WorldWideScience

Sample records for future electrical grids

  1. Future electrical distribution grids: Smart Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjsaid, N.; Sabonnadiere, J.C.; Angelier, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    The new energy paradigm faced by distribution network represents a real scientific challenge. Thus, national and EU objectives in terms of environment and energy efficiency with resulted regulatory incentives for renewable energies, the deployment of smart meters and the need to respond to changing needs including new uses related to electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles introduce more complexity and favour the evolution towards a smarter grid. The economic interest group in Grenoble IDEA in connection with the power laboratory G2ELab at Grenoble Institute of technology, EDF and Schneider Electric are conducting research on the electrical distribution of the future in presence of distributed generation for ten years.Thus, several innovations emerged in terms of flexibility and intelligence of the distribution network. One can notice the intelligence solutions for voltage control, the tools of network optimization, the self-healing techniques, the innovative strategies for connecting distributed and intermittent generation or load control possibilities for the distributor. All these innovations are firmly in the context of intelligent networks of tomorrow 'Smart Grids'. (authors)

  2. Grid requirements applicable to future NPPs in the new European Electricity Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beato Castro, D.; Padill, C. M.

    2000-01-01

    With a view to keeping nuclear energy as an option for future power generation in a competitive market and taking advantage of the current operating experience, a group of European electric utilities have come together to define common requirements for the design and supply of future Light Water Reactor (LWR) plants connected to the electrical system. These requirements, defined with the aim of standardizing and adapting design to the conditions of the new electricity framework, are being included in the European Utility Requirements (EUR) document. Although there are different types of power plants operating appropriately in large electrical systems, the idea is to find the minimum requirements that will allow growth of this type of energy in the European electricity industry without reducing quality, safety and reliability of interconnected electrical systems. It is therefore necessary to take into account the features of the existing power systems and the operating characteristics and design of nuclear power plants so as to harmonize their respective technical peculiarities in the framework of the deregulated electricity sector. The definition of these grid requirements is based primarily on the operating conditions of the Union pour la Coordination de la Production et le Transport de L'Electricite (UCPTE) grid and takes into account the current Grid Code of the main European countries, for the forthcoming Issue C. This paper sets outs the most relevant aspects of the grid requirements, included in Chapter 2.3 of the EUR document Grid Requirements, Issue B, for the connection of future nuclear power plants in the European electricity system, and others that are being considered in the preparation of the new issue of the document that will take into account the deregulated electricity market situation and deal with the following aspects: General characteristics. Operation of a plant under normal grid conditions. Operation of a plant under disturbed grid

  3. Renewable Electricity Futures: Exploration of a U.S. Grid with 80% Renewable Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Trieu

    2013-04-01

    Renewable Electricity Futures is an initial investigation of the extent to which renewable energy supply can meet the electricity demands of the contiguous United States over the next several decades. This study explores the implications and challenges of very high renewable electricity generation levels: from 30% up to 90% (focusing on 80%) of all U.S. electricity generation from renewable technologies in 2050. At such high levels of renewable electricity penetration, the unique characteristics of some renewable resources, specifically geographical distribution and variability and un-certainty in output, pose challenges to the operability of the nation's electric system. The study focuses on key technical implications of this environment from a national perspective, exploring whether the U.S. power system can supply electricity to meet customer demand on an hourly basis with high levels of renewable electricity, including variable wind and solar generation. The study also identifies some of the potential economic, environmental, and social implications of deploying and integrating high levels of renewable electricity in the U.S. The full report and associated supporting information is available at: http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/refutures/.

  4. Distributed Control and Management of Renewable Electric Energy Resources for Future Grid Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mokhtari, Ghassem; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Nourbakhsh, Ghavameddin

    2016-01-01

    strategy is a promising approach to manage and utilise the resources in future distribution networks to effectively deal with grid electric quality issues and requirements. Jointly, utility and customers the owners of the resources in the network are considered as part of a practical coordination strategy......It is anticipated that both medium- and low-voltage distribution networks will include high level of distributed renewable energy resources, in the future. The high penetration of these resources inevitably can introduce various power quality issues, including; overvoltage and overloading....... This book chapter provides the current research state of the art concepts and techniques in dealing with these potential issues. The methods provided in this chapter are based on distributed control approach, tailored and suitable particularly for the future distribution composition. The distributed control...

  5. Evaluating the benefits of an electrical energy storage system in a future smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, N.S.; Taylor, P.C.; Lang, P.D.; Jones, P.R.

    2010-01-01

    Interest in electrical energy storage systems is increasing as the opportunities for their application become more compelling in an industry with a back-drop of ageing assets, increasing distributed generation and a desire to transform networks into Smart Grids. A field trial of an energy storage system designed and built by ABB is taking place on a section of 11 kV distribution network operated by EDF Energy Networks in Great Britain. This paper reports on the findings from simulation software developed at Durham University that evaluates the benefits brought by operating an energy storage system in response to multiple events on multiple networks. The tool manages the allocation of a finite energy resource to achieve the most beneficial shared operation across two adjacent areas of distribution network. Simulations account for the key energy storage system parameters of capacity and power rating. Results for events requiring voltage control and power flow management show how the choice of operating strategy influences the benefits achieved. The wider implications of these results are discussed to provide an assessment of the role of electrical energy storage systems in future Smart Grids.

  6. Multi-Agent Model-Based Optimization for Future Electrical Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bajracharya, G.

    2014-01-01

    The electricity grid is one of the most complex systems created by human beings. It consists of an intricate network of components such as generators, transmission and distribution lines, transformers, breakers, various controllers, and various measurement and monitoring systems. The grid has been

  7. Propulsion Electric Grid Simulator (PEGS) for Future Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Benjamin B.; Morrison, Carlos; Dever, Timothy; Brown, Gerald V.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center, in collaboration with the aerospace industry and academia, has begun the development of technology for a future hybrid-wing body electric airplane with a turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) system. It is essential to design a subscale system to emulate the TeDP power grid, which would enable rapid analysis and demonstration of the proof-of-concept of the TeDP electrical system. This paper describes how small electrical machines with their controllers can emulate all the components in a TeDP power train. The whole system model in Matlab/Simulink was first developed and tested in simulation, and the simulation results showed that system dynamic characteristics could be implemented by using the closed-loop control of the electric motor drive systems. Then we designed a subscale experimental system to emulate the entire power system from the turbine engine to the propulsive fans. Firstly, we built a system to emulate a gas turbine engine driving a generator, consisting of two permanent magnet (PM) motors with brushless motor drives, coupled by a shaft. We programmed the first motor and its drive to mimic the speed-torque characteristic of the gas turbine engine, while the second motor and drive act as a generator and produce a torque load on the first motor. Secondly, we built another system of two PM motors and drives to emulate a motor driving a propulsive fan. We programmed the first motor and drive to emulate a wound-rotor synchronous motor. The propulsive fan was emulated by implementing fan maps and flight conditions into the fourth motor and drive, which produce a torque load on the driving motor. The stator of each PM motor is designed to travel axially to change the coupling between rotor and stator. This feature allows the PM motor to more closely emulate a wound-rotor synchronous machine. These techniques can convert the plain motor system into a unique TeDP power grid emulator that enables real-time simulation performance

  8. Integrated Electrical and Thermal Grid Facility - Testing of Future Microgrid Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundar Raj Thangavelu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Experimental Power Grid Centre (EPGC microgrid test facility, which was developed to enable research, development and testing for a wide range of distributed generation and microgrid technologies. The EPGC microgrid facility comprises a integrated electrical and thermal grid with a flexible and configurable architecture, and includes various distributed energy resources and emulators, such as generators, renewable, energy storage technologies and programmable load banks. The integrated thermal grid provides an opportunity to harness waste heat produced by the generators for combined heat, power and cooling applications, and support research in optimization of combined electrical-thermal systems. Several case studies are presented to demonstrate the testing of different control and operation strategies for storage systems in grid-connected and islanded microgrids. One of the case studies also demonstrates an integrated thermal grid to convert waste heat to useful energy, which thus far resulted in a higher combined energy efficiency. Experiment results confirm that the facility enables testing and evaluation of grid technologies and practical problems that may not be apparent in a computer simulated environment.

  9. For smart electric grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Thiet, Jean-Paul; Leger, Sebastien; Bressand, Florian; Perez, Yannick; Bacha, Seddik; Laurent, Daniel; Perrin, Marion

    2012-01-01

    The authors identify and discuss the main challenges faced by the French electric grid: the management of electricity demand and the needed improvement of energy efficiency, the evolution of consumer's state of mind, and the integration of new production capacities. They notably outline that France have been living until recently with an electricity abundance, but now faces the highest consumption peaks in Europe, and is therefore facing higher risks of power cuts. They also notice that the French energy mix is slowly evolving, and outline the problems raised by the fact that renewable energies which are to be developed, are decentralised and intermittent. They propose an overview of present developments of smart grids, and outline their innovative characteristics, challenges raised by their development and compare international examples. They show that smart grids enable a better adapted supply and decentralisation. A set of proposals is formulated about how to finance and to organise the reconfiguration of electric grids, how to increase consumer's responsibility for peak management and demand management, how to create the conditions of emergence of a European market of smart grids, and how to support self-consumption and the building-up of an energy storage sector

  10. Smart grid technologies in local electric grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezhniuk, Petro D.; Pijarski, Paweł; Buslavets, Olga A.

    2017-08-01

    The research is devoted to the creation of favorable conditions for the integration of renewable sources of energy into electric grids, which were designed to be supplied from centralized generation at large electric power stations. Development of distributed generation in electric grids influences the conditions of their operation - conflict of interests arises. The possibility of optimal functioning of electric grids and renewable sources of energy, when complex criterion of the optimality is balance reliability of electric energy in local electric system and minimum losses of electric energy in it. Multilevel automated system for power flows control in electric grids by means of change of distributed generation of power is developed. Optimization of power flows is performed by local systems of automatic control of small hydropower stations and, if possible, solar power plants.

  11. Benchmarking Swiss electricity grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walti, N.O.; Weber, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    This extensive article describes a pilot benchmarking project initiated by the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises that assessed 37 Swiss utilities. The data collected from these utilities on a voluntary basis included data on technical infrastructure, investments and operating costs. These various factors are listed and discussed in detail. The assessment methods and rating mechanisms that provided the benchmarks are discussed and the results of the pilot study are presented that are to form the basis of benchmarking procedures for the grid regulation authorities under the planned Switzerland's electricity market law. Examples of the practical use of the benchmarking methods are given and cost-efficiency questions still open in the area of investment and operating costs are listed. Prefaces by the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy complete the article

  12. Workshop on Future Generation Grids

    CERN Document Server

    Laforenza, Domenico; Reinefeld, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    The Internet and the Web continue to have a major impact on society. By allowing us to discover and access information on a global scale, they have created entirely new businesses and brought new meaning to the term surf. In addition, however, we want processing, and increasingly, we want collaborative processing within distributed teams. This need has led to the creation of the Grid - an infrastructure that enables us to share capabilities, and integrate services and resources within and across enterprises. "Future Generation Grids" is the second in the "CoreGRID" series. This edited volume brings together contributed articles by scientists and researchers in the Grid community in an attempt to draw a clearer picture of the future generation Grids. This book also identifies some of the most challenging problems on the way to achieving the invisible Grid ideas

  13. European electricity grid. Status and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    There is no doubt about the need to expand and modernize the European electricity grid, especially in order to allow renewable energies to be fed stochastically into existing systems. As it is hardly possible at the present time and also in the near future to store electricity on a major scale and at adequate prices, electricity must be transmitted from the point of generation to the point of consumption directly and in real time. The development of grid systems, including cross-border transmission systems, is still behind expectations. This is not due to a shortage of projects or a lack of interest on the part of grid operators; the necessary political support is available as well, and investments at present are covered by the feed tariffs. The problem is the lack of acceptance. It is difficult to obtain new permits or commission new grids. This problem of the licensing authorities often results in considerable delays. Consequently, it is up to the grid operators to handle this situation and promote new, intelligent grid systems in an effort to achieve acceptance of a technical-scale infrastructure. This includes transparency in grid expansion, exchange with the public in order to reach mutual understanding and trust and also find compromises as well as the willingness to discuss various approaches to solutions (underground routing, upgrading of existing grid systems, smart systems, and intelligent designs) so as to optimize the use of the existing infrastructure. (orig.)

  14. Electric vehicle utilization for ancillary grid services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad

    2018-02-01

    Electric vehicle has been developed through several decades as transportation mean, without paying sufficient attention of its utilization for other purposes. Recently, the utilization of electric vehicle to support the grid electricity has been proposed and studied intensively. This utilization covers several possible services including electricity storage, spinning reserve, frequency and voltage regulation, and emergency energy supply. This study focuses on theoretical and experimental analysis of utilization of electric vehicles and their used batteries to support a small-scale energy management system. Charging rate of electric vehicle under different ambient temperature (seasonal condition) is initially analyzed to measure the correlation of charging rate, charging time, and state-of-charge. It is confirmed that charging under warmer condition (such as in summer or warmer region) shows higher charging rate than one in colder condition, therefore, shorter charging time can be achieved. In addition, in the demonstration test, each five electric vehicles and used batteries from the same electric vehicles are employed and controlled to support the electricity of the office building. The performance of the system is evaluated throughout a year to measure the load leveling effect during peak-load time. The results show that the targeted peak-load can be shaved well under certain calculated peak-shaving threshold. The finding confirms that the utilization of electric vehicle for supporting the electricity of grid or certain energy management system is feasible and deployable in the future.

