsibility to easily explain present condition and scope of the plan to not only scientists but also citizens to awake them to promote its discussion with them. (G.K.)

  6. Spatiotemporal Fusion of Multisource Remote Sensing Data: Literature Survey, Taxonomy, Principles, Applications, and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Satellite time series with high spatial resolution is critical for monitoring land surface dynamics in heterogeneous landscapes. Although remote sensing technologies have experienced rapid development in recent years, data acquired from a single satellite sensor are often unable to satisfy our demand. As a result, integrated use of data from different sensors has become increasingly popular in the past decade. Many spatiotemporal data fusion methods have been developed to produce synthesized images with both high spatial and temporal resolutions from two types of satellite images, frequent coarse-resolution images, and sparse fine-resolution images. These methods were designed based on different principles and strategies, and therefore show different strengths and limitations. This diversity brings difficulties for users to choose an appropriate method for their specific applications and data sets. To this end, this review paper investigates literature on current spatiotemporal data fusion methods, categorizes existing methods, discusses the principal laws underlying these methods, summarizes their potential applications, and proposes possible directions for future studies in this field.

  7. Need for research and development in fusion: Economical energy for a sustainable future with low environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.; Perkins, L.J.; Moir, R.W.; Ryutov, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    Fusion, advanced fission, and solar-electric plants are the only unlimited nonfossil options for a sustainable energy future for the world. Fusion poses the only indigenous fuel reserve that will last as long as the earth itself lasts. However, continued innovation and diversity in fusion R ampersand D will be required to meet its economic goal. The long-term nature of fusion research means that the required R ampersand D investment will not come from the private sector. However, once fusion is realized commercially, the dividend for humanity will be profound in terms of the welfare of the global community. We should also not underestimate the huge potential export opportunities that would then open up for industry. Federal energy R ampersand D at nearly 1% of U.S. energy costs is prudent and justified to allow pursuit of all three primary energy options for a sustainable energy future. Multiple parallel paths are essential to ensure success. The projected timescale for significant shortfalls in world energy supply to become apparent is nearly 30 to 40 yr depending on assumptions. The time to develop fusion from near-term R ampersand D through significant commercial market penetration is at least of the same order, so its development must not be delayed. 6 refs., 2 figs

  8. 'Maintain FENDL library for fusion applications'. FENDL-2 library for fusion applications - Status and future developments. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, R.; Trkov, A.

    2003-11-01

    The discussions and conclusions of the meeting to 'Maintain FENDL library for Fusion Applications' are summarized in this report. A presentation was made by each of the participants, followed by a review of FENDL-2: evaluations and recommendations, and discussions on the special purpose libraries and processed files, with relevant further action thereon being determined. (author)

  9. The Physics Perspectives at the Future Accelerator Facility FAIR

    CERN Document Server

    Stroth, J

    2004-01-01

    The physics perspective of the approved future international accelerator Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR) near Darmstadt, Germany will be outlined. The physics programme will comprise many body aspects of matter ranging from macroscopic system like highly correlated plasmas down to the properties of baryons and nuclear matter at high baryon densities. Through fragmentation of intense ion beams investigations with beams of short-lived radioactive nuclei far from stability will be possible. The addressed physics questions concern nuclear structure at the drip-lines, areas of astrophysics and nucleo-synthesis in supernovae and other stellar processes, as well as tests of fundamental symmetry. The structure of baryons and their limits of their existence is the interest of the two large experimental set-ups PANDA and CBM. Finally QED will be studied in extremely strong field effects and also the interaction of ions with matter. The future facility will feature a double-ring synchrotron SIS100/300 a...

  10. Veterinary education in Africa: current and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, G E; Kriek, N P J

    2009-03-01

    Veterinary education commenced in South Africa in 1920 at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute in South Africa in association with the Transvaal University College, now the University of Pretoria. Sir Arnold Theiler, Director of Veterinary Research and Education, was the first Dean. Today there are 46 veterinary training institutions in Africa of which 21 are in sub-Saharan Africa. Veterinary services are indispensable to the sustained health and wellbeing of animals and humans, and agricultural economies of countries worldwide. Veterinary education, postgraduate training, and research, and adequate numbers of veterinarians, are essential to satisfy the millennium development goals, the objectives of NEPAD and the African Union, and the agreements regulating international trade. The relevance of the veterinary profession internationally is currently subject to profound scrutiny. Its contributions are assessed against major environmental, demographic, political, disease, technological and economic needs. The scope of veterinary training in future will have to emphasise veterinary public health, food safety, emerging diseases, international trade, bioterrorism, and biomedical research, within the context of a one-health system focusing on the interface between wildlife, domesticated animals, humans, and their environment. Within the context of time available, it would mean reducing the time allocated to training in the field of companion animals. A brief history and scope of veterinary education; current international trends in veterinary education and provisioning; and some perspectives on future veterinary training and initiatives applicable to Africa are provided.

  11. Magnetic tomography - newer picture techniques and perspectives for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjesdal, Kjell-Inge; Smith, Hans-Joergen

    2000-01-01

    Background: From the very introduction of MRI into medicine, the modality has presented the user a long list of theoretical tissue contrast parameters. The development of MRI has been aimed at turning these theoretical possibilities into practical options. Material and method: We give an overview of the new MRI techniques and perspectives for the future based on literature search and our own experience. Results: Today, the modality offers state-of-the-art anatomical details as well as visualisation of several functional parameters such as perfusion, diffusion, blood oxygen saturation and tissue temperature. In the near future, MRI may provide absolute quantification of regional perfusion and rate of oxygen consumption in a clinical setting. New vascular and gastrointestinal contrast media will further increase the sensitivity and specificity of MRI. A continuous increase in imaging speed has made MRI capable of providing adequate ''fluoroscopic'' guidance during interventional procedures and real-time diagnostic imaging is only few years ahead. Interpretation: The spread of MRI installations will increase as a result of increasing demand for the best and least harmful diagnostic procedure. The main challenge to the MRI community will be to exploit the vast diagnostic possibilities

  12. Wind energy in China. Current scenario and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changliang, Xia; Zhanfeng, Song

    2009-01-01

    Wind power in China registered a record level of expansion recently, and has doubled its total capacity every year since 2004. Many experts believe that China will be central to the future of the global wind energy market. Consequently, the growth pattern of wind power in China may be crucial to the further development of the global wind market. This paper firstly presented an overview of wind energy potential in China and reviewed the national wind power development course in detail. Based on the installed wind capacity in China over the past 18 years and the technical potential of wind energy resources, the growth pattern was modeled in this study for the purpose of prospect analysis, in order to obtain projections concerning the development potential. The future perspectives of wind energy development in China are predicted and analyzed. This study provides a comprehensive overview of the current status of wind power in China and some insights into the prospects of China's wind power market, which is emerging as a new superpower in the global wind industry. (author)

  13. Mobile Device Security: Perspectives of Future Healthcare Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Barbara; Dolezel, Diane; McLeod, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare data breaches on mobile devices continue to increase, yet the healthcare industry has not adopted mobile device security standards. This increase is disturbing because individuals are often accessing patients' protected health information on personal mobile devices, which could lead to a data breach. This deficiency led the researchers to explore the perceptions of future healthcare workers regarding mobile device security. To determine healthcare students' perspectives on mobile device security, the investigators designed and distributed a survey based on the Technology Threat Avoidance Theory. Three hundred thirty-five students participated in the survey. The data were analyzed to determine participants' perceptions about security threats, effectiveness and costs of safeguards, self-efficacy, susceptibility, severity, and their motivation and actions to secure their mobile devices. Awareness of interventions to protect mobile devices was also examined. Results indicate that while future healthcare professionals perceive the severity of threats to their mobile data, they do not feel personally susceptible. Additionally, participants were knowledgeable about security safeguards, but their knowledge of costs and problems related to the adoption of these measures was mixed. These findings indicate that increasing security awareness of healthcare professionals should be a priority.

  14. Fusion power in the E.E.C. - some considerations concerning the future programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carruthers, R.

    1976-01-01

    The problems of fusion reactor technology, the assessment of potential reactor systems and an estimate of the overall investment of manpower likely to be needed to reach a practical fusion power reactor are presented. (U.K.)

  15. Fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancox, R.

    1981-01-01

    The principles of fusion power, and its advantages and disadvantages, are outlined. Present research programmes and future plans directed towards the development of a fusion power reactor, are summarized. (U.K.)

  16. The Role of Future Time Perspective in Psychological Contracts: A Study among Older Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, P. Matthijs; Jansen, Paul G. W.; van der Velde, Mandy E. G.; de Lange, Annet H.; Rousseau, Denise M.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of post-retirement workers (N = 176), this study investigated the role of future time perspective (FTP) in psychological contracts. The study aimed to test: (i) whether future time perspective is related to employer psychological contract fulfillment and (ii) whether it moderates relations between psychological contract fulfillment…

  17. The role of future time perspective in psychological contracts : A study among older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P. Matthijs; Jansen, Paul G. W.; van der Velde, Mandy E. G.; de Lange, Annet H.; Rousseau, Denise M.

    Using a sample of post-retirement workers (N = 176), this study investigated the role of future time perspective (FTP) in psychological contracts. The study aimed to test: (i) whether future time perspective is related to employer psychological contract fulfillment and (ii) whether it moderates

  18. Relations between Self Regulation, Future Time Perspective and the Delay of Gratification in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Suleyman

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted on 508 (331 female, 144 male) first grade university students in order to investigate the relations between self regulation, the future time perspectives, and the delay of gratification in the academic field. A future time perspective scale, an academic delay of gratification scale and a motivational strategies for…

  19. The role of future time perspective in psychological contracts: a study among older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P.M.; Jansen, P.G.W.; van der Velde, M.E.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/183262107; de Lange, A.H.; Rousseau, D.M.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of post-retirement workers (N = 176), this study investigated the role of future time perspective (FTP) in psychological contracts. The study aimed to test: (i) whether future time perspective is related to employer psychological contract fulfillment and (ii) whether it moderates

  20. The role of future time perspective in psychological contracts. A study among older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P.M.; Jansen, P.G.W.; van der Velde, E.G.; de Lange, A.H.; Rousseau, D.M.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of post-retirement workers (N=176), this study investigated the role of future time perspective (FTP) in psychological contracts. The study aimed to test: (i) whether future time perspective is related to employer psychological contract fulfillment and (ii) whether it moderates

  1. The role of future time perspective in psychological contracts: A study among older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P.M.; Jansen, P.G.W.; Velde, M.E.G. van der; Lange, A.H. de; Rousseau, D.M.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of post-retirement workers (N = 176), this study investigated the role of future time perspective (FTP) in psychological contracts. The study aimed to test: (i) whether future time perspective is related to employer psychological contract fulfillment and (ii) whether it moderates

  2. Development of laser-based techniques for in situ characterization of the first wall in ITER and future fusion devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philipps, V.; Malaquias, A.; Hakola, A.; Karhunen, J.; Maddaluno, G.; Almaviva, S.; Caneve, L.; Colao, F.; Fortuna, E.; Gasior, P.; Kubkowska, M.; Czarnecka, A.; Laan, M.; Lissovski, A.; Paris, P.; van der Meiden, H. J.; Petersson, P.; Rubel, M.; Huber, A.; Zlobinski, M.; Schweer, B.; Gierse, N.; Xiao, Q.; Sergienko, G.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis and understanding of wall erosion, material transport and fuel retention are among the most important tasks for ITER and future devices, since these questions determine largely the lifetime and availability of the fusion reactor. These data are also of extreme value to improve the

  3. Future potential country doctor: the perspectives of German GPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natanzon, Iris; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Ose, Dominik; Joos, Stefanie

    2010-01-01

    There is a shortage of general practitioners (GPs) in many countries, especially in rural areas. There are several reasons for this shortage. Over the last decade, fewer medical students in Germany have decided to work in patient care, even fewer in general practice and fewer still in general practice in rural areas. The aim of this study was to explore the 'pros and cons' of GPs' work in rural areas and to identify from GPs' perspective possible measures for counteracting future GP shortages. Within a qualitative approach, 16 semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs. Data analysis was carried out using qualitative content analysis. The results were categorized into three main inductively-derived categories: personal, professional and regional/structural level. A higher level of self-confidence and a higher 'feel-good' factor due to GPs originating from rural areas were positive aspects at the personal level. Regarding the professional level, a low level of competition and varied work made a GP's profession attractive in rural areas. Negative aspects were mostly apparent at the regional/structural level, such a low earnings and few leisure facilities. Measures to counter the lack of GPs in rural areas were explored on all three levels: on the personal level, more optimism and resulting satisfaction on the part of doctors in rural areas could be improved by enhancing the benefits of being a doctor in a rural area. Regarding the professional level, more group practices are required to make working as a GP in a rural area more attractive. At a regional/structural level, young physicians who originate from rural areas should be recruited to work in rural areas. Financial incentives are regarded as not sufficient to attract enough young physicians to open practices in rural areas. Future action will be required at the personal, professional and regional/structural levels. The origin of medical students (urban or rural) should be considered a relevant

  4. Dose monitoring in radiology departments. Status quo and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boos, J.; Bethge, O.T.; Antoch, G.; Kroepil, P.

    2016-01-01

    The number of computed tomography examinations has continuously increased over the last decades and accounts for a major part of the collective radiation dose from medical investigations. For purposes of quality assurance in modern radiology a systematic monitoring and analysis of dose related data from radiological examinations is mandatory. Various ways of collecting dose data are available today, for example the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine - Structured Report (DICOM-SR), optical character recognition and DICOM-modality performed procedure steps (MPPS). The DICOM-SR is part of the DICOM-standard and provides the DICOM-Radiation Dose Structured Report, which is an easily applicable and comprehensive solution to collect radiation dose parameters. This standard simplifies the process of data collection and enables comprehensive dose monitoring. Various commercial dose monitoring software devices with varying characteristics are available today. In this article, we discuss legal obligations, various ways to monitor dose data, current dose monitoring software solutions and future perspectives in regard to the EU Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM.

  5. Adults' future time perspective predicts engagement in physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Sarah T; Patrick, Julie Hicks

    2012-07-01

    Our aim was to examine how the relations among known predictors of physical activity, such as age, sex, and body mass index, interact with future time perspective (FTP) and perceived functional limitation to explain adults' engagement in physical activity. Self-report data from 226 adults (range 20-88 years) were collected to examine the hypothesis that a more expansive FTP is associated with engagement in physical activity. Results indicated a good fit of the data to the model χ(2) (4, N = 226) = 7.457, p = .14 and accounted for a moderate amount of variance in adults' physical activity (R(2) = 15.7). Specifically, results indicated that perceived functional limitation (β = -.140) and FTP (β = .162) were directly associated with physical activity. Age was indirectly associated with physical activity through its association with perceived functional limitation (β = -.264) and FTP (β = .541). Results indicate that FTP may play an important role in explaining engagement in health promoting behaviors across the life span. Researchers should consider additional constructs and perhaps adopt socioemotional selectivity theory when explaining adults' engagement in physical activity.

  6. Fractional flow reserve: lessons from PLATFORM and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontone, Gianluca; Carità, Patrizia; Verdecchia, Massimo; Buccheri, Dario; Andreini, Daniele; Guaricci, Andrea I; Rabbat, Mark; Pepi, Mauro

    2017-06-01

    In the treatment of stable coronary artery disease (CAD) the identification of patients who may gain the highest benefit from further invasive treatments is of pivotal importance for the healthcare system. In this setting, it has been established that an ischemia-guided revascularization strategy yields improved clinical outcomes in a cost-effective fashion compared with anatomy-guided revascularization alone. Invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) is considered the gold standard, especially in the intermediate-range atherosclerotic lesions, for assessing lesion specific ischemia at the time of invasive coronary angiography and has now become the standard of reference for studies assessing the diagnostic performance of the various non-invasive stress tests. Coronary computed tomography angiography (cCTA) is an increasingly utilized non-invasive test that enables direct anatomical visualization of CAD in the epicardial coronary arteries with excellent sensitivity and negative predictive value. However, cCTA alone has poor specificity with FFR. With advances in computational fluid dynamics, it is possible to derive FFR from cCTA datasets improving its positive predictive value and specificity. The aim of this review is to summarize the technical aspects of FFR-CT, clinical evidence and limitations behind the novel technology, with a special focus on the recent PLATFORM Trial analyzing the effectiveness, clinical outcomes and resource utilization of FFR-CT. Finally, the future perspective of FFR-CT will be presented.

  7. Relational Interventions for Child Maltreatment: Past, Present, & Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Sheree L.; Gravener-Davis, Julie A.; Guild, Danielle J.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that child maltreatment has significant deleterious effects for the individual as well as for society. We briefly review research regarding the impact of child maltreatment on the attachment relationship, highlighting the need for relational interventions for maltreated children and their families to effectively thwart negative developmental cascades that are so often observed in the context of child maltreatment. Next, historical and contemporaneous perspectives on relational interventions for individuals with histories of child maltreatment are discussed with attention to the empirical evidence for and the current evidence-based status of several relationally based interventions for child maltreatment. Differential sensitivity to the environment is then discussed as a theoretical framework with important implications for interventions for individuals who have been reared in maltreating environments. Current research on neurobiology and maltreatment is then reviewed, with an emphasis on the need for future investigations on genetic variants, epigenetics, and the efficacy of relational interventions for maltreated children. We conclude with a discussion of the tenets of developmental psychopathology, their implications for relational interventions for child maltreatment, and recommendations for advancing the development, provision, and evaluation of relational interventions for individuals with histories of child maltreatment. PMID:24342858

  8. Fusion Power: A Strategic Choice for the Future Energy Provision. Why is So Much Time Wasted for Decision Making?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'haeseleer, William D.

    2005-01-01

    From a general analysis of the world energy issue, it is argued that an affordable, clean and reliable energy supply will have to consist of a portfolio of primary energy sources, a large fraction of which will be converted to a secondary carrier in large baseload plants. Because of all future uncertainties, it would be irresponsible not to include thermonuclear fusion as one of the future possibilities for electricity generation.The author tries to understand why nuclear-fusion research is not considered of strategic importance by the major world powers. The fusion programs of the USA and Europe are taken as prime examples to illustrate the 'hesitation'. Europe is now advocating a socalled 'fast-track' approach, thereby seemingly abandoning the 'classic' time frame towards fusion that it has projected for many years. The US 'oscillatory' attitude towards ITER in relation to its domestic program is a second case study that is looked at.From the real history of the ITER design and the 'siting' issue, one can try to understand how important fusion is considered by these world powers. Not words are important, but deeds. Fast tracks are nice to talk about, but timely decisions need to be taken and sufficient money is to be provided. More fundamental understanding of fusion plasma physics is important, but in the end, real hardware devices must be constructed to move along the path of power plant implementation.The author tries to make a balance of where fusion power research is at this moment, and where, according to his views, it should be going

  9. Smart manufacturing systems for Industry 4.0: Conceptual framework, scenarios, and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Pai; wang, Honghui; Sang, Zhiqian; Zhong, Ray Y.; Liu, Yongkui; Liu, Chao; Mubarok, Khamdi; Yu, Shiqiang; Xu, Xun

    2018-06-01

    Information and communication technology is undergoing rapid development, and many disruptive technologies, such as cloud computing, Internet of Things, big data, and artificial intelligence, have emerged. These technologies are permeating the manufacturing industry and enable the fusion of physical and virtual worlds through cyber-physical systems (CPS), which mark the advent of the fourth stage of industrial production (i.e., Industry 4.0). The widespread application of CPS in manufacturing environments renders manufacturing systems increasingly smart. To advance research on the implementation of Industry 4.0, this study examines smart manufacturing systems for Industry 4.0. First, a conceptual framework of smart manufacturing systems for Industry 4.0 is presented. Second, demonstrative scenarios that pertain to smart design, smart machining, smart control, smart monitoring, and smart scheduling, are presented. Key technologies and their possible applications to Industry 4.0 smart manufacturing systems are reviewed based on these demonstrative scenarios. Finally, challenges and future perspectives are identified and discussed.

  10. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finken, D.

    1984-04-01

    KfK participates to the Fusion Technology Programme of the European Community. Most of the work in progress addresses the Next European Torus (NET) and the long term technology aspects as defined in the 82/86 programme. A minor part serves to preparation of future contributions and to design studies on fusion concepts in a wider perspective. The Fusion Technology Programme of Euratom covers mainly aspects of nuclear engineering. Plasma engineering, heating, refueling and vacuum technology are at present part of the Physics Programme. In view of NET, integration of the different areas of work will be mandatory. KfK is therefore prepared to address technical aspects beyond the actual scope of the physics experiments. The technology tasks are reported project wise under title and code of the Euratom programme. Most of the projects described here are shared with other European fusion laboratories as indicated in the table annexed to this report. (orig./GG)

  11. The German DEMO working group. Perspectives of a fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesch, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Fusion development has many different challenges in the areas of plasma physics, fusion technologies, materials development and plasma wall interaction. For making fusion power a reality, a coherent approach is necessary, interlinking the different areas of work. To this end, the German fusion program started in 2010 the German DEMO Working Group, bringing together high-level experts from all the different fields, from the 3 German fusion centers Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (IPP), Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT) and Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ). An encompassing view of what will be needed with high priority, in plasma physics, in fusion technology and in the interrelation of the fields, to make fusion energy real, has been elaborated, and is presented here in a condensed way. On this basis, the 3 German fusion centers now are composing their work program, towards a fusion demonstration reactor DEMO. (orig.)

  12. Time perspective and volunteerism: The importance of focusing on the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Alexander; Dwyer, Patrick C; Snyder, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Because volunteerism is a planned activity that unfolds over time, people who more frequently focus on the future might also be more likely to initiate volunteerism and sustain it over time. Using longitudinal (Study 1) and experimental (Study 2) paradigms, we investigated whether time perspective, and in particular a person's orientation toward the future, is related to volunteers' beliefs and behavior. In Study 1, a person's dispositional level of future time perspective was closely linked to volunteer beliefs and behavior. In Study 2, people who wrote about the future reported higher intentions to volunteer, and this was particularly true for infrequent volunteers and those with lower levels of dispositional future time perspective. Across two studies, we found evidence that future time perspective, whether a chronic disposition or a pattern of thought elicited by someone else, is linked to volunteer beliefs and behavior.

  13. Attributions, future time perspective and career maturity in nursing undergraduates: correlational study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cheng; Yang, Liu; Chen, Yuxia; Zou, Huijing; Su, Yonggang; Fan, Xiuzhen

    2016-01-25

    Career maturity is an important parameter as nursing undergraduates prepare for their future careers. However, little is known regarding the relationships between attributions, future time perspective and career maturity among nursing undergraduates. The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of career maturity and its relationship with attributions and future time perspective. A cross-sectional survey was designed. This survey was administered to 431 Chinese nursing undergraduates. Independent-sample t-tests and one-way ANOVA were performed to examine the mean differences between categories of binary and categorical demographic characteristics, respectively. Pearson correlations and multiple linear regressions were used to test the relationships between attributions, future time perspective and career maturity. The degree of career maturity was moderate among nursing undergraduates and that internal attributions of academic achievement, future efficacy and future purpose consciousness were positively associated with career maturity (all p time perspective and to facilitate their transition from school to clinical practice.

  14. Past performance and future perspectives of burnout research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. B. Schaufeli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available After a brief introduction on the history of burnout, this article reviews the past performance of burnout research by answering ten key-questions: (1 How can burnout be assessed?; (2 Is burnout limited to the human services?; (3 Is burnout a mental disorder; (4 What is the prevalence of burnout?; (5 Is burnout a global phenomenon?; (6 Is burnout relevant for organisations; (7 What are the causes of burnout?; (8 What are the consequences of burnout?; (9 How can burnout be explained?; (10 Are burnout interventions effective? In the concluding section a future research agenda is drafted on the bases of the answers given to the previous questions. This agenda includes such issues as the measurement and conceptualisation of burnout, mild and severe forms of burnout, epidemiological and cross-cultural perspectives, organisational outcomes, longitudinal investigations, theoretical explanations, and interventions. Opsomming Na ’n kort inleiding oor die geskiedenis van uitbranding gee hierdie artikel ’n oorsig van vorige prestasie van navorsing ten opsigte van uitbranding deur tien sleutelvrae te beantwoord: (1 Hoe kan uitbranding bepaal word?; (2 Is uitbranding beperk tot die mens-dienste?; (3 Is uitbranding ’n geestesafwyking?; (4 Wat is die voorkoms van uitbranding?; (5 Is uitbranding ’n wêreldwye verskynsel?; (6 Is uitbranding relevant vir organisasies?; (7 Wat is die oorsake van uitbranding?; (8 Wat is die gevolge van uitbranding?; (9 Hoe kan uitbranding verklaar word?; (10 Is uitbrandingsingrepe effektief? In die gevolgtrekking word ’n toekomstige navorsingsagenda op grond van die antwoorde op die voorafgaande vrae opgestel. Hierdie agenda sluit aangeleenthede soos die meting en konseptualisering van uitbranding, matige en ernstige vorme van uitbranding, epidemiologiese en kruiskulturele perspektiewe, organisasie- uitkomste, longitudinale ondersoeke, teoretiese verklarings en intervensies in.

  15. Particle and energy transport studies on TFTR and implications for helium ash in future fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synakowski, E.J.; Efthimion, P.C.; Rewoldt, G.; Stratton, B.C.; Tang, W.M.; Bell, R.E.; Grek, B.; Hulse, R.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Hill, K.W.; Mansfield, D.K.; McCune, D.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Scott, S.D.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Zarnstorff, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    Particle and energy transport in tokamak plasmas have long been subjects of vigorous investigation. Present-day measurement techniques permit radially resolved studies of the transport of electron perturbations, low- and high-Z impurities, and energy. In addition, developments in transport theory provide tools that can be brought to bear on transport issues. Here, we examine local particle transport measurements of electrons, fully-stripped thermal helium, and helium-like iron in balanced-injection L-mode and enhanced confinement deuterium plasmas on TFTR of the same plasma current, toroidal field, and auxiliary heating power. He 2+ and Fe 24+ transport has been studied with charge exchange recombination spectroscopy, while electron transport has been studied by analyzing the perturbed electron flux following the same helium puff used for the He 2+ studies. By examining the electron and He 2+ responses following the same gas puff in the same plasmas, an unambiguous comparison of the transport of the two species has been made. The local energy transport has been examined with power balance analysis, allowing for comparisons to the local thermal fluxes. Some particle and energy transport results from the Supershot have been compared to a transport model based on a quasilinear picture of electrostatic toroidal drift-type microinstabilities. Finally, implications for future fusion reactors of the observed correlation between thermal transport and helium particle transport is discussed

  16. Development and evaluation of plasma facing materials for future thermonuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G.; Roedig, M.; Schmidt, A.; Thomser, C.

    2010-01-01

    More and more attention is directed towards thermonuclear fusion as a possible future energy source. Major advantages of this energy conversion technology are the almost inexhaustible resources and the option to produce energy without CO 2 -emissions. However, in the most advanced field of magnetic plasma confinement a number of technological challenges have to be met. In particular high-temperature resistant and plasma compatible meterials have to be developed and qualified which are able to withstand the extreme environments in a commercial thermonuclear power reactor. The plasma facing materials (PEMs) and components (PFCs) in such fusion devices, i.e. the first wall (FW), the limiters and the divertor, are strongly affected by the plasma wall interaction processes and the applied intense thermal loads during plasma operation. On the one hand, these mechanisms have a strong influence on the plasma performance; on the other hand, they have major impact on the lifetime of the plasma facing armour. Materials for plasma facing components have to fulfill a number of requirements. First of all the materials have to be plasma compatible, i.e. they should exhibit a low atomic number to avoid radiative losses whenever atoms from the wall material will be ionized in the plasma. In addition, the materials must have a high melting point, a high thermal conductivity, and adequate mechanical properties. To select the most suitable material candidates, a comprehensive data base is required which includes all thermo-physical and mechanical properties. In present-day and next step devices the resulting thermal steady state heat loads to the first wall remain below 1 MWm -2 , meanwhile the limiters and the divertor are expected to be exposed to power densities being at least one order of magnitude above the FW-level, i.e. up to 20 MWm -2 for next step tokamaks such as ITER or DEMO. These requirements are responsible for high demands on the selection of qualified PFMs and heat

  17. Development and evaluation of plasma facing materials for future thermonuclear fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G.; Roedig, M.; Schmidt, A.; Thomser, C. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, Juelich (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    More and more attention is directed towards thermonuclear fusion as a possible future energy source. Major advantages of this energy conversion technology are the almost inexhaustible resources and the option to produce energy without CO{sub 2}-emissions. However, in the most advanced field of magnetic plasma confinement a number of technological challenges have to be met. In particular high-temperature resistant and plasma compatible meterials have to be developed and qualified which are able to withstand the extreme environments in a commercial thermonuclear power reactor. The plasma facing materials (PEMs) and components (PFCs) in such fusion devices, i.e. the first wall (FW), the limiters and the divertor, are strongly affected by the plasma wall interaction processes and the applied intense thermal loads during plasma operation. On the one hand, these mechanisms have a strong influence on the plasma performance; on the other hand, they have major impact on the lifetime of the plasma facing armour. Materials for plasma facing components have to fulfill a number of requirements. First of all the materials have to be plasma compatible, i.e. they should exhibit a low atomic number to avoid radiative losses whenever atoms from the wall material will be ionized in the plasma. In addition, the materials must have a high melting point, a high thermal conductivity, and adequate mechanical properties. To select the most suitable material candidates, a comprehensive data base is required which includes all thermo-physical and mechanical properties. In present-day and next step devices the resulting thermal steady state heat loads to the first wall remain below 1 MWm{sup -2}, meanwhile the limiters and the divertor are expected to be exposed to power densities being at least one order of magnitude above the FW-level, i.e. up to 20 MWm{sup -2} for next step tokamaks such as ITER or DEMO. These requirements are responsible for high demands on the selection of qualified PFMs

  18. Muon nuclear fusion and low temperature nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamine, Kanetada

    1990-01-01

    Low temperature (or normal temperature) nuclear fusion is one of the phenomena causing nuclear fusion without requiring high temperature. In thermal nuclear fusion, the Coulomb barrier is overcome with the help of thermal energy, but in the low temperature nuclear fusion, the Coulomb barrier is neutralized by the introduction of the particles having larger mass than electrons and negative charges, at this time, if two nuclei can approach to the distance of 10 -13 cm in the neutral state, the occurrence of nuclear fusion reaction is expected. As the mass of the particles is heavier, the neutral region is smaller, and nuclear fusion is easy to occur. The particles to meet this purpose are the electrons within substances and muons. The research on muon nuclear fusion became suddenly active in the latter half of 1970s, the cause of which was the discovery of the fact that the formation of muons occurs resonantly rapidly in D-T and D-D systems. Muons are the unstable elementary particles having the life of 2.2 μs, and they can have positive and negative charges. In the muon catalyzed fusion, the muons with negative charge take part. The principle of the muon catalyzed fusion, its present status and future perspective, and the present status of low temperature nuclear fusion are reported. (K.I.)

  19. Relations between chronic regulatory focus and future time perspective: Results of a cross-lagged structural equation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, H.; Lange, A.H. de

    2011-01-01

    Future time perspective - the way individuals perceive their remaining time in life - importantly influences socio-emotional goals and motivational outcomes. Recently, researchers have called for studies that investigate relationships between personality and future time perspective. Using a

  20. Relations between chronic regulatory focus and future time perspective : Results of a cross-lagged structural equation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; de Lange, Annet H.

    Future time perspective - the way individuals perceive their remaining time in life - importantly influences socio-emotional goals and motivational outcomes. Recently, researchers have called for studies that investigate relationships between personality and future time perspective. Using a

  1. Adolescents’ and Parents’ Regulatory Focus as Determinants of Future Time Perspective on School and Professional Career

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andre, L.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; Peetsma, T.T.D.

    2017-01-01

    Future time perspective (FTP) - individuals' orientation towards future goals and consideration of future consequences - is a successful motivator in education and work. This study is the first that integrates Regulatory focus (RF) theory with FTP theory to explore relationships between adolescents'

  2. Cell Fusion in the War on Cancer: A Perspective on the Inception of Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey L. Platt

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cell fusion occurs in development and in physiology and rarely in those settings is it associated with malignancy. However, deliberate fusion of cells and possibly untoward fusion of cells not suitably poised can eventuate in aneuploidy, DNA damage and malignant transformation. How often cell fusion may initiate malignancy is unknown. However, cell fusion could explain the high frequency of cancers in tissues with low underlying rates of cell proliferation and mutation. On the other hand, cell fusion might also engage innate and adaptive immune surveillance, thus helping to eliminate or retard malignancies. Here we consider whether and how cell fusion might weigh on the overall burden of cancer in modern societies.

  3. Implications of the second law for future directions in controlled fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, J.R.; Miley, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    Many existing energy related technologies have developed under the influence of social, economic, or state of the art constraints, and they cannot be viewed as optimum systems according to the second law of thermodynamics. Controlled fusion research presents an opportunity to optimize a nascent technology with respect to second law considerations in order to develop a practical energy source. In its present state of development, fusion research offers several independent approaches that may result in a net power producing fusion reactor. This paper discusses how second law considerations might be used to narrow the range of choices that must be made among various fusion fuel cycles. From a second law point of view, the most desirable fusion reactors are those for which the energy of charged particles can be converted directly into d.c. electrical power, while still allowing the energy that could be recovered by an efficient high-temperature 'blanket' to be transported largely by radiation. Fusion research in all major industrialized countries is developing the deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel cycle for first-generation fusion power plants. It will be shown that other fuel cycles have significant advantages over the D-T fuel cycle according to second law principles. (author)

  4. Woodland caribou management in Alberta: historical perspectives and future opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elston H. Dzus

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou conservation has been the topic of much debate for the past few decades. By the late 1970s there was growing concern about declining woodland caribou populations and the interaction between industrial activities and woodland caribou. Initial concerns led to the closure of the licensed hunting season in 1981. Early confrontation between government and industry in the late 1980s transformed into a series of evolving collaborative ventures. Improving our understanding of the basic ecology of woodland caribou in Alberta was at the center of early research efforts; more recent studies have examined the effects of industrial activities on caribou and effectiveness of various mitigation factors. Despite having amassed an impressive body of information from a research and monitoring perspective, progress on implementing effective management actions has been less dramatic. Industry has endured significant costs implementing a variety of perceived conservation initiatives, but caribou populations continued to decline through the last few decades. While some parties feel more research is needed, there is growing consensus that changes to habitat as induced by human activities are important factors influencing current caribou declines. Predation is a proximate cause of most caribou mortality. Climate change mediated alterations to habitat and predator-prey interactions remain a key source of uncertainty relative to future caribou population trends. Management actions will need to deal with long term habitat changes associated with human land use and short term implications of increased predation. In 2005, the provincial minister responsible for caribou conservation responded to the draft 2004 recovery plan and created the Alberta Caribou Committee (ACC. The goal of the ACC is to maintain and recover woodland caribou in Alberta’s forest ecosystems while providing opportunities for resource development, following guidance provided by the

  5. Optimization design study of an innovative divertor concept for future experimental tokamak-type fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willem Janssens, Ir.; Crutzen, Y.; Farfaletti-Casali, F.; Matera, R.

