WorldWideScience

Sample records for future energy systems

  1. Future development of nuclear energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Nuclear energy development in Japan has passed about 30 years, and reaches to a step to supply about 35 % of total electric power demand. However, together with globalization of economic and technical development, its future progressing method is required for its new efforts. Among such conditions, when considering a state of future type nuclear energy application, its contribution to further environmental conservation and international cooperation is essential, and it is required for adoption to such requirement how it is made an energy source with excellent economics.The Research Committee on 'Engineering Design on Nuclear Energy Systems' established under recognition in 1998 has been carried out some discussions on present and future status of nuclear energy development. And so forth under participation of outer specialists. Here were summarized on two year's committee actions containing them and viewpoints of nuclear industries, popularization of nuclear system technology, and so forth. (G.K.)

  2. Potential future waste-to-energy systems

    OpenAIRE

    Thorin, Eva; Guziana, Bozena; Song, Han; Jääskeläinen, Ari; Szpadt, Ryszard; Vasilic, Dejan; Ahrens, Thorsten; Anne, Olga; Lõõnik, Jaan

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses potential future systems for waste-to-energy production in the Baltic Sea Region, and especially for the project REMOWE partner regions, the County of Västmanland in Sweden, Northern Savo in Finland, Lower Silesia in Poland, western part of Lithuania and Estonia. The waste-to-energy systems planned for in the partner regions are combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) and solid recovered fuels from household and industry as well as anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge ...

  3. Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Future Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuster, Patrick; Alekseev, Alexander; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2017-06-07

    Future energy systems will be determined by the increasing relevance of solar and wind energy. Crude oil and gas prices are expected to increase in the long run, and penalties for CO 2 emissions will become a relevant economic factor. Solar- and wind-powered electricity will become significantly cheaper, such that hydrogen produced from electrolysis will be competitively priced against hydrogen manufactured from natural gas. However, to handle the unsteadiness of system input from fluctuating energy sources, energy storage technologies that cover the full scale of power (in megawatts) and energy storage amounts (in megawatt hours) are required. Hydrogen, in particular, is a promising secondary energy vector for storing, transporting, and distributing large and very large amounts of energy at the gigawatt-hour and terawatt-hour scales. However, we also discuss energy storage at the 120-200-kWh scale, for example, for onboard hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles using compressed hydrogen storage. This article focuses on the characteristics and development potential of hydrogen storage technologies in light of such a changing energy system and its related challenges. Technological factors that influence the dynamics, flexibility, and operating costs of unsteady operation are therefore highlighted in particular. Moreover, the potential for using renewable hydrogen in the mobility sector, industrial production, and the heat market is discussed, as this potential may determine to a significant extent the future economic value of hydrogen storage technology as it applies to other industries. This evaluation elucidates known and well-established options for hydrogen storage and may guide the development and direction of newer, less developed technologies.

  4. Air quality and future energy system planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral Mourao, Zenaida; Konadu, Dennis; Lupton, Rick

    2016-04-01

    Ambient air pollution has been linked to an increasing number of premature deaths throughout the world. Projected increases in demand for food, energy resources and manufactured products will likely contribute to exacerbate air pollution with an increasing impact on human health, agricultural productivity and climate change. Current events such as tampering emissions tests by VW car manufacturers, failure to comply with EU Air Quality directives and WHO guidelines by many EU countries, the problem of smog in Chinese cities and new industrial emissions regulations represent unique challenges but also opportunities for regulators, local authorities and industry. However current models and practices of energy and resource use do not consider ambient air impacts as an integral part of the planing process. Furthermore the analysis of drivers, sources and impacts of air pollution is often fragmented, difficult to understand and lacks effective visualization tools that bring all of these components together. This work aims to develop a model that links impacts of air quality on human health and ecosystems to current and future developments in the energy system, industrial and agricultural activity and patterns of land use. The model will be added to the ForeseerTM tool, which is an integrated resource analysis platform that has been developed at the University of Cambridge initially with funding from BP and more recently through the EPSRC funded Whole Systems Energy Modeling (WholeSEM) project. The basis of the tool is a set of linked physical models for energy, water and land, including the technologies that are used to transform these resources into final services such as housing, food, transport and household goods. The new air quality model will explore different feedback effects between energy, land and atmospheric systems with the overarching goal of supporting better communication about the drivers of air quality and to incorporate concerns about air quality into

  5. Total energy system in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hijikata, K.

    1994-01-01

    The possibility of improving the thermal efficiency of energy systems from an exergy point of view is discussed. In total energy systems, we should employ multi-pass recycling consisting of thermal and chemical energies. The recycling system is supported by electrical energy, which is provided by a renewable energy source or by excess commercial electric power. This total energy system should be considered not only in one country, but all around the globe. (author). 6 figs., 4 tabs., 8 refs

  6. Bio energy: Bio energy in the Energy System of the Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finden, Per; Soerensen, Heidi; Wilhelmsen, Gunnar

    2001-01-01

    This is Chapter 7, the final chapter, of the book ''Bio energy - Environment, technique and market''. Its main sections are: (1) Factors leading to changes in the energy systems, (2) The energy systems of the future, globally, (3) The future energy system in Norway and (4) Norwegian energy policy at the crossroads

  7. Energy sources for future. Change to a sustainable energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, C.

    2005-01-01

    Can Germany give up gasoline and power from coal or nuclear energy and how much does it cost? The book does away with all common misunderstandings due to renewable energy sources and describes a compatible model for a sustainable energy mixing in future. Nevertheless fossil fuels are not denounced but seen as a platform for the advanced system. The author explains first why objections to renewable energy sources base on bad information, and pursues quite an other argumentation as such authors emphasizing the potential of these energy sources. Than he shows in detail the possibility of the optimal energy mixing for biomass, solar power, wind power, geothermal energy, hydropower and energy efficiency. The environment will reward us for this and instead buying expensive resources from foreign countries we will create work places at home. The number of big power plants - taking into account safety risks - will decrease and small units of on-site power generation feeded with this renewable sources will play more and more an important role. (GL) [de

  8. Energy storage in future power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard; Østergaard, Jacob; Divya, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    Most sources of renewable power are characterised by uncontrollable and chaotic variations in power output. We here look at how energy storage may benefit renewable power generation by making it available in periods with little or no intermittent generation and thereby prevent additional conventi......Most sources of renewable power are characterised by uncontrollable and chaotic variations in power output. We here look at how energy storage may benefit renewable power generation by making it available in periods with little or no intermittent generation and thereby prevent additional...... conventional generation form being used. In addition to this, one of the strongest concerns in relation to renewable power is the instability in the electric power system that it may introduce as a result of large and relatively fast power fluctuations. An additional benefit of energy storage is therefore its...

  9. Risoe energy report 7. Future low carbon energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Soenderberg Petersen, L. (eds.)

    2008-10-15

    This Risoe Energy Report, the seventh of a series that began in 2002, takes as its point of reference the recommendations of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2007. The IPCC states that if anticipated climate change is to remain in the order of 2 to 3 degrees centigrades over the next century, the world's CO{sub 2} emissions would have to peak within the next 10-15 years and ultimately be reduced to approximately 50% of their present level by the middle of the century. The IPCC states further that this would be possible, provided that serious action is taken now. The different regions and countries of the world are in various states of development, and hence have different starting points for contributing to these reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions. This report presents state-of-the-art and development perspectives for energy supply technologies, new energy systems, end-use energy efficiency improvements and new policy measures. It also includes estimates of the CO{sub 2} reduction potentials for different technologies. The technologies are characterized with regard to their ability to contribute either to ensuring a peak in CO{sub 2} emissions within 10-15 years, or to long-term CO{sub 2} reductions. The report outlines the current and likely future composition of energy systems in Denmark, and examines three groups of countries: i) Europe and the other OECD member nations; ii) large and rapidly growing developing economies, notably India and China; iii) typical least developed countries, such as many African nations. The report emphasises how future energy developments and systems might be composed in these three country groupings, and to what extent the different technologies might contribute. The report addresses the need for research and demonstration together with market incentives, and policy measures with focus on initiatives that can promote the development towards CO{sub 2} reductions. Specifically, the report identifies system

  10. Solar/electric heating systems for the future energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furbo, S.; Dannemand, M.; Perers, B. [and others

    2013-05-15

    The aim of the project is to elucidate how individual heating units for single family houses are best designed in order to fit into the future energy system. The units are based on solar energy, electrical heating elements/heat pump, advanced heat storage tanks and advanced control systems. Heat is produced by solar collectors in sunny periods and by electrical heating elements/heat pump. The electrical heating elements/heat pump will be in operation in periods where the heat demand cannot be covered by solar energy. The aim is to use the auxiliary heating units when the electricity price is low, e.g. due to large electricity production by wind turbines. The unit is equipped with an advanced control system where the control of the auxiliary heating is based on forecasts of the electricity price, the heat demand and the solar energy production. Consequently, the control is based on weather forecasts. Three differently designed heating units are tested in a laboratory test facility. The systems are compared on the basis of: 1) energy consumption for the auxiliary heating; 2) energy cost for the auxiliary heating; 3) net utilized solar energy. Starting from a normal house a solar combi system (for hot water and house heating) can save 20-30% energy cost, alone, depending on sizing of collector area and storage volume. By replacing the heat storage with a smart tank based on electric heating elements and a smart control based on weather/load forecast and electricity price information 24 hours ahead, another 30-40% can be saved. That is: A solar heating system with a solar collector area of about 10 m{sup 2}, a smart tank based on electric heating element and a smart control system, can reduce the energy costs of the house by at least 50%. No increase of heat storage volume is needed to utilize the smart control. The savings in % are similar for different levels of building insulation. As expected a heat pump in the system can further reduce the auxiliary electricity

  11. Carbon Nanotubes as Future Energy Storage System

    OpenAIRE

    Vasu , V; Silambarasan , D

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Hydrogen is considered to be a clean energy carrier. At present the main drawback in using hydrogen as the fuel is the lack of proper hydrogen storage vehicle, thus ongoing research is focused on the development of advance hydrogen storage materials. Many alloys are able to store hydrogen reversibly, but the gravimetric storage density is too low for any practical applications. Theoretical studies have predicted that interaction of hydrogen with carbon nanotubes is by ...

  12. The role of Solar thermal in Future Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Hansen, Kenneth

    This report deals with solar thermal technologies and investigates possible roles for solar thermal in future energy systems for four national energy systems; Germany, Austria, Italy and Denmark. The project period started in January 2014 and finished by October 2017. This report is based...

  13. The role of district heating in future renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Möller, Bernd; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2010-01-01

    Based on the case of Denmark, this paper analyses the role of district heating in future Renewable Energy Systems. At present, the share of renewable energy is coming close to 20 per cent. From such point of departure, the paper defines a scenario framework in which the Danish system is converted...... to 100 per cent Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in the year 2060 including reductions in space heating demands by 75 per cent. By use of a detailed energy system analysis of the complete national energy system, the consequences in relation to fuel demand, CO2 emissions and cost are calculated for various...... as in a potential future system based 100 per cent on renewable energy....

  14. The Energy System of the Future is Smart and Flexible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Trine; Karnøe, Peter; Holm Jacobsen, Peter

    and policy makers are debating the possible organization of a system based on 100% renewables and the market design providing the best ‘fit’ for this system. Despite controversies, one thing seems clear: the energy system of the future is smart and flexible. But what smart and flexible means – and how...

  15. Energy futures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treat, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This book provides fifteen of the futures industry's leading authorities with broader background in both theory and practice of energy futures trading in this updated text. The authors review the history of the futures market and the fundamentals of trading, hedging, and technical analysis; then they update you with the newest trends in energy futures trading - natural gas futures, options, regulations, and new information services. The appendices outline examples of possible contracts and their construction

  16. Fuel cells and electrolysers in future energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    be considered which fuels such technologies can utilise and how these fuels can be distributed. Natural gas is not an option in future renewable energy systems and the de‐ mand for gaseous fuels, such as biogas or syngas, will increase significantly. Hence, fuel cell CHP plants represent a more fuel...... of transport, battery electric vehicles are more suitable than hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in future energy system. Battery electric ve‐ hicles may, for a part of the transport demand, have limitations in their range. Hybrid tech‐ nologies may provide a good option, which can combine the high fuel efficiency......Efficient fuel cells and electrolysers are still at the development stage. In this dissertation, future developed fuel cells and electrolysers are analysed in future renewable energy sys‐ tems. Today, most electricity, heat and transport demands are met by combustion tech‐ nologies. Compared...

  17. Advances in molten salt electrochemistry towards future energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Yasuhiko

    2005-01-01

    This review article describes some selected novel molten salt electrochemical processes which have been created/developed by the author and his coworkers, with emphasis on the applications towards future energy systems. After showing a perspective of the applications of molten salt electrochemistry from the viewpoints of energy and environment, several selected topics are described in detail, which include nitride fuel cycle in a nuclear field, hydrogen energy system coupled with ammonia economy, thermally regenerative fuel cell systems, novel Si production process for solar cell and novel molten salt electrochemical processes for various energy and environment related functional materials including nitrides, rare earth-transition metal alloys, fine particles obtained by plasma-induced electrolysis, and carbon film. And finally, the author stresses again, the importance and potential of molten salt electrochemistry, and encourages young students, scientists and researchers to march in a procession hand in hand towards a bright future of molten salts. (author)

  18. Electric energy storage systems for future hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper, Hans; Huelshorst, Thomas [FEV Motorentechnik GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Sauer, Dirk Uwe [Elektrochemische Energiewandlung und Speichersystemtechnik, ISEA, RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Electric energy storage systems play a key role in today's and even more in future hybrid and electric vehicles. They enable new additional functionalities like Start/Stop, regenerative braking or electric boost and pure electric drive. This article discusses properties and requirements of battery systems like power provision, energy capacity, life time as a function of the hybrid concepts and the real operating conditions of the today's and future hybrid drivetrains. Battery cell technology, component sizing, system design, operating strategy safety measures and diagnosis, modularity and vehicle integration are important battery development topics. A final assessment will draw the conclusion that future drivetrain concepts with higher degree of electrician will be significantly dependent on the progress of battery technology. (orig.)

  19. Joint optimisation of the future Danish waste and energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Pizarro, Amalia Rosa; Salvucci, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    in future scenarios with higher biomass consumption, where the average heat prices are higher. In both scenarios, biogas produced from organic waste is upgraded and fed into the natural gas grid and waste is incinerated rather than being centrally sorted in a material recovery facility.......In this article the impact of the future development of the energy system on the feasibility of waste treatment options is analysed. In the article two different optimization tools are used: a regional electricity model (Balmorel) and a national waste treatment and district heating model (Opti......Waste). When performing optimization by minimizing the socio-economic costs, into future energy systems with high wind power production, it proves feasible primarily to incinerate waste in large scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants, whereas more incineration takes place in decentralized CHP plants...

  20. The generation IV nuclear reactor systems - Energy of future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohai, Dumitru; Jianu, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Ten nations joined within the Generation IV International Forum (GIF), agreeing on a framework for international cooperation in research. Their goal is to develop future-generation nuclear energy systems that can be licensed, constructed, and operated in an economically competitive way while addressing the issues of safety, proliferation, and other public perception concerns. The objective is for the Gen IV systems to be available for deployment by 2030. Using more than 100 nuclear experts from its 10 member nations, the GIF has developed a Gen IV Technology Roadmap to guide the research and development of the world's most advanced, efficient and safe nuclear power systems. The Gen IV Technology Roadmap calls for extensive research and development of six different potential future reactor systems. These include water-cooled, gas-cooled, liquid metal-cooled and nonclassical systems. One or more of these reactor systems will provide the best combination of safety, reliability, efficiency and proliferation resistance at a competitive cost. The main goals for the Gen IV Nuclear Energy Systems are: - Provide sustainable energy generation that meets clean air objectives and promotes long-term availability of systems and effective fuel use for worldwide energy production; - Minimize and manage their nuclear waste and noticeably reduce the long-term stewardship burden in the future, improving the protection of public health and the environment; - Increase the assurance that these reactors are very unattractive and the least desirable route for diversion or theft of weapons-usable materials, and provide increased protection against acts of terrorism; - Have a clear life-cycle cost advantage over other energy sources; - Have a level of financial risk comparable to other energy projects; - Excel in safety and reliability; - Have a low likelihood and degree of reactor core damage. (authors)

  1. Integration of renewable and conventional energies. How to design future energy systems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellinger, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide increasing energy demand, especially in the economically emerging countries, and the climate change are a major challenge for the energy supply. One of the most severe challenges is the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions which can also be seen in the planned investment for energy systems. At the same time, energy systems worldwide are in transition, driven by market and technology trends. As a consequence of these trends, the complexity of future energy systems will extremely increase. The paper outlines a new approach for sustainable, reliable and affordable energy systems of the future, based on technologies, available and under development, which combine different forms of energy.

  2. Integration of renewable and conventional energies. How to design future energy systems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellinger, Rolf [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). CT RTC PET

    2015-07-01

    The worldwide increasing energy demand, especially in the economically emerging countries, and the climate change are a major challenge for the energy supply. One of the most severe challenges is the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions which can also be seen in the planned investment for energy systems. At the same time, energy systems worldwide are in transition, driven by market and technology trends. As a consequence of these trends, the complexity of future energy systems will extremely increase. The paper outlines a new approach for sustainable, reliable and affordable energy systems of the future, based on technologies, available and under development, which combine different forms of energy.

  3. Advanced Reactor Systems and Future Energy Market Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magwood, W.; Keppler, J.H.; Paillere, Henri; ); Gogan, K.; Ben Naceur, K.; Baritaud, M.; ); Shropshire, D.; ); Wilmshurst, N.; Janssens, A.; Janes, J.; Urdal, H.; Finan, A.; Cubbage, A.; Stoltz, M.; Toni, J. de; Wasylyk, A.; Ivens, R.; Paramonov, D.; Franceschini, F.; Mundy, Th.; Kuran, S.; Edwards, L.; Kamide, H.; Hwang, I.; Hittner, D.; ); Levesque, C.; LeBlanc, D.; Redmond, E.; Rayment, F.; Faudon, V.; Finan, A.; Gauche, F.

    2017-04-01

    It is clear that future nuclear systems will operate in an environment that will be very different from the electricity systems that accompanied the fast deployment of nuclear power plants in the 1970's and 1980's. As countries fulfil their commitment to de-carbonise their energy systems, low-carbon sources of electricity and in particular variable renewables, will take large shares of the overall generation capacities. This is challenging since in most cases, the timescale for nuclear technology development is far greater than the speed at which markets and policy/regulation frameworks can change. Nuclear energy, which in OECD countries is still the largest source of low-carbon electricity, has a major role to play as a low-carbon dispatchable technology. In its 2 degree scenarios, the International Energy Agency (IEA) projects that nuclear capacity globally could reach over 900 GW by 2050, with a share of electricity generation rising from less than 11% today to about 16%. Nuclear energy could also play a role in the decarbonization of the heat sector, by targeting non-electric applications. The workshop discussed how energy systems are evolving towards low-carbon systems, what the future of energy market needs are, the changing regulatory framework from both the point of view of safety requirements and environmental constraints, and how reactor developers are taking these into account in their designs. In terms of technology, the scope covered all advanced reactor systems under development today, including evolutionary light water reactors (LWRs), small modular reactors (SMRs) - whether LWR technology-based or not, and Generation IV (Gen IV) systems. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) of the workshop

  4. Optimization of use of waste in the future energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenster, Marie; Meibom, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Alternative uses of waste for energy production become increasingly interesting when considered from two perspectives, that of waste management and the energy system perspective. This paper presents the results of an enquiry into the use of waste in a future energy system. The analysis was performed using the energy system analysis model, Balmorel. The study is focused on Germany and the Nordic countries and demonstrates the optimization of both investments and production within the energy systems. The results present cost optimization excluding taxation concerning the use of waste for energy production in Denmark in a 2025 scenario with 48% renewable energy. Investments in a range of waste conversion technologies are facilitated, including waste incineration, co-combustion with coal, anaerobic digestion, and gasification. The most economically feasible solutions are found to be incineration of mixed waste, anaerobic digestion of organic waste, and gasification of part of the potential RDF (refuse derived fuel) for CHP (combined heat and power) production, while the remaining part is co-combusted with coal. Co-combustion mainly takes place in new coal-fired power plants, allowing investments to increase in comparison with a situation where only investments in waste incineration are allowed. -- Highlights: → The analysis is based on hourly chronological time steps, thereby taking dynamic properties of the energy system into account. → The system analyzed includes both the heat and the electricity market, which is important when analyzing e.g. CHP technologies. → The surrounding countries, which form part of the same electricity market, are included in the analysis. → New innovative Waste-to-Energy production plants have been modeled to allow for a more efficient and flexible use of waste. → The analysis includes economical optimization of operation and of investments in production and transmission of both electricity and heat.

  5. DTU international energy report 2013. Energy storage options for future sustainable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvidtfeldt Larsen, H.; Soenderberg Petersen, L. (eds.)

    2013-11-01

    One of the great challenges in the transition to a non-fossil energy system with a high share of fluctuating renewable energy sources such as solar and wind is to align consumption and production in an economically satisfactory manner. Energy storage could provide the necessary balancing power to make this possible. This energy report addresses energy storage from a broad perspective: It analyses smaller stores that can be used locally in for example heat storage in the individual home or vehicle, such as electric cars or hydrogen cars. The report also addresses decentralized storage as flywheels and batteries linked to decentralized energy systems. In addition it addresses large central storages as pumped hydro storage and compressed air energy storage and analyse this in connection with international transmission and trading over long distances. The report addresses electrical storage, thermal storage and other forms of energy storage, for example conversion of biomass to liquid fuel and conversion of solar energy directly into hydrogen, as well as storage in transmission, grid storage etc. Finally, the report covers research, innovation and the future prospects and addresses the societal challenges and benefits of the use of energy storage. (Author)

  6. Role of nuclear fusion in future energy systems and the environment under future uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokimatsu, Koji; Fujino, Jun'ichi; Konishi, Satoshi; Ogawa, Yuichi; Yamaji, Kenji

    2003-01-01

    Debates about whether or not to invest heavily in nuclear fusion as a future innovative energy option have been made within the context of energy technology development strategies. This is because the prospects for nuclear fusion are quite uncertain and the investments therefore carry the risk of quite large regrets, even though investment is needed in order to develop the technology. The timeframe by which nuclear fusion could become competitive in the energy market has not been adequately studied, nor has roles of the nuclear fusion in energy systems and the environment. The present study has two objectives. One is to reveal the conditions under which nuclear fusion could be introduced economically (hereafter, we refer to such introductory conditions as breakeven prices) in future energy systems. The other objective is to evaluate the future roles of nuclear fusion in energy systems and in the environment. Here we identify three roles that nuclear fusion will take on when breakeven prices are achieved: (i) a portion of the electricity market in 2100, (ii) reduction of annual global total energy systems cost, and (iii) mitigation of carbon tax (shadow price of carbon) under CO 2 constraints. Future uncertainties are key issues in evaluating nuclear fusion. Here we treated the following uncertainties: energy demand scenarios, introduction timeframe for nuclear fusion, capacity projections of nuclear fusion, CO 2 target in 2100, capacity utilization ratio of options in energy/environment technologies, and utility discount rates. From our investigations, we conclude that the presently designed nuclear fusion reactors may be ready for economical introduction into energy systems beginning around 2050-2060, and we can confirm that the favorable introduction of the reactors would reduce both the annual energy systems cost and the carbon tax (the shadow price of carbon) under a CO 2 concentration constraint

  7. Energy Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael; Selin, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    foresight and public and stakeholder engagement are used to reflect on?and direct?the impacts of new technology. In this essay we draw on our experience of anticipatory governance, in the shape of the ?NanoFutures? project on energy futures, to present a reflexive analysis of engagement and deliberation. We...... draw out five tensions of the practice of deliberation on energy technologies. Through tracing the lineages of these dilemmas, we discuss some of the implications of these tensions for the practice of civic engagement and deliberation in a set of questions for this community of practitioner-scholars....

  8. Solar/electric heating systems for the future energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Dannemand, Mark; Perers, Bengt

    elements/heat pump, advanced heat storage tanks and advanced control systems. Heat is produced by solar collectors in sunny periods and by electrical heating elements/heat pump. The electrical heating elements/heat pump will be in operation in periods where the heat demand cannot be covered by solar energy....... The aim is to use the auxiliary heating units when the electricity price is low, e.g. due to large electricity production by wind turbines. The unit is equipped with an advanced control system where the control of the auxiliary heating is based on forecasts of the electricity price, the heat demand...

  9. Low Temperature District Heating for Future Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ford, Rufus; Pietruschka, Dirk; Sipilä, Kari

    participants being VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Stuttgart Technology University of Applied Sciences (HFT) and SSE Enterprise in United Kingdom. The demonstration cases described in the report......This report titled “Case studies and demonstrations” is the subtask D report of the IEA DHC|CHP Annex TS1 project “Low Temperature District Heating for Future Energy Systems” carried out between 2013 and 2016. The project was led by Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics (IBP) with the other...... include examples on low temperature district heating systems, solar heating in a district heating system, heat pump based heat supply and energy storages for both peak load management and for seasonal heat storage. Some demonstrations have been implemented while others are at planning phase...

  10. Why Synthetic Fuels Are Necessary in Future Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Grant Wilson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a hypothesis that fuels will continue to be critical elements of future energy systems. The reasons behind this are explored, such as the immense benefits conferred by fuels from their low cost of storage, transport, and handling, and especially in the management of the seasonal swing in heating demand for a country with a summer and winter season such as the UK. Empirical time-series data from Great Britain are used to examine the seasonal nature of the demand for liquid fuels, natural gas, and electricity, with the aid of a daily Shared Axis Energy Diagram. The logic of the continued need of fuels is examined, and the advantages and disadvantages of synthetic fuels are considered in comparison to fossil fuels.

  11. Why Synthetic Fuels Are Necessary in Future Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, I. A. Grant, E-mail: grant.wilson@sheffield.ac.uk [UK Centre for Carbon Dioxide Utilisation, Chemical & Biological Engineering, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); UK Energy Research Centre (UKERC), London (United Kingdom); Styring, Peter [UK Centre for Carbon Dioxide Utilisation, Chemical & Biological Engineering, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2017-07-24

    We propose a hypothesis that fuels will continue to be critical elements of future energy systems. The reasons behind this are explored, such as the immense benefits conferred by fuels from their low cost of storage, transport, and handling, and especially in the management of the seasonal swing in heating demand for a country with a summer and winter season such as the UK. Empirical time-series data from Great Britain are used to examine the seasonal nature of the demand for liquid fuels, natural gas, and electricity, with the aid of a daily Shared Axis Energy Diagram. The logic of the continued need of fuels is examined, and the advantages and disadvantages of synthetic fuels are considered in comparison to fossil fuels.

  12. Risoe energy report 8. The intelligent energy system infrastructure for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Soenderberg Petersen, L. (eds.)

    2009-09-15

    This report is volume 8 in a series started in 2002, and will take its point of reference in the need for the development of a highly flexible and intelligent energy system infrastructure which facilitates substantial higher amounts of renewable energy than today's energy systems. This intelligent and flexible infrastructure is a prerequisite in achieving the goals set up by IPCC in 2007 on CO{sub 2} reductions as well as ensuring the future security of energy supply in all regions of the world. The report presents a generic approach for future infrastructure issues on local, regional and global scale with focus on the energy system. The report is based on chapters and updates from Risoe Energy Report 1 - 7, as well as input from contributors to the DTU Climate Change Technology workshops and available international literature and reports. (author)

  13. Eating energy-Identifying possibilities for reduced energy use in the future food supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallgren, Christine; Hoejer, Mattias

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the possibilities for reducing future energy use for eating to a sustainable level. A backcasting approach is used to generate an image of the future where energy use for eating is 60% lower in 2050 than in 2000. The currently known potential to reduce energy use in the food supply system for producing, transporting, storing, cooking and eating food is explored and described in terms of a number of distinct changes that are numbered consecutively and presented in both a quantitative and qualitative way. Sweden is used as the case and all data regarding energy use apply for Swedish conditions. An exercise like this illustrates the possible outcome of taking sustainability seriously. If sustainability is to be achieved, some images of the future are needed so that potential targets can be identified. This paper does not present forecasts, but illustrates the kind of changes needed in order to achieve sustainable energy use in the food system.

  14. RETHINKING THE FUTURE GRID: INTEGRATED NUCLEAR-RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.M. Bragg-Sitton; R. Boardman

    2014-12-01

    The 2013 electricity generation mix in the United States consisted of ~13% renewables (hydropower, wind, solar, geothermal), 19% nuclear, 27% natural gas, and 39% coal. In the 2011 State of the Union Address, President Obama set a clean energy goal for the nation: “By 2035, 80 percent of America’s electricity will come from clean energy sources. Some folks want wind and solar. Others want nuclear, clean coal and natural gas. To meet this goal we will need them all.” The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Offices of Nuclear Energy (NE) and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) recognize that “all of the above” means that we are called to best utilize all available clean energy sources. To meet the stated environmental goals for electricity generation and for the broader energy sector, there is a need to transform the energy infrastructure of the U.S. and elsewhere. New energy systems must be capable of significantly reducing environmental impacts in an efficient and economically viable manner while utilizing both hydrocarbon resources and clean energy generation sources. The U.S. DOE is supporting research and development that could lead to more efficient utilization of clean energy generation sources, including renewable and nuclear options, to meet both grid demand and thermal energy needs in the industrial sector. A concept being advanced by the DOE-NE and DOE-EERE is tighter coupling of nuclear and renewable energy sources in a manner that better optimizes energy use for the combined electricity, industrial manufacturing, and the transportation sectors. This integration concept has been referred to as a “hybrid system” that is capable of apportioning thermal and electrical energy to first meet the grid demand (with appropriate power conversion systems), then utilizing excess thermal and, in some cases, electrical energy to drive a process that results in an additional product. For the purposes of the present work, the hybrid system would

  15. Intelligent DC Homes in Future Sustainable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz, Enrique Rodriguez; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    aligned with the new energy strategy. A microgrid easy the integration of renewable energy sources and energy storage systems at the consumption level, aiming to increase power quality, reliability and efficiency. On top of this, the increasing of DC-based loads has re-opened the discussion of DC vs AC......The evidences that climate change is real, and the fact that it is most likely caused by human-related activities, has made the international community to considered a new energy model. Europe has led the initiative of moving away from fossil fuels to renewable energies, where other powerful...... countries, as USA and China, are lagging behind, and still highly rely on coal, gas and oil as a source of energy. Europe has set ambitious goals for 2020 regarding the increase of renewable energy production, energy efficiency, and greenhouse gas emission reduction. The concept of a microgrid is perfectly...

  16. Solar energy systems: assessment of present and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehne, H.-M.; Aulich, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the present state and the future potential of solar thermal and photovoltaic (PV) technologies, and examines both the environmental implications of these technologies and the economics which determine their viability in the energy market. Although some significant cost reductions have been achieved, particularly in PV technology, solar conversion technologies are still not generally competitive against conventional fuels, and future cost reductions may be limited. It is argued that fiscal measures will be necessary if solar conversion technologies are to make a significant global impact. (Author)

  17. Residential heat pumps in the future Danish energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovic, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2016-01-01

    for politically agreed targets which include: at least 50% of electricity consumption from wind power starting from 2020, fossil fuel free heat and power sector from 2035 and 100% renewable energy system starting from 2050. Residential heat pumps supply around 25% of total residential heating demand after 2035......Denmark is striving towards 100% renewable energy system in 2050. Residential heat pumps are expected to be a part of that system.We propose two novel approaches to improve the representation of residential heat pumps: Coefficients of performance (COPs) are modelled as dependent on air and ground...... temperature while installation of ground-source heat pumps is constrained by available ground area. In this study, TIMES-DK model is utilised to test the effects of improved modelling of residential heat pumps on the Danish energy system until 2050.The analysis of the Danish energy system was done...

  18. Risø energy report 4. The future energy system - distributed production and use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Hans Hvidtfeldt; Sønderberg Petersen, Leif

    2005-01-01

    technologies or fuel cells. Furthermore the following developments are expected: -closer link between supply and end-use -closer link between the various energy carriers distributed through grids such aselectricity, heat, natural gas and maybe hydrogen in the future -increased energy trade across national...... and the distribution of energy through grids such as those used for natural gas, electricity, districtheating and hydrogen. The focus is on industrialised countries, but the report also deals with specific points relevant to developing countries, such as isolated energy systems. The transport sector is discussed only...

  19. Rethinking the Future Grid: Integrated Nuclear Renewable Energy Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg-Sitton, S. M.; Boardman, R.; Ruth, M.; Zinaman, O.; Forsberg, C.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. DOE is supporting research and development that could lead to more efficient utilization of clean energy generation sources, including renewable and nuclear options, to meet both grid demand and thermal energy needs in the industrial sector. One concept under consideration by the DOE-NE and DOE-EERE is tighter coupling of nuclear and renewable energy sources in a manner that better optimizes energy use for the combined electricity, industrial manufacturing, and transportation sectors. This integration concept has been referred to as a 'hybrid system' that is capable of apportioning thermal and electrical energy to first meet the grid demand (with appropriate power conversion systems), then utilizing excess thermal and, in some cases, electrical energy to drive a process that results in an additional product.

  20. Small and Shaping the Future Energy Eco-house System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Ryuzo; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Sato, Yoshinori; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Isu, Norifumi; Ohtsuka, Masuo; Tohji, Kazuyuki

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this research is to develop the elemental technology of the small and thin energy collection system from water, wind, and others in the house, and examine them at the eco-house which will be built at Tohoku University on March 2010. This small energy storage system will contribute to reduce 10% of greenhouse gas emission from household electricity. This project is done by three following groups. 1st group (NEC-Tokin Co. Ltd.) will develop the technologies on the accumulation of electric power pressured from low electric power in which electricity is generated and on the cooperation with AC power supply used for domestic use for this eco-house system. 2nd group (INAX Co. Ltd.) will develop the elemental technology of the slight energy collection system from tap water in the home using a small hydroelectric generator for this eco-house system. 3rd group (Shoei Co. Ltd.) will develop the technologies on existent magnetic gear device, health appliances (Exercise bike), wind power generator, for this eco-house system. Tokoku University compiles these groups. Furthermore, I develop a search of unused small energy and the use technology, and propose a new energy supply system using solar cell and Li ion secondary battery.

  1. Future UK markets for stand-alone renewable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paish, O.

    1999-01-01

    A study to identify and quantify the market for stand-alone renewable energy supplies of power (photovoltaics, wind and micro-hydro electricity systems) was described. The study focused on small systems, generally less than a few kW installed capacity. It was suggested that in the UK, the emphasis on grid-connected renewable energy technologies (RETs) has blurred the fact that it is 'off-grid' renewable systems that can offer more immediate real commercial markets for the renewables business. With the likelihood of a significant increase in demand for renewables world wide over the next ten years, the UK needs to make a special effort to become involved

  2. Risoe energy report 4: The future energy system - distributed production and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Soenderberg Petersen, L.

    2005-10-01

    The world is facing major challenges in providing energy services to meet the future needs of the developed world and the growing needs of developing countries. These challenges are exacerbated by the need to provide energy services with due respect to economic growth, sustainability and security of supply. Today, the world's energy system is based mainly on oil, gas and coal, which together supply around 80% of our primary energy. Only around 0.5% of primary energy comes from renewable sources such as wind, solar and geothermal. Despite the rapid development of new energy technologies, the world will continue to depend on fossil fuels for several decades to come - and global primary energy demand is forecasted to grow by 60% between 2002 and 2030. The expected post Kyoto targets call for significant CO{sub 2} reductions, increasing the demand to decouple the energy and transport systems from fossil fuels. There is a strong need for closer links between electricity, heat and other energy carriers, including links to the transport sector. On a national scale Denmark has three main characteristics. Firstly, it has a diverse and distributed energy system based on the power grid, the district heating grid and the natural gas grid. Secondly, renewable energy, especially wind power, plays an increasingly important role in the Danish energy system. Thirdly, Denmark's geographical location allows it to act as a buffer between the energy systems of the European continent and the Nordic countries. Energy systems can be made more robust by decentralising both power generation and control. Distributed generation (DG) is characterised by a variety of energy production technologies integrated into the electricity supply system, and the ability of different segments of the grid to operate autonomously. The use of a more distributed power generation system would be an important element in the protection of the consumers against power interruptions and blackouts, whether

  3. Risoe energy report 4: The future energy system - distributed production and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Hans; Soenderberg Petersen, L.

    2005-10-01

    The world is facing major challenges in providing energy services to meet the future needs of the developed world and the growing needs of developing countries. These challenges are exacerbated by the need to provide energy services with due respect to economic growth, sustainability and security of supply. Today, the world's energy system is based mainly on oil, gas and coal, which together supply around 80% of our primary energy. Only around 0.5% of primary energy comes from renewable sources such as wind, solar and geothermal. Despite the rapid development of new energy technologies, the world will continue to depend on fossil fuels for several decades to come - and global primary energy demand is forecasted to grow by 60% between 2002 and 2030. The expected post Kyoto targets call for significant CO 2 reductions, increasing the demand to decouple the energy and transport systems from fossil fuels. There is a strong need for closer links between electricity, heat and other energy carriers, including links to the transport sector. On a national scale Denmark has three main characteristics. Firstly, it has a diverse and distributed energy system based on the power grid, the district heating grid and the natural gas grid. Secondly, renewable energy, especially wind power, plays an increasingly important role in the Danish energy system. Thirdly, Denmark's geographical location allows it to act as a buffer between the energy systems of the European continent and the Nordic countries. Energy systems can be made more robust by decentralising both power generation and control. Distributed generation (DG) is characterised by a variety of energy production technologies integrated into the electricity supply system, and the ability of different segments of the grid to operate autonomously. The use of a more distributed power generation system would be an important element in the protection of the consumers against power interruptions and blackouts, whether caused by

  4. Future energy, exotic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumon, R

    1974-01-01

    The Detroit Energy Conference has highlighted the declining oil reserves, estimated worldwide at 95 billion tons vs. an annual rate of consumption of over 3 billion tons. The present problem is one of price; also, petroleum seems too valuable to be simply burned. New sources must come into action before 1985. The most abundant is coal, with 600 billion tons of easily recoverable reserves; then comes oil shale with a potential of 400 billion tons of oil. Exploitation at the rate of 55 go 140 million tons/yr is planned in the U.S. after 1985. More exotic and impossible to estimate quantitatively are such sources as wind, tides, and the thermal energy of the oceans--these are probably far in the future. The same is true of solar and geothermal energy in large amounts. The only other realistic energy source is nuclear energy: the European Economic Community looks forward to covering 60% of its energy needs from nuclear energy in the year 2000. Even today, from 400 mw upward, a nuclear generating plant is more economical than a fossil fueled one. Conservation will become the byword, and profound changes in society are to be expected.

  5. Scenario-based roadmapping assessing nuclear technology development paths for future nuclear energy system scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Durpel, Luc; Roelofs, Ferry; Yacout, Abdellatif

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear energy may play a significant role in a future sustainable energy mix. The transition from today's nuclear energy system towards a future more sustainable nuclear energy system will be dictated by technology availability, energy market competitiveness and capability to achieve sustainability through the nuclear fuel cycle. Various scenarios have been investigated worldwide each with a diverse set of assumptions on the timing and characteristics of new nuclear energy systems. Scenario-based roadmapping combines the dynamic scenario-analysis of nuclear energy systems' futures with the technology roadmap information published and analysed in various technology assessment reports though integrated within the nuclear technology roadmap Nuclear-Roadmap.net. The advantages of this combination is to allow mutual improvement of scenario analysis and nuclear technology roadmapping providing a higher degree of confidence in the assessment of nuclear energy system futures. This paper provides a description of scenario-based roadmapping based on DANESS and Nuclear-Roadmap.net. (author)

  6. The role of fuel cells and electrolysers in future efficient energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Peter Vang; Vad Mathiesen, Brian; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cells can increase the efficiency of the energy system and electrolysers can help enable a de-carbonisation of the energy supply. In this chapter we explain the role of fuel cells in future energy systems together with the role of electrolysers in smart energy systems with increasing penetra...... penetrations of intermittent renewable resources in the electricity grid increases the demand for smart energy systems.......Fuel cells can increase the efficiency of the energy system and electrolysers can help enable a de-carbonisation of the energy supply. In this chapter we explain the role of fuel cells in future energy systems together with the role of electrolysers in smart energy systems with increasing...

  7. Improving energy decisions towards better scientific policy advice for a safe and secure future energy system

    CERN Document Server

    Droste-Franke, Bert; Kaiser, M; Schreurs, Miranda; Weber, Christoph; Ziesemer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Managing a successful transition of the current energy supply system to less carbon emitting options, ensuring a safe and secure supply during the whole process and in the long term, is one of the largest challenges of our time. Various approaches and first implementations show that it is not only technological issue, but also a matter of societal acceptance and acceptability, considering basic ethic values of the society. The main foci of the book are, thus, to develop an understanding about the specific challenges of the scientific policy advice in the area, to explore typical current approaches for the analysis of future energy systems and to develop criteria for the quality assessment and guidelines for the improvement of such studies. The book provides assistance to the interpretation of existing studies and guidelines for setting up and carrying out new analyses as well as for communicating and applying the results. Thereby, it aims to support the involved actors such as the respective scientific expert...

  8. Efficient integration of renewable energy into future energy systems. Development of European energy infrastructures in the period 2030 to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, Carolin; Uhlig, Jeanette; Zoch, Immo (eds.)

    2011-10-15

    In consideration of strategic climate mitigation, energy security and economic competitiveness goals, the EU passed the Directive 2009/28/EC, including a binding target of 20 per cent renewable energy consumption in the EU by 2020. This target is comprehensive and includes energy generation, transport, heating and cooling sectors. In 2008, renewable energy consumption in the EU was about 10 per cent. So meeting the 20 per cent renewable energy objective will require massive changes in energy production, transmission and consumption in the EU. Furthermore, it is obvious that the development of the energy system will not stop in 2020, but that it will continue towards 2050 and beyond. Over the past century, the European electricity system was developed in line with a national utilit y perspective which heavily emphasised large, centralised conventional power production. Investment decisions for new energy infrastructure and technology were typically made at the national level. In the future, much more energy production will be based on local or regional renewable energy sources (RES). Many consumers may also become energy producers feeding into the infrastructures. Transnational energy transfers will gain in importance. These changes will require very different electricity and gas infrastructures and decision-making processes from today. Lack of infrastructure capacity is already a barrier for the further deployment of RES-based energy production in some regions in Europe. (orig.)

  9. Heat storage. Role in the energy system of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauer, Andreas; Woerner, Antje; Kranz, Stefan; Schumacher, Patrick; Gschwander, Stefan; Appen, Jan von; Hidalgo, Diego; Gross, Bodo; Grashof, Katherina

    2015-01-01

    For the implementation of the energy transition in Germany can contribute in a variety of applications thermal energy storage. Both at the integration of renewable energy sources, as well as in increasing the energy efficiency in the building sector and industry can utilize heat and cold storage great potential. For this diverse storage technologies are available. In Germany numerous research and development projects are running currently, covering the broad possibilities of thermal energy storage. [de

  10. Modelling the existing Irish energy-system to identify future energy costs and the maximum wind penetration feasible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, D.; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2010-01-01

    energy- system to future energy costs by considering future fuel prices, CO2 prices, and different interest rates. The final investigation identifies the maximum wind penetration feasible on the 2007 Irish energy- system from a technical and economic perspective, as wind is the most promising fluctuating...... for the existing Irish energy-system is approximately 30% from both a technical and economic perspective based on 2020 energy prices. Future studies will use the model developed in this study to show that higher wind penetrations can be achieved if the existing energy-system is modified correctly. Finally...... renewable resource available in Ireland. It is concluded that the reference model simulates the Irish energy-system accurately, the annual fuel costs for Ireland’s energy could increase by approximately 58% from 2007 to 2020 if a business-as-usual scenario is followed, and the optimum wind penetration...

  11. Priority order in using biomass resources - Energy systems analyses of future scenarios for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Pil Seok; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2013-01-01

    . This article compares the value of using biomass as a heat source and for electricity generation in a 100% renewable energy system context. The comparison is done by assuming an incremental decrease in the biomass available for the electricity and heat sector, respectively. The assumed scenarios......According to some future Danish energy scenarios, biomass will become one of the two main pillars of the future energy system accompanied by wind power. The biomass can be used for generating heat and electricity, and as a transportation fuel in a future energy system according to the scenarios...... for the decrease of biomass are made by use of an hourly energy system analysis model, EnergyPLAN. The results are shown in terms of system configuration, biomass fuel efficiency, system cost, and impacts on the export of electricity. It is concluded that the reduction of biomass in the heat sector is better than...

  12. Editorial : Introduction to Energy Strategy Reviews theme issue “Future Energy Systems and Market Integration of Wind Power”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lund, H.; Weijermars, R.

    2013-01-01

    Energy Strategy Reviews (ESR) provides a peer-reviewed publication platformto evaluate strategy options for tomorrow’s energy systems. The focus in this special issue is on “Future Energy Systems and Market Integration of Wind Power” and possible solutions are highlighted from the strategy viewpoint

  13. Low Temperature District Heating for Future Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Dietrich; Kallert, Anna; Blesl, Markus

    2017-01-01

    of the building stock. Low temperature district heating (LTDH) can contribute significantly to a more efficient use of energy resources as well as better integration of renewable energy (e.g. geothermal or solar heat), and surplus heat (e.g. industrial waste heat) into the heating sector. LTDH offers prospects......The building sector is responsible for more than one third of the final energy consumption of societies and produces the largest amount of greenhouse gas emissions of all sectors. This is due to the utilisation of combustion processes of mainly fossil fuels to satisfy the heating demand...... for both the demand side (community building structure) and the supply side (network properties or energy sources). Especially in connection with buildings that demand only low temperatures for space heating. The utilisation of lower temperatures reduces losses in pipelines and can increase the overall...

  14. Toward sustainable energy futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasztor, J. (United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya))

    1990-01-01

    All energy systems have adverse as well as beneficial impacts on the environment. They vary in quality, quantity, in time and in space. Environmentally sensitive energy management tries to minimize the adverse impacts in an equitable manner between different groups in the most cost-effective ways. Many of the enviornmental impacts of energy continue to be externalized. Consequently, these energy systems which can externalize their impacts more easily are favoured, while others remain relatively expensive. The lack of full integration of environmental factors into energy policy and planning is the overriding problem to be resolved before a transition towards sustainable energy futures can take place. The most pressing problem in the developing countries relates to the unsustainable and inefficient use of biomass resources, while in the industrialized countries, the major energy-environment problems arise out of the continued intensive use of fossil fuel resources. Both of these resource issues have their role to play in climate change. Although there has been considerable improvement in pollution control in a number of situations, most of the adverse impacts will undoubtedly increase in the future. Population growth will lead to increased demand, and there will also be greater use of lower grade fuels. Climate change and the crisis in the biomass resource base in the developing countries are the most critical energy-environment issues to be resolved in the immediate future. In both cases, international cooperation is an essential requirement for successful resolution. 26 refs.

  15. Next generation of energy production systems; Lancement pour les systemes du futur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouault, J.; Garnier, J.C. [CEA Saclay Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire DEN, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Carre, F. [CEA Saclay, Dir. du Developpement et de l' Innovation Nucleares - DDIN, 91 - Gif Sur Yvette (France)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    This document gathers the slides that have been presented at the Gedepeon conference. Gedepeon is a research group involving scientists from Cea (French atomic energy commission), CNRS (national center of scientific research), EDF (electricity of France) and Framatome that is devoted to the study of new energy sources and particularly to the study of the future generations of nuclear systems. The contributions have been classed into 9 topics: 1) gas cooled reactors, 2) molten salt reactors (MSBR), 3) the recycling of plutonium and americium, 4) reprocessing of molten salt reactor fuels, 5) behavior of graphite under radiation, 6) metallic materials for molten salt reactors, 7) refractory fuels of gas cooled reactors, 8) the nuclear cycle for the next generations of nuclear systems, and 9) organization of research programs on the new energy sources.

  16. Optimization of use of waste in the future energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Meibom, Peter

    2011-01-01

    of mixed waste, anaerobic digestion of organic waste, and gasification of part of the potential RDF (refuse derived fuel) for CHP (combined heat and power) production, while the remaining part is co-combusted with coal. Co-combustion mainly takes place in new coal-fired power plants, allowing investments...... production in Denmark in a 2025 scenario with 48% renewable energy. Investments in a range of waste conversion technologies are facilitated, including waste incineration, co-combustion with coal, anaerobic digestion, and gasification. The most economically feasible solutions are found to be incineration...

  17. Modelling the existing Irish energy-system to identify future energy costs and the maximum wind penetration feasible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, D.; Leahy, M.; Lund, H.; Mathiesen, B.V.

    2010-01-01

    In this study a model of the Irish energy-system was developed using EnergyPLAN based on the year 2007, which was then used for three investigations. The first compares the model results with actual values from 2007 to validate its accuracy. The second illustrates the exposure of the existing Irish energy-system to future energy costs by considering future fuel prices, CO 2 prices, and different interest rates. The final investigation identifies the maximum wind penetration feasible on the 2007 Irish energy-system from a technical and economic perspective, as wind is the most promising fluctuating renewable resource available in Ireland. It is concluded that the reference model simulates the Irish energy-system accurately, the annual fuel costs for Ireland's energy could increase by approximately 58% from 2007 to 2020 if a business-as-usual scenario is followed, and the optimum wind penetration for the existing Irish energy-system is approximately 30% from both a technical and economic perspective based on 2020 energy prices. Future studies will use the model developed in this study to show that higher wind penetrations can be achieved if the existing energy-system is modified correctly. Finally, these results are not only applicable to Ireland, but also represent the issues facing many other countries. (author)

  18. Keeping an eye on reliability : The organizational requirements of future renewable energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    The reliable operation of energy infrastructures is more than just a technical matter. It is also dependent upon the organizational structure that enables and constrains entities in their management of operations. Yet this lesson seems forgotten in our planning of future renewable energy systems.