  15. Possible Future Role of Small and Medium Sized Reactors (SMRs) in Countries with Small and Medium Electricity Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alujevic, L.

    2016-01-01

    Small and Medium Sized Reactors (SMRs) could have enormous potential as options for enhancing the energy supply security, as well as providing a lower capital investment compared to conventional Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). The trend in SMR development has been towards design certification of small modular reactors, defined as advanced reactors that produce electric power up to 300 MW(e), designed to be built in factories and shipped to utilities for installation as demand arises. The factory-built small modular reactors aim to reduce lengthy construction times while simultaneously increasing quality, thereby minimizing the costs associated with the current time for construction that spans 5 to 8 years. SMR designs include water-cooled reactors, high temperature gas cooled reactors, as well as liquid metal cooled reactors with fast neutron spectrum. Also, many are designed to be emplaced below ground level, giving a high resistance to terrorist threats. The projected timelines of readiness for deployment of SMRs generally range from the present to 2025 - 2030. Currently there are more than 45 SMR designs under development for different application issues. This paper will try to elaborate the benefits and drawbacks of SMRs, as well as describe a couple of designs. Furthermore, some timelines and cost estimates will be provided, depending on the data currently available. Taking all that into account, the conclusion will try to ascertain the suitability of SMRs for Countries with Small and Medium Electricity Grids, namely Croatia. (author).

  16. Power Flow Control through a Multi-Level H-Bridge-based Power Converter for Universal and Flexible Power Management in Future Electrical Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Bifaretti, Steffano; Zanchetta, Pericle

    2008-01-01

    The paper proposes a novel power conversion system for Universal and Flexible Power Management (UNIFLEX-PM) in Future Electricity Network. The structure is based on three AC-DC converters each one connected to a different grid, (representing the main grid and/or various distributed generation...... systems) on the AC side, and linked together at DC side by suitable DC isolation modules. Each port of the UNIFLEX-PM system employs a conversion structure based on a three-phase 7-level AC-DC cascaded converter. Effective and accurate power flow control is demonstrated through simulation in Matlab...... and Simulink environment on a simplified model based on a two-port structure and using a Stationery Reference Frame based control solution. Control of different Power flow profiles has been successfully tested in numerous network conditions such as voltage unbalance, frequency excursions and harmonic...

  17. Future distributed generation: An operational multi-objective optimization model for integrated small scale urban electrical, thermal and gas grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo Cascio, Ermanno; Borelli, Davide; Devia, Francesco; Schenone, Corrado

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Multi-objective optimization model for retrofitted and integrated natural gas pressure regulation stations. • Comparison of different incentive mechanisms for recovered energy based on the characteristics of preheating process. • Control strategies comparison: performances achieved with optimal control vs. ones obtained by thermal load tracking. - Abstract: A multi-objective optimization model for urban integrated electrical, thermal and gas grids is presented. The main system consists of a retrofitted natural gas pressure regulation station where a turbo-expander allows to recover energy from the process. Here, the natural gas must be preheated in order to avoid methane hydrates. The preheating phase could be based on fossil fuels, renewable or on a thermal mix. Depending on the system configuration, the proposed optimization model enables a proper differentiation based on how the natural gas preheating process is expected to be accomplished. This differentiation is addressed by weighting the electricity produced by the turbo-expander and linking it to proper remuneration tariffs. The effectiveness of the model has been tested on an existing plant located in the city of Genoa. Here, the thermal energy is provided by means of two redundant gas-fired boilers and a cogeneration unit. Furthermore, the whole system is thermally integrated with a district heating network. Numerical simulation results, obtained with the commercial proprietary software Honeywell UniSim Design Suite, have been compared with the optimal solutions achieved. The effectiveness of the model, in terms of economic and environmental performances, is finally quantified. For specific conditions, the model allows achieving an operational costs reduction of about 17% with the respect to thermal-load-tracking control logic.

  18. Electric Vehicle Grid Integration | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electric Vehicle Grid Integration Electric Vehicle Grid Integration Illustration of a house with a in the garage, is connected via a power cord to a household outlet. A sustainable transportation sustainable transportation technologies to increase the capacity, efficiency, and stability of the grid

  19. Smart grids: the future network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassi, F.; Sabelli, C.

    2008-01-01

    The old structure of the Italian electric power system due to the changes in place for years will always be less suitable to the needs of the future, therefore, must change to become more intelligent, more reliable, sustainable and economically [it

  20. Integration of Electric Vehicles in Low Voltage Danish Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Thøgersen, Paul; Møller, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EVs) are considered as one of the important components of the future intelligent grids. Their role as energy storages in the electricity grid could provide local sustainable solutions to support more renewable energy. In order to estimate the extent of interaction of EVs...... in the electricity grid operation, a careful examination in the local electricity system is essential. This paper investigates the degree of EV penetration and its key influence on the low voltage distribution grids. Three detailed models of residential grids in Denmark are considered as test cases in this study...... it is shown that there is enough head-space on the transformer capacity which can be used to charge many EVs during a day. The overall transformer capability of handling EV loads varies between 6-40% for peak and minimum demand hours, which is dependent on the robustness of the grids. The voltage drops...

  1. Electric grids and energy transition in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruciani, Michel

    2015-06-01

    Focussing on electricity, this report proposes an analysis of the main elements in favour of large investments in electric grids, while notably outlining technical or economic uncertainties as well as possible political consequences such as compatibility of a largely interconnected European network with a free choice of energy sources (as specified in the Lisbon Treaty), and responsibility for the States in terms of supply security. The author first describes the present situation: overview of the regulatory framework of the liberalization process. The second part addresses challenges which emerged with the European commitment in favour of renewable sources of electricity and the emergence of new needs, notably regarding electric vehicles. It also presents measures aimed at supporting the development of networks. The third part introduces a discussion about the relevancy of this development by highlighting, on the one hand, the fragility of economic perspectives, and on the other hand, the necessity to address future consequences of a major increase of interconnections within the European electric grid. Some recommendations are finally proposed. Examples and specific analysis more particularly concern Germany, Spain, France, Italy and the United-Kingdom

  2. HVDC grids for offshore and supergrid of the future

    CERN Document Server

    Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Liang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Presents the advantages, challenges, and technologies of High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) Grids This book discusses HVDC grids based on multi-terminal voltage-source converters (VSC), which is suitable for the connection of offshore wind farms and a possible solution for a continent wide overlay grid. HVDC Grids: For Offshore and Supergrid of the Future begins by introducing and analyzing the motivations and energy policy drives for developing offshore grids and the European Supergrid. HVDC transmission technology and offshore equipment are described in the second part of the book. The third part of the book discusses how HVDC grids can be developed and integrated in the existing power system. The fourth part of the book focuses on HVDC grid integration, in studies, for different time domains of electric power systems. The book concludes by discussing developments of advanced control methods and control devices for enabling DC grids.

  3. Optimal Wind Energy Integration in Large-Scale Electric Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaijat, Mohammad H.

    profit for investors for renting their transmission capacity, and cheaper electricity for end users. We propose a hybrid method based on a heuristic and deterministic method to attain new transmission lines additions and increase transmission capacity. Renewable energy resources (RES) have zero operating cost, which makes them very attractive for generation companies and market participants. In addition, RES have zero carbon emission, which helps relieve the concerns of environmental impacts of electric generation resources' carbon emission. RES are wind, solar, hydro, biomass, and geothermal. By 2030, the expectation is that more than 30% of electricity in the U.S. will come from RES. One major contributor of RES generation will be from wind energy resources (WES). Furthermore, WES will be an important component of the future generation portfolio. However, the nature of WES is that it experiences a high intermittency and volatility. Because of the great expectation of high WES penetration and the nature of such resources, researchers focus on studying the effects of such resources on the electric grid operation and its adequacy from different aspects. Additionally, current market operations of electric grids add another complication to consider while integrating RES (e.g., specifically WES). Mandates by market rules and long-term analysis of renewable penetration in large-scale electric grid are also the focus of researchers in recent years. We advocate a method for high-wind resources penetration study on large-scale electric grid operations. PMU is a geographical positioning system (GPS) based device, which provides immediate and precise measurements of voltage angle in a high-voltage transmission system. PMUs can update the status of a transmission line and related measurements (e.g., voltage magnitude and voltage phase angle) more frequently. Every second, a PMU can provide 30 samples of measurements compared to traditional systems (e.g., supervisory control and

  4. Integration of HTS Cables in the Future Grid of the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Zuijderduin, R.; Chevchenko, O.; Smit, J.J.; Aanhaanen, G.; Melnik, I.; Geschiere, A.

    2012-01-01

    ue to increasing power demand, the electricity grid of the Netherlands is changing. The future transmission grid will obtain electrical power generated by decentralized renewable sources, together with large scale generation units located at the coastal region. In this way electrical power has to be distributed and transmitted over longer distances from generation to end user. Potential grid issues like: amount of distributed power, grid stability and electrical loss dissipation merit particu...

  5. Coupling mechanism of electric vehicle and grid under the background of smart grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Mingyu; Li, Dezhi; Chen, Rongjun; Shu, Han; He, Yongxiu

    2018-02-01

    With the development of smart distribution technology in the future, electric vehicle users can not only charge reasonably based on peak-valley price, they can also discharge electricity into the power grid to realize their economic benefit when it’s necessary and thus promote peak load shifting. According to the characteristic that future electric vehicles can discharge, this paper studies the interaction effect between electric vehicles and the grid based on TOU (time of use) Price Strategy. In this paper, four scenarios are used to compare the change of grid load after implementing TOU Price Strategy. The results show that the wide access of electric vehicles can effectively reduce peak and valley difference.

  6. Getting Smart? Climate Change and the Electric Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Meadowcroft

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the potential of smart grid to transform the way societies generate, distribute, and use electricity has increased dramatically over the past decade. A smarter grid could contribute to both climate change mitigation and adaptation by increasing low-carbon electricity production and enhancing system reliability and resilience. However, climate goals are not necessarily essential for smart grid. Climate change is only one of many considerations motivating innovation in electricity systems, and depending on the path of grid modernization, a future smart grid might do little to reduce, or could even exacerbate, risks associated with climate change. This paper identifies tensions within a shared smart grid vision and illustrates how competing societal priorities are influencing electricity system innovation. Co-existing but divergent priorities among key actors’ are mapped across two critical dimensions: centralized versus decentralized energy systems and radical versus incremental change. Understanding these tensions provides insights on how climate change objectives can be integrated to shape smart grid development. Electricity system change is context-specific and path-dependent, so specific strategies linking smart grid and climate change need to be developed at local, regional, and national levels. And while incremental improvements may bring short term gains, a radical transformation is needed to realize climate objectives.

  7. Electric Vehicle Requirements for Operation in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Sacchetti, Dario; Træholt, Chresten

    2011-01-01

    Several European projects on smart grids are considering Electric Vehicles (EVs) as active element in future power systems. Both battery-powered vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles are expected to interact with the grid, sharing their energy storage capacity. Different coordination concepts...... for EVs are being investigated, in which vehicles can be intelligently charged or discharged feeding power back to the grid in vehicle-to-grid mode (V2G). To respond to such needs, EVs are required to share their battery internal data as well as respond to external control signals. In this paper...

  8. The future electricity business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budhraja, V.S.

    1999-01-01

    The transition of the electricity business into the competitive market will result in change as significant as that brought about by the PC or the deregulation of telecommunications,and with it opportunities for new products, service, and technologies, particularly to support an increase in distributed generation. The electricity business has been viewed as having three building blocks--generation, transmission, and distribution. Almost all investments in these three sectors historically have been made by utilities, but now these investments have begun to be made by customers or new entrants under a competitive market model. With the high-voltage transmission system largely built, the business focus will shift to efficient utilization of that infrastructure through investments in grid automation control, communications, and network management. And while the primary function of the distribution system--connecting customers to the utility grid--will remain unchanged, there will be new requirements on the distribution system to integrate distributed technologies and customer micro grids. Generation power plants are as likely to be located at customer sites as at utility or central-station sites. Customers may choose to create micro grids that are locally self sufficient and may or may not be connected to the utility grid. The characteristics of the distribution grid are likely to change from a one-way system in which power flows from utility central-station power plants to customers, to a two-way system in which power may flow in either direction. Hence, the focus will increasingly shift to integration of portfolio of distributed technologies. The opening of the electricity business to competition also opens new markets and business opportunities for new entrants

  9. Means to estimate the influence of user variables on a smart integration of electric vehicles into the future energy grid; Methoden zur Bestimmung des Nutzereinflusses auf eine intelligente Integration von Elektrofahrzeugen in das zukuenftige Energienetz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahnel, Ulf J.J. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Psychologie; Benoit, Pascal; Goelz, Sebastian; Kohrs, Robert [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Spada, Hans [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Psychologie

    2012-07-01

    A smart integration of electric vehicles into the future energy grid guarantees for matching energy demand and supply. To sufficiently integrate electric vehicles into the energy grid, it is necessary to maximize the vehicles' availability for intelligent charging processes. However, the availability highly depends on the motivation and skills of their users. Future drivers have to decide whether they want to initiate direct or intelligent charging processes. In case of intelligent charging processes, the systems require information about upcoming departure times and trip lengths. Inaccurate user predictions may reduce vehicles' availability for intelligent charging processes or may lead to insufficient battery levels. In the present paper, we investigate the influence of user variables on electric vehicles' availability for smart integration. We use data from psychological research that allows for comparing mobility predictions with actual mobility. We further technologically interpret data and display means to account for user variables in future charging scenarios. (orig.)