    1991-01-01

    The design optimization study of an innovative divertor concept for future experimental tokamak-type fusion devices is both an answer to the actual problems encountered in the multilayer divertor proposals and an illustration of a rational modelling philosophy and optimization strategy for the development of a new divertor structure. Instead of using mechanical attachment or metallurgical bonding of the protective material to the heat sink as in most actual divertor concepts, the so-called brush divertor in this study uses an array of unidirectional fibers penetrating in both the protective armor and the underling composite heat sink. Although the approach is fully concentrated on the divertor performance, including both a description of its function from the theoretical point of view and an overview of the problems related to the materials choice and evaluation, both the approach followed in the numerical modelling and the judgment of the results are thought to be valid also for other applications. Therefore the spin-off of the study must be situated in both the technological progress towards a feasible divertor solution, which introduces no additional physical uncertainties, and in the general area of the thermo-mechanical finite-element modelling on both macro-and microscale. The brush divertor itself embodies the use, and thus the modelling, of advanced materials such as tailor-made metal matrix composites and dispersion strengthened metals, and is shown to offer large potential advantages, demanding however and experimental validation under working conditions. It is clearly indicated where the need originates for an integrated experimental program which must allow to verify the basic modelling assumptions in order to arrive at the use of numerical computation as a powerful and realistic tool of structural testing and life-time prediction

  6. The Role of Age and Occupational Future Time Perspective in Workers' Motivation to Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochoian, Nané; Raemdonck, Isabel; Frenay, Mariane; Zacher, Hannes

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to better understand the relationship between employees' chronological age and their motivation to learn, by adopting a lifespan perspective. Based on socioemotional selectivity theory, we suggest that occupational future time perspective mediates the relationship between age and motivation to learn. In accordance with…

  7. Panel discussion: Future directions in magnetic fusion--comments of John Sheffield, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, J.

    1992-01-01

    I will discuss two important issues for the US magnetic fusion program: the role of alternate magnetic configurations to the tokamak, and factors which need to be considered in planning the evolution of the US program

  8. Physics Perspectives for a Future Circular Collider: FCC-hh - Accelerator & Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The lectures will briefly discuss the parameters of a Future Circular Collider, before addressing in detail the physics perspectives and the challenges for the experiments and detector systems. The main focus will be on ee and pp collisions, but opportunities for e—p physics will also be covered. The FCC physics perspectives will be presented with reference to the ongoing LHC programme, including the physics potential from future upgrades to the LHC in luminosity and possibly energy.

  9. Characterization of a novel caudal vertebral interbody fusion in a rat tail model: An implication for future material and mechanical testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Cheng Yeh

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: The rat caudal disc interbody fusion model proved to be an efficient, repeatable and easily accessible model. Future research into adjuvant treatments like growth factor injection and alternative fusion materials under conditions of osteoporosis using this model would be worthwhile.

  10. Magnetic fusion program in the United States: an overview and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    Continuing technical progress in magnetic fusion energy research and a coherent national program involving national laboratories, industry and universities has won strong support from the new Department of Energy. This review presents recent technical progress and examines fusion in relation to other long term energy supply options. Fusion is seen as a technology which, because of its apparently minimal environmental impacts and promise of reasonable cost, has a good chance of competing successfully with the other inexhaustible energy sources

  11. The future perspectives in transrectal prostate ultrasound guided biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Il Hwang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is one of the most common neoplasms in men. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS-guided systematic biopsy has a crucial role in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, it shows limited value with gray-scale ultrasound alone because only a small number of malignancies are visible on TRUS. Recently, new emerging technologies in TRUS-guided prostate biopsy were introduced and showed high potential in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. High echogenicity of ultrasound contrast agent reflect the increased status of angiogenesis in tumor. Molecular imaging for targeting specific biomarker can be also used using ultrasound contrast agent for detecting angiogenesis or surface biomarker of prostate cancer. The combination of TRUS-guided prostate biopsy and ultrasound contrast agents can increase the accuracy of prostate cancer diagnosis. Elastography is an emerging ultrasound technique that can provide the information regarding tissue elasticity and stiffness. Tumors are usually stiffer than the surrounding soft tissue. In two types of elastography techniques, shearwave elastography has many potential in that it can provide quantitative information on tissue elasticity. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI from high resolution morphologic and functional magnetic resonance (MR technique enables to detect more prostate cancers. The combination of functional techniques including apparent diffusion coefficient map from diffusion weighted imaging, dynamic contrast enhanced MR and MR spectroscopy are helpful in the localization of the prostate cancer. MR-ultrasound (US fusion image can enhance the advantages of both two modalities. With MR-US fusion image, targeted biopsy of suspicious areas on MRI is possible and fusion image guided biopsy can provide improved detection rate. In conclusion, with recent advances in multiparametric-MRI, and introduction of new US techniques such as contrast-enhanced US and elastography, TRUS-guided biopsy

  12. Futures Business Models for an IoT Enabled Healthcare Sector: A Causal Layered Analysis Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Julius Francis Gomes; Sara Moqaddemerad

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate futures business research by proposing a novel way to combine business models as a conceptual tool with futures research techniques. Design: A futures perspective is adopted to foresight business models of the Internet of Things (IoT) enabled healthcare sector by using business models as a futures business research tool. In doing so, business models is coupled with one of the most prominent foresight methodologies, Causal Layered Analysis (CLA). Qualitative analysis...

  13. Perspectives on the development of fusion power by magnetic confinement, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Committee concludes: that recent progress of the magnetic fusion energy program provides a tangible basis for the belief that the development of fusion power will prove feasible; that the primary near-term objective of the program should now be to demonstrate actual reactor-level conditions; and that the potential long-term benefits of fusion power are sufficiently great to warrant a sustained national effort to advance the fusion power option to the stage of commercial availability at an early time

  14. A Future with Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems: A NASA Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelRosario, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    The presentation highlights a NASA perspective on Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems for aeronautical applications. Discussed are results from NASA Advance Concepts Study for Aircraft Entering service in 2030 and beyond and the potential use of hybrid electric propulsion systems as a potential solution to the requirements for energy efficiency and environmental compatibility. Current progress and notional potential NASA research plans are presented.

  15. Second Language Interaction: Current Perspectives and Future Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline

    2003-01-01

    Considers how the nature of interaction may best be represented in the second language (L2) construct. The starting point is Bachman's model of communicative language ability, which, it is argued, incorporates interaction from an individual-focused cognitive perspective. (Author/VWL)

  16. Criteria for the assessment of fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, Colin.

    1989-01-01

    Fusion power requires an exceptionally long development time and its future depends on the changing perspectives society uses to evaluate resources in the long term. For 40 years fusion technology developed within a decision making context dominated by technical-political interests, and characterized by a bias towards overoptimism about the future. That is now changing. This article contends that we are still a long way from making rational assessments of large technological projects. However, feasibility for fusion will have to be tested by social criteria at least as important as those used for scientific feasibility. (author)

  17. Computer simulation of charged fusion-product trajectories and detection efficiency expected for future experiments within the COMPASS tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatkowski, Roch; Malinowski, Karol; Sadowski, Marek J

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results of computer simulations of charged particle motions and detection efficiencies for an ion-pinhole camera of a new diagnostic system to be used in future COMPASS tokamak experiments. A probe equipped with a nuclear track detector can deliver information about charged products of fusion reactions. The calculations were performed with a so-called Gourdon code, based on a single-particle model and toroidal symmetry. There were computed trajectories of fast ions (> 500 keV) in medium-dense plasma (n e  < 10 14  cm −3 ) and an expected detection efficiency (a ratio of the number of detected particles to that of particles emitted from plasma). The simulations showed that charged fusion products can reach the new diagnostic probe, and the expected detection efficiency can reach 2 × 10 −8 . Based on such calculations, one can determine the optimal position and orientation of the probe. The obtained results are of importance for the interpretation of fusion-product images to be recorded in future COMPASS experiments. (paper)

  18. Power from Perspective: Potential future United States energy portfolios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonn, Bruce; Healy, K.C.; Gibson, Amy; Ashish, Ashutosh; Cody, Preston; Beres, Drew; Lulla, Sam; Mazur, Jim; Ritter, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents United States energy portfolios for the year 2030, developed from seven different Perspectives. The Perspectives are characterized by different weights placed on fourteen defining values (e.g., cost, social acceptance). The portfolios were constructed to achieve three primary goals, energy independence, energy security, and greenhouse gas reductions. The portfolios are also evaluated over a comprehensive set of secondary criteria (e.g., economic growth, technical feasibility). It is found that very different portfolios based on very different defining values can achieve the three primary goals. Commonalities among the portfolios include reliance upon cellulosic ethanol, nuclear power, and energy efficiency to meet year 2030 energy demands. It is concluded that the US energy portfolio must be diverse and to achieve national energy goals will require an explicit statement of goals, a strong role for government, and coordinated action across society

  19. Nanomedicine: Past, present and future - A global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Esther H; Harford, Joe B; Eaton, Michael A W; Boisseau, Patrick M; Dube, Admire; Hayeshi, Rose; Swai, Hulda; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-12-18

    Nanomedicine is an emerging and rapidly evolving field and includes the use of nanoparticles for diagnosis and therapy of a variety of diseases, as well as in regenerative medicine. In this mini-review, leaders in the field from around the globe provide a personal perspective on the development of nanomedicine. The focus lies on the translation from research to development and the innovation supply chain, as well as the current status of nanomedicine in industry. The role of academic professional societies and the importance of government funding are discussed. Nanomedicine to combat infectious diseases of poverty is highlighted along with other pertinent examples of recent breakthroughs in nanomedicine. Taken together, this review provides a unique and global perspective on the emerging field of nanomedicine. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Urban Planning for a Renewable Energy Future: Methodological Challenges and Opportunities from a Design Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandevijvere, H.; Stremke, S.

    2012-01-01

    Urban planning for a renewable energy future requires the collaboration of different disciplines both in research and practice. In the present article, the planning of a renewable energy future is approached from a designer’s perspective. A framework for analysis of the planning questions at hand is

  1. Future Time Perspective, Hope, and Ethnic Identity among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelabu, Detris Honora

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship of academic achievement to future time perspective (FTP), hope, and ethnic identity among low-income, rural and urban African American adolescents ( N = 661). Findings indicate that adolescents who are oriented toward the future, determined to reach their goals (hope), and interested in and have a strong sense…

  2. The Role of Future Time Perspective in Career Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Terrance L.; Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2012-01-01

    The present study of two hundred and seven university students examined the structural relation of future-orientation (both valence and instrumentality), career decision-making self-efficacy and career indecision (choice/commitment anxiety and lack of readiness) in a sample of 218 college students. Future time perspective was viewed as a key input…

  3. Negotiations between health and social goals over the lifespan: The role of future time perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kin-Kit

    2017-02-01

    The interplay between health and social goals in relation to age and future time perspective was examined among 131 older and 131 younger adults via surveys and future time manipulations (limited, unchanged, and expansive). Being older was associated with weaker physical activity intentions and social activity intentions as mediated by a limited future time perspective. Physical activity intentions decreased in the limited condition and increased in the expansive condition, social activity intentions increased in all conditions, and preference toward health (over social) goals decreased in both the limited and expansive conditions. The results suggest that anticipated endings may become salient in all conditions and favor social goals, which are emotionally relevant.

  4. The future of laboratory medicine - a 2014 perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kricka, Larry J; Polsky, Tracey G; Park, Jason Y; Fortina, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the future is a difficult task. Not surprisingly, there are many examples and assumptions that have proved to be wrong. This review surveys the many predictions, beginning in 1887, about the future of laboratory medicine and its sub-specialties such as clinical chemistry and molecular pathology. It provides a commentary on the accuracy of the predictions and offers opinions on emerging technologies, economic factors and social developments that may play a role in shaping the future of laboratory medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Scaling of the Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) for near-term thrusters and future fusion propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.; Bromley, B.; Jurczyk, B.; Stubbers, R.; DeMora, J.; Chacon, L.; Gu, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) is a unique approach to fusion and plasma energy systems that was conceptualized in the 1960s (Hirsch 1967) and has been the focus of recent development in the 1990s (Miley et al. 1995a). In the interests of space power and propulsion systems, conceptual rocket design studies (Bussard and Jameson 1994, Miley et al. 1995b) using the IEC have predicted excellent performance for a variety of space missions, since the power unit avoids the use of magnets and heavy drives resulting in a very high, specific impulse compared to other fusion systems. In their recent survey of prior conceptual design studies of fusion rockets, Williams and Borowski (1997) found that the Bussard IEC conceptual study (the open-quotes QEDclose quotes engine) offered a thrust-to-weight ratio of 10 milli-g close-quote s, a factor of five higher than conventional magnetic confinement concepts and even slightly above anti-proton micro fission/fusion designs. Thus there is considerable motivation to study IEC concepts for eventual space applications. However, the physics feasibility of the IEC still requires experimental demonstration, and an expanded data base is needed to insure that a power unit can in fact be built. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  6. Scaling of the Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) for near-term thrusters and future fusion propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.; Bromley, B.; Jurczyk, B.; Stubbers, R.; DeMora, J.; Chacon, L.; Gu, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) is a unique approach to fusion and plasma energy systems that was conceptualized in the 1960s (Hirsch 1967) and has been the focus of recent development in the 1990s (Miley et al. 1995a). In the interests of space power and propulsion systems, conceptual rocket design studies (Bussard and Jameson 1994, Miley et al. 1995b) using the IEC have predicted excellent performance for a variety of space missions, since the power unit avoids the use of magnets and heavy drives resulting in a very high, specific impulse compared to other fusion systems. In their recent survey of prior conceptual design studies of fusion rockets, Williams and Borowski (1997) found that the Bussard IEC conceptual study (the ''QED'' engine) offered a thrust-to-weight ratio of 10 milli-g's, a factor of five higher than conventional magnetic confinement concepts and even slightly above anti-proton micro fission/fusion designs. Thus there is considerable motivation to study IEC concepts for eventual space applications. However, the physics feasibility of the IEC still requires experimental demonstration, and an expanded data base is needed to insure that a power unit can in fact be built

  7. Parenting and Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: The Mediating Role of Future Time Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu-Gherasim, Loredana R; Bucci, Colleen M; Giuseppone, Kathryn R; Brumariu, Laura E

    2017-10-03

    This study investigated the relations between maternal and paternal rearing practices and adolescents' depressive symptoms, and whether time perspective in adolescence explains these links. The sample included 306 students (158 girls), aged between 10.83 and 14.42 years. Adolescents completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions of maternal and paternal acceptance and psychological control, and of their future time perspective and depressive symptoms. Adolescents who rated their mothers as more accepting and those who rated their fathers as less psychologically controlling also reported lower levels of depressive symptoms and greater future time perspective. Further, adolescents who had greater future time perspective reported lower levels of depressive symptoms. Finally, time perspective partially mediated the relations of maternal and paternal acceptance, and paternal control with depressive symptoms in adolescence. The findings highlight the unique relations of maternal acceptance and paternal psychological control with adolescents' depressive symptoms, and that future time perspective is one mechanism that might explain why parenting strategies are linked with depressive symptoms in adolescence.

  8. Time Perspectives and Gambling in Adolescent Boys: Differential Effects of Present- and Future-Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Maria Anna; Sottili, Elena; Morsanyi, Kinga; Primi, Caterina

    2018-06-04

    Adolescent boys are characterised by increased risk-taking behavior, including a relatively high propensity to develop problem gambling habits. The association between gambling and sensitivity to immediately available rewards is well-established, suggesting that gamblers are less influenced by potential future consequences than non-gamblers. Nevertheless, existing studies have considered present- and future-orientation as two ends of the same continuum, and have not investigated the possibility that present and future perspectives might make independent contributions to gambling behavior. In the current study, we adopted Zimbardo's multidimensional approach, which discriminates between not only present and future perspectives, but also between a hedonistic and fatalistic present-orientation (in addition to positive and negative orientations towards the past). The participants were 223 male adolescents (mean age = 16.7 years). We investigated the effects of time perspectives on gambling frequency and gambling problem severity, after taking into account the effects of age, sensation seeking, and gambling-related cognitive distortions. Gambling frequency was significantly predicted by the present fatalistic perspective, and problem gambling was significantly (negatively) related to the future perspective. The present hedonistic and past negative perspectives were also significantly related to both gambling frequency and gambling problems, although they did not explain additional variance in gambling behavior when the effects of the other factors were controlled. Overall, these results offer a fresh perspective on the role of time perspectives in gambling behavior, with potential implications for understanding the origins of gambling problems and the development of novel interventions.

  9. The curriculum for the doctor of the future: messages from the clinician's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lee, Nadine; Westerman, Michiel; Fokkema, Joanne P I; Van Der Vleuten, Cees P M; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; Scheele, Fedde

    2011-01-01

    Medical curricula should focus on the future of health care. Contemporary competency frameworks for curriculum design such as Canadian Medical Education Directions for Specialists (CanMEDS), ACGME and Tomorrow's Doctors share this vision by stressing generic competencies. The objective of this study was to investigate how well a contemporary competency framework fits in with clinicians' perspectives on future health care. Using a strategic planning approach, a semi-structured open-ended questionnaire on the future of their profession was sent to 102 Dutch gynecologists. Through inductive analysis, a future perspective and its needed competencies were identified and compared to the CanMEDS framework. The 62 responses showed content validity for the CanMEDS roles. Additionally, two roles were identified: advanced technology user and entrepreneur. Within the role Communicator, the focus will change through more active patient participation. The roles Collaborator and Manager are predicted to change in focus because of an increase of complex interdisciplinary teamwork and leadership roles. By studying the Dutch gynecologists' perspective of the future in a strategic planning approach, two additional roles and focus areas within a contemporary competency framework were identified. The perspective of clinicians on future health care provides valuable messages on how to design future-proof curricula.

  10. Change Processes and Future Perspectives in the Knowledge Society. The Example of Clothing and Textile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias Woll

    2006-01-01

    The paper examines change processes und future perspectives in the knowledge society. It presents the clothing and textile industry as an example for a transforming industry in a global economy. The paper reviews existing future studies, which have surveyed change processes and future developments in the clothing and textile industry. Main goals of the review are the identification of changes in work and the description of the restructuring of global value chains within the clothing and texti...

  11. RACK(1) to the future - a historical perspective

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ron, Dorit

    2013-08-01

    This perspective summarises the first and long overdue RACK1 meeting held at the University of Limerick, Ireland, May 2013, in which RACK1’s role in the immune system, the heart and the brain were discussed and its contribution to disease states such as cancer, cardiac hypertrophy and addiction were described. RACK1 is a scaffolding protein and a member of the WD repeat family of proteins. These proteins have a unique architectural assembly that facilitates protein anchoring and the stabilisation of protein activity. A large body of evidence is accumulating which is helping to define the versatile role of RACK1 in assembling and dismantling complex signaling pathways from the cell membrane to the nucleus in health and disease. In this commentary, we first provide a historical perspective on RACK1. We also address many of the pertinent and topical questions about this protein such as its role in transcription, epigenetics and translation, its cytoskeletal contribution and the merits of targeting RACK1 in disease.

  12. Identification of stakeholder perspectives on future flood management in the Rhine basin using Q methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raadgever, G. T.; Mostert, E.; van de Giesen, N. C.

    2008-08-01

    This article identifies different stakeholder perspectives on future flood management in the downstream parts of the Rhine basin in Germany and The Netherlands. The perspectives were identified using Q methodology, which proved to be a good, but time-intensive, method for eliciting and analyzing stakeholder perspectives in a structured and unbiased way. Three shared perspectives were found: A) "Anticipation and institutions", B) "Space for flooding" and C) "Knowledge and engineering". These three perspectives share a central concern for the provision of safety against flooding, but disagree on the expected autonomous developments and the preferred measures. In perspective A, the expected climate change and economic growth call for fast action. To deal with the increasing flood risk, mostly institutional measures are proposed, such as the development of a stronger basin commission. In perspective B, an increasing spatial pressure on the river area is expected, and the proposed measures are focused on mitigating damage, e.g., through controlled flooding and compartmentalization. In perspective C, the role of expert knowledge and technological improvements is emphasized. Preferred strategies include strengthening the dikes and differentiation of safety standards. An overview of stakeholder perspectives can be useful in natural resources management for 1) setting the research agenda, 2) identifying differences in values and interests that need to be discussed, 3) creating awareness among a broad range of stakeholders, and 4) developing scenarios.

  13. Future Perspectives for Arts-Based Methods in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana; Du, Xiangyun

    2018-01-01

    practices around the world while, on the other, addressing the challenges that these practices meet. Disruptive strategies must be given opportunities for reflection and reflexive spaces, opportunities for learning and teaching the artistic languages. The chapters show that long-term, systematic...... conversations between scholars and educators are needed, and that artists have a central role in the future developments of this field. Whether professional or amateur artists is no matter, but the craft and creativity of art practices in the flesh must lead any future direction of arts-based methods....

  14. International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility conceptual design activity. Present status and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Tatsuo; Noda, Kenji; Oyama, Yukio

    1998-01-01

    For developing the materials for nuclear fusion reactors, it is indispensable to study on the neutron irradiation behavior under fusion reactor conditions, but there is not any high energy neutron irradiation facility that can simulate fusion reactor conditions at present. Therefore, the investigation of the IFMIF was begun jointly by Japan, USA, Europe and Russia following the initiative of IEA. The conceptual design activities were completed in 1997. As to the background and the course, the present status of the research on heavy irradiation and the testing means for fusion materials, the requirement and the technical basis of high energy neutron irradiation, and the international joint design activities are reported. The materials for fusion reactors are exposed to the neutron irradiation with the energy spectra up to 14 MeV. The requirements from the users that the IFMIF should satisfy, the demand of the tests for the materials of prototype and demonstration fusion reactors and the evaluation of the neutron field characteristics of the IFMIF are discussed. As to the conceptual design of the IFMIF, the whole constitution, the operational mode, accelerator system and target system are described. (K.I.)

  15. Current controversies and future perspectives in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustí, Alvar; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been much research and interest in COPD. As a result, the understanding and management of the disease has improved significantly. Yet, there are many uncertainties and controversies that require further work. This review discusses these controversies and anticipates...... some of the changes that may occur in the near future in the field of COPD....

  16. Medical Students' Perspective Towards Their Future Medical Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives:To evaluate the influencing factors towards choice of the medical profession and attitude towards future medical practice. Subjects and methods: One hundred thirty four students of the Gondar College of Medical Sciences were included in the study. Data was collected by using self-administered questionnaires.

  17. The Mathematics Teacher's Profession: The Perspective of Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corica, Ana Rosa; Otero, María Rita

    2015-01-01

    We present partial results of the design and implementation of a study program for the Mathematics Teacher Training. The research is developed in the light of the Anthropological Theory of the Didactic. This paper we analyze what gestures of the research and world questioning pedagogy are identified in a group of future teachers that study an…

  18. The techno-entrepreneur of the future : Perspectives and Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravesteijn, W.; Sjoer, E.

    2010-01-01

    Present sustainability problems require a new type of techno-entrepreneurship, in which traditional entrepreneurial qualities are combined with new capabilities related to the role, mission and responsibilities of future engineers. There are two sources of these new capabilities: Innovation Systems

  19. Climatic change. Future perspectives; Cambio climatico. Perspectivas futuras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galan Madruga, D.; Garrido Morales, J.L.

    2012-07-01

    The present article aims to offer an overview of climate change in relation to aspects such as their relationship to greenhouse gases (GHG), effects on the environment, human being, economy, possible consequences in a future and the importance in the policies and decision taken and to mitigate global warming. (Author)

  20. Media analysis of the representations of fusion and other future energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delicado, Ana; Schmidt, Luisa; Pereira, Sergio [Institute of Social Sciences of the University of Lisbon, Av. Prof. Anibal de Bettencourt, 9 1600-189 Lisbon (Portugal); Oltra, Christian; Prades, Ana [CISOT-CIEMAT. Gran Via de les Corts Catalanes 604, 4, 2, 08007 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-07-01

    Media representations of energy have a relevant impact on public opinion and public support for investment in new energy sources. Fusion energy is one among several emerging energy technologies that requires a strong public investment on its research and development. This paper aims to characterise and compare the media representations of fusion and other emerging energy technologies in Portugal and in Spain. The emerging energy technologies selected for analysis are wave and tidal power, hydrogen, deep sea offshore wind power, energy applications of nanotechnology, bio-fuels from microalgae and IV generation nuclear fission. This work covered the news published in a selection of newspapers in Portugal and Spain between January 2007 and June 2013. (authors)

  1. The possible role of fusion in the Indian energy system of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamacher, T.; Shukla, R.P.; Seebregts, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Already in the year 2050 India will be the most populated country in the world. Population growth and sustained economic growth will make India to one of the biggest economies in the world, consuming huge amounts of energy. The study shows that India would consume in 2100 a third of the global electricity demand of 2000. If no intervention are considered, coal will keep its position as dominant source in the electricity sector throughout the whole 21st century. This would result in tremendous CO 2 emissions. The picture changes completely, if stringent restrictions on CO 2 emissions are applied. In the case of strict emission reductions new technologies like fusion could make an inroad to the Indian energy system. Especially if it is assumed that the safety and environmental advantages of fusion compared to fission are accounted for

  2. Media analysis of the representations of fusion and other future energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delicado, Ana; Schmidt, Luisa; Pereira, Sergio; Oltra, Christian; Prades, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Media representations of energy have a relevant impact on public opinion and public support for investment in new energy sources. Fusion energy is one among several emerging energy technologies that requires a strong public investment on its research and development. This paper aims to characterise and compare the media representations of fusion and other emerging energy technologies in Portugal and in Spain. The emerging energy technologies selected for analysis are wave and tidal power, hydrogen, deep sea offshore wind power, energy applications of nanotechnology, bio-fuels from microalgae and IV generation nuclear fission. This work covered the news published in a selection of newspapers in Portugal and Spain between January 2007 and June 2013. (authors)

  3. The CSLA and CSLC Families: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Howard Liepman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The CELLULOSE SYNTHASE (CESA superfamily of proteins contains several sub-families of closely related CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE (CSL sequences, Among these, the CSLA and CSLC families are closely related to each other and are the most evolutionarily divergent from the CESA family. Significant progress has been made with the functional characterization of CSLA and CSLC genes, which have been shown to encode enzymes with 1,4-B-glycan synthase activities involved in the biosynthesis of mannan and possibly xyloglucan backbones, respectively. This review examines recent work on the CSLA and CSLC families from evolutionary, molecular, and biochemical perspectives. We pose a series of questions, whose answers likely will provide further insight about the specific functions of members of the CSLA and CSLC families and about plant polysaccharide biosynthesis is general.

  4. Lysine Deacetylase Inhibitors in Parasites: Past, Present, and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailu, Gebremedhin S; Robaa, Dina; Forgione, Mariantonietta; Sippl, Wolfgang; Rotili, Dante; Mai, Antonello

    2017-06-22

    Current therapies for human parasite infections rely on a few drugs, most of which have severe side effects, and their helpfulness is being seriously compromised by the drug resistance problem. Globally, this is pushing discovery research of antiparasitic drugs toward new agents endowed with new mechanisms of action. By using a "drug repurposing" strategy, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), which are presently clinically approved for cancer use, are now under investigation for various parasite infections. Because parasitic Zn 2+ - and NAD + -dependent HDACs play crucial roles in the modulation of parasite gene expression and many of them are pro-survival for several parasites under various conditions, they are now emerging as novel potential antiparasitic targets. This Perspective summarizes the state of knowledge of HDACi (both class I/II HDACi and sirtuin inhibitors) targeted to the main human parasitic diseases (schistosomiasis, malaria, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and toxoplasmosis) and provides visions into the main issues that challenge their development as antiparasitic agents.

  5. Smart City Analytics: state of the art and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Giovannella

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with a 'people centred' vision, this paper critically examines current approaches to smart cities benchmarking. In particular, by means of correlation analysis and Principal Component Analysis (PCA we put in evidence present limitations of city rankings and, as well, the emergence of different perspectives for data interpretations. To follow, a possible redesign of the 'Smart Cities Analytics' grounded on the traces left by individuals, is suggested. In particular, as an example, we focus on the potentiality offered by automatic text analysis to extract people perceptions and expectations that, in turns, demonstrate the need to integrate bottom-up and top-down approaches to city benchmarking. Finally a novel definition of smart city based on the territorial state of flow is proposed and, as a consequence, a novel path toward smart city benchmarking suggested.

  6. Youth resistance training: past practices, new perspectives, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, Avery D; Lloyd, Rhodri S; Myer, Gregory D

    2013-11-01

    Since the publication of the seminal review on youth resistance training by Kraemer and colleagues in 1989, a compelling body of evidence has found that resistance training can be a safe, effective, and worthwhile method of conditioning for children and adolescents. New perspectives for promoting resistance exercise as part of a long-term approach to youth physical development highlight the importance of integrating resistance training into youth fitness programs. Youth who do not enhance their muscular strength and motor skill proficiency early in life may not develop the prerequisite skills and abilities that would allow them to participate in a variety of activities and sports with confidence and vigor later in life. The identification of asymptomatic children with muscular weaknesses or imbalances may facilitate the development of a management plan which should rectify movement limitations and educate children and their families about the importance of daily physical activity.

  7. Flexible and Stretchable Energy Storage: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Song, Min-Sang; Kong, Biao; Cui, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Energy-storage technologies such as lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors have become fundamental building blocks in modern society. Recently, the emerging direction toward the ever-growing market of flexible and wearable electronics has nourished progress in building multifunctional energy-storage systems that can be bent, folded, crumpled, and stretched while maintaining their electrochemical functions under deformation. Here, recent progress and well-developed strategies in research designed to accomplish flexible and stretchable lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors are reviewed. The challenges of developing novel materials and configurations with tailored features, and in designing simple and large-scaled manufacturing methods that can be widely utilized are considered. Furthermore, the perspectives and opportunities for this emerging field of materials science and engineering are also discussed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Future time perspective and positive health practices in young adults: an extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, N E; Yarcheski, T J; Yarcheski, A

    1997-06-01

    A sample of 69 young adults attending a public university responded to the Future Time Perspective Inventory, two subscales of the Time Experience Scales (Fast and Slow Tempo), and the Personal Lifestyle Questionnaire in classroom settings. A statistically significant correlation (.52) was found between scores for future time perspective and the ratings for the practice of positive health behaviors in young adults. This correlation was larger than those previously found for middle and late adolescents. Scores on subscales of individual health practices and future time perspective indicated statistically significant correlations for five (.25 to .56) of the six subscales. Scores on neither Fast nor Slow Tempo were related to ratings of positive health practices or ratings on subscales measuring positive health practices.

  9. Adiabatic logic future trend and system level perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Teichmann, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Adiabatic logic is a potential successor for static CMOS circuit design when it comes to ultra-low-power energy consumption. Future development like the evolutionary shrinking of the minimum feature size as well as revolutionary novel transistor concepts will change the gate level savings gained by adiabatic logic. In addition, the impact of worsening degradation effects has to be considered in the design of adiabatic circuits. The impact of the technology trends on the figures of merit of adiabatic logic, energy saving potential and optimum operating frequency, are investigated, as well as degradation related issues. Adiabatic logic benefits from future devices, is not susceptible to Hot Carrier Injection, and shows less impact of Bias Temperature Instability than static CMOS circuits. Major interest also lies on the efficient generation of the applied power-clock signal. This oscillating power supply can be used to save energy in short idle times by disconnecting circuits. An efficient way to generate the p...

  10. [Current status and future perspectives of hepatocyte transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Eugenia; Cortés, Miriam; Gómez-Lechón, M José; Maupoey, Javier; San Juan, Fernando; López, Rafael; Mir, Jose

    2014-02-01

    The imbalance between the number of potential beneficiaries and available organs, originates the search for new therapeutic alternatives, such as Hepatocyte transplantation (HT).Even though this is a treatment option for these patients, the lack of unanimity of criteria regarding indications and technique, different cryopreservation protocols, as well as the different methodology to assess the response to this therapy, highlights the need of a Consensus Conference to standardize criteria and consider future strategies to improve the technique and optimize the results.Our aim is to review and update the current state of hepatocyte transplantation, emphasizing the future research attempting to solve the problems and improve the results of this treatment. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. The challenge of the future. Technical progress and ecological perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jischa, M.F.

    1993-01-01

    The book introduces readers into the interrelated global problems population dynamics, energy supply, imminent climate catastrophe, environmetal pollution, finite resources and the conflict between the North and South. It encourages probing more deeply into the technical challenges of the future. The author demonstrates why economic and technical issues will soon be outstripped by questions of the environmental, human and social compatibility of new technologies. (orig./UA) [de

  12. Rice Genome Research: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Han

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice ( L. is the leading genomics system among the crop plants. The sequence of the rice genome, the first cereal plant genome, was published in 2005. This review summarizes progress made in rice genome annotations, comparative genomics, and functional genomics researches. It also maps out the status of rice genomics globally and provides a vision of future research directions and resource building.

  13. An ontogenetic perspective on symphyseal fusion, occlusion and mandibular loading in alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Kristin K; Sidote, JoAnna; Williams, Susan H

    2017-10-01

    A primary hypothesis for the evolution of mandibular symphyseal fusion in some mammals is that it functions to resist loads incurred during routine mastication. Anecdotal support for this hypothesis is based on the fact that when the symphysis fuses, it typically does so early during postnatal ontogeny prior to or around the time of weaning. However, little is known about the process of fusion, particularly relative to feeding behaviors and the dynamics of mastication, including occlusion and masticatory loading. In the present study, we investigate the timing and process of symphyseal fusion in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in the context of maturation of the oral apparatus and oral behavior. We also report on in vivo strains from the symphysis and corpus in young alpacas prior to and following full fusion and M 1 occlusion. Results show that fusion begins rostrally by 1 month and is complete by 6-7 months whereas all deciduous premolars and M 1 come into occlusion by 6 months. Although symphyseal loading patterns are maintained throughout ontogeny, in young alpacas symphyseal strain magnitudes are low compared with adults but corpus strain magnitudes are comparable to those found in adults. Reduced symphyseal loading in young individuals is contrary to what might be predicted given that the symphysis is still fusing. When considered in light of the development of occlusion and rumination, strain magnitudes may be necessarily low and reflect an overall delay in the maturation of masticatory dynamics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Camelid Single-Domain Antibodies: Historical Perspective and Future Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Arbabi-Ghahroudi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tremendous effort has been expended over the past two and a half decades to understand many aspects of camelid heavy chain antibodies, from their biology, evolution, and immunogenetics to their potential applications in various fields of research and medicine. In this article, I present a historical perspective on the development of camelid single-domain antibodies (sdAbs or VHHs, also widely known as nanobodies since their discovery and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these unique molecules in various areas of research, industry, and medicine. Commercialization of camelid sdAbs exploded in 2001 with a flurry of patents issued to the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB and later taken on by the Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie (VIB and, after 2002, the VIB-founded spin-off company, Ablynx. While entrepreneurial spirit has certainly catalyzed the exploration of nanobodies as marketable products, IP restrictions may be partially responsible for the relatively long time span between the discovery of these biomolecules and their entry into the pharmaceutical market. It is now anticipated that the first VHH-based antibody drug, Caplacizumab, a bivalent anti-vWF antibody for treating rare blood clotting disorders, may be approved and commercialized in 2018 or shortly thereafter. This elusive first approval, along with the expiry of key patents, may substantially alter the scientific and biomedical landscape surrounding camelid sdAbs and pave the way for their emergence as mainstream biotherapeutics.