  19. Energy security impacts of a severe drought on the future Finnish energy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Jaakko; Veijalainen, Noora; Syri, Sanna; Marttunen, Mika; Zakeri, Behnam

    2018-07-01

    Finland updated its Energy and Climate Strategy in late 2016 with the aim of increasing the share of renewable energy sources, increasing energy self-sufficiency and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Concurrently, the issue of generation adequacy has grown more topical, especially since the record-high demand peak in Finland in January 2016. This paper analyses the Finnish energy system in years 2020 and 2030 by using the EnergyPLAN simulation tool to model whether different energy policy scenarios result in a plausible generation inadequacy. Moreover, as the Nordic energy system is so heavily dependent on hydropower production, we model and analyse the impacts of a severe drought on the Finnish energy system. We simulate hydropower availability according to the weather of the worst drought of the last century (in 1939-1942) with Finnish Environment Institute's Watershed Simulation and Forecasting System and we analyse the indirect impacts via reduced availability of electricity imports based on recent realised dry periods. Moreover, we analyse the environmental impacts of hydropower production during the drought and peak demand period and the impacts of climate change on generation adequacy in Finland. The results show that the scenarios of the new Energy and Climate Strategy result in an improved generation adequacy comparing to the current situation. However, a severe drought similar to that experienced in 1940s could cause a serious energy security threat. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A brief history and the possible future of urban energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutter, Paul; Keirstead, James

    2012-01-01

    Modern cities depend on energy systems to deliver a range of services such as heating, cooling, lighting, mobility, communications, and so on. This article examines how these urban energy systems came to be, tracing the major transitions from the earliest settlements through to today's fossil-fuelled cities. The underlying theme is “increasing efficiency under constraints” with each transition marked by increasing energy efficiency in service provision, increasing per capita energy use, increasing complexity in the energy system's structure, with innovations driven by a strategic view of the overall system, and accompanied by wider changes in technology and society. In developed countries, the future of urban energy systems is likely to continue many of these trends, with increased efficiency being driven by the constraints of climate change and rising fuel prices. Both supply and demand side technologies are discussed as potential solutions to these issues, with different impacts on the urban environment and its citizens. However in developing countries, rising urban populations and access to basic energy services will drive the next transition. - Highlights: ► Urban energy system transitions in history are reviewed. ► Common features include increased per capita energy use, growing system complexity, and technological innovation. ► Future transitions will be shaped by the constraints of climate change, rising fuel prices, and urbanisation. ► Long-term sustainability depends on ability to innovate rapidly; opportunities exist on supply and demand sides.

  1. The role of Carbon Capture and Storage in a future sustainable energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2012-01-01

    systems, the number of utilisation hours of power and CHP plants will have to decrease substantially due to the energy efficiency measures in combination with the inclusion of renewable energy power inputs from wind and similar resources. Consequently, no power or CHP plants exist in future sustainable......This paper presents the results of adding a CCS(Carbon Capture and Storage) plant including an underground CO2 storage to a well described and well documented vision of converting the present Danish fossil based energy system into a future sustainable energy system made by the Danish Society...... huge construction costs with the expectation of long lifetimes. Consequently, the CCS has to operate as part of large-scale power or CHP plants with high utilisation hours for the CCS investment to come even close to being feasible. However, seen in the light of transforming to sustainable energy...

  2. Impacts of Renewable Energy Quota System on China's Future Power Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Weiming; Zhang, Da; Mischke, Peggy; Zhang, Xiliang

    2014-01-01

    As the biggest carbon emitting sector which produces 44% of current national carbon emission in China, the coal-dominated power sector has a tremendous potential for CO2 mitigation in the next two decades. Renewable energy quota system is currently discussed as a potential future policy instrument for the power sector, which requires certain fraction of renewable energy in total power generation for each province and grid zone. The quantitative studies on renewable energy quota for China are ...

  3. Impacts of Renewable Energy Quota System on China's Future Power Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Weiming; Zhang, Da; Mischke, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    As the biggest carbon emitting sector which produces 44% of current national carbon emission in China, the coal-dominated power sector has a tremendous potential for CO2 mitigation in the next two decades. Renewable energy quota system is currently discussed as a potential future policy instrument...... for the power sector, which requires certain fraction of renewable energy in total power generation for each province and grid zone. The quantitative studies on renewable energy quota for China are still very limited. Based on a least-cost and technology-rich power generation and transmission expansion model...... for China, this study examines the impacts of renewable energy quota system and carbon cap policy instruments on the future Chinese power sector. Various scenarios are examined toward 2030 and their future power generation mix, capacity installations and carbon emission are discussed. This study concludes...

  4. A comparative study of ammonia energy systems as a future energy carrier, with particular reference to vehicle use in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Daisuke; Tezuka, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    The choice of secondary energy carriers, such as electricity, hydrogen and ammonia, influences not only economic and environmental performances but also the reliability of an entire energy system. This article focuses on ammonia because of its excellent property in energy storage, and assesses the relative advantages of several ammonia energy systems for vehicle use in Japan by estimating energy efficiency, CO 2 emissions, and the supply cost of several ammonia energy paths, which are then compared with alternative paths using different energy carriers including hydrogen and electricity. The article also discusses inherent merits and challenges of ammonia energy systems and identifies directions for future research and development. Using ammonia as an energy carrier was demonstrated to be competitive in terms of efficiency, CO 2 emissions and supply cost for energy systems requiring fairly large numbers of storage days. This assessment shows that the use of ammonia in an energy system can improve the continuity of the energy supply in a country or region with insecurity of supply. On the other hand, we argue that further technical improvements and cost reduction associated with both conventional and unconventional ammonia production is imperative for using ammonia in a normal energy system. - Highlights: • We assess merits of energy supply systems using ammonia as an energy carrier. • Comparison with hydrogen or electricity-based energy systems was carried out. • We find ammonia is competitive when requiring large numbers of storage days. • The use of ammonia in energy systems can improve the continuity of energy supply. • Technical improvements are needed to make ammonia attractive in normal systems

  5. A review and future prospects of renewable energy in the global energy system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D Yogi GOSWAMI; John & Naida Ramil Professor; Co-Director

    2008-01-01

    Global energy consumption in the last half century has rapidly increased and is expected to continue to grow over the next 50 years, however, with significant differences. The past increase was stimulated by relatively "cheap" fossil fuels and increased rates of industrialization in North America, Europe and Japan; yet while energy consumption in these countries continues to increase, additional factors make the picture for the next 50 years more complex. These additional complicating factors include China and India's rapid increase in energy use as they represent about a third of the world's population; the expected depletion of oil resources in the near future; and, the effect of human activities on global climate change. On the positive side, the renewable energy (RE) technologies of wind, bio-fuels, solar thermal and photovoltaics (PV) are finally showing maturity and the ultimate promise of cost competitiveness.

  6. Unraveling the Importance of Climate Change Resilience in Planning the Future Sustainable Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarroja, B.; AghaKouchak, A.; Forrest, K.; Chiang, F.; Samuelsen, S.

    2017-12-01

    In response to concerns regarding the environmental impacts of the current energy resource mix, significant research efforts have been focused on determining the future energy resource mix to meet emissions reduction and environmental sustainability goals. Many of these studies focus on various constraints such as costs, grid operability requirements, and environmental performance, and develop different plans for the rollout of energy resources between the present and future years. One aspect that has not yet been systematically taken into account in these planning studies, however, is the potential impacts that changing climates may have on the availability and performance of key energy resources that compose these plans. This presentation will focus on a case study for California which analyzes the impacts of climate change on the greenhouse gas emissions and renewable resource utilization of an energy resource plan developed by Energy Environmental Economics for meeting the state's year 2050 greenhouse gas goal of 80% reduction in emissions by the year 2050. Specifically, climate change impacts on three aspects of the energy system are investigated: 1) changes in hydropower generation due to altered precipitation, streamflow and runoff patterns, 2) changes in the availability of solar thermal and geothermal power plant capacity due to shifting water availability, and 3) changes in the residential and commercial electric building loads due to increased temperatures. These impacts were discovered to cause the proposed resource plan to deviate from meeting its emissions target by up to 5.9 MMT CO2e/yr and exhibit a reduction in renewable resource penetration of up to 3.1% of total electric energy. The impacts of climate change on energy system performance were found to be mitigated by increasing the flexibility of the energy system through increased storage and electric load dispatchability. Overall, this study highlights the importance of taking into account and

  7. Comparison of future energy scenarios for Denmark: IDA 2050, CEESA (Coherent Energy and Environmental System Analysis), and Climate Commission 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Pil Seok; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2012-01-01

    Scenario-making is becoming an important tool in energy policy making and energy systems analyses. This article probes into the making of scenarios for Denmark by presenting a comparison of three future scenarios which narrate 100% renewable energy system for Denmark in 2050; IDA 2050, Climate Commission 2050, and CEESA (Coherent Energy and Environmental System Analysis). Generally, although with minor differences, the scenarios suggest the same technological solutions for the future such as expansion of biomass usage and wind power capacity, integration of transport sector into the other energy sectors. The methodologies used in two academic scenarios, IDA 2050 and CEESA, are compared. The main differences in the methodologies of IDA 2050 and CEESA are found in the estimation of future biomass potential, transport demand assessment, and a trial to examine future power grid in an electrical engineering perspective. The above-mentioned methodologies are compared in an evolutionary perspective to determine if the methodologies reflect the complex reality well. The results of the scenarios are also assessed within the framework of “radical technological change” in order to show which future scenario assumes more radical change within five dimensions of technology; technique, knowledge, organization, product, and profit. -- Highlights: ► Three future scenarios for Danish future in 2050 are compared. ► All of these scenarios suggest the same solutions for the future with minor differences. ► There are differences in methodologies for IDA 2050 and CEESA such as biomass, transport, and power grid. ► The contents of scenarios are assessed which scenario assume more radical technological change in the future.

  8. The Integration of Sustainable Transport into Future Renewable Energy Systems in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen

    use are largely lost in the current fossil fuel dominated energy systems. Sustainable transport development requires solutions from an overall renewable energy system in which integration of large-scale intermittent renewable energy needs assistance. Technologies of alternative vehicle fuels...... in transport may play a role in furthering such integration. The objective of this research is to make a contribution to the development of methodologies to identify and develop future sustainable transport systems as well as to apply such methodologies to the case of China. In particular, the methodological...... development focuses on 1) identifying suitable transport technologies and strategies based on renewable energy and 2) evaluating such technologies from the perspective of overall renewable energy system integration. For this purpose, a methodological framework involving the research fields of both...

  9. A scenario analysis of future energy systems based on an energy flow model represented as functionals of technology options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Yasunori; Kimura, Seiichiro; Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Koyama, Michihisa

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy flow model was represented as the functionals of technology options. • Relationships among available technologies can be visualized by developed model. • Technology roadmapping can be incorporated into the model as technical scenario. • Combination of technologies can increase their contribution to the environment. - Abstract: The design of energy systems has become an issue all over the world. A single optimal system cannot be suggested because the availability of infrastructure and resources and the acceptability of the system should be discussed locally, involving all related stakeholders in the energy system. In particular, researchers and engineers of technologies related to energy systems should be able to perform the forecasting and roadmapping of future energy systems and indicate quantitative results of scenario analyses. We report an energy flow model developed for analysing scenarios of future Japanese energy systems implementing a variety of feasible technology options. The model was modularized and represented as functionals of appropriate technology options, which enables the aggregation and disaggregation of energy systems by defining functionals for single technologies, packages integrating multi-technologies, and mini-systems such as regions implementing industrial symbiosis. Based on the model, the combinations of technologies on both energy supply and demand sides can be addressed considering not only the societal scenarios such as resource prices, economic growth and population change but also the technical scenarios including the development and penetration of energy-related technologies such as distributed solid oxide fuel cells in residential sectors and new-generation vehicles, and the replacement and shift of current technologies such as heat pumps for air conditioning and centralized power generation. The developed model consists of two main modules; namely, a power generation dispatching module for the

  10. A study of the status and future of superconducting magnetic energy storage in power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, X D; Cheng, K W E; Sutanto, D

    2006-01-01

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems offering flexible, reliable, and fast acting power compensation are applicable to power systems to improve power system stabilities and to advance power qualities. The authors have summarized researches on SMES applications to power systems. Furthermore, various SMES applications to power systems have been described briefly and some crucial schematic diagrams and equations are given. In addition, this study presents valuable suggestions for future studies of SMES applications to power systems. Hence, this paper is helpful for co-researchers who want to know about the status of SMES applications to power systems. (topical review)

  11. Future perspective of nuclear energy utilization and expected role of HTGR. JAERI's energy systems analysis research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Osamu

    1996-01-01

    Studies have been made in JAERI in order to assess the possibility of using nuclear energy symbiotically with fossil and biomass fuels, and to evaluate its implications for the environment. The application system of high temperature nuclear heat has been designed for this purpose with various technology options. The core of the system is a set of technologies for hydrogen production and its application to produce clean and convenient fuels from fossil or biomass sources. The results of analytical studies using the MARKAL model have indicated sufficient possibilities of combining nuclear energy effectively with fossil or biomass fuels via hydrogen produced by high temperature nuclear heat. In addition to providing clean and convenient liquid fuels on a large scale, the combined system will contribute to the substantial reduction of long-term CO 2 emissions. The relatively high cost of this system will be well justified when CO 2 emission penalties are taken into account. (J.P.N.)

  12. The evolution of the CANDU energy system - ready for Europe's energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedges, K. R.; Hopwood, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    As air quality and climate change issues receive increasing attention, the opportunity for nuclear to play a larger role in the coming decades also increases. The good performance of the current fleet of nuclear plants is crucial evidence of nuclear's potential. The excellent record of Cernavoda-1 is an important part of this, and demonstrates the maturity of the Romanian program and of the CANDU design approach. However, the emerging energy market also presents a stringent economic challenge. Current NPP designs, while established as reliable electricity producers, are seen as limited by high capital costs. In some cases, the response to the economic challenge is to consider radical changes to new design concepts, with attendant development risks from lack of provenness. Because of the flexibility of the CANDU system, it is possible to significantly extend the mid-size CANDU design, creating a Next Generation product, without sacrificing the extensive design, delivery and operations information base for CANDU. This enables a design with superior safety characteristics while at the same time meeting the economic challenge of emerging markets. The Romanian nuclear program has progressed successfully forward, leading to the successful operation of Cernavoda-1, and the project to bring Cernavoda-2 to commercial operation. The Romanian nuclear industry has become a full-fledged member of the CANDU community, with all areas of nuclear technology well established and benefiting from international cooperation with other CANDU organizations. AECL is an active partner with Romanian nuclear organizations, both through cooperative development programs, commercial contracts, and also through the activities of the CANDU owners' Group (COG). The Cernavoda project is part of the CANDU 6 family of nuclear power plants developed by AECL. The modular fuel channel reactor concept can be modified extensively, through a series of incremental changes, to improve economics, safety

  13. Future energy communities : How community norms shape individual adoption and acceptability of sustainable energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milovanovic, Marko; Steg, Emmalina; Spears, Russell

    2013-01-01

    Most research on factors influencing the acceptability and adoption of sustainable energy systems is focused on individual-level factors such as personal norms, values, and attitudes. Some researchers have considered the effects of social factors such as descriptive and injunctive norms, but little

  14. Energy futures-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This book covers the proceedings of the Symposium on Energy Futures II. Topics covered include: The National Energy Strategy; The Gas and petroleum industry; energy use in the paper industry; solar energy technology; hydroelectric power; biomass/waste utilization; engine emissions testing laboratories; integrated coal gassification-combined-cycle power plants

  15. Mobile energy sharing futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worgan, Paul; Knibbe, Jarrod; Plasencia, Diego Martinez

    2016-01-01

    We foresee a future where energy in our mobile devices can be shared and redistributed to suit our current task needs. Many of us are beginning to carry multiple mobile devices and we seek to re-evaluate the traditional view of a mobile device as only accepting energy. In our vision, we can...... sharing futures....

  16. Towards the sustainable energy system. The future of the transition policy for energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggink, J.J.C.

    2006-11-01

    Inaugural speech at the occasion of the acceptance of the office for Energy Transition and Sustainable Development at the Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences of the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam, Netherlands, November 21, 2006. The transition policy in the Netherlands towards a sustainable energy supply system succeeded in creating a basis in the Dutch society, although at the cost of making clear choices with regard to concrete projects, new policy tools and financial means. In order to accelerate those choices the Dutch government needs to take decisive measures [nl

  17. Alternative future energy pathways: Assessment of the potential of innovative decentralised energy systems in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmutina, Ksenia; Goodier, Chris I.

    2014-01-01

    In order to meet its 2050 target of 80% carbon emissions reduction, the UK is facing a challenge of restructuring its energy system, possibly by introducing more decentralised energy (DE) systems. Following semi-structured interviews, four exemplar international cases have been critiqued in order to investigate the variety and interrelationship of the drivers and barriers involved during their implementation, and then compared with the barriers and drivers that can potentially affect the implementation of similar projects in the UK context. The impacts of the barriers on the outcomes of these projects were evaluated, and recommendations were presented on overcoming these barriers if replicating similar projects in the UK context. Governance drivers play the most significant role, whereas financial drivers (commonly believed to be crucial), are deemed to play a lesser role. Social, governance and financial barriers rather than technological barriers constitute the central problem areas for the increased adoption of DE. The drivers and barriers experienced in the international cases were similar to those anticipated in the UK. The case studies present a high potential for replication and scaling up in the UK context and demonstrate that the increased implementation of DE systems could also enhance social and governance benefits. - Highlights: • This paper examines four international urban decentralised energy initiatives. • Drivers and barriers are found to be highly diverse but similar to the ones in the UK. • Governance drivers play the most significant role. • Increased implementation of DE systems can enhance social and governance benefits

  18. Estimation of energy storage capacity in power system in japan under future demand and supply factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Ikuo; Tanaka, Toshikatsu

    1996-01-01

    The desirable capacity of future energy storage facility in power system in Japan is discussed in this paper, putting emphasis on future new electric demand/supply factors such as CO 2 emission problems and social structure change. The two fundamental demand scenarios are considered; one is base case scenario which extrapolates the trend until now and the other is social structure change scenario. The desirable capacity of the energy storage facility is obtained from the result of optimum generation mix which minimizes the yearly expenses of the target year (2030 and 2050). The result shows that the optimum capacity of energy storage facility is about 10 to 15%. The social structure change and demand side energy storage have great influences on the optimum capacity of supply side storage. The former increases storage capacity. The latter reduces it and also contributes to the reduction of generation cost. Suppression of CO 2 emission basically affects to reduce the storage capacity. The load following operation of nuclear plant also reduces the optimum storage capacity in the case it produces surplus energy at night. Though there exist many factors which increase or decrease the capacity of energy storage facility, as a whole, it is concluded that the development of new energy storage technology is necessary for future. (author)

  19. The alternative energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitzley, H.

    1989-02-01

    The alternative energy future can be achieved only by making energy conservation programmes successful, and by fully committing to the utilization of soft energy sources. This is the perspective drawn by the author who in this book investigates the fundamentals of an ecologically and socially sound energy policy for the future. Looking at California, USA, where completely near concepts have been put to work in the energy sector since the mid-seventies, the author shows how it can be done, by rewarding energy conserving activities, using available energy sources more efficiently, developing the means for renewable energy exploitation wherever appropriate. A turn in energy policy is feasible also in West Germany, both in technical and political terms. Starting from the experience gained in the USA, the author presents an outline of options and potentials of a new energy strategy for the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig./HP) [de

  20. The future of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubbia, C.

    2000-01-01

    The interest of politicians, businessmen, technologists, scientists and the people at large is focused today on the problem of energy. Everybody will agree on the fact that energy is necessary for the future of mankind. But many tend to paraphrase this by saying that energy is necessary evil. No objection to the necessity: but an analysis of the motivations for regarding energy as evil reveals some Freudian undertones. This scepticism towards technology, as a solution to the rising environmental concerns, perceived as a Faustian deal, after centuries of a passionate technical endeavour deeply engraved in the conception of the world, is a curious phenomenon to say the least. All these problems and the associated concerns are serious: the inevitable growth of energy consumption under the sheer momentum of society and the very human expectations of the poor, may indeed add enough yeast to make them leaven beyond control. However, like in the case of famine, illness etc., also here science and technology should be trusted; indeed there are reasonable expectations that, combined, they will have the possibility of solving also this problem, in full accord with the economic, dynamic and technical constraints that a working system has to comply with

  1. The future of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubbia, C.

    2001-01-01

    The interest of politicians, businessmen, technologists, scientists and the people at large is focused today on the problem of energy. Everybody will agree on the fact that energy is necessary for the future of mankind. But many tend to paraphrase this by saying that energy is necessary evil. No objection to the necessity: but an analysis of the motivations for regarding energy as evil reveals some Freudian undertones. This scepticism towards technology, as a solution to the rising environmental concerns, perceived as a Faustian deal, after centuries of a passionate technical endeavour deeply engraved in the conception of the world, is a curious phenomenon to say the least. All these problems and the associated concerns are serious: the inevitable growth of energy consumption under the sheer momentum of society and the very human expectations of the poor, may indeed add enough yeast to make them leaven beyond control. However, like in the case of famine, illness etc., also here science and technology should be trusted; indeed there are reasonable expectations that, combined, they will have the possibility of solving also this problem, in full accord with the economic, dynamic and technical constraints that a working system has to comply with

  2. The future of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubbia, C. [ENEA, Rome (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    The interest of politicians, businessmen, technologists, scientists and the people at large is focused today on the problem of energy. Everybody will agree on the fact that energy is necessary for the future of mankind. But many tend to paraphrase this by saying that energy is necessary evil. No objection to the necessity: but an analysis of the motivations for regarding energy as evil reveals some Freudian undertones. This scepticism towards technology, as a solution to the rising environmental concerns, perceived as a Faustian deal, after centuries of a passionate technical endeavour deeply engraved in the conception of the world, is a curious phenomenon to say the least. All these problems and the associated concerns are serious: the inevitable growth of energy consumption under the sheer momentum of society and the very human expectations of the poor, may indeed add enough yeast to make them leaven beyond control. However, like in the case of famine, illness etc., also here science and technology should be trusted; indeed there are reasonable expectations that, combined, they will have the possibility of solving also this problem, in full accord with the economic, dynamic and technical constraints that a working system has to comply with.

  3. World Energy Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, A.; Van der Linde, C.; Nicola, S.

    2009-01-01

    In the section World Energy Future of this magazine two articles, two interviews and one column are presented. The article 'A green example to the world' refers briefly to the second World Future Energy Summit in Abu Dhabi, which was held from 18-21 January, 2009. The second article, 'Green Utopia in the desert' attention is paid to the Abu Dhabi government-driven Masdar Initiative. The two interviews concern an interview with BP Alternative Energy ceo Vivienne Cox, and an interview with the founder and CEO of New Energy Finance Michael Liebreich. The column ('An efficient response') focuses on the impact of the economic crisis on energy policy

  4. Evaluating the benefits of an electrical energy storage system in a future smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, N.S.; Taylor, P.C.; Lang, P.D.; Jones, P.R.

    2010-01-01

    Interest in electrical energy storage systems is increasing as the opportunities for their application become more compelling in an industry with a back-drop of ageing assets, increasing distributed generation and a desire to transform networks into Smart Grids. A field trial of an energy storage system designed and built by ABB is taking place on a section of 11 kV distribution network operated by EDF Energy Networks in Great Britain. This paper reports on the findings from simulation software developed at Durham University that evaluates the benefits brought by operating an energy storage system in response to multiple events on multiple networks. The tool manages the allocation of a finite energy resource to achieve the most beneficial shared operation across two adjacent areas of distribution network. Simulations account for the key energy storage system parameters of capacity and power rating. Results for events requiring voltage control and power flow management show how the choice of operating strategy influences the benefits achieved. The wider implications of these results are discussed to provide an assessment of the role of electrical energy storage systems in future Smart Grids.

  5. Strategies towards a 100% renewable energy system for Denmark in the Future Climate Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2009-01-01

    energy system by the year 2050 are presented. Two short term transition target years in the process towards this goal are analysed for 2015 and 2030. The analyses reveal that implementing energy savings, renewable energy and more efficient conversion technologies can have positive socioeconomic effects......, create employment and potentially lead to large earnings on exports. If externalities such as health effects etc. are included, even more benefits can be expected. 100 per cent renewable energy systems will be technically possible in the future, and may even be economically beneficial compared......Greenhouse gas mitigation strategies are generally considered costly with world leaders often engaging in debate concerning the costs of mitigation and the distribution of these costs between different countries. In this paper, the analyses and results of the design of a 100 per cent renewable...

  6. Smart bioenergy technologies and concepts for a more flexible bioenergy provision in future energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is a vital source of renewable energy, because it offers a wide range of established and potential methods for energy generation. It is also an important facet of the progression toward a sustainable energy future. The need for further development in the provision of bioenergy is underlined by challenges affecting the biomass resource base, including rising demand for biomass for food, feed, materials and fuel. This is underlined by significant concerns over factors relating to land, such as soil, nutrients and biodiversity. This book examines and analyzes Germany's decade-long initiative toward implementation of an active policy for the transition of the energy system to make greater use of renewable energy sources, which has resulted in a significant increase in the amount of biomass used for electricity, heat and transport fuel. The book begins with a review of market and resource base issues, and moves on to analyze the technical options for a more integrated bioenergy use. The analysis spans the ...

  7. Future of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, John

    2005-01-01

    Australia has one of the most cost-effective energy conversion and delivery systems in the world. We are blessed with abundant, high-quality fossil fuels consisting mainly of coal, gas and (diminishing) oil resources. However, this past blessing is also a future curse as this fuel mix, coupled with limits to hydroelectric growth and no nuclear generation capacity, has endowed Australia with one of the highest greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of GDP in the developed world (currently 43 per cent above the International Energy Agency average). This prompted Claude Mandil, head of the IEA, to observe: 'Environmental sustainability represent Australia's greatest energy challenge, with high and growing carbon dioxide emissions.' The challenge for Australia is how to make the massive cuts in GHG emissions required to minimise our world trade risks (which will come at a cost, and put pressure on our energy cost-effectiveness) while maintaining an internationally competitive energy sector. This challenge is exacerbated by a healthy national growth rate which will be accompanied by at least a 50 per cent growth in energy demand by 2020, with a doubling by 2050. Electricity industry projections predict an investment in new generation capacity well in excess of $30 billion to keep up with demand over the next two decades. The stark reality is that if we con tinue to supply and use energy the way we do now, we may as well forget about stabilising our GHG emissions from the energy sector, let alone reducing them in the future. This urgent situation presents a huge opportunity for the introduction of new and improved low-emission energy conversion technologies and demand management systems that vastly reduce GHG emissions per unit of productivity - in fact, an opportunity to transform Australia's energy sector to levels of innovation, social acceptance and environmental performance that has no precedent in this country. We have little choice other than to make a start. Are

  8. Application and Development of Energy System Optimisation Models to Meet Challenges of the Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balyk, Olexandr

    ) and the nature of the issues that are dealt with (i.e. high degree of uncertainly with regard to future technology characteristics, global policy development on climate mitigation, etc.). Additionally, geographic information systems are used in one of the papers to conduct a spatial analysis for estimating wind...... energy, and an increased climate change mitigation potential.Other results highlight among others, the possible future roles of individual technologies (i.e. wind power in Denmark and carbon capture and storage in China) in the climate constrained world, the difficulty to achieve the 2°C target agreed...

  9. The future of energy

    CERN Document Server

    Towler, Brian F

    2014-01-01

    Using the principle that extracting energy from the environment always involves some type of impact on the environment, The Future of Energy discusses the sources, technologies, and tradeoffs involved in meeting the world's energy needs. A historical, scientific, and technical background set the stage for discussions on a wide range of energy sources, including conventional fossil fuels like oil, gas, and coal, as well as emerging renewable sources like solar, wind, geothermal, and biofuels. Readers will learn that there are no truly ""green"" energy sources-all energy usage involves some trad

  10. Future of US Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cragg, C.; Nicola, S.; Kemfert, C.

    2009-01-15

    Barack Obama has promised to boost renewable energy sources and energy efficiency and to join the global effort to curb climate change. But he also looks upon domestic energy in terms of national security. These two priorities clash in important ways. One thing is certain: US energy policy is about to change drastically - and global energy relations along with them. In this section of the magazine two articles are dedicated to the future of energy in the USA. In between the articles is a column on the question if climate protection creates jobs.

  11. Future of US Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cragg, C.; Nicola, S.; Kemfert, C.

    2009-01-01

    Barack Obama has promised to boost renewable energy sources and energy efficiency and to join the global effort to curb climate change. But he also looks upon domestic energy in terms of national security. These two priorities clash in important ways. One thing is certain: US energy policy is about to change drastically - and global energy relations along with them. In this section of the magazine two articles are dedicated to the future of energy in the USA. In between the articles is a column on the question if climate protection creates jobs

  12. Towards a future-proof energy system for the Netherlands; Naar een toekomstbestendig energiesysteem voor Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weterings, R.; Van Harmelen, T.; Gjaltema, J.; Jongeneel, S.; Manshanden, W.; Poliakov, E. [TNO Behavioural and Societal Sciences, Delft (Netherlands); Faaij, A.; Van den Broek, M.; Dengerink, J. [Copernicus Instituut, Universiteit Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Londo, M.; Schoots, K. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-03-15

    The analysis performed has two goals: (1) mapping of the most important opportunities and threats of the transition to a sustainable energy supply for the economy and society of the Netherlands, and (2) identify where significant gaps are in the knowledge that is required for a transition to a future-proof energy system for Netherlands [Dutch] De uitgevoerde analyse heeft twee doelen: (1) In beeld brengen van de belangrijkste kansen en bedreigingen van de transitie naar een duurzame energievoorziening voor economie en samenleving van Nederland; en (2) Nagaan waar belangrijke lacunes liggen in de benodigde kennis voor een transitie naar een toekomstbestendig energiesysteem in Nederland.

  13. Comprehensive assessment of the role and potential for solar thermal in future energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kenneth; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2018-01-01

    to the energy system configurations. Solar thermal benefits reduce when moving towards a high-renewable energy system as other renewable energy sources start competing with solar thermal on energy prices and energy system flexibility. The findings can be applied to a diversity of energy systems also beyond...

  14. Factors that influence consumers' acceptance of future energy systems : the effects of adjustment type, production level, and price

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, Fenna R. M.; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Keizer, Kees; Gorsira, Madelijne; van der Werff, Ellen; Steg, Linda

    2014-01-01

    To promote the successful introduction of sustainable energy systems, more insight is needed into factors influencing consumer's acceptance of future energy systems. A questionnaire study among 139 Dutch citizens (aged 18-85) was conducted. Participants rated the acceptability of energy systems made

  15. Energies of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthoefer, H.

    1977-01-01

    This paper outlines the general principles of the energy policy of the Federal Government. The main points of emphasis are stressed, and the limits of energy supply for the ever-growing demand without new options are pointed out. For the future, a reasonable extension of nuclear power is required. Solar energy and energy conservation are no alternatives. The tendency of this papar points to the 2nd amendment of the energy programme of the Federal Government that will soon be published. (UA) 891 UA [de

  16. Transition of Future Energy System Infrastructure; through Power-to-Gas Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Maroufmashat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Power-to-gas is a promising option for storing interment renewables, nuclear baseload power, and distributed energy and it is a novel concept for the transition to increased renewable content of current fuels with an ultimate goal of transition to a sustainable low-carbon future energy system that interconnects power, transportation sectors and thermal energy demand all together. The aim of this paper is to introduce different Power-to-gas “pathways”, including Power to Hydrogen, Power to Natural Gas End-users, Power to Renewable Content in Petroleum Fuel, Power to Power, Seasonal Energy Storage to Electricity, Power to Zero Emission Transportation, Power to Seasonal Storage for Transportation, Power to Micro grid, Power to Renewable Natural Gas (RNG to Pipeline (“Methanation”, and Power to Renewable Natural Gas (RNG to Seasonal Storage. In order to compare the different pathways, the review of key technologies of Power-to-gas systems are studied and the qualitative efficiency and benefits of each pathway is investigated from the technical points of view. Moreover, different Power-to-gas pathways are discussed as an energy policy option that can be implemented to transition towards a lower carbon economy for Ontario’s energy systems.

  17. Multicriteria Spatial Decision Support Systems for Future Urban Energy Retrofitting Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Lombardi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is an increasing concern about sustainable urban energy development taking into account national priorities of each city. Many cities have started to define future strategies and plans to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Urban energy scenarios involve the consideration of a wide range of conflicting criteria, both socio-economic and environmental ones. Moreover, decision-makers (DMs require proper tools that can support their choices in a context of multiple stakeholders and a long-term perspective. In this context, Multicriteria Spatial Decision Support Systems (MC-SDSS are often used in order to define and analyze urban scenarios since they support the comparison of different solutions, based on a combination of multiple factors. The main problem, in relation to urban energy retrofitting scenarios, is the lack of appropriate knowledge and evaluation criteria. The latter are crucial for delivering and assessing urban energy scenarios through a MC-SDSS tool. The main goal of this paper is to analyze and test two different methods for the definition and ranking of the evaluation criteria. More specifically, the paper presents an on-going research study related to the development of a MC-SDSS tool able to identify and evaluate alternative energy urban scenarios in a long-term period perspective. This study refers to two Smart City and Communities research projects, namely: DIMMER (District Information Modeling and Management for Energy Reduction and EEB (Zero Energy Buildings in Smart Urban Districts.

  18. World Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, A.; Van der Linde, C.; Nicola, S.

    2009-03-15

    In the section World Energy Future of this magazine two articles, two interviews and one column are presented. The article 'A green example to the world' refers briefly to the second World Future Energy Summit in Abu Dhabi, which was held from 18-21 January, 2009. The second article, 'Green Utopia in the desert' attention is paid to the Abu Dhabi government-driven Masdar Initiative. The two interviews concern an interview with BP Alternative Energy ceo Vivienne Cox, and an interview with the founder and CEO of New Energy Finance Michael Liebreich. The column ('An efficient response') focuses on the impact of the economic crisis on energy policy.

  19. Our future energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-15

    The Danish Government's plan ''Our Future Energy'' seeks to create green growth and help the country convert to 100 percent renewable energy use by 2050. The Danish Government in November 2011 presented its plan for how the country can secure its energy future. Titled ''Our Future Energy'', the strategy presents specific measures for fulfilling the Government's goal of stimulating green growth. The plan is based on the previous government's Energy Strategy 2050, but raises the bar higher. The long-term goal of the plan is to implement an energy and transport network that relies solely on renewable energy sources. By 2020, the initiatives will lead to extensive reductions in energy consumption, making it possible for half of the country's electricity consumption to be covered by wind power. Coal is to be phased out of Danish power plants by 2030. And by 2035, all electricity and heating will be generated using renewable sources. (Author)

  20. The important roles of nuclear energy in the future energy system of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yingzhong, L.

    1984-01-01

    The goal of Four Modernizations in China requires doubling present energy production by the year 2000. Because of uneven geographic distribution of coal and hydropower resources, difficulties in exploitation and transportation, and environmental issues, conventional energy alone could not meet the tremendous energy demand in the most densely populated and highly industrialized coastal provinces. Therefore nuclear energy will play an increasingly important role in such regions and is now considered indispensable for the development of China's economy. Nuclear energy will supply not only base-load electricity but district heating and process heat in these provinces. Another promising potential application of nuclear heat will be in the petroleum industry. Nuclear energy will find broad applications in various sectors of China's economy as the country achieves the Four Modernizations. (author)

  1. Future waste treatment and energy systems – examples of joint scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Finnveden, G.; Wenzel, H.

    2013-01-01

    of scenarios is recommended, too, in order to adapt to the methods and tools of different disciplines, such as developing predictive scenarios with general equilibrium tools and analysing explorative scenarios with energy system analysis tools. Furthermore, as marginals identified in differing future......Development and use of scenarios for large interdisciplinary projects is a complicated task. This article provides practical examples of how it has been carried out in two projects addressing waste management and energy issues respectively. Based on experiences from the two projects......, recommendations are made for an approach concerning development of scenarios in projects dealing with both waste management and energy issues. Recommendations are given to develop and use overall scenarios for the project and leave room for sub-scenarios in parts of the project. Combining different types...

  2. The future of transportation in sustainable energy systems: Opportunities and barriers in a clean energy transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Bačeković, Ivan; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2017-01-01

    Energy demand of a transport sector has constantly been increasing in the recent years, consuming one third of the total final energy demand in the European Union (EU) over the last decade. A transition of this sector towards sustainable one is facing many challenges in terms of suitable technolo...

  3. The future of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romer, A.

    2001-01-01

    The article discusses not only the future of energy and resource consumption in various areas of the world, but also its development over the centuries since the industrial revolution. The present situation, with large discrepancies between the energy consumption of industrialised nations and the developing countries is examined. Social and environmental aspects are discussed and the sustainable use of the Earth's resources and the inconsistencies in this area is looked at. Rather than adopting a moralistic approach, the article appeals to man's powers of innovation and sense of responsibility in order to develop solutions to today's and future energy supply problems. The article is richly illustrated with diagrams and graphs on world energy and social statistics

  4. A multi evaporator desalination system operated with thermocline energy for future sustainability

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2017-05-05

    All existing commercial seawater desalination processes, i.e. thermally-driven and membrane-based reverse osmosis (RO), are operated with universal performance ratios (UPR) varying up to 105, whilst the UPR for an ideal or thermodynamic limit (TL) of desalination is at 828. Despite slightly better UPRs for the RO plants, all practical desalination plants available, hitherto, operate at only less than 12% of the TL, rendering them highly energy intensive and unsustainable for future sustainability. More innovative desalination methods must be sought to meet the needs of future sustainable desalination and these methods should attain an upper UPR bound of about 25 to 30% of the TL. In this paper, we examined the efficacy of a multi-effect distillation (MED) system operated with thermocline energy from the sea; a proven desalination technology that can exploit the narrow temperature gradient of 20°C all year round created between the warm surface seawater and the cold-seawater at depths of about 300–600m. Such a seawater thermocline (ST)-driven MED system, simply called the ST-MED process, has the potential to achieve up to 2 folds improvement in desalination efficiency over the existing methods, attaining about 18.8% of the ideal limit. With the major energy input emanated from the renewable solar, the ST-MED is truly a “green desalination” method of low global warming potential, best suited for tropical coastal shores having bathymetry depths of 300m or more.

  5. Energy for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethna, H.N.

    1981-01-01

    The very existence of modern civilization is dependent on the supply of energy which comes from sun, geothermal energy sources, hydroelectricity, tides, ocean winds and nuclear sources. Potential of these sources for long-term solution of man's energy problems is examined. Nuclear source of energy is discussed in detail and other sources are dealt in brief. Fission reactor system which is now generating power on commercial basis is described. The work being done on thermonuclear fusion reactor system to make it a practical system is surveyed. Research programs on laser and particle beam fusion are described. (M.G.B.)

  6. Energies of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    This document takes stock on the researches concerning the energies of the future. The hydrogen and the fuel cells take the main part with also the new fuels. Some researches programs are detailed as the costs decrease of the hydrogen engines, the design of an hydrogen production reactor from ethanol or the conversion of 95% of ethanol in gaseous hydrogen. (A.L.B.)

  7. Denmark`s energy futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The stated aim of the document published by the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy and the Danish Energy Agency is that it should form the basis for a broad public debate on the country`s future energy policy. The report has four main objectives: 1. To describe, with emphasis on the environment and the market, challenges that the energy sector will have to face in the future. 2. To illustrate the potentials for saving energy and for utilising energy sources and supply systems. 3. To present two scenarios of extreme developmental positions; the first where maximum effort is expended on increasing energy efficiency and the utilization of renewable energy and the second where no new initiative is taken and change occurs only when progress in available technology is exploited and 4. To raise a number of questions about our future way of living. Following the extensive summary, detailed information is given under the headings of: Challenges of the energy sector, Energy consumption and conservation, Energy consumption in the transport sector, Energy resources, Energy supply and production, Development scenario, and Elements of Strategy. The text is illustrated with maps, graphs and coloured photographs etc. (AB)

  8. Future waste treatment and energy systems – examples of joint scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Münster, M.; Finnveden, G.; Wenzel, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Approach for use of scenarios dealing with both waste management and energy issues. • Overall scenarios for the common project and sub-scenarios in parts of the project. • Combining different types of scenarios to the tools of different disciplines. • Use of explorative external scenarios based on marginals for consequential LCA. - Abstract: Development and use of scenarios for large interdisciplinary projects is a complicated task. This article provides practical examples of how it has been carried out in two projects addressing waste management and energy issues respectively. Based on experiences from the two projects, recommendations are made for an approach concerning development of scenarios in projects dealing with both waste management and energy issues. Recommendations are given to develop and use overall scenarios for the project and leave room for sub-scenarios in parts of the project. Combining different types of scenarios is recommended, too, in order to adapt to the methods and tools of different disciplines, such as developing predictive scenarios with general equilibrium tools and analysing explorative scenarios with energy system analysis tools. Furthermore, as marginals identified in differing future background systems determine the outcomes of consequential life cycle assessments (LCAs), it is considered advisable to develop and use explorative external scenarios based on possible marginals as a framework for consequential LCAs. This approach is illustrated using an on-going Danish research project

  9. Future energy perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Christensen, J.M. [Risoe National Lab., Systems Analysis Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2002-10-01

    Future energy perspectives: 1) The global energy consumption will continue to grow primarily in developing countries, their share of global energy consumption will grow from approx. 35% in 1990 to 60% in 2050. 2) Policy focus will be primarily on environmental concerns in the industrial countries and on energy for development and access to energy for the poor in developing countries. 3) With global climate concerns and the implementation of the Kyoto protocol, global environment issues will have increased prominence in energy sector priorities. 4) Fossil fuel resources are on a global level still abundant and prices are expected to be relatively low in the short to medium term. 5) Energy supply security has for geopolitical reasons become an increasing concern especially in the US and the EU. 6) Significant investments are required to ensure development of new clean energy technologies for introduction in the medium to long term. 7) Market reforms are being implemented in almost all regions of the world changing both the investment and policy regimes. 8) International studies (IPCC and WEC) have analysed several alternative energy scenarios Alternative policies and priorities can lead to a wide range of different energy futures. 9) WEC middle scenario B, from 1990 to 2050; predicts growth in GDP 3.5 times and primary energy consumption 2.2 times and CO{sub 2} 1.5 times. This scenario is expecting supply to be dominated by fossil fuel (80% in 1990 and still 65% in 2050), with high share of natural gas and nuclear with slow growth in renewable energy. 10) A more radical scenario (C1) is expecting renewable energy such as biomass, solar and wind to contribute 27% in 2050; declining oil and coal; increased use of natural gas and a minor contribution from nuclear. A development path like this require significant near-term investments in technology research and development. 11) The large increase in global energy demand in the next century will require large investments

  10. Future energy perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsnaes, K.; Christensen, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Future energy perspectives: 1) The global energy consumption will continue to grow primarily in developing countries, their share of global energy consumption will grow from approx. 35% in 1990 to 60% in 2050. 2) Policy focus will be primarily on environmental concerns in the industrial countries and on energy for development and access to energy for the poor in developing countries. 3) With global climate concerns and the implementation of the Kyoto protocol, global environment issues will have increased prominence in energy sector priorities. 4) Fossil fuel resources are on a global level still abundant and prices are expected to be relatively low in the short to medium term. 5) Energy supply security has for geopolitical reasons become an increasing concern especially in the US and the EU. 6) Significant investments are required to ensure development of new clean energy technologies for introduction in the medium to long term. 7) Market reforms are being implemented in almost all regions of the world changing both the investment and policy regimes. 8) International studies (IPCC and WEC) have analysed several alternative energy scenarios Alternative policies and priorities can lead to a wide range of different energy futures. 9) WEC middle scenario B, from 1990 to 2050; predicts growth in GDP 3.5 times and primary energy consumption 2.2 times and CO 2 1.5 times. This scenario is expecting supply to be dominated by fossil fuel (80% in 1990 and still 65% in 2050), with high share of natural gas and nuclear with slow growth in renewable energy. 10) A more radical scenario (C1) is expecting renewable energy such as biomass, solar and wind to contribute 27% in 2050; declining oil and coal; increased use of natural gas and a minor contribution from nuclear. A development path like this require significant near-term investments in technology research and development. 11) The large increase in global energy demand in the next century will require large investments. The

  11. Stand-alone power systems for the future: Optimal design, operation and control of solar-hydrogen energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulleberg, Oeystein

    1999-12-31

    This thesis gives a systematic review of the fundamentals of energy systems, the governing physical and chemical laws related to energy, inherent characteristics of energy system, and the availability of the earth`s energy. It shows clearly why solar-hydrogen systems are one of the most viable options for the future. The main subject discussed is the modelling of SAPS (Stand-Alone Power Systems), with focus on photovoltaic-hydrogen energy systems. Simulation models for a transient simulation program are developed for PV-H{sub 2} components, including models for photovoltaics, water electrolysis, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, and secondary batteries. A PV-H{sub 2} demonstration plant in Juelich, Germany, is studied as a reference plant and the models validated against data from this plant. Most of the models developed were found to be sufficiently accurate to perform short-term system simulations, while all were more than accurate enough to perform long-term simulations. Finally, the verified simulation models are used to find the optimal operation and control strategies of an existing PV-H{sub 2} system. The main conclusion is that the simulation methods can be successfully used to find optimal operation and control strategies for a system with fixed design, and similar methods could be used to find alternative system designs. 148 refs., 78 figs., 31 tabs.

  12. Stand-alone power systems for the future: Optimal design, operation and control of solar-hydrogen energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulleberg, Oeystein

    1998-12-31

    This thesis gives a systematic review of the fundamentals of energy systems, the governing physical and chemical laws related to energy, inherent characteristics of energy system, and the availability of the earth`s energy. It shows clearly why solar-hydrogen systems are one of the most viable options for the future. The main subject discussed is the modelling of SAPS (Stand-Alone Power Systems), with focus on photovoltaic-hydrogen energy systems. Simulation models for a transient simulation program are developed for PV-H{sub 2} components, including models for photovoltaics, water electrolysis, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, and secondary batteries. A PV-H{sub 2} demonstration plant in Juelich, Germany, is studied as a reference plant and the models validated against data from this plant. Most of the models developed were found to be sufficiently accurate to perform short-term system simulations, while all were more than accurate enough to perform long-term simulations. Finally, the verified simulation models are used to find the optimal operation and control strategies of an existing PV-H{sub 2} system. The main conclusion is that the simulation methods can be successfully used to find optimal operation and control strategies for a system with fixed design, and similar methods could be used to find alternative system designs. 148 refs., 78 figs., 31 tabs.

  13. Decentralised energy supply as our future energy supply system? - An interview with Prof. Alexander Wokaun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    In this interview with Professor Alexander Wokaun, head of General Energy Research at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Villigen, Switzerland, the decentralised use of small, gas-fired combined heat and power (CHP) units is discussed as a means of meeting Switzerland's Kyoto CO 2 commitments. The question on which of several new CHP technologies such as gas-fired engines and turbines, Stirling engines, fuel cells and thermo-photovoltaics will win the race is discussed. The efficiency and application areas of CHP technologies are examined and the problems involved when controlling complex electricity grids with many small decentrally placed generating facilities is discussed. Finally, Professor Wokaun is asked for his opinion on what the Swiss power mix will look like in 20 years

  14. The Energy Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John; Bonino, Christopher A; Trainham, James A

    2018-06-07

    The foreseeable energy future will be driven by economics of known technologies and the desire to reduce CO 2 emissions to the atmosphere. Renewable energy options are compared with each other and with the use of fossil fuels with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). Economic analysis is used to determine the best of several alternatives. One can disagree on the detailed costs, including externalities such as climate change and air and water pollution. But the differences in capital and operating costs between known technologies are so significant that one can draw clear conclusions. Results show that renewable energy cannot compete with fossil fuels on a cost basis alone because energy is intrinsic to the molecule, except for hydroelectricity. However, fossil fuels are implicated in climate change. Using renewable energy exclusively, including transportation and electricity needs, could reduce the standard of living in the United States by 43% to 62%, which would correspond to the level in about 1970. If capture and sequester of CO 2 are implemented, the cost of using fossil fuels will increase, but they beat renewable energy handily as an economic way to produce clean energy.

  15. Efficient district heating in the future energy system. Final report; Effektiv fjernvarme i fremtidens energisystem. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this project is to illustrate how district heating can develop its role in the future Danish energy system, for example by reducing energy losses and the dynamic use of common technologies such as cogeneration and heat storage, and less widespread technologies such as heat pumps, geothermal heating, and cooling. The aim is also to analyse how electricity and district heating can interact more effectively, and to point out how framework conditions are important for district heating's continued development and efficiency. In the project, a linear optimization model is developed and applied as to analyse the interaction between district heating supply on the one hand, and energy savings, CO{sub 2} targets, wind power and the international electricity market on the other hand. Furthermore, more close-case operational analyses of district heating systems have been made in Ringkoebing and the metropolitan area, based on data from the district heating companies. Finally, a wide range of challenges for district heating in the long term were discussed and analysed during meetings with the project's reference group, including the need for development and demonstration projects. (ln)

  16. A multi evaporator desalination system operated with thermocline energy for future sustainability

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Burhan, Muhammad; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Ng, Kim Choon

    2017-01-01

    ) of desalination is at 828. Despite slightly better UPRs for the RO plants, all practical desalination plants available, hitherto, operate at only less than 12% of the TL, rendering them highly energy intensive and unsustainable for future sustainability. More

  17. The study on the role of very high temperature reactor and nuclear process heat utilization in future energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasukawa, Shigeru; Mankin, Shuichi; Sato, Osamu; Tadokoro, Yoshihiro; Nakano, Yasuyuki; Nagano, Takao; Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Ueno, Seiichi.

    1987-11-01

    The objectives of the systems analysis study on ''The Role of High Temperature Nuclear Heat in Future Energy Systems'' under the cooperative research program between Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are to analyze the effect and the impact of introduction of high temperature nuclear heat in Japanese long-term energy systems aiming at zero environmental emissions from view points of energy supply/demand, economy progress, and environmental protection, and to show the potentials of involved technologies and to extract the associated problems necessary for research and developments. This report describes the results being obtained in these three years from 1985. The present status of our energy system are explained at first, then, our findings concerning on analytical approach, method for analysis, view points to the future, scenario state space, reference energy systems, evolving technologies in it, and results analyzed are described. (author)

  18. Distributed Energy Systems in California's Future: A Preliminary Report Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balderston, F.; Blatman, P.; Bradshaw, T.; Brown, P.; Carroll, O.; Christensen, M.; Craig, P.; Finnegan, S.; Glassey, R.; Greene, B.; Groth, A.; Gruener, G.; Holdren, J.; Horovitz, M.; Hoos, I.; Kahn, E.; Kanin, J.; Klein, W.; LaPorte, T.; Lucarelli, B.; McGuire, B.; Mintzer, I.; Moyer, G.; Nader, L.; Nathans, R.; Palacio, J.; Pollock, P.; Rich, C.; Rochlin, G.; Rosow, G.; Rubin, B.; Schutz, H.; Simmons, M.; Smith, P.; Tourinho, O.; Twiss, R.; Vine, E.; Wilson, N.