  10. Renewable Electricity Futures Study Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schneider, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures Study (RE Futures) provides an analysis of the grid integration opportunities, challenges, and implications of high levels of renewable electricity generation for the U.S. electric system. The study is not a market or policy assessment. Rather, RE Futures examines renewable energy resources and many technical issues related to the operability of the U.S. electricity grid, and provides initial answers to important questions about the integration of high penetrations of renewable electricity technologies from a national perspective. RE Futures results indicate that a future U.S. electricity system that is largely powered by renewable sources is possible and that further work is warranted to investigate this clean generation pathway.

  11. Future Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The changing face of energy production in Europe necessitates a rethink in the way that electricity markets are structured. The ‘5s’ (Future Electricity Markets) project is a multi-disciplinary project that is looking to challenge the current approach to the design and operation of electricity...

  12. AC HTS Transmission Cable for Integration into the Future EHV Grid of the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Zuijderduin, R.; Chevtchenko, O.; Smit, J.J.; Aanhaanen, G.; Melnik, I.; Geschiere, A.

    2012-01-01

    Due to increasing power demand, the electricity grid of the Netherlands is changing. The future grid must be capable to transmit all the connected power. Power generation will be more decentralized like for instance wind parks connected to the grid. Furthermore, future large scale production units are expected to be installed near coastal regions. This creates some potential grid issues, such as: large power amounts to be transmitted to consumers from west to east and grid stability. High tem...

  13. Smart grids fundamentals and technologies in electricity networks

    CERN Document Server

    Buchholz, Bernd M

    2014-01-01

    Efficient transmission and distribution of electricity is a fundamental requirement for sustainable development and prosperity. The world is facing great challenges regarding the reliable grid integration of renewable energy sources in the 21st century. The electric power systems of the future require fundamental innovations and enhancements to meet these challenges. The European Union's "Smart Grid" vision provides a first overview of the appropriate deep-paradigm changes in the transmission, distribution and supply of electricity.The book brings together common themes beginning with Smart Gr

  14. AC HTS Transmission Cable for Integration into the Future EHV Grid of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuijderduin, R.; Chevtchenko, O.; Smit, J.J.; Aanhaanen, G.; Melnik, I.; Geschiere, A.

    2012-01-01

    Due to increasing power demand, the electricity grid of the Netherlands is changing. The future grid must be capable to transmit all the connected power. Power generation will be more decentralized like for instance wind parks connected to the grid. Furthermore, future large scale production units

  15. The future value of smart grids in the German electricity system. A model-based scenario analysis from 2010 to 2030; Der zukuenftige Wert von Smart Grids im deutschen Stromsystem. Eine modellgestuetzte Szenarienanalyse von 2010 bis 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Matthias; Bauknecht, Dierk; Heinemann, Christoph [Oeko-Institut e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Within the E-Energy project eTelligence the effects of decentralized flexibility, provided by smart grids, have been evaluated for Germany within a model based scenario analysis for the time horizon 2010 to 2030. The observed effects include the dispatch of conventional power plants as well as the integration of renewable energies in the electricity system. The model results show to what extent decentralized flexibility can be used to integrate additional electricity supply from renewable energies, which has to be curtailed otherwise. Costs and CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants as well as the average electricity spot market price decrease at the same time. Furthermore it becomes apparent that the benefit from smart grids increases with the development of variable renewable energies, depending on the development of other flexibility options. (orig.)

  16. Innovative technologies for sustainable electrical grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagana-Hammer, B.

    2016-01-01

    This year's Energy Day is under the motto "Innovative Technologies for Sustainable Energy Networks". According to the ideas of the European Commission, a sustainable, secure, efficient, affordable and competitive energy supply with particular attention to the limitation of greenhouse gas emissions is to be created. In future, energy should flow freely through Europe without technical barriers in an integrated internal market. For the power supply, this means a renewal and consolidation of the 50-year-old and largely isolated national distribution networks. In addition, the decentralized power plants, which are often remote from the consumers and dependent on the whims of the sun or the wind, are also to be integrated into this network. The fact that electricity can only be saved insufficiently is a further hurdle. In this light, the target of a minimum degree of synchronisation in the European grid of 10% to 2020 and 15% to 2030 seems ambitious. According to the European Commission, the construction of new infrastructure is to be given priority, but there are considerable difficulties with implementation. In addition to the technical barriers, the barriers to the expansion of the energy market and the protracted licensing procedures, the lack of confidence on the part of the citizens question the realization of the plans for a European Supergrid. Today's event attempts to illuminate the large-scale technical possibilities for the exchange of fluctuating renewable energies over long distances as well as the regional grids, which are of interest to the private consumer. The question of the sustainability and expediency of the planned European internal electricity market completes the 2016 Energy Day program. (rössner) [de

  17. Control and Optimization Methods for Electric Smart Grids

    CERN Document Server

    Ilić, Marija

    2012-01-01

    Control and Optimization Methods for Electric Smart Grids brings together leading experts in power, control and communication systems,and consolidates some of the most promising recent research in smart grid modeling,control and optimization in hopes of laying the foundation for future advances in this critical field of study. The contents comprise eighteen essays addressing wide varieties of control-theoretic problems for tomorrow’s power grid. Topics covered include: Control architectures for power system networks with large-scale penetration of renewable energy and plug-in vehicles Optimal demand response New modeling methods for electricity markets Control strategies for data centers Cyber-security Wide-area monitoring and control using synchronized phasor measurements. The authors present theoretical results supported by illustrative examples and practical case studies, making the material comprehensible to a wide audience. The results reflect the exponential transformation that today’s grid is going...

  18. Increased Observability in Electric Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prostejovsky, Alexander Maria

    infrastructure in distribution grids. Strong emphasis is placed on experimental verifications of the investigated concepts wherever applicable. Electric grids are changing, and so are the roles of system operators. The interest in sustainable energy and the rapidly increasing number of Distributed Energy...... that DSO areas are not necessarily self-sufficient. Missing power is covered by neighbouring areas to confine problems in a small region, which is demonstrated in SYSLAB on a two-area, grid-connected setup. The results highlight the advantages of harnessing the information obtained directly from...

  19. Integration of HTS Cables in the Future Grid of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuijderduin, R.; Chevchenko, O.; Smit, J.J.; Aanhaanen, G.; Melnik, I.; Geschiere, A.

    2012-01-01

    ue to increasing power demand, the electricity grid of the Netherlands is changing. The future transmission grid will obtain electrical power generated by decentralized renewable sources, together with large scale generation units located at the coastal region. In this way electrical power has to be

  20. Electrical distribution grids: from legacy to innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjsaid, N.; Sabonnadiere, J.C.; Angelier, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    The electrical distribution networks in general and distributed generation in particular are undergoing tremendous technological, economic and conceptual changes. Indeed, with the establishment of Distribution System Operators (DSOs), the environmental concerns of our modern societies, the needs of security and quality of supply and the emergence of new services related to the 'active energy customer' character have particularly highlighted the potential for innovation and development of distribution networks. Distribution networks are of particular importance because of their close link with the end user, their interface with distributed generation and their ability to facilitate and integrate new applications and services such as plug-in electric and hybrid vehicles or smart meters. On the other hand, they represent a large infrastructure that has become complex to manage with the emergence of this new energy paradigm. However, this strategic legacy is aging and the quality of supply, after years of improvement, begins to deteriorate again. It is therefore essential to increase investment in these assets at all levels whether in innovation, expansion or renovation to prepare the smarter grid of the future. (authors)

  1. Critical Infrastructure Protection: EMP Impacts on the U.S. Electric Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, Edwin J., Jr.

    The purpose of this research is to identify the United States electric grid infrastructure systems vulnerabilities to electromagnetic pulse attacks and the cyber-based impacts of those vulnerabilities to the electric grid. Additionally, the research identifies multiple defensive strategies designed to harden the electric grid against electromagnetic pulse attack that include prevention, mitigation and recovery postures. Research results confirm the importance of the electric grid to the United States critical infrastructures system and that an electromagnetic pulse attack against the electric grid could result in electric grid degradation, critical infrastructure(s) damage and the potential for societal collapse. The conclusions of this research indicate that while an electromagnetic pulse attack against the United States electric grid could have catastrophic impacts on American society, there are currently many defensive strategies under consideration designed to prevent, mitigate and or recover from an electromagnetic pulse attack. However, additional research is essential to further identify future target hardening opportunities, efficient implementation strategies and funding resources.

  2. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at the 2012 RE AMP Annual Meeting. RE-AMP is an active network of 144 nonprofits and foundations across eight Midwestern states working on climate change and energy policy with the goal of reducing global warming pollution economy-wide 80% by 2050.

  3. Enterprise grid and the future of IT

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Interview with Rolf Kubli, a fellow of EDS, a Switzerland-based technology services company and CERN openlab contributors, previews his presentation at this week's OGF20/EGEE User Forum event and shares his thoughts on its theme" "Beliefs about the future of IT and how they relate to the enterprise grid vision. (2,5 pages)

  4. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.; Sandor, D.; Wiser, R.; Schneider, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  5. Grid-connected solar electricity going mainstream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLellan, I. [Arise Technologies Corp., Kitchener, ON (Canada)

    2004-06-01

    In 20 days, the sun provides the equivalent amount of energy found in all known fossil fuel reserves. This paper provides an outline of solar energy industry activities from the perspective of Arise Technologies, a Canadian-based solar energy company. An overview of the company's vision and marketing strategy was presented, including annual sales. Details of the company's commercial projects were reviewed, with specific reference to the first Canadian grid-connected solar electric subdivision. An introduction to photovoltaic electricity (PV) as an environmentally positive energy source was presented. Statistics included information on the current solar market worldwide as well as government and industry investment. Portable solar energy applications were provided, as well as grid-tied products in relation to private dwelling and commercial, industrial and institutional buildings. Details of an Arise solar home were presented. An outline of the Technology Early Action Measures (TEAM) was presented, with reference to the federal government's Climate Change Action Plan. The benefits of solar economics were given. PV factory production was overviewed, with a presentation of the experience curve and the number of grid-connected solar electric homes globally. Top global PV manufacturers were listed as well as a chart of world energy transitions underlining the emergence of renewable energy programs and systems. A summary of solar energy in Japan was provided, along with details of mid and long term solar energy planning, as well as other projects around the world. Canadian investment in PV was compared with other countries and details of past government spending on other energy sources were also presented. It was concluded that Canada was far behind other G-8 countries with reference to grid-connected PV, but that off-grid PV was a real business in Canada. It was also concluded that Japan would represent the first real mainstream grid-connected market

  6. Grid-connected solar electricity going mainstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLellan, I.

    2004-01-01

    In 20 days, the sun provides the equivalent amount of energy found in all known fossil fuel reserves. This paper provides an outline of solar energy industry activities from the perspective of Arise Technologies, a Canadian-based solar energy company. An overview of the company's vision and marketing strategy was presented, including annual sales. Details of the company's commercial projects were reviewed, with specific reference to the first Canadian grid-connected solar electric subdivision. An introduction to photovoltaic electricity (PV) as an environmentally positive energy source was presented. Statistics included information on the current solar market worldwide as well as government and industry investment. Portable solar energy applications were provided, as well as grid-tied products in relation to private dwelling and commercial, industrial and institutional buildings. Details of an Arise solar home were presented. An outline of the Technology Early Action Measures (TEAM) was presented, with reference to the federal government's Climate Change Action Plan. The benefits of solar economics were given. PV factory production was overviewed, with a presentation of the experience curve and the number of grid-connected solar electric homes globally. Top global PV manufacturers were listed as well as a chart of world energy transitions underlining the emergence of renewable energy programs and systems. A summary of solar energy in Japan was provided, along with details of mid and long term solar energy planning, as well as other projects around the world. Canadian investment in PV was compared with other countries and details of past government spending on other energy sources were also presented. It was concluded that Canada was far behind other G-8 countries with reference to grid-connected PV, but that off-grid PV was a real business in Canada. It was also concluded that Japan would represent the first real mainstream grid-connected market, followed by Europe

  7. Electricity Markets, Smart Grids and Smart Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcey, Jonathan M.

    A smart grid is an electricity network that accommodates two-way power flows, and utilizes two-way communications and increased measurement, in order to provide more information to customers and aid in the development of a more efficient electricity market. The current electrical network is outdated and has many shortcomings relating to power flows, inefficient electricity markets, generation/supply balance, a lack of information for the consumer and insufficient consumer interaction with electricity markets. Many of these challenges can be addressed with a smart grid, but there remain significant barriers to the implementation of a smart grid. This paper proposes a novel method for the development of a smart grid utilizing a bottom up approach (starting with smart buildings/campuses) with the goal of providing the framework and infrastructure necessary for a smart grid instead of the more traditional approach (installing many smart meters and hoping a smart grid emerges). This novel approach involves combining deterministic and statistical methods in order to accurately estimate building electricity use down to the device level. It provides model users with a cheaper alternative to energy audits and extensive sensor networks (the current methods of quantifying electrical use at this level) which increases their ability to modify energy consumption and respond to price signals The results of this method are promising, but they are still preliminary. As a result, there is still room for improvement. On days when there were no missing or inaccurate data, this approach has R2 of about 0.84, sometimes as high as 0.94 when compared to measured results. However, there were many days where missing data brought overall accuracy down significantly. In addition, the development and implementation of the calibration process is still underway and some functional additions must be made in order to maximize accuracy. The calibration process must be completed before a reliable

  8. Renewable Electricity-to-Grid Integration | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL Renewable Electricity-to-Grid Integration Renewable Electricity-to-Grid Integration NREL works with industry partners to optimize strategies for effectively interconnecting renewable renewable electric grid integration work includes research and development (R&D) on advanced inverters

  9. The Future of Low-Carbon Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B. [Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720,; Brown, Nicholas R. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802; Slaybaugh, Rachel [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720; Wilks, Theresa [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139; Stewart, Emma [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550; McCoy, Sean T. [Global Security, E Program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550

    2017-10-17

    We review future global demand for electricity and major technologies positioned to supply it with minimal greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions: renewables (wind, solar, water, geothermal, and biomass), nuclear fission, and fossil power with CO2 capture and sequestration. We discuss two breakthrough technologies (space solar power and nuclear fusion) as exciting but uncertain additional options for low-net GHG emissions (i.e., low-carbon) electricity generation. In addition, we discuss grid integration technologies (monitoring and forecasting of transmission and distribution systems, demand-side load management, energy storage, and load balancing with low-carbon fuel substitutes). For each topic, recent historical trends and future prospects are reviewed, along with technical challenges, costs, and other issues as appropriate. Although no technology represents an ideal solution, their strengths can be enhanced by deployment in combination, along with grid integration that forms a critical set of enabling technologies to assure a reliable and robust future low-carbon electricity system.