  15. Future Perspectives in the Management of Nerve Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, Susan E

    2018-04-01

     The author presents a solicited "white paper" outlining her perspective on the role of nerve transfers in the management of nerve injuries.  PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were evaluated to compare nerve graft and nerve transfer. An evaluation of the scientific literature by review of index articles was also performed to compare the number of overall clinical publications of nerve repair, nerve graft, and nerve transfer. Finally, a survey regarding the prevalence of nerve transfer surgery was administrated to the World Society of Reconstructive Microsurgery (WSRM) results.  Both nerve graft and transfer can generate functional results and the relative success of graft versus transfer depended on the function to be restored and the specific transfers used. Beginning in the early 1990s, there has been a rapid increase from baseline of nerve transfer publications such that clinical nerve transfer publication now exceeds those of nerve repair or nerve graft. Sixty-two responses were received from WSRM membership. These surgeons reported their frequency of "usually or always using nerve transfers for repairing brachial plexus injuries as 68%, radial nerves as 27%, median as 25%, and ulnar as 33%. They reported using nerve transfers" sometimes for brachial plexus 18%, radial nerve 30%, median nerve 34%, ulnar nerve 35%.  Taken together this evidence suggests that nerve transfers do offer an alternative technique along with tendon transfers, nerve repair, and nerve grafts. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. A Perspective on the Rise of Optofluidics and the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaolong Song

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, the field of optofluidics has thrived from the immense efforts of researchers from diverse communities. The concept of optofluidics combines optics and microfluidics to exploit novel properties and functionalities. In the very beginning, the unique properties of liquid, such as mobility, fungibility and deformability, initiated the motivation to develop optical elements or functions using fluid interfaces. Later on, the advancements of microelectromechanical system (MEMS and microfluidic technologies enabled the realization of optofluidic components through the precise manipulation of fluids at microscale thus making it possible to streamline complex fabrication processes. The optofluidic system aims to fully integrate optical functions on a single chip instead of using external bulky optics, which can consequently lower the cost of system, downsize the system and make it promising for point-of-care diagnosis. This perspective gives an overview of the recent developments in the field of optofluidics. Firstly, the fundamental optofluidic components will be discussed and are categorized according to their basic working mechanisms, followed by the discussions on the functional instrumentations of the optofluidic components, as well as the current commercialization aspects of optofluidics. The paper concludes with the critical challenges that might hamper the transformation of optofluidic technologies from lab-based procedures to practical usages and commercialization.

  17. Current and Future Perspectives on Alginate Encapsulated Pancreatic Islet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Berit L; Coron, Abba E; Skjak-Braek, Gudmund

    2017-04-01

    Transplantation of pancreatic islets in immune protective capsules holds the promise as a functional cure for type 1 diabetes, also about 40 years after the first proof of principal study. The concept is simple in using semipermeable capsules that allow the ingress of oxygen and nutrients, but limit the access of the immune system. Encapsulated human islets have been evaluated in four small clinical trials where the procedure has been evaluated as safe, but lacking long-term efficacy. Host reactions toward the biomaterials used in the capsules may be one parameter limiting the long-term function of the graft in humans. The present article briefly discusses important capsule properties such as stability, permeability and biocompatibility, as well as possible strategies to overcome current challenges. Also, recent progress in capsule development as well as the production of insulin-producing cells from human stem cells that gives promising perspectives for the transplantation of encapsulated insulin-producing tissue is briefly discussed. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1053-1058. © 2017 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  18. Computational Identification of Novel Genes: Current and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasberg, Steffen; Bitard-Feildel, Tristan; Mallet, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    While it has long been thought that all genomic novelties are derived from the existing material, many genes lacking homology to known genes were found in recent genome projects. Some of these novel genes were proposed to have evolved de novo, ie, out of noncoding sequences, whereas some have been shown to follow a duplication and divergence process. Their discovery called for an extension of the historical hypotheses about gene origination. Besides the theoretical breakthrough, increasing evidence accumulated that novel genes play important roles in evolutionary processes, including adaptation and speciation events. Different techniques are available to identify genes and classify them as novel. Their classification as novel is usually based on their similarity to known genes, or lack thereof, detected by comparative genomics or against databases. Computational approaches are further prime methods that can be based on existing models or leveraging biological evidences from experiments. Identification of novel genes remains however a challenging task. With the constant software and technologies updates, no gold standard, and no available benchmark, evaluation and characterization of genomic novelty is a vibrant field. In this review, the classical and state-of-the-art tools for gene prediction are introduced. The current methods for novel gene detection are presented; the methodological strategies and their limits are discussed along with perspective approaches for further studies.

  19. Future developments of power supply from nuclear fission and fusion until the middle of the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    The purpose of this study made by General Technology Systems (Netherlands) is to provide information about nuclear fission and fusion as methods for power generation, with which, in the framework of a study into the possibilities of durable energy sources, choices may be made from the various possibilities for future energy supply. The physical processes upon which the power generation relies are treated briefly. The technologies employed are discussed together with their changes and improvements, now and in the future, and the economic factors by which they are accompanied. How much of this energy will be used in the Netherlands, is discussed. In order to know the opinion of others about these subjects the dealers of the current nuclear power stations were asked to give their opinions which are collected in a supplement. 166 refs.; 18 figs.; 19 tabs

  20. Future perspectives and their relation to wellbeing and resilience in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Omar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous research (Omar, 2005; Omar, Uribe Delgado & Maltaneres, 2005, had showed a clear relationship between subjective well-being and resilience. In those opportunities, however, resilience was considered as a global construct. This study aims at exploring the possible relationships among resilience components, subjective well-being, and future perspectives. Method: Sample integrated by 198 (105 girls & 93 boys Argentinean high school students, 14- to 19-yr.-old. All sample participants answered a booklet that included Wagnild and Young’s Resilience Scale (1993; Nagpal and Sell’s Subjective Well-being Scale (1992, and three items specially developed to explore academic, labor, and family future perspectives. Development: correlation analysis indicated positive significant associations between resilience’s components (Personal realization; Self- determination, and Adaptation, and specific well-being dimensions. Likewise, resilience’s components and subjective well being dimensions showed significant correlations with positive future perspectives. No gender-specific differences were observed in any of the variables under analysis. Results: findings showed that adolescent resilience would be associated to familiar emotional support and positive social interchanges. Future orientations could be considered a new resilience protective factor. Social, familiar, and educational implications of these finding are discussed. A research agenda designed to further our understanding of resilience, well-being, and future perspectives linkages is proposed. 

  1. Beliefs and Perceptions about the Future: A Measurement of Future Time Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husman, Jenefer; Shell, Duane F.

    2008-01-01

    Human's ability to consider the future, willingness to make sacrifices in the present to obtain something better in the future has been a significant part of our success as a species (Suddendorf, T., & Corballis, M. C. (1997). "Mental time travel and the evolution of the human mind." "Genetic, social, and general psychology monographs" 123,…

  2. Current reality and future perspective from a major producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, P.; Cassidy, R.

    2006-01-01

    Is the hydrogen economy of the future just another fish story? Absolutely not! There have been many changes affecting the energy equation over the last 10 years and conditions have changed. In this presentation, we examined the reasons why, in the very near future, hydrogen production and distribution will be increasingly visible on many industries' radar screens. Our presentation provides an overview of the fundamental energy triangle and its myriad opportunities. We will look at the excitement being generated by gasification, GTL, and the expected availability of 'cheap' hydrogen. We will seek to confirm that experimental projects are now behind us. We will demonstrate that we are ready to move rapidly towards the pre-commercial applications that will eventually provide significant savings and other benefits to a wide variety of industries. Beyond our ability to produce and deliver hydrogen, Air Liquide is an enabler of the H 2 economy. We are actively developing the H 2 architecture and infrastructure that will allow many Canadian firms - who have already demonstrated leadership in H 2 technologies - to expand their markets and grow into highly successful organizations. Air Liquide has the strength of 104 years of scientific achievement, technical excellence, and business success. The Air Liquide Group is dedicated to devoting the necessary resources - on both sides of the Atlantic and around the world - to ensure the successful implementation of a number of innovative H 2 projects. Our presentation includes a brief description of some of these projects. We think you will be surprised at their variety and impressed by how these projects are closely related to today's energy issues. We hope to convince you that the hydrogen economy of the future is filled with promise and potential. (author)

  3. Hot Coronae in Local AGN: Present Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Marinucci

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear X-ray emission in radio-quiet Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN is commonly believed to be due to inverse Compton scattering of soft UV photons in a hot corona. The radiation is expected to be polarized, the polarization degree depending mainly on the geometry and optical depth of the corona. Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR observations are providing for the first time high quality measurements of the coronal physical parameters—temperature and optical depth. We hereby review the NuSTAR results on the coronal physical parameters (temperature and optical depth and discuss their implications for future X-ray polarimetric studies.

  4. Future of Christian health services – an economic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Flessa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Christian Health Services have a proud history of healing and compassion especially in developing countries, their future is affected by secular changes in the financing and provision of health care services. However, the nature of life as it is evolving in modern society promises a need for the capacity to deal with increasing dynamics, complexity and uncertainty. In these circumstances the potential capacity of Christians in their institutions and churches to provide Unconditional Reliability suggests a new opportunity. The components of Unconditional Reliability and how they affect the portfolio of Christian Health Services is explained. Effective Christian Health Services will require appropriate analysis of their portfolios.

  5. The future of road safety: A worldwide perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Wegman

    2017-03-01

    The future of road safety is uncertain and definitely not the same for all regions of the world. Countries with a mature road safety approach and an ambition to make further progress are expected to move in the direction of a pro-active approach: a Safe System approach. It is reported that many LMIC, meanwhile, are on the brink of designing road safety strategies and implementing action plans. The international community is willing to support LMIC, but LMIC cannot simply copy successful HIC strategies because local circumstances differ. The principles of successful HIC strategies are applicable, but the priorities and action plans should take root in and align with local conditions.

  6. Charged particle activation analysis: present status and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    Charged particle activation analysis is a highly sensitive nuclear analytical technique for the determination of elements at trace and ultra trace levels. CPAA involves the irradiation of samples with high energy charged particles, both light ions and heavy ions, from an accelerator in the energy range of 10 to 100 MeV. CPAA has been developed and standardized for the determination of several elements at trace levels in various types of materials using high energy ion beams from VEC machine at Kolkata. A brief review on CPAA is presented here based on our present works and its applications in future. (author)

  7. Interventional MR imaging: state of the art and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, T.; Moedder, U.

    1998-01-01

    The concept of MR guidance of invasive diagnostic and minimally invasive therapeutic procedures is based on the excellent morphologic and functional properties of MR imaging. Prerequisites are adequate patient monitoring and adherence to safety guidelines. Fast and ultrafast sequences, temperature quantification, visualization of intravascular devices, thermal stability of contrast media and thermosensitive contrast media are discussed. The spectrum of clinical applications includes biopsies, thermal ablation modalities, vascular applications, MR endoscopy and intraoperative MR imaging. The development of interventional MR imaging is still in its infancy. In the future, MR imaging may play an important role in interventional radiology and minimally invasive therapy. (orig.) [de

  8. Japanese superconducting maglev: Present state and future perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Hiroshi

    1990-06-01

    Maglev (magnetic levitation vehicle) being developed as a new transportation means running at a speed of 500 km/h has various advantages in safety, mass transportation and less environment polution as well as high-speed. The development of this system is rapidly advancing into the practical stage, that is, the commercial stage of the maglev train as a mass transportation system for intercity high-speed service. This paper describes the present state of research and development as well as future prospects of maglev.

  9. Breeding research on sake yeasts in Japan: history, recent technological advances, and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagaki, Hiroshi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    ). However, technologies that enable the elimination of extraneous DNA sequences from the genome of sake yeast have been developed. Sake yeasts genetically modified with these technologies are called self-cloning yeasts and do not contain extraneous DNA sequences. These yeasts were exempted from the Japanese government's guidelines for genetically modified food. Protoplast fusion has also been utilized to breed favorable sake yeasts. Future directions for the breeding of sake yeasts are also proposed in this review. The reviewed research provides perspectives for the breeding of brewery yeasts in other fermentation industries.

  10. Inertial fusion results from Nova and implication for the future of ICF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilkenny, J.D.; Cable, M.D.; Campbell, E.M.

    1988-10-01

    A key objective of the US Inertial Confinement Fusion Program is to obtain high yield (100-1000 MJ) implosions in a laboratory environment. This requires high grain from an inertial fusion target from a driver capable of delivering about 10 MJ. Recent results have been sufficiently encouraging that the US Department of Energy is planning for such a capability called the Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF). In the past two years, we have conducted implosion-related experiments with approximately 20 kJ of 0.35-μm laser light in 1-ns temporally flat-topped pulses. These experiments were done with the Nova laser, the primary US facility devoted to radiatively driven inertial confinement fusion. Our results show that we can accurately model a significant fraction of the phenomena required to obtain the fuel conditions needed for high gain. Both the x-ray conversion efficiency and the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instabilities are shown to be at acceptable levels. Targets designed so that the shape of the stagnated fuel can be imaged show that the x-ray drive in our hohlraums can be made isotropic to better than 3%. With this optimized drive and temporally unshaped laser pulses many critical implosion parameters are measured on targets designed for higher density. Good agreement is obtained with one-dimensional simulations. Maximum compressions of between 20--30 in radius are measured with a variety of diagnostics. Improvements in the driver technology are demonstrated; we anticipate operation of Nova at the 50-kJ level at 3ω. 18 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  11. Safety issues to be taken into account in designing future nuclear fusion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrault, Didier, E-mail: didier.perrault@irsn.fr

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Assess if decay heat removal is a safety function. • Re-study accidents considered for ITER and identify those specific to DEMO. • Limit tritium inventory and optimize main gaseous tritium release routes. • Take into account constraints related to requirements of waste disposal routes. - Abstract: For several years now, the French “Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire” has been carrying out expertise of ITER fusion facility safety files at the request of the French “Autorité de Sûreté Nucléaire”. As part of the lengthy process which should lead to mastering nuclear fusion, different fusion facility projects are currently under study throughout the world to be ready to continue building on the work which will take place in the ITER facility. On the basis of the experience acquired during the ITER safety expertise, the IRSN has carried out a preliminary study of the safety issues which seem necessary to take into account right from the earliest design phase of these DEMO facilities. The issues studied have included the decay heat removal, exposure to ionizing radiation, potential accidents, and effluent releases and waste. The study shows that it will be important to give priority to the following actions, given that their results would have a major influence on the design: assess if decay heat removal is a safety function, re-study the accidents considered in the context of the ITER project and identify those specific to DEMO, and optimize each of the main routes for gaseous tritium releases.

  12. The future regulatory environment - a South African perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Woude, S.; Leaver, J.; Metcalf, P.E.

    2000-01-01

    The South African nuclear regulatory authority, the National Nuclear Regulator, regulates nuclear fuel cycle facilities as well as a large variety of mining and minerals processing activities. The future political, social, economical and technological environment, within which these facilities operate, will present numerous challenges to those who will be regulating them. In our presentation the challenges to be fulfilled in discharging the regulatory function are discussed, particularly in the context of a country with a small nuclear programme and a substantial developing component. Amongst the challenges discussed are: As part of the growing internationalization, the need to harmonize standards applied in different countries and the need to balance standards and practice applied in developed countries with resources available in developing countries; The need to consider the impact on the environment and not only on human beings; The impact of rapid advances in information technology on regulation; The maintenance and development of the appropriate expertise in the face of uncertainties regarding the future of the nuclear industry; Public involvement; The demands by society for greater standards of safety but at the same time for more effective and cost-effective regulation; The need for regulators to match customer demands on operators in terms of quality, speed, flexibility and costs; The privatization of nuclear fuel cycle facilities; The increased trend for larger facilities to outsource work to smaller companies; and, The need to balance good practice considerations with quantitatively determined risks in regulatory decision-making. (author)

  13. Status of nuclear regulatory research and its future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. I.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, M. W.

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the regulatory research comprising an examination of the research system, its areas and contents, and the goals and financial resources is undertaken. As a result of this study, the future direction of regulatory research and its implementation strategies are suggested to resolve the current issues emerging from this examination. The major issues identified in the study are; (a) an insufficient investment in nuclear regulatory and safety research, (b) an interfacial discrepancy between similar research areas, and (c) a limitation of utilizing research results. To resolve these issues, several measures are proposed : (1) developing a lead project to establish a comprehensive infrastructure for enhancing research cooperation between nuclear organizations including institutes, industry, and universities, with an aim to improve cooperation between projects and to strengthen overall coordination functions among research projects, (2) introducing a certification system on research outcome to promote the proliferation of both research results themselves and their application with a view to enhancing the research quality, (3) strengthening the cooperative system to promote the international cooperative research, and (4) digitalizing all documents and materials relevant to safety and regulatory research to establish KIMS (knowledge and information based management system). It is expected that the aforementioned measures suggested in this study will enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of both nuclear regulatory and safety research, if they are implemented after deliberating with the government and related nuclear industries in the near future

  14. Direct strip casting of steel - historical perspective and future direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manohar, P.A.; Hunter, A.; Ferry, M.

    2000-01-01

    The commercialisation of direct strip casting (DSC) of steel represents the realisation of a dream cherished by engineers for over one hundred and fifty years. The story of the global competition for DSC of steel, that has ingredients of romanticism of chasing of a dream, adventure and intrigue, is being played out across continents over dozens of decades with an interplay of setbacks and successes. At this stage, DSC is set to make a profound impact on the steelmaking landscape. This paper reviews the important milestones in this compelling story, presents the current status and then gazes into the crystal ball in an attempt to predict which turn the story may take in the near future. The constraints and critical challenges for the successful commercialisation of DSC are highlighted. Recent results are discussed relating the production process to quality control and properties of unalloyed, low carbon strip-cast steels. future metallurgical challenges include a better understanding of solidification mechanism during high-speed casting and secondary processing variables affecting the final microstructure of austenitic grains

  15. The future regulatory environment - a South African perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Woude, S.; Leaver, J.; Metcalf, P.E. [National Nuclear Regulator, Centurion (South Africa)

    2000-07-01

    The South African nuclear regulatory authority, the National Nuclear Regulator, regulates nuclear fuel cycle facilities as well as a large variety of mining and minerals processing activities. The future political, social, economical and technological environment, within which these facilities operate, will present numerous challenges to those who will be regulating them. In our presentation the challenges to be fulfilled in discharging the regulatory function are discussed, particularly in the context of a country with a small nuclear programme and a substantial developing component. Amongst the challenges discussed are: As part of the growing internationalization, the need to harmonize standards applied in different countries and the need to balance standards and practice applied in developed countries with resources available in developing countries; The need to consider the impact on the environment and not only on human beings; The impact of rapid advances in information technology on regulation; The maintenance and development of the appropriate expertise in the face of uncertainties regarding the future of the nuclear industry; Public involvement; The demands by society for greater standards of safety but at the same time for more effective and cost-effective regulation; The need for regulators to match customer demands on operators in terms of quality, speed, flexibility and costs; The privatization of nuclear fuel cycle facilities; The increased trend for larger facilities to outsource work to smaller companies; and, The need to balance good practice considerations with quantitatively determined risks in regulatory decision-making. (author)

  16. The Future of Exposure Assessment: Perspectives from the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The British Occupational Hygiene Society, in collaboration with the Institute of Occupational Medicine, the University of Manchester, the UK Health and Safety Executive, and the University of Aberdeen hosted the 7th International Conference on the Science of Exposure Assessment (X2012) on 2 July–5 July 2012 in Edinburgh, UK. The conference ended with a special session at which invited speakers from government, industry, independent research institutes, and academia were asked to reflect on the conference and discuss what may now constitute the important highlights or drivers of future exposure assessment research. This article summarizes these discussions with respect to current and future technical and methodological developments. For the exposure science community to continue to have an impact in protecting public health, additional efforts need to be made to improve partnerships and cross-disciplinary collaborations, although it is equally important to ensure that the traditional occupational exposure themes are still covered as these issues are becoming increasingly important in the developing world. To facilitate this the ‘X’ conferences should continue to retain a holistic approach to occupational and non-occupational exposures and should actively pursue collaborations with other disciplines and professional organizations to increase the presence of consumer and environmental exposure scientists. The National Exposure Research Laboratory′s (NERL′

  17. Future perspective of cost for nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Ichiro

    1988-01-01

    The report presents and discussed results of evaluation of the cost for power generation in this and forthcoming years on the basis of an analysis of the current fuel prices and the economics of various power sources. Calculations show that nuclear power generation at present is inferior to coal-firing power generation in terms of required costs, but can become superior in the future due to an increased burn-up and reduced construction cost. Investigations are made of possible contributions of future technical improvements to reduction in the overall cost. Results suggest that nuclear power generation will be the most efficient among the various electric sources because of its technology-intensive feature. Development of improved light water reactors is of special importance to achieve a high burn-up and reduced construction costs. In general, the fixed cost accounts for a large part of the overall nuclear power generation cost, indicating that a reduction in construction cost can greatly increase the economic efficiency. Changes in the yen's exchange rate seem to have little effect on the economics of nuclear power generation, which represents another favorable aspect of this type of energy. (Nogami, K.)

  18. Ethical concepts and future challenges of neuroimaging: an Islamic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2012-09-01

    Neuroscience is advancing at a rapid pace, with new technologies and approaches that are creating ethical challenges not easily addressed by current ethical frameworks and guidelines. One fascinating technology is neuroimaging, especially functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Although still in its infancy, fMRI is breaking new ground in neuroscience, potentially offering increased understanding of brain function. Different populations and faith traditions will likely have different reactions to these new technologies and the ethical challenges they bring with them. Muslims are approximately one-fifth of world population and they have a specific and highly regulated ethical and moral code, which helps them deal with scientific advances and decision making processes in an Islamically ethical manner. From this ethical perspective, in light of the relevant tenets of Islam, neuroimaging poses various challenges. The privacy of spirituality and the thought process, the requirement to put community interest before individual interest, and emphasis on conscious confession in legal situations are Islamic concepts that can pose a challenge for the use of something intrusive such as an fMRI. Muslim moral concepts such as There shall be no harm inflicted or reciprocated in Islam and Necessities overrule prohibitions are some of the criteria that might appropriately be used to guide advancing neuroscience. Neuroscientists should be particularly prudent and well prepared in implementing neuroscience advances that are breaking new scientific and ethical ground. Neuroscientists should also be prepared to assist in setting the ethical frameworks in place in advance of what might be perceived as runaway applications of technology.

  19. Traditional medicines and globalization: current and future perspectives in ethnopharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eLeonti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The ethnopharmacological approach towards the understanding and appraisal of traditional and herbal medicines is characterized by the inclusions of the social as well as the natural sciences. Anthropological field-observations describing the local use of nature-derived medicines are the basis for ethnopharmacological enquiries. The multidisciplinary scientific validation of indigenous drugs is of relevance to modern societies at large and helps to sustain local health care practices. Especially with respect to therapies related to ageing related, chronic and infectious diseases traditional medicines offer promising alternatives to biomedicine. Bioassays applied in ethnopharmacology represent the molecular characteristics and complexities of the disease or symptoms for which an indigenous drug is used in traditional medicine to variable depth and extent. One-dimensional in vitro approaches rarely cope with the complexity of human diseases and ignore the concept of polypharmacological synergies. The recent focus on holistic approaches and systems biology in medicinal plant research represents the trend towards the description and the understanding of complex multi-parameter systems.Ethnopharmacopoeias are non-static cultural constructs shaped by belief and knowledge systems. Intensified globalization and economic liberalism currently accelerates the interchange between local and global pharmacopoeias via international trade, television, the World Wide Web and print media. The increased infiltration of newly generated biomedical knowledge and introduction of foreign medicines into local pharmacopoeias leads to syncretic developments and generates a feedback loop. While modern and post-modern cultures and knowledge systems adapt and transform the global impact, they become more relevant for ethnopharmacology. Moreover, what is traditional, alternative or complementary medicine depends on the adopted historic-cultural perspective.

  20. Traditional medicines and globalization: current and future perspectives in ethnopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonti, Marco; Casu, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The ethnopharmacological approach toward the understanding and appraisal of traditional and herbal medicines is characterized by the inclusions of the social as well as the natural sciences. Anthropological field-observations describing the local use of nature-derived medicines are the basis for ethnopharmacological enquiries. The multidisciplinary scientific validation of indigenous drugs is of relevance to modern societies at large and helps to sustain local health care practices. Especially with respect to therapies related to aging related, chronic and infectious diseases traditional medicines offer promising alternatives to biomedicine. Bioassays applied in ethnopharmacology represent the molecular characteristics and complexities of the disease or symptoms for which an indigenous drug is used in "traditional" medicine to variable depth and extent. One-dimensional in vitro approaches rarely cope with the complexity of human diseases and ignore the concept of polypharmacological synergies. The recent focus on holistic approaches and systems biology in medicinal plant research represents the trend toward the description and the understanding of complex multi-parameter systems. Ethnopharmacopoeias are non-static cultural constructs shaped by belief and knowledge systems. Intensified globalization and economic liberalism currently accelerates the interchange between local and global pharmacopoeias via international trade, television, the World Wide Web and print media. The increased infiltration of newly generated biomedical knowledge and introduction of "foreign" medicines into local pharmacopoeias leads to syncretic developments and generates a feedback loop. While modern and post-modern cultures and knowledge systems adapt and transform the global impact, they become more relevant for ethnopharmacology. Moreover, what is traditional, alternative or complementary medicine depends on the adopted historic-cultural perspective.

  1. Acute stroke magnetic resonance imaging: current status and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloska, Stephan P.; Wintermark, Max; Engelhorn, Tobias; Fiebach, Jochen B.

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral stroke is one of the most frequent causes of permanent disability or death in the western world and a major burden in healthcare system. The major portion is caused by acute ischemia due to cerebral artery occlusion by a clot. The minority of strokes is related to intracerebral hemorrhage or other sources. To limit the permanent disability in ischemic stroke patients resulting from irreversible infarction of ischemic brain tissue, major efforts were made in the last decade. To extend the time window for thrombolysis, which is the only approved therapy, several imaging parameters in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been investigated. However, the current guidelines neglect the fact that the portion of potentially salvageable ischemic tissue (penumbra) is not dependent on the time window but the individual collateral blood flow. Within the last years, the differentiation of infarct core and penumbra with MRI using diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and perfusion imaging (PI) with parameter maps was established. Current trials transform these technical advances to a redefined patient selection based on physiological parameters determined by MRI. This review article presents the current status of MRI for acute stroke imaging. A special focus is the ischemic stroke. In dependence on the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, the basic principle and diagnostic value of different MRI sequences are illustrated. MRI techniques for imaging of the main differential diagnoses of ischemic stroke are mentioned. Moreover, perspectives of MRI for imaging-based acute stroke treatment as well as monitoring of restorative stroke therapy from recent trials are discussed. (orig.)

  2. THE YOUTH PERSPECTIVE MANAGER FUTURE CHALLENGES AHEAD TO PROPOSED BY ORGANIZATIONAL STUDIES: A PRELIMINARY DIAGNOSIS AND ITS FUTURE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Antonio Gonçalves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to diagnose as young students of management define and realize the factors related to man and the fear of freedom to develop their future assignments subjective as future managers and their subsequent execution. To achieve the proposal, we employed the qualitative research method using script focused in order to observe the ontology interview. Respondents showed be used in your academic life conceptual inclinations towards various definitions found in the literature which litigiou the assumptions of the authors in relation to human and professional activities they will face as future managers, even taking into account the different decades (time. Keywords: Perspectives of human beings. The fear of freedom. Student management. People management. Organizational Studies.

  3. Imagining the Future: Perspectives Among Youth and Caregivers in the Trans Youth Family Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L.; Budge, Stephanie L.; Orovecz, Joe J.; Nguyen, Bradford; Nava-Coulter, Brett; Thomson, Katharine

    2016-01-01

    Future perspectives of transgender youth and their caregivers may be shaped by knowledge of discrimination and adverse mental health among transgender adults. Qualitative data from the Trans Youth Family Study were used to examine how transgender and gender nonconforming (TGN) youth and their caregivers imagine the youth's future. A community-based sample of 16 families (16 TGN youth, ages 7-18 years, and 29 caregivers) was recruited from two regions in the United States. Participants completed in-person qualitative interviews and surveys. Interview transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory methodology for coding procedures. Analyses yielded 104 higher order themes across 45 interviews, with eight prominent themes: comparing experiences with others, gender affirming hormones, gender affirming surgery, gender norms, questioning whether the youth is really transgender, expectations for romantic relationships, uncertainty about the future, and worries about physical and emotional safety. A conceptual model of future perspectives in TGN youth and caregivers is presented and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:28068129

  4. Agricultural air quality in Europe and the future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erisman, J.W.; Bleeker, A.; Hensen, A.; Vermeulen, A.T.

    2008-08-01

    Agricultural emissions in Europe are important to several atmospheric transport-related environmental issues. These include local and regional air quality problems, such as PM exposure, eutrophication and acidification, toxics and contribution to greenhouse gas emissions, resulting in a number of environmental impacts. Over Europe, agricultural emissions are variable in space and time and the contribution to the different issues are variable. Most important are ammonia (90%), PM (20%) and methane and nitrous oxide (both 5%). Policies have been developed to combat some of the emissions with success in some countries. However, future, national and European policies are necessary to successfully decrease emissions and its related problems. Current research issues include the quantification of non-point sources, the atmosphere-biosphere exchange of ammonia, the quantification of landscape processes and the primary and secondary emissions of PM

  5. Advancement of remote systems technology: past perspectives and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, M.J.; Hamel, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    In the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a comprehensive remote systems development program has existed for the past five years. The new remote technology under development is expected to significantly improve remote operations by extending the range of admissible remote tasks and increasing remote work efficiency. The motivation and justification for the program are discussed by surveying the 40 years of remote operating experience which exists and considering the essential features of various old and new philosophies which have been, or are being, used in remote engineering. A future direction based upon the Remotex concept is explained, and recent progress in the development of an advanced servomanipulator-based maintenance concept is summarized to show that a new generation of remote systems capability is feasible through advanced technology. 9 references, 5 figures

  6. Advancement of remote systems technology: past perspectives and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, M.J.; Hamel, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    In the Fuel Recycle Division, Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a comprehensive remote systems development program has existed for the past five years. The new remote technology under development is expected to significantly improve remote operations by extending the range of admissible remote tasks and increasing remote work efficiency. The motivation and justification for the program are discussed by surveying the 40 years of remote operating experience which exists and considering the essential features of various old and new philosophies which have been, or are being, used in remote engineering. A future direction based upon the Teletec concept is explained, and recent progress in the development of an advanced servomanipulator-based maintenance concept is summarized to show that a new generation of remote systems capability is feasible through advanced technology. 20 references, 9 figures, 1 table

  7. Advancement of remote technology: past perspectives and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, M.J.; Hamel, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    In the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a comprehensive remote systems development program has existed for the past five years. The new remote technology under development is expected to significantly improve remote operations by extending the range of admissible remote tasks and increasing remote work efficiency. The motivation and justification for the program are discussed by surveying the 40 years of remote operating experience which exists and considering the essential features of various old and new philosophies which have been, or are being, used in remote engineering. A future direction based upon the Remotex concept is explained, and recent progress in the development of an advanced servomanipulator-based maintenance concept is summarized to show that a new generation of remote systems capability is feasible through advanced technology. 20 references, 10 figures, 1 table

  8. Advancement of remote technology: past perspectives and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, M.J.; Hamel, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    In the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a comprehensive remote systems development program has existed for the past five years. The new remote technology under development is expected to significantly improve remote operations by extending the range of admissible remote tasks and increasing remote work efficiency. The motivation and justification for the program are discussed by surveying the 40 years of remote operating experience which exists and considering the essential features of various old and new philosophies which have been, or are being, used in remote engineering. A future direction based upon the Remotex concept is explained, and recent progress in the development of an advanced servomanipulator-based maintenance concept is summarized to show that a new generation of remote systems capability is feasible through advanced technology. 20 references, 9 figures, 1 table

  9. Regulatory perspective on future climates at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, N.M.; Eisenberg, N.A.; Brooks, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Current regulations of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) require that any performance assessment supporting the license application for a high-level waste (HLW) repository must consider the potential for changes in hydrologic conditions caused by reasonably foreseeable climatic conditions. The requirement is important because the earth's climate will almost certainly change significantly during the thousands of years that disposed nuclear wastes will remain hazardous. More importantly, climate controls the range of precipitation, which in turn controls the rates of infiltration, deep percolation, and groundwater flux through a geologic repository located in an unsaturated environment. Therefore, future changes in climate could significantly influence waste isolation in a repository at Yucca Mountain

  10. Subliminal Priming—State of the Art and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elgendi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of subliminal priming (behavior outside of awareness in humans is an interesting phenomenon and its understanding is crucial as it can impact behavior, choices, and actions. Given this, research about the impact of priming continues to be an area of investigative interest, and this paper provides a technical overview of research design strengths and issues in subliminal priming research. Efficient experiments and protocols, as well as associated electroencephalographic and eye movement data analyses, are discussed in detail. We highlight the strengths and weaknesses of different priming experiments that have measured affective (emotional and cognitive responses. Finally, very recent approaches and findings are described to summarize and emphasize state-of-the-art methods and potential future directions in research marketing and other commercial applications.