    1977-09-01

    The construction and use of energy technologies produce environmental and social consequences that are neither desired nor, for the most part, incorporated in the economic costs charged for the energy supplied. Although it is now essentially universally recognized that these 'externalities' or (broadly defined) 'social costs' must somehow be taken into account in the processes by which society chooses among alternative energy options, it is less widely appreciated that these costs - not resource limits or narrow economics - actually define the energy dilemma in the long term. It is important to try to make clear at the outset why this is so. The energy problem resides fundamentally in the fact that the relation between energy and well-being is two-sided. The application of energy as a productive input to the economy, yielding desired goods and services, contributes to well-being; the environmental and social costs of getting and using energy subtract from it. At some level of energy use, and for a given mix of technologies of energy supply, further increases in energy supply will produce incremental social and environmental costs greater than the incremental economic benefits - that is, growth begins to do more harm than good (Holdren, 1977; Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems, 1977). This level can be said to define a rational 'limit to growth', as distinct from a strictly physical one. That such a level, beyond which energy growth no longer pays, exists in principle for any mix of technologies of supply and end-use is easily shown from basic economics and physical science; predicting its magnitude exactly is much harder, the more so because social costs even less quantifiable than environmental ones may dominate. Lovins (1976, 1977) evidently believes that the United States is already near or beyond the point, given the 'hard' energy technologies on which it relies, where further growth hurts more than it

  19. Energy future 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syri, S; Kainiemi, L; Riikonen, V [Aalto Univ. School of Engineering, Espoo (Finland). Dept. of Energy Technology

    2011-07-01

    The track was organized by the Department of Energy Technology, School of Engineering, at Aalto University. Energy future 2050 -track introduced participants to the global long-term challenges of achieving a sustainable energy supply. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), effective climate change mitigation would require the global greenhouse gas emissions to be reduced by 50-85% from the present level by 2050. For industrialized countries, this would probably mean a practically carbon-neutral economy and energy supply, as developing countries need more possibilities for growth and probably enter stricter emission reduction commitments with some delay. In the beginning of the workshop, students were introduced to global energy scenarios and the challenge of climate change mitigation. Students worked in three groups with the following topics: How to gain public acceptance of Carbon (dioxide) Capture and Storage (CCS) ? Personal emissions trading as a tool to achieve deep emission cuts, How to get rid of fossil fuel subsidies? Nordic cases are peat use in Finland and Sweden. (orig.)

  20. Securing India's energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghuraman, V.

    2009-01-01

    India's development aspirations are challenged by energy security and climate change considerations. The integrated energy policy clearly deliberates the need to intensify all energy options with emphasis on maximizing indigenous coal production, harnessing hydropower, increasing adoption of renewables, intensifying hydrocarbon exploration and production and anchoring nuclear power development to meet the long-term requirements. The report also emphasizes the need to secure overseas hydrocarbon and coal assets. Subsequently the National Action Plan on climate change has underscored the need to wean away from fossil fuels, the ambitious National Solar Mission is a case in point. Ultimately securing India's energy future lies in clean coal, safe nuclear and innovative solar. Coal is the key energy option in the foreseeable future. Initiatives are needed to take lead role in clean coal technologies, in-situ coal gasification, tapping coal bed methane, coal to liquids and coal to gas technologies. There is need to intensify oil exploration by laying the road-map to open acreage to unlock the hydrocarbon potential. Pursue alternate routes based on shale, methane from marginal fields. Effectively to use oil diplomacy to secure and diversify sources of supply including trans-national pipelines and engage with friendly countries to augment strategic resources. Technologies to be accessed and developed with international co-operation and financial assistance. Public-Private Partnerships, in collaborative R and D projects need to be accelerated. Nuclear share of electricity generation capacity to be increased 6 to 7% of 63000 MW by 2031-32 and further to 25% (300000 MW) capacity by 2050 is to be realized by operationalizing the country's thorium programme. Nuclear renaissance has opened up opportunities for the Indian industry to meet not only India's requirements but also participate in the global nuclear commerce; India has the potential to emerge as a manufacturing hub

  1. EASETECH Energy: Life Cycle Assessment of current and future Danish power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; Damgaard, Anders; Bisinella, Valentina

    A new life cycle assessment (LCA) model software has been developed by DTU Environment, to facilitate detailed LCA of energy technologies. The model, EASETECH Energy, is dedicated to the specific technologies needed to assess energy production and energy systems and provides an unprecedented...

  2. Role of LNG in an optimized hybrid energy network : part I. Increased operational flexibility for the future energy system by integration of decentralized LNG regasification with a CHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya Cardona, Juliana; de Rooij, Marietta; Dam, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    The future energy system could benefit from the integration of the independent gas, heat and electricity infrastructures. In addition to an increase in exergy efficiency, such a Hybrid Energy Network (HEN) could support the increase of intermittent renewable energy sources by offering increased

  3. Energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, W.

    1974-01-01

    Up to the present the production, transmission and distribution of energy has been considered mostly as a fragmented problem; at best only subsystems have been considered. Today the scale of energy utilization is increasing rapidly, and correspondingly, the reliance of societies on energy. Such strong quantitative increases influence the qualitative nature of energy utilization in most of its aspects. Resources, reserves, reliability and environment are among the key words that may characterize the change in the nature of the energy utilization problem. Energy can no longer be considered an isolated technical and economical problem, rather it is embedded in the ecosphere and the society-technology complex. Restraints and boundary conditions have to be taken into account with the same degree of attention as in traditional technical problems, for example a steam turbine. This results in a strong degree of interweaving. Further, the purpose of providing energy becomes more visible, that is, to make survival possible in a civilized and highly populated world on a finite globe. Because of such interweaving and finiteness it is felt that energy should be considered as a system and therefore the term 'energy systems' is used. The production of energy is only one component of such a system; the handling of energy and the embedding of energy into the global and social complex in terms of ecology, economy, risks and resources are of similar importance. he systems approach to the energy problem needs more explanation. This paper is meant to give an outline of the underlying problems and it is hoped that by so doing the wide range of sometimes confusing voices about energy can be better understood. Such confusion starts already with the term 'energy crisis'. Is there an energy crisis or not? Much future work is required to tackle the problems of energy systems. This paper can only marginally help in that respect. But it is hoped that it will help understand the scope of the

  4. Energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haefele, W [Nuclear Research Centre, Applied Systems Analysis and Reactor Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany); International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)

    1974-07-01

    Up to the present the production, transmission and distribution of energy has been considered mostly as a fragmented problem; at best only subsystems have been considered. Today the scale of energy utilization is increasing rapidly, and correspondingly, the reliance of societies on energy. Such strong quantitative increases influence the qualitative nature of energy utilization in most of its aspects. Resources, reserves, reliability and environment are among the key words that may characterize the change in the nature of the energy utilization problem. Energy can no longer be considered an isolated technical and economical problem, rather it is embedded in the ecosphere and the society-technology complex. Restraints and boundary conditions have to be taken into account with the same degree of attention as in traditional technical problems, for example a steam turbine. This results in a strong degree of interweaving. Further, the purpose of providing energy becomes more visible, that is, to make survival possible in a civilized and highly populated world on a finite globe. Because of such interweaving and finiteness it is felt that energy should be considered as a system and therefore the term 'energy systems' is used. The production of energy is only one component of such a system; the handling of energy and the embedding of energy into the global and social complex in terms of ecology, economy, risks and resources are of similar importance. he systems approach to the energy problem needs more explanation. This paper is meant to give an outline of the underlying problems and it is hoped that by so doing the wide range of sometimes confusing voices about energy can be better understood. Such confusion starts already with the term 'energy crisis'. Is there an energy crisis or not? Much future work is required to tackle the problems of energy systems. This paper can only marginally help in that respect. But it is hoped that it will help understand the scope of the

  5. The study on the role of very high temperature reactor and nuclear process heat utilization in future energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasukawa, Sigeru; Mankin, Shuichi; Tadokoro, Yoshihiro; Sato, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Ueno, Seiichi

    1986-11-01

    This report describes the analytical results being made in the study on the role of Very High Temperature Reactor and nuclear process heat utilization in future energy system, which is aimed at zero emission. In the former part of the report, the modeling of the reference energy system, main characteristics of energy technologies, and scenario indicators as well as system behavioral objectives for optimization are explained. In the latter part, analytical results such as the time-period variation of overall energy utilization efficiency, energy supply/demand structure in long-terms, energy contribution and economic competition of new energy technologies, environmental effluents released through verious energy activities, impacts to and from national economy, and some sensitivity analyses, are reviewed. (author)

  6. Maturity effects in energy futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serletis, Apostolos (Calgary Univ., AB (CA). Dept. of Economics)

    1992-04-01

    This paper examines the effects of maturity on future price volatility and trading volume for 129 energy futures contracts recently traded in the NYMEX. The results provide support for the maturity effect hypothesis, that is, energy futures prices to become more volatile and trading volume increases as futures contracts approach maturity. (author).

  7. Energy Comes Together in Denmark: The Key to a Future Fossil-Free Danish Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meibom, Peter; Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Madsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The transition of the Danish energy system to a system based only on renewable energy in 2050 carries many challenges. For Denmark to become independent of fossil energy sources, wind power and biomass are expected to become the main sources of energy. Onshore and offshore wind farms are expected...... to provide the majority of electricity, and biomass and electricity are expected to become the major sources of heating. On the way toward the 100% renewable goal in 2050, the Danish government has proposed a 2035 midterm goal to cover the energy consumption for power and heat with renewables....

  8. Toward an energy surety future.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatro, Marjorie L.; Jones, Scott A.; Covan, John Morgan; Kuswa, Glenn W.; Menicucci, David F.; Robinett, Rush D. III (.; )

    2005-10-01

    Because of the inevitable depletion of fossil fuels and the corresponding release of carbon to the environment, the global energy future is complex. Some of the consequences may be politically and economically disruptive, and expensive to remedy. For the next several centuries, fuel requirements will increase with population, land use, and ecosystem degradation. Current or projected levels of aggregated energy resource use will not sustain civilization as we know it beyond a few more generations. At the same time, issues of energy security, reliability, sustainability, recoverability, and safety need attention. We supply a top-down, qualitative model--the surety model--to balance expenditures of limited resources to assure success while at the same time avoiding catastrophic failure. Looking at U.S. energy challenges from a surety perspective offers new insights on possible strategies for developing solutions to challenges. The energy surety model with its focus on the attributes of security and sustainability could be extrapolated into a global energy system using a more comprehensive energy surety model than that used here. In fact, the success of the energy surety strategy ultimately requires a more global perspective. We use a 200 year time frame for sustainability because extending farther into the future would almost certainly miss the advent and perfection of new technologies or changing needs of society.

  9. Crafting our energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Schagen, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The new Asia-Pacific Greenhouse Agreement offers Australia a great opportunity to take full advantage of both its brains and its energy resources. The energy debate is often, simplistically, characterised as coal versus nuclear, or non-renewables versus renewables. In reality we will need a mix of energy sources to power our economy, cleanly, into the future. The issues are cost, environmental protection, national security, skills and security of energy supply. If we wish our economy to continue growing at present rates, we will need 50 per cent more energy in 2030 than we use today - and it is not too soon to start planning how we will produce it. We have around 500 years' supply of coal resources at present rates of usage. Power generation from coal is capable of achieving zero, or near zero, carbon emissions using technologies such as oxy-fuel combustion or IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle). In both, C0 2 can be captured and stored underground. The greenhouse debate has revived interest in nuclear power generation. The cost of generating electricity with nuclear is similar to clean coal. However, we would have to start a nuclear power industry from a very small base, buying costly generation plant and training or importing an entire, highly-skilled workforce, in competition with other countries. Waste disposal is an issue for both coal and nuclear. For coal, the main option is carbon capture and its storage in deep saline aquifers. This technology is well understood and widely used by the oil and gas industry but we have to determine the most suitable places and techniques, and we have to build the infrastructure. Nuclear waste storage is also well-understood. Which technology we choose depends on an evaluation of both short and long term risks for the community and environment. One thing that Australia must get right is the economics. The wrong decision will cost us jobs, if not entire industries and regions. While renewables like solar and wind are

  10. Comparison of strategies for model predictive control for home heating in future energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogler-Finck, Pierre Jacques Camille; Popovski, Petar; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2017-01-01

    Model predictive control is seen as one of the key future enabler in increasing energy efficiency in buildings. This paper presents a comparison of the performance of the control for different formulations of the objective function. This comparison is made in a simulation study on a single buildi...

  11. Ab-sorption machines for heating and cooling in future energy systems - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tozer, R.; Gustafsson, M.

    2000-12-15

    After the Executive Summary and a brief introductory chapter, Chapter 2, Sorption Technologies for Heating and Cooling in Future Energy Systems, reviews the main types of sorption systems. Chapter 3, Market Segmentation, then considers the major segments of the market including residential, commercial/institutional and industrial, and the types of sorption hardware most suitable to each. The highly important residential and commercial/institutional markets are mostly concerned with air-conditioning of buildings. More applications are identified and discussed for the industrial market, including refrigeration, food-storage cooling, process cooling, and process heating at various temperature ranges from hot water for hand-washing to high-temperature (greater than 130C). Other interesting industrial applications are absorption cooling or heating combined with co-generation, desiccant cooling, gas turbine inlet air cooling, combining absorption chillers with district heating systems, direct-fired absorption heat pumps (AHPs), and a closed greenhouse concept being developed for that economically important sector in the Netherlands. Most of the sorption market at this time comprises direct-fired absorption chillers, or hot water or steam absorption chillers indirectly driven by direct-fired boilers. Throughout the report, this category of absorption chillers is referred to generically as 'direct-fired'. In addition, this report covers absorption (reversible) heat pumps, absorption heat transformers, compression-absorption heat pumps, and adsorption chillers and heat pumps. Adsorption systems together with desiccant systems are also addressed. Chapter 4, Factors Affecting the Market, considers economic, environmental and policy issues. The geographical make-up of the world sorption market is then reviewed, followed by a number of practical operating and control considerations. These include vacuum requirements, crystallisation, corrosion, maintenance, health and

  12. Contemplating future energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pooley, D.

    2005-01-01

    All political parties in the UK accept that we should move away from our reliance on fossil fuels towards a much greater use of alternative energy technologies. Nuclear power is one of these but finds minimal support in the political spectrum. The article reviews the European Commission's Advisory Group on Energy submission to the EC's report entitled 'Key Tasks for European Energy R and D'. The 'strength and weaknesses' of the various 'alternative energy' systems (including nuclear power) are summarised and then the key R and D tasks which, if they are carried out successfully, should make the eight selected technologies significantly more attractive. However, the message here is clear enough: there are no easy options, only a range of very imperfect possibilities, despite what enthusiastic proponents of each may say. Nuclear fission is certainly one of the most attractive options available, but the industry needs to continue to strive to eliminate the possibility of significant off-site releases, whether caused by plant failure or by human error or intention, and to prove beyond reasonable doubt the safety of high-level radioactive waste disposal. (author)

  13. Nuclear energy in our future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennies, H.H.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear energy for electricity generation will extend its market portion in Europe in the coming decades because: 1) its economic and/or environment-relevant advantages compared with the fossil energy sources are so explicit that the latter will no longer be competitive; 2) the improvements of the system engineering, which are presently being implemented and are to be expected in the future, will enhance the safety facilities to the extent that accident risk will cease to be a decisive factor; 3) energy-saving effects or the use of solar energy will not provide an appropriate large scale alternative for coal and/or nuclear energy; 4) the problems of radioactive waste disposal will be definitely solved within the foreseeable future. Considering all the technological systems available the light water reactor will continue to dominate. The change to the breeder reactor is not yet under discussion because of the medium-term guaranteed uranium supply. The use of nuclear technology in the heating market will depend for the moment on the availability and cost of oil and gas development. In principle nuclear energy can play an important role also in this sector

  14. A Tale of Three District Energy Systems: Metrics and Future Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pass, Rebecca Zarin; Wetter, Michael; Piette, Mary Ann

    2017-08-01

    Improving the sustainability of cities is crucial for meeting climate goals in the next several decades. One way this is being tackled is through innovation in district energy systems, which can take advantage of local resources and economies of scale to improve the performance of whole neighborhoods in ways infeasible for individual buildings. These systems vary in physical size, end use services, primary energy resources, and sophistication of control. They also vary enormously in their choice of optimization metrics while all under the umbrella-goal of improved sustainability. This paper explores the implications of choice of metric on district energy systems using three case studies: Stanford University, the University of California at Merced, and the Richmond Bay campus of the University of California at Berkeley. They each have a centralized authority to implement large-scale projects quickly, while maintaining data records, which makes them relatively effective at achieving their respective goals. Comparing the systems using several common energy metrics reveals significant differences in relative system merit. Additionally, a novel bidirectional heating and cooling system is presented. This system is highly energy-efficient, and while more analysis is required, may be the basis of the next generation of district energy systems.

  15. Future of nuclear energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuketa, Toyojiro

    1989-09-01

    In spite of the easing of worldwide energy supply and demand situation in these years, we believe that research efforts towards the next generation nuclear energy are indispensably necessary. Firstly, the nuclear colleagues believe that nuclear energy is the best major energy source from many points of view including the global environmental viewpoint. Secondly, in the medium- and long-range view, there will once again be a high possibility of a tight supply and demand situation for oil. Thirdly, nuclear energy is the key energy source to overcome the vulnerability of the energy supply structure in industrialized countries like Japan where virtually no fossil energy source exists. In this situation, nuclear energy is a sort of quasi-domestic energy as a technology-intensive energy. Fourthly, the intensive efforts to develop the nuclear technology in the next generation will give rise to a further evolution in science and technology in the future. A few examples of medium- and long-range goals of the nuclear energy research are development of new types of reactors which can meet various needs of energy more flexibly and reliably than the existing reactors, fundamental and ultimate solution of the radioactive waste problems, creation and development of new types of energy production systems which are to come beyond the fusion, new development in the biological risk assessment of the radiation effects and so on. In order to accomplish those goals it is quite important to introduce innovations in such underlying technologies as materials control in more microscopic manners, photon and particle beam techniques, accelerator engineering, artificial intelligence, and so on. 32 refs, 2 figs

  16. H2 at Scale: Benefitting our Future Energy System - Update for the Hydrogen Technical Advisory Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark

    2016-12-06

    Hydrogen is a flexible, clean energy carrying intermediate that enables aggressive market penetration of renewables while deeply decarbonizing our energy system. H2 at Scale is a concept that supports the electricity grid by utilizing energy without other demands at any given time and also supports transportation and industry by providing low-priced hydrogen to them. This presentation is an update to the Hydrogen Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC).

  17. Lowering district heating temperatures – Impact to system performance in current and future Danish energy scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    CHP (Combined heat and power) production in connection with DH (district heating) systems has previously demonstrated a significant reduction in primary energy consumption. With extended installation of intermittent sustainable sources, such as eg. wind turbines rather than thermal units, the cha......CHP (Combined heat and power) production in connection with DH (district heating) systems has previously demonstrated a significant reduction in primary energy consumption. With extended installation of intermittent sustainable sources, such as eg. wind turbines rather than thermal units...

  18. Energy for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, A.L.; Metz, W.D.; Maygh, T.H.II.

    1975-01-01

    A review of the most important conceivable possibilities today of producing and converting energy is given. Furthermore, the energy transfer as well as possibilities for the economical use of energy are dealt with. A presentation of the research priorities characterizes the present state of the energy policy

  19. Socially responsible energy futures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr, C.

    1979-01-01

    After examining briefly the usual positions of nuclear critics and nuclear proponents, Dr. Starr says that the proponents (of whom he is one) have a broader case for nuclear power not thus far effectively advanced - a case based chiefly on a visible concern with social values and the future welfare of humanity. Such a broader case for nuclear power has always existed - a case based on motivations that initially spurred development of this energy resource over the past several decades, but one that has tended to be neglected in the public debate. A concern to avoid worldwide catastrophe is central to this broader case for nuclear power. The threat is perceived as resulting directly from the pending unavailability of petroleum and natural gas at a reasonable cost. This unavailability could lead to global tensions and political instabilities, economic crises, and, ultimately, to military conflicts based on need to obtain and control liquid-fuel resources. It is felt that past history and current events substantiate the threat inherent in the international struggle for raw materials. The broader - and more compelling - case for nuclear power lies in its potential for removing a major threat to the peace, stability, and welfare of the world that is inherent in the growing scarcity of petroleum and natural gas resources and in the limited geographical availability of coal. The catastrophe that could be avoided is at least as threatening as the one projected by those who oppose the use of nuclear power, and, Dr. Starr argues, more realistic in its potential for world-shattering impacts

  20. Power Electronics – Key Technology for Renewable Energy Systems – Status and Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Yang, Yongheng; Ma, Ke

    2013-01-01

    play an essential role. Using highly efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/ distribution and end-user application, together with advanced control solutions, can pave the way for renewable energies. In view of this, some of the most emerging renewable energies, e.g. wind......The energy paradigms in many countries (e.g. Germany and Denmark) have experienced a significant change from fossil-based resources to clean renewables in the past few decades. The scenario of highly penetrated renewables is going to be further enhanced. This requires that the production......, distribution and use of the energy should be as technological efficient as possible and incentives to save energy at the end-user should also be streng-thened. In order to realize the transition smoothly and effectively, energy conversion systems, currently based on power electronics technology, will again...

  1. ASAS centennial paper: net energy systems for beef cattle--concepts, application, and future models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, C L; Oltjen, J W

    2008-10-01

    Development of nutritional energetics can be traced to the 1400s. Lavoisier established relationships among O(2) use, CO(2) production and heat production in the late 1700s, and the laws of thermodynamics and law of Hess were discovered during the 1840s. Those discoveries established the fundamental bases for nutritional energetics and enabled the fundamental entity ME = retained energy + heat energy to be established. Objectives became: 1) to establish relationships between gas exchange and heat energy, 2) to devise bases for evaluation of foods that could be related to energy expenditures, and 3) to establish causes of energy expenditures. From these endeavors, the basic concepts of energy partitioning by animals were developed, ultimately resulting in the development of feeding systems based on NE concepts. The California Net Energy System, developed for finishing beef cattle, was the first to be based on retained energy as determined by comparative slaughter and the first to use 2 NE values (NE(m) and NE(g)) to describe feed and animal requirements. The system has been broadened conceptually to encompass life cycle energy requirements of beef cattle and modified by the inclusion of numerous adjustments to address factors known to affect energy requirements and value of feed to meet those needs. The current NE system remains useful but is empirical and static in nature and thus fails to capture the dynamics of energy utilization by diverse animals as they respond to changing environmental conditions. Consequently, efforts were initiated to develop dynamic simulation models that captured the underlying biology and thus were sensitive to variable genetic and environmental conditions. Development of a series of models has been described to show examples of the conceptual evolution of dynamic, mechanistic models and their applications. Generally with each new system, advances in prediction accuracy came about by adding new terms to conceptually validated models

  2. Intelligent Energy Management System for PV-Battery-based Microgrids in Future DC Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, R. K.; Rajpurohit, B. S.; Gonzalez-Longatt, F. M.; Singh, S. N.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a novel intelligent energy management system (IEMS) for a DC microgrid connected to the public utility (PU), photovoltaic (PV) and multi-battery bank (BB). The control objectives of the proposed IEMS system are: (i) to ensure the load sharing (according to the source capacity) among sources, (ii) to reduce the power loss (high efficient) in the system, and (iii) to enhance the system reliability and power quality. The proposed IEMS is novel because it follows the ideal characteristics of the battery (with some assumptions) for the power sharing and the selection of the closest source to minimize the power losses. The IEMS allows continuous and accurate monitoring with intelligent control of distribution system operations such as battery bank energy storage (BBES) system, PV system and customer utilization of electric power. The proposed IEMS gives the better operational performance for operating conditions in terms of load sharing, loss minimization, and reliability enhancement of the DC microgrid.

  3. A new option for exploitage of future nuclear energy. Accelerator driven radioactive clean nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Dazhao

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear energy is an effective, clean and safe energy resource. But some shortages of the nuclear energy system presently commercial available obstruct further development of the nuclear energy by heavy nuclear fission. Those are final disposal of the high level radioactive waste, inefficient use of the uranium resource and safety issue of the system. Innovative technical option is seeking for by the nuclear scientific community in recent ten years in aiming to overcome these obstacles, namely, accelerator driven sub-critical system (ADS). This hybrid system may bridge over the gap between presently commercial available nuclear power system and the full exploitation of the fusion energy. The basic principle of ADS is described and its capability in waste transmutation, conversion of the nuclear fuel are demonstrated by two examples--AD-fast reactor and AD-heavy water thermal reactor. The feasibility of ADS and some projects in US, Japan, etc are briefly discussed. The rationale in promoting the R and D of ADS in China is emphasized as China is at the beginning stage of its ambitious project in construction of the nuclear power

  4. The Future of Nuclear Energy As a Primary Source for Clean Hydrogen Energy System in Developing Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.; Shaaban, H.

    2007-01-01

    The limited availability of fossil fuels compared to the increasing demand and the connected environmental questions have become topics of growing importance and international attention. Many other clean alternative sources of energy are available, but most of them are either relatively undeveloped technologically or are not yet fully utilized. Also, there is a need for a medium which can carry the produced energy to the consumer in a convenient and environmentally acceptable way. In this study, a fission reactor as a primary energy source with hydrogen as an energy carrier is suggested. An assessment of hydrogen production from nuclear energy is presented. A complete nuclear-electro-hydrogen energy system is proposed for a medium size city (population of 500,000). The whole energy requirement is assessed including residential, industrial and transportation energies. A preliminary economical and environmental impact study is performed on the proposed system. The presented work could be used as a nucleus for a feasibility study for applying this system in any newly established city

  5. Challenges for future energy usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebhan, E.

    2009-01-01

    In the last 2000 years the world's population and the worldwide total energy consumption have been continuously increasing, at a rate even greater than exponential. By now a situation has been reached in which energy resources are running short, which for a long time have been treated as though they were almost inexhaustible. The ongoing growth of the world's population and a growing hunger for energy in underdeveloped and emerging countries imply that the yearly overall energy consumption will continue to grow, by about 1.6 percent every year so that it would have doubled by 2050. This massive energy consumption has led to and is progressively leading to severe changes in our environment and is threatening a climatic state that, for the last 10 000 years, has been unusually benign. The coincidence of the shortage of conventional energy resources with the hazards of an impending climate change is a dangerous threat to the well-being of all, but it is also a challenging opportunity for improvements in our energy usage. On a global scale, conventional methods such as the burning of coal, gas and oil or the use of nuclear fission will still dominate for some time. In their case, the challenge consists in making them more efficient and environmentally benign, and using them only where and when it is unavoidable. Alternative energies must be expanded and economically improved. Among these, promising techniques such as solar thermal and geothermal energy production should be promoted from a shadow existence and further advanced. New technologies, for instance nuclear fusion or transmutation of radioactive nuclear waste, are also quite promising. Finally, a careful analysis of the national and global energy flow systems and intelligent energy management, with emphasis on efficiency, overall effectiveness and sustainability, will acquire increasing importance. Thereby, economic viability, political and legal issues as well as moral aspects such as fairness to disadvantaged

  6. Optimal development of the future Danish energy system – insights from TIMES-DTU model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovic, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard; Balyk, Olexandr

    2015-01-01

    After a long period of transition, Danish energy system is half-way towards completely renewable in 2050. Drastic changes happened in the last forty years – the imported oil has been replaced by a mix of coal and natural gas, energy efficiency and conservation have been improved by extensive use...... of CHP-based district heating and heat saving measures. In the same period Denmark became well-known by integration and export of wind turbines. In line with the changes in the past, Denmark currently has very ambitious renewable energy targets, most ambitious being the 100 % renewable energy system......) WLP with the constraint that 50 % of electricity production should come from wind starting from 2020, and (iii) WLP-NFE scenario with the constraint that power and heat sector should be fossil fuel-free starting from 2035 and Denmark should be 100 % renewable starting from 2050. In all scenarios...

  7. Options Impacting the Electric System of the Future (ESF); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cory, Karlynn

    2015-08-10

    As utilities are faced with adapting to new technologies, technology and policy due diligence are necessary to ensure the development of a future grid that brings greater value to utilities and their consumers. This presentation explores the different kinds of future directions the power industry could consider to create, discussing key components necessary for success. It will also discuss the practical application and possible strategies for utilities and innovators to implement smart technologies that will enable an ultimate ‘intelligent’ grid capable of two-way communication, interoperability, and greater efficiency and system resiliency.

  8. Modelling tools to evaluate China's future energy system - a review of the Chinese perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischke, Peggy; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2014-01-01

    finds that there are considerable ranges in the reference scenarios: (i) GDP is projected to grow by 630e840% from 2010 to 2050, (ii) energy demand could increase by 200e300% from 2010 to 2050, and (iii) CO2 emissions could rise by 160e250% from 2010 to 2050. Although the access to the modelling tools...... compares 18 energy modelling tools from ten Chinese institutions. These models have been described in English language publications between 2005 and 2013, although not all are published in peer-reviewed journals. When comparing the results for three main energy system indicators across models, this paper...

  9. 17. Kassel symposium energy systems technology. Structures and grids for the future energy supply; 17. Kasseler Symposium Energie-Systemtechnik. Strukturen und Netze fuer die Energieversorgung von Morgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the 17th Kassel symposium from 11th to 12th October, 2012, in Kassel (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) E-Energy - the art of flexibilization between market and regulation (Michael Wedler); (2) The model region Harz (Florian Schloegl); (3) The role of IKT at the transformation of the energy supply - Chances for new business ideas (Arnold Picot); (4) Standardized connection of plants to IEC 61850 (Martin Winter); (5) Implementation of a IKT infrastructure for a virtual power plant in the model region Harz (Manuel Wickert); (6) OGEMA2.0 - Smart grid meets smart home (David Nestle); (7) Evaluation of the grid stability of a purely regenerative power supply (Kaspar Knorr); (8) Biogas plants and storage for the integration of renewable energies (Patrick Hochloff); (9) moma Architecture and functions in the intelligent energy system (Andreas Kiessling); (10) Power hub - showing the full potential of the VPP technology (Andreas Bjerre); (11) Implementation of electricity grids, heat grids and traffic grids - Potentials, requirements and efficiencies (Wolfram Wellssow); (12) Exploration of the regional distribution grid as a basis for the implementation of smart grids using the RegModHarz project as an example (Christian Roehrig); (13) New design and works management of distribution grids in decentralized supply structures (Martin Braun); (14) Advantages and challenges of the coupling of natural gas distribution systems and power distribution systems (Herbert Bauer); (15) Acceptance of renewable energies in the region Harz (Amelie Fechner); (16) Business models for a future 100 per cent supply of renewable energies (Peer Ritter).

  10. Economic Impacts of Future Changes in the Energy System - National Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glynn, James; Fortes, Patrícia; Krook-Riekkola, Anna

    2015-01-01

    climate change. This chapter summarises modelling methodologies developed in the ETSAP community to assess economic impacts of decarbonising energy systems at a national level. The preceding chapter focuses on a global perspective. The modelling studies outlined here show that burden sharing rules...... and national revenue recycling schemes for carbon tax are critical for the long-term viability of economic growth and equitable engagement on combating climate change. Traditional computable general equilibrium models and energy systems models solved in isolation can misrepresent the long run carbon cost...

  11. The future of energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lameiras, Fernando Soares

    1996-01-01

    Humanity will not face shortage of energy, but may face problems with its use, because every energy source has restrictions. Fossil fuels change the climate,nuclear energy increases the radioactivity and can be used to manufacture weapons, solar energy is very scattered, and geothermal energy is yet not well known. Delicate political issues emerge in this scenario. Due to the magnitude of energy used by many countries, isolated energy policies can disturb all planet. This may delay decisions and result in the lack of energy supply, hindering the development of many regions, or in conflict between countries. In this paper, some analyses and considerations are presented about the future of energy use, including some axiologic features. The role of nuclear energy is analysed, because, maybe, for the first time a energy source was target of axiologic issues that have affected the growth of its demand. These issues are yet to be internalized by other energy sources in the future. (author)

  12. Renewable Energies, Present & Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X. S. Cai

    2005-01-01

    Fossil fuels are major cause of environmental destruction in pollutions. It has created much needed momentum for renewable energies, which are environmentally benign, generated locally, and can play a significant role in developing economy. As a sustainable energy sources, it can grow at a rapid pace to meet increasing demands for electricity in a cost-effective way.

  13. Energy for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The history of electrical energy production in Ontario and the surge of energy needs; water, coal and nuclear power are discussed. A look at CRNL, NPD, Pickering A and Bruce B stations is presented. The fission process is explained as well

  14. The energy future to 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boy de la Tour, X.

    1999-01-01

    The energy future will continue for a long time to be dominated by fossil fuels, particularly oil and gas, which will still account for over half the energy supply in 202. Between now and then, the increasing share of the developing countries in he demand for energy will significantly alter energy geopolitics

  15. The energy system of Central and Eastern European Countries: what does the future hold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    1992-01-01

    The countries of Central and Eastern Europe have inherited an energy supply and demand system that was forged by centralized command planning and an administrative-type organization and management mode. The two strongest features of this landscape are without doubt the energy-intensive economic growth and over-investment in the energy sector, that is becoming more and more difficult to sustain in light of declining economic performance. In this context, one of the stakes in the economic transition and reforms is to push for new energy management on both the supply and demand sides. Although the objectives are clear, the ways and means of achieving them are less so, because they depend essentially on the broader economic reform options that are currently in the making

  16. Automated Energy Distribution and Reliability System: Validation Integration - Results of Future Architecture Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buche, D. L.

    2008-06-01

    This report describes Northern Indiana Public Service Co. project efforts to develop an automated energy distribution and reliability system. The purpose of this project was to implement a database-driven GIS solution that would manage all of the company's gas, electric, and landbase objects. This report is second in a series of reports detailing this effort.

  17. Energy systems and climate policy - Long-term scenarios for an uncertain future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, D.P. van

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis various forms of scenario analysis are discussed both to explore 1) how energy system and associated greenhouse gas emissions may develop in the absence of climate policy and 2) how strategies aimed at drastically reducing greenhouse gas emissions may turn out. As uncertainties

  18. The Future of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browne, John

    2006-01-01

    The idea of an energy crisis is fuelled by some legitimate concerns-security of supplies, climate change-and some groundless ones, be it the depletion of oil resources, the predatory nature of big oil companies, the link between energy prices and recession, or the role of the resources released by the producers. Many of these problems could be solved by a global market of increasing integration

  19. The impact of electric vehicles on the outlook of future energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, A.; Buzoverov, E.

    2018-02-01

    Active promotion of electric vehicles (EVs) and technology of fast EV charging in the medium term may cause significant peak loads on the energy system, what necessitates making strategic decisions related to the development of generating capacities, distribution networks with EV charging infrastructure, and priorities in the development of battery electric vehicles and vehicles with electrochemical generators. The paper analyses one of the most significant aspects of joint development of electric transport system and energy system in the conditions of substantial growth of energy consumption by EVs. The assessments of per-unit-costs of operation and depreciation of EV power unit were made, taking into consideration the expenses of electric power supply. The calculations show that the choice of electricity buffering method for EV fast charging depends on the character of electricity infrastructure in the region where the electric transport is operating. In the conditions of high density of electricity network and a large number of EVs, the stationary storage facilities or the technology of distributed energy storage in EV batteries - vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology may be used for buffering. In the conditions of low density and low capacity of electricity networks, the most economical solution could be usage of EVs with traction power units based on the combination of air-aluminum electrochemical generator and a buffer battery of small capacity.

  20. Design for reliability in power electronics in renewable energy systems – status and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke

    2013-01-01

    Advances in power electronics enable efficient and flexible interconnection of renewable sources, loads and electric grids. While targets concerning efficiency of power converters are within reach, recent research endeavors to predict and improve their reliability to ensure high availability, low...... maintenance costs, and herefore, low Levelized-Cost-of-Energy (LCOE) of renewable energy systems. This paper presents the prior-art Design for Reliability (DFR) process for power converters and addresses the paradigm shift to Physics-of-Failure (PoF) approach and mission profile based analysis. Moreover...

  1. What is the fast track to future energy systems with lower CO2 emissions? Main findings and recommendations from Workshop on Future Energy Systems, Technical University of Denmark, 19 - 20 November 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soenderberg Petersen, L.; Larsen, Hans (eds.)

    2009-04-15

    As part of the DTU Climate Change Technologies programme, DTU arranges a series of workshops and conferences on climate change technology focusing on assessment of and adaptation to climate changes as well as on mitigation of green house gasses (GHG). Each workshop target a specific problem area. This workshop focuses on the challenges for the future energy system from a Danish perspective as well as world wide with regard to both technology needs and policy measures with particular focus on identifying a fast track to energy systems with lower CO{sub 2} emissions. In the coming years, energy systems will be changed to consist of a combination of central units and smaller decentralized units - to a large extent based on renewable energy. At the same time there will be close links between the supply of energy and the individual end user of energy. These links will be based on extensive use of information and communication technology. This will allow end users to respond adequately to price signals and use the electricity for loading electric cars, laundry etc. while the electricity prices are low due to for example surplus of wind generated electricity. The workshop assessed the perspectives for a rapid development of energy systems with more renewable energy in order to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Furthermore, the workshop gives recommendations for the implementation of such energy systems. The recommendations are targeted at the research community, industry and public authorities. The recommendations include opportunities for synergy between the research community, the government and the energy industry as well as public authorities. This report presents summary and recommendations from the workshop. (au)

  2. Comparison of future energy scenarios for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Pil Seok; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2012-01-01

    Scenario-making is becoming an important tool in energy policy making and energy systems analyses. This article probes into the making of scenarios for Denmark by presenting a comparison of three future scenarios which narrate 100% renewable energy system for Denmark in 2050; IDA 2050, Climate...... Commission 2050, and CEESA (Coherent Energy and Environmental System Analysis). Generally, although with minor differences, the scenarios suggest the same technological solutions for the future such as expansion of biomass usage and wind power capacity, integration of transport sector into the other energy...

  3. Biomass energy: its important and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    The development of photo-biological energy conversion systems has long-term implication from the energy, wood fibre and chemical points etc. Power generation through biomass combustion and gasification has proved to be very successful venture. The energy needs of the people in the remote, rural and even urban areas of the country can be met economically by the energy from the renewable source such as biomass. The biomass energy is full of opportunities, and future trends are emerging towards renewable energy

  4. Nuclear energy - the future climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ash, Eric Sir

    2000-01-01

    In June 1999, a report entitled Nuclear Energy-The Future Climate was published and was the result of a collaboration between the Royal Society and the Royal Academy of Engineering. The report was the work of a group of nine people, made up of scientists, engineers and an economist, whose purpose was to attempt a new and objective look at the total energy scene and specifically the future role of nuclear energy. This paper discusses the findings of that report. (author)

  5. Economic Impacts of Future Changes in the Energy System - Global Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glynn, James; Fortes, Patrícia; Krook-Riekkola, Anna

    2015-01-01

    climate change. This chapter summarises modelling methodologies developed in the ETSAP community to assess economic impacts of decarbonising energy systems at a global level. The next chapter of this book focuses on a national perspective. The range of economic impacts is regionally dependent upon...... the stage of economic development, the level of industrialisation, energy intensity of exports, and competition effects due to rates of relative decarbonisation. Developed nation’s decarbonisation targets are estimated to result in a manageable GDP loss in the region of 2 % by 2050. Energy intensive export...... driven developing countries such as China and India, and fossil fuel exporting nations can expect significantly higher GDP loss of up to 5 % GDP per year by mid-century....

  6. China's energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsnell, Paul

    1997-01-01

    The influence of China's growing energy demand on world oil markets is considered. Starting from a very low base of energy consumption per capita, China's potential for growth in oil demand is likely still to be subject to the extremely strong impact of a stop-go economic policy in which the availability of oil is used as a macroeconomic control variable to counter inflation. This has led to considerable monthly variations in oil import levels. While this situation continues, the buying pressure from China will tend to alternate between a trickle and a flood with consequent destabilizing impacts on the market. The markets potentially involved are those of Asia, the Middle East, West Africa and the Mediterranean with knock-on effects in the North Sea and Rotterdam. China is likely to constitute a major indirect force in these markets as a volatile source of demand at the margin. (UK)

  7. Distributed Energy Systems: Security Implications of the Grid of the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamber, Kevin L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kelic, Andjelka [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Taylor, Robert A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Henry, Jordan M [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stamp, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Distributed Energy Resources (DER) are being added to the nation's electric grid, and as penetration of these resources increases, they have the potential to displace or offset large-scale, capital-intensive, centralized generation. Integration of DER into operation of the traditional electric grid requires automated operational control and communication of DER elements, from system measurement to control hardware and software, in conjunction with a utility's existing automated and human-directed control of other portions of the system. Implementation of DER technologies suggests a number of gaps from both a security and a policy perspective. This page intentionally left blank.

  8. Advanced medium-voltage bidirectional dc-dc conversion systems for future electric energy delivery and management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Haifeng

    2011-12-01

    The distributed renewable energy generation and utilization are constantly growing, and are expected to be integrated with the conventional grid. The growing pressure for innovative solutions will demand power electronics to take an even larger role in future electric energy delivery and management systems, since power electronics are required for the conversion and control of electric energy by most dispersed generation systems Furthermore, power electronics systems can provide additional intelligent energy management, grid stability and power quality capabilities. Medium-voltage isolated dc-dc converter will become one of the key interfaces for grid components with moderate power ratings. To address the demand of medium voltage (MV) and high power capability for future electric energy delivery and management systems, the power electronics community and industry have been reacting in two different ways: developing semiconductor technology or directly connecting devices in series/parallel to reach higher nominal voltages and currents while maintaining conventional converter topologies; and by developing new converter topologies with traditional semiconductor technology, known as multilevel converters or modular converters. The modular approach uses the well-known, mature, and cheaper power semiconductor devices by adopting new converter topologies. The main advantages of the modular approach include: significant improvement in reliability by introducing desired level of redundancy; standardization of components leading to reduction in manufacturing cost and time; power systems can be easily reconfigured to support varying input-output specifications; and possibly higher efficiency and power density of the overall system. Input-series output-parallel (ISOP) modular configuration is a good choice to realize MV to low voltage (LV) conversion for utility application. However, challenges still remain. First of all, for the high-frequency MV utility application, the low

  9. Energy in India's Future: Insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesourne, J.; Ramsay, W.C.; Jaureguy-Naudin, Maite; Boillot, Jean-Joseph; Autheman, Nicolas; Ruet, Joel; Siddiqui, Zakaria; Zaleski, C. Pierre; Cruciani, Michel

    2009-01-01

    In the decades following India's independence from British rule in 1947, the West's image of India was summarized in three simple cliches: the world's largest democracy, an impoverished continent, and economic growth hampered by a fussy bureaucracy and the caste system, all in a context of a particular religion. These cliches are perhaps one of the reasons that the success of India's green revolution was recognized so late, a revolution that allowed the country to develop its agricultural sector and to feed its population. Since the 1990's, the easing of planning constraints have liberated the Indian economy and allowed it to embark on a more significant path of growth. New cliches have begun to replace the old: India will become a second China and, lagging by 10 to 20 years, will follow the same trajectory, with its development marked more by services and the use of renewable energy. However, these trends will not prevent primary energy demand from exploding. On the contrary, India faces difficult choices on how it increases clean, secure, affordable energy to all its citizens. Many of the choices are the same as found elsewhere, but on a scale matched only by China. The IFRI European Governance and Geopolitics of Energy Project intends this study to deepen public understanding of the magnitude of India's challenges. Various aspects of the serious energy problems are studied throughout this monograph. The authors have written freely on these matters without attempting to reconcile their different viewpoints. The first chapter, by Maite Jaureguy-Naudin and Jacques Lesourne, presents an overview of India's present and future energy system. The authors follow a prudent but realistic view of India's future. The second chapter, by Jean-Joseph Boillot, a French expert on India who has published several books and articles on this subject, and Nicolas Autheman, research fellow, describes in greater detail the specifics of India's economy and the actors who are now present

  10. Nuclear power plant safety in the framework of future energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, W.

    1995-01-01

    The work in the direction of 'sustainability' must, in the author's opinion, include the development of appropriate sustainability criteria. These must be concretised in such a way that they can be considered as technically mature and that one can derive from them further requirements for the development of energy systems. Once such criteria have been defined and accepted and dogmatism is driven back, nuclear technology would have considerable chances. On a planetary level, nuclear energy has a convincing perspective. The ongoing development work and the tendencies followed thereby, including a new safety cannot last for ever. An unprejudiced debate on nuclear risks, as can be observed at many places, on adequate internalisation of external costs, on the 'value' of technology for a country are signs of a 'normalisation'. However, this process is not (yet) robust and reliable, or even manageable. (author) 9 figs., 3 tabs

  11. The possible role of fusion in the Indian energy system of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamacher, T.; Shukla, R.P.; Seebregts, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Already in the year 2050 India will be the most populated country in the world. Population growth and sustained economic growth will make India to one of the biggest economies in the world, consuming huge amounts of energy. The study shows that India would consume in 2100 a third of the global electricity demand of 2000. If no intervention are considered, coal will keep its position as dominant source in the electricity sector throughout the whole 21st century. This would result in tremendous CO 2 emissions. The picture changes completely, if stringent restrictions on CO 2 emissions are applied. In the case of strict emission reductions new technologies like fusion could make an inroad to the Indian energy system. Especially if it is assumed that the safety and environmental advantages of fusion compared to fission are accounted for

  12. The future of energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, R.; O' Keefe, P.; Snape, C.

    1994-12-15

    An analysis of the use of different forms of energy and its environmental and social impacts. Giving an overview of the development of different forms of energy provision and patterns of supply and demand, this book shows how enduse applies to energy industries, how the environment and social costs of energy use have to be introduced into energy planning and accounting and the crucial role of efficiency. Case studies will include the transport and building sectors of industrial economies, the use of stoves and woodfuel and agroforestry planning in developing countries. It will then examine the different forms of energy - conventional, nuclear and renewable - concluding by setting out different energy futures and the policy requirements for sustainable futures. (author)

  13. Hybrid external fixation in high-energy elbow fractures: a modular system with a promising future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, A; Stahl, S; Stein, H

    2000-12-01

    Severe, high-energy, periarticular elbow injuries producing a "floating joint" are a major surgical challenge. Their reconstruction and rehabilitation are not well documented. Therefore, the following reports our experience with treating such injuries caused by war wounds. Seven adults with compound open peri- and intra-articular elbow fractures were treated in hybrid ring tubular fixation frames. After debridement, bone stabilization, and neurovascular reconstructions, early controlled daily movements were started in the affected joint. These seven patients had together seven humeral, five radial, and six ulnar fractures. All fractures united at a median time of 180 days. No deep infection developed. The functional end results assessed by the Khalfayan functional score were excellent in two, good in one, and fair in four of these severely mangled upper extremities. None was amputated. The Mangled Extremity Severity Score has been shown to be unable to provide a reliable assessment for severe high-energy limb injuries surgically managed with the modular hybrid thin wire tubular external fixation system. This hybrid system is a very useful addition to the surgical armamentarium of orthopedic trauma surgeons. It both allows complex surgical reconstructions and reduces the incidence of deep infections in these heavily contaminated injuries. The hybrid circular (thin wire) external fixation system is very modular and may provide secure skeletal stabilization even in cases of severely comminuted juxta-articular fractures on both sides of the elbow joint (floating elbow) with severe damage to soft tissues. This fixation system allows individual fixation of forearm bone fractures, thus allowing the preservation of pronation-supination movements.

  14. Report of the CEA visiting committee on R and D for future nuclear energy systems, May 11-13, 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechet, Y.; Ebbesen, T.; Fujiie, Y.; Richter, B.; Stormer, H.; Zinkle, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    This was the fifth meeting of the Visiting Committee of the CEA since its creation in year 2000. The first meeting gave members of the committee a broad overview of the entire spectrum of CEA research and subsequent meetings have focused on specific topics. These included the nuclear fuel cycle, biology, and micro and nano technologies. This meeting focused on research and development for future nuclear energy systems. The main division of CEA concerned with this topic is the Nuclear Energy Division. Some of the laboratories of the Technological Research and Matter Science Divisions are also involved in areas such as materials and basic nuclear data. The report deals with the fuels and waste, the SFR (Sodium Fast Reactor) and GFR (Gas Fast Reactor) programs, the Very High temperature reactor (VHTR), the actinide separation, the materials, the irradiation tests facilities and the personnel for the future. (A.L.B.)

  15. Report of the CEA visiting committee on R and D for future nuclear energy systems, May 11-13, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechet, Y. [Institut National Polytechnique, ENSEEG/LTPCM, 38 - Grenoble (France); Ebbesen, T. [Universite Louis Pasteur, ISIS, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Fujiie, Y. [Nuclear Salon Fuj-ie (Japan); Richter, B. [Director Emeritus, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (United States); Stormer, H. [Columbia Univ., Dept. of Physics (United States); Zinkle, S.J. [Oac Ridge National Laboratory, Metals and Ceramics Div. (United States)

    2005-07-01

    This was the fifth meeting of the Visiting Committee of the CEA since its creation in year 2000. The first meeting gave members of the committee a broad overview of the entire spectrum of CEA research and subsequent meetings have focused on specific topics. These included the nuclear fuel cycle, biology, and micro and nano technologies. This meeting focused on research and development for future nuclear energy systems. The main division of CEA concerned with this topic is the Nuclear Energy Division. Some of the laboratories of the Technological Research and Matter Science Divisions are also involved in areas such as materials and basic nuclear data. The report deals with the fuels and waste, the SFR (Sodium Fast Reactor) and GFR (Gas Fast Reactor) programs, the Very High temperature reactor (VHTR), the actinide separation, the materials, the irradiation tests facilities and the personnel for the future. (A.L.B.)

  16. Nuclear energy facing the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laue, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    In conjunction with the 25th anniversary of the establishment of the IAEA, the contribution that nuclear energy can make to future world energy requirements is discussed and nuclear power generation statistics examined with especial reference to data on capacity and outages. (U.K.)

  17. Future of energy managers groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henshaw, T.

    1979-07-01

    The objectives of the Energy Managers Groups, formed to provide a regular opportunity for industry and commerce to exchange views and experiences on energy conservation matters are discussed. Group procedure, liaison and cooperation, government support, and options for the future are discussed. (MCW)

  18. The role of heat pump technologies in the design of future sustainable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blarke, Morten Boje; Lund, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    source results in an 8% cost reduction. Furthermore, the operational analysis shows that when a large-scale heat pump is integrated with an existing CHP unit, the projected spot market situation in Nord Pool, which reflects a growing share of wind power and heat-bound power generation electricity......In this paper, it is shown that in support of its ability to improve the overall economic cost-effectiveness and flexibility of the Danish energy system, the financially feasible integration of large-scale heat pumps with existing CHP units, is critically sensitive to the operational mode...... of the heat pump vis-à-vis the operational coefficient of performance (COP), which is set by the temperature level of the heat source. When using only ambient air as the heat source, the total heat production costs increases by about 10%, while the partial use of condensed flue gas from the CHP unit as a heat...