  10. Greenhouse gas emission factors of purchased electricity from interconnected grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Ling; Liang, Sai; Qu, Shen; Zhang, Yanxia; Xu, Ming; Jia, Xiaoping; Jia, Yingtao; Niu, Dongxiao; Yuan, Jiahai; Hou, Yong; Wang, Haikun; Chiu, Anthony S.F.; Hu, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new accounting framework is proposed for GHG emission factors of power grids. • Three cases are used to demonstrate the proposed framework. • Comparisons with previous system boundaries approve the necessity. - Abstract: Electricity trade among power grids leads to difficulties in measuring greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors of purchased electricity. Traditional methods assume either electricity purchased from a grid is entirely produced locally (Boundary I) or imported electricity is entirely produced by the exporting grid (Boundary II) (in fact a blend of electricity produced by many grids). Both methods ignore the fact that electricity can be indirectly traded between grids. Failing to capture such indirect electricity trade can underestimate or overestimate GHG emissions of purchased electricity in interconnected grid networks, potentially leading to incorrectly accounting for the effects of emission reduction policies involving purchased electricity. We propose a “Boundary III” framework to account for emissions both directly and indirectly caused by purchased electricity in interconnected gird networks. We use three case studies on a national grid network, an Eurasian Continent grid network, and North Europe grid network to demonstrate the proposed Boundary III emission factors. We found that the difference on GHG emissions of purchased electricity estimated using different emission factors can be considerably large. We suggest to standardize the choice of different emission factors based on how interconnected the local grid is with other grids.

  11. Electricity of the future: a worldwide challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ladoucette, Ph.; Chevalier, J.M.; Barbaso, F.; Becache, P.; Belmans, P.; Brottes, F.; Chevet, P.F.; Chone, F.; David, A.; Delorme, Ph.; Hadjsaid, N.; Jalabert, M.; Julliard, Y.; Kott, B.; Lenoir, J.C.; Lewiner, C.; Maillard, D.; Moisan, F.; Pelletier, Ph.; Poniatowski, L.; Rozes, St.; Rytoft, C.; Sanchez Jimenez, M.; Seyrling, G.; Vu, A.

    2010-01-01

    The increase of power consumption, the development of renewable energy sources and the emergence of new usages like the electric-powered car are as many challenges that put the reliability and the reactivity of our power grids to the test. These grids have to change to become 'intelligent' thanks to the integration of new information and communication technologies over the overall supply chain, from the energy generation to its end use by consumers. For the first time in France, the actors of this change explain their opinion about this revolution and put it in perspective with its full extent and complexity. Changing power grids to make them intelligent is first of all a technical challenge but also a society challenge: the consumer will become an actor involved in the mastery of his energy demand and a renewable energy producer capable to interact with the grid in an increasing manner. This worldwide change that we are going to be the witnesses comes up against numerous obstacles. The aim of this book is to examine the determining factors of the success of this large scale change through its technical, economical and social dimensions. It shows that the emergence of such an advanced power system cannot be possible neither without the reconciliation between some contradictory goals, nor without a strong coordination between the actors. Content: Part 1 - intelligent power networks to answer the 21. century challenges: 1 - the European and French dimension of the electric power sector; 2 - towards a carbon-free economy; 3 - a power grid facing new challenges; 4 - the pre-figuration of intelligent power grids; 5 - the deployment of intelligent (smart) grids; Part 2 - perspectives of smart grids development: 1 - the future of power networks; 2 - a new industrial era; Part 3 - the consumer's position in the deployment of future grids: 1 - changing behaviours; 2 - making the consumer a 'consum'actor'. Synthesis and conclusion. (J.S.)

  12. Electric vehicles’ influence on Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta R. Jabłońska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the paper is to demonstrate evolution of Electric Vehicles (EV and their infl uence on the Smart Grid (SG. Starting from USA defi nition of the SG considering the fi fth- and sixth- properties of the SG: It accommodates all generation and storage options and it enables new products, services and markets. We can determine EV role in the SG operation. Contemporary we can distinguish following types of the EV: HEVS – hybrid electric vehicles with motor and use batteries with no using electricity from external source, Pure EVs – running on electric motor powered by batteries that are recharged by plugging in the vehicle, Plug-in PHEVs – can be charged with electricity like engine power EVs and run under engine like HEVs. The most interesting for electric power there are Pure EVs and PHEVs that are consumers and also kind of electricity storage devices (very important in SG. These types may be charged “in home”, using special station with diff erent time of charging; there is also considered charging during the time waiting for change of lights on road nodes (junctions. It is important to mention that EV development infl uence not only on SG, social- and climate- environment but also on development of new branch of industries producing equipment necessary for EV operation.

  13. Current Grid operation and future role of the Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, O.

    2012-12-01

    Grid-like technologies and approaches became an integral part of HEP experiments. Some other scientific communities also use similar technologies for data-intensive computations. The distinct feature of Grid computing is the ability to federate heterogeneous resources of different ownership into a seamless infrastructure, accessible via a single log-on. Like other infrastructures of similar nature, Grid functioning requires not only technologically sound basis, but also reliable operation procedures, monitoring and accounting. The two aspects, technological and operational, are closely related: weaker is the technology, more burden is on operations, and other way around. As of today, Grid technologies are still evolving: at CERN alone, every LHC experiment uses an own Grid-like system. This inevitably creates a heavy load on operations. Infrastructure maintenance, monitoring and incident response are done on several levels, from local system administrators to large international organisations, involving massive human effort worldwide. The necessity to commit substantial resources is one of the obstacles faced by smaller research communities when moving computing to the Grid. Moreover, most current Grid solutions were developed under significant influence of HEP use cases, and thus need additional effort to adapt them to other applications. Reluctance of many non-HEP researchers to use Grid negatively affects the outlook for national Grid organisations, which strive to provide multi-science services. We started from the situation where Grid organisations were fused with HEP laboratories and national HEP research programmes; we hope to move towards the world where Grid will ultimately reach the status of generic public computing and storage service provider and permanent national and international Grid infrastructures will be established. How far will we be able to advance along this path, depends on us. If no standardisation and convergence efforts will take place

  14. Current Grid operation and future role of the Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, O

    2012-01-01

    Grid-like technologies and approaches became an integral part of HEP experiments. Some other scientific communities also use similar technologies for data-intensive computations. The distinct feature of Grid computing is the ability to federate heterogeneous resources of different ownership into a seamless infrastructure, accessible via a single log-on. Like other infrastructures of similar nature, Grid functioning requires not only technologically sound basis, but also reliable operation procedures, monitoring and accounting. The two aspects, technological and operational, are closely related: weaker is the technology, more burden is on operations, and other way around. As of today, Grid technologies are still evolving: at CERN alone, every LHC experiment uses an own Grid-like system. This inevitably creates a heavy load on operations. Infrastructure maintenance, monitoring and incident response are done on several levels, from local system administrators to large international organisations, involving massive human effort worldwide. The necessity to commit substantial resources is one of the obstacles faced by smaller research communities when moving computing to the Grid. Moreover, most current Grid solutions were developed under significant influence of HEP use cases, and thus need additional effort to adapt them to other applications. Reluctance of many non-HEP researchers to use Grid negatively affects the outlook for national Grid organisations, which strive to provide multi-science services. We started from the situation where Grid organisations were fused with HEP laboratories and national HEP research programmes; we hope to move towards the world where Grid will ultimately reach the status of generic public computing and storage service provider and permanent national and international Grid infrastructures will be established. How far will we be able to advance along this path, depends on us. If no standardisation and convergence efforts will take place

  15. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1. Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M. M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baldwin, S. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); DeMeo, E. [Renewable Energy Consulting, Chicago, IL (United States); Reilly, J. M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Mai, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, D. [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Boulder, CO (United States); Porro, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Meshek, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  16. Smart Grid Communication Technologies in the Brazilian Electrical Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Kühne, Philipp; Hauer, Ines; Styczynski, Zbigniew A.; Fernandes, Rubipiara; Vale, Zita

    2013-01-01

    Intelligent electrical grids can be considered as the next generation of electrical energy transportation. The enormous potential leads to worldwide focus of research on the technology of smart grids. This paper aims to present a review of the Brazilian electricity sector in context with the integration of communication technologies for smart grids. The work gives an overview of the generation, transmission and distribution of electrical energy in the Brazil and a brief summary ...

  17. Optimal charging control of electric vehicles in smart grids

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Wanrong

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces the optimal online charging control of electric vehicles (EVs) and battery energy storage systems (BESSs) in smart grids. The ultimate goal is to minimize the total energy cost as well as reduce the fluctuation of the total power flow caused by the integration of the EVs and renewable energy generators. Using both theoretic analysis and data-driven numerical results, the authors reveal the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed control techniques. A major benefit of these control techniques is their practicality, since they do not rely on any non-causal knowledge of future information. Researchers, operators of power grids, and EV users will find this to be an exceptional resource. It is also suitable for advanced-level students of computer science interested in networks, electric vehicles, and energy systems.

  18. Smart signal processing for an evolving electric grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leandro Rodrigues Manso; Duque, Calos Augusto; Ribeiro, Paulo F.

    2015-12-01

    Electric grids are interconnected complex systems consisting of generation, transmission, distribution, and active loads, recently called prosumers as they produce and consume electric energy. Additionally, these encompass a vast array of equipment such as machines, power transformers, capacitor banks, power electronic devices, motors, etc. that are continuously evolving in their demand characteristics. Given these conditions, signal processing is becoming an essential assessment tool to enable the engineer and researcher to understand, plan, design, and operate the complex and smart electronic grid of the future. This paper focuses on recent developments associated with signal processing applied to power system analysis in terms of characterization and diagnostics. The following techniques are reviewed and their characteristics and applications discussed: active power system monitoring, sparse representation of power system signal, real-time resampling, and time-frequency (i.e., wavelets) applied to power fluctuations.

  19. Electric power grid interconnection in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Won-Cheol; Zhang, Zhong Xiang

    2006-01-01

    In spite of regional closeness, energy cooperation in Northeast Asia has remained unexplored. However, this situation appears to be changing. The government of South Korea seems to be very enthusiastic for power grid interconnection between the Russian Far East and South Korea to overcome difficulties in finding new sites for building power facilities to meet its need for increased electricity supplies. This paper analyzes the feasibility of this electric power grid interconnection route. The issues addressed include electricity market structures; the prospects for electric power industry restructuring in the Russian Federation and South Korea; the political issues related to North Korea; the challenges for the governments involved and the obstacles anticipated in moving this project forward; project financing and the roles and concerns from multilateral and regional banks; and institutional framework for energy cooperation. While there are many technical issues that need to be resolved, we think that the great challenge lies in the financing of this commercial project. Thus, the governments of the Russian Federation and South Korea involved in the project need to foster the development of their internal capital markets and to create confidence with international investors. To this end, on energy side, this involves defining a clear energy policy implemented by independent regulators, speeding up the already started but delayed reform process of restructuring electric power industry and markets, and establishing a fair and transparent dispute resolution mechanism in order to reduce non-commercial risks to a minimum. The paper argues that establishing a framework for energy cooperation in this region will contribute positively towards that end, although views differ regarding its specific form. Finally, given that North Korea has a crucial transit role to play and faces a very unstable political situation, it is concluded that moving the project forward needs to be

  20. Future Energy Grid. Migration paths into the energy Internet; Future Energy Grid. Migrationspfade ins Internet der Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelrath, Hans-Juergen [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany); Kagermann, Henning [acatech - Deutsche Akademie der Technikwissenschaften, Berlin (Germany). Hauptstadtbuero; Mayer, Christoph (eds.) [OFFIS e.V., Oldenburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The present study describes the migration path that must be taken up to the year 2030 in pursuit of the Future Energy Grid. For this purpose it has explored what possible future scenarios must be taken into account along the migration path. The following key factors were identified in preparation of drawing up scenarios: expansion of the electrical infrastructure; system-wide availability of an information and communication technology infrastructure; flexibilisation of consumption; energy mix; new services and products; final consumer costs; and standardisation and political framework conditions. These eight key factors were combined with each other in different variants to give three consistent scenarios for the year 2030.