  11. A Perspective of Inclusion: Challenges for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Luise Braunsteiner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The term, inclusion, particularly in the educational setting, is still based on a deficit view. Perceptions of ‘dis’-ability create barriers to true inclusion and are often reinforced through higher education training programs. To promote inclusive values, acceptance of individual and cultural differences must be included in all curricula, not solely within special education. The future of a truly inclusive education relies on a cultural shift that supports and nurtures differences, and views success through a lens not focused on standardization but on diversity. The Index for Inclusion (The Index has been utilized worldwide to support schools, to remove perceived barriers and to establish increasingly inclusive school cultures and practices. The Index aids in the creation of a culture that is dedicated to identifying and reducing barriers to inclusion and increases the learning and participation for all students.

  12. Future water table rise at Yucca Mountain: A regulatory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff has developed a program of Systematic Regulatory Analysis (SRA). The purpose of this program is to ensure that important technical issues related to compliance with 10 CFR Part 60 will be identified before receipt of a license application. A plan is being developed to review the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) demonstration of compliance in the license application for each part of the regulation. Under the siting criteria of NRC's Part 60, one of the potentially adverse conditions is the possibility that the water table may rise high enough to saturate a repository in the unsaturated zone. DOE must evaluate this and other conditions in a license application for a geologic repository site. DOE's evaluation must show compliance with the requirements of Part 60 with reasonable assurance. This paper describes the NRC staff's preliminary plans to review DOE's demonstration of compliance, including assumptions about a future rise of the water table

  13. Advancement of remote systems technology: past perspectives and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, W.R.; Feldman, M.J.

    1984-04-01

    In the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a comprehensive remote systems development program has existed for the past five years. The new remote technology under development is expected to significantly improve remote operations by extending the range of admissible remote tasks and increasing remote work efficiency. The motivation and justification for the program are discussed by surveying the 40 years of remote operating experience which exists and considering the essential features of various old and new philosophies which have been, or are being, used in remote engineering. A future direction based upon the Remotex concept is explained, and recent progress in the development of an advanced servomanipulator-based maintenance concept is summarized to show that a new generation of remote systems capability is feasible through advanced technology. 20 references, 10 figures, 1 table

  14. Future issues in radiation protection: a Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation protection has always been a key effectiveness area in Ontario Hydro's nuclear power program. The overall collective and individual dose performance continues to be amongst the best in the world. However, several important issues are emerging and will continue to impact the way in which the radiation protection program is managed. These include proposed reductions in regulatory dose limits based on ICRP 60, worker and public perception of an increased level of radiation risk, an increased presence of organised labour in the formulation of radiation protection policy, our philosophy of self protection coming under challenge and the impact of heavily audited radiation protection practices and programs. Each of these issues will be discussed further in this paper. The Ontario Hydro ALARA program is briefly covered although it is considered not to be a future issue but rather a principle which has been incorporated into the design and operation of our stations for many years. (author). 10 figs

  15. Research in nuclear chemistry: current status and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.V.R.

    2007-01-01

    Research in nuclear chemistry has seen a huge growth over the last few decades. The large umbrella of nuclear chemistry includes several research areas such as nuclear fission, reactions, spectroscopy, nuclear probes and nuclear analytical techniques. Currently, nuclear chemistry research has extended its horizon into various applications like nuclear medicine, isotopes for understanding physico chemical processes, and addressing environmental and biomedical problems. Tremendous efforts are going on for synthesizing new elements (isotopes), isolating physically or chemically wherever possible and investigating their properties. Theses studies are useful to understand nuclear and chemical properties at extreme ends of instability. In addition, nuclear chemists are making substantial contribution to astrophysics and other related areas. During this talk, a few of the contributions made by nuclear chemistry group of BARC will be discussed and possible future areas of research will be enumerated. (author)

  16. Current Status and Future Perspective of Nuclear Cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, June Key

    2009-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is on the rise over the world. Myocardial perfusion SPECT is a well established technique to detect coronary artery disease and to assess left ventricular function. In addition, it has the unique ability to predict the prognosis of the patients. Moreover, the application of ECG-gated images provided the quantitative data and improved the accuracy. This approach has been proved to be cost-effective and suitable for the emerging economies as well as developed countries. However, the utilization of nuclear cardiology procedures vary widely considering the different countries and region of the world. Korea exits 2-3 times less utilization than Japan, and 20 times than the United States. Recently, with the emerging of new technology, namely cardiac CT, cardiac MR and stress echocardiography, the clinical usefulness of nuclear cardiology has been called in question and its role has been redefined. For the proper promotion of nuclear cardiology, special educations should be conducted since the nuclear cardiology has the contact points between nuclear medicine and cardiology. Several innovations are in horizon which will impact the diagnostic accuracy as well as imaging time and cost savings. Development of new tracers, gamma camera technology and hybrid systems will open the new avenue in cardiac imaging. The future of nuclear cardiology based on molecular imaging is very exciting. The newly defined biologic targets involving atherosclerosis and vascular vulnerability will allow the answers for the key clinical questions. Hybrid techniques including SPECT/CT indicate the direction in which clinical nuclear cardiology may be headed in the immediate future. To what extent nuclear cardiology will be passively absorbed by other modalities, or will actively incorporate other modalities, is up to the present and next generation of nuclear cardiologists

  17. Current Status and Future Perspective of Nuclear Cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, June Key [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    Coronary artery disease is on the rise over the world. Myocardial perfusion SPECT is a well established technique to detect coronary artery disease and to assess left ventricular function. In addition, it has the unique ability to predict the prognosis of the patients. Moreover, the application of ECG-gated images provided the quantitative data and improved the accuracy. This approach has been proved to be cost-effective and suitable for the emerging economies as well as developed countries. However, the utilization of nuclear cardiology procedures vary widely considering the different countries and region of the world. Korea exits 2-3 times less utilization than Japan, and 20 times than the United States. Recently, with the emerging of new technology, namely cardiac CT, cardiac MR and stress echocardiography, the clinical usefulness of nuclear cardiology has been called in question and its role has been redefined. For the proper promotion of nuclear cardiology, special educations should be conducted since the nuclear cardiology has the contact points between nuclear medicine and cardiology. Several innovations are in horizon which will impact the diagnostic accuracy as well as imaging time and cost savings. Development of new tracers, gamma camera technology and hybrid systems will open the new avenue in cardiac imaging. The future of nuclear cardiology based on molecular imaging is very exciting. The newly defined biologic targets involving atherosclerosis and vascular vulnerability will allow the answers for the key clinical questions. Hybrid techniques including SPECT/CT indicate the direction in which clinical nuclear cardiology may be headed in the immediate future. To what extent nuclear cardiology will be passively absorbed by other modalities, or will actively incorporate other modalities, is up to the present and next generation of nuclear cardiologists.

  18. Fusion performances and alpha heating in future JET D-T plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balet, B; Cordey, J G; Gibson, A; Lomas, P; Stubberfield, P M; Thomas, P [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-07-01

    The new pump divertor installed at JET should allow high performance pulses of a few seconds duration by both preventing the impurity influx and controlling the density evolution. The TRANSP code has been used in a predictive mode to assess the possible fusion performance of such plasmas fuelled with a 50:50 mixture of D and T, and the effect of alpha particles heating on Te and Ti. Several cases are considered: 50:50 D-T mix; 50:50 D-T mix, no C bloom; 50:50 D-T mix, VH phase, density control; 50:50 D-T mix, VH phase, density control, 6 Ma. The predictions show that if the the bloom and MHD instabilities can be controlled at higher plasma currents using a higher toroidal field to keep a reasonable beta value, then a higher fusion performance steady state plasma with Q{sub DT} superior to 2.5 should be possible. The alpha heating power of 4.9 MW would lead to a 74% increase in Te. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. General description of preliminary design of an experimental fusion reactor and the future problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sako, Kiyoshi

    1976-01-01

    Recently, the studies on plasma physics has progressed rapidly, and promising experimental data emerged successively. Especially expectation mounts high that Tokamak will develop into power reactors. In Japan, the construction of large plasma devices such as JT-60 of JAERI is going to start, and after several years, the studies on plasma physics will come to the end of first stage, then the main research and development will be directed to power reactors. The studies on the design of practical fusion reactors have been in progress since 1973 in JAERI, and the preliminary design is being carried out. The purposes of the preliminary design are the clarification of the concept of the experimental reactor and the requirements for the studies on core plasma, the examination of the problems for developing main components and systems of the reactor, and the development of design technology. The experimental reactor is the quasi-steady reactor of 100 MW fusion reaction output, and the conditions set for the design and the basis of their setting are explained. The outline of the design, namely core plasma, blankets, superconductive magnets and the shielding with them, vacuum wall, neutral particle injection heating device, core fuel supply and exhaust system, and others, is described. In case of scale-up the reactor structural material which can withstand neutron damage must be developed. (Kako, I.)

  20. Progress in laboratory high gain ICF [inertial confinement fusion]: Prospects for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, E.; Lindl, J.D.; Campbell, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF), a thermonuclear reaction in a small (/approximately/5 mm diameter) fuel capsule filled with a few milligrams of deuterium and tritium, has been the subject of very fruitful experimentation since the early 1970's. High gain ICF is now on the threshold of practical applications. With a Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF), these applications will have major implications for national defense, basic and applied science, and power production. With a driver capable of delivering about 10 MJ in a 10-ns pulse at an intensity of /approximately/3 /times/ 10 14 W/cm 2 , an appropriately configured cryogenic capsule could be compressed to a density of about 200 g/cm 3 and a temperature of 3--5 keV. Under these conditions, up to 10 mg of DT could be ignited, and with a burn efficiency of about 30%, release up to 1000 MJ of fusion energy, an energy gain of about 100. A thousand megajoules is equivalent to about one quarter ton of TNT, or about 7 gallons of oil--an amount of energy tractable under laboratory conditions and potentially very useful for a variety of applications. 61 refs., 33 figs

  1. The Spanish Society of Soil Science: history and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinfante, Nicolás; Arbelo, Dolores; Rodríguez, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The Spanish Society of Soil Science (SECS; http://www.secs.com.es) has reached sixty years of existence, after being established in 1947 at the Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC) as an initiative of renowned scientists including José María Albareda, Salvador Rivas Goday, Fernando Burriel, Tomás Alvira and others. However, soil studies in Spain began in the first third of XX century, coordinated by Emilio Huguet del Villar, internationally outstanding researcher who was the President of the Subcommittee for the Mediterranean Region of the International Society Soil Science, with the activities of the Forest Research Institute and the Institute of Mediterranean Soils of the Regional Catalonian Government. With the creation of the CSIC and the Spanish Institute of Soil Science and Agrobiology, directed by José M. Albareda, Soil Science research was promoted in all scientific fields and through the Spanish geography. The SECS is considered equally heiress of previously existing organizations, in particular the Spanish Commission of Soil Science and Phytogeography, created in 1925, which was the Spanish voice in various international organizations and meetings related with Soil Science. After these years, Soil Science has developed considerably, showing a great diversification of fields of study and research and its applications, as well as a growing social awareness of the soil degradation processes and the need to implement measures to protect natural resources nonrenewable on a human scale, and an increasing role of universities and CSIC in Soil Science research. Currently, the SECS is a scientific organization dedicated to promoting the study, knowledge, research and protection of soil resources; spread the scientific importance of soil functions as nonrenewable natural resource in society and promote the interest in its protection; and preserve the knowledge about soils, their management and use, both from productive and environmental perspectives

  2. A critical evaluation of the validity of episodic future thinking: A clinical neuropsychology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Amanda M

    2016-11-01

    Episodic future thinking is defined as the ability to mentally simulate a future event. Although episodic future thinking has been studied extensively in neuroscience, this construct has not been explored in depth from the perspective of clinical neuropsychology. The aim of this critical narrative review is to assess the validity and clinical implications of episodic future thinking. A systematic review of episodic future thinking literature was conducted. PubMed and PsycInfo were searched through July 2015 for review and empirical articles with the following search terms: "episodic future thinking," "future mental simulation," "imagining the future," "imagining new experiences," "future mental time travel," "future autobiographical experience," and "prospection." The review discusses evidence that episodic future thinking is important for adaptive functioning, which has implications for neurological populations. To determine the validity of episodic future thinking, the construct is evaluated with respect to related constructs, such as imagination, episodic memory, autobiographical memory, prospective memory, narrative construction, and working memory. Although it has been minimally investigated, there is evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for episodic future thinking. Research has not addressed the incremental validity of episodic future thinking. Practical considerations of episodic future thinking tasks and related constructs in a clinical neuropsychological setting are considered. The utility of episodic future thinking is currently unknown due to the lack of research investigating the validity of episodic future thinking. Future work is discussed, which could determine whether episodic future thinking is an important missing piece in standard clinical neuropsychological assessment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Landowners' perspectives on the rural future and the role of forests across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elands, Birgit; Præstholm, Søren

    2007-01-01

    countries perceive future development. Landowners' prospects for change are investigated on both the locality and enterprise level. Special attention is given to the role of forestry as a potential future development perspective. The results reveal that both restructuring and modernisation perspectives...... are important to many landowners. Moreover, a polarisation seems to be developing between a minority of full-time farmers with progressive farming prospects and the vast majority of landowners with declining prospects or little dependency on primary production. More importantly, the research reveals a third...... employment perspective, which did not have any specific content apart from the social security of having employment opportunities in the locality. Also at the enterprise level, farmers anticipate both restructuring and modernisation practices, even on the very same property. The study proves...

  4. Laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, D.E.T.F.

    1976-01-01

    A short survey is given on laser fusion its basic concepts and problems and the present theoretical and experimental methods. The future research program of the USA in this field is outlined. (WBU) [de

  5. Marx @ 200: Debating Capitalism & Perspectives for the Future of Radical Theory (combined PDF of all articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Combined pdf of all articles published in the special issue "Marx @ 200: Debating Capitalism & Perspectives for the Future of Radical Theory", edited by Christian Fuchs and Lara Monticelli, tripleC: Communication, Capitalism & Critique 16 (2, 2018, pp. 406-741.

  6. Bladder augmentation without integration of intact bowel segments: critical review and future perspectives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurocak, S.; Gier, R.P.E. de; Feitz, W.F.J.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: We evaluated the long-term results of autoaugmentation in the pediatric age group and summarized technical adaptations, experimental options and future perspectives for treating these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A directed MEDLINE literature review was performed to assess different

  7. Where to go in the near future: diverging perspectives on online public service delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; Wimmer, Maria A.; Scholl, Jochen; Grönlund, Åke

    2007-01-01

    Although the electronic government is under heavy development, a clear vision doesn’t seem to exist. In this study 20 interviews among leaders in the field of e-government in the Netherlands resulted in different perspectives on the future of electronic public service delivery. The interviews

  8. Exploring the Effects of Changes in Future Time Perspective and Perceived Instrumentality on Graded Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Altay

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to explore the possible changes in the Future Time Perspective (FTP) and Perceived Instrumentality (PI) over time as long as one academic semester, as well as to explore whether those changes in FTP and PI explained students' Graded Performance (GP) with regard to a specific course; educational psychology. Method: A…

  9. Factors Influencing Teaching Choice, Professional Plans about Teaching, and Future Time Perspective: A Mediational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Altay; Tezel, Kadir Vefa

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the mediating role of prospective English teachers' future time perspectives in relation to their motivations for teaching, beliefs about the profession, career choice satisfaction, and professional plans. A total of 423 prospective English teachers voluntarily participated in the study. The mediating role of the future…

  10. Future Time Perspective as a Predictor of Adolescents' Adaptive Behavior in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Renato Gil Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Future time perspective (FTP) has been associated with positive outcomes in adolescents' development across different contexts. However, the extent to which FTP influences adaptation needs additional understanding. In this study, we analysed the relationship between FTP and adolescents' behavior in school, as expressed in several indicators of…

  11. Age differences in the understanding of wealth and power: the mediating role of future time perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianyuan; Tsang, Vivian Hiu-Ling

    2016-12-01

    Individuals' understanding of wealth and power largely determines their use of resources. Moreover, the age range of wealth and power holders is increasing in modern societies. Thus, the current study examines how people of different ages understand wealth and power. As varying future time perspective is related to changes in prioritised life goals, it was tested as a potential mediator of the age differences. A total of 133 participants aged 18-78 years were asked 8 open-ended questions regarding their understanding of the possible use and desired use of wealth and power, after which they reported their future time perspective. Compared with possible use, the participants mentioned relatively more prosocial elements when they talked about their desired use of the resources, especially power. The older adults expressed more prosocial understanding in regard to the desired use of wealth and the possible use of power compared to their younger counterparts. The age differences were fully mediated by future time perspective. The results suggest that age is a critical factor that influences individuals' conceptualisation of wealth and power. Life-span developmental stage and future time perspective are important factors to consider for explaining individual differences in the exercise of wealth and power and for promoting their prosocial usage.

  12. Enhancing Student Motivation: A Longitudinal Intervention Study Based on Future Time Perspective Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuitema, Jaap; Peetsma, Thea; van der Veen, Ineke

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of an intervention developed to enhance student motivation in the first years of secondary education. The intervention, based on future time perspective (FTP) theory, has been found to be effective in prevocational secondary education (T. T. D. Peetsma & I. Van der Veen, 2008, 2009). The authors extend the…

  13. Prospective Teachers' Future Time Perspective and Professional Plans about Teaching: The Mediating Role of Academic Optimism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Altay

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the mediating role of prospective teachers' academic optimism in the relationship between their future time perspective and professional plans about teaching. A total of 396 prospective teachers voluntarily participated in the study. Correlation, regression, and structural equation modeling analyses were conducted in…

  14. Motivational power of future time perspective : Meta-analyses in education, work, and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andre, L.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; Peetsma, T.T.D.; Oort, F.J.

    2018-01-01

    Future time perspective (FTP) may predict individual attitudes and behaviors. However, FTP research includes different FTP conceptualizations and outcomes which hinder generalizing its findings. To solve the inconsistencies in FTP research and generalize the magnitude of FTP as a driver of

  15. The Influence of Future Time Perspective on Worker Outcomes: The Role of Job Crafting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, T.A.M.; Tims, M.; Akkermans, J.

    2017-01-01

    This two-wave study aimed to examine future time perspective (FTP) as an antecedent of job crafting, and in turn job crafting as a mediator in associations between FTP and work outcomes. Based on the lifespan socio-emotional selectivity theory, we expected that open-ended and limited FTP would evoke

  16. Future time perspective, regulatory focus, and selection, optimization, and compensation: Testing a longitudinal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltes, B.B.; Wynne, K.; Sirabian, M.; Krenn, D.; Lange, A.H. de

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the behavioral processes through which future time perspective (FTP) and regulatory focus may influence coping behaviors in older workers. A three-wave longitudinal study was conducted to test a novel model, positing that FTP affects regulatory focus, which then influences the

  17. Conference Scene: From innovative polymers to advanced nanomedicine: Key challenges, recent progress and future perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen, Jan; Hennink, W.E.; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in polymer-based controlled delivery systems have made a significant clinical impact. The second Symposium on Innovative Polymers for Controlled Delivery (SIPCD) was held in Suzhou, China to address the key challenges and provide up-to-date progress and future perspectives in the

  18. Fusion Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Lackner, Karl; Tran, Minh Quang [eds.

    2012-09-15

    Recreating the energy production process of the Sun - nuclear fusion - on Earth in a controlled fashion is one of the greatest challenges of this century. If achieved at affordable costs, energy supply security would be greatly enhanced and environmental degradation from fossil fuels greatly diminished. Fusion Physics describes the last fifty years or so of physics and research in innovative technologies to achieve controlled thermonuclear fusion for energy production. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been involved since its establishment in 1957 in fusion research. It has been the driving force behind the biennial conferences on Plasma Physics and Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion, today known as the Fusion Energy Conference. Hosted by several Member States, this biennial conference provides a global forum for exchange of the latest achievements in fusion research against the backdrop of the requirements for a net energy producing fusion device and, eventually, a fusion power plant. The scientific and technological knowledge compiled during this series of conferences, as well as by the IAEA Nuclear Fusion journal, is immense and will surely continue to grow in the future. It has led to the establishment of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which represents the biggest experiment in energy production ever envisaged by humankind.

  19. Anti-Angiogenics: Current Situation and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirlik, Katja; Duyster, Justus

    2018-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the process leading to the formation of new blood vessels, is one of the hallmarks of cancer. Extensive studies established that i) vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key driver of sprouting angiogenesis, ii) VEGF is overexpressed in most solid cancers, and iii) inhibition of VEGF can suppress tumor growth in animal models. This has led to the development of pharmacological agents for anti-angiogenesis to disrupt the vascular supply and starve the tumor of nutrients and oxygen, primarily through the blockade of VEGF/VEGF receptor signaling. This effort has resulted in 11 anti-VEGF drugs approved for certain advanced cancers, either alone or in combination with chemotherapy and other targeted therapies. However, inhibition of VEGF signaling is not effective in all cancers, and anti-angiogenics have often only limited impact on overall survival of cancer patients. This review focuses on the current status of FDA-approved anti-angiogenic antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors and summarizes the progress and future directions of VEGF-targeted therapy. © 2018 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  20. Research on improvement of marine nuclear reactors and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokomura, Takeyoshi

    1988-01-01

    The features when atomic energy is utilized on the sea are that the fuel cost is low, accordingly it is suitable to the power sources of large output, that the volume and weight of fuel are small, accordingly it is suitable to the continuous operation for a long period without refueling, and that oxygen is not required for the burning, accordingly it is suitable to undersea power sources. In USSR, four nuclear icebreakers have been in use, and four more are under construction. A nuclear LASH ship has been operated, and one more is under construction. As the other fields than sea transportation, an electricity generation barge MH-1A of USA used as the auxiliary power source for the Panama Canal and a research submarine NR-1 of USA have been in practical use. With the advance of ocean development in future, the creation of needs such as deep sea power stations, deep sea research ships and deep sea work ships is expected. Marine nuclear reactor technology was begun in the form of the nuclearization of merchant ships, and Savannah of USA, Otto Hahn of West Germany and Mutsu of Japan were built. The marine nuclear reactors built so far and of which the conceptual design was carried out are shown. The improvement of marine reactors is the reduction of size and weight, the simplification of the system, the adoption of self pressurization and self compensation and so on. The research on the improvement in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is reported. (Kako, I.)

  1. Computerisation of procedures. Lessons learned and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.; Pirus, D.; Nilsen, S.; Bisio, R.; Hulsund, J.-E.; Zhang, W.

    2003-07-01

    The computerisation of the procedures has been investigated for several years. Even though guidelines for such computerisation have been proposed, there is a need to extend and revise these guidelines. In this report, we look at what has been achieved so far, both within the Halden Project as well as within other organisations related to nuclear power plants. These experiences are often related to testing of particular computerised procedure systems either in research laboratories or in nuclear utilities. These activities have accumulated a body of general knowledge on the subject, as documented in other 'lessons learned' reports of the past. This report will extend this accepted body of knowledge. Furthermore, we identify the unresolved problems that need to be further studied to make usable computerised procedures for the future. The report identifies selected qualities that should be reinforced to make computerised procedure systems better. In particular, the integration aspect is emphasised. A flexible integration with the operator tasks and the remaining interfaces of the control room is important. Unless this integration is accomplished, the computerised procedures will not be functional. Another aspect of integration is combination with other systems inclusive those systems that deal with the plant documentation, electronic or paper based. This kind of integration is important to the safe and reliable operation of the plant. Good integration with plant documentation is instrumental in creating reliable QA of the procedures that covers the whole life cycle of the procedure. (Author). 48 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Future requirements for petroleum fuels - an environmental perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.

    1998-01-01

    The environmental impacts of fuel emissions were discussed. Emissions from petroleum fuels are the largest contributor to a wide range of environmental problems including damage to the ozone layer and risks to human health. Forecasts indicate that future demand for fossil fuels for energy will continue to grow. The transportation sector is the largest single source of air emissions in Canada. The environmental requirements for all fuels will become progressively more stringent. The pollutants of primary concern include toxics, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, and particulates. The U.S. auto-oil research program has conducted considerable research to understand the impact of fuel parameters of vehicle tailpipe emissions. In Canada, lead was removed from Canadian gas a decade ago. Since January 1998, low sulphur diesel (less than 500 ppm) is required for on-road use. Regulations have also been passed to reduce the level of benzene in gasoline to less than one per cent by mid-1999. It will be necessary to manage our fossil fuels to minimize the environmental impacts from combustion. In the longer term, it will be necessary to minimize fossil fuel use through conservation and shift to less polluting fuels

  3. Alternatives to animal testing: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebsch, Manfred; Grune, Barbara; Seiler, Andrea; Butzke, Daniel; Oelgeschläger, Michael; Pirow, Ralph; Adler, Sarah; Riebeling, Christian; Luch, Andreas

    2011-08-01

    On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the Center for Alternative Methods to Animal Experiments (ZEBET), an international symposium was held at the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) in Berlin. At the same time, this symposium was meant to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of the book "The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique" by Russell and Burch in 1959 in which the 3Rs principle (that is, Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement) has been coined and introduced to foster the development of alternative methods to animal testing. Another topic addressed by the symposium was the new vision on "Toxicology in the twenty-first Century", as proposed by the US-National Research Council, which aims at using human cells and tissues for toxicity testing in vitro rather than live animals. An overview of the achievements and current tasks, as well as a vision of the future to be addressed by ZEBET@BfR in the years to come is outlined in the present paper.

  4. Metabolomics in cancer biomarker discovery: current trends and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Emily G; Barbas, Coral

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most devastating human diseases that causes a vast number of mortalities worldwide each year. Cancer research is one of the largest fields in the life sciences and despite many astounding breakthroughs and contributions over the past few decades, there is still a considerable amount to unveil on the function of cancer. It is well known that cancer metabolism differs from that of normal tissue and an important hypothesis published in the 1950s by Otto Warburg proposed that cancer cells rely on anaerobic metabolism as the source for energy, even under physiological oxygen levels. Following this, cancer central carbon metabolism has been researched extensively and beyond respiration, cancer has been found to involve a wide range of metabolic processes, and many more are still to be unveiled. Studying cancer through metabolomics could reveal new biomarkers for cancer that could be useful for its future prognosis, diagnosis and therapy. Metabolomics is becoming an increasingly popular tool in the life sciences since it is a relatively fast and accurate technique that can be applied with either a particular focus or in a global manner to reveal new knowledge about biological systems. There have been many examples of its application to reveal potential biomarkers in different cancers that have employed a range of different analytical platforms. In this review, approaches in metabolomics that have been employed in cancer biomarker discovery are discussed and some of the most noteworthy research in the field is highlighted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Classifying new anti-tuberculosis drugs: rationale and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Tiberi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The classification of anti-tuberculosis (TB drugs is important as it helps the clinician to build an appropriate anti-TB regimen for multidrug-resistant (MDR and extensively drug-resistant (XDR TB cases that do not fulfil the criteria for the shorter MDR-TB regimen. The World Health Organization (WHO has recently approved a revision of the classification of new anti-TB drugs based on current evidence on each drug. In the previous WHO guidelines, the choice of drugs was based on efficacy and toxicity in a step-down manner, from group 1 first-line drugs and groups 2–5 second-line drugs, to group 5 drugs with potentially limited efficacy or limited clinical evidence. In the revised WHO classification, exclusively aimed at managing drug-resistant cases, medicines are again listed in hierarchical order from group A to group D. In parallel, a possible future classification is independently proposed. The aim of this viewpoint article is to describe the evolution in WHO TB classification (taking into account an independently proposed new classification and recent changes in WHO guidance, while commenting on the differences between them. The latest evidence on the ex-group 5 drugs is also discussed.

  6. Perovskite-Based Solar Cells: Materials, Methods, and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel all-solid-state, hybrid solar cell based on organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbX3 materials has attracted great attention from the researchers all over the world and is considered to be one of the top 10 scientific breakthroughs in 2013. The perovskite materials can be used not only as light-absorbing layer, but also as an electron/hole transport layer due to the advantages of its high extinction coefficient, high charge mobility, long carrier lifetime, and long carrier diffusion distance. The photoelectric power conversion efficiency of the perovskite solar cells has increased from 3.8% in 2009 to 22.1% in 2016, making perovskite solar cells the best potential candidate for the new generation of solar cells to replace traditional silicon solar cells in the future. In this paper, we introduce the development and mechanism of perovskite solar cells, describe the specific function of each layer, and focus on the improvement in the function of such layers and its influence on the cell performance. Next, the synthesis methods of the perovskite light-absorbing layer and the performance characteristics are discussed. Finally, the challenges and prospects for the development of perovskite solar cells are also briefly presented.

  7. Expanded newborn screening by mass spectrometry: New tests, future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombrone, Daniela; Giocaliere, Elisa; Forni, Giulia; Malvagia, Sabrina; la Marca, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has become a leading technology used in clinical chemistry and has shown to be particularly sensitive and specific when used in newborn screening (NBS) tests. The success of tandem mass spectrometry is due to important advances in hardware, software and clinical applications during the last 25 years. MS/MS permits a very rapid measurement of many metabolites in different biological specimens by using filter paper spots or directly on biological fluids. Its use in NBS give us the chance to identify possible treatable metabolic disorders even when asymptomatic and the benefits gained by this type of screening is now recognized worldwide. Today the use of MS/MS for second-tier tests and confirmatory testing is promising especially in the early detection of new disorders such as some lysosomal storage disorders, ADA and PNP SCIDs, X-adrenoleucodistrophy (X-ALD), Wilson disease, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency (GAMT), and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The new challenge for the future will be reducing the false positive rate by using second-tier tests, avoiding false negative results by using new specific biomarkers and introducing new treatable disorders in NBS programs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Programmed cell death in periodontitis: recent advances and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, B; Zhou, T; Yang, W L; Liu, J; Shao, L Q

    2017-07-01

    Periodontitis is a highly prevalent infectious disease, characterized by destruction of the periodontium, and is the main cause of tooth loss. Periodontitis is initiated by periodontal pathogens, while other risk factors including smoking, stress, and systemic diseases aggravate its progression. Periodontitis affects many people worldwide, but the molecular mechanisms by which pathogens and risk factors destroy the periodontium are unclear. Programmed cell death (PCD), different from necrosis, is an active cell death mediated by a cascade of gene expression events and can be mainly classified into apoptosis, autophagy, necroptosis, and pyroptosis. Although PCD is involved in many inflammatory diseases, its correlation with periodontitis is unclear. After reviewing the relevant published articles, we found that apoptosis has indeed been reported to play a role in periodontitis. However, the role of autophagy in periodontitis needs further verification. Additionally, implication of necroptosis or pyroptosis in periodontitis remains unknown. Therefore, we recommend future studies, which will unravel the pivotal role of PCD in periodontitis, allowing us to prevent, diagnose, and treat the disease, as well as predict its outcomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Current advances and future perspectives in extrusion-based bioprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbolat, Ibrahim T; Hospodiuk, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Extrusion-based bioprinting (EBB) is a rapidly growing technology that has made substantial progress during the last decade. It has great versatility in printing various biologics, including cells, tissues, tissue constructs, organ modules and microfluidic devices, in applications from basic research and pharmaceutics to clinics. Despite the great benefits and flexibility in printing a wide range of bioinks, including tissue spheroids, tissue strands, cell pellets, decellularized matrix components, micro-carriers and cell-laden hydrogels, the technology currently faces several limitations and challenges. These include impediments to organ fabrication, the limited resolution of printed features, the need for advanced bioprinting solutions to transition the technology bench to bedside, the necessity of new bioink development for rapid, safe and sustainable delivery of cells in a biomimetically organized microenvironment, and regulatory concerns to transform the technology into a product. This paper, presenting a first-time comprehensive review of EBB, discusses the current advancements in EBB technology and highlights future directions to transform the technology to generate viable end products for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Twenty years of ABACC: Accomplishments, lessons learnt and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, Orpet J.M. [ABACC- Brazilian Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2012-06-15

    From the inception of the implementation of the Quadripartite Agreement (INFCIRC/435), in 1991, ABACC has had an important role at the non-proliferation agenda and has also been an active player in the international safeguards. It was necessary for ABACC to develop a technical capacity to face the challenges to be a safeguards agency and to gain credibility in the nuclear safeguards world. This capacity means to develop and implement safeguards systems in the technical area, in the inspection framework, in the conceptual analysis of processes and approaches and in the political scenario. These tasks conducted the strategic plan of ABACC on the last 20 years. Among the accomplishments, ABACC has been involved in the application of safeguards to sensitive and complex installations, in developing safeguards instrumentation, in establishing a technical and trained inspectorate, in constructing a cooperative and coordinate environment with IAEA for safeguards application. Other challenges as R and D of equipment and quality assurance systems were also managed during all these years. ESARDA is one forum that ABACC is involved and always shares experience and ideas. On July 18th, 2011 ABACC will formally complete 20 years. This paper summarizes the accomplishments, lessons learnt and future actions for strengthen the ABACC safeguards role. It also addresses the collaboration of ABACC with other organizations in the non-proliferation and international safeguards arena.

  11. Remote sampling system in reprocessing: present and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcha, J.S.; Balakrishnan, V.P.; Rao, M.K.

    1990-01-01

    For the process and inventory control of the reprocessing plant operation it is essential to analyse the samples from the various process vessels to assess the plant performance and take corrective action if needed in the operating parameters. In view of the very high radioactive inventory in the plant, these plants are operated remotely behind thick shielding. The liquid sampling also has to be carried out by remote techniques only as no direct approach is feasible. A vacuum assisted air lift method is employed for the purpose of obtaining samples from remotely located process vessels. A brief description of the present technique, the design criteria, various interlocks and manual operations involved during sampling and despatching the same to the analytical laboratory is given in the paper. A design approach for making the sampling system, a fully automated remote operation has been attempted in this paper. Utilisation of custom built robots and dedicated computer for the various operations and interlocks has been visualised to ensure a complete remotised system for the adoption in future plants. (author). 2 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Target Therapies for Uterine Carcinosarcomas: Current Evidence and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Giovanni Vitale

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Carcinosarcomas (CS in gynecology are very infrequent and represent only 2–5% of uterine cancers. Despite surgical cytoreduction and subsequent chemotherapy being the primary treatment for uterine CS, the overall five-year survival rate is 30 ± 9% and recurrence is extremely common (50–80%. Due to the poor prognosis of CS, new strategies have been developed in the last few decades, targeting known dysfunctional molecular pathways for immunotherapy. In this paper, we aimed to gather the available evidence on the latest therapies for the treatment of CS. We performed a systematic review using the terms “uterine carcinosarcoma”, “uterine Malignant Mixed Müllerian Tumors”, “target therapies”, “angiogenesis therapy”, “cancer stem cell therapy”, “prognostic biomarker”, and “novel antibody-drug”. Based on our results, the differential expression and accessibility of epithelial cell adhesion molecule-1 on metastatic/chemotherapy-resistant CS cells in comparison to normal tissues and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2 open up new possibilities in the field of target therapy. Nevertheless, future investigations are needed to clarify the impact of these new therapies on survival rate and medium-/long-term outcomes.