  19. Systems of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The world population growth will impact largely on the energy and electric power demand in the future. Facing the decrease of the hydrocarbons reserves, the international community decided to work together to develop a new generation of nuclear systems. In this context, coordinated researches are realized first with a short dated objective on the development of innovations for PWR type reactors and second with a middle dated on the development of new systems in an international framework (essentially Generation IV). Theses research programs are presented below. The first part is devoted to the different generation of reactors (I to IV) and to the third generation; the second part deals with the international framework of the researches, the french strategy and the european dimension. (A.L.B.)

  20. Use, operation and maintenance of renewable energy systems experiences and future approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Sanz Bobi, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Fully accounting for their integration with the current electricity market, and dealing too with emerging uses of energy, this book is fully informed by real-life experiences that provide varying perspectives on the efficiency of renewable energy production.

  1. Energy demand futures by global models : Projections of a complex system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelenbosch, O.Y.

    2018-01-01

    The energy demand sectors industry, transport and buildings are together directly responsible for around 51 % of the global energy-related CO2 emissions and indirectly drive the emissions in the energy supply sectors. The demand sectors are characterized by many subsectors, technologies,

  2. Global Energy Assessment. Toward a Sustainable Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, T B; Nakicenovic, N; Patwardhan, A; Gomez-Echeverri, L [eds.

    2012-11-01

    The Global Energy Assessment (GEA) brings together over 300 international researchers to provide an independent, scientifically based, integrated and policy-relevant analysis of current and emerging energy issues and options. It has been peer-reviewed anonymously by an additional 200 international experts. The GEA assesses the major global challenges for sustainable development and their linkages to energy; the technologies and resources available for providing energy services; future energy systems that address the major challenges; and the policies and other measures that are needed to realize transformational change toward sustainable energy futures. The GEA goes beyond existing studies on energy issues by presenting a comprehensive and integrated analysis of energy challenges, opportunities and strategies, for developing, industrialized and emerging economies. This volume is an invaluable resource for energy specialists and technologists in all sectors (academia, industry and government) as well as policymakers, development economists and practitioners in international organizations and national governments.

  3. East Germany's future energy economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tjon, F; Zuehlke, R [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). FG Energie und Rohstoffwirtschaft

    1991-01-01

    Since unification, the former German Democratic Republic has had to face major changes, one of which concerns the energy supply system. A secure energy supply system is an absolute requirement for the political and economical development of this Republic. Its former strategy of 'autarkical' energy supply until the end of 1989 was one of the factors which led to an economic downfall. This essay gives an overview of the major structural changes to the economy which have occurred since unification. First, the former energy situation is described and the status quo analyzed. Then, efforts in reorganizing the present energy supply system are outlined. Finally, new perspectives and strategies are described. The aspects taken into consideration include: energy price deregulation; European fossil fuel marketing trends; investments for the build up of an efficient energy supply system; and the creation of surcharges for environmental pollution abatement, in particular, the reduction of carbon and sulfur dioxide emissions.

  4. Development of Silicon Sensor Characterization System for Future High Energy Physics Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti kumari; Kavita Lalwani; Ranjeet Dalal; Geetika Jain; Ashutosh Bhardwaj; Kirti Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the general purpose experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), CERN and has its Tracker built of all silicon strip and pixel sensors. Si sensors are expected to play extremely important role in the upgrades of the existing Tracker for future high luminosity environment and will also be used in future lepton colliders. However, properties of the silicon sensors have to be carefully understood before they can be put in the extremely high luminos...

  5. Smart grid strategy - the future intelligent energy system. [Denmark]; Smart grid-strategi - fremtidens intelligente energisystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The Government's Smart Grid Strategy brings Danish consumers a big step closer to managing their own energy consumption. The strategy, combines electricity meters read on an hourly basis with variable tariffs and a data hub. It will make it possible for consumers to use the power when it is least expensive. ''Today we set the course for developing a smart energy network that will reduce the cost of converting to sustainable energy, cut electricity bills and create brand new products consumers will welcome,'' says Minister of Climate, Energy and Building Martin Lidegaard. Encouraging consumers to use energy more efficiently is a key aspect of the strategy. The remote-read electricity meters are crucial if consumers are to play a role in optimising the flexible energy network. (LN)

  6. Intelligent DC Homes in Future Sustainable Energy Systems: When efficiency and intelligence work together

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Diaz, Enrique; Vasquez, Juan C.; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    The evidences that climate change is real, and the fact that it is most likely caused by human-related activities, has made the international community to considered a new energy model. Europe has led the initiative of moving away from fossil fuels to renewable energies, where other powerful countries, as USA and China, are lagging behind, and still highly rely on coal, gas and oil as a source of energy. Europe has set ambitious goals for 2020 regarding the increase of renewable energy produc...

  7. Comparative assessment of risks from Philippine energy systems in the far future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonin, Teofilo V.

    1998-01-01

    The growing demand for electricity to support the economic development of the country has prompted the Philippine government to emphasize sustainable development and the integration of environmental concerns in the planning and implementation of energy programs. Based on the new long term Philippine Energy Plan, the total energy requirement will increase by an annual average of 66% up to the year 2025. There will be a growing dependence on coal fuel which will contribute significantly to the total carbon dioxide emissions in the next century. Activities on the comparative assessment of impacts of the different energy sources are also discussed. (author)

  8. Strategy and perspective on future energy systems, technological range potentials for gas cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, J.; Bernard, P.; Pochon, E.

    2002-01-01

    Over the past century, energy consumption worldwide has increased more than ten-fold and, by the year 2050, is likely to be twice what it is today. This increase of energy demand seems inescapable, in view of the growth of the world population and the right to energy access and development for all countries around the world. The pursuit of energy production in the current conditions, essentially based on fossil fuels, would result in the depletion of all the known oil and gas sources in the world with the risks of scarcity of supply. The economies of many countries, particularly countries who do not have natural fossil resources, could suffer under hardships and uncertainties relating to the oil and gas prices. Another consequence would be a doubling of the annual emissions of greenhouse gases by the year 2050 with its consequences over climate change. Energy savings and renewable energy sources shall contribute to avoid such risks, however it will not be enough, by far, to meet the energy consumption of 9 billion inhabitants across the planet. Nuclear energy has unique advantages as to sustainable development, and could offer a safe and economic solution, with long-term resources and no greenhouse effect

  9. Population of the LEAP system to model energy futures in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taviv, R

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available . These are to be undertaken against the backdrop of an insatiable global appetite for energy. Security of energy supplies and services are equally necessary for the continued economic growth and development that the country has been enjoying. The primary objectives...

  10. Assessing the future of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncomble, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    The World Energy Council has designed 2 tools named Jazz and Symphonie that allow the assessment of the potential impacts of energy choices on the future in terms of climate warming, investments, energy mix,... The Jazz roadmap aims at energy equity which means individual access to energy at a reasonable cost while the Symphonie roadmap focuses on environmental issues through appropriate practice and coordinated international policies. Both tools are integrated it means that they describe a whole world by most of its aspects: population, GDP per capita, number of cars by inhabitant, economic growth... A basic application of both tools shows that in 2050 the nuclear power will have increased (compared to today's level) but the share of nuclear power in the energy mix will have decreased for Jazz and increased for Symphonie. (A.C.)

  11. What are the factors that could influence the future of work with regard to energy systems and the built environment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, Andy C.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine which factors in energy systems and the built environment could influence the future of work. In addition, it looks at trends in relation to corporate demands for space and its specifications, and considers what the scope is for integrating business and industry within the dwelling landscape. It seeks to consider these questions on a 50-year time horizon. The paper begins by discussing the challenge of prediction of future trends, especially in a field apparently so reliant upon technological change and innovation. Because of these problems, the paper concerns itself not with picking technologies but rather with questions about the social adoption of technologies and their applications. It highlights a spectrum of coordinating mechanisms in society that are likely to be critical in shaping the future implications of built environment forms and the consequential use of energy. The scenarios discussed arise from the intersection of two tendencies: concentration versus dispersal, and local versus globally focused growth of city regions. The challenges identified in this report are associated with 'lock-in' to past governance modes of the built environment, exacerbated by rapidly changing demand structures. Demand is not simply changing in volume but also in character. The shifts that will need to be dealt with concern a fundamental issue: how activities are coordinated in society

  12. Fusion: Energy for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    Fusion, which occurs in the sun and the stars, is a process of transforming matter into energy. If we can harness the fusion process on Earth, it opens the way to assuring that future generations will not want for heat and electric power. The purpose of this booklet is to introduce the concept of fusion energy as a viable, environmentally sustainable energy source for the twenty-first century. The booklet presents the basic principles of fusion, the global research and development effort in fusion, and Canada's programs for fusion research and development

  13. Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES), a Review: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. L.; Priestley, K. J.; Loeb, N. G.; Wielicki, B. A.; Charlock, T. P.; Minnis, P.; Doelling, D. R.; Rutan, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project s objectives are to measure the reflected solar radiance (shortwave) and Earth-emitted (longwave) radiances and from these measurements to compute the shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and the surface and radiation divergence within the atmosphere. The fluxes at TOA are to be retrieved to an accuracy of 2%. Improved bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) have been developed to compute the fluxes at TOA from the measured radiances with errors reduced from ERBE by a factor of two or more. Instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft provide sampling at four local times. In order to further reduce temporal sampling errors, data are used from the geostationary meteorological satellites to account for changes of scenes between observations by the CERES radiometers. A validation protocol including in-flight calibrations and comparisons of measurements has reduced the instrument errors to less than 1%. The data are processed through three editions. The first edition provides a timely flow of data to investigators and the third edition provides data products as accurate as possible with resources available. A suite of cloud properties retrieved from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) by the CERES team is used to identify the cloud properties for each pixel in order to select the BRDF for each pixel so as to compute radiation fluxes from radiances. Also, the cloud information is used to compute radiation at the surface and through the atmosphere and to facilitate study of the relationship between clouds and the radiation budget. The data products from CERES include, in addition to the reflected solar radiation and Earth emitted radiation fluxes at TOA, the upward and downward shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the surface and at various levels in the atmosphere. Also at the surface the photosynthetically active radiation

  14. Future of high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panofsky, W.K.H.

    1984-06-01

    A rough overview is given of the expectations for the extension of high energy colliders and accelerators into the xtremely high energy range. It appears likely that the SSC or something like it will be the last gasp of the conventional method of producing high energy proton-proton collisions using synchrotron rings with superconducting magnets. It is likely that LEP will be the highest energy e+e - colliding beam storage ring built. The future beyond that depends on the successful demonstrations of new technologies. The linear collider offers hope in this respect for some extension in energy for electrons, and maybe even for protons, but is too early to judge whether, by how much, or when such an extension will indeed take place

  15. Sources, availability and costs of future energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.G.

    1977-08-01

    An attempt is made to put the future energy scene in perspective by quantitatively examining energy resources, energy utilization and energy costs. Available data on resources show that conventional oil and gas are in short supply and that alternative energy sources are going to have to replace oil and gas in the not too distant future. Cost/applications assessments indicate that a mix of energy sources are likely to best meet our energy needs of the future. Hydro, nuclear and coal are all practical alternatives for meeting electrical needs and electricity is a practical alternative for space heating. Coal appears to be the most practical alternative for meeting much of the industrial energy need and frontier oil or oil from the tar sands appear to be the most practical alternatives for meeting the transportation need. Solar energy shows promise of meeting some of the space heating load in Canada if economical energy storage systems can be developed. The general conclusion is that the basic energy problem is energy conversion. (author)

  16. Fusion energy - an abundant energy source for the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusion energy is the fundamental energy source of the Universe, as the energy of the Sun and the stars are produced by fusion of e.g. hydrogen to helium. Fusion energy research is a strongly international endeavor aiming at realizing fusion energy production in power plants on Earth. Reaching...... this goal, mankind will have a sustainable base load energy source with abundant resources, having no CO2 release, and with no longlived radioactive waste. This presentation will describe the basics of fusion energy production and the status and future prospects of the research. Considerations...... of integration into the future electricity system and socio-economic studies of fusion energy will be presented, referring to the programme of Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF) under the European Fusion Energy Agreement (EFDA)....

  17. Simulation and modeling of data acquisition systems for future high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, A.; Black, D.; Walsh, D.; Bowden, M.; Barsotti, E.

    1990-01-01

    With the ever-increasing complexity of detectors and their associated data acquisition (DAQ) systems, it is important to bring together a set of tools to enable system designers, both hardware and software, to understand the behavorial aspects of the system as a whole, as well as the interaction between different functional units within the system. For complex systems, human intuition is inadequate since there are simply too many variables for system designers to begin to predict how varying any subset of them affects the total system. On the other hand, exact analysis, even to the extent of investing in disposable hardware prototypes, is much too time consuming and costly. Simulation bridges the gap between physical intuition and exact analysis by providing a learning vehicle in which the effects of varying many parameters can be analyzed and understood. Simulation techniques are being used in the development of the Scalable Parallel Open Architecture Data Acquisition System at Fermilab. This paper describes the work undertaken at Fermilab in which several sophisticated tools have been brought together to provide an integrated systems engineering environment specifically aimed at designing DAQ systems. Also presented are results of simulation experiments in which the effects of varying trigger rates, event sizes and event distribution over processors, are clearly seen in terms of throughput and buffer usage in an event-building switch

  18. Simulation and modeling of data acquisition systems for future high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, A.; Black, D.; Walsh, D.; Bowden, M.; Barsotti, E.

    1991-01-01

    With the ever-increasing complexity of detectors and their associated data acquisition (DAQ) systems, it is important to bring together a set of tools to enable system designers, both hardware and software, to understand the behavioral aspects of the system was a whole, as well as the interaction between different functional units within the system. For complex systems, human intuition is inadequate since there are simply too many variables for system designers to begin to predict how varying any subset of them affects the total system. On the other hand, exact analysis, even to the extent of investing in disposable hardware prototypes, is much too time consuming and costly. Simulation bridges the gap between physical intuition and exact analysis by providing a learning vehicle in which the effects of varying many parameters can be analyzed and understood. Simulation techniques are being used in the development of the Scalable Parallel Open Architecture Data Acquisition System at Fermilab in which several sophisticated tools have been brought together to provide an integrated systems engineering environment specifically aimed at designing, DAQ systems. Also presented are results of simulation experiments in which the effects of varying trigger rates, event sizes and event distribution over processors, are clearly seen in terms of throughput and buffer usage in an event-building switch

  19. Vision of future energy networks - Final report; Vision of future energy networks - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, K.; Andersson, G.

    2008-07-01

    In the framework of the project 'Vision of Future Networks', models and methods have been developed that enable a greenfield approach for energy systems with multiple energy carriers. Applying a greenfield approach means that no existing infrastructure is taken into account when designing the energy system, i.e. the system is virtually put up on a green field. The developed models refer to the impacts of energy storage on power systems with stochastic generation, to the integrated modelling and optimization of multi-carrier energy systems, to reliability considerations of future energy systems as well as to possibilities of combined transmission of multiple energy carriers. Key concepts, which have been developed in the framework of this project, are the Energy Hub (for the conversion and storage of energy) and the Energy Interconnector (for energy transmission). By means of these concepts, it is possible to design structures for future energy systems being able to cope with the growing requirements regarding energy supply. (author)

  20. Optimal investment paths for future renewable based energy systems - Using the optimisation model Balmorel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard; Meibom, Peter

    2008-01-01

    that with an oil price at 100 $/barrel, a CO2 price at40 €/ton and the assumed penetration of hydrogen in the transport sector, it is economically optimal to cover more than 95% of the primary energy consumption for electricity and district heat by renewables in 2050. When the transport sector is converted......: A model for analyses of the electricity and CHP markets in the Baltic Sea Region. 〈www.Balmorel.com〉; 2001. [1

  1. The future of energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, R.; O`Keefe, P.; Snape, C. [University of Northumbria, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Photovoltaics Application Centre

    1995-12-31

    The book gives a comprehensive analysis of the history and use of different forms of energy, their environmental and social impacts and, in particular, their economic costs and the future of their supply. It examines all the major forms of energy - conventional fuels such as oil and coal, nuclear power and alternative and renewable sources - and includes case studies on the transport and building sectors in the North and agroforestry and fuelwood problems in the South. The authors discuss the development of energy provision and patterns of supply and demand, and examine the use of end-use analyses. They look at the ways in which social and environmental costs should be introduced into energy planning and accounting, and emphasise the crucial role of efficiency to limit over-consumption. 91 refs., 100 figs., 62 tabs.

  2. Understanding future emissions from low-carbon power systems by integration of life-cycle assessment and integrated energy modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehl, Michaja; Arvesen, Anders; Humpenöder, Florian; Popp, Alexander; Hertwich, Edgar G.; Luderer, Gunnar

    2017-12-01

    Both fossil-fuel and non-fossil-fuel power technologies induce life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, mainly due to their embodied energy requirements for construction and operation, and upstream CH4 emissions. Here, we integrate prospective life-cycle assessment with global integrated energy-economy-land-use-climate modelling to explore life-cycle emissions of future low-carbon power supply systems and implications for technology choice. Future per-unit life-cycle emissions differ substantially across technologies. For a climate protection scenario, we project life-cycle emissions from fossil fuel carbon capture and sequestration plants of 78-110 gCO2eq kWh-1, compared with 3.5-12 gCO2eq kWh-1 for nuclear, wind and solar power for 2050. Life-cycle emissions from hydropower and bioenergy are substantial (˜100 gCO2eq kWh-1), but highly uncertain. We find that cumulative emissions attributable to upscaling low-carbon power other than hydropower are small compared with direct sectoral fossil fuel emissions and the total carbon budget. Fully considering life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions has only modest effects on the scale and structure of power production in cost-optimal mitigation scenarios.

  3. The Future of Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubik, Michelle [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of enhanced, or engineered, geothermal systems was carried out by an 18-member panel assembled by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to evaluate the potential of geothermal energy becoming a major energy source for the United States.

  4. Nuclear energy, future of ecology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comby, B.

    1995-01-01

    This work can surprise; because it is said that nuclear energy is the only one that will allow to satisfy the energy needs of the planet by reducing the pollution. It gives answers on: Chernobyl accident, the existence of natural radioactivity, the comparison between natural radioactivity and medical, military and industrial irradiation, the pollution of our environment, the petroleum whom reserves are going to decrease, the advantages of the 'clever' nuclear and the disadvantages of the 'dustbin' nuclear, why some of ecologists are favourable to the nuclear, the effects of radiations on health, the foods irradiation, the wastes processing and the future of our planet. (N.C.)

  5. Business case uncertainty of power plants in future energy systems with wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, Anne Sjoerd; Broek, Machteld van den; Özdemir, Özge; Koutstaal, Paul; Faaij, André

    2016-01-01

    The European power sector is transforming due to climate policies and an increased deployment of intermittent RES. The sector will require thermal power plants for the decades to come, but their business cases are (negatively) affected by this transformation. This study presents a novel tool to quantify the effect of policy, price and project-related uncertainties on power plant business cases. This tool can support policymakers in stimulating necessary investments in new thermal generation capacity. We find that these investments are currently unsound (power plants recoup on average –12% to 59% of their initial investment). Future climate policy, i.e. the CO_2 price, has a very strong impact on business cases (affects the profitability by 5–40%-points). The impact of the deployment of wind power is average (2–8%-point difference between 10% and 21% wind penetration). Variations in annual wind power production barely affect the profitability (variation of ±1%-point). To stimulate new investments, policymakers should first decrease the uncertainty in business cases caused by policy. Durable climate policy is especially important. Also, policies to increase the profits of thermal power plants should be carefully considered and implemented. This combined approach will reduce the revenue gap that needs to be bridged by supportive policies. - Highlights: • The operation of thermal power plants is affected by CO_2 prices and wind power. • A new tool quantifies the effect of their uncertainty on power plant profitability. • New power plants are unprofitable and show a large spread in expected profits. • Uncertain future climate policy is a key factor in all business cases (±56% change). • Increasing wind power penetration (10–21%) decreases profitability by 14%.

  6. The future of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockcroft, J.; Bhabha, H.J.; Goldschmidt, B.

    1959-01-01

    A public discussion on the future of nuclear energy was organized by the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna on 22 September 1959 in conjunction with the third regular session of the Agency's General Conference. The three eminent scientists who participated in the discussion - Dr. Homi J. Bhabha of India, Sir John Cockcroft of the United Kingdom and Dr. Bertrand Goldschmidt of France - are members of the Agency's Scientific Advisory Committee. The Secretary of the Committee, Dr. Henry Seligman, Deputy Director General of IAEA, acted as moderator. The meeting was presided over by the Director General, Mr. Sterling Cole. The discussion began with opening statements by the three scientists surveying recent developments, current trends and future possibilities. After these general statements, they answered a number of questions from the audience. A record of the discussion, including the opening statements as well as the questions and answers, is contained in this special number of the IAEA Bulletin. (author)

  7. Recent trends and future opportunities in UK bioenergy: Maximising biomass penetration in a centralised energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, Miles; Rosillo-Calle, Frank

    2008-01-01

    In the past decade or so, the British government policy support for renewable energy (RE) has been at the core of the rapid growth of bioenergy in the UK rather than genuine market forces. Policy support has been through various instruments which are discussed in this paper, with particular attention given to co-firing and transport fuels. The UK energy sector remains dominated by large fossil fuels power plants and this does not facilitate the introduction of RE. One exception is co-firing which in 2005 generated 2.5 TWh. Another area of considerable potential and interest is the use of biofuels (biodiesel and bioethanol) for transport, although current contribution remains still very small (0.18% of total fuel sales in 2005). In 2005, the UK used 1.4 million tonnes of biomass in co-firing, mostly imported, while considerable potential exists for further expansion should policy incentives continue. It is also generally accepted that the UK will have to rely largely on imports if it is to fulfil its 5% minimum biofuel blends agreed for 2010 and 10% in 2015. Both sectors present excellent opportunities for international bioenergy trade, despite the domestic production potential, as demonstrated in this paper. In addition, the forthcoming introduction of carbon and sustainability reporting should incentivise greater reporting along the supply chain, encouraging trade in the most sustainable biofuels. (author)

  8. Energy Efficiency in Future PONs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reschat, Halfdan; Laustsen, Johannes Russell; Wessing, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    There is a still increasing tendency to give energy efficiency a high priority, even in already low energy demanding systems. This is also the case for Passive Optical Networks (PONs) for which many different methods for saving energy are proposed. This paper uses simulations to evaluate three...... proposed power saving solutions for PONs which use sleep mechanisms for saving power. The discovered advantages and disadvantages of these methods are then used as a basis for proposing a new solution combining different techniques in order to increase the energy efficiency further. This novel solution...

  9. Modelling diffusion feedbacks between technology performance, cost and consumer behaviour for future energy-transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Martino; Brand, Christian; Banister, David

    2014-04-01

    Emerging technologies will have important impacts on sustainability objectives. Yet little is known about the explicit feedbacks between consumer behaviour and technological change, and the potential impact on mass market penetration. We use the UK as a case-study to explore the dynamic interactions between technology supply, performance, cost, and heterogeneous consumer behaviour and the resulting influence on long term market diffusion. Simulations of competing vehicle technologies indicate that petrol hybrids (HEVs) dominate the market over the long-term because they benefit from improved performance and are able to reach the steep part of the diffusion curve by 2025 while competing technologies remain in the early stages of growth and are easier to displace in the market. This is due to the cumulative build-up of stock and slow fleet turnover creating inertia in the technological system. Consequently, it will be difficult to displace incumbent technologies because of system inertia, cumulative growth in stock, long operational life, and consumer risk aversion to new unproven technologies. However, when accounting for both technological and behavioural change, simulations indicate that if investment can reach 30-40% per annum growth in supply, combined with steady technology improvements, and more sophisticated agent decision making such as accounting for full technology lifecycle cost and performance, full battery electric vehicles could displace the incumbent system by 2050.

  10. Assessment of the Anticipated Environmental Footprint of Future Nuclear Energy Systems. Evidence of the Beneficial Effect of Extensive Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Serp

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this early 21st century, our societies have to face a tremendous and increasing energy need while mitigating the global climate change and preserving the environment. Addressing this challenge requires an energy transition from the current fossil energy-based system to a carbon-free energy production system, based on a relevant energy mix combining renewables and nuclear energy. However, such an energy transition will only occur if it is accepted by the population. Powerful and reliable tools, such as life cycle assessments (LCA, aiming at assessing the respective merits of the different energy mix for most of the environmental impact indicators are therefore mandatory for supporting a risk-informed decision-process at the societal level. Before studying the deployment of a given energy mix, a prerequisite is to perform LCAs on each of the components of the mix. This paper addresses two potential nuclear energy components: a nuclear fuel cycle based on the Generation III European Pressurized Reactors (EPR and a nuclear fuel cycle based on the Generation IV Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR. The basis of this study relies on the previous work done on the current French nuclear fuel cycle using the bespoke NELCAS tool specifically developed for studying nuclear fuel cycle environmental impacts. Our study highlights that the EPR already brings a limited improvement to the current fuel cycle thanks to a higher efficiency of the energy transformation and a higher burn-up of the nuclear fuel (−20% on most of the chosen indicators whereas the introduction of the GEN IV fast reactors will bring a significant breakthrough by suppressing the current front-end of the fuel cycle thanks to the use of depleted uranium instead of natural enriched uranium (this leads to a decrease of the impact from 17% on water consumption and withdrawal and up to 96% on SOx emissions. The specific case of the radioactive waste is also studied, showing that only the partitioning

  11. How a future energy world could look?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewert M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The future energy system will change significantly within the next years as a result of the following Mega Trends: de-carbonization, urbanization, fast technology development, individualization, glocalization (globalization and localization and changing demographics. Increasing fluctuating renewable production will change the role of non-renewable generation. Distributed energy from renewables and micro generation will change the direction of the energy flow in the electricity grids. Production will not follow demand but demand has to follow production. This future system is enabled by the fast technical development of information and communication technologies which will be present in the entire system. In this paper the results of a comprehensive analysis with different scenarios is summarized. Tools were used like the analysis of policy trends in the European countries, modelling of the European power grid, modelling of the European power markets and the analysis of technology developments with cost reduction potentials. With these tools the interaction of the main actors in the energy markets like conventional generation and renewable generation, grid transport, electricity storage including new storage options from E-Mobility, Power to Gas, Compressed Air Energy storage and demand side management were considered. The potential application of technologies and investments in new energy technologies were analyzed within existing frameworks and markets as well as new business models in new markets with different frameworks. In the paper the over all trend of this analysis is presented by describing a potential future energy world. This world represents only one of numerous options with comparable characteristics.

  12. How a future energy world could look?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, M.

    2012-10-01

    The future energy system will change significantly within the next years as a result of the following Mega Trends: de-carbonization, urbanization, fast technology development, individualization, glocalization (globalization and localization) and changing demographics. Increasing fluctuating renewable production will change the role of non-renewable generation. Distributed energy from renewables and micro generation will change the direction of the energy flow in the electricity grids. Production will not follow demand but demand has to follow production. This future system is enabled by the fast technical development of information and communication technologies which will be present in the entire system. In this paper the results of a comprehensive analysis with different scenarios is summarized. Tools were used like the analysis of policy trends in the European countries, modelling of the European power grid, modelling of the European power markets and the analysis of technology developments with cost reduction potentials. With these tools the interaction of the main actors in the energy markets like conventional generation and renewable generation, grid transport, electricity storage including new storage options from E-Mobility, Power to Gas, Compressed Air Energy storage and demand side management were considered. The potential application of technologies and investments in new energy technologies were analyzed within existing frameworks and markets as well as new business models in new markets with different frameworks. In the paper the over all trend of this analysis is presented by describing a potential future energy world. This world represents only one of numerous options with comparable characteristics.

  13. Current and future industrial energy service characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.; Thomas, T.; Jackson, F.; Limaye, D.R.; Isser, S.; Karnofsky, K.; Davis, T.D.

    1980-10-01

    Current and future energy demands, end uses, and cost used to characterize typical applications and resultant services in the industrial sector of the United States and 15 selected states are examined. A review and evaluation of existing industrial energy data bases was undertaken to assess their potential for supporting SERI research on: (1) market suitability analysis, (2) market development, (3) end-use matching, (3) industrial applications case studies, and (4) identification of cost and performance goals for solar systems and typical information requirements for industrial energy end use. In reviewing existing industrial energy data bases, the level of detail, disaggregation, and primary sources of information were examined. The focus was on fuels and electric energy used for heat and power purchased by the manufacturing subsector and listed by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC, primary fuel, and end use. Projections of state level energy prices to 1990 are developed using the energy intensity approach. The effects of federal and state industrial energy conservation programs on future industrial sector demands were assessed. Future end-use energy requirements were developed for each 4-digit SIC industry and were grouped as follows: (1) hot water, (2) steam (212 to 300/sup 0/F, each 100/sup 0/F interval from 300 to 1000/sup 0/F, and greater than 1000/sup 0/F), and (3) hot air (100/sup 0/F intervals). Volume I details the activities performed in this effort.

  14. The future of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Kuester, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    Europe is one of the world leaders in nuclear technology advancement. The development of spent fuel reprocessing is but one example of this. This process continues today with the development by France and Germany of the European Pressurised-Water Reactor. Nuclear research and development work is continuing in Europe, and must be continued in the future, if Europe is to retain its world leadership position in the technological field and on the commercial front. If we look at the benefits, which nuclear energy has to offer, in economic and environmental terms, 1 support the view that nuclear is an energy source whose time has come again. This is not some fanciful notion or wishful thinking. There is clear evidence of greater long-term reliance on nuclear energy. Perhaps we do not see new nuclear plants springing up in Europe, but we do see ambitious nuclear power development programmes underway in places like China, Japan and Korea. Closer to home, Finland is seriously considering the construction of a new nuclear unit. Elsewhere, in Europe and the US, we see a growing trend towards nuclear plant life extension and plant upgrades geared towards higher production capacity. These are all signs that nuclear will be around for a long time to come and that nuclear will indeed have a future

  15. Hydrogen, energy of the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alleau, Th.

    2007-01-01

    A cheap, non-polluting energy with no greenhouse gas emissions and unlimited resources? This is towards this fantastic future that this book brings us, analyzing the complex but promising question of hydrogen. The scientific and technical aspects of production, transport, storage and distribution raised by hydrogen are thoroughly reviewed. Content: I) Energy, which solutions?: 1 - hydrogen, a future; 2 - hydrogen, a foreseeable solution?; II) Hydrogen, an energy vector: 3 - characteristics of hydrogen (physical data, quality and drawbacks); 4 - hydrogen production (from fossil fuels, from water, from biomass, bio-hydrogen generation); 5 - transport, storage and distribution of hydrogen; 6 - hydrogen cost (production, storage, transport and distribution costs); III) Fuel cells and ITER, utopias?: 7 - molecular hydrogen uses (thermal engines and fuel cells); 8 - hydrogen and fusion (hydrogen isotopes, thermonuclear reaction, ITER project, fusion and wastes); IV) Hydrogen acceptability: 9 - risk acceptability; 10 - standards and regulations; 11 - national, European and international policies about hydrogen; 12 - big demonstration projects in France and in the rest of the world; conclusion. (J.S.)

  16. Coal: Energy for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to a request by the US Department of energy (DOE). The principal objectives of the study were to assess the current DOE coal program vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), and to recommend the emphasis and priorities that DOE should consider in updating its strategic plan for coal. A strategic plan for research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD and C) activities for coal should be based on assumptions regarding the future supply and price of competing energy sources, the demand for products manufactured from these sources, technological opportunities, and the need to control the environmental impact of waste streams. These factors change with time. Accordingly, the committee generated strategic planning scenarios for three time periods: near-term, 1995--2005; mid-term, 2006--2020; and, long-term, 2021--2040. The report is divided into the following chapters: executive summary; introduction and scope of the study; overview of US DOE programs and planning; trends and issues for future coal use; the strategic planning framework; coal preparation, coal liquid mixtures, and coal bed methane recovery; clean fuels and specialty products from coal; electric power generation; technology demonstration and commercialization; advanced research programs; conclusions and recommendations; appendices; and glossary. 174 refs.

  17. Scenarios of future energy intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors present scenarios of potential change in energy intensities in the OECD countries and in the Soviet Union. These scenarios are meant to illustrate how intensities might evolve over the next 20 years given different conditions with respect to energy prices, energy-efficiency policies, and other key factors. Changes in intensity will also be affected by the rates of growth and stock turnover in each sector. They have not tried to forecast how activity levels and structure will evolve. However, the OECD scenarios assume a world in which GDP averages growth in the 2-3%/year range, with some differences among countries. For the Soviet Union, the degree and pace of intensity decline will be highly dependent on the success of the transition to a market economy; each scenario explicitly envisions a different degree of success. They have not constructed comparable scenarios for the developing countries. The scenarios presented in this chapter do not predict what will happen in the future. They believe, however, that they illustrate a plausible set of outcomes if energy prices, policies, programs, and other factors evolve as described in each case. With higher energy prices and vigorous policies and programs, intensities in the OECD countries in 2010 could be nearly 50% less on average than the level where trends seem to be point. In the former Soviet Union, a combination of rapid, successful economic reform and extra effort to improve energy efficiency might result in average intensity being nearly 40% less than in a slow reform case. And in the LDCs, a mixture of sound policies, programs, and energy pricing reform could also lead to intensities being far lower than they would be otherwise. 8 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  18. The role of decentralized generation and storage technologies in future energy systems planning for a rural agglomeration in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazdanie, Mashael; Densing, Martin; Wokaun, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a framework to quantitatively evaluate decentralized generation and storage technology (DGST) performance and policy impacts in a rural setting. The role of DGSTs in the future energy systems planning of a rural agglomeration in Switzerland is examined using a cost optimization modeling approach. Heat and electricity demand for major sectors are considered. Scenarios introduce DGSTs in a stepwise manner to measure incremental impacts on future capacity planning compared to a baseline scenario. Sub-scenarios also examine the impacts of carbon mitigation policies, and a sensitivity analysis is carried out for key energy carriers and conversion technologies. DGSTs enable a significant reduction in electricity grid usage for the community considered. Small hydro with a storage reservoir and photovoltaics enable the community to become largely self-sufficient with over 80% reductions in grid imports by 2050 compared to the baseline scenario. Storage enables maximum usage of the available hydro potential which also leads to network upgrade deferrals and a significant increase in photovoltaic installations. Investment decisions in small hydro are robust against cost variations, while heating technology investment decisions are sensitive to oil and grid electricity prices. Carbon pricing policies are found to be effective in mitigating local fossil fuel emissions. - Highlights: •Rural case study on decentralized generation and storage technology (DGST) benefits. •Cost optimization model and scenarios developed to assess DGSTs until 2050. •Small hydro and photovoltaics (PV) increase self-sufficiency of community. •Storage enables full hydro potential usage and increased PV penetration. •Carbon price policies effective in mitigating local fossil fuel emissions.

  19. Case Studies in Low-Energy District Heating Systems: Determination of Dimensioning Methods for Planning the Future Heating Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Svendsen, Svend

    suggests a plan for an energy efficient District Heating (DH) system with low operating temperatures, such as 55°C supply and 25°C return; connected to low-energy buildings. Different case studies referring to typical DH planning situations could show the rational basis for the integrated planning...... of the future’s sustainable and energy efficient heating infrastructure. In this paper, a case study which focuses on dimensioning method of piping network of low-energy DH system in a new settlement, located in Roskilde Municipality, Denmark, is presented. In addition to the developed dimensioning method......, results about the optimal network layout and substation type for low-energy DH systems are also pointed out regarding to this case study. A second case study, included in this paper, focuses on technical and economical aspects of replacing natural gas heating system to low-energy DH system in an existing...

  20. Advanced reactors and future energy market needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillere, Henri; )

    2017-01-01

    Based on the results of a very well-attended international workshop on 'Advanced Reactor Systems and Future Energy Market Needs' that took place in April 2017, the NEA has embarked on a two-year study with the objective of analysing evolving energy market needs and requirements, as well as examining how well reactor technologies under development today will fit into tomorrow's low-carbon world. The NEA Expert Group on Advanced Reactor Systems and Future Energy Market Needs (ARFEM) held its first meeting on 5-6 July 2017 with experts from Canada, France, Italy, Japan, Korea, Poland, Romania, Russia and the United Kingdom. The outcome of the study will provide much needed insight into how well nuclear can fulfil its role as a key low-carbon technology, and help identify challenges related to new operational, regulatory or market requirements

  1. Proceedings. Future Energy - Resources, Distribution and Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Leading abstract. The goals of the Norwegian Academy of Technological Sciences (NTVA) are to promote research, education and development within technological and related sciences, for the benefit of the Norwegian society and for the development of Norwegian industry. Future energy policy and Global climate change are major issues in the Norwegian discussion today. The answers given have great influence on our industry and involve huge technological challenges. In the current situation NTVA wishes to contribute to the development of new technology. In 1998 the Norwegian Academy of Technological Sciences organized the seminar ''Do We Understand Global Climate Change''. NTVA have now followed this up with a seminar on the Energy System, one of the major sources of manmade greenhouse gases. The world's demand for energy increases with improvements in our standards of living. The cleaning of emissions from production processes requires more energy. A modem information and communication society requires more energy. A new life style with increased use of all kinds of motorized tools is also leading to growth in energy consumption. Due to the risk in this human contribution to global warming, a major shift in the Energy System towards environmental sustain ability is being discussed. Changing the Energy System will require large investments in know-how and technology development, and it will take a long time to alter the rigid infrastructure of our existing Energy System. The road to the ''Clean Energy Society'' probably cannot be built by prescribing the use of one technology only. It makes a lot more sense to encourage competition between different technologies and then let experience and the market decide the winners. It will also be important to invest in the development of robust knowledge that can be applied within a broad spectrum of possible development scenarios during the next decades. Society's attitudes towards

  2. Proceedings. Future Energy - Resources, Distribution and Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Leading abstract. The goals of the Norwegian Academy of Technological Sciences (NTVA) are to promote research, education and development within technological and related sciences, for the benefit of the Norwegian society and for the development of Norwegian industry. Future energy policy and Global climate change are major issues in the Norwegian discussion today. The answers given have great influence on our industry and involve huge technological challenges. In the current situation NTVA wishes to contribute to the development of new technology. In 1998 the Norwegian Academy of Technological Sciences organized the seminar ''Do We Understand Global Climate Change''. NTVA have now followed this up with a seminar on the Energy System, one of the major sources of manmade greenhouse gases. The world's demand for energy increases with improvements in our standards of living. The cleaning of emissions from production processes requires more energy. A modem information and communication society requires more energy. A new life style with increased use of all kinds of motorized tools is also leading to growth in energy consumption. Due to the risk in this human contribution to global warming, a major shift in the Energy System towards environmental sustain ability is being discussed. Changing the Energy System will require large investments in know-how and technology development, and it will take a long time to alter the rigid infrastructure of our existing Energy System. The road to the ''Clean Energy Society'' probably cannot be built by prescribing the use of one technology only. It makes a lot more sense to encourage competition between different technologies and then let experience and the market decide the winners. It will also be important to invest in the development of robust knowledge that can be applied within a broad spectrum of possible development scenarios during the next decades. Society's attitudes towards the environment, energy and the use of resources

  3. (Nuclear) energy policy in future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    With this report the German Federal Diet submits the final results of the opinion-forming and decision-making process concerning the recommendations made by the investigation committee 'Future Nuclear Energy Policy' in June 1980. By means of this report it is intended to point out to an interested public the difficult and time-consuming process of parliamentary decision-making. This report is also to be seen as the final opinion delivered on the recommendations made by the investigation committee. The recommendations were to continue to pursue the peaceful use of nuclear energy, the necessity and technical justifiability of which had basically been approved by all parliamentary groups. In view of the import of the subject and in recognition of the work done by the investigation committee, the German Parliament has thoroughly discussed the report and has reviewed the analyses and recommendations in conjunction with other political fields to be considered. One part of the recommendations was taken up almost unanimously. As far as the safety of nuclear installations is concerned, the investigation committee could not submit any new findings which would give reasons for modifying the hitherto positive assessment of the safety of nuclear installations. The recommendations of the investigation committee mainly referred to the decision-making process in the field of energy policy which will effect the next decade. What fundamental decisions are to be made until when was pointed out as well as the findings and experience to be made until then. (orig./HP) [de

  4. The energy future: cards on the table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, Jean-Marie; Derdevet, Michel; Geoffron, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Since the Fukushima accident, energy policies have been revisited in many nuclearized countries. The energy debate is complex and must encompass several levels of reflection: an international level marked by the energy/climate equation, and by energy resources economy and geopolitics; a European level because we have made the commitment to build a common electricity and gas energy market; a national level where some strategic priorities can be put forward by governments and populations; a local level where energy-related experiments are more and more frequent. Thus, energy choices cannot be made within the single national and governmental frame any longer. At the international scale, it has become urgent to develop low-carbon energy systems. In the framework of the inevitable implementation of a responsible energy policy, the authors examine the main qualities that energy industries should develop: a safe, real-price and environmentally-friendly energy. These qualities must fit with a European framework capable to use complementarities in a perspective of competitiveness, environmental liability and short-, medium- and long-term security of supplies. All new opportunities for companies, in France and abroad, will develop in this framework as well. The energy future question has become essential and must be dealt beyond the national frame and in close relation with the climate question

  5. Robust and sustainable bioenergy: Biomass in the future Danish energy system; Robust og baeredygtig bioenergi: Biomasse i fremtidens danske energisystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoett, T.

    2012-09-15

    The publication is a collection of articles about new, exciting technologies for the production of bioenergy, which received support from Danish research programmes. The green technologies must be sustainable so that future generations' opportunities for bioenergy use is not restricted, and the solutions must be robust in relation to security of supply, costs and energy economy. In this context, research plays a crucial role. Research is especially carried out within the use of residues as bio-waste, straw, wood and manure for energy purposes, but there are also projects on energy crops, as well as research into how algae from the sea can increase the production of biomass. (LN)

  6. Design principles and requirements for the ICT of future smart energy systems; Designprinzipien und Anforderungen an die IKT fuer intelligente Energiesysteme der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eger, Kolja [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany). Corporate Technology; Mohr, Werner [Nokia Siemens Networks Management International GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The information and communication technology (ICT) is a key enabling technology for Smart Grids. With respect to very short innovation cycles for ICT compared to longer innovation cycles for the transition of the energy system there is a huge challenge to develop and exploit the potential of future ICT and their application in a future intelligent energy system. Different ICT technologies, such as Internet of Things or Cloud Computing are intensively being discussed. They can be summarized under the term ''Future Internet''. The EU project FINSENY is investigating the potential of Future Internet concepts and technologies in particular for Smart Energy systems. A series of design principles and the necessary ICT are developed, which are described in this paper. These design principles such as open interfaces, security-by-design, simplicity, maintenance, auto-configuration and modularity are of general nature. They will remain despite technology developments. Furthermore, several design principles are not only applicable to ICT but they are also related to design principles of intelligent energy systems like decentralized energy generation systems. (orig.)

  7. Creating a sustainable energy future for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonneborn, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    A joint industry approach is needed to put in place a sustainable energy system that is economically and technologically feasible. The industry sectors involved must include the renewable energy industry, energy efficiency industry and the natural gas industry. Conventional forecasts of energy futures make far less use of these industries than is economically and technically feasible. Existing forecasts make the trade off between acceptable levels of economic growth, limitation of greenhouse gases and dependence on coal and oil appear more difficult than they actually are and overlook the benefits of sustainable energy industry development. This paper outlines how national gains from carefully targeted action can exceed national losses while substantially reducing greenhouse gases and creating jobs at zero or negative costs. (author). 3 figs., 27 refs

  8. Future nuclear energy scenarios for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelofs, F.; Van Heek, A.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear energy is back on the agenda worldwide. In order to prepare for the next decades and to set priorities in nuclear R and D and investment, market share scenarios are evaluated. This allows to identify the triggers which influence the market penetration of future nuclear reactor technologies. To this purpose, scenarios for a future nuclear reactor park in Europe have been analysed applying an integrated dynamic process modelling technique. Various market share scenarios for nuclear energy are derived including sub-variants with regard to the intra-nuclear options taken, e.g. introduction date of Gen-III (i.e. EPR) and Gen-IV (i.e. SCWR, HTR, FR) reactors, level of reprocessing, and so forth. The assessment was undertaken using the DANESS code which allows to provide a complete picture of mass-flow and economics of the various nuclear energy system scenarios. The analyses show that the future European nuclear park will exist of combinations of Gen-III and Gen-IV reactors. This mix will always consist of a set of reactor types each having its specific strengths. Furthermore, the analyses highlight the triggers influencing the choice between different nuclear energy deployment scenarios. In addition, a dynamic assessment is made with regard to manpower requirements for the construction of a future nuclear fleet in the different scenarios. (authors)

  9. Review of models and actors in energy mix optimization – can leader visions and decisions align with optimum model strategies for our future energy systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, R.; Taylor, P.; Bahn, O.; Das, S.R.; Wei, Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    Organizational behavior and stakeholder processes continually influence energy strategy choices and decisions. Although theoretical optimizations can provide guidance for energy mix decisions from a pure physical systems engineering point of view, these solutions might not be optimal from a

  10. Hierarchical Control Design for Shipboard Power System with DC Distribution and Energy Storage aboard Future More-Electric Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Zheming; Meng, Lexuan; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2018-01-01

    power system (SPS) with DC distribution and energy storage system (ESS) is picked as study case. To meet the requirement of control and management of such a large-scale mobile power system, a hierarchical control design is proposed in this paper. In order to fully exploit the benefit of ESS, as well...

  11. Future Energy Grid. Migration paths into the energy Internet; Future Energy Grid. Migrationspfade ins Internet der Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelrath, Hans-Juergen [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany); Kagermann, Henning [acatech - Deutsche Akademie der Technikwissenschaften, Berlin (Germany). Hauptstadtbuero; Mayer, Christoph (eds.) [OFFIS e.V., Oldenburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The present study describes the migration path that must be taken up to the year 2030 in pursuit of the Future Energy Grid. For this purpose it has explored what possible future scenarios must be taken into account along the migration path. The following key factors were identified in preparation of drawing up scenarios: expansion of the electrical infrastructure; system-wide availability of an information and communication technology infrastructure; flexibilisation of consumption; energy mix; new services and products; final consumer costs; and standardisation and political framework conditions. These eight key factors were combined with each other in different variants to give three consistent scenarios for the year 2030.

  12. A linear programming approach for the optimal planning of a future energy system. Potential contribution of energy recovery from municipal solid wastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George; Koroneos, C.

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper the mismatch between the energy supply levels and the end use, in a broader sense, was studied for the Hellenic energy system. The ultimate objective was to optimize the way to meet the country's energy needs in every different administrative and geographical region using...... renewable energy sources (RES) and at the same time to define the remaining available space for energy recovery units from municipal solid waste (MSW) in each region to participate in the energy system. Based on the results of the different scenarios examined for meeting the electricity needs using linear...

  13. Coal, energy of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, V.; Guezel, J.Ch.

    2006-01-01

    Coal is no longer considered as a 'has been' energy source. The production and demand of coal is growing up everywhere in the world because it has some strategic and technological advantages with respect to other energy sources: cheap, abundant, available everywhere over the world, in particular in countries with no geopolitical problems, and it is independent of supplying infrastructures (pipelines, terminals). Its main drawback is its polluting impact (dusts, nitrogen and sulfur oxides, mercury and CO 2 ). The challenge is to develop clean and high efficiency coal technologies like supercritical steam power plants or combined cycle coal gasification plants with a 50% efficiency, and CO 2 capture and sequestration techniques (post-combustion, oxy-combustion, chemical loop, integrated gasification gas combined cycle (pre-combustion)). Germany, who will abandon nuclear energy by 2021, is massively investing in the construction of high efficiency coal- and lignite-fired power plants with pollution control systems (denitrification and desulfurization processes, dust precipitators). (J.S.)

  14. THE FUTURE OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. L. Renner

    2006-11-01

    Recent national focus on the value of increasing our supply of indigenous, renewable energy underscores the need for reevaluating all alternatives, particularly those that are large and welldistributed nationally. This analysis will help determine how we can enlarge and diversify the portfolio of options we should be vigorously pursuing. One such option that is often ignored is geothermal energy, produced from both conventional hydrothermal and Enhanced (or engineered) Geothermal Systems (EGS). An 18-member assessment panel was assembled in September 2005 to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of EGS becoming a major supplier of primary energy for U.S. base-load generation capacity by 2050. This report documents the work of the panel at three separate levels of detail. The first is a Synopsis, which provides a brief overview of the scope, motivation, approach, major findings, and recommendations of the panel. At the second level, an Executive Summary reviews each component of the study, providing major results and findings. The third level provides full documentation in eight chapters, with each detailing the scope, approach, and results of the analysis and modeling conducted in each area.

  15. Implementation of Pilot Protection System for Large Scale Distribution System like The Future Renewable Electric Energy Distribution Management Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iigaya, Kiyohito

    A robust, fast and accurate protection system based on pilot protection concept was developed previously and a few alterations in that algorithm were made to make it faster and more reliable and then was applied to smart distribution grids to verify the results for it. The new 10 sample window method was adapted into the pilot protection program and its performance for the test bed system operation was tabulated. Following that the system comparison between the hardware results for the same algorithm and the simulation results were compared. The development of the dual slope percentage differential method, its comparison with the 10 sample average window pilot protection system and the effects of CT saturation on the pilot protection system are also shown in this thesis. The implementation of the 10 sample average window pilot protection system is done to multiple distribution grids like Green Hub v4.3, IEEE 34, LSSS loop and modified LSSS loop. Case studies of these multi-terminal model are presented, and the results are also shown in this thesis. The result obtained shows that the new algorithm for the previously proposed protection system successfully identifies fault on the test bed and the results for both hardware and software simulations match and the response time is approximately less than quarter of a cycle which is fast as compared to the present commercial protection system and satisfies the FREEDM system requirement.

  16. The energy future in France?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebut, Paul Henri

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution, the author indicates figures for primary energy sources in France, outlines what is expected from a source of energy, and discusses the energy transformation efficiency. He addresses the case of electricity production and consumption, production costs for the different sources, nuclear energy, primary fluid mechanical energies, issue of intermittency and storage, photovoltaic, storage, subsidies and purchase obligation for EDF, fossil energies and carbon dioxide production. He questions the possibility of reduction of energy consumption, evokes and criticizes the French energy policy concerning electricity production, and possibilities of energy saving in housing and in transports, and by developing smart grids

  17. Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2014-01-01

    on the electricity sector, smart energy systems include the entire energy system in its approach to identifying suitable energy infrastructure designs and operation strategies. The typical smart grid sole focus on the electricity sector often leads to the conclusion that transmission lines, flexible electricity......This paper presents the learning of a series of studies that analyse the problems and perspectives of converting the present energy system into a 100 % renewable energy system using a smart energy systems approach. As opposed to, for instance, the smart grid concept, which takes a sole focus...... are to be found when the electricity sector is combined with the heating and cooling sectors and/or the transportation sector. Moreover, the combination of electricity and gas infrastructures may play an important role in the design of future renewable energy systems. The paper illustrates why electricity smart...