  1. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1: Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.; Wiser, R.; Sandor, D.; Brinkman, G.; Heath, G.; Denholm, P.; Hostick, D.J.; Darghouth, N.; Schlosser, A.; Strzepek, K.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  2. Swiss electricity grid - Benchmarking pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This article is a short version of the ENET number 210369. This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a benchmarking pilot project carried out as a second phase in the development of a formula for the regulation of an open electricity market in Switzerland. It follows on from an initial phase involving the definition of a 'blue print' and a basic concept. The aims of the pilot project - to check out the practicability of the concept - are discussed. The collection of anonymised data for the benchmarking model from over 30 electricity utilities operating on all 7 Swiss grid levels and their integration in the three areas 'Technology', 'Grid Costs' and 'Capital Invested' are discussed in detail. In particular, confidentiality and data protection aspects are looked at. The methods used in the analysis of the data are described and the results of an efficiency analysis of various utilities are presented. The report is concluded with a listing of questions concerning data collection and analysis as well as operational and capital costs that are still to be answered

  3. Grid Integration of Electric Vehicles in Open Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    congestion management scenario within electric distribution networks •optimal EV charging management with the fleet operator concept and smart charging management •EV battery technology, modelling and tests •the use of EVs for balancing power fluctuations from renewable energy sources, looking at power......Presenting the policy drivers, benefits and challenges for grid integration of electric vehicles (EVs) in the open electricity market environment, this book provides a comprehensive overview of existing electricity markets and demonstrates how EVs are integrated into these different markets...... of the technologies for EV integration, this volume is informative for research professors and graduate students in power systems; it will also appeal to EV manufacturers, regulators, EV market professionals, energy providers and traders, mobility providers, EV charging station companies, and policy makers....

  4. Optimal Operation of Data Centers in Future Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghamkhari, Seyed Mahdi

    The emergence of cloud computing has established a growing trend towards building massive, energy-hungry, and geographically distributed data centers. Due to their enormous energy consumption, data centers are expected to have major impact on the electric grid by significantly increasing the load at locations where they are built. However, data centers also provide opportunities to help the grid with respect to robustness and load balancing. For instance, as data centers are major and yet flexible electric loads, they can be proper candidates to offer ancillary services, such as voluntary load reduction, to the smart grid. Also, data centers may better stabilize the price of energy in the electricity markets, and at the same time reduce their electricity cost by exploiting the diversity in the price of electricity in the day-ahead and real-time electricity markets. In this thesis, such potentials are investigated within an analytical profit maximization framework by developing new mathematical models based on queuing theory. The proposed models capture the trade-off between quality-of-service and power consumption in data centers. They are not only accurate, but also they posses convexity characteristics that facilitate joint optimization of data centers' service rates, demand levels and demand bids to different electricity markets. The analysis is further expanded to also develop a unified comprehensive energy portfolio optimization for data centers in the future smart grid. Specifically, it is shown how utilizing one energy option may affect selecting other energy options that are available to a data center. For example, we will show that the use of on-site storage and the deployment of geographical workload distribution can particularly help data centers in utilizing high-risk energy options such as renewable generation. The analytical approach in this thesis takes into account service-level-agreements, risk management constraints, and also the statistical

  5. Grid accounting service: state and future development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levshina, T; Sehgal, C; Bockelman, B; Weitzel, D; Guru, A

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, large-scale federated distributed infrastructures have been continually developed and expanded. One of the crucial components of a cyber-infrastructure is an accounting service that collects data related to resource utilization and identity of users using resources. The accounting service is important for verifying pledged resource allocation per particular groups and users, providing reports for funding agencies and resource providers, and understanding hardware provisioning requirements. It can also be used for end-to-end troubleshooting as well as billing purposes. In this work we describe Gratia, a federated accounting service jointly developed at Fermilab and Holland Computing Center at University of Nebraska-Lincoln. The Open Science Grid, Fermilab, HCC, and several other institutions have used Gratia in production for several years. The current development activities include expanding Virtual Machines provisioning information, XSEDE allocation usage accounting, and Campus Grids resource utilization. We also identify the direction of future work: improvement and expansion of Cloud accounting, persistent and elastic storage space allocation, and the incorporation of WAN and LAN network metrics.

  6. Grid accounting service: state and future development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levshina, T.; Sehgal, C.; Bockelman, B.; Weitzel, D.; Guru, A.

    2014-06-01

    During the last decade, large-scale federated distributed infrastructures have been continually developed and expanded. One of the crucial components of a cyber-infrastructure is an accounting service that collects data related to resource utilization and identity of users using resources. The accounting service is important for verifying pledged resource allocation per particular groups and users, providing reports for funding agencies and resource providers, and understanding hardware provisioning requirements. It can also be used for end-to-end troubleshooting as well as billing purposes. In this work we describe Gratia, a federated accounting service jointly developed at Fermilab and Holland Computing Center at University of Nebraska-Lincoln. The Open Science Grid, Fermilab, HCC, and several other institutions have used Gratia in production for several years. The current development activities include expanding Virtual Machines provisioning information, XSEDE allocation usage accounting, and Campus Grids resource utilization. We also identify the direction of future work: improvement and expansion of Cloud accounting, persistent and elastic storage space allocation, and the incorporation of WAN and LAN network metrics.

  7. Influencing Factors and Development Trend Analysis of China Electric Grid Investment Demand Based on a Panel Co-Integration Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinchao Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric grid investment demand analysis is significant to reasonably arranging construction funds for the electric grid and reduce costs. This paper used the panel data of electric grid investment from 23 provinces of China between 2004 and 2016 as samples to analyze the influence between electric grid investment demand and GDP, population scale, social electricity consumption, installed electrical capacity, and peak load based on co-integration tests. We find that GDP and peak load have positive influences on electric grid investment demand, but the impact of population scale, social electricity consumption, and installed electrical capacity on electric grid investment is not remarkable. We divide different regions in China into the eastern region, central region, and western region to analyze influence factors of electric grid investment, finally obtaining key factors in the eastern, central, and western regions. In the end, according to the analysis of key factors, we make a prediction about China’s electric grid investment for 2020 in different scenarios. The results offer a certain understanding for the development trend of China’s electric grid investment and contribute to the future development of electric grid investment.

  8. FermiGrid - experience and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, K.; Berman, E.; Canal, P.; Hesselroth, T.; Garzoglio, G.; Levshina, T.; Sergeev, V.; Sfiligoi, I.; Timm, S.; Yocum, D.

    2007-01-01

    Fermilab supports a scientific program that includes experiments and scientists located across the globe. In order to better serve this community, Fermilab has placed its production computer resources in a Campus Grid infrastructure called 'FermiGrid'. The FermiGrid infrastructure allows the large experiments at Fermilab to have priority access to their own resources, enables sharing of these resources in an opportunistic fashion, and movement of work (jobs, data) between the Campus Grid and National Grids such as Open Science Grid and the WLCG. FermiGrid resources support multiple Virtual Organizations (VOs), including VOs from the Open Science Grid (OSG), EGEE and the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid Collaboration (WLCG). Fermilab also makes leading contributions to the Open Science Grid in the areas of accounting, batch computing, grid security, job management, resource selection, site infrastructure, storage management, and VO services. Through the FermiGrid interfaces, authenticated and authorized VOs and individuals may access our core grid services, the 10,000+ Fermilab resident CPUs, near-petabyte (including CMS) online disk pools and the multi-petabyte Fermilab Mass Storage System. These core grid services include a site wide Globus gatekeeper, VO management services for several VOs, Fermilab site authorization services, grid user mapping services, as well as job accounting and monitoring, resource selection and data movement services. Access to these services is via standard and well-supported grid interfaces. We will report on the user experience of using the FermiGrid campus infrastructure interfaced to a national cyberinfrastructure--the successes and the problems

  9. Coordinating plug-in electric vehicle charging with electric grid: Valley filling and target load following

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Jabbari, Faryar; Brown, Tim; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-12-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) shift energy consumption from petroleum to electricity for the personal transportation sector. This work proposes a decentralized charging protocol for PEVs with grid operators updating the cost signal. Each PEV calculates its own optimal charging profile only once based on the cost signal, after it is plugged in, and sends the result back to the grid operators. Grid operators only need to aggregate charging profiles and update the load and cost. The existing PEV characteristics, national household travel survey (NHTS), California Independent System Operator (CAISO) demand, and estimates for future renewable generation in California are used to simulate PEV operation, PEV charging profiles, grid demand, and grid net load (demand minus renewable). Results show the proposed protocol has good performance for overnight net load valley filling if the costs to be minimized are proportional to the net load. Annual results are shown in terms of overnight load variation and comparisons are made with grid level valley filling results. Further, a target load can be approached in the same manner by using the gap between current load and the target load as the cost. The communication effort involved is quite modest.

  10. Grid integration of electric-powered vehicles in existing and future energy supply structures. Advances in systems analyses 1. Final report; Netzintegration von Fahrzeugen mit elektrifizierten Antriebssystemen in bestehende und zukuenftige Energieversorgungsstrukturen. Advances in System Analyses 1. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linssen, Jochen; Bickert, Stefan; Hennings, Wilfried [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung, Systemforschung und Technologische Entwicklung (IEK-STE); and others

    2012-07-01

    The research project examines whether a fleet of vehicles with electric propulsion system (xEV) can be integrated into existing and future energy supply systems for effective integration of fluctuating power production as well as for energy storage. A multi-sectoral, system-wide scenario analysis is performed to evaluate the grid integration of electric vehicles. The effect of an xEV fleet and the impacts of various battery charging scenarios, including the option of feeding power back into the grid, are addressed by detailed technical and economic models and summarized by an energy system model. The suitability of different powertrain concepts is analysed, giving consideration to their individual applications by users. Based on the results of a German nationwide survey of mobility patterns and analyses of 47 test subjects, individual driving profiles for private cars are drawn up and stored in a database. They are used as input for the vehicle energy model. This model calculates the energy requirements of different xEV concepts and facilitates optimized powertrain design and battery sizing for the respective applications. The results show that if the batteries are charged overnight it is possible to cover a major fraction of daily driving distances by electric power. Additional charging during the day does not significantly improve this fraction. The auxiliaries have a greater influence on the vehicle's energy demand than individual driving patterns. Battery lifetime is extended by recharging the battery as required and preferably as late as possible before the next trip. In most cases, using the batteries for grid services reduces battery lifetime and leads to higher specific costs. Models of the transmission grid and typical distribution grids are developed. It is shown that charging one million xEV in 2020 and six million in 2030 (as envisaged by the German Federal Government) is technically feasible without major structural modifications of the transmission

  11. Grid integration of electric-powered vehicles in existing and future energy supply structures. Advances in systems analyses 1. Final report; Netzintegration von Fahrzeugen mit elektrifizierten Antriebssystemen in bestehende und zukuenftige Energieversorgungsstrukturen. Advances in System Analyses 1. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linssen, Jochen; Bickert, Stefan; Hennings, Wilfried [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung, Systemforschung und Technologische Entwicklung (IEK-STE)] [and others

    2012-07-01

    The research project examines whether a fleet of vehicles with electric propulsion system (xEV) can be integrated into existing and future energy supply systems for effective integration of fluctuating power production as well as for energy storage. A multi-sectoral, system-wide scenario analysis is performed to evaluate the grid integration of electric vehicles. The effect of an xEV fleet and the impacts of various battery charging scenarios, including the option of feeding power back into the grid, are addressed by detailed technical and economic models and summarized by an energy system model. The suitability of different powertrain concepts is analysed, giving consideration to their individual applications by users. Based on the results of a German nationwide survey of mobility patterns and analyses of 47 test subjects, individual driving profiles for private cars are drawn up and stored in a database. They are used as input for the vehicle energy model. This model calculates the energy requirements of different xEV concepts and facilitates optimized powertrain design and battery sizing for the respective applications. The results show that if the batteries are charged overnight it is possible to cover a major fraction of daily driving distances by electric power. Additional charging during the day does not significantly improve this fraction. The auxiliaries have a greater influence on the vehicle's energy demand than individual driving patterns. Battery lifetime is extended by recharging the battery as required and preferably as late as possible before the next trip. In most cases, using the batteries for grid services reduces battery lifetime and leads to higher specific costs. Models of the transmission grid and typical distribution grids are developed. It is shown that charging one million xEV in 2020 and six million in 2030 (as envisaged by the German Federal Government) is technically feasible without major structural modifications of the

  12. FermiGrid-experience and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, K; Berman, E; Canal, P; Hesselroth, T; Garzoglio, G; Levshina, T; Sergeev, V; Sfiligoi, I; Sharma, N; Timm, S; Yocum, D R

    2008-01-01

    Fermilab supports a scientific program that includes experiments and scientists located across the globe. In order to better serve this community, Fermilab has placed its production computer resources in a Campus Grid infrastructure called 'FermiGrid'. The FermiGrid infrastructure allows the large experiments at Fermilab to have priority access to their own resources, enables sharing of these resources in an opportunistic fashion, and movement of work (jobs, data) between the Campus Grid and National Grids such as Open Science Grid (OSG) and the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid Collaboration (WLCG). FermiGrid resources support multiple Virtual Organizations (VOs), including VOs from the OSG, EGEE, and the WLCG. Fermilab also makes leading contributions to the Open Science Grid in the areas of accounting, batch computing, grid security, job management, resource selection, site infrastructure, storage management, and VO services. Through the FermiGrid interfaces, authenticated and authorized VOs and individuals may access our core grid services, the 10,000+ Fermilab resident CPUs, near-petabyte (including CMS) online disk pools and the multi-petabyte Fermilab Mass Storage System. These core grid services include a site wide Globus gatekeeper, VO management services for several VOs, Fermilab site authorization services, grid user mapping services, as well as job accounting and monitoring, resource selection and data movement services. Access to these services is via standard and well-supported grid interfaces. We will report on the user experience of using the FermiGrid campus infrastructure interfaced to a national cyberinfrastructure - the successes and the problems

  13. PV solar electricity: status and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Winfried

    2006-04-01

    of new concepts to broaden the product portfolio in coming years). The second topic outlines the most likely development of liberalized electricity markets in various regions worldwide. It will be emphasized that in such markets the future prices for electricity will more and more reflect the different cost for bulk and peak power production. This will not only happen for industrial electricity customers - as already today in many countries - but also for private households. The third topic summarizes the existing data and facts by correlating peak power demand and prices traded in various stock exchange markets with delivered PV kWh. It will be shown that a high degree of correlation is existent. Combining the three topics and postulating reverse net metering the competitiveness of PV solar electricity as described is most likely to occur. The described price decrease of modules will also have a very positive impact on off-grid rural applications, mainly in 3rd world countries. It will be shown that this is strongly advanced due to the development of mini-grids starting from solar home systems - with mini grids looking very similar to on-grid applications in weak grid areas of nowadays electricity network.