  13. Neuroprotection for Stroke: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kleinschnitz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuroprotection aims to prevent salvageable neurons from dying. Despite showing efficacy in experimental stroke studies, the concept of neuroprotection has failed in clinical trials. Reasons for the translational difficulties include a lack of methodological agreement between preclinical and clinical studies and the heterogeneity of stroke in humans compared to homogeneous strokes in animal models. Even when the international recommendations for preclinical stroke research, the Stroke Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR criteria, were followed, we have still seen limited success in the clinic, examples being NXY-059 and haematopoietic growth factors which fulfilled nearly all the STAIR criteria. However, there are a number of neuroprotective treatments under investigation in clinical trials such as hypothermia and ebselen. Moreover, promising neuroprotective treatments based on a deeper understanding of the complex pathophysiology of ischemic stroke such as inhibitors of NADPH oxidases and PSD-95 are currently evaluated in preclinical studies. Further concepts to improve translation include the investigation of neuroprotectants in multicenter preclinical Phase III-type studies, improved animal models, and close alignment between clinical trial and preclinical methodologies. Future successful translation will require both new concepts for preclinical testing and innovative approaches based on mechanistic insights into the ischemic cascade.

  14. Oncolytic Immunotherapy: Conceptual Evolution, Current Strategies, and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong Sheng Guo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of oncolytic virus (OV-mediated cancer therapy has been shifted from an operational virotherapy paradigm to an immunotherapy. OVs often induce immunogenic cell death (ICD of cancer cells, and they may interact directly with immune cells as well to prime antitumor immunity. We and others have developed a number of strategies to further stimulate antitumor immunity and to productively modulate the tumor microenvironment (TME for potent and sustained antitumor immune cell activity. First, OVs have been engineered or combined with other ICD inducers to promote more effective T cell cross-priming, and in many cases, the breaking of functional immune tolerance. Second, OVs may be armed to express Th1-stimulatory cytokines/chemokines or costimulators to recruit and sustain the potent antitumor immunity into the TME to focus their therapeutic activity within the sites of disease. Third, combinations of OV with immunomodulatory drugs or antibodies that recondition the TME have proven to be highly promising in early studies. Fourth, combinations of OVs with other immunotherapeutic regimens (such as prime-boost cancer vaccines, CAR T cells; armed with bispecific T-cell engagers have also yielded promising preliminary findings. Finally, OVs have been combined with immune checkpoint blockade, with robust antitumor efficacy being observed in pilot evaluations. Despite some expected hurdles for the rapid translation of OV-based state-of-the-art protocols, we believe that a cohort of these novel approaches will join the repertoire of standard cancer treatment options in the near future.

  15. Targeting connexin 43 in diabetic wound healing: Future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajpai S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The unknown mechanisms of impaired tissue repair in diabetes mellitus are making this disease a serious clinical problem for the physicians worldwide. The lacuna in the knowledge of the etiology of diabetic wounds necessitates more focused research in order to develop new targeting tools with higher efficacy for their effective management. Gap-junction proteins, connexins, have shown some promising results in the process of diabetic wound healing. Till now the role of connexins has been implicated in peripheral neuropathy, deafness, skin disorders, cataract, germ cell development and treatment of cancer. Recent findings have revealed that gap junctions play a key role in normal as well as diabetic wound healing. The purpose of this review is to provide the information related to etiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation of diabetic wounds and to analyze the role of connexin 43 (Cx43 in the diabetic wound healing process. The current control strategies and the future research challenges have also been discussed briefly in this review.

  16. EARTH OBSERVATION ACTIVITIES AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. El-Magd

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Egypt was one of the first developing countries in Africa that used earth observation and remote sensing in various applications since 1970s. It has grown up in the last decades to build its own capacity in space science and technology that ended up by launching earth observation satellites. At the same time Egypt continued to develop the capacity in EO applications and contribute to the national development plans. In this domain NARSS, the governmental research institute that lead the EO and space applications has completed many research and development projects in EO applications in mineral resources exploration, coastal and marine resources, air quality, water resources management, food security, etc. This was via operational projects with the stakeholders and users to ensure sustainability and operation of the services. For example, NARSS has developed an operational system to monitor the national crop rice using EO information that capable to provide the actual land planted with rice and predict the yield. The system has enabled to provide recommendations for other plots of land that suitable for rice plantation. In the area of environmental hazards, many projects on the flash floods and the vulnerability to flash flood hazards were developed providing decision makers with vulnerability maps and Atlases on national level. Further details on the EO activities and future plans at NARSS, Egypt will be presented in this paper.

  17. The management of erectile dysfunction: innovations and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Rosario; Alemanni, Matteo

    2011-03-01

    Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors are recommended as first line therapy for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). To date, three PDE5 inhibitors are on the market: sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil. These compounds are available as oral tablets; they are rapidly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and are excreted mainly in the fces and to a lexer extent in the urine. Recently, an orodisnersible formulation of feces and, to a lesser extent, in the urine. Recently, an orodispersible formulation of vardenafil (vardenafil ODT) has been developed, which is able to dissolve in the mouth within seconds, releasing a minty flavor, without the need of being swallowed with water. The clinical studies so far performed showed that vardenafil ODT has a bioavailability superior to the traditional film-coated tablet. Among the other PDE5 inhibitors under development we report mirodenafil, lodenafil carbonate, avalafil and SLx-2101 It is likely that in the future molecules that act on pathways other than the one of NO/cGMP will be available. Such as Rho-kinase inhibitors, which inhibit the mechanism that leads to smooth muscle contraction thus allowing erection and hydrogen sulphide (H2S), an endogenous molecule synthesized from cysteine that can be both a vasodilator and a vasoconstrictor according to its concentration.

  18. [Clinical neuropsychology in perspective: future challenges based on current developments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo-García, Antonio; Tirapu-Ustárroz, Javier

    2012-02-01

    New lines of translational, interdisciplinary research are emerging among different fields of the neurosciences, which often point at clinical neuropsychology as the hinge discipline capable of linking the basic findings with their clinical implications and thereby endow them with some meaning for phenomenological experience. To establish the great lines of progress made in the fields of neuroscience and neuropsychology in recent years, so as to be able to foresee the strategic lines and priorities of neuroscience in the near future. To achieve this aim, the first step will be to identify the changes of paradigm that have taken place in the areas of neuroscience and psychology in the last two decades. The next step will be to propose new topics and fields of application that these changes in paradigm offer and demand from neuroscience. The false dichotomies of genes versus environment, mind versus brain, and reason versus emotion are considered, as are the new applications of neuropsychology to the understanding of psychopathological disorders, from the neurodegenerative to neurodevelopment, from 'dirty' drugs to cognitive and affective enhancers.

  19. Training in Spanish organizations: Trends and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jose Rubio Hurtado

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aims to identify training trends in Spanish organizations.Design/methodology/approach: A survey methodology is conducted and the questionnaire is the strategy to collect information. In order to construct the sample, a previous selection of enterprises was done out of the 50 000 enterprises registered at DICODI (Data base of main Spanish societies 2004/2005. The sampling was done by quotas. The quotas or categories selected were: the enterprises’ activity sector, gender and job position. Findings: The research describes the actual state of training trends and the changes that seem to glimpse out of the considered dimensions: training planning, goals, recipients, modalities, resources, evaluation, training professionals and outsourcing.Research limitations: The study was carried out through a not randomized sample, so the results cannot be generalized.Practical implications: Organizations can make future proposals from the facts exposed in our research. Originality/value: Is the first time in our context that a research of this type is performed, showing significant matches in the results with other studies of international reference.

  20. Biomarkers in prostate cancer - Current clinical utility and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Alexander; Tilki, Derya

    2017-12-01

    Current tendencies in the treatment course of prostate cancer patients increase the need for reliable biomarkers that help in decision-making in a challenging clinical setting. Within the last decade, several novel biomarkers have been introduced. In the following comprehensive review article, we focus on diagnostic (PHI ® , 4K score, SelectMDx ® , ConfirmMDx ® , PCA3, MiPS, ExoDX ® , mpMRI) and prognostic (OncotypeDX GPS ® , Prolaris ® , ProMark ® , DNA-ploidy, Decipher ® ) biomarkers that are in widespread clinical use and are supported by evidence. Hereby, we focus on multiple clinical situations in which innovative biomarkers may guide decision-making in prostate cancer therapy. In addition, we describe novel liquid biopsy approaches (circulating tumor cells, cell-free DNA) that have been described as predictive biomarkers in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer and might support an individual patient-centred oncological approach in the nearer future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Classical swine fever in pigs: recent developments and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, Vishal; Nandi, S; Ravishankar, C; Upmanyu, V; Verma, Rishendra

    2014-06-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is one of the most devastating epizootic diseases of pigs, causing high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The diversity of clinical signs and similarity in disease manifestations to other diseases make CSF difficult to diagnose with certainty. The disease is further complicated by the presence of a number of different strains belonging to three phylogenetic groups. Advanced diagnostic techniques allow detection of antigens or antibodies in clinical samples, leading to implementation of proper and effective control programs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods, including portable real-time PCR, provide diagnosis in a few hours with precision and accuracy, even at the point of care. The disease is controlled by following a stamping out policy in countries where vaccination is not practiced, whereas immunization with live attenuated vaccines containing the 'C' strain is effectively used to control the disease in endemic countries. To overcome the problem of differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals, different types of marker vaccines, with variable degrees of efficacy, along with companion diagnostic assays have been developed and may be useful in controlling and even eradicating the disease in the foreseeable future. The present review aims to provide an overview and status of CSF as a whole with special reference to swine husbandry in India.

  2. Sustainable WEE management in Malaysia: present scenarios and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaul Hasan Shumon, Md; Ahmed, S.

    2013-12-01

    Technological advances have resulted development of a lot of electronic products for continuously increasing number of customers. As the customer taste and features of these products change rapidly, the life cycles have come down tremendously. Therefore, a large volume of e-wastes are now emanated every year. This scenario is very much predominant in Malaysia. On one hand e-wastes are becoming environmental hazards and affecting the ecological imbalance. On the other, these wastes are remaining still economically valuable. In Malaysia, e-waste management system is still in its nascent state. This paper describes the current status of e-waste generation and recycling and explores issues for future e-waste management system in Malaysia from sustainable point of view. As to draw some factual comparisons, this paper reviews the e-waste management system in European Union, USA, Japan, as a benchmark. Then it focuses on understanding the Malaysian culture, consumer discarding behavior, flow of the materials in recycling, e-waste management system, and presents a comparative view with the Swiss e-waste system. Sustainable issues for e-waste management in Malaysia are also presented. The response adopted so far in collection and recovery activities are covered in later phases. Finally, it investigates the barriers and challenges of e-waste system in Malaysia.

  3. Assuring Potato Tuber Quality during Storage: A Future Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Alamar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Potatoes represent an important staple food crop across the planet. Yet, to maintain tuber quality and extend availability, there is a necessity to store tubers for long periods often using industrial-scale facilities. In this context, preserving potato quality is pivotal for the seed, fresh and processing sectors. The industry has always innovated and invested in improved post-harvest storage. However, the pace of technological change has and will continue to increase. For instance, more stringent legislation and changing consumer attitudes have driven renewed interest in creating alternative or complementary post-harvest treatments to traditional chemically reliant sprout suppression and disease control. Herein, the current knowledge on biochemical factors governing dormancy, the use of chlorpropham (CIPC as well as existing and chemical alternatives, and the effects of pre- and post-harvest factors to assure potato tuber quality is reviewed. Additionally, the role of genomics as a future approach to potato quality improvement is discussed. Critically, and through a more industry targeted research, a better mechanistic understanding of how the pre-harvest environment influences tuber quality and the factors which govern dormancy transition should lead to a paradigm shift in how sustainable storage can be achieved.

  4. Laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M.H.; Oxford Univ.

    1990-04-01

    The use of lasers to drive implosions for the purpose of inertially confined fusion is an area of intense activity where progress compares favourably with that made in magnetic fusion and there are significant prospects for future development. In this brief review the basic concept is summarised and the current status is outlined both in the area of laser technology and in the most recent results from implosion experiments. Prospects for the future are also considered. (author)

  5. Bromine and water quality – Selected aspects and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winid, Bogumiła

    2015-01-01

    Bromine is a microelement present in waters, both in inorganic and in a wide range of organic compounds, though at lower concentrations. Typically, concentrations of organobromine compounds in waters are several orders of magnitude lower than of bromides. Two issues are addressed in the paper: the influence of bromides on the quality of treated waters and organobromines as contaminants of natural waters. Bromide presence in treated water gives rise to formation of potentially mutagenic disinfection by-products (DBPs). Registered amounts of DBPs in potable waters, exceeding the admissible levels, and the published data on DBPs in waters used for leisure and recreation activities, clearly indicate the health risk. Major sources are identified and registered concentrations of EDB, DBCB, methyl bromide, bromacil and PBDEs in the aquatic environment are summarized. The effects of bromide on DBPs formation and numerous examples of organobromine contamination of the aquatic environment indicate that the presence of bromides and organobromine compounds in the aquatic environment will have to be given more consideration, for several reasons. Firstly, larger amounts of bromide are present in saline and contaminated waters and the proportion of such waters being handled is increasing. Similarly, the processes of water purification, treatment and disinfection are now playing a major role. Secondly, emissions from manufacturing of bromine-containing materials growing, due to, inter alia, intensive development of the electronic industry and the plastic manufacturing sector. Thirdly, bromine compounds are also used as medicine ingredients. There is now a growing awareness of the presence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. Fourth, low bromide concentrations in hypergene zones may be modified in the future, partly because of the climate changes, which may give rise to difficulties with water treatment systems. Water quality standards having relevance to water used for

  6. Pharmacy travel health services: current perspectives and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houle SKD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sherilyn KD HouleSchool of Pharmacy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, CanadaAbstract: Rates of international travel are increasing annually, with particular growth observed in travel to Southeast Asia and to emerging economies. While all patients traveling across geographic regions are recommended to receive a pre-travel consultation to consider their individual risks, many do not, or receive care and recommendations that are not consistent with current evidence-based guidelines. As experts in drug therapy, and given the largely preventive nature of most travel health recommendations, pharmacists are well suited to help address this need. Pharmacists generally possess a high degree of knowledge and confidence with more commonly observed travel health topics in community practice such as travelers’ diarrhea; however, training in more specialized travel health topics such as travel vaccinations and traveling at altitude has generally been lacking from pharmacy curricula. Pharmacists with an interest in providing pre-travel consultations are encouraged to pursue additional training in this specialty and to consider Certificate in Travel Health designation from the International Society of Travel Medicine. Future roles for pharmacists to include the prescribing of medications and vaccines for travel and the in-pharmacy administration of travel vaccinations may improve patient access to pre-travel consultations and recommended preventive measures, improving the health of travelers and potentially reducing the burden of communicable disease worldwide. Pharmacists providing travel care to patients are also reminded to consider noninfectious risks of illness and injury abroad and to counsel patients on strategies to minimize these risks in addition to providing drug and vaccine recommendations.Keywords: pharmacist, community pharmacy, travel, vaccination

  7. Water quality monitoring strategies - A review and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behmel, S; Damour, M; Ludwig, R; Rodriguez, M J

    2016-11-15

    The reliable assessment of water quality through water quality monitoring programs (WQMPs) is crucial in order for decision-makers to understand, interpret and use this information in support of their management activities aiming at protecting the resource. The challenge of water quality monitoring has been widely addressed in the literature since the 1940s. However, there is still no generally accepted, holistic and practical strategy to support all phases of WQMPs. The purpose of this paper is to report on the use cases a watershed manager has to address to plan or optimize a WQMP from the challenge of identifying monitoring objectives; selecting sampling sites and water quality parameters; identifying sampling frequencies; considering logistics and resources to the implementation of actions based on information acquired through the WQMP. An inventory and critique of the information, approaches and tools placed at the disposal of watershed managers was proposed to evaluate how the existing information could be integrated in a holistic, user-friendly and evolvable solution. Given the differences in regulatory requirements, water quality standards, geographical and geological differences, land-use variations, and other site specificities, a one-in-all solution is not possible. However, we advance that an intelligent decision support system (IDSS) based on expert knowledge that integrates existing approaches and past research can guide a watershed manager through the process according to his/her site-specific requirements. It is also necessary to tap into local knowledge and to identify the knowledge needs of all the stakeholders through participative approaches based on geographical information systems and adaptive survey-based questionnaires. We believe that future research should focus on developing such participative approaches and further investigate the benefits of IDSS's that can be updated quickly and make it possible for a watershed manager to obtain a

  8. Recent advances and future perspectives of gamma imagers for scintimammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pani, R. [INFN-Department of Experimental Medicine and Pathology, ' La Sapienza' University, Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: roberto.pani@uniroma1.it; Pellegrini, R. [INFN-Department of Experimental Medicine and Pathology, ' La Sapienza' University, Rome (Italy); Cinti, M.N. [INFN-Department of Experimental Medicine and Pathology, ' La Sapienza' University, Rome (Italy); Bennati, P. [INFN-Department of Experimental Medicine and Pathology, ' La Sapienza' University, Rome (Italy); Betti, M. [INFN-Department of Experimental Medicine and Pathology, ' La Sapienza' University, Rome (Italy); Casali, V. [INFN-Department of Experimental Medicine and Pathology, ' La Sapienza' University, Rome (Italy); Schillaci, O. [Department of Diagnostic Sciences, Second University, Rome (Italy); Mattioli, M. [INFN-Department of Physics, ' La Sapienza' University, Rome (Italy); Orsolini Cencelli, V. [INFN-National Institute of Nuclear Physics, RomeIII (Italy); Navarria, F. [INFN-Department of Physics, University of Bologna (Italy); Bollini, D. [INFN-Department of Physics, University of Bologna (Italy); Moschini, G. [INFN-Department of Physics, University of Padova (Italy); Garibaldi, F. [INFN-Laboratory of Physics ISS, Rome (Italy); Cusanno, F. [INFN-Laboratory of Physics ISS, Rome (Italy); Iurlaro, G. [ENEA-TEC, C. R. Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Montani, L. [ENEA-TEC, C. R. Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Scafe, R. [ENEA-TEC, C. R. Casaccia, Rome (Italy); De Notaristefani, F. [INFN-National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Rome (Italy)

    2006-12-20

    The very low sensitivity of Scintimammography for tumors under 1 cm in diameter, with current nuclear medicine cameras in use, is the major limitation in recommending this test modality for screening purposes. Recently latest generation cameras with superior imaging performances have allowed to foresee a very promising future for scintimammography. Recent technological advances obtained from our research group on the new Lanthanum scintillation crystals are now demonstrating how continuous crystals coupled to Hamamatsu Flat panel tube can overcome a number of limitations in spatial and energy resolution of scintillation arrays, carrying out 6% energy resolution, and submillimeter spatial resolution values at 140 keV. In this paper three basic detection systems have been analysed: a LumaGEM 3200S gamma camera (Gamma Medica, InC., Northridge, USA), based on a cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) semiconductor detector with a FoV of 12.5x12.5 cm{sup 2} and with detector elements of 1.6x1.6 mm{sup 2} in size and a detector prototype consisting of a Flat panel PMT coupled to planar LaBr{sub 3}:Ce scintillator. The third one is a first generation large FoV gamma camera chosen for comparison, based on PSPMTs photodetector array coupled to a NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal matrix. LaBr{sub 3}:Ce and CZT cameras showed superior spatial and energy resolution than previous generation one based on NaI(Tl) scintillation array. Both CZT and LaBr gamma cameras showed similar efficiencies for the same energy window though LaBr{sub 3}:Ce continuous crystal showed better imaging performance than pixellated detectors. However large area LaBr{sub 3}:Ce continuous crystals are not available yet.

  9. A spallation-based irradiation test facility for fusion and future fission materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samec, K.; Fusco, Y.; Kadi, Y.; Luis, R.; Romanets, Y.; Behzad, M.; Aleksan, R.; Bousson, S.

    2014-01-01

    The EU's FP7 TIARA program for developing accelerator-based facilities has recently demonstrated the unique capabilities of a compact and powerful spallation source for irradiating advanced nuclear materials. The spectrum and intensity of the neutron flux produced in the proposed facility fulfils the requirements of the proposed DEMO fusion reactor, ADS reactors and also Gen III / IV reactors. Test conditions can be modulated, covering temperature from 400 to 550 deg. C, liquid metal corrosion, cyclical or static stress up to 500 MPa and neutron/proton irradiation damage of up to 25 DPA per annum over a volume occupying one litre. The entire 'TMIF' facility fits inside a cube 2 metres on a side, and is dimensioned for an accelerator beam power of 100 kW, thus reducing costs and offering great versatility and flexibility. (authors)

  10. A spallation-based irradiation test facility for fusion and future fission materials

    CERN Document Server

    Samec, K; Kadi, Y; Luis, R; Romanets, Y; Behzad, M; Aleksan, R; Bousson, S

    2014-01-01

    The EU’s FP7 TIARA program for developing accelerator-based facilities has recently demonstrated the unique capabilities of a compact and powerful spallation source for irradiating advanced nuclear materials. The spectrum and intensity of the neutron flux produced in the proposed facility fulfils the requirements of the DEMO fusion reactor for ITER, ADS reactors and also Gen III / IV reactors. Test conditions can be modulated, covering temperature from 400 to 550°C, liquid metal corrosion, cyclical or static stress up to 500 MPa and neutron/proton irradiation damage of up to 25 DPA per annum. The entire “TMIF” facility fits inside a cube 2 metres on a side, and is dimensioned for an accelerator beam power of 100 kW, thus reducing costs and offering great versatility and flexibility.

  11. Futures Business Models for an IoT Enabled Healthcare Sector: A Causal Layered Analysis Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Francis Gomes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To facilitate futures business research by proposing a novel way to combine business models as a conceptual tool with futures research techniques. Design: A futures perspective is adopted to foresight business models of the Internet of Things (IoT enabled healthcare sector by using business models as a futures business research tool. In doing so, business models is coupled with one of the most prominent foresight methodologies, Causal Layered Analysis (CLA. Qualitative analysis provides deeper understanding of the phenomenon through the layers of CLA; litany, social causes, worldview and myth. Findings: It is di cult to predict the far future for a technology oriented sector like healthcare. This paper presents three scenarios for short-, medium- and long-term future. Based on these scenarios we also present a set of business model elements for different future time frames. This paper shows a way to combine business models with CLA, a foresight methodology; in order to apply business models in futures business research. Besides offering early results for futures business research, this study proposes a conceptual space to work with individual business models for managerial stakeholders. Originality / Value: Much research on business models has offered conceptualization of the phenomenon, innovation through business model and transformation of business models. However, existing literature does not o er much on using business model as a futures research tool. Enabled by futures thinking, we collected key business model elements and building blocks for the futures market and ana- lyzed them through the CLA framework.

  12. Developing the Physics Basis of Fast Ignition Experiments at Future Large Fusion-class lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackinnon, A J; Key, M H; Hatchett, S; MacPhee, A G; Foord, M; Tabak, M; Town, R J; Patel, P K

    2008-01-01

    The Fast Ignition (FI) concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) reactors. FI differs from conventional 'central hot spot' (CHS) target ignition by using one driver (laser, heavy ion beam or Z-pinch) to create a dense fuel and a separate ultra-short, ultra-intense laser beam to ignite the dense core. FI targets can burn with ∼ 3X lower density fuel than CHS targets, resulting in (all other things being equal) lower required compression energy, relaxed drive symmetry, relaxed target smoothness tolerances, and, importantly, higher gain. The short, intense ignition pulse that drives this process interacts with extremely high energy density plasmas; the physics that controls this interaction is only now becoming accessible in the lab, and is still not well understood. The attraction of obtaining higher gains in smaller facilities has led to a worldwide explosion of effort in the studies of FI. In particular, two new US facilities to be completed in 2009/2010, OMEGA/OMEGA EP and NIF-ARC (as well as others overseas) will include FI investigations as part of their program. These new facilities will be able to approach FI conditions much more closely than heretofore using direct drive (dd) for OMEGA/OMEGA EP and indirect drive (id) for NIF-ARC. This LDRD has provided the physics basis for the development of the detailed design for integrated Fast ignition experiments on these facilities on the 2010/2011 timescale. A strategic initiative LDRD has now been formed to carry out integrated experiments using NIF ARC beams to heat a full scale FI assembled core by the end of 2010

  13. Past and future challenges from a display mask writer perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, Peter; von Sydow, Axel

    2012-06-01

    Since its breakthrough, the liquid crystal technology has continued to gain momentum and the LCD is today the dominating display type used in desktop monitors, television sets, mobile phones as well as other mobile devices. To improve production efficiency and enable larger screen sizes, the LCD industry has step by step increased the size of the mother glass used in the LCD manufacturing process. Initially the mother glass was only around 0.1 m2 large, but with each generation the size has increased and with generation 10 the area reaches close to 10 m2. The increase in mother glass size has in turn led to an increase in the size of the photomasks used - currently the largest masks are around 1.6 × 1.8 meters. A key mask performance criterion is the absence of "mura" - small systematic errors captured only by the very sensitive human eye. To eliminate such systematic errors, special techniques have been developed by Micronic Mydata. Some mura suppressing techniques are described in this paper. Today, the race towards larger glass sizes has come to a halt and a new race - towards higher resolution and better image quality - is ongoing. The display mask is therefore going through a change that resembles what the semiconductor mask went through some time ago: OPC features are introduced, CD requirements are increasing sharply and multi tone masks (MTMs) are widely used. Supporting this development, Micronic Mydata has introduced a number of compensation methods in the writer, such as Z-correction, CD map and distortion control. In addition, Micronic Mydata MMS15000, the world's most precise large area metrology tool, has played an important role in improving mask placement quality and is briefly described in this paper. Furthermore, proposed specifications and system architecture concept for a new generation mask writers - able to fulfill future image quality requirements - is presented in this paper. This new system would use an AOD/AOM writing engine and be

  14. The CE3R Network: current status and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Pesaresi, Damiano; Živčić, Mladen; Costa, Giovanni; Kuk, Kresimir; Bondár, István; Duni, Llambro; Spacek, Petr

    2016-04-01

    IV-A Italy-Austria program, and the Earthquake Early Warning System (EEWS) PRESTo@CE3RN. We will here briefly introduce original and new CE3RN Parties, with a synthesis of the common results achieved so far and an indication of possible future developments.

  15. Advanced therapy medicinal products: current and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Eve; Rémuzat, Cécile; Auquier, Pascal; Toumi, Mondher

    2016-01-01

    Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) are innovative therapies that encompass gene therapy, somatic cell therapy, and tissue-engineered products. These therapies are expected to bring important health benefits, but also to substantially impact the pharmaceuticals budget. The aim of this study was to characterise the ATMPs in development and discuss future implications in terms of market access. Clinical trials were searched in the following databases: EudraCT (EU Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials), ClinicalTrials.gov, and ICTRP (International Clinical Trials Registry Platform of the World Health Organization). Trials were classified by category of ATMP as defined by European regulation EC No. 1394/2007, as well as by development phase and disease area. The database search identified 939 clinical trials investigating ATMPs (85% ongoing, 15% completed). The majority of trials were in the early stages (Phase I, I/II: 64.3%, Phase II, II/III: 27.9%, Phase 3: 6.9%). Per category of ATMP, we identified 53.6% of trials for somatic cell therapies, 22.8% for tissue-engineered products, 22.4% for gene therapies, and 1.2% for combined products (incorporating a medical device). Disease areas included cancer (24.8%), cardiovascular diseases (19.4%), musculoskeletal (10.5%), immune system and inflammation (11.5%), neurology (9.1%), and others. Of the trials, 47.2% enrolled fewer than 25 patients. Due to the complexity and specificity of ATMPs, new clinical trial methodologies are being considered (e.g., small sample size, non-randomised trials, single-arm trials, surrogate endpoints, integrated protocols, and adaptive designs). Evidence generation post-launch will become unavoidable to address payers' expectations. ATMPs represent a fast-growing field of interest. Although most of the products are in an early development phase, the combined trial phase and the potential to cure severe chronic conditions suggest that ATMPs may reach the market earlier than

  16. The future of nuclear power: A world-wide perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Ismail

    This study analyzes the future of commercial nuclear electric generation worldwide using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) concept. The Tobit panel data estimation technique is applied to analyze the data between 1980 and 1998 for 105 countries. EKC assumes that low-income countries increase their nuclear reliance in total electric production whereas high-income countries decrease their nuclear reliance. Hence, we expect that high-income countries should shut down existing nuclear reactors and/or not build any new ones. We encounter two reasons for shutdowns: economic or political/environmental concerns. To distinguish these two effects, reasons for shut down are also investigated by using the Hazard Model technique. Hence, the load factor of a reactor is used as an approximation for economic reason to shut down the reactor. If a shut downed reactor had high load factor, this could be attributable to political/environmental concern or else economic concern. The only countries with nuclear power are considered in this model. The two data sets are created. In the first data set, the single entry for each reactor is created as of 1998 whereas in the second data set, the multiple entries are created for each reactor beginning from 1980 to 1998. The dependent variable takes 1 if operational or zero if shut downed. The empirical findings provide strong evidence for EKC relationship for commercial nuclear electric generation. Furthermore, higher natural resources suggest alternative electric generation methods rather than nuclear power. Economic index as an institutional variable suggests higher the economic freedom, lower the nuclear electric generation as expected. This model does not support the idea to cut the carbon dioxide emission via increasing nuclear share. The Hazard Model findings suggest that higher the load factor is, less likely the reactor will shut down. However, if it is still permanently closed downed, then this could be attributable to political

  17. Anticipating our future robot society : The evaluation of future robot applications from a user's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, M.M.A.; Ben Allouch, Soumaya

    2016-01-01

    With an expected growth of robots in our future society, we believe that potential implications for robot applications should be addressed. Therefore, we conducted an online questionnaire among the general Dutch population (n= 1162) to map the societal impact of robots by identifying potential

  18. New future perspectives through constructive conflict: Exploring the future of gas in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligtvoet, A.; Cuppen, E.H.W.J.; Di Ruggero, O.; Hemmes, K.; Pesch, U.; Quist, J.N.; Mehos, D.C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the refinement of constructive conflict methodology (CCM) combining Q methodology and stakeholder dialogue workshops for gas futures for the Netherlands. Since the end of the 1950s, natural gas exploration and exploitation has been a major focus of the Dutch energy policy.

  19. The future orientation of constructive memory: an evolutionary perspective on therapeutic hypnosis and brief psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Ernest; Erickson-Klein, Roxanna; Rossi, Kathryn

    2008-04-01

    We explore a new distinction between the future, prospective memory system being investigated in current neuroscience and the past, retrospective memory system, which was the original theoretical foundation of therapeutic hypnosis, classical psychoanalysis, and psychotherapy. We then generalize a current evolutionary theory of sleep and dreaming, which focuses on the future, prospective memory system, to conceptualize a new evolutionary perspective on therapeutic hypnosis and brief psychotherapy. The implication of current neuroscience research is that activity-dependent gene expression and brain plasticity are the psychobiological basis of adaptive behavior, consciousness, and creativity in everyday life as well as psychotherapy. We summarize a case illustrating how this evolutionary perspective can be used to quickly resolve problems with past obstructive procrastination in school to facilitate current and future academic success.

  20. Review and future perspective of central receiver design and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangdong; Libby, Cara

    2017-06-01

    overgeneration, spillage, and instability may occur. Energy storage may well become a necessity in some areas in order to maintain reliability. Next-generation central receiver technologies will have higher operating temperatures and additional features that allow higher-efficiency power generation and deliver other cost-performance advantages. The underlying innovations will come from areas such as multi-physics modeling, high-temperature materials, novel power cycles and heat exchanger designs, and collector field sensing and performance monitoring technologies. Technology innovation is expected to improve the cost and performance of central receiver designs. To deliver value as a generation and storage option, central receiver technology must also be supported by flexible and robust financial models and comprehensive energy and ancillary service markets justifying the capital-intensive investment. Progress in these areas will position CSP central receiver technology for future deployment.

  1. Review and Future Perspective of Central Receiver Design and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Guangdong; Libby, Cara

    2017-06-27

    accommodate, beyond which overgeneration, spillage, and instability may occur. Energy storage may well become a necessity in some areas in order to maintain reliability. Next-generation central receiver technologies will have higher operating temperatures and additional features that allow higher-efficiency power generation and deliver other cost-performance advantages. The underlying innovations will come from areas such as multi-physics modeling, high-temperature materials, novel power cycles and heat exchanger designs, and collector field sensing and performance monitoring technologies. Technology innovation is expected to improve the cost and performance of central receiver designs. To deliver value as a generation and storage option, central receiver technology must also be supported by flexible and robust financial models and comprehensive energy and ancillary service markets justifying the capital-intensive investment. Progress in these areas will position CSP central receiver technology for future deployment.

  2. The quest for a z-pinch based fusion energy source—a historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethian, John

    1997-05-01

    Ever since 1958, when Oscar Anderson observed copious neutrons emanating from a "magnetically self-constricted column of deuterium plasma," scientists have attempted to develop the simple linear pinch into a fusion power source. After all, simple calculations show that if one can pass a current of slightly less than 2 million amperes through a stable D-T plasma, then one could achieve not just thermonuclear break-even, but thermonuclear gain. Moreover, several reactor studies have shown that a simple linear pinch could be the basis for a very attractive fusion system. The problem is, of course, that the seemingly simple act of passing 2 MA through a stable pinch has proven to be quite difficult to accomplish. The pinch tends to disrupt due to instabilities, either by the m=0 (sausage) or m=1 (kink) modes. Curtailing the growth of these instabilities has been the primary thrust of z-pinch fusion research, and over the years a wide variety of formation techniques have been tried. The early pinches were driven by relatively slow capacitive discharges and were formed by imploding a plasma column. The advent of fast pulsed power technology brought on a whole new repertoire of formation techniques, including: fast implosions, laser or field-enhanced breakdown in a uniform volume of gas, a discharge inside a small capillary, a frozen deuterium fiber isolated by vacuum, and staged concepts in which one pinch implodes upon another. And although none of these have yet to be successful, some have come tantalizingly close. This paper will review the history of this four-decade long quest for fusion power.