  18. Air Source Heat Pump a Key Role in the Development of Smart Buildings in Future Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Vasile S.; Trifa, Viorel; Bojesen, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    An important challenge for energy systems today is reducing dependency on fossil fuels, while handling increasing penetration levels of intermittent renewables such as wind and solar power. The efficient consumption of energy is a vital mater for a sustainable energy system. A significant part...... of energy is used for space heating, space cooling, and domestic hot water production which are provided to residential and commercial buildings. Air source heat pumps (ASHP) are widely used conversion technologies all over the world for providing building thermal energy services as: cooling, heating......, and water heating. ASHP does not have a constant temperature for the primary source like: soil, ground water, or surface water heat pumps but still have a majority in usage. As result, laboratory experiments and tests are faced by the problem of having to handle a wide range of conditions under which...

  19. Future nuclear systems, Astrid, an option for the fourth generation: preparing the future of nuclear energy, sustainably optimising resources, defining technological options, sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ter Minassian, Vahe

    2016-01-01

    Energy independence and security of supplies, improved safety standards, sustainably optimised material management, minimal waste production - all without greenhouse gas emissions. These are the Generation IV International Forum specifications for nuclear energy of the future. The CEA is responsible for designing Astrid, an integrated technology demonstrator for the 4. generation of sodium-cooled fast reactors, in accordance with the French Sustainable Nuclear Materials and Waste Management Act of June 28, 2006, and funded as part of the Investments for the Future programme enacted by the French parliament in 2010. Energy management - a vital need and a factor of economic growth - is a major challenge for the world of tomorrow. The nuclear industry has significant advantages in this regard, although it faces safety, resource sustainability, and waste management issues that must be met through continuing technological innovation. Fast reactors are also of interest to the nuclear industry because their recycling capability would solve a number of problems related to the stockpiles of uranium and plutonium. After the resumption of R and D work with EDF and AREVA in 2006, the Astrid design studies began in 2010. The CEA, as owner and contracting authority for this programme, is now in a position to define the broad outlines of the demonstrator 4. generation reactor that could be commissioned during the next decade. A sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) operates in the same way as a conventional nuclear reactor: fission reactions in the atoms of fuel in the core generate heat, which is conveyed to a turbine generator to produce electricity. In the context of 4. generation technology, SFRs represent an innovative solution for optimising the use of raw materials as well as for enhancing safety. Here are a few ideas advanced by the CEA. (authors)

  20. Smart meters. Smart metering. A solution module for a future-oriented energy system; Intelligente Zaehler. Smart Metering. Ein Loesungsbaustein fuer ein zukunftsfaehiges Energiesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, Nadia; Seidl, Hans [comps.

    2011-12-15

    The German Energy Agency GmbH (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on smart metering as a solution module for a future-oriented energy system by means of the following contributions: (1) Key role for smart meters; (2) What is smart metering? (3) Implementation of smart metering in Europe; (4) The market development to date in Germany; (5) Practical experiences with smart metering in Germany; (6) Frequently asked questions; (7) Smart metering in intelligent networks; (8) Legal framework conditions; (9) Data security and data protection in the utilisation of smart meters; (10) Ongoing information; (11) Efficient energy systems.

  1. Sustainable uranium energy - an optional future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneley, D.

    2015-01-01

    After 50 plus years of working on uranium fission principles and application, it is a bit hard for me to talk about anything else - but I'll give it a try. To start, I solemnly promise not to recommend to you any new reactor design - be it small, medium, modular, or large. The Uranium-fuelled power plant will be discussed ONLY as a finished product. Note that this sketch is an optional future. Ontario will, of course, take it or leave it, in whole or in part. This paper concentrates on future potential achievements of the CANDU nuclear energy systems. In the past, this venture has produced several modular systems, ranging from small (NPD and CANDU 3), medium (CANDU 6 and 6E) and large (Bruce, Darlington, and CANDU 9). All of these projects are more Ol' less finished products, and yet the CANDU concept still has broad scope for refinement and upgrading. This paper is, however, not about nuclear technology per se, but rather it is about what nuclear energy can do, both now and in the future. What does Ontario need to do next, in the line of technology applications that can help deal with the negative aspects of human-induced climate change? What energy systems can be installed to sustain the wealth and prosperity that Ontario's citizens now enjoy? What are the opportunities and the engineering challenges ahead of us? I do wish to apologize in advance for errors and omissions, and can only hope that missed details do not detract nor completely destroy an optimistic vision. Energy engineering is my game. Economics is not my specialty though it is an integral part of every engineering project. It is likely that the topic of economics will dominate the future choice of world energy supply, whatever that choice may be. Some people claim that the decisive factor dominating decisions with respect to uranium energy will be fear. In fact many opponents of the associated technology aim to induce fear as their main guiding theme. On the contrary, it is more reasonable to expect

  2. Sustainable uranium energy - an optional future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneley, D. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Tech., Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    After 50 plus years of working on uranium fission principles and application, it is a bit hard for me to talk about anything else - but I'll give it a try. To start, I solemnly promise not to recommend to you any new reactor design - be it small, medium, modular, or large. The Uranium-fuelled power plant will be discussed ONLY as a finished product. Note that this sketch is an optional future. Ontario will, of course, take it or leave it, in whole or in part. This paper concentrates on future potential achievements of the CANDU nuclear energy systems. In the past, this venture has produced several modular systems, ranging from small (NPD and CANDU 3), medium (CANDU 6 and 6E) and large (Bruce, Darlington, and CANDU 9). All of these projects are more Ol' less finished products, and yet the CANDU concept still has broad scope for refinement and upgrading. This paper is, however, not about nuclear technology per se, but rather it is about what nuclear energy can do, both now and in the future. What does Ontario need to do next, in the line of technology applications that can help deal with the negative aspects of human-induced climate change? What energy systems can be installed to sustain the wealth and prosperity that Ontario's citizens now enjoy? What are the opportunities and the engineering challenges ahead of us? I do wish to apologize in advance for errors and omissions, and can only hope that missed details do not detract nor completely destroy an optimistic vision. Energy engineering is my game. Economics is not my specialty though it is an integral part of every engineering project. It is likely that the topic of economics will dominate the future choice of world energy supply, whatever that choice may be. Some people claim that the decisive factor dominating decisions with respect to uranium energy will be fear. In fact many opponents of the associated technology aim to induce fear as their main guiding theme. On the contrary, it is more

  3. Main tendencies meeting future energy demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flach, G.; Riesner, W.; Ufer, D.

    1989-09-01

    The economic development in the German Democratic Republic within the preceding 10 years has proved that future stable economic growth of about 4 to 4.5% per annum is only achievable by ways including methods of saving resources. This requires due to the close interdependences between the social development and the level of the development in the energy sector long-term growth rates of the national income of 4 to 4.5% per annum at primary energy growth rates of less than 1% per annum. It comprises three main tendencies: 1. Organization of a system with scientific-technical, technological, economic structural-political and educational measures ensuring in the long term less increase of the energy demand while keeping the economic growth at a constant level. 2. The long-term moderate extension and modernization of the GDR's energy basis is characterized by continuing use of the indigenous brown coal resources for the existing power plant capacities and for district heating. 3. The use of modern and safe nuclear power technologies defines a new and in future more and more important element of the energy basis. Currently about 10% of electricity in the GDR are covered by nuclear energy, in 2000 it will be one third, after 2000 the growth process will continue. The experience shows: If conditions of deepened scientific consideration of all technological processes and the use of modern diagnosis and computer technologies as well as permanent improvement of the safety-technological components and equipment are guaranteed an increasing use of such systems for the production of electricity and heat is socially acceptable. Ensuring a high level of education and technical training of everyone employed in the nuclear energy industry, strict safety restrictions and independent governmental control of these restrictions are important preconditions for the further development in this field. 3 refs, 5 tabs

  4. EDGaR D1 : Integrating local and regional energy systems for enhancing sustainability. Work Package 3: Designing Institutions for Future Energy Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy into the Dutch energy infrastructure raises interrelated operational and market challenges. In their efforts to address them, engineers and economists approach the design of electricity infrastructures very differently, however. While economists focus on a market

  5. Global energy context: future scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beretta, Gian Paolo

    2006-01-01

    After a brief analysis of the history of global energy consumption, this paper discusses a plausible scenario of energy needs and related carbon emissions for the rest of the century. The global outlook and the probable evolution of several factors that impact on energy policy considerations - even on the local scale - demonstrate the great complexity and planetary dimension of the problems, as well as the almost certain sterility of out-of-context domestic energy-policy measures [it

  6. Energy consumption: Past, present, future

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The energy consumption history of the United States and the changes which could occur in consumption characteristics in the next 50 years are presented. The various sources of energy are analyzed to show the limitations involved in development and utilization as a function of time available. Several scenarios were prepared to show the consumption and supply of energy under varying conditions.

  7. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2011-06-15

    In addition to promoting energy efficiency, China has actively pursued alternative energy development as a strategy to reduce its energy demand and carbon emissions. One area of particular focus has been to raise the share of alternative energy in China’s rapidly growing electricity generation with a 2020 target of 15% share of total primary energy. Over the last ten years, China has established several major renewable energy regulations along with programs and subsidies to encourage the growth of non-fossil alternative energy including solar, wind, nuclear, hydro, geothermal and biomass power as well as biofuels and coal alternatives. This study thus seeks to examine China’s alternative energy in terms of what has and will continue to drive alternative energy development in China as well as analyze in depth the growth potential and challenges facing each specific technology. This study found that despite recent policies enabling extraordinary capacity and investment growth, alternative energy technologies face constraints and barriers to growth. For relatively new technologies that have not achieved commercialization such as concentrated solar thermal, geothermal and biomass power, China faces technological limitations to expanding the scale of installed capacity. While some alternative technologies such as hydropower and coal alternatives have been slowed by uneven and often changing market and policy support, others such as wind and solar PV have encountered physical and institutional barriers to grid integration. Lastly, all alternative energy technologies face constraints in human resources and raw material resources including land and water, with some facing supply limitations in critical elements such as uranium for nuclear, neodymium for wind and rare earth metals for advanced solar PV. In light of China’s potential for and barriers to growth, the resource and energy requirement for alternative energy technologies were modeled and scenario analysis

  8. Sustainable Energy Future - Nordic Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This invited paper first outlines the methodologies applied in analysing the energy savings potentials, as applied to a Nordic and a European case study. Afterwards are shown results for how a high quality of life can be achieved with an energy consumption only a small fraction of the present in ...... in Europe. The energy policy in Denmark since 1973 is outlined, including the activities and the roles of NGOs. Finally are described some of the difficulties of implementing energy saving policies, especially in combination with increasing liberalization of the energy market....

  9. Alberta's clean energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This paper deals with the future of clean energy in Alberta. With the present economic growth of the oil sands industry in Alberta, it is expected that there will be very considerable increases in job opportunities and GDP in both Canada and US. The challenges include high-energy demand and reduction of the carbon footprint. Alberta has adopted certain approaches to developing renewable and alternate forms of energy as well as to increasing the efficiency of present energy use and raising environmental consciousness in energy production. Three areas where the effects of clean energy will be felt are energy systems, climate change, and regional impacts, for instance on land, water, and wildlife. Alberta's regulatory process is shown by means of a flow chart. Aspects of oil sands environmental management include greenhouse gas targets, air quality assurance, and water quality monitoring, among others. Steps taken by Alberta to monitor and improve air quality and water management are listed. In conclusion, the paper notes that significant amounts of money are being pumped into research and development for greenhouse gas and water management projects.

  10. Solar Energy - An Option for Future Energy Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Peter E.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the exponential growth of energy consumption and future consequences. Possible methods of converting solar energy to power such as direct energy conversion, focusing collectors, selective rediation absorbers, ocean thermal gradient, and space solar power are considered. (DF)

  11. Canada's energy future : 2008 workshop summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The National Energy Board hosted this Energy Futures Workshop as a follow-up to its report entitled Canada's Energy Future: Reference Case and Scenarios to 2030, which focused on emerging trends in energy supply and demand. Various energy futures that may be available to Canadians up to the year 2030 were examined. This workshop addressed issues regarding the growing demand for energy, the adequacy of future energy supplies, and related issues of greenhouse gas emissions, emerging technologies, energy infrastructure and energy exports. The workshop was attended by 18 experts who presented their diverse views on long-term energy issues. The sessions of the workshop focused on external and key geopolitical issues that will influence Canadian energy markets; the adoption of alternative and emerging sources of energy; outlook for Canadian oil supply, including oil sands development, reservoir quality, and financial, environmental and technological issues; issues in electricity generation and transmission; gas market dynamics; and carbon dioxide capture and storage and the associated benefits and challenges. There was general consensus that global and Canadian energy markets will remain in a state of flux. Crude oil prices are likely to remain high and volatile. The combination of maturing energy resource basins and geopolitical tensions has created uncertainty about future availability and access to global energy resources. 2 figs., 3 appendices

  12. The flexibility requirements for power plants with CCS in a future energy system with a large share of intermittent renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A. S.; van den Broek, M.; Seebregts, A.; Faaij, A. P. C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates flexibility issues of future low-carbon power systems. The short-term power system impacts of intermittent renewables are identified and roughly quantified based on a review of wind integration studies. Next, the flexibility parameters of three types of power plants with CO2

  13. Lasers and future high energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    1998-02-01

    Future high energy colliders, directions for particle physics and relationship to new technology such as lasers are discussed. Experimental approaches to explore New Physics with emphasis on the utility of high energy colliders are also discussed

  14. Solar energy utilizing technology for future cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Kei

    1987-11-20

    This report proposes solar energy utilizing technologies for future cities, centering on a system that uses Fresnel lenses and optical fiber cables. This system selects out beams in the visible range and the energy can be sent to end terminals constantly as long as sunlight is available. Optical energy is concentrated 4,000-fold. The system can provide long-distance projection of parallel rays. It will be helpful for efficient utilization of light in cities and can increase the degree of freedom in carrying out urban development. The total efficiency for the introduction into optical fiber can be up to 40 percent. With no heating coil incorporated, there is no danger of fire. The standard size of a light condenser is 2 m in dome diameter and 2.5 m in height. Auxiliary artificial light is used for backup purposes when it is cloudy. Heat pumps operating on solar thermal energy are employed to maintain air conditioning for 24 hours a day in order to ensure the establishment of an environment where residential areas exist in the neighborhood of office areas. Seven automatic solar light collection and transfer systems are currently in practical use at the Arc Hills building. The combination of Fresnel lens and optical fiber is more than six times as high in efficiency as a reflecting mirror. (5 figs, 3 tabs, 8 photos, 6 refs)

  15. Energy sources for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, J.L.; Cloutier, R.J. (eds.)

    1977-04-01

    The symposium program was designed for college faculty members who are teaching or plan to teach energy courses at their educational institutions. Lectures were presented on socio-economic aspects of energy development, fusion reactors, solar energy, coal-fired power plants, nuclear power, radioactive waste disposal, and radiation hazards. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 16 of the 18 papers presented; two papers were processed earlier: Residential Energy Use Alternatives to the Year 2000, by Eric Hurst (EAPA 2:257; ERA 1:25978) and The Long-Term Prospects for Solar Energy, by W. G. Pollard (EAPA 3:1008). Fourteen of the papers are included in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis. (EAPA).

  16. Nuclear energy, understand the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauquis, P.R.; Barre, B.

    2006-01-01

    In spite of its first use for military needs, the nuclear became a substitution energy, especially for the electric power production. For many scientist the nuclear seems to be the main part to the world energy supply in an economic growth context, provided the radioactive wastes problems is solved. From the military origins to the electric power generation, this book explains the technical economical and political aspects of the nuclear energy. (A.L.B.)

  17. Nuclear energy: basics, present, future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricotti M. E

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is conceived for non-nuclear experts, intended as a synthetic and simplified overview of the technology related to energy by nuclear fission. At the end of the paper, the Reader will find a minimal set of references, several of them on internet, useful to start deepening the knowledge on this challenging, complex, debated albeit engaging energy source.

  18. The Economics of America's Energy Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Henry

    This is an Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) pamphlet which reviews economic and technical considerations for the future development of energy sources. Included are sections on petroleum, synthetic fuels, oil shale, nuclear power, geothermal power, and solar energy. Also presented are data pertaining to U.S. energy production…

  19. Using simple wind-diesel systems without energy storage to obtain high penetration and market acceptance in the near future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundsager, P.; Sherwin, R.W. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A wind/diesel hybrid power system combines wind energy technology with diesel generation to provide continous AC electrical power with reduced fuel consumption. The objectives of this paper are to summarize the reasoning behind the simple Wind-Diesel system concept using low or negative load operation of the diesels, including the diesel backdrive technique proposed by Atlantic Orient, and to outline a strategy within an international framework to make simple Wind-Diesel systems with standard induction generator wind turbines commercially available and accepted by the market. (au) (11 refs.)

  20. I want to know future energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Cheol

    2009-04-01

    This book introduces future energy. These are the contents ; sun light which is infinite energy, hydrogen has siblings, good point of nuclear fusion, hydrogen fueled vehicle and imaginative power, application of infinite solar energy, who discovers hydrogen, sunlight generation which can make electricity from sunlight, people against wind power generation, making energy from sea, generation using wave power, making electricity from temperature differential of sea, what is bio energy, the reason that bio energy rare uses and bio fuel that people make.

  1. The Future of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, A.

    2005-01-01

    Current nuclear energy represents 23.5% of the total electrical power available within the OECD countries. This is the energy offering the lowest costs to generate, it does not emit greenhouse-effect fumes nor does it contribute to global warming, however, it does generate radioactive and toxic waste which society perceives as an unacceptable risk. For this reason the development of new nuclear installation in Europe is at a stand still or moving backward. Truthful information and social participation in decisions is the best way to achieve the eradication of the social phobia produced by this energy source. (Author)

  2. Nuclear energy, energy of the future or bad solution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The document presents the speeches of the debate on the nuclear energy solution for the future, presented during the meeting of the 6 may in Rennes, in the framework of the National Debate on the energies. The debate concerns the risks assessment and control, the solutions for the radioactive wastes, the foreign examples and the future of the nuclear energy. (A.L.B.)

  3. Risks from electricity generation systems in the far future. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting on approaches for estimating and comparing risks from energy systems in the far future. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Comparative risk assessment of the health and environmental impacts of electricity generation systems can be used for providing information for decisions concerning choice of electricity generation systems and regulation of the systems. Since the beginning of 1990s, there have been several major studies of comparative risk assessment that have advanced the methodology and knowledge for the assessment of health and environmental impacts of electricity production systems. In those studies, many methodological issues were identified, and it was found that one of the major issues that influenced the results was the time period included in the risk assessment. In the results of recent studies, the impacts for long time periods are influential because of the accumulation of the impacts for more than 100 years and the large uncertainties in the estimations. Examples of such long term impacts are those from global climate change and potential impacts from radionuclides ad non-radioactive pollutants originating from nuclear and other electricity generation systems. It is generally expected that the estimates for longer term impacts have greater uncertainty. In order to enhance the comparative risk studies and the application of the results, the methodology and key issues for estimating the impacts for future :generations should be investigated, and approaches for the assessments should be established. In this connection, the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting TCM on Approaches for Estimating and Comparing Risks from Energy Systems in the Far Future was held at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, Austria, from 6 to 10 October 1997. This material contains the proceedings of the TCM held in October 1997, and the latest draft of the technical report, Long-Term Risks from Electricity Generation Systems

  4. Systems of the future; Les systemes du futur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    The world population growth will impact largely on the energy and electric power demand in the future. Facing the decrease of the hydrocarbons reserves, the international community decided to work together to develop a new generation of nuclear systems. In this context, coordinated researches are realized first with a short dated objective on the development of innovations for PWR type reactors and second with a middle dated on the development of new systems in an international framework (essentially Generation IV). Theses research programs are presented below. The first part is devoted to the different generation of reactors (I to IV) and to the third generation; the second part deals with the international framework of the researches, the french strategy and the european dimension. (A.L.B.)

  5. A core concept for the self-consistent nuclear energy system based on the promising future technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arie, K.; Suzuki, M.; Kawashima, M.; Igashira, M.; Shimizu, A.; Fujii-e, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Feasibility of FP burning while maintaining fuel breeding capability for the Self-Consistent Nuclear Energy System is evaluated through neutron balance and a fast reactor core. It is shown that all radioactive FPs produced by itself can be burnt by a fast reactor while maintaining breeding capability, assuming separation of radioactive FP and stable FP isotopes. Assuming that the recovery system of fuel and FPs to be burnt is based on a pyro-chemical process, the major long-lived FPs of I, Pd, Tc, Sn, Se can be burnt with keeping breeding capability by suitability arranging materials in the fast reactor core. (Author)

  6. Nuclear energy and its future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The status of nuclear power in the world and its future are briefly discussed. It is shown that nuclear power capacity is increasing in the Asian and Pacific rim region and that new reactor designs, with the increased emphasis on safety and standardisation, could make nuclear power a more acceptable option in the future. The author also outlines the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization wide range of skills and facilities which are bringing the benefits of nuclear science and technology to Australia. These include: the development of Synroc as an advanced second generation waste management; production of radiotracers for biomedical researches and environmental problems; application of gamma irradiation in industry and of ion beam analysis in biology, archaeology, semi-conductor and environmental science. 2 tabs

  7. Nuclear energy in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaussade, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear energy plays a major role in the French economy because of the lack of fossil fuels on the French territory. About 75% of the French electric power is of nuclear origin. This paper gives an analysis of the French public attitude about nuclear energy and the methods used by the nuclear industrialists to better the electro-nuclear image. Communication, advertising and transparency are the best attitudes for a suitable public information and are necessary to reduce the public anxiety after the Chernobyl accident. Television advertising, magazines and organized visits of nuclear installations have allowed to explain the interest of nuclear energy in the environmental reduction of pollutants. However, public information must include the topic about nuclear wastes to remain credible. (J.S.)

  8. Land use implications of future energy system trajectories—The case of the UK 2050 Carbon Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konadu, D. Dennis; Mourão, Zenaida Sobral; Allwood, Julian M.; Richards, Keith S.; Kopec, Grant; McMahon, Richard; Fenner, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The UK's 2008 Climate Change Act sets a legally binding target for reducing territorial greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050, relative to 1990 levels. Four pathways to achieve this target have been developed by the Department of Energy and Climate Change, with all pathways requiring increased us of bioenergy. A significant amount of this could be indigenously sourced from crops, but will increased domestic production of energy crops conflict with other agricultural priorities? To address this question, a coupled analysis of the UK energy system and land use has been developed. The two systems are connected by the production of bioenergy, and are projected forwards in time under the energy pathways, accounting for various constraints on land use for agriculture and ecosystem services. The results show different combinations of crop yield and compositions for the pathways lead to the appropriation of between 7% and 61% of UK's agricultural land for bioenergy production. This could result in competition for land for food production and other land uses, as well as indirect land use change in other countries due to an increase in bioenergy imports. Consequently, the potential role of bioenergy in achieving UK emissions reduction targets may face significant deployment challenges. - Highlights: • The Carbon Plan could result in significant land use change for bioenergy by 2050. • Higher Nuclear; less efficiency pathway has the highest land use change impact. • Higher Renewables; more energy efficiency pathway has the lowest land use change impact. • Transport decarbonisation via biofuels has the highest land use change impacts. • At current deployment rate only Higher Renewables pathway projections is achievable.

  9. Renewable energy shaping our future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.

    2010-01-01

    ISES, de International Solar Energy Society is een wereldwijde organisatie met ongeveer 4.000 Leden. Hoogtepunt van de ISES-activiteiten is steeds weer het tweejaarlijkse Solar World Congres waarin deskundigen hun ervaringen uitwisselen. Dit jaar werd de 29e conferentie in Johannesburg gehouden en

  10. Nuclear energy has a future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorin, F.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear energy appears to be a main asset to France in the context of the worldwide economic slump. Nuclear power provides a cheap electricity that spares the buying power of households and increases the competitiveness of French enterprises. Nuclear industry with major companies like EDF, AREVA and CEA and 450 small and medium-sized enterprises, represents a core resistant to industrial decline. Nuclear industry is a good provider of work and globally it represents 2% of all the jobs in France. Concerning the trade balance, nuclear power plays twice; first by exporting equipment and services for a value of 7 billions euros a year and secondly by sparing the cost of energy imports that would be necessary if nuclear power was not here which is estimated to 20 billions euros a year. (A.C.)

  11. Leverage effect in energy futures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-9 ISSN 0140-9883 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-11402P Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/11/0948 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : energy commodities * leverage effect * volatility * long-term memory Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.708, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/kristoufek-0433531.pdf

  12. U. S. Fusion Energy Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, John A.; Jassby, Dan; Larson, Scott; Pueyo, Maria; Rutherford, Paul H.

    2000-01-01

    Fusion implementation scenarios for the US have been developed. The dependence of these scenarios on both the fusion development and implementation paths has been assessed. A range of implementation paths has been studied. The deployment of CANDU fission reactors in Canada and the deployment of fission reactors in France have been assessed as possible models for US fusion deployment. The waste production and resource (including tritium) needs have been assessed. The conclusion that can be drawn from these studies is that it is challenging to make a significant impact on energy production during this century. However, the rapid deployment of fission reactors in Canada and France support fusion implementation scenarios for the US with significant power production during this century. If the country can meet the schedule requirements then the resource needs and waste production are found to be manageable problems

  13. The future of nuclear energy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polie, P.

    1996-01-01

    An overview of current situation and future trends in nuclear energy production in Europe is made. Main factors characterizing differences in atomic policy of each particular European country are discussed. They are: readiness of the governments to implement a long-term energy policy; technical, economical and energy aspects; public opinion. Future development of new power plants is connected with overproduction of electricity, safety operation of present NPP, reduction of CO 2 emissions and public opinion. The energy policy of the European Union is also discussed and the necessity of transparency in industrial strategy of the governments is outlined

  14. Costly waiting for the future gas energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses solutions while waiting for the pollution free gas power plant and points out that Norway will have to import Danish power from coal and Swedish nuclear energy for a long time yet. Various future scenarios are mentioned

  15. Nuclear energy of the future, solar energy of the future: some convergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flamant, G.

    2006-01-01

    Most medium- and long-term energy scenarios foresee the joint development of renewable and nuclear energies. In other words, the energy sources must be as various as possible. Among the renewable energy sources, the solar energy presents the highest development potential, even if today the biomass and wind energies are quantitatively more developed. In France, the solar power generation is ensured by photovoltaic systems. However, the thermodynamical conversion of solar energy (using concentrating systems) represents an enormous potential at the world scale and several projects of solar plants are in progress in Spain and in the USA. The advantages of this solution are numerous: high efficiency of thermodynamic cycles, possibility of heat storage and hybridization (solar/fuels), strong potential of innovation. Moreover, the solar concentrators allow to reach temperatures higher than 1000 deg. C and thus allow to foresee efficient thermochemical cycles for hydrogen generation. The future solar plants will have to be efficient, reliable and will have to be able to meet the energy demand. In order to reach high thermodynamic cycle efficiencies, it is necessary to increase the temperature of the hot source and to design combined cycles. These considerations are common to the communities of researchers and engineers of both the solar thermal and nuclear industries. Therefore, the future development of generation 4 nuclear power plants and of generation 3 solar plants are conditioned by the resolution of similar problems, like the coolants (molten salts and gases), the materials (metals and ceramics), the heat transfers (hydrogen generation), and the qualification of systems (how solar concentrators can help to perform qualification tests of nuclear materials). Short communication. (J.S.)

  16. The future of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koughnett, K. Van

    2003-01-01

    This presentation provided a brief history of wind power through the ages, and culminated with a look at installed capacity in 2002. Vision Quest has been in the wind power business since 1980, and the first turbines were installed in 1997. The company operates 40 per cent of Canada's wind capacity. Vision Quest became part of TransAlta in December 2002, the largest non-regulated electric generation and marketing company in Canada. The reasons for investing in wind power were briefly reviewed. The author then examined the physics of wind power and wind energy resources. The key resource issues were identified as being resource availability and constancy, which is similar to oil and gas exploration. Utility scale turbines were described. The pros and cons of larger turbines were compared, and it was shown that larger turbines offer better economics, a higher capacity factor and fewer turbines to permit. Manufacturers are focused on larger machines for offshore. The various permitting authorities and their areas of responsibility were listed, from municipal, provincial and federal levels. The key drivers are: wind speed, installed cost of equipment, revenue, operating expense, and financial expense. Project risks include: power purchase agreements, technology risk, financial risk, construction risk, regulation, operating risks, dependence on third parties, and reliance on advisors. Some of the challenges facing Vision Quest are being early, permitting, electric grid interconnection, openness of markets, market supply, demand forces, and getting capital costs down. tabs., figs

  17. Small Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simoes, Marcelo; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    devices, and a centralized distribution control. In order to establish a small wind energy system it is important to observe the following: (i) Attending the energy requirements of the actual or future consumers; (ii) Establishing civil liabilities in case of accidents and financial losses due to shortage...... or low quality of energy; (iii) Negotiating collective conditions to interconnect the microgrid with the public network or with other sources of energy that is independent of wind resources; (iv) Establishing a performance criteria of power quality and reliability to end-users, in order to reduce costs...... and guaranteeing an acceptable energy supply. This paper discuss how performance is affected by local conditions and random nature of the wind, power demand profiles, turbine related factors, and presents the technical issues for implementing a self-excited induction generator system, or a permanent magnet based...

  18. Hydropower and the world's energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    The potential role of hydropower in the context of world-wide demographic growth and increasing demand for energy, and the benefits inherent in hydroelectric power in comparison with other energy options are discussed. Environmental and social impacts, and examples of mitigation measures are reviewed. Recommendations regarding best practices in the future development of hydroelectric power projects proposed

  19. Towards a sustainable future of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Diaz-Balart, Fidel

    1999-01-01

    The only form of having a future energy insurance is to find a road environmentally sustainable to take place and to use the energy. Their production and non alone use should be compatible with the environmental priorities of the society but rather they should be organized in such a way that they have a social consent, under the principle that so that there is economic development an economic and sure energy supply it should exist

  20. Energy Choices. Choices for future technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billfalk, Lennart; Haegermark, Harald

    2009-03-01

    In the next few years political decisions lie ahead in Sweden and the EU regarding the detailed formulation of the EU's so-called 20-20-20 targets and accompanying EU directives. Talks on a new international post-2012 climate agreement are imminent. The EU targets involve reducing emissions of greenhouse gases by 20 per cent, increasing the proportion of renewable energy by 20 per cent and improving energy efficiency by 20 per cent - all by the year 2020. According to the analysis of the consequences of the targets that the Technology Development Group has commissioned, the reduction in carbon dioxide in the stationary energy system in the Nordic region will be 40 per cent, not 20 per cent, if all the EU targets are to be achieved. The biggest socio-economic cost is associated with achieving the efficiency target, followed by the costs associated with achieving the renewable energy target and the CO 2 target. On the basis of this analysis and compilations about technology development, we want to highlight the following important key issues: Does Sweden want to have the option of nuclear power in the future or not? How to choose good policy instruments for new electricity production and networks? How best to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions of the transport sector and how to develop control and incentive measures that promote such a development? We are proposing the following: Carry out a more in-depth analysis of the consequences of the EU targets, so that the policy instruments produce the best combination as regards climate, economy and security of supply. To achieve the EU targets would require large investments in electricity production, particularly renewable energy, and in electricity networks. Internationally harmonized policy instruments and other incentive measures are required in order for the necessary investments to take place. The policy instruments have to provide a level playing field for all players in the energy sector. The large investments

  1. Nuclear energy in the world future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, W.; Jaek, W.

    1983-01-01

    Starting from the actual position in the electricity market nuclear energy will grow up to the stabilizing factor in this field. The market penetration of breeding and fusion systems, therefore, will be the next important milestones of nuclear energy development. On the other hand nuclear energy as well as the electric grid itself are good examples for the reconstruction of the non-electric energy market which is dominated by resource and environmental problems. To overcome these problems the installation of a refining step for fossil energy resources and a new transport system besides the electric grid are the next steps toward a crisis-proof energy supply system. (orig.) [de

  2. Multiple Energy System Analysis of Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck

    2015-01-01

    thermal grids and smart gas grids, Smart Energy Systems moves the flexibility away from the fuel as is the case in current energy systems and into the system itself. However, most studies applying a Smart Energy System approach deals with analyses for either single countries or whole continents......To eliminate the use of fossil fuels in the energy sector it is necessary to transition to future 100% renewable energy systems. One approach for this radical change in our energy systems is Smart Energy Systems. With a focus on development and interaction between smart electricity grids, smart......, but it is unclear how regions, municipalities, and communities should deal with these national targets. It is necessary to be able to provide this information since Smart Energy Systems utilize energy resources and initiatives that have strong relations to local authorities and communities, such as onshore wind...

  3. Nuclear energy - option for the future. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this conference was to analyse the future national and international problems arising with energy supplies with regard to the large mass flows and CO 2 flows involved in the use of nuclear energy. The following topics are dealt with: - nuclear energy, world-wide energy management and developments in Europe and Asia - disposal and ultimate waste disposal, plutonium management, an assessment of the Chernobyl accident 10 years on - new reactor developments in the energy mix - the costs arising with nuclear energy in the energy mix. In view of the demand made by climate researchers, to reduce CO 2 , and the additional construction work planned in the eastern and Asian areas, it will remain necessary for the Federal Republic of Germany,too, to maintain the know-how and technology for nuclear energy generation. (orig./DG)

  4. Energy infrastructure: hydrogen energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veziroglu, T N

    1979-02-01

    In a hydrogen system, hydrogen is not a primary source of energy, but an intermediary, an energy carrier between the primary energy sources and the user. The new unconventional energy sources, such as nuclear breeder reactors, fusion reactors, direct solar radiation, wind energy, ocean thermal energy, and geothermal energy have their shortcomings. These shortcomings of the new sources point out to the need for an intermediary energy system to form the link between the primary energy sources and the user. In such a system, the intermediary energy form must be transportable and storable; economical to produce; and if possible renewable and pollution-free. The above prerequisites are best met by hydrogen. Hydrogen is plentiful in the form of water. It is the cheapest synthetic fuel to manufacture per unit of energy stored in it. It is the least polluting of all of the fuels, and is the lightest and recyclable. In the proposed system, hydrogen would be produced in large plants located away from the consumption centers at the sites where primary new energy sources and water are available. Hydrogen would then be transported to energy consumption centers where it would be used in every application where fossil fuels are being used today. Once such a system is established, it will never be necessary to change to any other energy system.

  5. Energy Storage and Smart Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul Alberg Østergaard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is often highlighted how the transition to renewable energy supply calls for significant electricity storage. However, one has to move beyond the electricity-only focus and take a holistic energy system view to identify optimal solutions for integrating renewable energy. In this paper, an integrated cross-sector approach is used to determine the most efficient and least-cost storage options for the entire renewable energy system concluding that the best storage solutions cannot be found through analyses focusing on the individual sub-sectors. Electricity storage is not the optimum solution to integrate large inflows of fluctuating renewable energy, since more efficient and cheaper options can be found by integrating the electricity sector with other parts of the energy system and by this creating a Smart Energy System. Nevertheless, this does not imply that electricity storage should be disregarded but that it will be needed for other purposes in the future.

  6. Future particle detector systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Allan G.

    2000-01-01

    Starting with a short summary of the major new experimental physics programs, we attempt to motivate the reasons why existing general-purpose detectors at Hadron Colliders are what they are, why they are being upgraded, and why new facilities are being constructed. The CDF and ATLAS detectors are used to illustrate these motivations. Selected physics results from the CDF experiment provide evidence for limitations on the detector performance, and new physics opportunities motivate both machine and detector upgrades. This is discussed with emphasis on the improved physics reach of the CDF experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron (√(s)=2 TeV). From 2005, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will become operational at a collision energy of √(s)=14 TeV, seven times larger than at the Tevatron Collider. To exploit the physics capability of the LHC, several large detectors are being constructed. The detectors are significantly more complex than those at the Tevatron Collider because of physics and operational constraints. The detector design and technology of the aspects of the large general-purpose detector ATLAS is described

  7. Basic Science for a Secure Energy Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Linda

    2010-03-01

    Anticipating a doubling in the world's energy use by the year 2050 coupled with an increasing focus on clean energy technologies, there is a national imperative for new energy technologies and improved energy efficiency. The Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) supports fundamental research that provides the foundations for new energy technologies and supports DOE missions in energy, environment, and national security. The research crosses the full spectrum of materials and chemical sciences, as well as aspects of biosciences and geosciences, with a focus on understanding, predicting, and ultimately controlling matter and energy at electronic, atomic, and molecular levels. In addition, BES is the home for national user facilities for x-ray, neutron, nanoscale sciences, and electron beam characterization that serve over 10,000 users annually. To provide a strategic focus for these programs, BES has held a series of ``Basic Research Needs'' workshops on a number of energy topics over the past 6 years. These workshops have defined a number of research priorities in areas related to renewable, fossil, and nuclear energy -- as well as cross-cutting scientific grand challenges. These directions have helped to define the research for the recently established Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) and are foundational for the newly announced Energy Innovation Hubs. This overview will review the current BES research portfolio, including the EFRCs and user facilities, will highlight past research that has had an impact on energy technologies, and will discuss future directions as defined through the BES workshops and research opportunities.

  8. Future nuclear systems technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, H.

    1979-01-01

    Five directions can be identified for evolution of nuclear systems, possibly a sixth. These are, first, and perhaps most important, toward a means of extending fissile resources through improvement of the efficiency of their use; second, improvements in nuclear safety; third, reduction in the environmental impacts of nuclear electric power generation, particularly water requirements; fourth, improvements in proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycle; and fifth, improvements in economics. And added in a sixth, and somewhat more speculative direction, the use of nuclear power for purposes other than the direct generation of electricity

  9. Energy System Analysis of 100 Per cent Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results of the overall energy system analysis of a 100 per cent renewable energy system. The input for the systems is the result of a project of the Danish Association of Engineers, in which 1600 participants during more than 40 seminars discussed...... and designed a model for the future energy system of Denmark, putting emphasis on energy efficiency, CO2 reduction, and industrial development. The energy system analysis methodology includes hour by hour computer simulations leading to the design of flexible energy systems with the ability to balance...... the electricity supply and demand and to exchange electricity productions on the international electricity markets. The results are detailed system designs and energy balances for two energy target years: year 2050 with 100 per cent renewable energy from biomass and combinations of wind, wave and solar power...

  10. Electricity market auction settings in a future Danish electricity system with a high penetration of renewable energy sources - A comparison of marginal pricing and pay-as-bid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Steffen; Sorknaes, Peter; Ostergaard, Poul Alberg

    2011-01-01

    The long-term goal for Danish energy policy is to be free of fossil fuels through the increasing use of renewable energy sources (RES) including fluctuating renewable electricity (FRE). The Danish electricity market is part of the Nordic power exchange, which uses a Marginal Price auction system (MPS) for the day-ahead auctions. The market price is thus equal to the bidding price of the most expensive auction winning unit. In the MPS, the FRE bid at prices of or close to zero resulting in reduced market prices during hours of FRE production. In turn, this reduces the FRE sources' income from market sales. As more FRE is implemented, this effect will only become greater, thereby reducing the income for FRE producers. Other auction settings could potentially help to reduce this problem. One candidate is the pay-as-bid auction setting (PAB), where winning units are paid their own bidding price. This article investigates the two auction settings, to find whether a change of auction setting would provide a more suitable frame for large shares of FRE. This has been done with two energy system scenarios with different shares of FRE. From the analysis, it is found that MPS is generally better for the FRE sources. The result is, however, very sensitive to the base assumptions used for the calculations. -- Highlights: → In this study two different auction settings for the Danish electricity market are compared. → Two scenarios are used in the analyses, one representing the present system and one representing a future 100% renewable energy system. → We find that marginal price auction system is most suitable for supporting fluctuating renewable energy in both scenarios. → The results are very sensitive to the assumptions about bidding prices for each technology.

  11. Scenarios for total utilisation of hydrogen as an energy carrier in the future Danish energy system. Final report; Scenarier for samlet udnyttelse af brint som energibaerer i Danmarks fremtidige energisystem. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauge Petersen, A; Engberg Pedersen, T; Joergensen, K [and others

    2001-04-01

    This is the final report from a project performed for the Danish Energy Agency under its Hydrogen Programme. The project, which within the project group goes by the abbreviated title 'Hydrogen as an energy carrier', constructs and analyses different total energy scenarios for introducing hydrogen as an energy carrier, as energy storage medium and as a fuel in the future Danish energy system. The primary aim of the project is to study ways of handling the large deficits and surpluses of electricity from wind energy expected in the future Danish energy system. System-wide aspects of the choice of hydrogen production technologies, distribution methods, infrastructure requirements and conversion technologies are studied. Particularly, the possibility of using in the future the existing Danish natural gas distribution grid for carrying hydrogen will be assessed. For the year 2030, two scenarios are constructed: One using hydrogen primarily in the transportation sector, the other using it as a storage option for the centralised power plants still in operation by this year. For the year 2050, where the existing fossil power plants are expected to have been phased out completely, the scenarios for two possible developments are investigated: Either, there is a complete decentralisation of the use of hydrogen, converting and storing electricity surpluses into hydrogen in individual buildings, for later use in vehicles or regeneration of power and heat. Or, some centralised infrastructure is retained, such as hydrogen cavern stores and a network of vehicle hydrogen filling stations. The analysis is used to identify the components in an implementation strategy, for the most interesting scenarios, including a time sequence of necessary decisions and technology readiness. The report is in Danish, because it is part of the dissemination effort of the Hydrogen Committee, directed at the Danish population in general and the Danish professional community in particular. (au)

  12. Scenarios for total utilisation of hydrogen as an energy carrier in the future Danish energy system. Final report; Scenarier for samlet udnyttelse af brint som energibaerer i Danmarks fremtidige energisystem. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauge Petersen, A.; Engberg Pedersen, T.; Joergensen, K. (and others)

    2001-04-01

    This is the final report from a project performed for the Danish Energy Agency under its Hydrogen Programme. The project, which within the project group goes by the abbreviated title 'Hydrogen as an energy carrier', constructs and analyses different total energy scenarios for introducing hydrogen as an energy carrier, as energy storage medium and as a fuel in the future Danish energy system. The primary aim of the project is to study ways of handling the large deficits and surpluses of electricity from wind energy expected in the future Danish energy system. System-wide aspects of the choice of hydrogen production technologies, distribution methods, infrastructure requirements and conversion technologies are studied. Particularly, the possibility of using in the future the existing Danish natural gas distribution grid for carrying hydrogen will be assessed. For the year 2030, two scenarios are constructed: One using hydrogen primarily in the transportation sector, the other using it as a storage option for the centralised power plants still in operation by this year. For the year 2050, where the existing fossil power plants are expected to have been phased out completely, the scenarios for two possible developments are investigated: Either, there is a complete decentralisation of the use of hydrogen, converting and storing electricity surpluses into hydrogen in individual buildings, for later use in vehicles or regeneration of power and heat. Or, some centralised infrastructure is retained, such as hydrogen cavern stores and a network of vehicle hydrogen filling stations. The analysis is used to identify the components in an implementation strategy, for the most interesting scenarios, including a time sequence of necessary decisions and technology readiness. The report is in Danish, because it is part of the dissemination effort of the Hydrogen Committee, directed at the Danish population in general and the Danish professional community in particular. (au)

  13. The future energy situation in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This book is the result of a study into the future energy situation in the Netherlands, performed by the electricity companies in the country. The first five chapters sketch the framework within which energy policy is currently forced to operate. Further technical and physical conditions are considered in the following six chapters, including environmental and safety aspects. A prognosis for energy demand in the Netherlands until the end of the century is presented and five different scenarios are discussed, as means of supplying this demand. Nuclear energy is one of the sources considered throughout the text. (C.F.)

  14. International nuclear energy law - present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrie, G.N.

    1988-01-01

    International nuclear energy law, as discussed in this article, is the law relating to the global, peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. The position of nuclear law in the wide realm of law itself as well as the present status of nuclear legislation is assessed. This article also covers the development of international nuclear energy law, from the first nuclear law - the New Zealand Atomic Energy Act of 1945-, the present and the future. National and international organizations concerned with nuclear energy and their contribribution to nuclear law are reviewed

  15. The future of energy and climate

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    The talk will review some of the basic facts about the history and present status of the use of energy and its climatic consequences. It is clear that the world will have to change its way of energy production, the sooner the better. Because of the difficulty of storing electric energy, by far the best energy source for the future is thermal solar from the deserts, with overnight thermal storage. I will give some description of the present status of the technologies involved and end up with a pilot project for Europe and North Africa.

  16. Co-designing energy landscapes: Application of participatory mapping and geographic information systems in the exploration of low carbon futures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stremke, S.; Picchi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    The chapter begins with a literature review of energy potential mapping, ecosystem services (ES) assessment and participatory mapping (PM). PM is a key technique to conduct tradeoff analysis while co-designing sustainable energy landscapes (SEL) with local communities. Stakeholders, among others,

  17. Growing America's Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    The emerging U.S. bioenergy industry provides a secure and growing supply of transportation fuels, biopower, and bioproducts produced from a range of abundant, renewable biomass resources. Bioenergy can help ensure a secure, sustainable, and economically sound future by reducing U.S. dependence on foreign oil, developing domestic clean energy sources, and generating domestic green jobs. Bioenergy can also help address growing concerns about climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions to create a healthier environment for current and future generations.

  18. Transforming and Building the Future Energy Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Vernon

    1998-12-31

    The petroleum industry is experiencing unprecedented change: increasing competition within a global context, deregulation in the European gas market, technological innovation that will fundamentally alter the economics of the industry. Sustainable Development, the challenge of balancing the Financial, Social and Environmental demands: collectively these demands are fundamentally altering the future shape of the industry. In this presentation the author describes his perspectives on the impact of change on the future shape of the energy industry in the years to come

  19. Transforming and Building the Future Energy Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Vernon

    1999-12-31

    The petroleum industry is experiencing unprecedented change: increasing competition within a global context, deregulation in the European gas market, technological innovation that will fundamentally alter the economics of the industry. Sustainable Development, the challenge of balancing the Financial, Social and Environmental demands: collectively these demands are fundamentally altering the future shape of the industry. In this presentation the author describes his perspectives on the impact of change on the future shape of the energy industry in the years to come

  20. Wind energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

  1. Future of nuclear energy is promising

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.

    1999-01-01

    Paper is trying to clearly present the facts about World nuclear energy production in the past and in the future. The production has increased in last ten years for about 26% and will continue to grow. After next ten years we can expect between 12,5% and 25% higher production than this year. Therefore we, nuclear professionals, should not be pessimistic. We should strive not to use negative words in our communications between ourselves and especially to general public. Instead, we should proudly underline our achievements in the past and prospects for the future stressing all the benefits of this type of energy production.(author)

  2. Energy in the world: The present situation and future options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    It is reported that the most notable changes on the world energy scene since 1973 concerned the shift in OPEC's role from a base to a swing producer, the disruption of the fast market penetration of nuclear power and the impacts caused by the technical advances at essentially all stages of the energy system. Further, several parts of the world witnessed a strong environmental movement which attracted public attention to the conduct of the energy industry and its social implications and environmental consequences. The lecture illuminates these events in some detail and evaluate their impacts on present and future energy demand, supply and trade patterns. The future energy outlook includes two fundamentally different scenarios. Each scenario in itself appears internally consistent. The diverging projections of future energy demand and supply mixes underlying these scenarios are the result of the inclusion/omission of technical change or dynamics of technology into the analyses. 19 refs, 22 figs

  3. Finnish energy technologies for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The global energy sector is going through major changes: the need for energy is growing explosively, while at the same time climate change is forcing US to find new, and cleaner, ways to generate energy. Finland is one of the forerunners in energy technology development, partly because of its northern location and partly thanks to efficient innovations. A network of centres of expertise was established in Finland in 1994 to boost the competitiveness and internationalisation of Finnish industry and, consequently, that of the EU region. During the expertise centre programme period 2007-2013, substantial resources will be allocated to efficient utilisation of top level expertise in thirteen selected clusters of expertise. The energy cluster, focusing on developing energy technologies for the future, is one of these

  4. Shaping a sustainable energy future for India: Management challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.

    2010-01-01

    Most of the studies on the Indian energy sector focus on the possible future scenarios of Indian energy system development without considering the management dimension to the problem-how to ensure a smooth transition to reach the desired future state. The purpose of this paper is to highlight some sector management concerns to a sustainable energy future in the country. The paper follows a deductive approach and reviews the present status and possible future energy outlooks from the existing literature. This is followed by a strategy outline to achieve long-term energy sustainability. Management challenges on the way to such a sustainable future are finally presented. The paper finds that the aspiration of becoming an economic powerhouse and the need to eradicate poverty will necessarily mean an increase in energy consumption unless a decoupling of energy and GDP growth is achieved. Consequently, the energy future of the country is eminently unsustainable. A strategy focussing on demand reduction, enhanced access, use of local resources and better management practices is proposed here. However, a sustainable path faces a number of challenges from the management and policy perspectives.

  5. A Carbon-Free Energy Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, H. R.; Singer, S. F.

    2001-12-01

    desirable for other economic uses. A hydrogen-based energy future is inevitable as low-cost sources of petroleum and natural gas become depleted with time. However, such fundamental changes in energy systems will take time to accomplish. Coal may survive for a longer time but may not be able to compete as the century draws to a close.

  6. World energy: Building a sustainable future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L.; Meyers, S.

    1992-04-01

    As the 20th century draws to a close, both individual countries and the world community face challenging problems related to the supply and use energy. These include local and regional environmental impacts, the prospect of global climate and sea level change associated with the greenhouse effect, and threats to international relations in connection with oil supply or nuclear proliferation. For developing countries, the financial cost of providing energy to provide basic needs and fuel economic development pose an additional burden. To assess the magnitude of future problems and the potential effectiveness of response strategies, it is important to understand how and why energy use has changed in the post and where it is heading. This requires study of the activities for which energy is used, and of how people and technology interact to provide the energy services that are desired. The authors and their colleagues have analyzed trends in energy use by sector for most of the world`s major energy-consuming countries. The approach we use considers three key elements in each sector: the level of activity, structural change, and energy intensity, which expresses the amount of energy used for various activities. At a disaggregated level, energy intensity is indicative of energy efficiency. But other factors besides technical efficiency also shape intensity.