  14. Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Electricity Sector Using Smart Electric Grid Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamiaa Abdallah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 40% of global CO2 emissions are emitted from electricity generation through the combustion of fossil fuels to generate heat needed to power steam turbines. Burning these fuels results in the production of carbon dioxide (CO2—the primary heat-trapping, “greenhouse gas” responsible for global warming. Applying smart electric grid technologies can potentially reduce CO2 emissions. Electric grid comprises three major sectors: generation, transmission and distribution grid, and consumption. Smart generation includes the use of renewable energy sources (wind, solar, or hydropower. Smart transmission and distribution relies on optimizing the existing assets of overhead transmission lines, underground cables, transformers, and substations such that minimum generating capacities are required in the future. Smart consumption will depend on the use of more efficient equipment like energy-saving lighting lamps, enabling smart homes and hybrid plug-in electric vehicles technologies. A special interest is given to the Egyptian case study. Main opportunities for Egypt include generating electricity from wind and solar energy sources and its geographical location that makes it a perfect center for interconnecting electrical systems from the Nile basin, North Africa, Gulf, and Europe. Challenges include shortage of investments, absence of political will, aging of transmission and distribution infrastructure, and lack of consumer awareness for power utilization.

  15. Future Roles of Milli-, Micro-, and Nano- Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnay, Chris; Nordman, Bruce; Lai, Judy

    2011-07-01

    Although it has slowed considerably, consumption of electricity continues to grow in developed economies. Further, there are some unknowns which might accelerate this growth, such as electrification of vehicle fleets and geothermal heat pump space and water heating. Most analysts anticipate that distributed energy resources (DER) will provide a large share of the expanded generation capacity required to meet this seemingly inexorably increasing electricity demand. Further, given the urgency of tackling the climate change problem, most of the added assets must be carbonfree renewables or nuclear, end-use efficiency improvements, or highly efficient fossil-fired technologies. In developed economies worldwide, the current power delivery paradigm has been in place for more than a century, i.e. since the emergence of polyphase AC systems around the turn of the last century. A key feature of this structure is that, in principle, universal service is delivered at a consistent level of power quality and reliability (PQR) throughout large regions. This paper describes a future possible structure for the electricity generation and delivery system that leaves the existing high voltage meshed grid paradigm in place, but involves radical reorganization of parts of the distribution network and customer sites. Managing a much more diverse dispersed system poses major challenges to the current centralized grid paradigm, particularly since many of these assets are small to tiny by macrogrid standards and they may ultimately number in the millions. They are also not ones that centralized control can rely upon to function in traditionally dependable ways, e.g. renewable generation can be highly variable and changes in output of generators are not independent. Although most involved in the industry agree that a paradigm shift is both necessary and desirable to manage the new system, the nature of the future system remains quite unclear. In the possible structure described here, the

  16. Intelligent energy systems - Regulating the electricity grid using car batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbaty, R.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at how the electricity supply industry will, in the future, be able to substantially rely on decentrally organised sources of renewable energy. As such forms of power generation are, in part, difficult to plan, the increasing importance of regulating energy is being stressed. The use of the batteries of plug-in hybrid vehicles to provide such regulating power is discussed. So-called smart grids within the framework of a deregulated energy market are discussed and examples of possible configurations are noted. The intelligent control of apparatus and generation and storage facilities is discussed. Individual mobility with lower emissions is examined. New business areas now opening up for the electricity economy and vehicle manufacturers are discussed.

  17. SmartPrivacy for the smart grid : embedding privacy into the design of electricity conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavoukian, A. [Ontario Information and Privacy Commissioner, Toronto, ON (Canada); Polonetsky, J.; Wolf, C. [Future of Privacy Forum, Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Modernization efforts are underway to make the current electrical grid smarter. The future of the Smart Grid will be capable of informing consumers of their day-to-day energy use, curbing greenhouse gas emissions, and reducing consumers' energy bills. However, the Smart Grid also brings with it the possibility of collecting detailed information on individual energy consumption use and patterns within peoples' homes. This paper discussed the Smart Grid and its benefits, as well as the questions that should be examined regarding privacy. The paper also outlined the concept of SmartPrivacy and discussed its application to the Smart Grid scenario. Privacy by design foundational principles and Smart Grid components were also presented in an appendix. It was concluded that the information collected on a Smart Grid will form a library of personal information. The mishandling of this information could be extremely invasive of consumer privacy. 46 refs., 1 fig., 2 appendices.

  18. Quantifying the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, T. [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The report summarizes a 3-year DOE study focused on defining value of hydropower assets in a changing electric grid. The study looked at existing large hydropower operations in the U.S., models for different electricity futures, markets, costs of existing and new technologies as well as trends related to hydropower investments in other parts of the world.

  19. Environmental benefits of electricity grid interconnections in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streets, D.G.

    2003-01-01

    From an environmental perspective, electricity grid interconnections in Northeast Asia make sense. Cities in Northeast China, Mongolia, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), and the Republic of Korea (ROK) suffer from poor air quality due to the extensive use of coal-fired power generation. Rural communities suffer from a deficit of electricity, forcing reliance on coal and biofuels for cooking and heating in the home, which causes health-damaging indoor air pollution. Regional air pollution from acid rain and ozone is widespread. In addition, Japan is finding it hard to meet its commitment under the Kyoto Protocol. Yet, just across their borders in far eastern Russia are extensive, clean energy resources: hydroelectricity and natural gas, and (potentially) nuclear power and tidal power. It would be environmentally beneficial to generate electricity cleanly in far eastern Russia and transmit the electricity across the borders into China, Mongolia, the DPRK, the ROK, and Japan, thereby displacing coal-fired electricity generation. We estimate that currently planned projects could alleviate the problems of two to five Chinese cities, with the potential for much larger benefits in the future. (author)

  20. Charging Schedule for Electric Vehicles in Danish Residential Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Huang, Shaojun; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    energy sources like wind in power systems. The EV batteries could be used to charge during periods of excess electricity production from wind power and reduce the charging rate or discharge on deficit of power in the grid, supporting system stability and reliability. By providing such grid services......The prospects of Electric Vehicles (EVs) in providing clean transportation and supporting renewable electricity is widely discussed in sustainable energy forums worldwide. The battery storage of EVs could be used to address the variability and unpredictability of electricity produced from renewable......, the vehicle owner, vehicle fleet operator and other parties involved in the process could economically benefit from the process. This paper investigates an optimal EV charging plan in Danish residential distribution grids in view of supporting high volumes of wind power in electricity grids. The results...

  1. Modelling of dynamic equivalents in electric power grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craciun, Diana Iuliana

    2010-01-01

    In a first part, this research thesis proposes a description of the context and new constraints of electric grids: architecture, decentralized production with the impact of distributed energy resource systems, dynamic simulation, and interest of equivalent models. Then, the author discusses the modelling of the different components of electric grids: synchronous and asynchronous machines, distributed energy resource with power electronic interface, loading models. She addresses the techniques of reduction of electric grid models: conventional reduction methods, dynamic equivalence methods using non linear approaches or evolutionary algorithm-based methods of assessment of parameters. This last approach is then developed and implemented, and a new method of computation of dynamic equivalents is described

  2. Applying Smart Grid Technology For Reducing Electric Energy Consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Roy

    2010-09-15

    In recent years the term 'Smart Grid' has become a widely used buzz word with respect to the operation of Electric Power Systems. One analysis has suggested that a Smart Grid could potentially reduce annual energy consumption in the USA by 56 to 203 billion kWh in 2030, corresponding to a 1.2 to 4.3% reduction in projected retail electricity sales in 2030. This paper discusses some of the smart grid technologies pertaining to the operation of electric power distribution networks.

  3. Using fleets of electric-drive vehicles for grid support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomic, Jasna; Kempton, Willett

    2007-01-01

    Electric-drive vehicles can provide power to the electric grid when they are parked (vehicle-to-grid power). We evaluated the economic potential of two utility-owned fleets of battery-electric vehicles to provide power for a specific electricity market, regulation, in four US regional regulation services markets. The two battery-electric fleet cases are: (a) 100 Th.nk City vehicle and (b) 252 Toyota RAV4. Important variables are: (a) the market value of regulation services, (b) the power capacity (kW) of the electrical connections and wiring, and (c) the energy capacity (kWh) of the vehicle's battery. With a few exceptions when the annual market value of regulation was low, we find that vehicle-to-grid power for regulation services is profitable across all four markets analyzed. Assuming now more than current Level 2 charging infrastructure (6.6 kW) the annual net profit for the Th.nk City fleet is from US$ 7000 to 70,000 providing regulation down only. For the RAV4 fleet the annual net profit ranges from US$ 24,000 to 260,000 providing regulation down and up. Vehicle-to-grid power could provide a significant revenue stream that would improve the economics of grid-connected electric-drive vehicles and further encourage their adoption. It would also improve the stability of the electrical grid. (author)

  4. Electric grid stability and the design of sustainable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    The article presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid.......The article presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid....

  5. 78 FR 12042 - Electric Grid Integration Technical Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Electric Grid Integration Technical Workshops AGENCY: Grid Tech Team, U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for comments. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that two documents are publicly available and the Department of Energy is requesting public comments...

  6. Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions Grid of the Future White Paper on Review of Recent Reliability Issues and Systems Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauer, John F.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    1999-12-01

    This report is one of six reports developed under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program in Power System Integration and Reliability (PSIR). The objective of this report is to review, analyze, and evaluate critical reliability issues demonstrated by recent disturbance events in the North America power system. Eleven major disturbances are examined, most occurring in this decade. The strategic challenge is that the pattern of technical need has persisted for a long period of time. For more than a decade, anticipation of market deregulation has been a major disincentive to new investments in system capacity. It has also inspired reduced maintenance of existing assets. A massive infusion of better technology is emerging as the final option to continue reliable electrical services. If an investment in better technology will not be made in a timely manner, then North America should plan its adjustments to a very different level of electrical service. It is apparent that technical operations staff among the utilities can be very effective at marshaling their forces in the immediate aftermath of a system emergency, and that serious disturbances often lead to improved mechanisms for coordinated operation. It is not at all apparent that such efforts can be sustained through voluntary reliability organizations in which utility personnel external to those organizations do most of the technical work. The eastern interconnection shows several situations in which much of the technical support has migrated from the utilities to the Independent System Operator (ISO), and the ISO staffs or shares staff with the regional reliability council. This process may be a natural and very positive consequence of utility restructuring. If so, the process should be expedited in regions where it is less advanced.

  7. Electric vehicle station equipment for grid-integrated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett; Kiamilev, Fouad; McGee, Rodney; Waite, Nick

    2017-09-05

    Methods, systems, and apparatus transferring power between the grid and an electric vehicle are disclosed. The apparatus may include at least one vehicle communication port for interfacing with electric vehicle equipment (EVE) and a processor coupled to the at least one vehicle communication port to establish communication with the EVE, receive EVE attributes from the EVE, and transmit electric vehicle station equipment (EVSE) attributes to the EVE. Power may be transferred between the grid and the electric vehicle by maintaining EVSE attributes, establishing communication with the EVE, and transmitting the EVSE maintained attributes to the EVE.

  8. Electrolyzers Enhancing Flexibility in Electric Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Mohanpurkar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a real-time simulation with a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL-based approach for verifying the performance of electrolyzer systems in providing grid support. Hydrogen refueling stations may use electrolyzer systems to generate hydrogen and are proposed to have the potential of becoming smarter loads that can proactively provide grid services. On the basis of experimental findings, electrolyzer systems with balance of plant are observed to have a high level of controllability and hence can add flexibility to the grid from the demand side. A generic front end controller (FEC is proposed, which enables an optimal operation of the load on the basis of market and grid conditions. This controller has been simulated and tested in a real-time environment with electrolyzer hardware for a performance assessment. It can optimize the operation of electrolyzer systems on the basis of the information collected by a communication module. Real-time simulation tests are performed to verify the performance of the FEC-driven electrolyzers to provide grid support that enables flexibility, greater economic revenue, and grid support for hydrogen producers under dynamic conditions. The FEC proposed in this paper is tested with electrolyzers, however, it is proposed as a generic control topology that is applicable to any load.

  9. Integration of HTS Cables in the Future Grid of the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuijderduin, R.; Chevtchenko, O.; Smit, J. J.; Aanhaanen, G.; Melnik, I.; Geschiere, A.