  3. Remote maintenance of future fusion reactors - a challenge for rad-hard components and smart control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.; Geeter, J. De

    1996-01-01

    The future fusion reactor will need frequent maintenance turns, involving inspection, repair and parts replacement inside the vacuum vessel. These operations will require high payload manipulations in constrained space under very high gamma-radiation dose-rates and temperature. Present research is being undertaken to qualify the components of the handling machine under representative conditions, in the framework of the ITER international consortium. Simultaneously, challenging control strategies will be needed to achieve reliable tasking under very poor viewing conditions and elementary sensing help. The paper reviews the present state of the art on both issues and present results of the ongoing research themes among the partners of the ITER programme. In particular, SCK''centre-dot''CEN coordinates the ITER T252 task on Radiation Tolerance Assessment of Remote Handling Components. (UK)

  4. Fusion of smart, multimedia and computer gaming technologies research, systems and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Favorskaya, Margarita; Jain, Lakhmi; Howlett, Robert

    2015-01-01

      This monograph book is focused on the recent advances in smart, multimedia and computer gaming technologies. The Contributions include:   ·         Smart Gamification and Smart Serious Games. ·         Fusion of secure IPsec-based Virtual Private Network, mobile computing and rich multimedia technology. ·         Teaching and Promoting Smart Internet of Things Solutions Using the Serious-game Approach. ·         Evaluation of Student Knowledge using an e-Learning Framework. ·         The iTEC Eduteka. ·         3D Virtual Worlds as a Fusion of Immersing, Visualizing, Recording, and Replaying Technologies. ·         Fusion of multimedia and mobile technology in audioguides for Museums and Exhibitions: from Bluetooth Push to Web Pull. The book is directed to researchers, students and software developers working in the areas of education and information technologies.  

  5. Perspective on present and future alloy development efforts on austenitic stainless steels for fusion application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziasz, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address important questions concerning how to effect further alloy development of austenitic stainless steels for resistance, and to what extent the behavior of other properties under irradiation, such as strength/embrittlement, fatigue/irradiation creep, corrosion (under irradiation), and radiation-induced activation must be influenced. To summarize current understanding, helium has been found to have major effects on swelling and embrittlement, but several metallurgical avenues are available for significant improvement relative to type 316 stainless steel. Studies on fatigue and irradiation creep, particularly including helium effects, are preliminary but have yet to reveal engineering problems requiring additional alloy development remedies. The effects of irradiation on corrosion behavior are unknown, but higher alloy nickel contents make thermal corrosion in lithium worse. 67 refs

  6. Thought-action fusion: review of the literature and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berle, David; Starcevic, Vladan

    2005-05-01

    Thought-action fusion (TAF) is the tendency for individuals to assume that certain thoughts either imply the immorality of their character or increase the likelihood of catastrophic events. The burgeoning literature on TAF is reviewed. It is not clear whether TAF refers to a specific appraisal style, a more enduring belief, or a combination of both. Inconsistent definitions of magical thinking have hindered better understanding of the relationship between TAF and magical thinking. Much work remains to be done to improve assessment and measurement of TAF. TAF is associated with tendencies towards obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and may contribute to its symptoms. However, the literature investigating TAF and other variables implicated in OCD remains inconclusive. It is suggested that TAF is not specific to OCD, but also prevalent in other anxiety disorders. TAF appears to be moderately related to depressive symptoms and a similar bias may contribute to preoccupations in eating disorders. TAF is also associated with the presence of psychological disorders in children and adolescents. Educational and cognitive therapy approaches to reduce TAF and consequent symptoms are discussed, and suggestions for further research made.

  7. Future World Energy Demand and Supply: China and India and the Potential Role of Fusion Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, John

    2005-01-01

    Massive increases in energy demand are projected for countries such as China and India over this century e.g., many 100s of megawatts of electricity (MWe) of additional electrical capacity by 2050, with more additions later, are being considered for each of them. All energy sources will be required to meet such a demand. Fortunately, while world energy demand will be increasing, the world is well endowed with a variety of energy resources. However, their distribution does not match the areas of demand and there are many environmental issues.Such geopolitical issues affect China and India and make it important for them to be able to deploy improved technologies. In this regard, South Korea is an interesting example of a country that has developed the capability to do advanced technologies - such as nuclear power plants. International collaborations in developing these technologies, such as the International Thermonuclear Reactor (ITER), may be important in all energy areas. Fusion energy is viewed as an interesting potential option in these three countries

  8. Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion: A Perspective on Current Evidence and Clinical Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Habib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current published data regarding open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF in relation to minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF. Introduction. MI-TLIF, a modern method for lumbar interbody arthrodesis, has allowed for a minimally invasive method to treat degenerative spinal pathologies. Currently, there is limited literature that compares TLIF directly to MI-TLIF. Thus, we seek to discuss the current literature on these techniques. Methods. Using a PubMed search, we reviewed recent publications of open and MI-TLIF, dating from 2002 to 2012. We discussed these studies and their findings in this paper, focusing on patient-reported outcomes as well as complications. Results. Data found in 14 articles of the literature was analyzed. Using these reports, we found mean follow-up was 20 months. The mean patient study size was 52. Seven of the articles directly compared outcomes of open TLIF with MI-TLIF, such as mean duration of surgery, length of post-operative stay, blood loss, and complications. Conclusion. Although high-class data comparing these two techniques is lacking, the current evidence supports MI-TLIF with outcomes comparable to that of the traditional, open technique. Further prospective, randomized studies will help to further our understanding of this minimally invasive technique.

  9. Commentary on the Future of Community Psychology: Perspective of a Research Community Psychologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, Norweeta G

    2016-12-01

    Community psychology is commented upon from the perspective of a community psychologist who was trained in the Community Psychology Program at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. Her background and training are reviewed. A brief survey of research on homelessness as a frame for community psychology research is presented. Concluding remarks are provided on the future of research in community psychology. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  10. Energy use in the U.S. steel industry: An historical perspective and future opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbles, John [Steel Industry Consultant, Mason, OH (United States)

    2000-09-01

    Renowned industry expert Dr. John Stubbles has projected the energy savings that the U.S. steel industry could reasonably expect to achieve in the report, Energy Use in the U.S. Steel Industry: Historical Perspective and Future Opportunities (PDF 432 KB). The report examines the potential impacts of state-of-the-art technologies and operating practices, as well as structural changes in the industry itself.

  11. Future perspectives and their relation to wellbeing and resilience in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia Omar

    2015-01-01

    Previous research (Omar, 2005; Omar, Uribe Delgado & Maltaneres, 2005), had showed a clear relationship between subjective well-being and resilience. In those opportunities, however, resilience was considered as a global construct. This study aims at exploring the possible relationships among resilience components, subjective well-being, and future perspectives. Method: Sample integrated by 198 (105 girls & 93 boys) Argentinean high school students, 14- to 19-yr.-old. All sample parti...

  12. Current Situation and Future Perspectives of Chinese Popular Music in Global Arena

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Kun

    2012-01-01

    Music industry, as a rising star of cultural industries, is playing an increasingly important role in globalization of international economy. Nowadays western music has cornered most of the modern music market for a long time while Korea and Japan’s modern music developed quickly these last 20 years which gave Chinese music market huge pressure. Under the background the author aims to observe and analyze present market situation and future perspective of Chinese popular music in this study. ...

  13. Nuclear power in the Asia-Pacific region. Current status and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Jia; Otsuki, Takashi; Irie, Kazutomo

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the current status and future perspective of nuclear power in the APEC region. We design three scenarios, including Low-nuclear Scenario, Business-as-Usual Scenario (BAU) as well as High-nuclear Scenario, in order to quantitatively evaluate contribution of nuclear power to the low-carbon energy system. Preliminary results from the modeling are presented in the paper, and the drivers and challenges for nuclear power development in the APEC region are discussed. (author)

  14. A novel integrated approach for the hazardous radioactive dust source terms estimation in future nuclear fusion power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggi, L A; Malizia, A; Ciparisse, J F; Gaudio, P

    2016-10-01

    An open issue still under investigation by several international entities working on the safety and security field for the foreseen nuclear fusion reactors is the estimation of source terms that are a hazard for the operators and public, and for the machine itself in terms of efficiency and integrity in case of severe accident scenarios. Source term estimation is a crucial key safety issue to be addressed in the future reactors safety assessments, and the estimates available at the time are not sufficiently satisfactory. The lack of neutronic data along with the insufficiently accurate methodologies used until now, calls for an integrated methodology for source term estimation that can provide predictions with an adequate accuracy. This work proposes a complete methodology to estimate dust source terms starting from a broad information gathering. The wide number of parameters that can influence dust source term production is reduced with statistical tools using a combination of screening, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty analysis. Finally, a preliminary and simplified methodology for dust source term production prediction for future devices is presented.

  15. Moderating effect of age on the association between future time perspective and preventive coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Liu, Lu-Lu; Cui, Ji-Fang; Chen, Xing-Jie; Shi, Hai-Song; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Wang, Ya; Chan, Raymond C K

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the moderating effect of age on the relationship between future time perspective (FTP) and future-oriented coping. A total of 1,915 participants aged 9-84 years completed measures of FTP and future-oriented coping. Moderation analyses were conducted to examine whether age played a role in the association between FTP and future-oriented coping (proactive and preventive). Results showed that proactive and preventive coping were negatively correlated with age, and age moderated the association between FTP and preventive coping but not proactive coping. Furthermore, the strength of the positive association between FTP and preventive coping was strongest among the older participants, moderate among the middle-aged participants, and weakest among the younger participants. These results suggest that the association between FTP and preventive coping varies across the lifespan. © 2017 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Attentional bias for emotional information in older adults: the role of emotion and future time perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeyer, Ineke; De Raedt, Rudi

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that older adults display a positivity bias at the level of information processing. However, because studies investigating attentional bias for emotional information in older adults have produced mixed findings, research identifying inter-individual differences that may explain these inconsistent results is necessary. Therefore, we investigated whether mood, symptoms of depression, symptoms of anxiety and future time perspective are related to attentional bias in older adults. Thirty-seven healthy older adults and 25 healthy middle-aged adults completed questionnaires to assess mood, symptoms of depression, symptoms of anxiety and future time perspective. Attentional bias towards happy, sad and neutral information was measured using a modified exogenous cueing paradigm with long cue presentations, to measure maintained attention versus avoidance of emotional stimuli. Older adults showed attentional avoidance for all emotional faces, whereas no attentional biases were found in the middle-aged group. Moreover, in the older adult group, avoidance for negative information was related to anxiety. Future time perspective was unrelated to attentional bias. These findings suggest that anxiety may lead to inter-individual differences in attentional bias in older adults, and that avoidance from negative information may be an emotion regulation strategy.

  17. Tritium processing and containment technology for fusion reactors: perspective and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroni, V.A.

    1976-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of selected tritium processing and containment technologies that will be required to support the development of the fusion energy program. Considered in order are the fuel conditioning and recycle systems, the containment and cleanup systems, the blanket processing systems, and two unique problems relating to tritium interactions in neutral beam injectors and first wall coolant circuits. The major technical problem areas appear to lie in the development of (1) high-capacity, rapid recycle plasma chamber evacuation systems; (2) large-capacity (greater than or equal to 100,000 cfm) air handling and processing systems for atmospheric detritiation; (3) tritium recovery technology for liquid lithium blanket concepts; (4) tritium compatible neutral injector systems; and (5) an overall approach to tritium handling and containment that guarantees near zero release to the environment at a bearable cost

  18. Delay of Gratification, Delay Discounting and their Associations with Age, Episodic Future Thinking, and Future Time Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars M. Göllner

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The delay of gratification (DoG in children is widely investigated with an experimental procedure originally called the “marshmallow test,” whereas the studies on self-regulation (SR in adolescents and adults usually use self-report questionnaires. Delay discounting (DD measures simplify the DoG procedure and focus on monetary rewards. The aim of this study was to investigate age differences in DoG and DD from childhood to old age using a test that is suitable for both children and adults. Furthermore, investigations were conducted on the association between DoG/DD and two future orientation constructs [future time perspective (FTP and episodic future thinking (EFT] as well as age differences in these constructs. Participants from five age groups (9–14, 18–25, 35–55, 65–80, 80+ participated in the study (N = 96. While we found no age difference for DoG, DD was the lowest [i.e., self-control (SC was the highest] in young/middle adults; however, it was the highest (i.e., SC was the lowest in children and old/oldest adults. Furthermore, we found significant age differences for DD and FTP. As predicted, there were strong correlations between DoG and FTP and between DD and FTP, but not between DoG/DD and EFT. These results indicate that age differences in SR vary across the measures used. Individuals who generally think and act in a future-oriented manner have a stronger ability to delay gratification.

  19. Delay of Gratification, Delay Discounting and their Associations with Age, Episodic Future Thinking, and Future Time Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göllner, Lars M; Ballhausen, Nicola; Kliegel, Matthias; Forstmeier, Simon

    2017-01-01

    The delay of gratification (DoG) in children is widely investigated with an experimental procedure originally called the "marshmallow test," whereas the studies on self-regulation (SR) in adolescents and adults usually use self-report questionnaires. Delay discounting (DD) measures simplify the DoG procedure and focus on monetary rewards. The aim of this study was to investigate age differences in DoG and DD from childhood to old age using a test that is suitable for both children and adults. Furthermore, investigations were conducted on the association between DoG/DD and two future orientation constructs [future time perspective (FTP) and episodic future thinking (EFT)] as well as age differences in these constructs. Participants from five age groups (9-14, 18-25, 35-55, 65-80, 80+) participated in the study ( N = 96). While we found no age difference for DoG, DD was the lowest [i.e., self-control (SC) was the highest] in young/middle adults; however, it was the highest (i.e., SC was the lowest) in children and old/oldest adults. Furthermore, we found significant age differences for DD and FTP. As predicted, there were strong correlations between DoG and FTP and between DD and FTP, but not between DoG/DD and EFT. These results indicate that age differences in SR vary across the measures used. Individuals who generally think and act in a future-oriented manner have a stronger ability to delay gratification.

  20. Future Time Perspective in the Work Context: A Systematic Review of Quantitative Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Hélène; Zacher, Hannes; Desmette, Donatienne

    2017-01-01

    A core construct in the lifespan theory of socioemotional selectivity, future time perspective (FTP) refers to individuals’ perceptions of their remaining time in life. Its adaptation to the work context, occupational future time perspective (OFTP), entails workers’ perceptions of remaining time and opportunities in their careers. Over the past decade, several quantitative studies have investigated antecedents and consequences of general FTP and OFTP in the work context (i.e., FTP at work). We systematically review and critically discuss this literature on general FTP (k = 17 studies) and OFTP (k = 16 studies) and highlight implications for future research and practice. Results of our systematic review show that, in addition to its strong negative relationship with age, FTP at work is also associated with other individual (e.g., personality traits) and contextual variables (e.g., job characteristics). Moreover, FTP at work has been shown to mediate and moderate relationships of individual and contextual antecedents with occupational well-being, as well as motivational and behavioral outcomes. As a whole, findings suggest that FTP at work is an important variable in the field of work and aging, and that future research should improve the ways in which FTP at work is measured and results on FTP at work are reported. PMID:28400741

  1. Future Time Perspective in the Work Context: A Systematic Review of Quantitative Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Hélène; Zacher, Hannes; Desmette, Donatienne

    2017-01-01

    A core construct in the lifespan theory of socioemotional selectivity, future time perspective (FTP) refers to individuals' perceptions of their remaining time in life. Its adaptation to the work context, occupational future time perspective (OFTP), entails workers' perceptions of remaining time and opportunities in their careers. Over the past decade, several quantitative studies have investigated antecedents and consequences of general FTP and OFTP in the work context (i.e., FTP at work). We systematically review and critically discuss this literature on general FTP ( k = 17 studies) and OFTP ( k = 16 studies) and highlight implications for future research and practice. Results of our systematic review show that, in addition to its strong negative relationship with age, FTP at work is also associated with other individual (e.g., personality traits) and contextual variables (e.g., job characteristics). Moreover, FTP at work has been shown to mediate and moderate relationships of individual and contextual antecedents with occupational well-being, as well as motivational and behavioral outcomes. As a whole, findings suggest that FTP at work is an important variable in the field of work and aging, and that future research should improve the ways in which FTP at work is measured and results on FTP at work are reported.

  2. Future versus present: time perspective and pupillary response in a relatedness judgment task investigating temporal event knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowack, Kati; Milfont, Taciano L; van der Meer, Elke

    2013-02-01

    Mental representations of events contain many components such as typical agents, instruments, objects as well as a temporal dimension that is directed towards the future. While the role of temporal orientation (chronological, reverse) in event knowledge has been demonstrated by numerous studies, little is known about the influence of time perspective (present or future) as source of individual differences affecting event knowledge. The present study combined behavioral data with task-evoked pupil dilation to examine the impact of time perspective on cognitive resource allocation. In a relatedness judgment task, everyday events like raining were paired with an object feature like wet. Chronological items were processed more easily than reverse items regardless of time perspective. When more automatic processes were applied, greater scores on future time perspective were associated with lower error rates for chronological items. This suggests that a match between a strong focus on future consequences and items with a temporal orientation directed toward the future serves to enhance responding accuracy. Indexed by pupillary data, future-oriented participants invested more cognitive resources while outperforming present-oriented participants in reaction times across all conditions. This result was supported by a principal component analysis on the pupil data, which demonstrated the same impact of time perspective on the factor associated with more general aspects of cognitive effort. These findings suggest that future time perspective may be linked to a more general cognitive performance characteristic that improves overall task performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cone beam computed tomographic imaging: perspective, challenges, and the impact of near-trend future applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Marcelo Gusmão Paraiso

    2012-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) can be considered as a valuable imaging modality for improving diagnosis and treatment planning to achieve true guidance for several craniofacial surgical interventions. A new concept and perspective in medical informatics is the highlight discussion about the new imaging interactive workflow. The aim of this article was to present, in a short literature review, the usefulness of CBCT technology as an important alternative imaging modality, highlighting current practices and near-term future applications in cutting-edge thought-provoking perspectives for craniofacial surgical assessment. This article explains the state of the art of CBCT improvements, medical workstation, and perspectives of the dedicated unique hardware and software, which can be used from the CBCT source. In conclusion, CBCT technology is developing rapidly, and many advances are on the horizon. Further progress in medical workstations, engineering capabilities, and improvement in independent software-some open source-should be attempted with this new imaging method. The perspectives, challenges, and pitfalls in CBCT will be delineated and evaluated along with the technological developments.

  4. Smart tungsten alloys as a material for the first wall of a future fusion power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litnovsky, A.; Wegener, T.; Klein, F.; Linsmeier, Ch.; Rasinski, M.; Kreter, A.; Unterberg, B.; Coenen, J. W.; Du, H.; Mayer, J.; Garcia-Rosales, C.; Calvo, A.; Ordas, N.

    2017-06-01

    Tungsten is currently deemed as a promising plasma-facing material (PFM) for the future power plant DEMO. In the case of an accident, air can get into contact with PFMs during the air ingress. The temperature of PFMs can rise up to 1200 °C due to nuclear decay heat in the case of damaged coolant supply. Heated neutron-activated tungsten forms a volatile radioactive oxide which can be mobilized into the atmosphere. New self-passivating ‘smart’ alloys can adjust their properties to the environment. During plasma operation the preferential sputtering of lighter alloying elements will leave an almost pure tungsten surface facing the plasma. During an accident the alloying elements in the bulk are forming oxides thus protecting tungsten from mobilization. Good plasma performance and the suppression of oxidation are required for smart alloys. Bulk tungsten (W)-chroimum (Cr)-titanium (Ti) alloys were exposed together with pure tungsten (W) samples to the steady-state deuterium plasma under identical conditions in the linear plasma device PSI 2. The temperature of the samples was ~576 °C-715 °C, the energy of impinging ions was 210 eV matching well the conditions expected at the first wall of DEMO. Weight loss measurements demonstrated similar mass decrease of smart alloys and pure tungsten samples. The oxidation of exposed samples has proven no effect of plasma exposure on the oxidation resistance. The W-Cr-Ti alloy demonstrated advantageous 3-fold lower mass gain due to oxidation than that of pure tungsten. New yttrium (Y)-containing thin film systems are demonstrating superior performance in comparison to that of W-Cr-Ti systems and of pure W. The oxidation rate constant of W-Cr-Y thin film is 105 times less than that of pure tungsten. However, the detected reactivity of the bulk smart alloy in humid atmosphere is calling for a further improvement.

  5. Future time perspective: opportunities and limitations are differentially associated with subjective well-being and hair cortisol concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozik, Pavel; Hoppmann, Christiane A; Gerstorf, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Future time perspective has been associated with subjective well-being, though depending on the line of research considered either an open-ended future time perspective or a limited future time perspective has been associated with high well-being. Most of this research however has conceptualized future time perspective as a one-dimensional construct, whereas recent evidence has demonstrated that there are likely at least two different underlying dimensions, a focus on opportunities and a focus on limitations. This project first seeks to replicate the two-dimensional structure of the Future Time Perspective Scale, and then examines the associations these dimensions may have with different measures of subjective well-being and a biological index of chronic stress. To test if the two dimensions of the Future Time Perspective Scale, a focus on opportunities and a focus on limitations, differentially associate with two measures of subjective well-being and a biological indicator of chronic stress, namely hair cortisol. Sixty-six community-dwelling participants with a mean age of 72 years (SD = 5.83) completed the Future Time Perspective Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale. Participants also provided a 3-cm-long hair strand to index cortisol accumulation over the past 3 months. Following the results of a factor analysis, a mediation model was created for each dimension of the Future Time Perspective Scale, and significance testing was done through a bootstrapping approach to harness maximal statistical power. Factor analysis results replicated the two-dimensional structure of the Future Time Perspective Scale. Both dimensions were then found to have unique associations with well-being. Specifically, a high focus on opportunities was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and higher morale, whereas a low focus on limitations was associated with reduced hair cortisol, though this association was

  6. Introduction to current and future protein therapeutics: a protein engineering perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Paul J

    2011-05-15

    Protein therapeutics and its enabling sister discipline, protein engineering, have emerged since the early 1980s. The first protein therapeutics were recombinant versions of natural proteins. Proteins purposefully modified to increase their clinical potential soon followed with enhancements derived from protein or glycoengineering, Fc fusion or conjugation to polyethylene glycol. Antibody-based drugs subsequently arose as the largest and fastest growing class of protein therapeutics. The rationale for developing better protein therapeutics with enhanced efficacy, greater safety, reduced immunogenicity or improved delivery comes from the convergence of clinical, scientific, technological and commercial drivers that have identified unmet needs and provided strategies to address them. Future protein drugs seem likely to be more extensively engineered to improve their performance, e.g., antibodies and Fc fusion proteins with enhanced effector functions or extended half-life. Two old concepts for improving antibodies, namely antibody-drug conjugates and bispecific antibodies, have advanced to the cusp of clinical success. As for newer protein therapeutic platform technologies, several engineered protein scaffolds are in early clinical development and offer differences and some potential advantages over antibodies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Stability and Growth Pact – critical analysis and perspectives of the future development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Plaga

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This working paper seeks to define perspectives of the functioning of the Stability and Growth Pact as a tool for regulation of national fiscal policies through analysis and description of legal acts regarding the Pact and through analysis and statistical evaluation of the compliance of the EMU States with requirements for fiscal discipline. The first part brings the description of the Pact's functioning mechanism and defines its weaknesses (e.g. extensive role of the Council. The second part tries to analyse and statistically evaluate how the Member States complied with the provisions of the Pact during the years 1999-2003. The results are compared with the most mentioned shortcomings of the Pact. In the concluding part the paper discusses proposals for a change of the Pact and tries to estimate perspectives of its functioning in the future.

  8. Exploring the implications of social change for human development: perspectives, issues and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin

    2015-02-01

    Researchers have investigated the implications of social change for human development from different perspectives. The studies published in this special section were conducted within Greenfield's theoretical framework (2009). The findings concerning links between specific sociodemographic features (e.g., commercial activities, schooling) and individual cognition and social behaviour are particularly interesting because they tap the underlying forces that drive human development. To further understand the issues in these studies and in the field, a pluralist-constructive perspective is discussed, which emphasises the integration of diverse values and practices in both Western and non-Western societies and its effects on the development of sophisticated competencies in individual adaptation to the changing global community. In addition, several issues are highlighted and some suggestions are provided for future explorations in this field. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  9. Peaceful fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englert, Matthias [IANUS, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Like other intense neutron sources fusion reactors have in principle a potential to be used for military purposes. Although the use of fissile material is usually not considered when thinking of fusion reactors (except in fusion-fission hybrid concepts) quantitative estimates about the possible production potential of future commercial fusion reactor concepts show that significant amounts of weapon grade fissile materials could be produced even with very limited amounts of source materials. In this talk detailed burnup calculations with VESTA and MCMATH using an MCNP model of the PPCS-A will be presented. We compare different irradiation positions and the isotopic vectors of the plutonium bred in different blankets of the reactor wall with the liquid lead-lithium alloy replaced by uranium. The technical, regulatory and policy challenges to manage the proliferation risks of fusion power will be addressed as well. Some of these challenges would benefit if addressed at an early stage of the research and development process. Hence, research on fusion reactor safeguards should start as early as possible and accompany the current research on experimental fusion reactors.

  10. Future time perspective and promotion focus as determinants of intraindividual change in work motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooij, Dorien T A M; Bal, P Matthijs; Kanfer, Ruth

    2014-06-01

    In the near future, workforces will increasingly consist of older workers. At the same time, research has demonstrated that work-related growth motives decrease with age. Although this finding is consistent with life span theories, such as the selection optimization and compensation (SOC) model, we know relatively little about the process variables that bring about this change in work motivation. Therefore, we use a 4-wave study design to examine the mediating role of future time perspective and promotion focus in the negative association between age and work-related growth motives. Consistent with the SOC model, we found that future time perspective was negatively associated with age, which, in turn, was associated with lower promotion focus, lower work-related growth motive strength, and lower motivation to continue working. These findings have important theoretical implications for the literature on aging and work motivation, and practical implications for how to motivate older workers. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Future perspectives on space psychology: Recommendations on psychosocial and neurobehavioural aspects of human spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre, Gabriel G.; van Baarsen, Berna; Ferlazzo, Fabio; Kanas, Nick; Weiss, Karine; Schneider, Stefan; Whiteley, Iya

    2012-12-01

    Recently the psychological effects of space flight have gained in attention. In uncovering the psychological challenges that individuals and teams can face, we need research options that integrate psychosocial aspects with behavioral, performance, technical and environmental issues. Future perspectives in Space Psychology and Human Spaceflight are reviewed in this paper. The topics covered include psychosocial and neurobehavioural aspects, neurocognitive testing tools, decision making, autonomy and delayed communications, well being, mental health, situational awareness, and methodology. Authors were members of a European Space Agency (ESA) Research Topical Team on Psychosocial and Behavioral Aspects of Human Spaceflight. They discuss the different topics under a common perspective of a theoretical and practical framework, showing interactions, relationships and possible solutions for the different aspects and variables in play. Recommendations for every topic are offered and summarized for future research in the field. The different proposed research ideas can be accomplished using analogs and simulation experiments, short- and long-duration bed rest, and in-flight microgravity studies. These topics are especially important for future Moon and Mars mission design and training.

  12. Activities of the O ampersand M committee history ampersand future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulis, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Committee on Operation and Maintenance of Nuclear Power Plants, hereafter referred to as the O ampersand M Committee, formed in June 1975 when the American National Standard Institute's Committee on Reactor Plants and their Maintenance was disbanded. The O ampersand M Committee's history, structure, current focus and future perspectives will be presented. The purpose of this paper is to give information to industry and the public of the Committee's on-going effort to make accurate and timely responses to the needs of the nuclear industry

  13. High-resolution mass spectrometry in toxicology: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, H H; Meyer, Markus R

    2016-09-01

    This paper reviews high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) approaches using time-of-flight or Orbitrap techniques for research and application in various toxicology fields, particularly in clinical toxicology and forensic toxicology published since 2013 and referenced in PubMed. In the introduction, an overview on applications of HRMS in various toxicology fields is given with reference to current review articles. Papers concerning HRMS in metabolism, screening, and quantification of pharmaceuticals, drugs of abuse, and toxins in human body samples are critically reviewed. Finally, a discussion on advantages as well as limitations and future perspectives of these methods is included.

  14. History and future perspectives of the Monte Carlo shell model -from Alphleet to K computer-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Noritaka; Otsuka, Takaharu; Utsuno, Yutaka; Mizusaki, Takahiro; Honma, Michio; Abe, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    We report a history of the developments of the Monte Carlo shell model (MCSM). The MCSM was proposed in order to perform large-scale shell-model calculations which direct diagonalization method cannot reach. Since 1999 PC clusters were introduced for parallel computation of the MCSM. Since 2011 we participated the High Performance Computing Infrastructure Strategic Program and developed a new MCSM code for current massively parallel computers such as K computer. We discuss future perspectives concerning a new framework and parallel computation of the MCSM by incorporating conjugate gradient method and energy-variance extrapolation

  15. IAEA activities in nuclear safety: future perspectives. Spanish Nuclear Safety Council, Madrid, 28 May 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1998-01-01

    The document represents the conference given by the Director General of the IAEA at the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council in Madrid, on 28 May 1998, on Agency's activities in nuclear safety. The following aspects are emphasized: Agency's role in creating a legally binding nuclear safety regime, non-binding safety standards, services provided by the Agency to assist its Member States in the Application of safety standards, Agency's nuclear safety strategy, and future perspective concerning safety aspects related to radioactive wastes, residues of past nuclear activities, and security of radiological sources

  16. [Diagnosis and Treatment of Peptic Ulcer Disease: Present and Future Perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung Wook

    2016-06-25

    Peptic ulcer disease is one of the most commonly encountered diseases in gastroenterology clinics. After the discovery of Helicobacter pylori by Warren and Marshall, it has been identified as the most important cause of peptic ulcer. Eradication of H. pylori markedly reduces the post-treatment recurrence rate of peptic ulcer. However, as human populations age, the incidence of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal diseases increases and consequent use of aspirin and non-steroidal anti-in-flammatory drugs increases. Thus causes and presenting patterns of peptic ulcer have changed. In this review, I describe new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for peptic ulcer disease and explore future perspectives.

  17. Status and future perspectives of PWR and comparing views on WWER fuel technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidinger, H.

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to give an overview on status and future perspectives of the Western PWR fuel technology. For easer understanding and correlating, some comparing views to the WWER fuel technology are provided. This overview of the PWR fuel technology of course can not go into the details of the today used designs of fuel, fuel rods and fuel assemblies. However, it tries to describe the today achieved capability of PWR fuel technology with regard to reliability, efficiency and safety

  18. Present status and future perspective of research and test reactors in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Osamu; Kaieda, Keisuke

    1999-01-01

    Since 1957, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has constructed several research and test reactors to fulfil a major role in the study of nuclear energy and fundamental research. At present, four reactors, the Japan Research Reactor No. 3 and No. 4 (JRR-3M and JRR-4 respectively), the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) and the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), are in operation, and a new High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) has reached first criticality and is waiting for the power-up test. This paper introduce these reactors and describe their present operational status. The recent tendency of utilization and future perspectives are also reported. (author)

  19. PET/MRI of central nervous system: current status and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhen Lu; Zhang, Long Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Imaging plays an increasingly important role in the early diagnosis, prognosis prediction and therapy response evaluation of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. The newly emerging hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) can perform ''one-stop-shop'' evaluation, including anatomic, functional, biochemical and metabolic information, even at the molecular level, for personalised diagnoses and treatments of CNS diseases. However, there are still several problems to be resolved, such as appropriate PET detectors, attenuation correction and so on. This review will introduce the basic physical principles of PET/MRI and its potential clinical applications in the CNS. We also provide the future perspectives for this field. (orig.)

  20. Present status and future perspective of research and test reactors in JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Osamu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Kaieda, Keisuke

    1999-08-01

    Since 1957, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has constructed several research and test reactors to fulfil a major role in the study of nuclear energy and fundamental research. At present, four reactors, the Japan Research Reactor No. 3 and No. 4 (JRR-3M and JRR-4 respectively), the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) and the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), are in operation, and a new High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) has reached first criticality and is waiting for the power-up test. This paper introduce these reactors and describe their present operational status. The recent tendency of utilization and future perspectives are also reported. (author)

  1. Somatostatin receptor-mediated imaging and therapy: basic science, current knowledge, limitations and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breeman, W.A.P.; Jong, M. de; Kwekkeboom, D.J.; Valkema, R.; Bakker, W.H.; Kooij, P.P.M. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus Medical Centre Rotterdam (Netherlands); Visser, T.J. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Centre Rotterdam (Netherlands); Krenning, E.P. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus Medical Centre Rotterdam (Netherlands); Dept. of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Centre Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2001-09-01

    In vivo somatostatin receptor-mediated scintigraphy has proven to be a valuable method for the visualisation of neuroendocrine tumours and their metastases. A new application is the use of radiolabelled analogues for somatostatin receptor-mediated therapy. This paper presents a review on the basic science, historical background and current knowledge of somatostatin receptor subtypes and their expression in neuroendocrine tumours. New somatostatin analogues, new chelators, ''new'' radionuclides and combinations thereof are also discussed. Due attention is given to limitations and future perspectives of somatostatin receptor-mediated imaging and therapy. (orig.)

  2. [The Woman and the Care of Life. Historical Understanding and Future Perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé García, M Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Over the ages of humanity, women has established a special relationship life care's with the most vulnerable. Women dedicated to the professional care have always existed, also to the unpaid home care of the sick, elderly, with some disability, and children. This study has been carried out a historical and current verification of this question, marking its most characteristic and significant features. From that perspective, we tried to answer these key questions: causes that have motivated this fact, its social consequences and, finally, the most important future implications for all, men and women that, surely, we will be caregivers and strapped for care in our illness.

  3. Somatostatin receptor-mediated imaging and therapy: basic science, current knowledge, limitations and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breeman, W.A.P.; Jong, M. de; Kwekkeboom, D.J.; Valkema, R.; Bakker, W.H.; Kooij, P.P.M.; Visser, T.J.; Krenning, E.P.

    2001-01-01

    In vivo somatostatin receptor-mediated scintigraphy has proven to be a valuable method for the visualisation of neuroendocrine tumours and their metastases. A new application is the use of radiolabelled analogues for somatostatin receptor-mediated therapy. This paper presents a review on the basic science, historical background and current knowledge of somatostatin receptor subtypes and their expression in neuroendocrine tumours. New somatostatin analogues, new chelators, ''new'' radionuclides and combinations thereof are also discussed. Due attention is given to limitations and future perspectives of somatostatin receptor-mediated imaging and therapy. (orig.)

  4. Perspectives on Current Training Guidelines for Cardiac Imaging and Recommendations for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, James A; Kilic, Sena; Haines, Philip G

    2018-04-23

    To summarize current training guidelines for cardiac imaging and provide recommendations for future guidelines. The current structure of training in cardiac imaging is largely dictated by modality-specific guidelines. While there has been debate on how to define the advanced cardiac imager for over a decade, a uniform consensus has not emerged. We report the perspectives of three key stakeholders in this debate: a senior faculty member-former fellowship program director, a cardiology fellow, and an academic junior faculty imaging expert. The observations of these stakeholders suggest that there is no consensus on the definition of advanced cardiac imaging, leading to ambiguity in training guidelines. This may have negative impact on recruitment of fellows into cardiac imaging careers. Based on the current status of training in cardiac imaging, the authors suggest that the relevant professional groups reconvene to form a consensus in defining advanced cardiac imaging, in order to guide future revisions of training guidelines.