  7. World energy: Building a sustainable future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L.; Meyers, S.

    1992-04-01

    As the 20th century draws to a close, both individual countries and the world community face challenging problems related to the supply and use energy. These include local and regional environmental impacts, the prospect of global climate and sea level change associated with the greenhouse effect, and threats to international relations in connection with oil supply or nuclear proliferation. For developing countries, the financial cost of providing energy to provide basic needs and fuel economic development pose an additional burden. To assess the magnitude of future problems and the potential effectiveness of response strategies, it is important to understand how and why energy use has changed in the post and where it is heading. This requires study of the activities for which energy is used, and of how people and technology interact to provide the energy services that are desired. The authors and their colleagues have analyzed trends in energy use by sector for most of the world's major energy-consuming countries. The approach we use considers three key elements in each sector: the level of activity, structural change, and energy intensity, which expresses the amount of energy used for various activities. At a disaggregated level, energy intensity is indicative of energy efficiency. But other factors besides technical efficiency also shape intensity.

  8. U.S. energy outlook and future energy impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburger, Randolph John

    2011-12-01

    Energy markets were not immune to the 2007 financial crisis. Growth in the Indian and Chinese economies is placing strains on global energy supplies that could force a repeat of the 2008 price spike of $145/bbl for crude oil. Emerging market growth coupled with inefficiencies, frictions, and speculation in the energy markets has the potential to create drastic economic shocks throughout the world. The 2007 economic crisis has pushed back investment in energy projects where a low-growth scenario in world GDP could create drastic price increases in world energy prices. Without a long-term energy supply plan, the U.S. is destined to see growth reduced and its trade imbalances continue to deteriorate with increasing energy costs. Analysis of the U.S. natural gas futures markets and the impact of financial speculation on natural gas market pricing determined that financial speculation adds to price movements in the energy markets, which could cause violent swings in energy prices.

  9. Political electricity: What future for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, T.

    1993-01-01

    Political Electricity first reviews the history of nuclear power development in nine countries (USA, France, Japan, UK, West Germany, Sweden, Italy, Switzerland, Australia). Second the book analyses major issues shaping the future of the industry: nuclear power economincs, nuclear hazards, alternative energy economics, and greenhouse gas constraints

  10. The Hurst exponent in energy futures prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serletis, Apostolos; Rosenberg, Aryeh Adam

    2007-07-01

    This paper extends the work in Elder and Serletis [Long memory in energy futures prices, Rev. Financial Econ., forthcoming, 2007] and Serletis et al. [Detrended fluctuation analysis of the US stock market, Int. J. Bifurcation Chaos, forthcoming, 2007] by re-examining the empirical evidence for random walk type behavior in energy futures prices. In doing so, it uses daily data on energy futures traded on the New York Mercantile Exchange, over the period from July 2, 1990 to November 1, 2006, and a statistical physics approach-the ‘detrending moving average’ technique-providing a reliable framework for testing the information efficiency in financial markets as shown by Alessio et al. [Second-order moving average and scaling of stochastic time series, Eur. Phys. J. B 27 (2002) 197-200] and Carbone et al. [Time-dependent hurst exponent in financial time series. Physica A 344 (2004) 267-271; Analysis of clusters formed by the moving average of a long-range correlated time series. Phys. Rev. E 69 (2004) 026105]. The results show that energy futures returns display long memory and that the particular form of long memory is anti-persistence.

  11. Energy and the future : Canada's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymont, M.

    2005-01-01

    The rise in global energy consumption is driven by economic growth, particularly in developing countries. It is expected that by 2030, the world population will consume 50 per cent more energy than today. This increase in global energy demand can no longer be met through the business as usual approach. Graphs depicting emerging energy demand in Asia were presented for nuclear energy, coal, natural gas, oil and renewables. The issue of how China can meet it's growing energy demand was discussed with reference to energy consumed by its industrial, agricultural, commercial, residential and transportation sectors. The author emphasized the uneven distribution of resources, where consuming areas do not coincide with producing areas. It is expected that traditional energy sources will still supply most of the world's energy need for the foreseeable future, but they will leave less of an environmental impact. The author suggested that renewable energy sources will also increase but will comprise less than 20 per cent of the world supply in 2050. The author also discussed the issue of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, Kyoto obligations and projections of what will happen with Kyoto post 2012. Canada's GHG record and recent environmental findings were also discussed with reference to Arctic ice coverage and the decline in average winter temperature. It was suggested that technology is the key to the energy shortage the environment and security. With declining conventional oil reserves, old nuclear technology and aging electric power technology, new technology must be used to address supply issues, distribution, interconversion, environmental impacts and risks. It was emphasized that since the energy sector is Canada's greatest economic driver, Canada should focus on energy technologies to build a more competitive energy sector. Huge export opportunities also exist for energy technologies. The role of industry and governments in achieving this goal was also discussed. figs

  12. On the Future High Energy Colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, Vladimir [Fermilab

    2015-09-28

    High energy particle colliders have been in the forefront of particle physics for more than three decades. At present the near term US, European and international strategies of the particle physics community are centered on full exploitation of the physics potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) through its high-luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). A number of the next generation collider facilities have been proposed and are currently under consideration for the medium and far-future of accelerator-based high energy physics. In this paper we offer a uniform approach to evaluation of various accelerators based on the feasibility of their energy reach, performance potential and cost range.

  13. Hydrogen, an energy carrier with a future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, K.H.

    1975-01-01

    The inefficient use, associated with pollutants, of the fossil energy carriers coal, crude oil and natural gas, will deplete resources, if the energy demand increases exponentially, in the not-too-distant future. That is the reason why the hydrogen-energy concept gains in importance. This requires drastic changes in structure in a lot of technological fields. This task is only to be mastered if there is cooperation between all special fields, in order to facilitate the economical production, distribution and utilization of hydrogen. (orig.) [de

  14. Nuclear energy, energy for the present and the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arredondo S, C.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we will try to show that nuclear energy can contribute to the generation energy in the present and the future, considering that its effect on the climatic change is relatively low and that the fuels that uses are available a large scale. At the moment it is had already commercial thermal fission reactors , there are also them of fast fission that allow the fuel rearing, although these last ones in much smaller number, with both types of fission nuclear reactors can be obtained a very important contribution to the generation of energy at world-wide level during the time that is necessary so that it is developed, constructs and operates the first commercial fusion reactor. The energy that is generated in the present and future must come from different sources, which require to be reliable, to have little effect on the environment, to have wide reserves of fuels and to be viable from an economic and social point of view, they must be viable and safe. Between possible alternative energies it is counted on the lot, the wind one, the geothermal one, originating of the tides and some others. An energy that must be considered so that it has arrived at his maturity and he is already able to contribute widely to cover the present needs and future it is nuclear energy, as much the originating one of the fission of a heavy centre like obtained when fusing two light centers. On base in the nuclear fuel reserves at world-wide level a simple calculation takes control of the lapse in which energy by means of the nuclear fission in rearing can be generated reactors expresses demonstrating that the time sufficient to finish to the investigation and development of fusion reactors which they generate energy in economic, safe and reliable form. Combining these two options the nuclear energy can be considered the future like for the present and the future with practically null effects in the climatic change. (Author)

  15. VUJE experience with large scale projects and their applicability to the future of the Slovak energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferenc, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with participation of VUJE Trnava, Inc. on the reconstruction of the Bohunice V1 NPP, on modernisation of the Bohunice V2 NPP, and on of the projects in nuclear energy industry including of decommissioning of the Bohunice A1 NPP

  16. Community Energy: A Social Architecture for an Alternative Energy Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven M.; High-Pippert, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Community energy based on a mix of distributed technologies offers a serious alternative to the current energy system. The nature of community energy and the role that such initiatives might play in the general fabric of civic life is not, however, well understood. Community energy initiatives might involve only those citizens who prefer to be…

  17. Can renewable energy power the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriarty, Patrick; Honnery, Damon

    2016-01-01

    Fossil fuels face resource depletion, supply security, and climate change problems; renewable energy (RE) may offer the best prospects for their long-term replacement. However, RE sources differ in many important ways from fossil fuels, particularly in that they are energy flows rather than stocks. The most important RE sources, wind and solar energy, are also intermittent, necessitating major energy storage as these sources increase their share of total energy supply. We show that estimates for the technical potential of RE vary by two orders of magnitude, and argue that values at the lower end of the range must be seriously considered, both because their energy return on energy invested falls, and environmental costs rise, with cumulative output. Finally, most future RE output will be electric, necessitating radical reconfiguration of existing grids to function with intermittent RE. - Highlights: •Published estimates for renewable energy (RE) technical potential vary 100-fold. •Intermittent wind and solar energy dominate total RE potential. •We argue it is unlikely that RE can meet existing global energy use. •The need to maintain ecosystem services will reduce global RE potential. •The need for storage of intermittent RE will further reduce net RE potential.

  18. The impacts of wind technology advancement on future global energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Ma, Chun; Song, Xia; Zhou, Yuyu; Chen, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated assessment model perform a series of scenarios of technology advances. • Explore the potential roles of wind energy technology advance in global energy. • Technology advance impacts on energy consumption and global low carbon market. • Technology advance influences on global energy security and stability. - Abstract: To avoid additional global warming and environmental damage, energy systems need to rely on the use of low carbon technologies like wind energy. However, supply uncertainties, production costs, and energy security are the main factors considered by the global economies when reshaping their energy systems. Here, we explore the potential roles of wind energy technology advancement in future global electricity generations, costs, and energy security. We use an integrated assessment model performing a series of technology advancement scenarios. The results show that double of the capital cost reduction causes 40% of generation increase and 10% of cost ​decrease on average in the long-term global wind electricity market. Today’s technology advancement could bring us the benefit of increasing electricity production in the future 40–50 years, and decreasing electricity cost in the future 90–100 years. The technology advancement of wind energy can help to keep global energy security and stability. An aggressive development and deployment of wind energy could in the long-term avoid 1/3 of gas and 1/28 of coal burned, and keep 1/2 biomass and 1/20 nuclear fuel saved from the global electricity system. The key is that wind resources are free and carbon-free. The results of this study are useful in broad coverage ranges from innovative technologies and systems of renewable energy to the economic industrial and domestic use of energy with no or minor impact on the environment.

  19. Future petroleum energy resources of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    Is the world running out of oil? Where will future oil and gas supplies come from? To help answer these questions, in 2000 the U.S. Geological Survey completed a new world assessment, exclusive of the United States, of the undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources and potential additions to reserves from field growth.2 One hundred and twenty-eight provinces were assessed in a 100 man-year effort from 1995-2000. The assessed provinces included 76 priority provinces containing 95% of the world's discovered oil and gas and an additional 52 "boutique" provinces, many of which may be highly prospective. Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) were identified and described for each of these provinces along with associated Assessment Units (AU) that are the basic units for assessing undiscovered petroleum. The assessment process coupled geologic analysis with a probabilistic methodology to estimate remaining potential. Within the 128 assessed provinces were 159 TPS and 274 AU. For these provinces, the endowment of recoverable oil-which includes cumulative production, remaining reserves, reserve growth, and undiscovered resources-is estimated at about 3 trillion barrels of oil (TBO). The natural gas endowment is estimated at 2.6 trillion barrels of oil equivalent (TBOE). Oil reserves are currently 1.1 TBO; world consumption is about .028 TBO per year. Natural gas reserves are about 0.8 TBOE; world consumption is about 0.014 TBOE per year. Thus, without any additional discoveries of oil, gas or natural gas liquids, we have about 2 TBOE of proved petroleum reserves. Of the oil and gas endowment of about 5.6 TBOE, we estimate that the world has consumed about 1 TBOE, or 18%, leaving about 82% of the endowment to be utilized or found. Half of the world's undiscovered potential is offshore. Arctic basins with about 25% of undiscovered petroleum resources make up the next great frontier. An additional 279 provinces contain some oil and gas and, if considered, would increase the oil

  20. The future of nuclear energy (group 17)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncomble, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    This article is the work of a group of students from the ''Ecole Nationale d'Administration'', they had to study the perspective of nuclear energy in France. Nuclear energy is an important element to assure the stability of the energy supply of the country. Uranium purchases appear to be safe for being diversified and the price of the nuclear fuel contributes to only 20% of the price of the kWh compared to 40% for natural gas. Today the competitiveness of nuclear energy is assured but technological progress concerning gas turbines might challenge it in the years to come. Sustainable development implies not only abundant energy for all but also a preserved environment for the generations to come. The development of nuclear energy is hampered by the lack of satisfactory answers to the problem of fuel back-end cycle and more generally to the issue of radioactive wastes. On the other hand nuclear energy presents serious assets concerning the preservation of environment: nuclear energy as a whole from the uranium ore mining to the production of electricity emits very few atmospheric pollutants and greenhouse effect gases, and requires little room for its installations. The composition of the future energy mix will depend greatly on opinions and assumptions made about the reserves of fossil fuels, technological perspectives and the perception by the public of industrial risks (environmental damage, nuclear accidents...). (A.C.)

  1. Coal and nuclear power: Illinois' energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This conference was sponsored by the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago; the US Department of Energy; the Illinois Energy Resources Commission; and the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources. The theme for the conference, Coal and Nuclear Power: Illinois' Energy Future, was based on two major observations: (1) Illinois has the largest reserves of bituminous coal of any state and is surpassed in total reserves only by North Dakota, and Montana; and (2) Illinois has made a heavy commitment to the use of nuclear power as a source of electrical power generation. Currently, nuclear power represents 30% of the electrical energy produced in the State. The primary objective of the 1982 conference was to review these two energy sources in view of the current energy policy of the Reagan Administration, and to examine the impact these policies have on the Midwest energy scene. The conference dealt with issues unique to Illinois as well as those facing the entire nation. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 30 individual presentations

  2. Combined heat and power generation with fuel cells in residential buildings in the future energy system; Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung mit Brennstoffzellen in Wohngebaeuden im zukuenftigen Energiesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungbluth, C.H.

    2007-04-27

    Combined heat and power generation (CHP) is regarded as one of the cornerstones of a future sustainable energy system. The application of this approach can be substantially extended by employing fuel cell technologies in small units for supplying heat to residential buildings. This could create an additional market for combined heat and power generation corresponding to approx. 25% of the final energy demand in Germany today. In parallel, the extensive application of distributed fuel cell systems in residential buildings would have substantial effects on energy infrastructures, primary energy demand, the energy mix and greenhouse gas emissions. It is the aim of the present study to quantify these effects via scenario modelling of energy demand and supply for Germany up to the year 2050. Two scenarios, reference and ecological commitment, are set up, and the application and operation of fuel cell plants in the future stock of residential buildings is simulated by a bottom-up approach. A model of the building stock was developed for this purpose, consisting of 213 types of reference buildings, as well as detailed simulation models of the plant operation modes. The aim was, furthermore, to identify economically and ecologically optimised plant designs and operation modes for fuel cells in residential buildings. Under the assumed conditions of the energy economy, economically optimised plant sizes for typical one- or two-family homes are in the range of a generating capacity of a few hundred watts of electrical power. Plant sizes of 2 to 4.7 kW{sub el} as discussed today are only economically feasible in multifamily dwellings. The abolition of the CHP bonus reduces profitability, especially for larger plants operated by contractors. In future, special strategies for power generation and supply can be an economically useful addition for the heat-oriented operation mode of fuel cells. On the basis of the assumed conditions of the energy economy, a technical potential for

  3. Hydrogen and fuel cells. Towards a sustainable energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, P.P.; Kuznetsov, V.L.; David, W.I.F.; Brandon, N.P.

    2008-01-01

    A major challenge - some would argue, the major challenge facing our planet today - relates to the problem of anthropogenic-driven climate change and its inextricable link to our global society's present and future energy needs [King, D.A., 2004. Environment - climate change science: adapt, mitigate, or ignore? Science 303, 176-177]. Hydrogen and fuel cells are now widely regarded as one of the key energy solutions for the 21st century. These technologies will contribute significantly to a reduction in environmental impact, enhanced energy security (and diversity) and creation of new energy industries. Hydrogen and fuel cells can be utilised in transportation, distributed heat and power generation, and energy storage systems. However, the transition from a carbon-based (fossil fuel) energy system to a hydrogen-based economy involves significant scientific, technological and socioeconomic barriers to the implementation of hydrogen and fuel cells as clean energy technologies of the future. This paper aims to capture, in brief, the current status, key scientific and technical challenges and projection of hydrogen and fuel cells within a sustainable energy vision of the future. We offer no comments here on energy policy and strategy. Rather, we identify challenges facing hydrogen and fuel cell technologies that must be overcome before these technologies can make a significant contribution to cleaner and more efficient energy production processes. (author)

  4. Integrated energy systems and local energy markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Münster, Ebbe

    2006-01-01

    Significant benefits are connected with an increase in the flexibility of the Danish energy system. On the one hand, it is possible to benefit from trading electricity with neighbouring countries, and on the other, Denmark will be able to make better use of wind power and other types of renewable...... energy in the future. This paper presents the analysis of different ways of increasing flexibility in the Danish energy system by the use of local regulation mechanisms. This strategy is compared with the opposite extreme, i.e. trying to solve all balancing problems via electricity trade...

  5. Energy options. Preparing for an uncertain future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, H.R.; Harvey, M.

    1988-02-01

    We must begin now to plan to replace fossil fuels as a major energy source. Few energy sources are capable of supplying the vast amount of energy required. The only options that can play a major role are coal, hydro-electricity, and nuclear. The soft energy options are not reliable: we cannot control the blowing of the wind or the shining of the sun; biomass is susceptible to disease. If we were to become too dependent on these we would be surrendering our energy system to the vagaries of nature. A strong electrical system is a cornerstone of energy security. Surplus capacity is often criticized, but a shortfall in supply will cause industrial chaos. Nuclear power is based on a sustainable resource supply, uses a proven technology, is economically competitive, and causes minimal harm to human populations and the environment

  6. About the Need of Combining Power Market and Power Grid Model Results for Future Energy System Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende, Denis; Böttger, Diana; Löwer, Lothar; Becker, Holger; Akbulut, Alev; Stock, Sebastian

    2018-02-01

    The European power grid infrastructure faces various challenges due to the expansion of renewable energy sources (RES). To conduct investigations on interactions between power generation and the power grid, models for the power market as well as for the power grid are necessary. This paper describes the basic functionalities and working principles of both types of models as well as steps to couple power market results and the power grid model. The combination of these models is beneficial in terms of gaining realistic power flow scenarios in the grid model and of being able to pass back results of the power flow and restrictions to the market model. Focus is laid on the power grid model and possible application examples like algorithms in grid analysis, operation and dynamic equipment modelling.

  7. Characterizing the emission implications of future natural gas production and use in the U.S. and Rocky Mountain region: A scenario-based energy system modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Jeffrey

    The recent increase in U.S. natural gas production made possible through advancements in extraction techniques including hydraulic fracturing has transformed the U.S. energy supply landscape while raising questions regarding the balance of environmental impacts associated with natural gas production and use. Impact areas at issue include emissions of methane and criteria pollutants from natural gas production, alongside changes in emissions from increased use of natural gas in place of coal for electricity generation. In the Rocky Mountain region, these impact areas have been subject to additional scrutiny due to the high level of regional oil and gas production activity and concerns over its links to air quality. Here, the MARKAL (MArket ALlocation) least-cost energy system optimization model in conjunction with the EPA-MARKAL nine-region database has been used to characterize future regional and national emissions of CO 2, CH4, VOC, and NOx attributed to natural gas production and use in several sectors of the economy. The analysis is informed by comparing and contrasting a base case, business-as-usual scenario with scenarios featuring variations in future natural gas supply characteristics, constraints affecting the electricity generation mix, carbon emission reduction strategies and increased demand for natural gas in the transportation sector. Emission trends and their associated sensitivities are identified and contrasted between the Rocky Mountain region and the U.S. as a whole. The modeling results of this study illustrate the resilience of the short term greenhouse gas emission benefits associated with fuel switching from coal to gas in the electric sector, but also call attention to the long term implications of increasing natural gas production and use for emissions of methane and VOCs, especially in the Rocky Mountain region. This analysis can help to inform the broader discussion of the potential environmental impacts of future natural gas production

  8. Soviet energy: current problems and future options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, J B

    1981-12-01

    The connection between Soviet oil and energy resources, their efficient and timely utilization, and politico-military opportunities in the Persian Gulf region offer an inescapable link for analysis. Worsening trends in economic growth, factor productivity, social unrest, and energy production/distribution offset optimistic trends in Soviet military procurement and deployment. A conjunction of geologic, geographic, and systemic factors all point to a mid-1980s energy imbalance which in turn will pose hard questions for the Moscow leadership. 28 references.

  9. Nuclear energy: the opinion of future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, Agostino; Monti, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    The article described the international programs for development of nuclear systems of new generation for energy production with which many countries have started the development of new concepts of nuclear reactors to put in production in the next decades in order to protect the environment. At last it comes made the aspects of economy of nuclear energy [it

  10. 21st Century's energy: Hydrogen energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veziroglu, T. Nejat; Sahin, Suemer

    2008-01-01

    Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas and coal), which meet most of the world's energy demand today, are being depleted fast. Also, their combustion products are causing the global problems, such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution, which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the life in our planet. Many engineers and scientists agree that the solution to these global problems would be to replace the existing fossil fuel system by the hydrogen energy system. Hydrogen is a very efficient and clean fuel. Its combustion will produce no greenhouse gases, no ozone layer depleting chemicals, little or no acid rain ingredients and pollution. Hydrogen, produced from renewable energy (e.g., solar) sources, would result in a permanent energy system, which we would never have to change. However, there are other energy systems proposed for the post-petroleum era, such as a synthetic fossil fuel system. In this system, synthetic gasoline and synthetic natural gas will be produced using abundant deposits of coal. In a way, this will ensure the continuation of the present fossil fuel system. The two possible energy systems for the post-fossil fuel era (i.e., the solar-hydrogen energy system and the synthetic fossil fuel system) are compared with the present fossil fuel system by taking into consideration production costs, environmental damages and utilization efficiencies. The results indicate that the solar-hydrogen energy system is the best energy system to ascertain a sustainable future, and it should replace the fossil fuel system before the end of the 21st century

  11. 21st century's energy: hydrogen energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veziroglu, T. N.

    2007-01-01

    Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas and coal), which meet most of the world's energy demand today, are being depleted fast. Also, their combustion products are causing the global problems, such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution, which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the life in our planet. Many engineers and scientists agree that the solution to these global problems would be to replace the existing fossil fuel system by the Hydrogen Energy System. Hydrogen is a very efficient and clean fuel. Its combustion will produce no greenhouse gases, no ozone layer depleting chemicals, little or no acid rain ingredients and pollution. Hydrogen, produced from renewable energy (e.g., solar) sources, would result in a permanent energy system, which we would never have to change. However, there are other energy systems proposed for the post-petroleum era, such as a synthetic fossil fuel system. In this system, synthetic gasoline and synthetic natural gas will be produced using abundant deposits of coal. In a way, this will ensure the continuation of the present fossil fuel system. The two possible energy systems for the post-fossil fuel era (i.e., the solar hydrogen energy system and the synthetic fossil fuel system) are compared with the present fossil fuel system by taking into consideration production costs, environmental damages and utilization efficiencies. The results indicate that the solar hydrogen energy system is the best energy system to ascertain a sustainable future, and it should replace the fossil fuel system before the end of the 21st Century

  12. Energy costs and society: the high price of future energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appleby, A J

    1976-06-01

    Society will not be able to afford nonfossil fuel energy in the future without a major restructuring of industrial activity, involving a complete rethinking of the basis of our present social and economic establishment. This restructuring must be combined with the evident necessity of policies of population restriction and controls in the form of international allocation of the dwindling supply of raw materials, including fossil (and, in future, nonfossil) primary energy. Only by such means, and by adopting a very low-growth future, can some moderate degree of standard of living be expected to be perpetuated for at least a few generations in the industrialized countries, especially in the case of those that are major energy importers at present. This type of future will also be of more help to the third world than one involving the now impossible ideal of a spiraling energy growth rate. The society which, on an optimistic view, will emerge toward the end of the fossil fuel era, will be supplied with abundant, though efficiently applied, energy, and will survive with natural products and by economizing its recylced mineral resources. The approach to this goal will require political leadership, serious education of the public, and a real population policy, all on a world-wide scale. (Conclusions)

  13. Smart energy and smart energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Connolly, David

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the terms “Smart Energy” and “Smart Energy Systems” have been used to express an approach that reaches broader than the term “Smart grid”. Where Smart Grids focus primarily on the electricity sector, Smart Energy Systems take an integrated holistic focus on the inclusion of more...... sectors (electricity, heating, cooling, industry, buildings and transportation) and allows for the identification of more achievable and affordable solutions to the transformation into future renewable and sustainable energy solutions. This paper first makes a review of the scientific literature within...... the field. Thereafter it discusses the term Smart Energy Systems with regard to the issues of definition, identification of solu- tions, modelling, and integration of storage. The conclusion is that the Smart Energy System concept represents a scientific shift in paradigms away from single-sector thinking...

  14. Evolving energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, E.

    1991-04-01

    This thesis presents scenarios of future energy systems, a cost-benefit analysis of measures to avoid greenhouse-gas emissions, an analysis of the effect of energy prices on end-use efficiencies and fuel choices, and an evaluation of financial-incentive programs designed to induce investments in efficient energy use. Twelve integrated energy supply/demand scenarios for the Swedish heat-and-power sector are presented to illustrate the potential for improvements in end-use efficiency and increased utilization of renewable energy sources. The results show that greenhouse-gas emissions could be reduced by 35 per cent from 1987 levels by 2010, with a net economic benefit compared to a business-as-usual scenario. A generalized methodology for calculating the net costs of reducing greenhouse-gas emissions is applied to a variety of fuel choices and energy end-use technologies. A key finding is that a combination of increased end-use efficiencies and use of renewable energy systems is required to achieve maximum cost-effective emissions reductions. End-use efficiencies and inter-fuel competition in Denmark and Sweden are compared during a time period in which real electricity prices were declining in Sweden and increasing in Denmark. Despite these different price environments, efficiencies and choices of heating fuels did not generally develop as expected according to economic theory. The influences of counter-price and non-price factors are important in understanding this outcome. Relying on prices alone injects considerable uncertainty into the energy planning process, and precludes efficiency improvements and fuel choices attainable with other mechanisms. Incentive programs can be used to promote energy-efficient technologies. Utilities in Europe have recently offered financial incentives intended to stimulate the adoption of compact-fluorescent lamps. These programs have been cost-effective in comparison to new electric supply. (au).

  15. Second Strategic Energy Review. Securing our Energy Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    Europe has agreed a forward-looking political agenda to achieve its core energy objectives of sustainability, competitiveness and security of supply. This agenda means substantial change in Europe's energy system over the next years, with public authorities, energy regulators, infrastructure operators, the energy industry and citizens all actively involved. It means choices and investments during a time of much change in global energy markets and international relations. The European Commission has therefore proposed a wide-ranging energy package which gives a new boost to energy security in Europe, i.e. putting forward a new strategy to build up energy solidarity among Member States and a new policy on energy networks to stimulate investment in more efficient, low-carbon energy networks; proposing a Energy Security and Solidarity Action Plan to secure sustainable energy supplies in the EU and looking at the challenges that Europe will face between 2020 and 2050; adopting a package of energy efficiency proposals aims to make energy savings in key areas, such as reinforcing energy efficiency legislation on buildings and energy-using products. All relevant and related documents with regard to the Second Strategic Energy Review can be found through this site

  16. Integrating hydrogen into Canada's energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, P.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation outlines the steps in integrating of hydrogen into Canada's energy future. Canada's hydrogen and fuel cell investment is primarily driven by two government commitments - climate change commitments and innovation leadership commitments. Canada's leading hydrogen and fuel cell industry is viewed as a long-term player in meeting the above commitments. A hydrogen and fuel cell national strategy is being jointly developed to create 'Win-Wins' with industry

  17. Constitutional compatibility of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, A.

    1983-01-01

    The paper starts from the results of the Enquiry Commission on 'Future Nuclear Energy Policy' of the 8th Federal German Parliament outlining technically feasible energy futures in four 'pathways'. For the purpose of the project, which was to establish the comparative advantages and disadvantages of different energy systems, these four scenarios were reduced to two alternatives: cases K (= nuclear energy) and S (= solar energy). The question to Ge put is: Which changes within our legal system will be ushered in by certain technological developments and how do these changes relate to the legal condition intended so far. Proceeding in this manner will not lead to the result of a nuclear energy system or a solar energy system being in conformity or in contradiction with the constitutional law, but will provide a catalogue of implications orientated to the aims of legal standards: a person deciding in favour of a nuclear energy system or a solar energy system supports this or that development of constitutional policy, and a person purishing this or that aim of legal policy should be consistent and decide in favour of this or that energy system. The investigation of constitutional compatibility leads to the question what effects different energy systems will have on the forms of political intercourse laid down in the constitutional law, which are orientated to models of a liberal constitutional tradition of citizens. (orig./HSCH) [de

  18. Fusion in the energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusion energy is the fundamental energy source of the Universe, as the energy of the Sun and the stars are produced by fusion of e.g. hydrogen to helium. Fusion energy research is a strongly international endeavor aiming at realizing fusion energy production in power plants on Earth. Reaching...... of integration into the future electricity system and socio-economic studies of fusion energy will be presented, referring to the programme of Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF) under the European Fusion Energy Agreement (EFDA)....

  19. Perspectives on future high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1996-01-01

    The author states two general ways in which one must proceed in an attempt to forecast the future of high energy physics. The first is to utilize the state of knowledge in the field and thereby provide theoretical and experimental guidance on future directions. The second approach is technical, namely, how well can one do in going to higher energies with present techniques or new accelerator principles. He concludes that the future strategy is straightforward. The present accelerator facilities must be upgraded and run to produce exciting and forefront research. At the same time, the theoretical tools should be sharpened both extrapolating from lower energies (100 GeV) to high (multi TeV) and vice versa. The US should be involved in the LHC, both in the accelerator and experimental areas. There should be an extensive R and D program on accelerators for a multi-TeV capability, emphasizing e + e - and μ + μ - colliders. Finally, the international cooperative activities should be strengthened and maintained

  20. Perspectives on future high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samios, N.P.

    1996-12-31

    The author states two general ways in which one must proceed in an attempt to forecast the future of high energy physics. The first is to utilize the state of knowledge in the field and thereby provide theoretical and experimental guidance on future directions. The second approach is technical, namely, how well can one do in going to higher energies with present techniques or new accelerator principles. He concludes that the future strategy is straightforward. The present accelerator facilities must be upgraded and run to produce exciting and forefront research. At the same time, the theoretical tools should be sharpened both extrapolating from lower energies (100 GeV) to high (multi TeV) and vice versa. The US should be involved in the LHC, both in the accelerator and experimental areas. There should be an extensive R and D program on accelerators for a multi-TeV capability, emphasizing e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}} colliders. Finally, the international cooperative activities should be strengthened and maintained.

  1. Solar energy futures in a Western European context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakicenovic, N; Messner, S

    1983-02-01

    The study considers three limiting scenarios that specify possible but not necessarily likely transitions to sustainable energy futures for Western Europe. Two scenarios consider exclusively solar futures--one based on centralized solar technologies (Hard scenario) and the other on decentralized, user-oriented technologies (Soft scenario). The third scenario, based on nuclear technologies, incorporates an intermediate degree of centralization in the energy system and serves as a comparison to the two exclusively solar scenarios. All three scenarios lead to sustainable energy futures before the year 2100, which is the time horizon of the study. While all three scenarios eliminate Western Europe's dependence on domestic and foreign fossil energy sources, the Hard Solar scenario requires substantial imports of solar produced hydrogen. The scenarios are based on dynamic balances of energy demand and supply using detailed models to achieve consistency. The overall implications of each scenario are that fundamental but different changes of the whole energy system, economic structure and life-styles are necessary in order to achieve sustainable energy futures in Western Europe.

  2. Solar energy futures in a Western European context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakicenovic, N; Messner, S

    1983-02-01

    The study considers three limiting scenarios that specify possible but not necessarily likely transitions to sustainable energy future for Western Europe. Two scenarios consider exclusively solar futures - one based on centralized solar technologies (hard scenario) and the other on decentralized, user-oriented technologies (soft scenario). The third scenario, based on nuclear technologies, incorporates an intermediate degree of centralization in the energy system and serves as a comparison to the two exclusively solar scenarios. All three scenarios lead to sustainable energy futures before the year 2100, which is the time horizon of the study. While all three scenarios eliminate Western Europe's dependence on domestic and foreign fossil energy sources, the Hard Solar scenario requires substantial imports of solar produced hydrogen. The scenarios are based on dynamic balances of energy demand and supply using detailed models to achieve consistency. The overall implications of each scenario are that fundamental but different changes of the whole energy system, economic structure and life-styles are necessary in order to achieve sustainable energy futures in Western Europe.

  3. Energy for the future: the world view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinel, M.P.; Meinel, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between gross national product and energy use is studied for a number of countries and for the United States is particular. The relationship between income inequalities and energy use is also examined. The similarity between income inequality in an economic system and temperature differences in a thermodynamic system is noted. An economic chain analysis is used to derive income inequality distributions for a less-developed country and for a very-developed country. Finally the role of expensive but domestic-origin energy is examined. (U.K.)

  4. Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2018-04-11

    An advanced vehicle powertrain systems analysis tool, the Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) provides a simple way to compare powertrains and estimate the impact of technology improvements on light-, medium- and heavy-duty vehicle efficiency, performance, cost, and battery life. Created by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, FASTSim accommodates a range of vehicle types - including conventional vehicles, electric-drive vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles - and is available for free download in Microsoft Excel and Python formats.

  5. Energy Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home > Building Energy Information Systems and Performance Monitoring (EIS-PM) Building Energy evaluate and improve performance monitoring tools for energy savings in commercial buildings. Within the and visualization capabilities to energy and facility managers. As an increasing number of

  6. Energy: What About the Future? Easy Energy Reader, Book IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information Planning Associates, Inc., Rockville, MD.

    Four articles about future energy technologies and problems comprise this collection of readings intended for the junior high school language arts curriculum. Each entry has been scored for readability according to the Gunning Fog Index. By referring to these ratings, a teacher can provide students with increasingly more challenging reading…

  7. Consumer’s Attitude Towards Investments in Residential Energy-Efficient Appliances: How End-User Choices Contribute to Change Future Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldini, Mattia; Trivella, Alessio; Wente, Jordan William Halverson

    2017-01-01

    conventional and environmentally friendly alternatives when purchasing new household electric appliances. This study employs empirical data from a survey conducted by the Danish Energy Agency to model the decision criteria behind Danish consumer investment in energy-efficient labeled appliances. The analysis...... uses logistic regression over a set of socioeconomic, demographic, and behavioral variables to predict purchase propensities. The findings are relevant for policy makers interested in targeting consumers in the appliance market, particularly for a relatively wealthy national context. The study...

  8. The energy future and the chemical fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockris, J.O'M.

    1976-01-01

    An account is first given of the origin of present chemical fuels, with particular reference to the lastingness of coal. Methods of estimation of these fuels are discussed and the greenhouse effect arising from the burning of coal is described. Consideration is then given to methods available for extending the uses of chemical fuels, including interfacing them with new inexhaustible, clean energy sources. Finally, accounts are given of the Hydrogen Economy and of the production of chemical fuels from wind energy in massive wind belts. The paper includes references to the part that nuclear power was expected to play in future energy policy. Problems of breeder reactor development and the safety and management of plutonium and radioactive wastes are discussed. (author)

  9. The energy future of Central Europe; Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejon, E.

    1996-01-01

    In this part of the book author deals with the energy future of Central Europe. The energy strategy, structure of energy supplies in Austria, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Hungary and Bavaria, as well as restructuralization of the energy sources are analysed. From the ecological perspective, the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Project (GNP) represents a very clear example, since the Project could play a very important role as a part of the strategy to reject nuclear energy , the same strategy that was clearly declared by the Austrian government, as well as for a transportation strategy based more on railroads and navigation. The GNP could serve as an impulse promoting further and more close Central European cooperation in renewable energy sources. It could assist in harmonization of the interest in the sphere of transportation policies of Switzerland, Bavaria, Austria, Slovakia, and Hungary. Such a community oriented towards common interests would definitely be of enormous importance for the development of transportation in Central Europe. Geothermal potential of Slovakia and other Central European states are presented. Surveys conducted in Slovakia show that it is possible to reduce pollution in specific areas by substituting fossil energy sources with geothermal heating a total reduction of pollution by 39,000 tons annually, out of which 159 tons represent the annual reduction of sulfur dioxide pollution. The reduction per GWh of geothermal heat in the particular cities was calculated to be about 527 tons of carbon dioxide and 2.1 ton of sulfur dioxide. Other opportunities for renewable energy in Slovakia, as well as potential of energy savings are estimated

  10. Environment, energy, economy. A sustainable future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luise, A.; Borrello, L.; Calef, D.; Cialani, C.; Di Majo, V.; Federio, A.; Lovisolo, G.; Musmeci, F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is organized in five parts: 1. sustainable development from global point of view; 2. global problems and international instruments; 3. sustainable management of resources in economic systems; 4. forecasting and methods: models and index; 5. future urban areas [it

  11. Energy futures project : backgrounder for consultation sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, A.

    2006-05-01

    The National Energy Board periodically publishes a long-term energy and demand report as part of an ongoing monitoring program. The next report is planned for release in 2007. This background document provided background information to ensure that consultation participants have a common understanding of key issues to be addressed during the cross-country consultations that have been planned before the release of the final version of the report. An outline of the proposed analytical approach was presented, as well as details of major assumptions and scenario storylines. Scenario themes included: economic, energy and environmental sustainability; a security-focused world shaped by war and civil strife; and strong global economic growth fueled by the rapid growth of the Chinese and Indian economies. A methodology overview was provided as well as a reference case. Issues related to energy supply included oil; natural gas liquids; natural gas; and electricity. Issues related to energy demand included the residential sector; the commercial sector; the industrial sector; and the transportation sector. Historical trends and forecasts were outlined using the macroeconomic variable of interest. Supply, demand, and supporting infrastructure across all energy forms within a North American and global context were considered. The impact of environmental management strategies were reviewed, as well as the role of the government in shaping policies. It was concluded that the purpose of the final report is to serve as a standard of references for parties interested in Canadian energy issues and trends as well as to inform decision makers of key risks and uncertainties facing the energy future.9 tabs., 1 fig

  12. The Uncertain Future of Nuclear Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Bunn, Matthew G.; von Hippel, Frank; Diakov, Anatoli; Ding, Ming; Katsuta, Tadahiro; McCombie, Charles; Ramana, M.V.; Suzuki, Tatsujiro; Voss, Susan; Yu, Suyuan

    2010-01-01

    In the 1970s, nuclear energy was expected to quickly become the dominant generator of electrical power. Its fuel costs are remarkably low because a million times more energy is released per unit weight by fission than by combustion. But its capital costs have proven to be high. Safety requires redundant cooling and control systems, massive leak-tight containment structures, very conservative seismic design and extremely stringent quality control. The routine health risks and greenhouse-gas...

  13. Backwardation in energy futures markets: Metalgesellschaft revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charupat, N.; Deaves, R.

    2003-01-01

    Energy supply contracts negotiated by the US Subsidiary of Metalgesellschaft Refining and Marketing (MGRM), which were the subject of much subsequent debate, are re-examined. The contracts were hedged by the US Subsidiary barrel-for-barrel using short-dated energy derivatives. When the hedge program experienced difficulties, the derivatives positions were promptly liquidated by the parent company. Revisiting the MGRM contracts also provides the opportunity to explore the latest evidence on backwardation in energy markets. Accordingly, the paper discusses first the theoretical reasons for backwardation, followed by an empirical examination using the MGRM data available at the time of the hedge program in 1992 and a second set of data that became available in 2000. By using a more up-to-date data set covering a longer time period and by controlling the time series properties of the data, the authors expect to provide more reliable empirical evidence on the behaviour of energy futures prices. Results based on the 1992 data suggest that the strategy employed by MGRM could be expected to be profitable while the risks are relatively low. However, analysis based on the 2000 data shows lower, although still significant profits, but higher risks. The final conclusion was that the likelihood of problems similar to those faced by MGRM in 1992 are twice as high with the updated 2000 data, suggesting that the risk-return pattern of the stack-and-roll hedging strategy using short-dated energy future contracts to hedge long-tem contracts is less appealing now than when MGRM implemented its hedging program in 1992. 24 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs

  14. Energy in Latin America: Present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Johnny N; Sheffield, John W [University of Missouri-Rolla (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The primary focus of this paper is on the analysis of the current situation of energy production and consumption in the region as a whole, to examine the determinants of energy supply and demand growth, and to forecast the future growth of energy production, consumption, and balances. Since the growth of oil demand in Latin American countries themselves began to accelerate in the early 1990s, the lack of investment and development and the consequence shrinking base of Latin America's energy exports may pose serious challenges to North America, where dependence on the Middle Eastern oil and gas is growing. This paper attempts to present different scenarios and strategies to tackle the problem of Latin America's future net energy supply. [Spanish] El enfoque principal de este articulo es sobre la base de la situacion actual de la produccion y consumo de energia en la region como un todo, para examinar las determinantes del suministro de energia y el crecimiento de la demanda y la prediccion del crecimiento futuro de la produccion de energia, consumo y balances. Desde el crecimiento de la demanda del petroleo, en los paises latinoamericanos, ellos mismos empezaron a acelerar a principios de los 90s, la falta de inversion y desarrollo y la consecuencia del encogimiento de la base de las exportaciones de energia de Latinoamerica podrian imponer serios retos a Norte America, en donde la dependencia del petroleo y del gas del Medio-Oeste esta creciendo. Este articulo intenta presentar diferentes escenarios y estrategias para atacar el problema del suministro neto de energia de Latinoamerica.

  15. Energy in Latin America: Present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Johnny N; Sheffield, John W [University of Missouri-Rolla (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The primary focus of this paper is on the analysis of the current situation of energy production and consumption in the region as a whole, to examine the determinants of energy supply and demand growth, and to forecast the future growth of energy production, consumption, and balances. Since the growth of oil demand in Latin American countries themselves began to accelerate in the early 1990s, the lack of investment and development and the consequence shrinking base of Latin America's energy exports may pose serious challenges to North America, where dependence on the Middle Eastern oil and gas is growing. This paper attempts to present different scenarios and strategies to tackle the problem of Latin America's future net energy supply. [Spanish] El enfoque principal de este articulo es sobre la base de la situacion actual de la produccion y consumo de energia en la region como un todo, para examinar las determinantes del suministro de energia y el crecimiento de la demanda y la prediccion del crecimiento futuro de la produccion de energia, consumo y balances. Desde el crecimiento de la demanda del petroleo, en los paises latinoamericanos, ellos mismos empezaron a acelerar a principios de los 90s, la falta de inversion y desarrollo y la consecuencia del encogimiento de la base de las exportaciones de energia de Latinoamerica podrian imponer serios retos a Norte America, en donde la dependencia del petroleo y del gas del Medio-Oeste esta creciendo. Este articulo intenta presentar diferentes escenarios y estrategias para atacar el problema del suministro neto de energia de Latinoamerica.

  16. EnerFuture: Long Term Energy Scenarios 'Understanding our energy future'. Key graphs and analysis, Enerdata - Global Energy Forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Enerdata analyses 4 future energy scenarios accounting for 2 economic growth assumptions combined with 2 alternative carbon emission mitigation policies. In this study, a series of analyses supported by graphs assess the energy consumption and intensity forecasts in emerging and developed markets. In particular, one analysis is dedicated to energies competition, including gas, coal and renewable energies. (authors)

  17. Does nuclear energy have a future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienle, F.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear energy contributes 17% to global electricity production and almost 40% to the public supply in Germany. Operators of nuclear power plants are having to invest considerable effort in trying to set the public thinking and boring public opinion away from an emotional rejection towards a rational consideration of the risks of different energy systems. It is argued that in view of the specific problems of environmental pollution through CO 2 it should be possible to bring about public acceptance of nuclear energy utilization. (DG) [de

  18. World Energy Scenarios: Composing energy futures to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frei, Christoph; Whitney, Rob; Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm; Rose, Karl; Rieser, Dan A.; Al-Qahtani, Ayed; Thomas, Philip; Turton, Hal; Densing, Martin; Panos, Evangelos; Volkart, Kathrin

    2013-01-01

    The World Energy Scenarios: Composing energy futures to 2050 is the result of a three-year study conducted by over 60 experts from nearly 30 countries, with modelling provided by the Paul Scherrer Institute. The report assesses two contrasting policy scenarios, the more consumer driven Jazz scenario and the more voter-driven Symphony scenario with a key differentiator being the ability of countries to pass through the Doha Climate Gateway. The WEC scenarios use an explorative approach to assess what is actually happening in the world now, to help gauge what will happen in the future and the real impact of today's choices on tomorrow's energy landscape. Rather than telling policy-makers and senior energy leaders what to do in order to achieve a specific policy goal, the WEC's World Energy Scenarios allow them to test the key assumptions that decision-makers decide to better shape the energy of tomorrow This document includes the French and English versions of the executive summary and the English version of the full report

  19. The impact of future energy demand on renewable energy production – Case of Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, Eva; Lind, Arne; Espegren, Kari Aamodt

    2013-01-01

    Projections of energy demand are an important part of analyses of policies to promote conservation, efficiency, technology implementation and renewable energy production. The development of energy demand is a key driver of the future energy system. This paper presents long-term projections of the Norwegian energy demand as a two-step methodology of first using activities and intensities to calculate a demand of energy services, and secondly use this as input to the energy system model TIMES-Norway to optimize the Norwegian energy system. Long-term energy demand projections are uncertain and the purpose of this paper is to illustrate the impact of different projections on the energy system. The results of the analyses show that decreased energy demand results in a higher renewable fraction compared to an increased demand, and the renewable energy production increases with increased energy demand. The most profitable solution to cover increased demand is to increase the use of bio energy and to implement energy efficiency measures. To increase the wind power production, an increased renewable target or higher electricity export prices have to be fulfilled, in combination with more electricity export. - Highlights: • Projections to 2050 of Norwegian energy demand services, carriers and technologies. • Energy demand services calculated based on intensities and activities. • Energy carriers and technologies analysed by TIMES-Norway. • High renewable target results in more wind power production and electricity export. • Increased energy efficiency is important for a high renewable fraction

  20. The modelling of future energy scenarios for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Pil Seok

    2014-01-01

    within a time frame of two hours and approx. 7% of the electricity demand can be moved within a time frame of 24 hours. The system benefit at the assessed amount of flexible demand is limited however. Results from the other analysis indicate that in order to have a significant impact on the energy system...... performance, more than a quarter of the classic electricity demand would need to be flexible within a month, which is highly unlikely to happen. For the investigation of the energy system model, EnergyPLAN, which is used for two scenario analyses, two questions are asked; “what is the value of future...... for the important but uncertain areas biomass and flexible demand are performed. Thirdly, modelling-related issues are investigated with a focus on the effect of future forecasting assumption and differences between a predefined priority order and order determined by given efficiencies and constraints...

  1. Future high energy colliders. Formal report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    1996-01-01

    This Report includes copies of transparencies and notes from the presentations made at the Symposium on Future High Energy Colliders, October 21-25, 1996 at the Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara California, that was made available by the authors. Editing, reduction and changes to the authors contributions were made only to fulfill the printing and publication requirements. We would like to take this opportunity and thank the speakers for their informative presentations and for providing copies of their transparencies and notes for inclusion in this Report

  2. Unit root behavior in energy futures prices

    OpenAIRE

    Serletis, Apostolos

    1992-01-01

    This paper re-examines the empirical evidence for random walk type behavior in energy futures prices. In doing so, tests for unit roots in the univariate time-series representation of the daily crude oil, heating oil, and unleaded gasoline series are performed using recent state-of-the-art methodology. The results show that the unit root hypothesis can be rejected if allowance is made for the possibility of a one-time break in the intercept and the slope of the trend function at an unknown po...

  3. Croatian Energy System Defossilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V.

    2013-01-01

    Defossilization of an energy system, as primary cause of the actual climate change, means exchange of predominantly imported fossil fuels with climate more convenient energy carriers, facilitating thus the way out of crisis.Overview of the world and Croatian energy system situation is presented as well as the overview of climate change. The most important Croatian energy system defossilization measures-energy efficiency increase, renewable energy inclusion and others - are described.(author)

  4. Global perspectives on future nuclear energy utilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is presented as an overview of the nuclear sector from a global perspective. The aim is to show that nuclear power does have a future but that this will only be fully realised when the industry is able to demonstrate that it is part of the solution to the world's energy and environmental difficulties rather than part of the problem. The paper looks at the projected world energy demand as the population increases and countries develop, showing that nuclear power is required to meet this demand. In presenting nuclear power as a solution, the paper addresses the challenges facing us such as public confidence, environmental opposition, political issues and finance. It addresses the debate over reprocessing and direct disposal of irradiated nuclear fuel and looks at the competition from other fuels. The paper suggests how the industry might approach these issues such that nuclear power is indeed regarded globally as a solution to some of the worlds most pressing problems. (author)

  5. Dark energy: Recent observations and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlmutter, Saul

    2003-01-01

    Dark energy presents us with a challenging puzzle: understanding the new element of physics evident in the acceleration of the expansion of the universe. Type Ia supernovae first detected this acceleration and have been instrumental in breaking the matter dominated universe paradigm, measuring the current acceleration of the expansion, and probing back to the decelerating phase. To further study the nature of dark energy requires understanding of systematic errors entering into any cosmological probe. Type Ia supernovae provide simple, transparent tracers of the expansion history of the universe, and the sources of systematic uncertainties in the supernova measurement have been identified. We briefly review the progress to date and examine the promise of future surveys with large numbers of supernovae and well bounded systematics

  6. Future energy mix - also without nuclear power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, C.

    2005-01-01

    The considerable rises in the price of oil in the months of October and November 2004 assigned topical importance to the 'Future Energy Mix - also without Nuclear Power?' meeting of young nuclear engineers and students with experts from politics, industry, and research at the YOUNG GENERATION event organized at the Biblis nuclear power station on November 4-6, 2004. Specialized presentations were made about these topics: The Biblis Nuclear Power Plant Site. The Effects of Deregulation on the Electricity Market Emission Trading - a Combination of Economy and Ecology? Energy Mix for the 21 st Century. The event was completed by a round-table discussion among leading experts, and a presentation of perspectives in university education in areas encompassing power technology. (orig.)

  7. Energy systems security

    CERN Document Server

    Voeller, John G

    2014-01-01

    Energy Systems Security features articles from the Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security covering topics related to electricity transmission grids and their protection, risk assessment of energy systems, analysis of interdependent energy networks. Methods to manage electricity transmission disturbances so as to avoid blackouts are discussed, and self-healing energy system and a nano-enabled power source are presented.

  8. Rational expectations, risk and efficiency in energy futures markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serletis, Apostolos (Calgary Univ., AB (CA). Dept. of Economics)

    1991-04-01

    Conditional on the hypothesis that energy futures markets are efficient or rational, this paper uses Fama's regression approach to measure the information in energy futures prices about future spot prices and time varying premiums. The paper finds that the premium and expected future spot price components of energy futures prices are negatively correlated and that most of the variation in futures prices is variation in expected premiums. (author).