    Due to increasing power demand, the electricity grid of the Netherlands is changing. The future transmission grid will obtain electrical power generated by decentralized renewable sources, together with large scale generation units located at the coastal region. In this way electrical power has to be distributed and transmitted over longer distances from generation to end user. Potential grid issues like: amount of distributed power, grid stability and electrical loss dissipation merit particular attention. High temperature superconductors (HTS) can play an important role in solving these grid problems. Advantages to integrate HTS components at transmission voltages are numerous: more transmittable power together with less emissions, intrinsic fault current limiting capability, lower ac loss, better control of power flow, reduced footprint, less magnetic field emissions, etc. The main obstacle at present is the relatively high price of HTS conductor. However as the price goes down, initial market penetration of several HTS components (e.g.: cables, fault current limiters) is expected by year 2015. In the full paper we present selected ways to integrate EHV AC HTS cables depending on a particular future grid scenario in the Netherlands.

  10. Enhanced Operation of Electricity Distribution Grids Through Smart Metering PLC Network Monitoring, Analysis and Grid Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iker Urrutia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low Voltage (LV electricity distribution grid operations can be improved through a combination of new smart metering systems’ capabilities based on real time Power Line Communications (PLC and LV grid topology mapping. This paper presents two novel contributions. The first one is a new methodology developed for smart metering PLC network monitoring and analysis. It can be used to obtain relevant information from the grid, thus adding value to existing smart metering deployments and facilitating utility operational activities. A second contribution describes grid conditioning used to obtain LV feeder and phase identification of all connected smart electric meters. Real time availability of such information may help utilities with grid planning, fault location and a more accurate point of supply management.

  11. Modelling grid losses and the geographic distribution of electricity generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2005-01-01

    In Denmark more than 40% of the electricity consumption is covered by geographically scattered electricity sources namely wind power and local CHP (cogeneration of heat and power) plants. This causes problems in regard to load balancing and possible grid overloads. The potential grid problems...... and methods for solving these are analysed in this article on the basis of energy systems analyses, geographic distribution of consumption and production and grid load-flow analyses. It is concluded that by introducing scattered load balancing using local CHP plants actively and using interruptible loads...

  12. Smart electric grids in the United Kingdom energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloaguen, Olivier; Dreyfus, Charles-Antoine

    2011-09-01

    This study first gives an overview of the current status and limitations of the British power grid. It indicates the British energy mix, describes the network structure and its economic operation (gross and retail market with the bid and offer system, role of the System Operator, ways to increase the electricity production). It presents the energy policy and its regulation framework, outlines the current limitations and challenges (ageing grid, power crunch, de-carbonation challenges). It presents the development of a smart grid as a solution to economy de-carbonation challenges: definition of the 'smart grid concept', smart grid development planning (from 2010 to 2050), technological transition associated with smart electric grid development (a cleaner but more intermittent and random electricity production, better use of fossil fuels, electric energy storage, consequences for the grid, introduction and effects of smart meters). It describes the new associated economic model: evolution of the value chain, financial challenges (required investments, expected benefits, subsidies), new regulation system. It addresses the strategic challenges and the various uncertainties (notably in terms of consumption, privacy issue in relation with the use of smart meters, and project implementation).

  13. Challenges and Opportunities of Grid Modernization and Electric Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Robert L. [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Francis, Julieta [Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, WV (United States); Bogacz, Richard J. [Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, WV (United States)

    2017-03-31

    Grid investments that support electric vehicle deployments as a part of planned modernization efforts can enable a more efficient and cost-effective transition to electric transportation and allow investor-owned electric companies and public power companies to realize new revenue resources in times of flat or declining loads. This paper discusses the challenges and opportunities associated with an increase in plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) adoption and how working together both sectors stand to benefit from closer integration.

  14. Electric vehicle equipment for grid-integrated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2013-08-13

    Methods, systems, and apparatus for interfacing an electric vehicle with an electric power grid are disclosed. An exemplary apparatus may include a station communication port for interfacing with electric vehicle station equipment (EVSE), a vehicle communication port for interfacing with a vehicle management system (VMS), and a processor coupled to the station communication port and the vehicle communication port to establish communication with the EVSE via the station communication port, receive EVSE attributes from the EVSE, and issue commands to the VMS to manage power flow between the electric vehicle and the EVSE based on the EVSE attributes. An electric vehicle may interface with the grid by establishing communication with the EVSE, receiving the EVSE attributes, and managing power flow between the EVE and the grid based on the EVSE attributes.

  15. SmartGrid: Future networks for New Zealand power systems incorporating distributed generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Nirmal-Kumar C.; Zhang Lixi

    2009-01-01

    The concept of intelligent electricity grids, which primarily involves the integration of new information and communication technologies with power transmission lines and distribution cables, is being actively explored in the European Union and the United States. Both developments share common technological developmental goals but also differ distinctly towards the role of distributed generation for their future electrical energy security. This paper looks at options that could find relevance to New Zealand (NZ), in the context of its aspiration of achieving 90% renewable energy electricity generation portfolio by 2025. It also identifies developments in technical standardization and industry investments that facilitate a pathway towards an intelligent or smart grid development for NZ. Some areas where policy can support research in NZ being a 'fast adapter' to future grid development are also listed. This paper will help policy makers quickly review developments surrounding SmartGrid and also identify its potential to support NZ Energy Strategy in the electricity infrastructure. This paper will also help researchers and power system stakeholders for identifying international standardization, projects and potential partners in the area of future grid technologies.

  16. Grid connection rules for electric cars integrated as virtual power plant in smart grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leban, Krisztina Monika; Ritchie, Ewen; Thøgersen, Paul Bach

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the situation of V2G and proposes a solution involving a consolidating fleet manager, and a decision making process for the individual V2G electric car owner. A grid connection routine for electric vehicles is proposed. The algorithm dealing with decisions to be taken in foreseen...

  17. Analysis of Electric Vehicle Charging Impact on the Electric Power Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Zeming [Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering; Tian, Hao [Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering; Beshir, Mohammed J. [Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering; Vohra, Surendra [Los Angeles Department of Water and Power; Mazloomzadeh, Ali [Smart Utility Systems

    2016-09-24

    In order to evaluate the impact of electric vehicles (EVs) on the distribution grid and assess their potential benefits to the future smart grid, it is crucial to study the EV charging patterns and the usage charging station. Though EVs are not yet widely adopted nationwide, a valuable methodology to conduct such studies is the statistical analysis of real-world charging data. This paper presents actual EV charging behavior of 64 EVs (5 brands, 8 models) from EV users and charging stations at Los Angeles Department of Water and Power for more than one year. Twenty-four-hour EV charging load curves have been generated and studied for various load periods: daily, monthly, seasonally and yearly. Finally, the effect and impact of EV load on the California distribution network are evaluated at different EV penetration rates.

  18. AC HTS Transmission Cable for Integration into the Future EHV Grid of the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuijderduin, R.; Chevtchenko, O.; Smit, J. J.; Aanhaanen, G.; Melnik, I.; Geschiere, A.

    Due to increasing power demand, the electricity grid of the Netherlands is changing. The future grid must be capable to transmit all the connected power. Power generation will be more decentralized like for instance wind parks connected to the grid. Furthermore, future large scale production units are expected to be installed near coastal regions. This creates some potential grid issues, such as: large power amounts to be transmitted to consumers from west to east and grid stability. High temperature superconductors (HTS) can help solving these grid problems. Advantages to integrate HTS components at Extra High Voltage (EHV) and High Voltage (HV) levels are numerous: more power with less losses and less emissions, intrinsic fault current limiting capability, better control of power flow, reduced footprint, etc. Today's main obstacle is the relatively high price of HTS. Nevertheless, as the price goes down, initial market penetration for several HTS components is expected by year 2015 (e.g.: cables, fault current limiters). In this paper we present a design of intrinsically compensated EHV HTS cable for future grid integration. Discussed are the parameters of such cable providing an optimal power transmission in the future network.

  19. EDISON – Study on optimal grid integration of electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foosnæs, Anders Holm; Andersen, Claus Amtrup; Christensen, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The Danish EDISON project has been launched to investigate how a large fleet of electric vehicles (EVs) can be integrated in a way that supports the electric grid while benefitting both individual car owners, and society as a whole through reductions in CO2 emissions. The consortium partners...

  20. Electric Vehicle Grid Experiments and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    This project developed a low cost building energy management system (EMS) and conducted vehicle-to-grid (V2G) experiments on a commercial office building. The V2G effort included theinstallation and operation of a Princeton Power System CA-30 bi-dire...

  1. Virtual laboratory of electrical mini-grids with distributed generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes Ramos, Vanessa; Barros Galhardo, Marcos André; Oliveira Barbosa, Claudomiro Fábio de; Tavares Pinho, João

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a computing tool called Virtual Laboratory de Minirredes (Virtual Laboratory of Mini-grids). Using the virtual environment of the developed tool, it is possible to make remote connection/disconnection of switches and loads (resistive, inductive, capacitive and non-linear) at strategic points of the electric mini-grid with hybrid distributed generation systems (solar photovoltaic-diesel). The mini-grid has a length of about 1 km and is installed in the test area of the Grupo de Estudios e Desenvolvimento de Alternativas Exergética (GEDAE) of the Universidade Federal do Pará, located in the city of Belém, Pará, Brazil. The developed tool has communication functions with electric parameters transducers and programmable logic controllers (PLCs). This communication enables the opening and closing of contactors, resulting in different settings for the mini-grid. In addition to that, based on the proposed configuration by the user, the real-time operation status of mini-grid is presented in a graphic interface (for example, monitored electric parameters, distributed generators connected, status of disconnected switches, etc.) and the acquired data is stored. The use of the computing tool also focuses on the construction of a database, in order to obtain knowledge about the mini-grid performance under various conditions that can be set, depending on the operational strategy adopted, based on the choice of the layout, loads and power sources used in the mini-grid. (full text)

  2. The NYMEX electricity futures contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer-Huggins, D.

    1998-01-01

    Members of the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) include bankers, industry (such as refiners, producers, and electricity marketers) brokerage houses, and individuals. NYMEX is the largest physical commodity futures exchange in the world. The primary economic role of the commodity exchange industry was discussed, with special emphasis on open interest, volume, and liquidity. Hedge dynamics were also reviewed. A hedge was described as a financial instrument used to lock in prices, costs, and profit margins. Futures contracts in general, and electricity futures contracts in particular were defined ('a firm commitment to deliver or to receive a specified quantity or grade of commodity at a specific location within a designated month'). Results expected from hedging, - cost control, predictable margins, securing a certain market share, price stabilization - , the nature of options trading, and its benefits were also reviewed. 1 tab., 4 figs

  3. Electric vehicles to support large wind power penetration in future danish power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Thøgersen, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EVs) could play major role in the future intelligent grids to support a large penetration of renewable energy in Denmark, especially electricity production from wind turbines. The future power systems aims to phase-out big conventional fossil-fueled generators with large number...... on low voltage residential networks. Significant amount of EVs could be integrated in local distribution grids with the support of intelligent grid and smart charging strategies....

  4. Electricity distribution management Smart Grid system model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Nowak

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents issues concerning the implementation of Smart Grid solutions in a real distribution network. The main components possible to quick implementation were presented. Realization of these ideas should bring tangible benefi ts to both customers and distribution system operators. Moreover the paper shows selected research results which examine proposed solutions in area of improving supply reliability and reducing energy losses in analysed network.

  5. Improving nuclear generating station response for electrical grid islanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Q.B.; Kundur, P.; Acchione, P.N.; Lautsch, B.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes problems associated with the performance characteristics of nuclear generating stations which do not have their overall plant control design functions co-ordinated with the other grid controls. The paper presents some design changes to typical nuclear plant controls which result in a significant improvement in both the performance of the grid island and the chances of the nuclear units staying on-line following the disturbance. This paper focuses on four areas of the overall unit controls and turbine governor controls which could be modified to better co-ordinate the control functions of the nuclear units with the electrical grid. Some simulation results are presented to show the performance of a typical electrical grid island containing a nuclear unit with and without the changes

  6. Digital Grid: Transforming the Electric Power Grid into an Innovation Engine for the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabortty, Aranya; Huang, Alex

    2017-01-01

    The electric power grid is one of the largest and most complex infrastructures ever built by mankind. Modern civilization depends on it for industry production, human mobility, and comfortable living. However, many critical technologies such as the 60 Hz transformers were developed at the beginning of the 20th century and have changed very little since then.1 The traditional unidirectional power from the generation to the customer through the transmission-distribution grid has also changed no...

  7. Micro-grid platform based on NODE.JS architecture, implemented in electrical network instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, M.; Cando, E.; Aguinaga, A.; Llulluna, F.; Jara, N.; Moreno, T.

    2016-05-01

    In this document, I propose a theory about the impact of systems based on microgrids in non-industrialized countries that have the goal to improve energy exploitation through alternatives methods of a clean and renewable energy generation and the creation of the app to manage the behavior of the micro-grids based on the NodeJS, Django and IOJS technologies. The micro-grids allow the optimal way to manage energy flow by electric injection directly in electric network small urban's cells in a low cost and available way. In difference from conventional systems, micro-grids can communicate between them to carry energy to places that have higher demand in accurate moments. This system does not require energy storage, so, costs are lower than conventional systems like fuel cells, solar panels or else; even though micro-grids are independent systems, they are not isolated. The impact that this analysis will generate, is the improvement of the electrical network without having greater control than an intelligent network (SMART-GRID); this leads to move to a 20% increase in energy use in a specified network; that suggest there are others sources of energy generation; but for today's needs, we need to standardize methods and remain in place to support all future technologies and the best option are the Smart Grids and Micro-Grids.