  5. Stem Cells as New Agents for the Treatment of Infertility: Current and Future Perspectives and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Volarevic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that are present in the embryonic, fetal, and adult stages of life and give rise to differentiated cells that make up the building blocks of tissue and organs. Due to their unlimited source and high differentiation potential, stem cells are considered as potentially new therapeutic agents for the treatment of infertility. Stem cells could be stimulated in vitro to develop various numbers of specialized cells including male and female gametes suggesting their potential use in reproductive medicine. During past few years a considerable progress in the derivation of male germ cells from pluripotent stem cells has been made. In addition, stem cell-based strategies for ovarian regeneration and oocyte production have been proposed as future clinical therapies for treating infertility in women. In this review, we summarized current knowledge and present future perspectives and challenges regarding the use of stem cells in reproductive medicine.

  6. Positive muons and pions in materials research: perspectives and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeger, A.

    1984-01-01

    The present chapter gives perspective to the various experimental techniques that make use of positive muons and pions. It provides a systematic analysis of the essential features and of the specific requirements of the various μ + SR techniques as well as a corresponding discussion of the lattice-steering techniques. Using a classification of the magnetic interactions into five principal groups, the interrelationships between the magnetic interaction involved in a μ + SR experiment, the physical problem to be investigated, and the experimental techniques one may employ are considered with particular reference to present trends and future work. Finally, the author discusses the beam characteristics best suited for the various techniques and points out some of the features that should be taken into account in future developments (e.g. kaon factories). (Auth.)

  7. Deep Learning in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging: Current Perspectives and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hongyoon

    2018-04-01

    Recent advances in deep learning have impacted various scientific and industrial fields. Due to the rapid application of deep learning in biomedical data, molecular imaging has also started to adopt this technique. In this regard, it is expected that deep learning will potentially affect the roles of molecular imaging experts as well as clinical decision making. This review firstly offers a basic overview of deep learning particularly for image data analysis to give knowledge to nuclear medicine physicians and researchers. Because of the unique characteristics and distinctive aims of various types of molecular imaging, deep learning applications can be different from other fields. In this context, the review deals with current perspectives of deep learning in molecular imaging particularly in terms of development of biomarkers. Finally, future challenges of deep learning application for molecular imaging and future roles of experts in molecular imaging will be discussed.

  8. The future role of photovoltaics: A learning curve versus portfolio perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, Johan

    2007-01-01

    The current cost disadvantage of photovoltaics (PV) risks to reduce its relevance in climate policy strategies. Depending on the used assumptions, electricity from PV can become competitive between 2015 and 2040. Cost competitiveness is, however, a conditional criterion and as an alternative to the learning curve perspective, the future role of PV in electricity production is assessed from a portfolio theory or Capital Asset Pricing Model perspective. In this analysis, the focus is on the input price risks. Fossil fuel price volatility can strongly reduce the financial return of conventional generating technologies. From a welfare perspective, energy planners should try to minimise this risk by adding risk-neutral or no-risk technologies to their portfolio. With an analysis for the year 2025, we illustrate how the addition of renewable capacity to an existing portfolio can lower total portfolio risk without a significant reduction of profitability. PV then emerges as an attractive technology, especially once the best locations for wind energy are already developed

  9. The future role of photovoltaics: a learning curve versus portfolio perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, J.

    2007-01-01

    The current cost disadvantage of photovoltaics (PV) risks to reduce its relevance in climate policy strategies. Depending on the used assumptions, electricity from PV can become competitive between 2015 and 2040. Cost competitiveness is, however, a conditional criterion and as an alternative to the learning curve perspective, the future role of PV in electricity production is assessed from a portfolio theory or Capital Asset Pricing Model perspective. In this analysis, the focus is on the input price risks. Fossil fuel price volatility can strongly reduce the financial return of conventional generating technologies. From a welfare perspective, energy planners should try to minimise this risk by adding risk-neutral or no-risk technologies to their portfolio. With an analysis for the year 2025, we illustrate how the addition of renewable capacity to an existing portfolio can lower total portfolio risk without a significant reduction of profitability. PV then emerges as an attractive technology, especially once the best locations for wind energy are already developed. (author)

  10. Laser fusion and precision engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Sadao

    1989-01-01

    The development of laser nuclear fusion energy for attaining the self supply of energy in Japan and establishing the future perspective as the nation is based in the wide fields of high level science and technology. Therefore to its promotion, large expectation is placed as the powerful traction for the development of creative science and technology which are particularly necessary in Japan. The research on laser nuclear fusion advances steadily in the elucidation of the physics of pellet implosion which is its basic concept and compressed plasma parameters. In September, 1986, the number of neutron generation 10 13 , and in October, 1988, the high density compression 600 times as high as solid density have been achieved. Based on these results, now the laser nuclear fusion is in the situation to begin the attainment of ignition condition for nuclear fusion and the realization of break even. The optical components, high power laser technology, fuel pellet production, high resolution measurement, the simulation of implosion using a supercomputer and so on are closely related to precision engineering. In this report, the mechanism of laser nuclear fusion, the present status of its research, and the basic technologies and precision engineering are described. (K.I.)

  11. Connections between Future Time Perspectives and Self-Regulated Learning for Mid-Year Engineering Students: A Multiple Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasmar, Justine

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation presents multiple studies with the purpose of understanding the connections between undergraduate engineering students' motivations, specifically students' Future Time Perspectives (FTPs) and Self-Regulated Learning (SRL). FTP refers to the views students hold about the future and how their perceptions of current tasks are…

  12. Ophthalmology's future in the next decade: a historical and comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, S H

    1999-01-01

    To gain a historical and comparative perspective about the future of ophthalmology within the profession of medicine. A literature search is made of disciplines other than medicine (history, sociology, philosophy, economics, and ethics) in order to assess factors responsible for survival and healthiness of a profession. The "learned" professions (medicine, law, and theology) are assessed. Other "professional" careers valued by society (sports and classical music) are reviewed. From the perspective of other disciplines, the future of ophthalmology is seen as vulnerable and fragile. Survival of professions, be they classically or economically defined, is linked to societal needs, a profession's unique commitment and ability to provide services to society, and the profession's maintenance of knowledge as well as skill-based services. Historical evidence has shown erosion of a profession's power consequent to capitalist influences, government influences, access of skills by less trained individuals, and elitist posturing by a profession. Comparative evidence has shown societal acceptance of an escalation of salaries for designated superstars, increasing roles and influence of managerial personnel, and trivialization of values other than economic ones. Attention to historical and comparative trends by individual ophthalmologists as well as associations representing ophthalmologists is mandatory if ophthalmology as we know it is to survive within the profession of medicine.

  13. Heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Ingo

    1993-01-01

    With controlled thermonuclear fusion holding out the possibility of a prolific and clean new source of energy, the goal remains elusive after many years of continual effort. While the conventional Tokamak route with magnetic confinement continues to hit the headlines, other alternatives are now becoming competitive. One possible solution is to confine the thermonuclear fuel pellet by high power beams. Current research and perspectives for future work in such inertial confinement was the subject of the 'Prospects for Heavy Ion Fusion' European Research Conference held in Aghia Pelaghia, Crete, last year. Its main focus was on the potential of heavy ion accelerators as well as recent advances in target physics with high power lasers and light ion beams. Carlo Rubbia declared that high energy accelerators, with their high efficiency, are the most promising approach to economical fusion energy production. However the need for cost saving in the driver accelerator requires new ideas in target design tailored to the particularities of heavy ion beams, which need to be pushed to the limits of high current and phase space density at the same time

  14. Perspectives on Emerging/Novel Computing Paradigms and Future Aerospace Workforce Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    2003-01-01

    The accelerating pace of the computing technology development shows no signs of abating. Computing power reaching 100 Tflop/s is likely to be reached by 2004 and Pflop/s (10(exp 15) Flop/s) by 2007. The fundamental physical limits of computation, including information storage limits, communication limits and computation rate limits will likely be reached by the middle of the present millennium. To overcome these limits, novel technologies and new computing paradigms will be developed. An attempt is made in this overview to put the diverse activities related to new computing-paradigms in perspective and to set the stage for the succeeding presentations. The presentation is divided into five parts. In the first part, a brief historical account is given of development of computer and networking technologies. The second part provides brief overviews of the three emerging computing paradigms grid, ubiquitous and autonomic computing. The third part lists future computing alternatives and the characteristics of future computing environment. The fourth part describes future aerospace workforce research, learning and design environments. The fifth part lists the objectives of the workshop and some of the sources of information on future computing paradigms.

  15. The first GCC Marine Biotechnology Symposium: Emerging Opportunities and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Stephen; Delghandi, Madjid; Dobretsov, Sergey; Al-Oufi, Hamed; Al-Habsi, Saoud; Burgess, J Grant

    2015-06-01

    With its diverse, living marine resources and rapidly growing educational and research infrastructure, the Sultanate of Oman is well-positioned to take advantage of the commercial opportunities presented by marine biotechnology. In recognition of potential development, an international symposium, Marine Biotechnology-Emerging Opportunities and Future Perspectives, was held in Muscat, November 12-13, 2013. Three keynote addresses were given, 23 oral presentations made, and a poster exhibition held. The final session reviewed national and regional issues, and the delegates agreed informally on a number of future actions. The potential for future development of marine biotechnology was recognized by all delegates, and following the symposium, they were surveyed for their views on how best to sustain and develop new activities. One hundred percent of respondents found the meeting useful and would support future symposia in the region. Fifty-one percent of Omani respondents recognized major organizational challenges and obstacles to the development of marine biotechnology compared with 23 % of overseas respondents. The need for greater collaboration between research institutions within the GCC region was recognized by 98 % of all respondents. The presentations and survey outcomes are reviewed in this paper.

  16. Original article Future perspectives as a condition of positive adaptation of young adults after traumatic experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzanna Farnicka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The paper presents the results of a study on the possible role of sense of influencing one’s life and expectations towards the future as a personal condition of adaptation. In accordance with the theory of formulation of temporal perspectives, these variables were assumed to be related to construction of the psychological reality of the subjects. Participants and procedure The study involved 162 adults in two groups, with traumatic experience and without such experience, aged 18-35. The tools used in the study included: Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES, Boszkiewicz Questionnaire: Life Experience Questionnaire, events evaluation and expectations of changes in the future. Results The study revealed significant differences between people from the two groups in the scope of self-evaluation, sense of influence on events and future expectations. Conclusions The results pointed to the need for adjustment of therapeutic and preventive treatment to future expectations, evaluation of events and the current stage of development, as indicated by personal conditions of adaptation.

  17. Stakeholder perspectives of the future of accessible tourism in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brielle Gillovic

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to put forward the argument that New Zealand�s tourism industry generally fails to acknowledge the importance of the access market. Despite anecdotal evidence of the market's value and strong legislation, New Zealand�s access market arguably remains underserviced and misunderstood. The current research sought to explore social and business rationales to support a future for accessible tourism in New Zealand, from the perspectives of its key stakeholders. It sought to uncover contemporary issues in the tourism industry, to examine the capacity and context for which issues can be addressed and overcome, to achieve a future for accessible tourism in New Zealand. Design/methodology/approach – Under the interpretive paradigm, original, exploratory research was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with ten key New Zealand tourism industry stakeholders who agreed to participate in the research. Qualitative data were thematically analysed. The following five key themes inductively emerged from the data: "Accessibility as a human right: Developing a culture of accessibility"; "Accessible tourism: Good for business?"; "Bottom-up, market-led approach"; "Leadership from the top: Moving from apathy to action"; and "Meeting somewhere in the middle". The five themes correspond to themes evidenced in the wider literature and present propositions for the future development of accessible tourism in New Zealand. Findings – Findings revealed stakeholder opinions of an industry exemplifying minimal awareness and consideration for accessibility. Accessibility was perceived to be an issue of social change, requiring the achievement of a cultural shift where accessibility is envisioned as a cultural norm necessary for the future. Whilst top-down leadership and support were deemed pertinent, ownership and accountability were seen to be crucial at the lower, operational levels of the industry. A "meeting

  18. Solar System Exploration Augmented by Lunar and Outer Planet Resource Utilization: Historical Perspectives and Future Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Establishing a lunar presence and creating an industrial capability on the Moon may lead to important new discoveries for all of human kind. Historical studies of lunar exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) and industrialization all point to the vast resources on the Moon and its links to future human and robotic exploration. In the historical work, a broad range of technological innovations are described and analyzed. These studies depict program planning for future human missions throughout the solar system, lunar launched nuclear rockets, and future human settlements on the Moon, respectively. Updated analyses based on the visions presented are presented. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal propulsion, nuclear surface power, as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Robotic and human outer planet exploration options are described in many detailed and extensive studies. Nuclear propulsion options for fast trips to the outer planets are discussed. To refuel such vehicles, atmospheric mining in the outer solar system has also been investigated as a means of fuel production for high energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as helium 3 (3He) and hydrogen (H2) can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. Helium 3 and H2 (deuterium, etc.) were the primary gases of interest with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses have investigated resource capturing aspects of atmospheric mining in the outer solar system. These analyses included the gas capturing rate, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. While capturing 3He, large amounts of hydrogen and 4He are produced. With these two additional

  19. Fusion helps diversification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, S.; Ren, Z.; de Rijke, M.

    2014-01-01

    A popular strategy for search result diversification is to first retrieve a set of documents utilizing a standard retrieval method and then rerank the results. We adopt a different perspective on the problem, based on data fusion. Starting from the hypothesis that data fusion can improve performance

  20. Future time perspective and health behaviors: temporal framing of self-regulatory processes in physical exercise and dietary behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellert, Paul; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Lippke, Sonia; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2012-04-01

    Limitations in perceived lifetime can undermine long-term goal striving. Planning is supposed to translate intentions into health behaviors and to operate as a compensatory strategy to overcome goal striving deficits associated with a limited time perspective. Two longitudinal studies were conducted examining the compensatory role of planning: an online survey on fruit and vegetable consumption (N = 909; 16-78 years; follow-up at 4 months) and a questionnaire study on physical exercise in older adults (N = 289; 60-95 years, over a half-year period). Intentions, planning, and behavior were measured in a behavior-specific, future time perspective in a generic manner. Planning mediated between intentions and both health behaviors. Time perspective operated as a moderator, indicating that in individuals with a more limited time perspective, a stronger effect of planning on health behaviors emerged. Planning as a self-regulatory strategy may compensate for a limited time perspective.

  1. Research on the wetted first wall concept for future laser fusion reactors. Final report No. 1, October 1, 1974--January 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, M.A.; Munir, Z.A.

    1976-01-01

    Research is in progress to determine the feasibility of the wetted first wall concept for a future laser fusion reactor. The basic idea involves the use of a thin coating of lithium on the inner wall of the laser fusion containment vessel to protect it from the micro-explosion blast debris. This report contains a review of the available information on contact angles and wettability of alkali metals on various metal substrates as well as a review of literature on thin falling liquid films. A proposed experiment to measure the contact angles of lithium on stainless steel and niobium is described. The requirements for a second experiment to measure certain key characteristics of thin falling films are also included

  2. Differing perspectives of major oil firms on future energy developments: An illustrative framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Youngho; Yong Jiayun

    2007-01-01

    This study develops a framework to analyse the perspectives of major oil firms in terms of their perceptions of current energy developments and projections of future energy potentials, and illustrates their views on the possibility of a paradigm shift in fuel use. The three A's themes-availability of resource (AV), applicability of technology (AP) and acceptability by society (AC)-make up the analytical framework. Divergence in oil firms' behaviour and perspectives are captured by the 3-A triangle that illustrates how the four largest oil firms in the world balance their stakes among the three A's. ExxonMobil's position is markedly skewed towards the theme of AV, whilst BP has the most balanced approach among the four. Shell and Total both share a similarly shaped 3-A triangle with more stakes placed on the theme of AP. The results would imply that a paradigm shift in resource use or a full-scale transition to a backstop technology is unlikely in the coming decades

  3. Future development, innovation and promotion of European unique food: an interdisciplinary research framework perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Derek V; Waehrens, Sandra S; O'Sullivan, Maurice G

    2013-11-01

    Unique food products constitute a very important element of European food business, culture, identity and heritage. Understanding the uniqueness of food in Europe from a research-based interdisciplinary perspective will be a critical factor in promoting the competitiveness of artisanal food industries going forward both locally and internationally. Success will support the competitiveness of the European food industry, in particular, small and medium enterprises, by enabling substantial product differentiation potential for producers and providing ample variety in food choice for the consumer. In addition, it will contribute to promotion of sustainable agriculture and development of rural areas, protecting them from depopulation. In order to meet the demands of a developing fundamental shift in European Union agricultural focus to greener, sustainable farming practices and wider rural development and to ensure success for local small-scale producers, this paper discusses the future direction of research in the field of unique European foods. The paper presents a perspective which promotes optimisation and innovation in unique food products in Europe through the integration of advanced knowledge and technologies. A framework is presented covering location, identity, perception and well-being as research areas needing synergy to bridge the research knowledge deficit in determination and specification of food identity in the European Union. The ultimate aim being promotion of sustainable agriculture and rural development, particularly in territories across the European Union where unique food is strategically and scientifically under-defined. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Surveillance and diagnostics in NPPs - progress made, operational needs, and perspective for future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wach, D.

    1996-01-01

    After a brief description of the broad and comprehensive knowledge base in incipient failure detection and on-line diagnostics at Institut fuer Sicherheitstechnologie ISTec, the international situation is reflected, and the operational needs as known from all the regular services of ISTec are discussed. ISTec has been involved in signal analyses, diagnosis support, and surveillance services. Long-term trending of signatures and features are performed, signature data banks with reference and fault-effected signatures were built up, a diagnosis center with advanced support tools has been established. The emphasis is placed on the development necessary in future to cope with the operator's interests. Most of the recent R and D work, aimed at the implementation of new information processing tools and techniques, will need time to be accepted in practice (long-term perspectives). Therefore, the actions and developments described under short-term perspectives should be pushed in order to progress in on-line NPP early failure diagnostics. (author)

  5. Inertial thermonuclear fusion by laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watteau, J.P.

    1993-12-01

    The principles of deuterium tritium (DT) magnetic or inertial thermonuclear fusion are given. Even if results would be better with heavy ions beams, most of the results on fusion are obtained with laser beams. Technical and theoretical aspects of the laser fusion are presented with an extrapolation to the future fusion reactor. (A.B.). 34 refs., 17 figs

  6. Inertial fusion commercial power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation discusses the motivation for inertial fusion energy, a brief synopsis of five recently-completed inertial fusion power plant designs, some general conclusions drawn from these studies, and an example of an IFE hydrogen synfuel plant to suggest that future fusion studies consider broadening fusion use to low-emission fuels production as well as electricity

  7. Proteomics of Important Food Crops in the Asia Oceania Region: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Subhra; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Yang, Pingfang; Woo, Sun-Hee; Chin, Chiew Foan; Gehring, Christoph A; Haynes, Paul A.; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-01-01

    In the rapidly growing economies of Asia and Oceania, food security has become a primary concern. With the rising population, growing more food at affordable prices is becoming even more important. In addition, the predicted climate change will lead to drastic changes in global surface temperature and changes in rainfall patterns that in turn would pose a serious threat to plant vegetation worldwide. As a result, understanding how plants will survive in a changing climate will be increasingly important. Such challenges require integrated approaches to increase agricultural production and cope with environmental threats. Proteomics can play a role in unravel the underlying mechanisms for food production to address the growing demand for food. In this review, the current status of food crop proteomics is discussed, especially in regards to the Asia and Oceania regions. Furthermore, the future perspective in relation to proteomic techniques for the important food crops is highlighted.

  8. Reporting intellectual capital in health care organizations: specifics, lessons learned, and future research perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, Stefania; Bronzetti, Giovanni; Sicoli, Graziella

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the concept of intellectual capital (IC) in the health sector sphere by studying the case of a major nonprofit research organization in this sector, which has for some time been publishing IC reports. In the last few years, health care organizations have been the object of great attention in the implementation and transfer of managerial models and tools; however, there is still a lack of attention paid to the strategic management of IC as a fundamental resource for supporting and enhancing performance improvement dynamics. The main aim of this article is to examine the IC reporting model used by the Center of Molecular Medicine (CMM), a Swedish health organization which is an outstanding benchmark in reporting its IC. We also consider the specifics of IC reporting for health organizations, the lessons learned by analyzing CMM's IC reporting, and future perspectives for research.

  9. PET/MRI of central nervous system: current status and future perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhen Lu; Zhang, Long Jiang [Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-10-15

    Imaging plays an increasingly important role in the early diagnosis, prognosis prediction and therapy response evaluation of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. The newly emerging hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) can perform ''one-stop-shop'' evaluation, including anatomic, functional, biochemical and metabolic information, even at the molecular level, for personalised diagnoses and treatments of CNS diseases. However, there are still several problems to be resolved, such as appropriate PET detectors, attenuation correction and so on. This review will introduce the basic physical principles of PET/MRI and its potential clinical applications in the CNS. We also provide the future perspectives for this field. (orig.)

  10. The role of ultrasound elastographic techniques in chronic liver disease: Current status and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piscaglia, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.piscaglia@unibo.it [Division of Internal Medicine, University of Bologna, General and University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Marinelli, Sara, E-mail: sara_marinelli@libero.it [Division of Internal Medicine, University of Bologna, General and University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Bota, Simona, E-mail: bota_simona1982@yahoo.com [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Victor Babeş”, Timişoara (Romania); Serra, Carla, E-mail: carla.serra@aosp.bo.it [Division of Medical Liver Transplant Care, General and University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Venerandi, Laura, E-mail: laura.venerandi@gmail.com [Division of Internal Medicine, University of Bologna, General and University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Leoni, Simona, E-mail: leonisimona@yahoo.it [Division of Internal Medicine, University of Bologna, General and University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Salvatore, Veronica, E-mail: veronica.salvatore@unibo.it [Division of Internal Medicine, University of Bologna, General and University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    This review illustrates the state of the art clinical applications and the future perspectives of ultrasound elastographic methods for the evaluation of chronic liver diseases, including the most widely used and validated technique, transient elastography, followed by shear wave elastography and strain imaging elastography. Liver ultrasound elastography allows the non-invasive evaluation of liver stiffness, providing information regarding the stage of fibrosis, comparable to liver biopsy which is still considered the gold standard; in this way, it can help physicians in managing patients, including the decision as to when to start antiviral treatment. The characterization of focal liver lesions and the prognostic role of the elastographic technique in the prediction of complications of cirrhosis are still under investigation.

  11. Prophylactic and Therapeutic Vaccination against Hepatitis C Virus (HCV: Developments and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian E. Major

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies in patients and chimpanzees that spontaneously clear Hepatitis C Virus (HCV have demonstrated that natural immunity to the virus is induced during primary infections and that this immunity can be cross protective. These discoveries led to optimism regarding prophylactic HCV vaccines and a number of studies in the chimpanzee model have been performed, all of which resulted in modified infections after challenge but did not always prevent persistence of the virus. Therapeutic vaccine strategies have also been pursued in an effort to reduce the costs and side effects associated with anti-viral drug treatment. This review summarizes the studies performed thus far in both patients and chimpanzees for prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination, assesses the progress made and future perspectives.

  12. Clinical proteomics-driven precision medicine for targeted cancer therapy: current overview and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Wang, Kui; Li, Qifu; Nice, Edouard C; Zhang, Haiyuan; Huang, Canhua

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a common disease that is a leading cause of death worldwide. Currently, early detection and novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed for more effective management of cancer. Importantly, protein profiling using clinical proteomic strategies, with spectacular sensitivity and precision, offer excellent promise for the identification of potential biomarkers that would direct the development of targeted therapeutic anticancer drugs for precision medicine. In particular, clinical sample sources, including tumor tissues and body fluids (blood, feces, urine and saliva), have been widely investigated using modern high-throughput mass spectrometry-based proteomic approaches combined with bioinformatic analysis, to pursue the possibilities of precision medicine for targeted cancer therapy. Discussed in this review are the current advantages and limitations of clinical proteomics, the available strategies of clinical proteomics for the management of precision medicine, as well as the challenges and future perspectives of clinical proteomics-driven precision medicine for targeted cancer therapy.

  13. Thermal hydraulic codes for LWR safety analysis - present status and future perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staedtke, H. [Commission of the European Union, Ispra (Italy)

    1997-07-01

    The aim of the present paper is to give a review on the current status and future perspective of present best-estimate Thermal Hydraulic codes. Reference is made to internationally well-established codes which have reached a certain state of maturity. The first part of the paper deals with the common basic code features with respect to the physical modelling and their numerical methods used to describe complex two-phase flow and heat transfer processes. The general predictive capabilities are summarized identifying some remaining code deficiencies and their underlying limitations. The second part discusses various areas including physical modelling, numerical techniques and informatic structure where the codes could be substantially improved.

  14. The importance of the criteria of residential buildings from the perspective of future users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirochmanová, Lenka; Kozlovská, Mária; Bašková, Renáta

    2016-06-01

    The developers need to know what is important to their customers in preparation of new construction of residential buildings. The paper deals with finding the importance of structure, material, cost, time and environmental criteria of residential buildings from the perspective of the future owners. The research methodology that provided the information was questionnaire survey. Research was conducted in two lines. The first line is dedicated to the research of main construction domains of residential building. The second line of the research deals with the specific criteria of main construction domains. The order of importance of the main areas and the specific criteria is determined by analyzing of data through descriptive characteristics: median, modus, variance, average value and by weigh of importance.

  15. Thermal hydraulic codes for LWR safety analysis - present status and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staedtke, H.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to give a review on the current status and future perspective of present best-estimate Thermal Hydraulic codes. Reference is made to internationally well-established codes which have reached a certain state of maturity. The first part of the paper deals with the common basic code features with respect to the physical modelling and their numerical methods used to describe complex two-phase flow and heat transfer processes. The general predictive capabilities are summarized identifying some remaining code deficiencies and their underlying limitations. The second part discusses various areas including physical modelling, numerical techniques and informatic structure where the codes could be substantially improved

  16. Present status and future perspectives of research and test reactor in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Yoshihiko; Kaieda, Keisuke

    2000-01-01

    Since 1957, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has constructed several research and test reactors to fulfill a major role in the study of nuclear energy and fundamental research. At present four reactors, the Japan Research Reactor No. 3 and No. 4 (JRR-3M and JRR-4 respectively), the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) and the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) are in operation, and a new High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) has recently reached first criticality and now in the power up test. In 1966, the Kyoto University built the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) and started its operation for joint use program of the Japanese universities. This paper introduces these reactors and describes their present operational status and also efforts for aging management. The recent tendency of utilization and future perspectives is also reported. (author)

  17. Present status and future perspectives of research and test reactor in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Yoshihiko [Atomic Energy Research Laboratory, Musashi Institute of Technology, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Kaieda, Keisuke [Department of Research Reactor, Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    Since 1957, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has constructed several research and test reactors to fulfill a major role in the study of nuclear energy and fundamental research. At present four reactors, the Japan Research Reactor No. 3 and No. 4 (JRR-3M and JRR-4 respectively), the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) and the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) are in operation, and a new High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) has recently reached first criticality and now in the power up test. In 1966, the Kyoto University built the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) and started its operation for joint use program of the Japanese universities. This paper introduces these reactors and describes their present operational status and also efforts for aging management. The recent tendency of utilization and future perspectives is also reported. (author)

  18. Proteomics of Important Food Crops in the Asia Oceania Region: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Subhra

    2015-06-02

    In the rapidly growing economies of Asia and Oceania, food security has become a primary concern. With the rising population, growing more food at affordable prices is becoming even more important. In addition, the predicted climate change will lead to drastic changes in global surface temperature and changes in rainfall patterns that in turn would pose a serious threat to plant vegetation worldwide. As a result, understanding how plants will survive in a changing climate will be increasingly important. Such challenges require integrated approaches to increase agricultural production and cope with environmental threats. Proteomics can play a role in unravel the underlying mechanisms for food production to address the growing demand for food. In this review, the current status of food crop proteomics is discussed, especially in regards to the Asia and Oceania regions. Furthermore, the future perspective in relation to proteomic techniques for the important food crops is highlighted.

  19. Dictionnaires de traduction pour traducteurs: état actuel et perspectives futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leroyer, Patrick

    Dictionaries for Assisting Translators of Lsp Texts: The Accounting Dictionaries. International Journal of Lexicography 25 (2), 191-215. Fuertes-Olivera, P. and S. Tarp (2014) The theory and Practice of Specialised Online Dictionaries. Lexicographica Series Maior. De Gruyter. Leroyer, P., M.-C. L'Homme and B......, thesauruses, corpora of parallel texts, knowledge bases etc. Is it possible to tailor the lexicographic tool to the needs of the individual translator in a given, specific translation situation? This high conceptual complexity explains why dictionaries for translation have been the subject of a great number...... a brief overview of the most influential theoretical positions in lexicography and their consequences for dictionary making in the field of translation at present, the paper will discuss last-generation translation dictionaries and perspectives for the future. References: Fuertes-Olivera, P. (2012) Online...

  20. Heat Shock Proteins in Vascular Diabetic Complications: Review and Future Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Bellini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (HSPs are a large family of proteins highly conserved throughout evolution because of their unique cytoprotective properties. Besides assisting protein refolding and regulating proteostasis under stressful conditions, HSPs also play an important role in protecting cells from oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Therefore, HSPs are crucial in counteracting the deleterious effects of hyperglycemia in target organs of diabetes vascular complications. Changes in HSP expression have been demonstrated in diabetic complications and functionally related to hyperglycemia-induced cell injury. Moreover, associations between diabetic complications and altered circulating levels of both HSPs and anti-HSPs have been shown in clinical studies. HSPs thus represent an exciting therapeutic opportunity and might also be valuable as clinical biomarkers. However, this field of research is still in its infancy and further studies in both experimental diabetes and humans are required to gain a full understanding of HSP relevance. In this review, we summarize current knowledge and discuss future perspective.

  1. Drug resistance in leishmaniasis: current drug-delivery systems and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasinzai, Masoom; Khan, Momin; Nadhman, Akhtar; Shahnaz, Gul

    2013-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is a complex of diseases with numerous clinical manifestations for instance harshness from skin lesions to severe disfigurement and chronic systemic infection in the liver and spleen. So far, the most classical leishmaniasis therapy, despite its documented toxicities, remains pentavalent antimonial compounds. The arvailable therapeutic modalities for leishmaniasis are overwhelmed with resistance to leishmaniasis therapy. Mechanisms of classical drug resistance are often related with the lower drug uptake, increased efflux, the faster drug metabolism, drug target modifications and over-expression of drug transporters. The high prevalence of leishmaniasis and the appearance of resistance to classical drugs reveal the demand to develop and explore novel, less toxic, low cost and more promising therapeutic modalities. The review describes the mechanisms of classical drug resistance and potential drug targets in Leishmania infection. Moreover, current drug-delivery systems and future perspectives towards Leishmaniasis treatment are also covered.

  2. Microbial fuel cells in saline and hypersaline environments: Advancements, challenges and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattieri, Matteo; Minteer, Shelley D

    2018-04-01

    This review is aimed to report the possibility to utilize microbial fuel cells for the treatment of saline and hypersaline solutions. An introduction to the issues related with the biological treatment of saline and hypersaline wastewater is reported, discussing the limitation that characterizes classical aerobic and anaerobic digestions. The microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology, and the possibility to be applied in the presence of high salinity, is discussed before reviewing the most recent advancements in the development of MFCs operating in saline and hypersaline conditions, with their different and interesting applications. Specifically, the research performed in the last 5years will be the main focus of this review. Finally, the future perspectives for this technology, together with the most urgent research needs, are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantum Dots for Cancer Research: Current Status, Remaining Issues, and Future Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Min; Peng, Chun-wei; Pang, Dai-Wen; Li, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a major threat to public health in the 21st century because it is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis, cancer invasion, and metastasis remain unclear. Thus, the development of a novel approach for cancer detection is urgent, and real-time monitoring is crucial in revealing its underlying biological mechanisms. With the optical and chemical advantages of quantum dots (QDs), QD-based nanotechnology is helpful in constructing a biomedical imaging platform for cancer behavior study. This review mainly focuses on the application of QD-based nanotechnology in cancer cell imaging and tumor microenvironment studies both in vivo and in vitro, as well as the remaining issues and future perspectives

  4. Personalized translational epilepsy research - Novel approaches and future perspectives: Part II: Experimental and translational approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sebastian; van Alphen, Natascha; Becker, Albert; Chiocchetti, Andreas; Deichmann, Ralf; Deller, Thomas; Freiman, Thomas; Freitag, Christine M; Gehrig, Johannes; Hermsen, Anke M; Jedlicka, Peter; Kell, Christian; Klein, Karl Martin; Knake, Susanne; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Liebner, Stefan; Norwood, Braxton A; Omigie, Diana; Plate, Karlheinz; Reif, Andreas; Reif, Philipp S; Reiss, Yvonne; Roeper, Jochen; Ronellenfitsch, Michael W; Schorge, Stephanie; Schratt, Gerhard; Schwarzacher, Stephan W; Steinbach, Joachim P; Strzelczyk, Adam; Triesch, Jochen; Wagner, Marlies; Walker, Matthew C; von Wegner, Frederic; Rosenow, Felix

    2017-11-01

    Despite the availability of more than 15 new "antiepileptic drugs", the proportion of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy has remained constant at about 20-30%. Furthermore, no disease-modifying treatments shown to prevent the development of epilepsy following an initial precipitating brain injury or to reverse established epilepsy have been identified to date. This is likely in part due to the polyetiologic nature of epilepsy, which in turn requires personalized medicine approaches. Recent advances in imaging, pathology, genetics, and epigenetics have led to new pathophysiological concepts and the identification of monogenic causes of epilepsy. In the context of these advances, the First International Symposium on Personalized Translational Epilepsy Research (1st ISymPTER) was held in Frankfurt on September 8, 2016, to discuss novel approaches and future perspectives for personalized translational research. These included new developments and ideas in a range of experimental and clinical areas such as deep phenotyping, quantitative brain imaging, EEG/MEG-based analysis of network dysfunction, tissue-based translational studies, innate immunity mechanisms, microRNA as treatment targets, functional characterization of genetic variants in human cell models and rodent organotypic slice cultures, personalized treatment approaches for monogenic epilepsies, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, therapeutic focal tissue modification, computational modeling for target and biomarker identification, and cost analysis in (monogenic) disease and its treatment. This report on the meeting proceedings is aimed at stimulating much needed investments of time and resources in personalized translational epilepsy research. This Part II includes the experimental and translational approaches and a discussion of the future perspectives, while the diagnostic methods, EEG network analysis, biomarkers, and personalized treatment approaches were addressed in Part I [1]. Copyright © 2017

  5. Plasma physics and controlled fusion research during half a century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, Bo

    2001-06-01

    A review is given on the historical development of research on plasma physics and controlled fusion. The potentialities are outlined for fusion of light atomic nuclei, with respect to the available energy resources and the environmental properties. Various approaches in the research on controlled fusion are further described, as well as the present state of investigation and future perspectives, being based on the use of a hot plasma in a fusion reactor. Special reference is given to the part of this work which has been conducted in Sweden, merely to identify its place within the general historical development. Considerable progress has been made in fusion research during the last decades. Temperatures above the limit for ignition of self-sustained fusion reactions, i.e. at more than hundred million degrees, have been reached in large experiments and under conditions where the fusion power generation is comparable to the power losses. An energy producing fusion reactor could in principle be realized already today, but it would not become technically and economically efficient when being based on the present state of art. Future international research has therefore to be conducted along broad lines, with necessary ingredients of basic investigations and new ideas.