  9. Primary energy: present status and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thielheim, K O

    1982-01-01

    A survey of the base-load energy sources available to humans is presented, starting from the point of view that all energy used is ultimately derived from nuclear processes within the sun. Specific note is made of European energy options, noting the large dependence on imported oil. Detailed exploration of available nuclear fuel resources is carried out, with attention given to fission, fusion, and breeder reactor plants and to the state-of-the-art and technology for each. The problems of nuclear waste disposal are discussed, and long term burial in salt domes is outlined as a satisfactory method of containing the materials for acceptable periods of time. The CO/sub 2/ greenhouse effect hazards caused by increased usage of coal-derived fuels are considered and precautions to be taken on a global scale to ameliorate the warming effects are recommended. The limitations to hydropower are examined, as are those of tidal power. Solar cells are projected to be produced in GW quantities by the year 2000, while wind-derived electricity is predicted to provide a minimum of 5% of the world energy needs in the future.

  10. The future of nuclear energy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Kuester, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    Are concerns about global warming of the Earth's atmosphere going to rekindle interest in nuclear power and in building new nuclear power plants in Europe? As a consequence of the discussions about the climate, the use of nuclear power as an important energy source is currently being re-evaluated, finds Dr. Wolf-J. Schmidt-Kuester, Secretary General of FORATOM, the European Atomic Forum, headquartered in Brussels. In his article, he argues that a renaissance of nuclear power will be possible also in Europe once politics supports resuming an unbiased discussion of all topics associated with the energy problem. Europe must face two problems in the energy sector for which solutions must be found: the growing dependence on fossil energy resources, and the need to curb greenhouse gas emissions, especially those of carbon dioxide. Nuclear power is already making a sizable contribution towards the solution of these problems, but its future potential has hardly been tapped. Public acceptance of nuclear power shows that the intention to opt out of the peaceful uses of nuclear power is not based on an identical attitude of the public, but is motivated politically, finding only little public support, as in the cases of Sweden and Germany. (orig.) [de

  11. Future systems and strategies; Systemes du futur et strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, S. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris XI Orsay (France)

    2007-07-01

    This lecture deals with the different nuclear technologies which could be developed in the future. We present some physical aspects of future fission-based nuclear reactors. First, we give an overview of the energy problematic in the coming century, in order to define what could be requested from nuclear power. We describe the present reactors, based on the fission of U-235. They require around 200 tons of natural uranium to fission only 1 ton of fissile material. Regarding the estimated uranium resources, the question of the transition towards breeding reactors is discussed. Some simple calculations show that breeding of plutonium can be reached only with a fast neutron spectrum. For the thorium cycle, breeding with thermal neutrons requires the use of molten salt reactors. These two fuel cycles are compared in term of fissile inventory, ability of deployment, and R and D efforts. As a conclusion, we discuss some questions which showed up during the Joliot-Curie school, concerning the different strategies which could be chosen in the coming years. (author)

  12. Integrating the views and perceptions of UK energy professionals in future energy scenarios to inform policymakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkes, Gareth; Spataru, Catalina

    2017-01-01

    The Energy Institute (EI) developed its first Energy Barometer survey in 2015 which aims to understand professionals’ views and opinions of energy priorities, policies and technologies. 543 UK energy professionals from across the energy sector were surveyed. Following the survey, 79% of UK energy professionals believe their sector is not effectively communicating with the public. This suggests there is an urgent need to better understand how to use surveys in a more methodological way. Developed in conjunction with the EI, this paper presents the Energy Barometer survey methodology and results to achieve a better understanding of UK energy professionals’ current perceptions and future priorities. The paper makes two contributions to enhance the UK's energy debate. First, it provides the first results in a longitudinal assessment of energy professionals’ views of energy policy issues and discusses the implications for future policymaking. Second, it identifies opportunities for Energy Barometer findings to feed into scenarios development. A comparison with other studies was undertaken. It has been shown that the views of professionals working across the sector are aligned with decentralised approaches to decarbonisation. In particular, professionals expect action from policymakers to coordinate, engage with and encourage investment in energy efficiency. - Highlights: • 543 UK energy professionals from across the energy sector were surveyed. • Aiming to better understand views and opinions of energy priorities, policies and technologies. • A comparison of the methodology and results with other studies was undertaken. • Considers contributions of results to energy system scenario development. • Identifies particular need for increased energy efficiency investment.

  13. Ethics and the future of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, A.

    2000-01-01

    In democratic societies the future of nuclear energy should be considered as a strategic issue for the country and it should therefore be rationally discussed from every angle, including the moral aspects; within their own political parties, politicians should be leading such discussions. The potentialities of nuclear technology to comply with and respect the human rights, including those of future generations, need to-be evaluated. The social obligation of increasing the well-being of the civil society through the availability of sufficient and reliable electrical energy should be considered a primary condition. The risks associated to nuclear power plants and related activities must be recognized and the nature and functions of regulatory organizations discussed, mainly their independence of judgement. A set of ethical principles regarding communications need to be in place to assure democratic decisions. All concerned parties should participate with the best of the intentions. The human rights of the third generation, those related to the environment, should be given the needed attention, to prevent that the vanguards of the new revolutionary movement of ecologists produce unnecessary victims within the nuclear power plants

  14. Future implications of China's energy-technology choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, E.D.; Wu Zongxin; DeLaquil, Pat; Chen Wenying; Gao Pengfei

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes an assessment of future energy-technology strategies for China that explored the prospects for China to continue its social and economic development while ensuring national energy-supply security and promoting environmental sustainability over the next 50 years. The MARKAL energy-system modeling tool was used to build a model of China's energy system representing all sectors of the economy and including both energy conversion and end-use technologies. Different scenarios for the evolution of the energy system from 1995 to 2050 were explored, enabling insights to be gained into different energy development choices. The analysis indicates a business-as-usual strategy that relies on coal combustion technologies would not be able to meet all environmental and energy security goals. However, an advanced technology strategy emphasizing (1) coal gasification technologies co-producing electricity and clean liquid and gaseous energy carriers (polygeneration), with below-ground storage of some captured CO 2 ; (2) expanded use of renewable energy sources (especially wind and modern biomass); and (3) end-use efficiency would enable China to continue social and economic development through at least the next 50 years while ensuring security of energy supply and improved local and global environmental quality. Surprisingly, even when significant limitations on carbon emissions were stipulated, the model calculated that an advanced energy technology strategy using our technology-cost assumptions would not incur a higher cumulative (1995-2050) total discounted energy system cost than the business-as-usual strategy. To realize such an advanced technology strategy, China will need policies and programs that encourage the development, demonstration and commercialization of advanced clean energy conversion technologies and that support aggressive end-use energy efficiency improvements

  15. Decisions on the way to the future energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulten, R.

    1975-01-01

    The transition to new energy systems, and in this connection the obligatory restructuring of the energy market, will take at last 30 years, as completely new techniques will have to be developed. The energy demand is at present on the increase and will be saturated in about 80 years' time. Recommendations regarding the primary energies to be used in the FRG in the future came to the effect that the import of liquid fossil fuels should be decreased and the money thus saved be spent on further developing the use of nuclear energy combined with inland coal and on the creation of new jobs resulting from this. New en ergy systems which are to be considered: a) nuclear district heating in the form of chemically bound energy, b) coal gasification, c) short-distance supply with hot water, and d) the release of the secondary energy carrier hydrogen by means of the at present still hypothetical thermolysis of water. The real problems resulting from the use of nuclear energy are waste disposal, nuclear fusion, and nuclear fuel supply. Some energy centers located over the whole of the FRG could be in a position to solve these problems in an optimal way. The article ends by going into the question of when a new energy system will be introduced. (GG/LN) [de

  16. Energy systems in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, W.

    1989-01-01

    The principal point of the author was to discuss energy systems (ES) in transition, transition addresses the next 10-25 years, and strategy of the transition. He considers different scenarios of future development of ES. Further he presents considerations elaborated during the last years on the concept of novel horizontally integrated ES which gives promise to be at least an approximation to the desired object of no emissions. The main ideas of the concept are: to decompose and thereby clean all the primary inputs before they are brought to combustion; to develop a network combining all the primary inputs to an integrated supply structure of high absorption, buffer, and storage capacity that resembles in some way the supply and utility functions of the well established electric grid but completes it at best on the basis of mass flows; to achieve a high flexibility in supplying the final energy. The author considers the long run perspective of hydrogen, solar, and nuclear energy with respect to alternative energy sources. 6 refs, 24 figs

  17. Energy supplies and future engines for land, sea, and air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David Gordon

    2012-06-01

    The years 2012 and beyond seem likely to record major changes in energy use and power generation. The Japanese tsunami has resulted in large countries either scaling back or abolishing the future use of nuclear energy. The discovery of what seems like vast amounts of economically deliverable natural gas has many forecasting a rapid switch from coal- to gas-fired generating plants. On the other hand, environmentalists have strong objections to the production of natural gas and of petroleum by hydraulic fracturing from shale, or by extraction of heavy oil. They believe that global warming from the use of fossil fuels is now established beyond question. There has been rapid progress in the development of alternative energy supplies, particularly from on-shore and off-shore wind. Progress toward a viable future energy mix has been slowed by a U.S. energy policy that seems to many to be driven by politics. The author will review the history of power and energy to put all of the above in context and will look at possible future developments. He will propose what he believes to be an idealized energy policy that could result in an optimum system that would be arrived at democratically.

  18. Nordic Energy Technologies : Enabling a sustainable Nordic energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vik, Amund; Smith, Benjamin

    2009-10-15

    A high current Nordic competence in energy technology and an increased need for funding and international cooperation in the field are the main messages of the report. This report summarizes results from 7 different research projects relating to policies for energy technology, funded by Nordic Energy Research for the period 2007-2008, and provides an analysis of the Nordic innovation systems in the energy sector. The Nordic countries possess a high level of competence in the field of renewable energy technologies. Of the total installed capacity comprises a large share of renewable energy, and Nordic technology companies play an important role in the international market. Especially distinguished wind energy, both in view of the installed power and a global technology sales. Public funding for energy research has experienced a significant decline since the oil crisis of the 1970s, although the figures in recent years has increased a bit. According to the IEA, it will require a significant increase in funding to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and limit further climate change. The third point highlighted in the report is the importance of international cooperation in energy research. Nordic and international cooperation is necessary in order to reduce duplication and create the synergy needed if we are to achieve our ambitious policy objectives in the climate and energy issue. (AG)

  19. Multifactor valuation models of energy futures and options on futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertus, Mark J.

    The intent of this dissertation is to investigate continuous time pricing models for commodity derivative contracts that consider mean reversion. The motivation for pricing commodity futures and option on futures contracts leads to improved practical risk management techniques in markets where uncertainty is increasing. In the dissertation closed-form solutions to mean reverting one-factor, two-factor, three-factor Brownian motions are developed for futures contracts. These solutions are obtained through risk neutral pricing methods that yield tractable expressions for futures prices, which are linear in the state variables, hence making them attractive for estimation. These functions, however, are expressed in terms of latent variables (i.e. spot prices, convenience yield) which complicate the estimation of the futures pricing equation. To address this complication a discussion on Dynamic factor analysis is given. This procedure documents latent variables using a Kalman filter and illustrations show how this technique may be used for the analysis. In addition, to the futures contracts closed form solutions for two option models are obtained. Solutions to the one- and two-factor models are tailored solutions of the Black-Scholes pricing model. Furthermore, since these contracts are written on the futures contracts, they too are influenced by the same underlying parameters of the state variables used to price the futures contracts. To conclude, the analysis finishes with an investigation of commodity futures options that incorporate random discrete jumps.

  20. Kinetic energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeggi, M.; Folini, P.

    1983-09-03

    A flywheel system for the purpose of energy storage in decentral solar- or wind energy plants is introduced. The system comprises a rotor made out of plastic fibre, a motor/generator serving as electro-mechanical energy converter and a frequency-voltage transformer serving as electric adapter. The storable energy quantity amounts to several kWh.

  1. Technology utilization and energy efficiency: Lessons learned and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, N.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of energy efficiency within the context of economic and environmental policy making is quite complex. Relatively poor economic performance ratings can weaken the validity of some energy supply systems which tend to reduce energy inputs for specific volumes of output, but don't minimize total cost per unit product; and industry is often slow to adopt new technologies, even those proven to reduce total costs. In this paper, the problems connected with growth in energy requirements in relation to product are first examined within the context of world economic performance history. Three key elements are shown to explain the differences in energy intensity and consumption typology among various countries, i.e., availability of energy sources, prices and government policies. Reference is made to the the role of recent energy prices and policies in the United States whose industrialization has been directly connected with the vast availability of some energy sources. In delineating possible future energy scenarios, the paper cites the strong influence of long term capital investment on the timing of the introduction of energy efficient technologies into industrial process schemes. It illustrates the necessity for flexibility in new energy strategies which are to take advantage the opportunities offered by a wide range of alternative energy sources now being made available through technological innovation

  2. Multifunctional Composites for Future Energy Storage in Aerospace Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Julian Adam

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Multifunctionalization of fiber-reinforced composites, especially by adding energy storage capabilities, is a promising approach to realize lightweight structural energy storages for future transport vehicles. Compared to conventional energy storage systems, energy density can be increased by reducing parasitic masses of non-energy-storing components and by benefitting from the composite meso- and microarchitectures. In this paper, the most relevant existing approaches towards multifunctional energy storages are reviewed and subdivided into five groups by distinguishing their degree of integration and their scale of multifunctionalization. By introducing a modified range equation for battery-powered electric aircrafts, possible range extensions enabled by multifunctionalization are estimated. Furthermore, general and aerospace specific potentials of multifunctional energy storages are discussed. Representing an intermediate degree of structural integration, experimental results for a multifunctional energy-storing glass fiber-reinforced composite based on the ceramic electrolyte Li1.4Al0.4Ti1.6(PO43 are presented. Cyclic voltammetry tests are used to characterize the double-layer behavior combined with galvanostatic charge–discharge measurements for capacitance calculation. The capacitance is observed to be unchanged after 1500 charge–discharge cycles revealing a promising potential for future applications. Furthermore, the mechanical properties are assessed by means of four-point bending and tensile tests. Additionally, the influence of mechanical loads on the electrical properties is also investigated, demonstrating the storage stability of the composites.

  3. Japan's energy future: implications for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.

    1999-01-01

    In April this year, the Department of Industry, Science and Resources published a report outlining the dilemmas facing Japan's energy industry in the post-Kyoto environment with particular reference to the effect it would have on Australia's fuel exports. The following article is based on information in that report. In summary, the extent to which the Japanese government's current climate change response policy (the long term energy forecast) is realised will depend on a complex interaction of competing considerations: 1. whether, in the event of US non ratification, the government maintains its Kyoto commitment or opts for a partial step back from its 8% commitment (and the extent of that draw back); 2. in the event that it does maintain its Kyoto commitment: a) the extent to which it takes advantage of the flexible mechanism provisions to ease the abatement burden on the energy system; b) the level of success in securing additional nuclear power stations and higher load ratios from nuclear power; c) the degree to which renewable and recycling energy sources can be brought on line; d) the extent to which the Japanese people are willing to meet the costs of switching to new technology and changing lifestyles to conserve energy; e) the timing of new initiatives such as emissions trading; the extent to which Japanese industry is able to achieve very strict energy conservation targets; f) the extent to which Japan's economic recovery leads to increased electricity demand as well as g) the extent to which electricity deregulation reduces prices and promotes increased consumption

  4. Control Architecture for Future Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai

    for assessment of control architecture of electric power systems with a means-ends perspective. Given this purpose-oriented understanding of a power system, the increasingly stochastic nature of this problem shall be addressed and approaches for robust, distributed control will be proposed and analyzed....... The introduction of close-to-real-time markets is envisioned to enable fast distributed resource allocation while guaranteeing system stability. Electric vehicles will be studied as a means of distributed reversible energy storage and a flexible power electronic interface, with application to the case......This project looks at control of future electric power grids with a high proportion of wind power and a large number of decentralized power generation, consumption and storage units participating to form a reliable supply of electrical energy. The first objective is developing a method...

  5. Towards a fossil free energy future. The next energy transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, M.; Greber, L.; Hall, J.; Bartels, C.; Bernow, S.; Hansen, E.; Raskin, P.; Von Hippel, D. (Stockholm Environment Institute, Boston, MA (United States))

    1993-04-01

    The report provides technical analysis and documentation as input to the Greenpeace project 'Towards a fossil free energy future'. It presents a main scenario and several variants for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and the technical methods and assumptions used to develop them. The goal is to investigate the technical, economic and policy feasibility to phasing out fossil fuels over the next century as part of a strategy to avert unacceptably high levels or rates of global warming. 209 refs., 42 figs., 27 tabs.

  6. Energy Choices. Choices for the future energy use; Vaegval Energi. Vaegval foer framtidens energianvaendning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Kenneth; Fjaellman, Ted; Sjoegren, Helena (eds.)

    2009-03-15

    The primary objective of this energy project is to prepare data for decision-makers to show what practical measures can be taken to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Energy users play a key role in this task. It is the users who pay for and directly or indirectly choose how much and which energy we are using. We should be using energy in an efficient way in order to develop both our society and our industry. With regard to transport we see great potential for increased efficiency in plug-in hybrids and electric cars. But logistics also play an important role. In this area there is, among other things, a need for purchasers and sellers to jointly plan their requirements and deliveries. This would mean that more energy efficient forms of goods transport, such as the railways, could be used to a greater extent than is currently the case. In order to achieve increased efficiency in industry with high energy consumption, we are proposing that the Programme for Energy Efficiency be expanded to also include heating and new policy instruments that target the most energy-consuming processes. Low-energy buildings constitute systems of different technical solutions which have to work in unison to ensure that the effects of the energy saving subsystems are not lost. At the same time, a low-energy building has to function together with energy systems to supply surplus power to the electricity network. Private individuals, too, need to widen their system boundaries in their everyday life when it comes to choosing the services or products they buy, so that greater consideration is given to total energy consumption during the manufacture and active lifetime of the product or service in question. For society to become more energy efficient, analyses and measures need to take an overarching approach and ensure that subsystems work together to avoid sub optimisations. More than individual technical solutions are required to meet future challenges concerning the energy sector. It

  7. Deciding the Future: Energy Policy Scenarios to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    This WEC study is bottom-up regional view of our energy future focusing on policies to ensure energy sustainability. Experts from five regions and all energy domains worked together to produce four different scenarios to predict how differing levels of cooperation and government involvement would affect the energy future of the world.

  8. Remote operation systems and development cooperation, future couple in alternative energy sources; Telegestion y cooperacion al desarrollo, binomio de futuro en energias renovables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borge Diez, D.

    2008-07-01

    Despite of the rising in the fuel and its by-products, alternative energy sources have not vet developed specially in small plants for local generation. Thermal solar energy and biomass could provide most of the thermal energy required in the residential and commercial buildings and provide new solutions such as solar cooling, but people usually distrust because of its difficulties to be operated by no expert staff. In this situation remote operation systems are necessary to increase the number of installations and increase the sales. In the same way these kinds of systems could increase the technology exports to development countries where alternative energy sources can provide energy generation solutions that would improve the quality of life. (Author) 6 refs.

  9. New challenges in energy future of Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gylys, J.; Ziedelis, S.; Adomavicius, A.

    2004-01-01

    serious economical, ecological, and social problems. Trying to evaluate these problems, an attempt was made to foresee trends of further economy development and energy demand for next 20 years. The econometric models, comparative analysis and analytical expertise evaluation methods were used. Three different scenarios of future energy consumption growth were analysed. Results of the performed analysis show, that in the year 2020 energy demand should be about 15,3 - 22,1Twh in cases of the slow or very fast growth scenario (3197 MW and 4484 MW respectively, taking into account necessary reserves). This leads to a shortage of Lithuania's power generating capacity already by 2010. In 2020 this shortage can increase to 556 MW in case of the slow growth scenario and 1843 MW in case of the very fast growth scenario. Three possible ways to compensate this shortage increasing the share of power plants using fossil fuel, broadening the exploitation of renewable energy resources, and nuclear option are analysed. Both economical and ecological problems, including the price dynamics of main imported energy resources, especially of oil and natural gas, are taken into account. It is pointed out that according to Energy Strategy of Russia average contract price of gas can reach 119 - 138 USD/10 3 m 3 in 2020 (growth of price 138 - 160% compared to 86 USD/10 3 m 3 in the year 2000). The unreliability of fuel supply from single supplier (Russia) is emphasized. Analysis and assessment of positive and negative aspects of different energy generation means shows that perhaps the best solution in perspective for Lithuania is the nuclear option. It can be realised by following means: a) extension of exploitation of the second unit of Ignalina NPP after the year 2010, b) replacement of existing RBMK-1500 reactors by modern BWR or PWR reactors, using existing turbines and infrastructure, and c) construction of new nuclear power unit or plant. Results of this study illustrate, that all nuclear

  10. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  11. The Japanese energy sector: Current situation, and future paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Kae; Suzuki, Tatsujiro

    2011-01-01

    As the world's third leading economy and a major importer of fuels, the choice of future energy paths and policies that Japan makes in the next few years will have a significant influence on the energy security of the world as a whole, and of the Northeast Asia region in particular. In this article we describe the current status of and recent trends in the Japanese energy sector, including energy demand and supply by fuel and by sector. We then discuss the current energy policy situation in Japan, focusing on policies related to climate change targets, renewable energy development and deployment, liberalization of energy markets, and the evolution of the Japanese nuclear power sector. The final section of the article presents the structure of the Japan LEAP (long-range energy alternatives planning software system) dataset, describes several alternative energy paths for Japan - with an emphasis on alternative paths for nuclear power development and GHG emission abatement - and touches upon key current issues of energy policy facing Japan, as reflected in the modeling inputs and results.

  12. The Japanese energy sector: Current situation, and future paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takase, Kae, E-mail: kae@gdl.jp [Governance Design Laboratory, Inc., 2301 City Tower Bashamichi 5-71 Onoe-cho, Naka-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 231-0015 (Japan); Suzuki, Tatsujiro [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Public Policy, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0081 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    As the world's third leading economy and a major importer of fuels, the choice of future energy paths and policies that Japan makes in the next few years will have a significant influence on the energy security of the world as a whole, and of the Northeast Asia region in particular. In this article we describe the current status of and recent trends in the Japanese energy sector, including energy demand and supply by fuel and by sector. We then discuss the current energy policy situation in Japan, focusing on policies related to climate change targets, renewable energy development and deployment, liberalization of energy markets, and the evolution of the Japanese nuclear power sector. The final section of the article presents the structure of the Japan LEAP (long-range energy alternatives planning software system) dataset, describes several alternative energy paths for Japan - with an emphasis on alternative paths for nuclear power development and GHG emission abatement - and touches upon key current issues of energy policy facing Japan, as reflected in the modeling inputs and results.

  13. Renewable: A key component of our global energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, D.

    1995-12-31

    Inclusion of renewable energy sources in national and international energy strategies is a key component of a viable global energy future. The global energy balance is going to shift radically in the near future brought about by significant increases in population in China and India, and increases in the energy intensity of developing countries. To better understand the consequences of such global shifts in energy requirements and to develop appropriate energy strategies to respond to these shifts, we need to look at the factors driving choices among supply options by geopolitical consumers and the impact these factors can have on the future energy mix.

  14. The energy innovation network : fuelling an integrated energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, E. [Alberta Energy Research Inst., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Global primary energy demand is expected to increase by 1.7 per cent annually from 2000 to 2030, reaching an annual level of 15.3 billion tonnes of oil equivalent. Fossil fuels are expected to supply over 90 per cent of global incremental energy demand through 2030, while gas consumption is estimated to double between 2000 and 2030 due to its cost competitiveness, high availability and environmental advantages. Oil will remain the largest fuel source with demand increasing by 1.6 per cent annually. In order to tap the vast Canadian resource potential, innovative new technologies are needed to unlock the remaining conventional oil and gas reserves. It was argued that no single source of energy will be sufficient to meet world or Canadian demand. Therefore, there is also a need for a collaborative initiative to facilitate a long-term effort to implement an integrated energy innovation strategy. The Energy Innovation Network (EnergyINet) was created help industry, governments, and the research community address the challenges of ensuring an abundant supply of environmentally responsible energy. Given the right technologies, bitumen, coal, and coalbed methane have hundreds of years of production remaining. Production of those reserves depends on finding effective solutions to production costs, cost and availability of feedstocks needed to produce higher valued products, market limitations, and land, water, air, and greenhouse gas issues. The main challenge is to finance the development of such technologies into reliable, large-scale commercial applications. It was concluded that Canada's ability to maintain competitive energy supplies from conventional and non-conventional energy systems will be severely limited as the need to protect the environment, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and conserve water moves higher on the public agenda. 13 refs.

  15. Renewable energy sources - the opportunity for a safer future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodrom, Andrei; Federenciuc, Dumitru; Ignat, Vasile; Dobre, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The researches have shown that the potential of renewable energy sources is huge as they can in principle meet many times the world's energy demand. Renewable energy sources such as biomass, wind, solar, hydropower and geothermal can provide energy services based on the use of local available resources. Starting from this fact, a transition to renewable-based energy systems is looking increasingly likely as their costs have dropped while the price of oil and gas continue to fluctuate. In the past 30 years, the sales of solar and wind energy systems continued to increase because the capital and electricity production costs decreased simultaneously with the performance enhancement. It is becoming clear that future growth in the energy sector will be primarily in the renewable energy systems and to some extent natural gas-based systems and not in conventional oil and coal sources. It is also important to have governmental assistance and popular support in developing these alternate energy sources, that among others, reduce local and global atmospheric emissions, provide commercially attractive options, particularly in developing countries and rural areas and create the transition to the energy sector of the future. This paper tries to approach the renewable energy sources currently analyzed by the experts, emphasizing their strengths and weaknesses. The conventional energy sources based on oil, coal and natural gas have proven to be highly effective drivers of economic progress but at the same time damaging to the environment and human health. Furthermore they tend to be cyclical in nature, due to the effects of oligopoly in production and distribution. These traditional fossil fuel-based energy sources are facing increasing pressure on environmental issues, among these the future reduction of greenhouse gas specified in the Kyoto Protocol. Renewable energy sources currently supply between 15 - 20% of world's total energy demand. This supply is dominated by biomass

  16. Spillover effects in energy futures markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, S.X.; Tamvakis, M.N.

    2001-01-01

    Price discovery in crude oil and refined oil products has been extensively undertaken in organised futures markets for over a decade now. There are two dominant such markets today: the first one in the New York Mercantile Exchange; and the second in London's International Petroleum Exchange. With the demise of OPEC as the leading price setter for crude and products, NYMEX light sweet crude and Brent crude have usurped the role of benchmark grades for price setting. To date considerable work has been done to scrutinise the degree to which these two markets price efficiently, but little with regard to the way the two markets interact. Participants in these markets move with relative ease from one market to the other and usually take positions in both of them. It is of interest, therefore, to investigate the information transmission mechanism by looking at spillover effects and, perhaps, identify which market is the true price leader. This paper is a first attempt to look at such a problem in the energy market, although similar studies have been done on stock market indices. It is found that substantial spillover effects do exist when both markets are trading simultaneously, although IPE morning prices seem to be considerably affected by the close of the previous day on NYMEX

  17. Wind energy analysis system

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Ing. (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) One of the most important steps to be taken before a site is to be selected for the extraction of wind energy is the analysis of the energy within the wind on that particular site. No wind energy analysis system exists for the measurement and analysis of wind power. This dissertation documents the design and development of a Wind Energy Analysis System (WEAS). Using a micro-controller based design in conjunction with sensors, WEAS measure, calcu...

  18. Future nuclear energy utilization in view of the Swiss economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuendig, M.

    1990-01-01

    The tried and proven system of dividing duties between government and business should be continued. A double 'no', preserving the legal basis for the future use of nuclear energy, should therefore be the answer to the two bills aimed against it in Switzerland. Conservation, research and substitution efforts of private industry can be rewarded by providing the necessary framework. The creation of indirect incentives should further support these efforts, without federal intervention. For this reason and with the same resoluteness, the 'energy article' has to be rejected. (author)

  19. Indicator based sustainability analysis of future energy situation of Santiago de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Stelzer, Volker; Quintero, Adriana; Vargas, Luis; Paredes, Gonzalo; Simon, Sonja; Nienhaus, Kristina; Kopfmüller, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Up to now, the Chilean Energy system has fulfilled the energy needs of Santiago de Chile considerably well. However, development trends of the current system impose significant future risks on the energy system. A detailed sustainability analysis of the energy sector of the Metropolitan Region of Santiago de Chile was conducted, using selected energy indicators and a distance-to-target approach. Risks for the sustainable development of the energy sector are detected, such...

  20. Flexible energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses and analyses diffent national strategies and points out key changes in the energy system in order to achieve a system which can benefit from a high percentage of wind and CHP without having surplus production problems, introduced here as a flexible energy system....

  1. Current Renewable Energy Technologies and Future Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Stephen W [ORNL; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Ward, Christina D [ORNL; Smith, Barton [ORNL; Grubb, Kimberly R [ORNL; Lee, Russell [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    The generally acknowledged sources of renewable energy are wind, geothermal, biomass, solar, hydropower, and hydrogen. Renewable energy technologies are crucial to the production and utilization of energy from these regenerative and virtually inexhaustible sources. Furthermore, renewable energy technologies provide benefits beyond the establishment of sustainable energy resources. For example, these technologies produce negligible amounts of greenhouse gases and other pollutants in providing energy, and they exploit domestically available energy sources, thereby reducing our dependence on both the importation of fossil fuels and the use of nuclear fuels. The market price of renewable energy technologies does not reflect the economic value of these added benefits.

  2. LCA of Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2018-01-01

    Energy systems are essential in the support of modern societies’ activities, and can span a wide spectrum of electricity and heat generation systems and cooling systems. Along with their central role and large diversity, these systems have been demonstrated to cause serious impacts on human health...... , ecosystems and natural resources. Over the past two decades, energy systems have thus been the focus of more than 1000 LCA studies, with the aim to identify and reduce these impacts. This chapter addresses LCA applications to energy systems for generation of electricity and heat . The chapter gives insight...

  3. Key Factors in Planning a Sustainable Energy Future Including Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedstrom, Lars; Saxe, Maria; Folkesson, Anders; Wallmark, Cecilia; Haraldsson, Kristina; Bryngelsson, Marten; Alvfors, Per

    2006-01-01

    In this article, a number of future energy visions, especially those basing the energy systems on hydrogen, are discussed. Some often missing comparisons between alternatives, from a sustainability perspective, are identified and then performed for energy storage, energy transportation, and energy use in vehicles. It is shown that it is important…

  4. Innovative thermal energy harvesting for future autonomous applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfray, Stephane

    2013-12-01

    As communicating autonomous systems market is booming, the role of energy harvesting will be a key enabler. As example, heat is one of the most abundant energy sources that can be converted into electricity in order to power circuits. Harvesting systems that use wasted heat open new ways to power autonomous sensors when the energy consumption is low, or to create systems of power generators when the conversion efficiency is high. The combination of different technologies (low power μ-processors, μ-batteries, radio, sensors...) with new energy harvesters compatible with large varieties of use-cases with allow to address this booming market. Thanks to the conjunction of ultra-low power electronic development, 3D technologies & Systems in Package approaches, the integration of autonomous sensors and electronics with ambient energy harvesting will be achievable. The applications are very wide, from environment and industrial sensors to medical portable applications, and the Internet of things may also represent in the future a several billions units market.

  5. Innovative thermal energy harvesting for future autonomous applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monfray, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    As communicating autonomous systems market is booming, the role of energy harvesting will be a key enabler. As example, heat is one of the most abundant energy sources that can be converted into electricity in order to power circuits. Harvesting systems that use wasted heat open new ways to power autonomous sensors when the energy consumption is low, or to create systems of power generators when the conversion efficiency is high. The combination of different technologies (low power μ-processors, μ-batteries, radio, sensors...) with new energy harvesters compatible with large varieties of use-cases with allow to address this booming market. Thanks to the conjunction of ultra-low power electronic development, 3D technologies and Systems in Package approaches, the integration of autonomous sensors and electronics with ambient energy harvesting will be achievable. The applications are very wide, from environment and industrial sensors to medical portable applications, and the Internet of things may also represent in the future a several billions units market

  6. The Global Climate and Energy Project at Stanford University: Fundamental Research Towards Future Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Jennifer L.; Sassoon, Richard E.; Hung, Emilie; Bosshard, Paolo; Benson, Sally M.

    The Global Climate and Energy Project (GCEP), at Stanford University, invests in research with the potential to lead to energy technologies with lower greenhouse gas emissions than current energy technologies. GCEP is sponsored by four international companies, ExxonMobil, GE, Schlumberger, and Toyota and supports research programs in academic institutions worldwide. Research falls into the broad areas of carbon based energy systems, renewables, electrochemistry, and the electric grid. Within these areas research efforts are underway that are aimed at achieving break-throughs and innovations that greatly improve efficiency, performance, functionality and cost of many potential energy technologies of the future including solar, batteries, fuel cells, biofuels, hydrogen storage and carbon capture and storage. This paper presents a summary of some of GCEP's activities over the past 7 years with current research areas of interest and potential research directions in the near future.

  7. Renewable Energy Tracking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable energy generation ownership can be accounted through tracking systems. Tracking systems are highly automated, contain specific information about each MWh, and are accessible over the internet to market participants.

  8. Solution for the future smart energy system: A polygeneration plant based on reversible solid oxide cells and biomass gasification producing either electrofuel or power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurjonsson, Hafthor Ægir; Clausen, Lasse R.

    2018-01-01

    price scenario and bio-SNG price. A system that can select the production or consumption of electricity depending on the market price enables constant operation all year round. This results in a higher net present value for the system and may lead to a positive return on investment, given...... the appropriate market price of electricity and bio-SNG. However, the techno-economic analysis revealed that the district heating product may be important for the economic feasibility of the polygeneration plant. This system may offer solutions in a smart energy system connecting electrofuel, heat, and power...

  9. World energy. The facts and the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedley, D.

    1981-01-01

    This book examines how energy [including nuclear energy] is used in the world and how much energy is used; fuel resources - where they are, how long they will last, which countries have the fuel and which countries need it the most; the implications of the energy crisis for transport; the development of synthetics; the impact of conservation; the renewable energy sources and what progress is being made with them. The book forecasts how the world energy economy will have changed by the year 2000 and what is likely to happen beyond. (author)

  10. New secondary energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulten, R.

    1977-01-01

    As an introduction, the FRG's energy industry situation is described, secondary energy systems to be taken into consideration are classified, and appropriate market requirements are analyzed. Dealt with is district heating, i.e. the direct transport of heat by means of circulating media, and long-distance energy, i.e. the long-distance energy transport by means of chemical conversion in closed- or open-cycle systems. In closed-cycle systems heat is transported in the form of chemical latent energy. In contrast to this, chemical energy is transported in open-cycle systems in the form of fuel gases produced by coal gasification or by thermochemical water splitting. (GG) [de

  11. Energy Harvesting from Aerodynamic Instabilities: Current prospect and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, M.; Rajendran, P.; Khan, S. A.

    2018-01-01

    This paper evaluates the layout and advancement of energy harvesting based on aerodynamic instabilities of an aircraft. Vibration and thermoelectric energy harvesters are substantiated as most suitable alternative low-power sources for aerospace applications. Furthermore, the facility associated with the aircraft applications in harvesting the mechanical vibrations and converting it to electric energy has fascinated the researchers. These devices are designed as an alternative to a battery-based solution especially for small aircrafts, wireless structural health monitoring for aircraft systems, and harvester plates employed in UAVs to enhance the endurance and operational flight missions. We will emphasize on various sources of energy harvesting that are designed to come from aerodynamic flow-induced vibrations, specific attention is then given at those technologies that may offer, today or in the near future, a potential benefit to reduce both the cost and emissions of the aviation industry. The advancements achieved in the energy harvesting based on aerodynamic instabilities show very good scope for many piezoelectric harvesters in the field of aerospace, specifically green aviation technology in the future.

  12. Wonderful energy beautiful future - vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-04-01

    This book is about nuclear history of Korea for three decades. It deals with introduction of nuclear power into Korea as a poverty country, success of energy independence and growth into export country for nuclear energy. It composed of five chapters and is divided into periods. This book is realistic history of nuclear energy growth in Korea.

  13. Energy Systems Integration Facility News | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL Energy Systems Integration Facility News Energy Systems Integration Facility Energy Dataset A massive amount of wind data was recently made accessible online, greatly expanding the Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has completed technology validation testing for Go

  14. The vision of a future energy supply network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppel, G.; Favre-Perrod, P.; Geidl, M.; Kloeckl, B.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses a concept developed within the framework of a project entitled 'Vision of Future Energy Networks' carried out at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich. The project looked at the possibility of using synergies between various energy carriers and systems. Network topologies are discussed that can cope with the distributed production of energy in installations featuring technologies such as combined heat and power, micro gas turbines and wind-power installations. The topics discussed include the use of a large amount of such distributed generation capacity and which network topologies and storage requirements would be necessary for their operation. Also, under the title 'energy hubs', possible synergies with other forms of energy use are examined. The modelling, dimensioning and use of such hubs are dealt with for various scenarios, ranging from single family homes through to combinations of industrial complexes and whole residential areas. Questions of reliability are addressed and the idea of an 'Energy Interconnector' that supplies electrical, chemical and thermal energy is introduced

  15. Research and development activities of the Joint Research Centre -JRC and its involvement in the development of future nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, R.

    2007-01-01

    Besides the policy driven support which the JRC gives to the European Commission and its Member States, the nuclear activities of the JRC also fulfil the Research and Development obligations as enshrined in the EURATOM Treaty. These have for objectives to develop and assemble knowledge in the field of nuclear energy and concern basic actinide research, nuclear data and nuclear measurements, radiation monitoring and radionuclides in the environment, health and nuclear medicine, management of spent fuel and waste, safety of reactors and fuel cycle and nuclear safeguards and non proliferation. The European Union currently imports 50% of its energy and, going by the present trend, this may increase to 70% within 20 years. One third of the electricity in Europe is currently been produced via nuclear fission and the move to innovative reactor systems holds great promise. In May 2006, the European Atomic Energy Community became a Party to the Framework Agreement for International Collaboration on Research and Development of Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems (GIF Framework Agreement). The 'Generation IV' initiative concerns concepts for nuclear energy systems that can be operated in a manner that will provide a competitive and reliable supply of energy, while satisfactorily addressing nuclear safety, waste, proliferation and public perception concerns. The JRC with its strong international dimension is not only the implementing agent for EURATOM in the Generation IV international forum, but also participates actively in related Research and Development projects. The Research and Development projects are focused on fuel development, reprocessing and irradiation testing, fuel cladding interaction and corrosion, basic data for fuel and reprocessing, reprocessing and waste treatment. In this paper the Research and Development the nuclear activities of the JRC will be presented especially those related to its participation to GIF

  16. Small Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simões, Marcelo Godoy; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    considered when selecting a generator for a wind power plant, including capacity of the AC system, types of loads, availability of spare parts, voltage regulation, technical personal and cost. If several loads are likely inductive, such asphase-controlled converters, motors and fluorescent lights......This chapter intends to serve as a brief guide when someone is considering the use of wind energy for small power applications. It is discussed that small wind energy systems act as the major energy source for residential or commercial applications, or how to make it part of a microgrid...... as a distributed generator. In this way, sources and loads are connected in such a way to behave as a renewable dispatch center. With this regard, non-critical loads might be curtailed or shed during times of energy shortfall or periods of high costs of energy production. If such a wind energy system is connected...

  17. The future of nuclear energy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauvergeon, A.

    2000-01-01

    More than 430 nuclear power plants are in operation in 33 countries worldwide. In 1999, they generated nearly 2.4 billion kilowatthours, thus meeting approximately one fifth of the world population's electricity requirement. Every third nuclear power plant is located in a member country of the European Union. These 145 plants generated an aggregate 826 billion kilowatthours last year. This corresponds to almost one third of the entire electricity generation in Europe. The special future requirements facing individual countries and power utilities not only ecologically, as a consequence of the Kyoto Protocol, but also economically, as a consequence of the deregulation of the European electricity market, make the intention of Germany to dispense with the use of nuclear power incomprehensible to the French point of view. Germany must pay special attention to fulfilling its international treaties and bilateral contracts, as Anne Lauvergeon, CEO of Cogema, explained in her presentation at the Bonn KTG conference. This applied in particular to the back end of the fuel cycle. In this respect, the head of Cogema argues that the waste and spent fuel management pathway must be chosen freely by the operator of a nuclear power plant. Within the safety requirements applying equally to all operators, the operator may freely decide under economic aspects whether he wants to recycle his spent fuel or dispose of it as waste. Only when this freedom of choice is guaranteed and used will it be ensured that the economically and technically best solution will win the day in the competition of systems. (orig.) [de

  18. Smart energy management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Aniruddha; Singh, Jugdutt

    2010-04-01

    Peak and average energy usage in domestic and industrial environments is growing rapidly and absence of detailed energy consumption metrics is making systematic reduction of energy usage very difficult. Smart energy management system aims at providing a cost-effective solution for managing soaring energy consumption and its impact on green house gas emissions and climate change. The solution is based on seamless integration of existing wired and wireless communication technologies combined with smart context-aware software which offers a complete solution for automation of energy measurement and device control. The persuasive software presents users with easy-to-assimilate visual cues identifying problem areas and time periods and encourages a behavioural change to conserve energy. The system allows analysis of real-time/statistical consumption data with the ability to drill down into detailed analysis of power consumption, CO2 emissions and cost. The system generates intelligent projections and suggests potential methods (e.g. reducing standby, tuning heating/cooling temperature, etc.) of reducing energy consumption. The user interface is accessible using web enabled devices such as PDAs, PCs, etc. or using SMS, email, and instant messaging. Successful real-world trial of the system has demonstrated the potential to save 20 to 30% energy consumption on an average. Low cost of deployment and the ability to easily manage consumption from various web enabled devices offers gives this system a high penetration and impact capability offering a sustainable solution to act on climate change today.

  19. Renewable Energy Devices and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ionel, Dan M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, essential statistics demonstrating the increasing role of renewable energy generation are firstly discussed. A state of the art review section covers fundamentals of wind turbines and PV systems. Included are schematic diagrams illustrating the main components and system topologies...... and the fundamental and increasing role of power electronics as an enabler for renewable energy integration, and for the future power system and smart grid. Recent examples of research and development, including new devices and system installations for utility power plants, as well for as residential and commercial......, fuel cells, and storage with batteries and hydrogen, respectively. Recommended further readings on topics of electric power engineering for renewable energy are included in a final section. This paper also represents an editorial introduction for two special issues of the Electric Power Component...

  20. Nuclear energy, energy of the future or bad solution?; Energie nucleaire, energie d'avenir ou fausse solution?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The document presents the speeches of the debate on the nuclear energy solution for the future, presented during the meeting of the 6 may in Rennes, in the framework of the National Debate on the energies. The debate concerns the risks assessment and control, the solutions for the radioactive wastes, the foreign examples and the future of the nuclear energy. (A.L.B.)

  1. What Is Energy Systems Integration? | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    NREL What Is Energy Systems Integration? What Is Energy Systems Integration? Energy systems integration (ESI) is an approach to solving big energy challenges that explores ways for energy systems to Research Community NREL is a founding member of the International Institute for Energy Systems Integration

  2. Renewable marine energies, resources for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Lidec, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    The need for alternative sources of energy has never been more urgent than it is today. At the very time International Energy Agency estimates that demand will increase 30% by 2030, fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal) are beginning to dwindle, as the need to counter global warming imposes limits on CO 2 emissions. In this context, DCNS has entered a new field of innovation and development: ocean energy. Having included marine renewable energy as an intrinsic part of its strategic growth plan, DCNS is the only industrial company in the world to invest in all four key technologies in this sector: - the tidal energy generated using underwater turbines known as 'tidal turbines',' which convert the energy of marine tidal streams into electricity; - the ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) technology that exploits the difference of temperature between the warm surface water of tropical oceans and the cold water found in the ocean depths to generate electrical power 24 hours a day, 35 days a year; - the offshore wind energy generated by offshore floating wind turbines; - the wave energy technology which operates on the principle of recovering energy from the ocean swell. With 400 years of expertise in shipbuilding and its in-depth understanding of the marine environment, DCNS is committed to playing a major role in the development of this new ocean industry. (author)

  3. Challenges to a climate stabilizing energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, C.; Dilmaghani, M.; Baksi, S.

    2007-01-01

    The paper surveys the major challenges to stabilizing the atmospheric CO 2 concentration. Climate change, and policies to deal with it, is viewed as an energy problem. The energy problem stems from the fact that no combination of carbon-free energies is currently capable of displacing fossil fuels as the main sources of the world's base load energy requirements. The paper provides rough estimates of the amount of carbon-free energy required to stabilize climate, the potential contribution of 'conventional' carbon-free energies, the contribution of renewable energies, and the size of an 'advanced energy technology gap'. The findings indicate that stabilizing CO 2 concentration will require a long-term commitment to research, develop, and eventually deploy new energy sources and technologies including hydrogen. The paper suggests that the role of technology is what makes stabilizing CO 2 concentration economically feasible. In this respect energy technology and economics are complementary, with advances in the former requiring something more than a reliance on market-based instruments, such as carbon taxes and emission permits. The analysis has implications for the credibility of commitments to target climate change-related factors such as CO 2 emissions.(author)

  4. Challenges to a climate stabilizing energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Chris; Baksi, Soham; Dilmaghani, Maryam

    2007-01-01

    The paper surveys the major challenges to stabilizing the atmospheric CO 2 concentration. Climate change, and policies to deal with it, is viewed as an energy problem. The energy problem stems from the fact that no combination of carbon-free energies is currently capable of displacing fossil fuels as the main sources of the world's base load energy requirements. The paper provides rough estimates of the amount of carbon-free energy required to stabilize climate, the potential contribution of 'conventional' carbon-free energies, the contribution of renewable energies, and the size of an 'advanced energy technology gap'. The findings indicate that stabilizing CO 2 concentration will require a long-term commitment to research, develop, and eventually deploy new energy sources and technologies including hydrogen. The paper suggests that the role of technology is what makes stabilizing CO 2 concentration economically feasible. In this respect energy technology and economics are complementary, with advances in the former requiring something more than a reliance on market-based instruments, such as carbon taxes and emission permits. The analysis has implications for the credibility of commitments to target climate change-related factors such as CO 2 emissions

  5. Energy and future Internet; Energia e futura internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovasz, Gergoe; Niedermeier, Florian; Beri, Andreas; Meers, Hermann de [Universidade de Passau (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    One of the main concern related with future of Internet as far the elevated energy consumption of the infrastructure, which includes the energy supply for the servers and equipment need to refrigerate the necessary hardware.

  6. Nuclear energy in future sustainable, competitive energy mixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echavarri, L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear energy is an established component of electricity supply worldwide (16%) and in particular in OECD (nearly a quarter). It is supported by a mature industry benefiting from extensive experience (more than 8 000 reactor years of commercial operation) and dynamic R and D programmes implemented by governments and industries. Existing nuclear power plants are competing successfully in deregulated electricity markets owing to their low marginal production costs, their technical reliability (availability factors exceeding 80% in many countries) and good safety performance. Stringent safety requirements and radiation protection regulations in place in OECD countries allow potential impacts of nuclear energy facilities on human health and the environment to remain extremely low. Furthermore, nuclear energy, a nearly carbon free source, contributes to alleviating the risk of global climate change (worldwide, GHG emissions from the energy sector are already 8% lower than they would be without nuclear energy). Issues related to high-level waste management and disposal are being addressed in comprehensive, step by step approach. Progress towards the implementation of deep geological repositories is being demonstrated (e.g., Yucca Mountain in the US, Olkiluoto in Finland) and research on innovative fuel cycles aiming at partitioning and transmutation of minor actinides is being actively pursued. Up to 2010-2020, nuclear energy will maintain its role mainly through capacity upgrade and lifetime extension of existing plants, in many cases the most cost effective means to increase power capacity and generation. Examples are provided by utility policies and decisions in a number of OECD countries (e.g., Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US). Although only few new units are being or will be built in the very near term, their construction and operation is bringing additional experience on advanced evolutionary nuclear systems and paving the way for the renaissance of

  7. Control Architecture Modeling for Future Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai

    electricity exchange. However, at the same time, it seems that the overall system design cannot keep up by simply adapting in response to changes, but that also new strategies have to be designed in anticipation. Changes to the electricity markets have been suggested to adapt to the limited predictability...... of wind power, and several new control strategies have been proposed, in particular to enable the control of distributed energy resources, including for example, distributed generation or electric vehicles. Market designs addressing the procurement of balancing resources are highly dependent...... on the operation strategies specifying the resource requirements. How should one decide which control strategy and market configuration is best for a future power system? Most research up to this point has addressed single isolated aspects of this design problem. Those of the ideas that fit with current markets...

  8. Mapping the Future of Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    This EC-LEDS fact sheet describes the NREL Geospatial Toolkit (GsT), an open-source, map-based software application that provide an intuitive, user-friendly interface for visualizing data and renewable energy potential. The GsT is a country-specific tool that maps renewable energy resources (e.g., for solar, wind, and biomass) in relation to enabling infrastructure like roads and transmission lines, providing necessary information for deploying new clean energy generation.

  9. Swiss economy and the future energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuenberger, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    Lecture of the president of the Swiss Trade and Industry Association at their premises on the occasion of the Annual General meeting of the SVA. The lecture dealt with the subject of economic growth and the difficulties faced by this growth in Switzerland. He formulated energy-political theories in respect of provision security, market economy, free choice between suppliers, economy-friendly energy laws, keeping the nuclear energy option open

  10. The future of the international energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, A.

    1980-01-01

    Are we heading for a world energy cisis. There is not really a need or a disastrous culmination of the world energy supply situation to occur because, globally speakng, a large reservoir of energy resources is available. The problem rather lies in the structure of consumption in the industrialized countries, which is bound to lead to difficulties of supply soon, if the consumption of energy continues to rise. Changes in structure must be effected both on the supply and on the demand sides. (orig.) [de

  11. An overview of world future energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkin, F.P.

    1995-01-01

    The World Energy Council Commission's report Energy for Tomorrow's World was published in September 1993. The Commission's three year study of world energy problems involved both bottom-up studies, undertaken by groups of experts in nine main regions of the world, and top-down studies of global aspects. The latter included the preparation of energy demand and supply projections up to the study horizon of 2020, together with a brief look at prospects up to 2100. This Paper is based on the Commission's work. (author)

  12. Wind energy: Past experience and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, G.

    1993-01-01

    Reductions in the cost of producing wind energy are helping to make this renewable energy source competitive with conventional energy sources. The market for this type of energy in Italy, however, hasn't yet gained a foothold even though close examination of Italy's geomorphology reveals that this country is in fact endowed with many areas having good potential for wind power production. This paper discusses the measures to be taken to bolster wind energy commercialization efforts in Italy. It provides a brief assessment of the current state of wind power technology, national and international market trends, and the directions being taken by other national governments to promote wind turbine manufacturing industries and applications. The comparative analysis indicates that in order to have this energy source alternative taken seriously as an economically viable energy option in Italy, greater financial assistance should be given to local manufacturers involved in commercialization efforts. In addition, a suitable rate structure should be created favouring wind power by taking into account cost benefits afforded by this renewable energy source in terms of reduced air pollution, as well as, reduced national dependency on foreign energy imports

  13. Distribution grid automation as the basis for the smart energy system of the future; Verteilnetzautomatisierung als Grundlage fuer die intelligente Energieversorgung der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khattabi, Mariam; Braun, Martin [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES), Kassel (Germany); Huebner, Christian [ifak e.V., Magdeburg (Germany); Kiessling, Andreas [MVV Energie AG, Mannheim (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The increasing penetration of decentralized generation at the distribution grid level causes a wide variety of grid related problems. A decentralized energy management could be one of many answers to efficiently solve these problems in order to continue to provide a stable high quality Power Supply System. New rules for market participants and grid operators need therefore to be defined in order to ensure proactive grid stability. Not only the supply side, but also the consumer side should be considered in order to maximize the energy supply from renewable energy and to solve related critical grid situations. This paper presents a short term interaction between available potential from generators and loads/storages in order to optimize their interaction with the grid as well as their financial benefit. The method is extended in order to allow for available potential at the distribution grid level to be used by higher grids for instance for frequency control. (orig.)

  14. A hydrogen economy - an answer to future energy problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    1975-01-01

    ''The Theme was THEME''. This was the headline of The Hydrogen Economy Miami Energy Conference which was the first international conference of this type and which took place in Miami, March 18-20, 1974. For the first time, about 700 participants from all over the western world discussed all the ramifications and aspects of a hydrogen based economy. Non-fossil hydrogen, produced from water by either electrolysis or by direct use of process heat from a nuclear source is a clean, all-synthetic, automatically recyclable, and inexhaustible fuel. It may support the World's future energy requirements beyond the present self limited fossil-fuel era. A large number of papers and news were presented on this conference reflecting this effort. The following article is intended to report on the highlights of the conference and to give a survey on the present state of the art in the hydrogen field. Furthermore, the author includes his own ideas and conclusions predominantly by taking into account the trends in the development of future nuclear reactor systems and symbiotic high-temperature-reactor/breeder strategies being the primary energy input of a hydrogen economy and providing a most promising avenue for solving both the World's energy and environmental (entropy) problems. (Auth.)

  15. Energy production systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, Thomas Howard

    2017-01-01

    Energy Production Systems Engineering presents IEEE, Electrical Apparatus Service Association (EASA), and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards of engineering systems and equipment in utility electric generation stations. Electrical engineers that practice in the energy industry must understand the specific characteristics of electrical and mechanical equipment commonly applied to energy production and conversion processes, including the mechanical and chemical processes involved, in order to design, operate and maintain electrical systems that support and enable these processes. To aid this understanding, Energy Production Systems Engineeringdescribes the equipment and systems found in various types of utility electric generation stations. This information is accompanied by examples and practice problems. It also addresses common issues of electrical safety that arise in electric generation stations.

  16. Wind energy: the present and the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catto, Gavin

    1996-01-01

    Wind energy has become a billion-pounds-a-year industry. Its installed capacity worldwide exceeds 4.5 gigawatts. Technical advances coupled with the buying power and mass-production techniques of the main turbine manufacturers are pushing the cost of wind energy down to attractive levels. (author)

  17. Rethinking EU energy security considering past trends and future prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amineh, Mehdi P.; Crijns - Graus, Wina

    2014-01-01

    EU energy policy objectives are directed at three highly interdependent areas: energy supply security, competitiveness and decarbonization to prevent climate change. In this paper, we focus on the issue of energy supply security. Security of energy supply for the immediate and medium-term future is

  18. Energy efficiency system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, A. M.; Rahman, K. A.; Chong, Haw Jie; Salleh, Mohd Najib Mohd; Yusof, M. Z. M.

    2017-09-01

    By subjecting to the massive usage of electrical energy in Malaysia, energy efficiency is now one of the key areas of focus in climate change mitigation. This paper focuses on the development of an energy efficiency system of household electrical appliances for residential areas. Distribution of Questionnaires and pay a visit to few selected residential areas are conducted during the fulfilment of the project as well as some advice on how to save energy are shared with the participants. Based on the collected data, the system developed by the UTHM Energy Team is then evaluated from the aspect of the consumers' behaviour in using electrical appliances and the potential reduction targeted by the team. By the end of the project, 60% of the participants had successfully reduced the electrical power consumption set by the UTHM Energy Team. The reasons for whether the success and the failure is further analysed in this project.

  19. ThinkHome Energy Efficiency in Future Smart Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinisch Christian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Smart homes have been viewed with increasing interest by both home owners and the research community in the past few years. One reason for this development is that the use of modern automation technology in the home or building promises considerable savings of energy, therefore, simultaneously reducing the operational costs of the building over its whole lifecycle. However, the full potential of smart homes still lies fallow, due to the complexity and diversity of the systems, badly engineered and configured installations, as well as the frequent problem of suboptimal control strategies. Summarized, these problems converge to two undesirable conditions in the "not-so-smart" home: energy consumption is still higher than actually necessary and users are unable to yield full comfort in their automated homes. This work puts its focus on alleviating the current problems by proposing a comprehensive system concept, that shall ensure that smart homes can keep their promise in the future. The system operates on an extensive knowledge base that stores all information needed to fulfill the goals of energy efficiency and user comfort. Its intelligence is implemented as and within a multiagent system that also caters for the system's openness to the outside world. As a first evaluation, a profile-based control strategy for thermal comfort is developed and verified by means of simulation.

  20. Renewable energy: power for a sustainable future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, Kamil

    2001-01-01

    By the end of the 21 century, according to United National projections, the number of people on the earth is likely to have approximately doubled. How can a world of 10 to 12 billion people be provided with adequate supplies of energy, cleanly, safely and substantially? There is a growing consensus that renewable energy sources will be a very important part of the answer. The growing interest in 'renewables' has been prompted in part, by increasing concern over the pollution, resource depletion and possible climate change implications of our continuing use of conventional fossil and nuclear fuels. But recent technological developments have also improved the cost-effectiveness of many of the renewables, making their economic prospects look increasingly attractive. It describes the achievements and progress made in hydropower, biomass conversion, geothermal, solar thermal technology, wind energy conversion and the increasing usage of photovoltaics. It is evident that global warming is setting in and is going to change the climate as well as the terrain of many countries unless drastic measures are taken. The Kyoto meeting emphasised the importance of limiting CO 2 emissions and to abide by some form of agreement to reduce emissions. Present study concludes that renewable energy penetration into the energy market is much faster than was expected in recent years and by 2030, 15-20 percent of our prime energy will be met by renewable energy. (Author)

  1. Some comments on the future world energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemperiere, F.

    2011-06-01

    The key problem is the possibility to get mid century the energy necessary for the world development at acceptable cost and impacts with 70 or 80% of renewable energies (essentially solar, wind, hydro and biomass). In 2050 a population of 9 billion (7 in sunny countries) will have probably a gross product 3 or 4 times the present one with a reduced energy intensity; the need of energy may be the double of the present one. The Primary Energy is not an useful reference for most 2050 sources: for instance closing a thermal or nuclear plant supplying 1 TWh and generating 2 TWh more by wind, PV or hydraulics double the Final Energy when reducing the Primary Energy. Presently the Primary Energy is close to 150.000 TWh/year and the Final Energy utilisation to 100.000 TWh. But the present need of Final Energy is lower because many utilizations could use other sources reducing the relevant Final Energy: as examples using PV for cooking in Asia or Africa should divide by over 5 the relevant final energy and using electric cars could divide the Final Energy for transports by 3. The need of Final Energy in 2050 may thus be between 150.000 and 200.000 TWh/year. Anyway the final energy used from many sources will be limited, i.e. a total probably between 60 and 90.000 TWh/year, much under needs of 150.000 to 200.000 TWh/year. There is thus a great uncertainly but it is very likely that the gap will be mid century in the range of 100.000 TWh/year, to be met by coal, wind or solar, essentially through electricity. Electricity will be close to 100.000 TWh/year, with 20.000 from hydro, nuclear, oil and gas and the balance: 80.000 from coal, wind and solar. It is possible to get quite all from wind and solar under 4 conditions: - Coal resources could supply up to 50.000 TWh/year along most of the century at a direct cost lower (before 2040) than solar power by few cents per KWh (at least before 2030 or 2040), i.e. a saving which may be possibly 0,5 or 1% of the gross product. This

  2. Future energy options for developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaric, Z P

    1982-05-01

    An educated guess is made of the energy demand in developing countries well into the next century in order to estimate the possible role of new and renewable sources in meeting this demand. The world is roughly divided into industrialized (IND) and developing (LDC) countries. A plot of energy demand in both parts shows a possible structure of mixed energy to meet LDC demand, but there is a gap between demand and supply from conventional sources in LDCs that has to be met by new and renewable sources. When the demand for specific energy forms is projected, as much as two thirds of the final energy needed from new sources should be based on centralized-electricity and liquid-fuels technologies. Solar and geothermal energy must compete with nuclear and thermonuclear breeders, while solar prospects for chemical fuel supply in LDCs lacking adequate coal reserves seems promising. There is a large gap in research and development (R and D) spending on new energy between the two parts, which means that LDCs will have inappropriate technology at a high price. An increase in R and D spending on a regional basis should target funds to appropriate options. 6 references, 7 figures.

  3. Our global energy future and the role of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    An extension in the use of energy, on even a fairly moderate basis, will, for several decades at least, require the use of all our present energy sources at rates that are a natural extension of historical rates, trending toward maximum practicable exploitation for all but nuclear energy. Regardless of what happens with the fossil hydrocarbons nuclear energy will play a major role in the supply of energy. When the fossil hydrocarbons have run their course nuclear and possibly some solar energy, through the media of electricity, hydrogen and synthetic hydrocarbons, will provide the bulk of the world's controlled energy and in sufficient quantity to provide ample energy for all. The burning question, however, is what will happen in the next few decades. There is a wonderful opportunity for nuclear energy, as the world requirement for energy, and particularly electrical energy, grows

  4. Hydrogen: Its Future Role in the Nation's Energy Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsche, W E; Hoffman, K C; Salzano, F J

    1973-06-29

    In examining the potential role of hydrogen in the energy economy of the future, we take an optimistic view. All the technology required for implementation is feasible but a great deal of development and refinement is necessary. A pessimistic approach would obviously discourage further thinking about an important and perhaps the most reasonable alternative for the future. We have considered a limited number of alternative energy systems involving hydrogen and have shown that hydrogen could be a viable secondary source of energy derived from nuclear power; for the immediate future, hydrogen could be derived from coal. A hydrogen supply system could have greater flexibility and be competitive with a more conventional all-electric delivery system. Technological improvements could make hydrogen as an energy source an economic reality. The systems examined in this article show how hydrogen can serve as a general-purpose fuel for residential and automotive applications. Aside from being a source of heat and motive power, hydrogen could also supply the electrical needs of the household via fuel cells (19), turbines, or conventional "total energy systems." The total cost of energy to a residence supplied with hydrogen fuel depends on the ratio of the requirements for direct fuel use to the requirements for electrical use. A greater direct use of hydrogen as a fuel without conversion to electricity reduces the overall cost of energy supplied to the household because of the greater expense of electrical transmission and distribution. Hydrogen fuel is especially attractive for use in domestic residential applications where the bulk of the energy requirement is for thermal energy. Although a considerable amount of research is required before any hydrogen energy delivery system can be implemented, the necessary developments are within the capability of present-day technology and the system could be made attractive economically .Techniques for producing hydrogen from water by

  5. Energy Usage Analysis System

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The EUAS application is a web based system which serves Energy Center of Expertise, under the Office of Facilitates Management and Service Programs. EUAS is used for...

  6. Integrated energy systems and local energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Henrik; Muenster, Ebbe

    2006-01-01

    Significant benefits are connected with an increase in the flexibility of the Danish energy system. On the one hand, it is possible to benefit from trading electricity with neighbouring countries, and on the other, Denmark will be able to make better use of wind power and other types of renewable energy in the future. This paper presents the analysis of different ways of increasing flexibility in the Danish energy system by the use of local regulation mechanisms. This strategy is compared with the opposite extreme, i.e. trying to solve all balancing problems via electricity trade on the international market. The conclusion is that it is feasible for the Danish society to include the CHP plants in the balancing of fluctuating wind power. There are major advantages in equipping small CHP plants as well as the large CHP plants with heat pumps. By doing so, it will be possible to increase the share of wind power from the present 20 to 40% without causing significant problems of imbalance between electricity consumption and production. Investment in increased flexibility is in itself profitable. Furthermore, the feasibility of wind power is improved

  7. Energy efficiency in future wireless broadband networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available greener economy and environment. In this research, we investigate the concept of green radio communications in wireless networks and discuss approaches for energy efficient solutions in wireless broadband network deployments. These solutions include...

  8. Applications of nuclear energy in future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J.; Necas, V.

    2012-01-01

    Concepts and international frames of generation IV nuclear reactors. A review of use of nuclear energy for non electric applications especially in areas such as seawater desalination, hydrogen production, district heating and other industrial applications. (Author)

  9. Nuclear energy and its future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fells, I.

    1981-01-01

    The most difficult task for the nuclear industry to cope with is education of the public and the politicians in such manner that the emotional reaction resulting from insufficient information is replaced by critical, well-balanced consideration of the hazards and benefits associated with nuclear energy. Only if this is achieved the influential politicians can, according to the author, represent public opinion and set up an acceptable energy strategy. (orig.) [de

  10. The nuclear energy: understand the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, B.

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear appears for many scientists as the main contribution to the world energy supply in the context of a normal development, with a management of radioactive wastes in such a way that they create no hazard for the human and the environment. From the military origins to the electric power application, this book explains the technical, economical and political aspects of the nuclear energy, the challenges and the promises. (A.L.B.)

  11. Flow energy conversion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargsyan, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    A cost-effective hydropower system called here Flow Energy Converter was developed, patented, manufactured and tested for water pumping, electricity generation and other purposes especially useful for the rural communities. The system consists of water-driven turbine with plane-surface blades, power transmission means and pump and/or generator. Working sample of the Flow Energy Converter was designed and manufactured at the Institute of Radio Physics and Electronics

  12. Solar Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

  13. Future approaches to digital systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodrough, R.E.; Beckmann, E.; Jenkins, D.; Belcher, D.

    1984-01-01

    The introduction of the first digital imaging systems has led to the concept of a totally digital imaging department - the 'filmless department'. This concept and its associated network system for digital departments are briefly considered. A transducer system of scanned projection radiography with solid state detectors used in digital chest imaging is described. The principles of this transducer system are applicable to other forms of digital radiography. (U.K.)

  14. Living Systems Energy Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-26

    The Living Systems Energy Module, renamed Voyage from the Sun, is a twenty-lesson curriculum designed to introduce students to the major ways in which energy is important in living systems. Voyage from the Sun tells the story of energy, describing its solar origins, how it is incorporated into living terrestrial systems through photosynthesis, how it flows from plants to herbivorous animals, and from herbivores to carnivores. A significant part of the unit is devoted to examining how humans use energy, and how human impact on natural habitats affects ecosystems. As students proceed through the unit, they read chapters of Voyage from the Sun, a comic book that describes the flow of energy in story form (Appendix A). During the course of the unit, an ``Energy Pyramid`` is erected in the classroom. This three-dimensional structure serves as a classroom exhibit, reminding students daily of the importance of energy and of the fragile nature of our living planet. Interactive activities teach students about adaptations that allow plants and animals to acquire, to use and to conserve energy. A complete list of curricular materials and copies of all activity sheets appear in Appendix B.

  15. Alternative Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, M.; Duckers, L.; Lockett, P.; Loughridge, B.; Peatfield, T.; White, P.

    1984-01-01

    The Coventry (Lanchester) Polytechnic Wave Energy Group has been involved in the United Kingdom wave energy research programme since its inception in 1975. Whilst the work of the group is mainly concerned with wave energy, and currently is directed towards the design of a wave energy device tailored to the needs of isolated/island communities, it has some involvement with other aspects of the alternatives. This conference, dealing with alternative energy systems and their electrical integration and utilisation was engendered by the general interest which the Polytechnic group members have in the alternatives and their use. The scope for electrical integration and utilisation is very broad. Energy for family groups may be provided in a relatively unsophisticated way which is acceptable to them. Small population centres, for example island communities relying upon diesel equipment, can reap the benefits of the alternatives through their ability to accept novel integration schemes and a flexible approach to the use of the energy available. Consumers already enjoying the benefits of a 'firm' electricity grid supply can use energy from a variety of alternative systems, via the grid, without having to modify their energy consumption habits. In addition to the domestic and industrial applications and coastal possibilities, specialist applications in isolated environments have also emerged. The Proceedings detail practical, technical and economic aspects of the alternatives and their electrical integration and utilisation.

  16. Future of forest energy in Europe in 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riala, M.; Asikainen, A.

    2012-07-01

    The need to increase the use of forest energy is connected to the EU goals for use of renewable energy. If the targets are to be reached, forest energy should play a role. The share of forest energy out of all renewable energy will vary between countries. This study focuses on the future of forest energy. The method chosen was a two-round dissensus-based Delphi. The respondents consisted of members of the COST action FP 0902 and in the second round also of members of the RoK-FOR programme. Most of the respondents were experts in the field of forestry, from more than 20 countries. The first section of the survey addressed the issue of trends and operational environment. The respondents assessed the likelihood and desirability of several trends happening by 2030. They also, for example, estimated the increase in use of forest energy and the constraints to its use. There seemed to be a strong belief in technological development and beneficial policy interventions, but the respondents also recognised the problematic competitive situation in relation to other sources of energy. In terms of technological development, the experts saw that the main challenge to address is transport and logistics. This included a wide range of different issues, such as the handling of bulky, low-value product in an efficient way. The experts saw greatest development potential in improving energy density before transport, and multi-tree handling. Driver-assisting systems would be particularly useful in helping with the planning of felling, e.g. in the case of placing of tracks. Labour shortages are also a pertinent issue. The respondents gave many suggestions on ways to attract new workers to forestry, for example by increasing the salary to the level of manufacturing industry, and by promoting forestry as an environmentally friendly and technologically advanced employer. Overall, this report describes some alternative future prospects, which could be achieved by decisive action. Hopefully

  17. Fusion power in a future low carbon global electricity system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabal, H.; Lechón, Y.; Bustreo, C.

    2017-01-01

    Fusion is one of the technologies that may contribute to a future, low carbon, global energy supply system. In this article we investigate the role that it may play under different scenarios. The global energy model ETM (originally EFDA TIMES Model) has been used to analyse the participation...

  18. World coal prices and future energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments will create some important changes in the US domestic steam coal market, including price increases for compliance coal by the year 2000 and price decreases for high-sulfur coal. In the international market, there is likely to be a continuing oversupply which will put a damper on price increases. The paper examines several forecasts for domestic and international coal prices and notes a range of predictions for future oil prices

  19. Energy for a righteous world with a safe future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    We are in charge of our energy future and thus of the future itself. Energy decisions in the past were made on a too narrow and short-term basis, and we can daily clearly observe their inadequacy. The policy's quality does not correspond to the significance of the problem. A greater approximation leads to a consequent policy of the development of energy alternatives, of which some considerably deviate from those which would result at a closer look. This lecture deals with two aspects of the problem, both concern the future of nuclear energy. The first aspect treats extensively the energy possibilities available to the world in the future; the second deals more with the problem of the acceptibility of nuclear energy, reprocessing of nuclear fuels, the relationship to atomic armament and the thus involved problems. (orig.) [de

  20. Energy for our future: Balancing regional interests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, S.

    1993-01-01

    An emerging global governance is suggested in which the environment is the central organizing principle of civilization. A shift is noted in which transnational, regional, nation-state, local, and tribal structures exist and compete. Nations with strong environmental regulations are more able to meet international competition in such a scenario. It has also been observed in many instances that for managing common resources such as forests and fish stocks, there have been traditional institutions resembling neither state or market but based on such principles as clearly defined boundaries, monitoring of compliance, graduated sanctions, and collective choice arrangements. Examples of a certain kind of well-managed common resource are provided by certain energy utilities which make profits from energy conservation. One such example is the Tennessee Valley Authority, which helps customers install and finance energy-efficient windows for mutual benefit of both parties

  1. Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors A Key to Define, Analyze and Design Energy Systems Beyond Fossil Fuels

    CERN Document Server

    Orecchini, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    What lies beyond the era of fossil fuels? While most answers focus on different primary energy resources, Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors provides a completely new approach. Instead of providing a traditional consumption analysis of classical primary energy resources such as oil, coal, nuclear power and gas, Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors describes and assesses energy technologies, markets and future strategies, focusing on their capacity to produce, exchange, and use energy vectors. Special attention is given to the renewable energy resources available in different areas of the world and made exploitable by the integration of energy vectors in the global energy system. Clear definitions of energy vectors and energy systems are used as the basis for a complete explanation and assessment of up-to-date, available technologies for energy resources, transport and storage systems, conversion and use. The energy vectors scheme allows the potential realisation of a worldwide sustainable ener...

  2. Potential of renewable energy systems in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2011-01-01

    Along with high-speed economic development and increasing energy consumption, the Chinese Government faces a growing pressure to maintain the balance between energy supply and demand. In 2009, China has become both the largest energy consumer and CO2 emitting country in the world. In this case...... system has demonstrated the possibility of converting into a 100% renewable energy system. This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy in China firstly, and then analyses whether it is suitable to adopt similar methodologies applied in other countries as China approaches a renewable energy...... system. The conclusion is that China’s domestic renewable energy sources are abundant and show the possibility to cover future energy demand; the methodologies used to analyse a 100% renewable energy system are applicable in China. Therefore, proposing an analysis of a 100% renewable energy system...

  3. Hydrogen, energy vector of the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, J.; Deschamps, J.F.

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of a sustainable development with a reduction of the greenhouse gases emissions, the hydrogen seems a good solution because its combustion produces only water. From the today hydrogen industrial market, the authors examine the technological challenges and stakes of the hydrogen-energy. They detail the hydrogen production, distribution and storage and compare with the petrol and the natural gas. Then they explain the fuel cells specificity and realize a classification of the energy efficiency of many associations production-storage-distribution-use. a scenario of transition is proposed. (A.L.B.)

  4. Can Future Energy Needs be Met Sustainably?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    After briefly reviewing trends in energy demand, supply and efficiency, I will focus on the potential and outlook for the major low carbon energy sources - in order of decreasing current importance: bioenergy, hydro, nuclear, wind and solar. Together, they are sufficiently abundant to replace fossil fuels, which would presumably happen if they were economically competitive. I will discuss how close low carbon sources are to being competitive (which in the case of wind and solar depends on the cost of integrating large-scale intermittent supply), and the tech...

  5. Future Transportation with Smart Grids and Sustainable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav R. Grob

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is facing fundamental change due to the rapid depletion of fossil fuels, environmental and health problems, the growing world population, rising standards of living with more individual mobility and the globalization of trade with its increasing international transport volume. To cope with these serious problems benign, renewable energy systems and much more efficient drives must be multiplied as rapidly as possible to replace the polluting combustion engines with their much too low efficiency and high fuel logistics cost. Consequently the vehicles of the future must be non-polluting and super-efficient, i.e. electric. The energy supply must come via smart grids from clean energy sources not affecting the health, climate and biosphere. It is shown how this transition to the clean, sustainable energy age is possible, feasible and why it is urgent. The important role of international ISO, IEC and ITU standards and the need for better legislation by means of the Global Energy Charter for Sustainable Development are also highlighted.

  6. Energy saving synergies in national energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Lund, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In the transition towards a 100% renewable energy system, energy savings are essential. The possibility of energy savings through conservation or efficiency increases can be identified in, for instance, the heating and electricity sectors, in industry, and in transport. Several studies point...... to various optimal levels of savings in the different sectors of the energy system. However, these studies do not investigate the idea of energy savings being system dependent. This paper argues that such system dependency is critical to understand, as it does not make sense to analyse an energy saving...... without taking into account the actual benefit of the saving in relation to the energy system. The study therefore identifies a need to understand how saving methods may interact with each other and the system in which they are conducted. By using energy system analysis to do hourly simulation...

  7. Embracing a clean-energy future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebelius, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    The former governor of Kansas describes how her state is greening. The Blue Green Alliance has estimated that in a renewable-energy economy, Kansas stands to gain more than 11,000 jobs and almost $2 billion in new economic investments.

  8. Our future is a question of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this information brochure the Informationskreis Kernenergie (IK), a group of scientists, energy experts and publicists introduce themselves to the public. After an explanation of the aims and functions of IK the currently existing programme which comes form publications and other mediums is put forward. (UA) [de

  9. Biofuels, fossil energy ratio, and the future of energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, David

    2017-05-01

    Two hundred years ago, much of humanity's energy came from burning wood. As energy needs outstripped supplies, we began to burn fossil fuels. This transition allowed our civilization to modernize rapidly, but it came with heavy costs including climate change. Today, scientists and engineers are taking another look at biofuels as a source of energy to fuel our ever-increasing consumption.

  10. The Renewable Energy Data Explorer: Mapping Our Renewable Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-13

    The Renewable Energy (RE) Data Explorer, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, is an innovative web-based platform that allows users to visualize and analyze renewable energy potential. The RE Data Explorer informs prospecting, integrated planning, and policymaking to enable low emission development.

  11. Electrical energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    El-Hawary, Mohamed E

    2007-01-01

    Features discussions ranging from the technical aspects of generation, transmission, distribution, and utilization to power system components, theory, protection, and the energy control center that offer an introduction to effects of deregulating electric power systems, blackouts and their causes, and minimizing their effects.

  12. Energy efficiency in Serbia national energy efficiency program: Strategy and priorities for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oka Simeon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy system in Serbia, in the whole energy chain, from exploitation of primary energy sources, transformations in electric power plants and district heating plants, energy (electric and heat transmission and distribution to final users, and up to final energy consumption, is faced with a number of irrational and inefficient behavior and processes. In order to fight with such situation National Energy Efficiency Program, financed by the Ministry of Science and Environmental Protection has been founded in 2001. Basic facts about status of energy sector in Serbia, with special emphasis on the energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources have been given in the review paper published in the issue No. 2, 2006 of this journal. In present paper new strategy and priorities of the National Energy Efficiency Program for the future period from 2006 to 2008, and beyond, is presented. This strategy and priorities are mainly based on the same concept and principles as previous, but new reality and new and more simulative economic and financial environment in energy sector made by the Energy low (accepted by Parliament in 2004 and Strategy of Development of Energy Sector in Republic Serbia up to 2015 (accepted by the Parliament in May 2005, have been taken into account. Also, responsibilities that are formulated in the Energy Community Treaty signed by the South-East European countries, and also coming from documents and directives of the European Community and Kyoto Protocol are included in new strategy. Once again necessity of legislative framework and influence of regulations and standards, as well as of the governmental support, has been pointed out if increased energy efficiency and increased use of renewable energy sources are expected. .

  13. Renewable Energy Programmes in India: Status and Future Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Ram Kumar

    2010-09-01

    Renewable energy sources and technologies have potential to provide solutions to the long-standing energy problems being faced by the developing countries. The renewable energy sources like wind energy, solar energy, biomass energy and fuel cell technology can be used to overcome energy shortage in India. To meet the energy requirement for such a fast growing economy, India will require an assured supply of 3-4 times more energy than the total energy consumed today. The renewable energy is one of the options to meet this requirement. India is increasingly adopting responsible renewable energy techniques and taking positive steps towards carbon emissions, cleaning the air and ensuring a more sustainable future. In India, from the last two and half decades there has been a vigorous pursuit of activities relating to research, development, demonstration, production and application of a variety of renewable energy technologies for use in different sectors. In this paper, efforts have been made to summarize the availability, current status, major achievements and future potentials of renewable energy options in India. This paper also assesses specific policy interventions for overcoming the barriers and enhancing deployment of renewable energy devices for the future. (author)

  14. Integrated electrofuels and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva

    energy into chemical energy by means of electrolysers, thus connecting fluctuating renewable energy to the vast amount of fuel storage already available in today’s energy systems. The conducted research indicates that electrofuels for heavy-duty transportation are technically and economically viable...... in energy systems and could play an important role in future energy systems. The cross-sector approach in the fuel production, by redirecting the excess electricity to the transport sector, is creating the flexibility and storage buffer for fluctuating electricity. The key concern in the short term should...

  15. The Smart Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurowetzki, Roman; Dyrelund, Anders; Hummelmose, Lars

    Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster has launched a new report, which provides an overview of Danish competencies relating to smart energy systems. The report, which is based on a questionnaire answered by almost 200 companies working with smart energy as well as a number of expert interviews, focuses on...... production, large scale solar heat, fuel cells, heat storage, waste incineration, among others, the report draws a picture of Denmark as a research and development hub for smart energy system solutions.......Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster has launched a new report, which provides an overview of Danish competencies relating to smart energy systems. The report, which is based on a questionnaire answered by almost 200 companies working with smart energy as well as a number of expert interviews, focuses...... on the synergies which are obtained through integration of the district heating and district cooling, gas, and electricity grid into a single smart energy system. Besides documenting the technology and innovation strengths that Danish companies possess particularly relating to wind, district heating, CHP...

  16. Future of nuclear energy technology in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiberini, A.; Brogli, R.; Jermann, M.; Alder, H.P.; Stratton, R.W.; Troyon, F.

    1988-01-01

    Despite the present gloom surrounding the nuclear option for electricity and heat generation, there are still people in Switzerland in industry, research, banking and even politics willing and capable to think in terms of long-range projections. The basis for these projections is the belief that a well-functioning and prosperous society always needs large and reliable sources of acceptably priced energy, which must be generated with a high respect for the necessity of a clean environment. Being aware of the current low acceptance level of the nuclear option, efforts to keep this option open are directed to achieving the following goals: to maintain and improve the country's capabilities to safely operate the four existing nuclear power plants of Beznau (twin units), Muehleberg, Goesgen and Leibstadt; to keep the capability of extending the applications of nuclear energy technology. In practice, this could be in the fields of district heating, fusion, and advanced power reactors

  17. Flexible strip supercapacitors for future energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, R-R; Xu, Y-M; Harrison, D; Fyson, J; Qiu, F-L; Southee, D

    2015-01-01

    Flexible strip supercapacitors are developed and their electrochemical properties are characterized. Activated carbon is used as the electrode material and it is found to have a good porous structure which provides a large surface area for energy storage. Furthermore, this activated carbon performs well. The manufacturing processes for the supercapacitors are described in detail and the preparation process has good reproducibility. The strip supercapacitors are combined in series and parallel...

  18. Black Sea Energy Security - Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florinel Iftode

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We chose this theme to highlight the need for continuous and sustained human society to secure energy resources needed to survive, needs reflected in an increasingly in recent years in the strategies adopted at both states, as at the level of international organizations. Achieving security and stability in the wider Black Sea area has been among the priorities of each country's interests in this region. In this context, state and non-state actors were being called to come up with new solutions to achieve those interests. Certainly not in all cases the negotiations were completed or not yet found a generally accepted formula for others to apply, but most of them show off their values. The main environmental threats to security environment in the Black Sea region are represented by ethnic conflicts and territorial secessionism. A significant contribution to the security environment of the Black Sea region has the phenomenon of globalization, which in this region is manifested by a steady increase in traffic and volume of shipping passage of communication, which largely affects the security in the region. Globalization and the need for energy resources in the Black Sea was an important area not only as energy transport route, but as a potential supplier of material energy (oil and natural gas. Black Sea Basin can be stabilized and secured only by the will and input from all States and interested international organizations in pragmatic and effective institutional frameworks, meant to promote and protect the common interests of countries decided to participate in actions aimed at ensuring a stable environment security.

  19. Technical Design of Flexible Sustainable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems in Denmark, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid.......The paper presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems in Denmark, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid....

  20. A Smart and Balanced Energy-Efficient Multihop Clustering Algorithm (Smart-BEEM) for MIMO IoT Systems in Future Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lina; O'Hare, Gregory M P; Collier, Rem

    2017-07-05

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are typically composed of thousands of sensors powered by limited energy resources. Clustering techniques were introduced to prolong network longevity offering the promise of green computing. However, most existing work fails to consider the network coverage when evaluating the lifetime of a network. We believe that balancing the energy consumption in per unit area rather than on each single sensor can provide better-balanced power usage throughout the network. Our former work-Balanced Energy-Efficiency (BEE) and its Multihop version BEEM can not only extend the network longevity, but also maintain the network coverage. Following WSNs, Internet of Things (IoT) technology has been proposed with higher degree of diversities in terms of communication abilities and user scenarios, supporting a large range of real world applications. The IoT devices are embedded with multiple communication interfaces, normally referred as Multiple-In and Multiple-Out (MIMO) in 5G networks. The applications running on those devices can generate various types of data. Every interface has its own characteristics, which may be preferred and beneficial in some specific user scenarios. With MIMO becoming more available on the IoT devices, an advanced clustering solution for highly dynamic IoT systems is missing and also pressingly demanded in order to cater for differing user applications. In this paper, we present a smart clustering algorithm (Smart-BEEM) based on our former work BEE(M) to accomplish energy efficient and Quality of user Experience (QoE) supported communication in cluster based IoT networks. It is a user behaviour and context aware approach, aiming to facilitate IoT devices to choose beneficial communication interfaces and cluster headers for data transmission. Experimental results have proved that Smart-BEEM can further improve the performance of BEE and BEEM for coverage sensitive longevity.

  1. A Smart and Balanced Energy-Efficient Multihop Clustering Algorithm (Smart-BEEM) for MIMO IoT Systems in Future Networks †

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Hare, Gregory M. P.; Collier, Rem

    2017-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are typically composed of thousands of sensors powered by limited energy resources. Clustering techniques were introduced to prolong network longevity offering the promise of green computing. However, most existing work fails to consider the network coverage when evaluating the lifetime of a network. We believe that balancing the energy consumption in per unit area rather than on each single sensor can provide better-balanced power usage throughout the network. Our former work—Balanced Energy-Efficiency (BEE) and its Multihop version BEEM can not only extend the network longevity, but also maintain the network coverage. Following WSNs, Internet of Things (IoT) technology has been proposed with higher degree of diversities in terms of communication abilities and user scenarios, supporting a large range of real world applications. The IoT devices are embedded with multiple communication interfaces, normally referred as Multiple-In and Multiple-Out (MIMO) in 5G networks. The applications running on those devices can generate various types of data. Every interface has its own characteristics, which may be preferred and beneficial in some specific user scenarios. With MIMO becoming more available on the IoT devices, an advanced clustering solution for highly dynamic IoT systems is missing and also pressingly demanded in order to cater for differing user applications. In this paper, we present a smart clustering algorithm (Smart-BEEM) based on our former work BEE(M) to accomplish energy efficient and Quality of user Experience (QoE) supported communication in cluster based IoT networks. It is a user behaviour and context aware approach, aiming to facilitate IoT devices to choose beneficial communication interfaces and cluster headers for data transmission. Experimental results have proved that Smart-BEEM can further improve the performance of BEE and BEEM for coverage sensitive longevity. PMID:28678164

  2. Energy Futures Synthesis for West-Wide Section 368 Energy Corridors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, Barbara L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagne, Douglas A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cook, Jeffrey J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Greco, Tessa M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-05-01

    To comply with Section 368(a) of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct), the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the U.S. Forest Service designated 6,000 miles of energy corridors on public and national forest lands in the western United States in 2009. The corridors, commonly referred to as 'West-wide' or 'Section 368' energy corridors, are intended as preferred locations for future siting of electric transmission and distribution lines and for oil, gas, and hydrogen pipelines. In response to a lawsuit filed by several organizations over the corridor designations, the BLM, Forest Service, and the U.S. Department of Energy entered into a Settlement Agreement, directing the formation of the Section 368 Interagency Workgroup to periodically review the energy corridors on a regional basis. In conducting the reviews, the Workgroup identifies new, relevant, existing, publicly available information to make recommendations for revisions, deletions, and additions to the Section 368 energy corridors. This report synthesizes information in available contemporary transmission, pipeline, and energy future studies to inform the regional reviews by providing a snapshot of what the western energy and transmission system will look like generally 10-15 years in the future. After an overview of the western grid implications, the analysis narrows to Region 2 and Region 3 of the BLM Section 368 energy corridors and focuses on the implications of potential developments in the oil, natural gas, and electricity markets in Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and portions of Arizona and Nevada that could inform the current regional review. This analysis will help inform the Workgroup on potential development within existing corridors and the need for new corridors that have not yet been designated.

  3. Renewable energies: an initiation guidebook to the energies of the future; Les energies renouvelables: un guide d'initiation sur les energies du futur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walisiewicz, M.

    2003-07-01

    This book reveals the economical, political and environmental dimensions of the present day energy situation and makes a status of the available technical solutions and of the future prospects. Content: energy addiction; reserves distribution; growth limits; technical problems; nuclear energy: a false promise?; the renewable resources; hydraulic energy; wind power; sun light for lighting; green generators; ground energy; alternative realities; glossary, index. (J.S.)

  4. Understanding renewable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaschning, Volker

    2005-01-15

    Beginning with an overview of renewable energy sources including biomass, hydroelectricity, geothermal, tidal, wind and solar power, this book explores the fundamentals of different renewable energy systems. The main focus is on technologies with high development potential such as solar thermal systems, photovoltaics and wind power. This text not only describes technological aspects, but also deals consciously with problems of the energy industry. In this way, the topics are treated in a holistic manner, bringing together maths, engineering, climate studies and economics, and enabling readers to gain a broad understanding of renewable energy technologies and their potential. The book also contains a free CD-ROM resource, which includes a variety of specialist simulation software and detailed figures from the book. (Author)

  5. The intelligent energy system for tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Morthorst, Poul Erik; Bindslev, Henrik; Sonderberg Petersen, Leif

    2010-09-15

    In a future energy system non-fossil fuels have taken the lead, end-use technologies are highly efficient and closely interlinked to supply through intelligent energy systems. Climate change issues, security of supply and economic development need to be pursued concurrently. This calls for flexible and intelligent energy system infrastructures that effectively accommodate large amounts of fluctuating renewable energy and let the end-user interact with the supply through advanced ICT. The second important characteristic is intelligent integration of the entire transport sector. The third key area is advanced energy storage facilities in the system and the introduction of super-grids.

  6. Closing the gap between socioeconomic and financial implications of residential and community level hydrogen-based energy systems: Incentives needed for a bridge to the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verduzco, Laura E.

    The use of hydrogen as an energy carrier has the potential to decrease the amount of pollutants emitted to the atmosphere, significantly reduce our dependence on imported oil and resolve geopolitical issues related to energy consumption. The current status of hydrogen technology makes it prohibitive and financially risky for most investors to commit the money required for large-scale hydrogen production. Therefore, alternative strategies such as small and medium-scale hydrogen applications should be implemented during the early stages of the transition to the hydrogen economy in order to test potential markets and technology readiness. While many analysis tools have been built to estimate the requirements of the transition to a hydrogen economy, few have focused on small and medium-scale hydrogen production and none has paired financial with socioeconomic costs at the residential level. The computer-based tool (H2POWER) presented in this study calculates the capacity, cost and socioeconomic impact of the systems needed to meet the energy demands of a home or a community using home and neighborhood refueling units, which are systems that can provide electricity and heat to meet the energy demands of either (1) a home and automobile or (2) a cluster of homes and a number of automobiles. The financial costs of the production, processing and delivery sub-systems that conform the refueling units are calculated using cost data of existing technology and normalizing them to calculate capital and net present cost. The monetary value of the externalities (socioeconomic analysis) caused by each system is calculated by H2POWER through a statistical analysis of the cost associated to various externalities. Additionally, H2POWER calculates the financial impact of different penalties and incentives (such as net metering, low interest loans, fuel taxes, and emission penalties) on the cost of the system from the point of view of a developer and a homeowner. In order to assess the

  7. Energy in India's Future: Insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesourne, J.; Ramsay, W.C.; Jaureguy-Naudin, Maite; Boillot, Jean-Joseph; Autheman, Nicolas; Ruet, Joel; Siddiqui, Zakaria; Zaleski, C. Pierre; Cruciani, Michel

    2009-07-01

    In the decades following India's independence from British rule in 1947, the West's image of India was summarized in three simple cliches: the world's largest democracy, an impoverished continent, and economic growth hampered by a fussy bureaucracy and the caste system, all in a context of a particular religion. These cliches are perhaps one of the reasons that the success of India's green revolution was recognized so late, a revolution that allowed the country to develop its agricultural sector and to feed its population. Since the 1990's, the easing of planning constraints have liberated the Indian economy and allowed it to embark on a more significant path of growth. New cliches have begun to replace the old: India will become a second China and, lagging by 10 to 20 years, will follow the same trajectory, with its development marked more by services and the use of renewable energy. However, these trends will not prevent primary energy demand from exploding. On the contrary, India faces difficult choices on how it increases clean, secure, affordable energy to all its citizens. Many of the choices are the same as found elsewhere, but on a scale matched only by China. The IFRI European Governance and Geopolitics of Energy Project intends this study to deepen public understanding of the magnitude of India's challenges. Various aspects of the serious energy problems are studied throughout this monograph. The authors have written freely on these matters without attempting to reconcile their different viewpoints. The first chapter, by Maite Jaureguy-Naudin and Jacques Lesourne, presents an overview of India's present and future energy system. The authors follow a prudent but realistic view of India's future. The second chapter, by Jean-Joseph Boillot, a French expert on India who has published several books and articles on this subject, and Nicolas Autheman, research fellow, describes in greater detail the specifics of India

  8. Database Systems - Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The database systems have nowadays an increasingly important role in the knowledge-based society, in which computers have penetrated all fields of activity and the Internet tends to develop worldwide. In the current informatics context, the development of the applications with databases is the work of the specialists. Using databases, reach a database from various applications, and also some of related concepts, have become accessible to all categories of IT users. This paper aims to summarize the curricular area regarding the fundamental database systems issues, which are necessary in order to train specialists in economic informatics higher education. The database systems integrate and interfere with several informatics technologies and therefore are more difficult to understand and use. Thus, students should know already a set of minimum, mandatory concepts and their practical implementation: computer systems, programming techniques, programming languages, data structures. The article also presents the actual trends in the evolution of the database systems, in the context of economic informatics.

  9. Thermoelectricity for future sustainable energy technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidenkaff Anke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectricity is a general term for a number of effects describing the direct interconversion of heat and electricity. Thermoelectric devices are therefore promising, environmental-friendly alternatives to conventional power generators or cooling units. Since the mid-90s, research on thermoelectric properties and their applications has steadily increased. In the course of years, the development of high-temperature resistant TE materials and devices has emerged as one of the main areas of interest focusing both on basic research and practical applications. A wide range of innovative and cost-efficient material classes has been studied and their properties improved. This has also led to advances in synthesis and metrology. The paper starts out with thermoelectric history, basic effects underlying thermoelectric conversion and selected examples of application. The main part focuses on thermoelectric materials including an outline of the design rules, a review on the most common materials and the feasibility of improved future high-temperature thermoelectric converters.

  10. TRADING ACTIVITY AND PRICES IN ENERGY FUTURES MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Ates

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine trading activity and the relationship between futures trading activity by trader type and energy price movements in three energy futures markets –natural gas, crude oil and heating oil. We find that the level of net positions of speculators are positively related to future returns and in contrast net positions of hedgers are negatively related to futures price changes in all three markets. The changes in net positions are relatively more informative compare to the level of net positions in predicting price changes in related markets.

  11. Hydrogen: an energy vector for the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    His, St.

    2004-01-01

    Used today in various industrial sectors including refining and chemicals, hydrogen is often presented as a promising energy vector for the transport sector. However, its balance sheet presents disadvantages as well as advantages. For instance, some of its physical characteristics are not very well adapted to transport use and hydrogen does not exist in pure form. Hydrogen technologies can offer satisfactory environmental performance in certain respects, but remain handicapped by costs too high for large-scale development. A great deal of research will be required to develop mass transport application. (author)

  12. Does nuclear energy have a future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogle, R.; Meier, Ch.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents selected excerpts of a discussion between two professors at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, the head of the Swiss national Co-operative for the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes NAGRA and a Swiss representative of Greenpeace on the subject of finding a solution to Switzerland's energy dilemma. In particular, the question is discussed if it is possible to take on the responsibility for the use of a technology when, at the same time, the question of the disposal of the wastes it produces has not yet been answered. The topics discussed include public acceptance, research into disposal questions and the cost of alternative technologies

  13. Hydrogen: an energy vector for the future?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    His, St

    2004-07-01

    Used today in various industrial sectors including refining and chemicals, hydrogen is often presented as a promising energy vector for the transport sector. However, its balance sheet presents disadvantages as well as advantages. For instance, some of its physical characteristics are not very well adapted to transport use and hydrogen does not exist in pure form. Hydrogen technologies can offer satisfactory environmental performance in certain respects, but remain handicapped by costs too high for large-scale development. A great deal of research will be required to develop mass transport application. (author)

  14. Risoe energy report 6. Future options for energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Soenderberg Petersen, L [eds.

    2007-11-15

    Fossil fuels provide about 80% of the global energy demand, and this will continue to be the situation for decades to come. In the European Community we are facing two major energy challenges. The first is sustainability, and the second is security of supply, since Europe is becoming more dependent on imported fuels. These challenges are the starting point for the present Risoe Energy Report 6. It gives an overview of the energy scene together with trends and emerging energy technologies. The report presents status and trends for energy technologies seen from a Danish and European perspective from three points of view: security of supply, climate change and industrial perspectives. The report addresses energy supply technologies, efficiency improvements and transport. The report is volume 6 in a series of reports covering energy issues at global, regional and national levels. The individual chapters of the report have been written by staff members from the Technical University of Denmark and Risoe National Laboratory together with leading Danish and international experts. The report is based on the latest research results from Risoe National Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark, together with available internationally recognized scientific material, and is fully referenced and refereed by renowned experts. Information on current developments is taken from the most up-to-date and authoritative sources available. Our target groups are colleagues, collaborating partners, customers, funding organizations, the Danish government and international organizations including the European Union, the International Energy Agency and the United Nations. (au)

  15. India's atomic energy programme - Past and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethna, H.N.

    1979-01-01

    A review is given of the development of the atomic energy program in India, beginning with the work of individual scientists in the period before Indian independence in 1948 and continuing through the establishment in 1954 of the Department of Atomic Energy on up to the present. It was recognized at an early stage of development that the most important task for the introduction of nuclear technology in India was to establish a cadre of scientists and engineers and to generate interactions among various scientific disciplines and, at an appropriate stage, to translate the interaction into concrete projects. Effort is made to rely on indigenous resources with the goal of making the country as self-sufficient as possible in the nuclear field. The technology developed in the nuclear program is shown to be transferable to numerous fields. The availability of adequate investment capital, as a consequence of competition from the other developing programs, is recognized as a possible constraint on the nuclear program

  16. Nuclear power in future energy scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    It is explained that even when the renewable energy sources like solar, biogas and biomass are developed to the maximum feasible extent, they will only be able to sustain a marginal level of economic activity. In India demand for coal is expected to rise at some 6% per annum and that for oil at about 4% per annum. It is doubtful whether the coal production can be raised to meet the demand of 2000 million tonnes of coal by the turn of century. Steadily increasing cost of oil will make it difficult to procure the necessary quota of oil. The only way, therefore, for large-scale increase in electricity generation is to use nuclear energy. At present, it accounts for only 3% of the electricity produced in the country. It is shown that with implementation of a proper nuclear programme, 10,000 MW of nuclear power representing 15% of electricity produced by the year 2000 can be produced. Safety aspect of nuclear power is discussed and it is mentioned that scare on these grounds is not justifiable. Need for a national consensus on this issue is emphasised. (M.G.B.)

  17. Long-range prospects of world energy demands and future energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozaki, Yasuji

    1998-01-01

    The long-range prospects for world energy demands are reviewed, and the major factors which are influential in relation to energy demands are discussed. The potential for various kinds of conventional and new energy sources such as fossil fuels, solar energies, nuclear fission, and fusion energies to need future energy demands is also discussed. (author)

  18. Future prospects for renewable energy sources in a global frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, P.

    1992-06-01

    The objective of this study has been to evaluate the possibilities of some new energy sources (solar, wind) in the future world energy supply. We intend to prepare future projections accounting for limitations in infrastructure, time and material inputs. One underlying assumption in the analyses is that new technologies will see an early market introduction in the near future which would continue up to year 2020. During these 30 years, there will still be technological developments leading to a much better manufacturability, mass production, and hence reduced costs. In year 2020, the industrial and economic infrastructure of new energy sources would be mature for a major penetration into the world energy market starting to substitute existing energy sources mainly for environmental reasons. This scenario will be suported by more factual information and data in the following chapters. Each new energy technology will be handled separately. (Quittner)

  19. Hydrogen energy and fuel cells. A vision of our future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Hydrogen and fuel cells are seen by many as key solutions for the 21 century, enabling clean efficient production of power and heat from a range of primary energy sources. The High Level Group for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technologies was initiated in October 2002 by the Vice President of the European Commission, Loyola de Palacio, Commissioner for Energy and Transport, and Mr Philippe Busquin, Commissioner for Research. The group was invited to formulate a collective vision on the contribution that hydrogen and fuel cells could make to the realisation of sustainable energy systems in future. The report highlights the need for strategic planning and increased effort on research, development and deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. It also makes wide-ranging recommendations for a more structured approach to European Energy policy and research, for education and training, and for developing political and public awareness. Foremost amongst its recommendations is the establishment of a European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Partnership and Advisory Council to guide the process. (author)

  20. Hydrogen energy and fuel cells. A vision of our future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen and fuel cells are seen by many as key solutions for the 21 century, enabling clean efficient production of power and heat from a range of primary energy sources. The High Level Group for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technologies was initiated in October 2002 by the Vice President of the European Commission, Loyola de Palacio, Commissioner for Energy and Transport, and Mr Philippe Busquin, Commissioner for Research. The group was invited to formulate a collective vision on the contribution that hydrogen and fuel cells could make to the realisation of sustainable energy systems in future. The report highlights the need for strategic planning and increased effort on research, development and deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. It also makes wide-ranging recommendations for a more structured approach to European Energy policy and research, for education and training, and for developing political and public awareness. Foremost amongst its recommendations is the establishment of a European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Partnership and Advisory Council to guide the process. (author)