  6. Plasma physics and controlled fusion research during half a century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, Bo

    2001-06-01

    A review is given on the historical development of research on plasma physics and controlled fusion. The potentialities are outlined for fusion of light atomic nuclei, with respect to the available energy resources and the environmental properties. Various approaches in the research on controlled fusion are further described, as well as the present state of investigation and future perspectives, being based on the use of a hot plasma in a fusion reactor. Special reference is given to the part of this work which has been conducted in Sweden, merely to identify its place within the general historical development. Considerable progress has been made in fusion research during the last decades. Temperatures above the limit for ignition of self-sustained fusion reactions, i.e. at more than hundred million degrees, have been reached in large experiments and under conditions where the fusion power generation is comparable to the power losses. An energy producing fusion reactor could in principle be realized already today, but it would not become technically and economically efficient when being based on the present state of art. Future international research has therefore to be conducted along broad lines, with necessary ingredients of basic investigations and new ideas

  7. Fusion technology 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, C.; Gasparatto, M.; Knoepfel, H.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the biennial series of symposia on the title subject, organized by the European Fusion Laboratories, is the exchange of information on the design, construction and operation of fusion experiments and on the technology being developed for the next step devices and fusion reactors. The coverage of the volume includes the technological aspects of fusion reactors in relation to new developments, this forming a guideline for the definition of future work. These proceedings comprise three volumes and contain both the invited lectures and contributed papers presented at the symposium which was attended by 569 participants from around the globe. The 343 papers, including 12 invited papers, characterize the increasing interest of industry in the fusion programme, giving a broad and current overview on the progress and trends fusion technology is experiencing now, as well as indicating the future for fusion devices

  8. DNA fusion gene vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2010-01-01

    DNA vaccines are versatile and safe, but limited immunogenicity has prevented their use in the clinical setting. Experimentally, immunogenicity may be enhanced by the use of new delivery technologies, by coadministration of cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or by fusion...... of antigens into molecular domains that enhance antigen presentation. More specifically, the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines may benefit from increased protein synthesis, increased T-cell help and MHC class I presentation, and the addition of a range of specific cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular...... with viral-vectored vaccines, various synergistic components may need to be incorporated into DNA vaccines. From the perspective of the future clinical use of DNA vaccines, it has been suggested that antigen presentation should be improved and cytokine coadministration attempted. However, even...

  9. Energy and the future: Sustainable methods of energy use from passive architecture to fusion. Lectures; Energie und Zukunft: Zukunftsweisende Methoden der Energienutzung vom Passivhaus bis zur Fusion. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahm, W.; Schultze, K. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    In the run-up to the Kyoto conference, there is far-reaching agreement that the world energy industry needs to be reconstructed by the middle of the next century if a climate catastrophe is to be avoided. But how this goal can be reached is controversial. The risks involved are described in contributions concerned with German energy policy, the insurance sector, and scenarios for mitigating carbon dioxides on the basis of the Ikarus model. But the focus of this annual report of DPG`s task force Energy is on reports on longer-term technologies and methods. Two papers describe the state of the art of fusion research. In the conventional energy sector, high-efficiency absorption-type refrigerators and thermal engines, and fuel conservation through low-cost passive architecture are dealt with inter alia. Other lectures report on the state of solar energy utilization and process chains in the hydrogen-based economy. Five papers are individually listed in the Energy database. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Vorfeld der Konferenz von Kyoto besteht weitgehende Einigkeit, dass die Weltenergiewirtschaft bis zur Mitte des naechsten Jahrhunderts umgestaltet werden muss, um eine Klimakatastrophe zu verhindern. Der Weg dahin ist umstritten. Seine Risiken kommen in Beitraegen zur deutschen Energiepolitik, zur Versicherungswirtschaft und zu Szenarien der Minderung der CO{sub 2}-Emissionen auf der Basis des Ikarus-Modells zum Ausdruck. Im Mittelpunkt des Jahresbandes des Arbeitskreises Energie der DPG stehen diesmal jedoch Berichte ueber laengerfristig angelegte Technologien und Methoden. Zwei Beitraege berichten ueber den Stand der Fusionsforschung. Im konventionellen Bereich geht es u.a. um hocheffiziente Absorptionsmaschinen zur Versorgung mit Kaelte und Waerme und um die Brennstoffeinsparung durch kostenguenstige Passivhaeuser. Andere Vortraege berichten ueber den Stand der Nutzung der Sonnenenergie und Prozessketten in der Wasserstoffwirtschaft. Fuer die Datenbank Energy wurden fuenf

  10. Proton electromagnetic form factors: Basic notions, present achievements and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacetti, Simone, E-mail: simone.pacetti@pg.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia dell’Universitá degli Studi di Perugia and INFN Sezione di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Baldini Ferroli, Rinaldo [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Tomasi-Gustafsson, Egle [CEA, IRFU, SPhN, Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, UMR 8608, 91406 Orsay (France)

    2015-01-20

    The aim of this report is to give basic notions on electromagnetic hadron form factors (FFs), as they are understood at the present time, to summarize and analyze the present experimental results and available theoretical models and to open a view on future perspectives. FFs are fundamental quantities, which describe the internal, dynamical structure of hadrons. Although the theoretical formalism was settled in the middle of last century, as well as the first experiments in electron–proton elastic scattering for which R. Hofstadter got the Nobel prize in 1961, a renewed activity is due to recent, surprising results and to the opening of new experimental possibilities. An elegant formalism was built on the assumption of a hadron electromagnetic interaction based on the exchange of a virtual photon of four-momentum q{sup 2}. In this case FFs are analytic functions of only one variable, q{sup 2}, and the electromagnetic vertex γ{sup ∗}hh (h is any hadron) is defined by two structure functions, which, in turn, are expressed in terms of (2S+1) FFs, S being the hadron spin, assuming parity and time-invariance. Our aim is to anticipate the potentiality contained in the future data, combined with the present knowledge, to point out the relevant observables and the most significative measurements, and to give predictions to be compared to the data when they will be available.

  11. Phytochemistry of the carnivorous sundew genus Drosera (Droseraceae) - future perspectives and ethnopharmacological relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Paul A; van der Kooy, Frank

    2013-10-01

    Species of the carnivorous genus Drosera L. have long been a source of valuable natural products. The various phytochemicals characteristic of these species, particularly 1,4-naphthoquinones and flavonoids, have contributed to the diverse utilization of sundews in traditional medicine systems worldwide. A growing number of studies have sought to investigate the comparative phytochemistry of Drosera species for improved sources of pharmaceutically important compounds. The outcomes of these studies are here collated, with emergent trends discussed in detail. Important factors which affect production of secondary metabolites in plants are critically examined, such as environmental influences and in vitro culture, and recommendations subsequently presented based on this. Explicitly, the current review aims to i) present an updated, comprehensive listing of the phytochemical constituents of the genus (including quantitative data where available), ii) summarize important factors which may influence the production of phytopharmaceuticals in plants, and iii) recommend guidelines for future research based on the above, including improved standardization and quality control. We have also included a section discussing future perspectives of research on Drosera spp. based on three different research lines i) the potential to produce much needed lead compounds for treatment of tuberculosis, ii) the potential role of anthocyanins in nitrogen transport, and iii) research into 'Natural Deep Eutectic' solvents produced by Drosera spp. in the droplets or 'dew' employed to capture insect prey. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  12. Motivational power of future time perspective: Meta-analyses in education, work, and health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucija Andre

    Full Text Available Future time perspective (FTP may predict individual attitudes and behaviors. However, FTP research includes different FTP conceptualizations and outcomes which hinder generalizing its findings. To solve the inconsistencies in FTP research and generalize the magnitude of FTP as a driver of motivation and behavior, we conducted the first systematical synthesis of FTP relationships in three crucial life domains. Our meta-analyses of FTP studies in education (k = 28, work (k = 17, and health (k = 32 involved N = 31,558 participants, and used a conceptual model for grouping FTP constructs. To address different outcome types, we applied the Theory of Planned Behavior when coding the studies. FTP relationships with outcomes were small-to-medium, were generalizable across domains, and were strongest when the FTP construct included a mixture of cognition, behavioral intention, and affect and, in education, when the FTP measure was domain specific rather than general. There were cross-cultural differences in FTP-outcome relationships. The strength of the FTP-outcome types relationship varied for attitudes, perceived behavioral control, behavioral intention, and behaviors. The lowest effect sizes were found for FTP predicting actual behaviors in education, work, and health and between FTP and health attitudes. Theoretical implications of the findings and future research directions are discussed.

  13. Expectations from different perspectives on future work outcome of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holwerda, Anja; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R; Groothoff, Johan W; van der Klink, Jac J L

    2015-03-01

    Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities from special needs education, their parents and their school teachers regarding future work and the extent to which these expectations predict work outcome. Data on 341 young adults with intellectual or developmental disabilities, coming from special needs education, aged 17-20 years, and with an ability to work according to the Social Security Institute were examined. The school teacher's expectation was the only perspective that significantly predicted entering competitive employment, with a complementary effect of the expectation of parents and a small additional effect of the expectation of the young adult. Expectations of school teachers and parents are valuable in predicting work outcome. Therefore, it is important for professionals working with the young adult in the transition from school to work to incorporate the knowledge of school teachers and parents regarding the abilities of the young adult to enter competitive employment as a valuable source of information.

  14. A European Perspective on Auditory Processing Disorder-Current Knowledge and Future Research Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki (Vivian Iliadou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Current notions of “hearing impairment,” as reflected in clinical audiological practice, do not acknowledge the needs of individuals who have normal hearing pure tone sensitivity but who experience auditory processing difficulties in everyday life that are indexed by reduced performance in other more sophisticated audiometric tests such as speech audiometry in noise or complex non-speech sound perception. This disorder, defined as “Auditory Processing Disorder” (APD or “Central Auditory Processing Disorder” is classified in the current tenth version of the International Classification of diseases as H93.25 and in the forthcoming beta eleventh version. APDs may have detrimental effects on the affected individual, with low esteem, anxiety, and depression, and symptoms may remain into adulthood. These disorders may interfere with learning per se and with communication, social, emotional, and academic-work aspects of life. The objective of the present paper is to define a baseline European APD consensus formulated by experienced clinicians and researchers in this specific field of human auditory science. A secondary aim is to identify issues that future research needs to address in order to further clarify the nature of APD and thus assist in optimum diagnosis and evidence-based management. This European consensus presents the main symptoms, conditions, and specific medical history elements that should lead to auditory processing evaluation. Consensus on definition of the disorder, optimum diagnostic pathway, and appropriate management are highlighted alongside a perspective on future research focus.

  15. Motivational power of future time perspective: Meta-analyses in education, work, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Lucija; van Vianen, Annelies E M; Peetsma, Thea T D; Oort, Frans J

    2018-01-01

    Future time perspective (FTP) may predict individual attitudes and behaviors. However, FTP research includes different FTP conceptualizations and outcomes which hinder generalizing its findings. To solve the inconsistencies in FTP research and generalize the magnitude of FTP as a driver of motivation and behavior, we conducted the first systematical synthesis of FTP relationships in three crucial life domains. Our meta-analyses of FTP studies in education (k = 28), work (k = 17), and health (k = 32) involved N = 31,558 participants, and used a conceptual model for grouping FTP constructs. To address different outcome types, we applied the Theory of Planned Behavior when coding the studies. FTP relationships with outcomes were small-to-medium, were generalizable across domains, and were strongest when the FTP construct included a mixture of cognition, behavioral intention, and affect and, in education, when the FTP measure was domain specific rather than general. There were cross-cultural differences in FTP-outcome relationships. The strength of the FTP-outcome types relationship varied for attitudes, perceived behavioral control, behavioral intention, and behaviors. The lowest effect sizes were found for FTP predicting actual behaviors in education, work, and health and between FTP and health attitudes. Theoretical implications of the findings and future research directions are discussed.

  16. Proton electromagnetic form factors: Basic notions, present achievements and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacetti, Simone; Baldini Ferroli, Rinaldo; Tomasi-Gustafsson, Egle

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this report is to give basic notions on electromagnetic hadron form factors (FFs), as they are understood at the present time, to summarize and analyze the present experimental results and available theoretical models and to open a view on future perspectives. FFs are fundamental quantities, which describe the internal, dynamical structure of hadrons. Although the theoretical formalism was settled in the middle of last century, as well as the first experiments in electron–proton elastic scattering for which R. Hofstadter got the Nobel prize in 1961, a renewed activity is due to recent, surprising results and to the opening of new experimental possibilities. An elegant formalism was built on the assumption of a hadron electromagnetic interaction based on the exchange of a virtual photon of four-momentum q 2 . In this case FFs are analytic functions of only one variable, q 2 , and the electromagnetic vertex γ ∗ hh (h is any hadron) is defined by two structure functions, which, in turn, are expressed in terms of (2S+1) FFs, S being the hadron spin, assuming parity and time-invariance. Our aim is to anticipate the potentiality contained in the future data, combined with the present knowledge, to point out the relevant observables and the most significative measurements, and to give predictions to be compared to the data when they will be available

  17. Positive affect, meaning in life, and future time perspective: an application of socioemotional selectivity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Joshua A; Trent, Jason; Davis, William E; King, Laura A

    2012-03-01

    Four studies tested the prediction that positive affect (PA) would relate more strongly to meaning in life (MIL) as a function of perceived time limitations. In Study 1 (N = 360), adults completed measures of PA and MIL. As predicted, PA related more strongly to MIL for older, compared to younger, participants. In Studies 2 and 3, adults (N = 514) indicated their current position in their life span, and rated their MIL. PA, whether naturally occurring (Study 2) or induced (Study 3), was a stronger predictor of MIL for individuals who perceived themselves as having a limited amount of time left to live. Finally, in Study 4 (N = 98) students completed a measure of PA, MIL, and future time perspective (FTP). Results showed that PA was more strongly linked to MIL for those who believed they had fewer opportunities left to pursue their goals. Overall, these findings suggest that the experience of PA becomes increasingly associated with the experience of MIL as the perception of future time becomes limited. The contribution of age related processes to judgments of well-being are discussed.

  18. Effects of occupational future time perspective on managing stressful work situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Henry C Y; Yeung, Dannii Y

    2016-08-01

    According to the socioemotional selectivity theory (SST; Carstensen, 2006), older adults perceive their future time as increasingly limited, which motivates them to focus more on emotional goals and prefer passive emotion-focused strategies. This study aims to investigate the effect of occupational future time perspective (OFTP) on the use of problem-solving strategies in stressful work situations and to examine the effectiveness of these strategies on psychological well-being. A sample of 199 Chinese clerical workers responded to a structured questionnaire on problem-solving strategy use in relation to hypothetical work scenarios. Results revealed that relative to those with limited OFTP, workers with expansive OFTP preferred problem-focused and proactive strategies in both low- and high-emotionally salient scenarios. Workers with limited OFTP consistently preferred passive strategies irrespective of emotional salience. OFTP moderated the effect of problem-focused strategies on psychological distress. In particular, there was a significant negative relationship between problem-focused strategies and psychological distress among workers with expansive OFTP, but such pattern of relationship was not observed among workers with limited OFTP. Findings of this study inform the training strategies employed by practitioners to fit the developmental goals of workers in order to maximise their strengths at work. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  19. Motivational power of future time perspective: Meta-analyses in education, work, and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Future time perspective (FTP) may predict individual attitudes and behaviors. However, FTP research includes different FTP conceptualizations and outcomes which hinder generalizing its findings. To solve the inconsistencies in FTP research and generalize the magnitude of FTP as a driver of motivation and behavior, we conducted the first systematical synthesis of FTP relationships in three crucial life domains. Our meta-analyses of FTP studies in education (k = 28), work (k = 17), and health (k = 32) involved N = 31,558 participants, and used a conceptual model for grouping FTP constructs. To address different outcome types, we applied the Theory of Planned Behavior when coding the studies. FTP relationships with outcomes were small-to-medium, were generalizable across domains, and were strongest when the FTP construct included a mixture of cognition, behavioral intention, and affect and, in education, when the FTP measure was domain specific rather than general. There were cross-cultural differences in FTP-outcome relationships. The strength of the FTP-outcome types relationship varied for attitudes, perceived behavioral control, behavioral intention, and behaviors. The lowest effect sizes were found for FTP predicting actual behaviors in education, work, and health and between FTP and health attitudes. Theoretical implications of the findings and future research directions are discussed. PMID:29364917

  20. A Perspective of Energy Codes and Regulations for the Buildings of the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory,2032 Todd Street,Eugene, OR 97405e-mail: michael.rosenberg@pnnl.gov; Jonlin, Duane [Seattle Department ofConstruction and Inspections,P.O. Box 34019,Seattle, WA 98124e-mail: duane.jonlin@seattle.gov; Nadel, Steven [American Council for anEnergy-Efficient Economy,529 14th Street NW #600,Washington, DC 20045e-mail: snadel@aceee.org

    2016-10-13

    Today’s building energy codes focus on prescriptive requirements for features of buildings that are directly controlled by the design and construction teams and verifiable by municipal inspectors. Although these code requirements have had a significant impact, they fail to influence a large slice of the building energy use pie – including not only miscellaneous plug loads, cooking equipment and commercial/industrial processes, but the maintenance and optimization of the code-mandated systems as well. Currently, code compliance is verified only through the end of construction, and there are no limits or consequences for the actual energy use in an occupied building. In the future, our suite of energy regulations will likely expand to include building efficiency, energy use or carbon emission budgets over their full life cycle. Intelligent building systems, extensive renewable energy, and a transition from fossil fuel to electric heating systems will likely be required to meet ultra-low-energy targets. This paper lays out the authors’ perspectives on how buildings may evolve over the course of the 21st century and the roles that codes and regulations will play in shaping those buildings of the future.

  1. The future of qualitative research in psychology--a students' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terkildsen, Thomas; Petersen, Sofie

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this article is to explore the future of qualitative research as seen from a students' perspective. This exploration will initially be incited through a discussion of the use of the term 'qualitative research', and the risks associated with the use of such an umbrella term. It is discussed that the use of an overarching umbrella term can lead to an overhomogenized understanding of qualitative research, that fails to represent the diversity and variety of methodological and epistemological approaches that exist within this research paradigm. It is also discussed that this overhomogenization reinforces the idea of qualitative research as an anti-doctrine to quantitative research, which is argued to discourage interparadigmatic integration. Lastly, it is considered how these (mis)conceptions of qualitative research influence how psychology students are taught about research methodology and how this education could affect these (mis)conceptions. We advocate that the future for qualitative research in psychology should be ensured through a restructure and a refocus on an educational level. This change should overall be centered around teaching students how to be reflective research practitioners based on an in-depth understanding of the variety of epistemologies within both meta-research-paradigms.

  2. Future Time Perspective Impacts Gain-Related but Not Loss-Related Intertemporal Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tian; Tan, Yuxin; Gong, Xianmin; Yin, Shufei; Qiu, Fangshu; Hu, Xue

    2018-01-01

    Future time perspective (FTP) modulates individuals' temporal orientation in selecting their motivations and goals, which widely influences their cognitions and behaviors. However, it remains unclear how FTP exactly affects intertemporal choice. To clarify the effect of FTP on intertemporal choice, 90 college students ( M age = 21.70, SD = 1.23) were randomly assigned to the limited FTP condition (16 males, 29 females) and the open-ended FTP condition (17 males, 28 females). In the limited FTP condition, participants were instructed to imagine their states of being 70 years old, whereas in the open-ended FTP condition, they were instructed to describe their current states. All participants then completed a series of intertemporal choice tasks, in which they chose from gain- and loss-related choices occurring at various time points. Results showed that the participants who received the future-imagining manipulation had more limited FTP compared with those who did not receive the manipulation, which confirmed the validity of the FTP manipulation. A 2 (FTP: limited vs. open-ended) × 2 (type of choice: gain vs. loss) repeated measures ANOVA on discount rate revealed a significant interaction between these two factors. The participants in the limited FTP condition had higher discount rates on gain-related choices but showed no difference on loss-related choices compared with the participants under the open-ended FTP condition. The results suggest that limited FTP could lower individuals' future orientation (i.e., willingness to delay an outcome) on gain-related, but not on loss-related, intertemporal decision-making.

  3. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy, and Related Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, L.R.; Kwan, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions (1)could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion-ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component--positive ions, negative ions, and electrons--can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion-ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed

  4. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy,and Related Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, L.R.; Kwan, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons - can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion - ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  5. Are larks future-oriented and owls present-oriented? Age- and sex-related shifts in chronotype-time perspective associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowack, Kati; van der Meer, Elke

    2013-12-01

    The chronotype (morningness/eveningness) relates to individual differences in circadian preferences. Time perspective (past, present, future) refers to the preference to rely on a particular temporal frame for decision-making processes and behavior. First evidence suggests that future time perspective is associated with greater morningness and present time perspective with greater eveningness. However, little is known about how chronotype-time perspective relationships may alter over the life span. This present study investigated links between chronotype and time perspective more thoroughly by taking age and sex into account as well. Seven hundred six participants aged between 17 and 74 completed German adaptations of the Morningness--Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI). Controlling for age and sex, relationships between morningness and future time perspective as well as between eveningness and present time perspective were replicated. These findings were supported by significant associations between time perspective and midpoint of sleep. Future time perspective was linked to earlier midpoints of sleep, indicating an early chronotype. Present time perspective was associated with later midpoints of sleep, indicating a late chronotype. However, age and sex had an impact on the chronotype-time perspective relationships. In all age groups, male larks were more future-oriented and less present-oriented, male owls more present-oriented and less future-oriented. The same conclusion could be drawn for female adolescents and young adults. For female adults above 30, there was no interrelationship between morningness and future time perspective but between eveningness and past time perspective. Female adult owls were more present-oriented as well as more past-oriented. Female adult larks were less present-oriented and less past-oriented. Findings are discussed in the light of neuroendocrine and serotonergic functioning.

  6. The mediating role of recovery opportunities on future sickness absence from a gender- and age-sensitive perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, J. S.; Noor, A.; Sluiter, J. K.; Hagberg, M.

    2017-01-01

    A lack of sufficient recovery during and after work may help to explain impaired health in the long run. We aimed to increase knowledge on the mediating role of recovery opportunities (RO) during and after work on future sickness absence from a gender- and age-sensitive perspective. We used data on

  7. Relations between the development of future time perspective in three life domains, investment in learning, and academic achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peetsma, T.; van der Veen, I.

    2011-01-01

    Relations between the development of future time perspectives in three life domains (i.e., school and professional career, social relations, and leisure time) and changes in students’ investment in learning and academic achievement were examined in this study. Participants were 584 students in the

  8. Relations between the Development of Future Time Perspective in Three Life Domains, Investment in Learning, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peetsma, Thea; van der Veen, Ineke

    2011-01-01

    Relations between the development of future time perspectives in three life domains (i.e., school and professional career, social relations, and leisure time) and changes in students' investment in learning and academic achievement were examined in this study. Participants were 584 students in the first and 584 in the second year of the lower…

  9. Understanding the Association between Future Time Perspective and Self-Regulated Learning through the Lens of Self-Determination Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bilde, Jerissa; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Lens, Willy

    2011-01-01

    The present cross-sectional research examined a process underlying the positive association between holding an extended future time perspective (FTP) and learning outcomes through the lens of self-determination theory. High school students and university students (N = 275) participated in the study. It was found that students with an extended FTP…

  10. The influence of future time perspective on work engagement and job performance: the role of job crafting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, T.A.M.; Tims,; Akkermans,

    2017-01-01

    This two-wave study aimed to examine future time perspective (FTP) as an antecedent of job crafting, and in turn job crafting as a mediator in associations between FTP and work outcomes. Based on the lifespan socio-emotional selectivity theory, we expected that open-ended and limited FTP would evoke

  11. Experience, Intersubjectivity, and Reflection: A Human Science Perspective on Preparation of Future Professionals in Adaptive Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standal, Øyvind F.; Rugseth, Gro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show that and how philosophy and philosophical thinking can be of relevance for the preparation of future professionals in adaptive physical activity. To this end we utilize philosophical insights from the human science perspective on two central issues, namely experience and intersubjectivity, which are weaved…

  12. Viewing the Changing World of Educational Technology from a Different Perspective: Present Realities, Past Lessons, and Future Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Martie; George, Ann

    2017-01-01

    This review paper focuses on likely reasons for the rhetoric-reality gap in the use of educational information and communication technology. It is based on the assumption that the present challenges being experienced with educational ICT might be avoided in the future if we look at the current challenges from a different perspective, by revisiting…

  13. Fusion plasma physics during half a century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, Bo

    1999-08-01

    A review is given on the potentialities of fusion energy with respect to energy production and related environmental problems, the various approaches to controlled thermonuclear fusion, the main problem areas of research, the historical development, the present state of investigations, and future perspectives. This article also presents a personal memorandum of the author. Thereby special reference will be given to part of the research conducted at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, merely to identify its place within the general historical development. Considerable progress has been made in fusion research during the last decades. In large tokamak experiments temperatures above the ignition limit of about 10{sup 8} K have been reached under break-even conditions where the fusion power generation is comparable to the energy loss. A power producing fusion reactor could in principle be realized already today, but it would not become technically and economically efficient. The future international research programme has therefore to be conducted along broad lines, with necessary ingredients of basis research and new ideas, and also within lines of magnetic confinement being alternative to that of tokamaks.

  14. Fusion plasma physics during half a century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, Bo

    1999-08-01

    A review is given on the potentialities of fusion energy with respect to energy production and related environmental problems, the various approaches to controlled thermonuclear fusion, the main problem areas of research, the historical development, the present state of investigations, and future perspectives. This article also presents a personal memorandum of the author. Thereby special reference will be given to part of the research conducted at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, merely to identify its place within the general historical development. Considerable progress has been made in fusion research during the last decades. In large tokamak experiments temperatures above the ignition limit of about 10 8 K have been reached under break-even conditions where the fusion power generation is comparable to the energy loss. A power producing fusion reactor could in principle be realized already today, but it would not become technically and economically efficient. The future international research programme has therefore to be conducted along broad lines, with necessary ingredients of basis research and new ideas, and also within lines of magnetic confinement being alternative to that of tokamaks

  15. Hour glass half full or half empty? Future time perspective and preoccupation with negative events across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strough, JoNell; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Parker, Andrew M; Lemaster, Philip; Pichayayothin, Nipat; Delaney, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    According to socioemotional selectivity theory, older adults' emotional well-being stems from having a limited future time perspective that motivates them to maximize well-being in the "here and now." Presumably, then, older adults' time horizons are associated with emotional competencies that boost positive affect and dampen negative affect, but little research has addressed this. Using a U.S. adult life-span sample (N = 3,933; 18-93 years), we found that a 2-factor model of future time perspective (future opportunities; limited time) fit the data better than a 1-factor model. Through middle age, people perceived the life-span hourglass as half full-they focused more on future opportunities than limited time. Around Age 60, the balance changed to increasingly perceiving the life-span hourglass as half empty-they focused less on future opportunities and more on limited time, even after accounting for perceived health, self-reported decision-making ability, and retirement status. At all ages, women's time horizons focused more on future opportunities compared with men's, and men's focused more on limited time. Focusing on future opportunities was associated with reporting less preoccupation with negative events, whereas focusing on limited time was associated with reporting more preoccupation. Older adults reported less preoccupation with negative events, and this association was stronger after controlling for their perceptions of limited time and fewer future opportunities, suggesting that other pathways may explain older adults' reports of their ability to disengage from negative events. Insights gained and questions raised by measuring future time perspective as 2 dimensions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Impact of technology on the utilisation of positron emission tomography in lymphoma: current and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visvikis, D.; Ell, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    The study of new radiolabelled ligands will impose further demands for rapid dynamic data acquisition and accurate tracer quantification. Current and future developments in PET technology range from the use of new detector materials to different detector geometries and data acquisition modes. The search for alternatives to BGO scintillation materials for PET has led to the development of PET instruments utilising new crystals such as LSO and GSO. The use of these new detectors and the increased sensitivity achieved with 3D data acquisitions represent the most significant current developments in the field. With the increasing demands imposed on the clinical utilisation of PET, issues such as study cost and patient throughput will emerge as significant future factors. As a consequence, low-cost units are being offered by the manufacturers through the utilisation of gamma camera-based SPET systems for PET coincidence imaging. Unfortunately, clinical studies in lymphoma and other cancers have already demonstrated the limitations of this technology, with 20% of lesions <15 mm in size escaping detection. On the other hand, the recent development of combined PET/CT devices attempts to address the lack of anatomical information inherent with PET images, taking advantage of further improvement in patient throughput and hence cost-effectiveness. Preliminary studies using this multimodality imaging approach have already demonstrated the potential of the technique. Although the potential exists, certain technical issues with PET/CT require refinement of the methodology. Such issues include organ movement (such as respiratory motion), which strongly influences the image fusion of a rapidly acquired CT scan with the slower acquisition of a PET dataset, and the derivation of CT-based attenuation coefficients in the presence of contrast agents or metallic implants. The application of the technology for radiotherapy planning also poses a number of associated challenges. Finally

  17. Fusion in the energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusion energy is the fundamental energy source of the Universe, as the energy of the Sun and the stars are produced by fusion of e.g. hydrogen to helium. Fusion energy research is a strongly international endeavor aiming at realizing fusion energy production in power plants on Earth. Reaching...... of integration into the future electricity system and socio-economic studies of fusion energy will be presented, referring to the programme of Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF) under the European Fusion Energy Agreement (EFDA)....

  18. Manufacturing W fibre-reinforced Cu composite pipes for application as heat sink in divertor targets of future nuclear fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Alexander v.; You, Jeong-Ha [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Ewert, Dagmar [Institut fuer Textil- und Verfahrenstechnik Denkendorf, 73770 Denkendorf (Germany); Siefken, Udo [Louis Renner GmbH, 85221 Dachau (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    An important plasma-facing component (PFC) in future nuclear fusion reactors is the so-called divertor which allows power exhaust and removal of impurities from the main plasma. The most highly loaded parts of a divertor are the target plates which have to withstand intense particle bombardment. This intense particle bombardment leads to high heat fluxes onto the target plates which in turn lead to severe thermomechanical loads. With regard to future nuclear fusion reactors, an improvement of the performance of divertor targets is desirable in order to ensure reliable long term operation of such PFCs. The performance of a divertor target is most closely linked to the properties of the materials that are used for its design. W fibre-reinforced Cu (Wf/Cu) composites are regarded as promising heat sink materials in this respect. These materials do not only feature adequate thermophysical and mechanical properties, they do also offer metallurgical flexibility as their microstructure and hence their macroscopic properties can be tailored. The contribution will point out how Wf/Cu composites can be used to realise an advanced design of a divertor target and how these materials can be fabricated by means of liquid Cu infiltration.

  19. Systematic review and technological overview of the antimicrobial activity of Tagetes minuta and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Daniela Coelho Dos; Schneider, Lara Rodrigues; da Silva Barboza, Andressa; Diniz Campos, Ângela; Lund, Rafael Guerra

    2017-08-17

    The antimicrobial potential of Tagetes minuta was correlated with its traditional use as antibacterial, insecticidal, biocide, disinfectant, anthelminthic, antifungal, and antiseptic agent as well as its use in urinary tract infections. This study aimed to systematically review articles and patents regarding the antimicrobial activity of T. minuta and give rise to perspectives on this plant as a potential antimicrobial agent. A literature search of studies published between 1997 and 2015 was conducted over five databases: MedLine (PubMed), Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, Portal de Periódicos Capes and SciFinder, grey literature was explored using the System for Information on Dissertations database, and theses were searched using the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Full text database and the Periódicos Capes Theses database. Additionally, the following databases for patents were analysed: United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), Google Patents, National Institute of Industrial Property (INPI) and Espacenet patent search (EPO). The data were tabulated and analysed using Microsoft Office Excel 2010. After title screening, 51 studies remained and this number decreased to 26 after careful examinations of the abstracts. The full texts of these 26 studies were assessed to check if they were eligible. Among them, 3 were excluded for not having full text access, and 11 were excluded because they did not fit the inclusion criteria, which left 10 articles for this systematic review. The same process was conducted for the patent search, resulting in 4 patents being included in this study. Recent advances highlighted by this review may shed light on future directions of studies concerning T. minuta as a novel antimicrobial agent, which should be repeatedly proven in future animal and clinical studies. Although more evidence on its specificity and clinical efficacy are necessary to support its clinical use, T. minuta is expected to be a highly effective

  20. Nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, H.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive survey is presented of the present state of knowledge in nuclear fusion research. In the first part, potential thermonuclear reactions, basic energy balances of the plasma (Lawson criterion), and the main criteria to be observed in the selection of appropriate thermonuclear reactions are dealt with. This is followed by a discussion of the problems encountered in plasma physics (plasma confinement and heating, transport processes, plasma impurities, plasma instabilities and plasma diagnostics) and by a consideration of the materials problems involved, such as material of the first wall, fuel inlet and outlet, magnetic field generation, as well as repair work and in-service inspections. Two main methods have been developed to tackle these problems: reactor concepts using the magnetic pinch (stellarator, Tokamak, High-Beta reactors, mirror machines) on the one hand, and the other concept using the inertial confinement (laser fusion reactor). These two approaches and their specific problems as well as past, present and future fusion experiments are treated in detail. The last part of the work is devoted to safety and environmental aspects of the potential thermonuclear aspects of the potential thermonuclear reactor, discussing such problems as fusion-specific hazards, normal operation and potential hazards, reactor incidents, environmental pollution by thermal effluents, radiological pollution, radioactive wastes and their disposal, and siting problems. (orig./GG) [de