  8. An electricity market with fast bidding, planning and balancing in smart grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.F. Höning (Nicolas); J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractIn future energy systems, peaks in the daily electricity generation and consumption are expected to increase. The "smart grid" concept aims to maintain high levels of efficiency in the energy system by establishing distributed intelligence. Software agents (operating on devices with

  9. 78 FR 35539 - Transforming Our Nation's Electric Grid Through Improved Siting, Permitting, and Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... key factor in future economic growth, and a critical component of our energy security. Countries that... manage cyber-security threats. By diversifying power sources and reducing congestion, a modernized grid will also create cost savings for consumers and spur economic growth. Modernizing our Nation's electric...

  10. Climate and Water Vulnerability of the US Electricity Grid Under High Penetrations of Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macknick, J.; Miara, A.; O'Connell, M.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Newmark, R. L.

    2017-12-01

    The US power sector is highly dependent upon water resources for reliable operations, primarily for thermoelectric cooling and hydropower technologies. Changes in the availability and temperature of water resources can limit electricity generation and cause outages at power plants, which substantially affect grid-level operational decisions. While the effects of water variability and climate changes on individual power plants are well documented, prior studies have not identified the significance of these impacts at the regional systems-level at which the grid operates, including whether there are risks for large-scale blackouts, brownouts, or increases in production costs. Adequately assessing electric grid system-level impacts requires detailed power sector modeling tools that can incorporate electric transmission infrastructure, capacity reserves, and other grid characteristics. Here, we present for the first time, a study of how climate and water variability affect operations of the power sector, considering different electricity sector configurations (low vs. high renewable) and environmental regulations. We use a case study of the US Eastern Interconnection, building off the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study (ERGIS) that explored operational challenges of high penetrations of renewable energy on the grid. We evaluate climate-water constraints on individual power plants, using the Thermoelectric Power and Thermal Pollution (TP2M) model coupled with the PLEXOS electricity production cost model, in the context of broader electricity grid operations. Using a five minute time step for future years, we analyze scenarios of 10% to 30% renewable energy penetration along with considerations of river temperature regulations to compare the cost, performance, and reliability tradeoffs of water-dependent thermoelectric generation and variable renewable energy technologies under climate stresses. This work provides novel insights into the resilience and

  11. Methods and apparatus of analyzing electrical power grid data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafen, Ryan P.; Critchlow, Terence J.; Gibson, Tara D.

    2017-09-05

    Apparatus and methods of processing large-scale data regarding an electrical power grid are described. According to one aspect, a method of processing large-scale data regarding an electrical power grid includes accessing a large-scale data set comprising information regarding an electrical power grid; processing data of the large-scale data set to identify a filter which is configured to remove erroneous data from the large-scale data set; using the filter, removing erroneous data from the large-scale data set; and after the removing, processing data of the large-scale data set to identify an event detector which is configured to identify events of interest in the large-scale data set.

  12. Wide-area situation awareness in electric power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    2010-04-01

    Two primary elements of the US energy policy are demand management and efficiency and renewable sources. Major objectives are clean energy transmission and integration, reliable energy transmission, and grid cyber security. Development of the Smart Grid seeks to achieve these goals by lowering energy costs for consumers, achieving energy independence and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The Smart Grid is expected to enable real time wide-area situation awareness (SA) for operators. Requirements for wide-area SA have been identified among interoperability standards proposed by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the National Institute of Standards and Technology to ensure smart-grid functionality. Wide-area SA and enhanced decision support and visualization tools are key elements in the transformation to the Smart Grid. This paper discusses human factors research to promote SA in the electric power grid and the Smart Grid. Topics that will be discussed include the role of human factors in meeting US energy policy goals, the impact and challenges for Smart Grid development, and cyber security challenges.

  13. Electrical Market Management Considering Power System Constraints in Smart Distribution Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poria Hasanpor Divshali

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rising demand, climate change, growing fuel costs, outdated power system infrastructures, and new power generation technologies have made renewable distribution generators very attractive in recent years. Because of the increasing penetration level of renewable energy sources in addition to the growth of new electrical demand sectors, such as electrical vehicles, the power system may face serious problems and challenges in the near future. A revolutionary new power grid system, called smart grid, has been developed as a solution to these problems. The smart grid, equipped with modern communication and computation infrastructures, can coordinate different parts of the power system to enhance energy efficiency, reliability, and quality, while decreasing the energy cost. Since conventional distribution networks lack smart infrastructures, much research has been recently done in the distribution part of the smart grid, called smart distribution grid (SDG. This paper surveys contemporary literature in SDG from the perspective of the electricity market in addition to power system considerations. For this purpose, this paper reviews current demand side management methods, supply side management methods, and electrical vehicle charging and discharging techniques in SDG and also discusses their drawbacks. We also present future research directions to tackle new and existing challenges in the SDG.

  14. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2. Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustine, Chad [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bain, Richard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chapman, Jamie [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Drury, Easan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hall, Douglas G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thresher, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bishop, Norman A. [Knight Piesold, Denver, CO (United States); Brown, Stephen R. [HDR/DTA, Portland, ME (Untied States); Cada, Glenn F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Felker, Fort [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fernandez, Steven J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Goodrich, Alan C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hagerman, George [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Neil, Sean [Ocean Renewable Energy Coalition, Portland, OR (United States); Paquette, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Young, Katherine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  15. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 3. End-Use Electricity Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, Donna [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, David B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hadley, Stanton W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Markel, Tony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Marnay, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kintner-Meyer, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  16. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems. Operations and Transmission Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ela, Erik [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hein, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schneider, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  17. From electric networks to 'Smart grids'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjsaid, Nourredine; Sabonnadiere, Jean-Claude

    2015-12-01

    After decades of slow evolutions, and because of the emergence of renewable energies and of a multiplication of actors due to the liberalisation of energy markets, electric networks are entering a phase of large and complex development which will lead to a massive introduction of intelligence and to the building up of the 'smart grid' concept. The authors first identify the characteristics of the new energetic paradigm. The present operation of electric grids is based on four components: production by means of high power units installed in strategic locations, transport to consumption centres by means of a highly instrumented transport network which has highly centralised and hierarchical management, and consumers who are passive actors. They comment the implications of recent development for these three components. They describe how information and communication technologies (ICT) are used at the service of the grid, and how new technologies are integrated in different instruments (smart counter, actuators, fast cut devices, sensors, advanced supervision and control functions). Then they discuss the definition of a smart network or smart grid, the objectives it allows to be reached for energy transport as well as energy distribution. They discuss the desirable evolution of distribution networks and their technical objectives. Then, they give an overview of the various involved actors (consumers, network managers, electric equipment manufacturers, energy producers, and so on), evokes bodies and institutions involved in research on smart grids (notably in Grenoble within the INPG), give some examples of innovative concepts which are now being developed (intelligence distribution, virtual central station, grid monitoring, re-configurable grid, smart building). They also identify scientific and technological deadlocks, and outline the challenge of preparing the needed abilities for the development of smart grids

  18. Integrating renewables in distribution grids: Storage, regulation and the interaction of different stakeholders in future grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nykamp, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the transition of the power supply chain towards a sustainable system based on “green‿ electricity generation out of renewable energy sources (RES-E) has become a main challenge for grid operators and further stakeholders in the power system. To enable the evaluation of new concepts

  19. Integrating renewables in distribution grids: storage, regulation and the interactions of different stakeholders in future grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nykamp, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the transition of the power supply chain towards a sustainable system based on “green” electricity generation out of renewable energy sources (RES-E) has become a main challenge for grid operators and further stakeholders in the power system. To enable the evaluation of new concepts

  20. Quantifying the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, T. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Rogers, L. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Brooks, D. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Tuohy, A. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States)

    2012-12-31

    The report summarizes research to Quantify the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid. This 3-year DOE study focused on defining value of hydropower assets in a changing electric grid. Methods are described for valuation and planning of pumped storage and conventional hydropower. The project team conducted plant case studies, electric system modeling, market analysis, cost data gathering, and evaluations of operating strategies and constraints. Five other reports detailing these research results are available a project website, www.epri.com/hydrogrid. With increasing deployment of wind and solar renewable generation, many owners, operators, and developers of hydropower have recognized the opportunity to provide more flexibility and ancillary services to the electric grid. To quantify value of services, this study focused on the Western Electric Coordinating Council region. A security-constrained, unit commitment and economic dispatch model was used to quantify the role of hydropower for several future energy scenarios up to 2020. This hourly production simulation considered transmission requirements to deliver energy, including future expansion plans. Both energy and ancillary service values were considered. Addressing specifically the quantification of pumped storage value, no single value stream dominated predicted plant contributions in various energy futures. Modeling confirmed that service value depends greatly on location and on competition with other available grid support resources. In this summary, ten different value streams related to hydropower are described. These fell into three categories; operational improvements, new technologies, and electricity market opportunities. Of these ten, the study was able to quantify a monetary value in six by applying both present day and future scenarios for operating the electric grid. This study confirmed that hydropower resources across the United States contribute significantly to operation of the grid in terms

  1. Integrating renewables in distribution grids. Storage, regulation and the interaction of different stakeholders in future grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nykamp, S.

    2013-10-18

    In recent years, the transition of the power supply chain towards a sustainable system based on 'green' electricity generation out of renewable energy sources (RES-E) has become a main challenge for grid operators and further stakeholders in the power system. To enable the evaluation of new concepts for the integration of RES-E, first the feed-in characteristics of photovoltaic, wind and biomass generators located in a distribution grid area and based on numerous measured feed-in data are studied in this thesis. The achieved insights from the feed-in profiles can be used for the dimensioning of grid assets. Furthermore, the results are useful for the evaluation of congestion management or for the dimensioning of storage assets in distribution grids. The latter aspect is analyzed in detail such that suitable storage characteristics for an introduction in the grid are determined. An economic approach is presented to derive break-even points for storage assets as a substitute to conventional reinforcements. For a case study from a real world low voltage grid with reinforcement needs, these break-even points are determined and the main influencing parameters are evaluated. A further important question in this context concerns the role DSOs (distribution system operators) may play with the operation of decentralized storage assets since several stakeholders may be interested in using the flexibility provided by these assets. This unclear responsibility also applies to the steering of adjustable consumption devices such as electric heat pumps or electric cars. For decentralized storage assets as well as heat pump appliances, optimal operation modes based on the optimization objectives for a DSO and a trader are derived. It is shown based on real world data that choosing a 'copperplate' scenario is not only technically insufficient for a global balance of the consumption and generation. It may even be harmful for the society from a welfare economic

  2. Nuclear Power as an Option in Electrical Generation Planning for Small Economy and Electricity Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomsic, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Implementing a NPP in countries with relatively small total GDP (small economy) and usually with small electricity grid face two major problems and constrains: the ability to obtain the considerable financial resources required on reasonable terms and to connect large NPP to small electricity grid. Nuclear generation financing in developing countries involves complex issues that need to be fully understood and dealt with by all the parties involved. The main topics covered by paper will be the: special circumstances related to the financing of NPP, costs and economic feasibility of NPP, conventional approaches for financing power generation projects in developing countries, alternative approaches for mobilizing financial resources. The safe and economic operation of a nuclear power plant (NPP) requires the plant to be connected to an electrical grid system that has adequate capacity for exporting the power from the NPP, and for providing a reliable electrical supply to the NPP for safe start-up, operation and normal or emergency shut-down of the plant. Connection of any large new power plant to the electrical grid system in a country may require significant modification and strengthening of the grid system, but for NPPs there may be added requirements to the structure of the grid system and the way it is controlled and maintained to ensure adequate reliability. Paper shows the comparative assesment of differrent base load technologies as an option in electrical generation planning for small economy and electricity grid.(author).

  3. Future Transportation with Smart Grids and Sustainable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav R. Grob

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is facing fundamental change due to the rapid depletion of fossil fuels, environmental and health problems, the growing world population, rising standards of living with more individual mobility and the globalization of trade with its increasing international transport volume. To cope with these serious problems benign, renewable energy systems and much more efficient drives must be multiplied as rapidly as possible to replace the polluting combustion engines with their much too low efficiency and high fuel logistics cost. Consequently the vehicles of the future must be non-polluting and super-efficient, i.e. electric. The energy supply must come via smart grids from clean energy sources not affecting the health, climate and biosphere. It is shown how this transition to the clean, sustainable energy age is possible, feasible and why it is urgent. The important role of international ISO, IEC and ITU standards and the need for better legislation by means of the Global Energy Charter for Sustainable Development are also highlighted.

  4. Rethinking the Future Grid: Integrated Nuclear Renewable Energy Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg-Sitton, S. M.; Boardman, R.; Ruth, M.; Zinaman, O.; Forsberg, C.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. DOE is supporting research and development that could lead to more efficient utilization of clean energy generation sources, including renewable and nuclear options, to meet both grid demand and thermal energy needs in the industrial sector. One concept under consideration by the DOE-NE and DOE-EERE is tighter coupling of nuclear and renewable energy sources in a manner that better optimizes energy use for the combined electricity, industrial manufacturing, and transportation sectors. This integration concept has been referred to as a 'hybrid system' that is capable of apportioning thermal and electrical energy to first meet the grid demand (with appropriate power conversion systems), then utilizing excess thermal and, in some cases, electrical energy to drive a process that results in an additional product.

  5. Vehicle-to-Grid Power in Danish Electric Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy systems is often constrained by the variable nature of their output. This demands for the services of storing the electricity generated from most of the renewable energy sources. Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) power could use the inherent energy storage of electric...... vehicles and its quick response time to balance and stabilize a power system with fluctuating power. This paper outlines the use of battery electric vehicles in supporting large-scale integration of renewable energy in the Danish electric power systems. The reserve power requirements for a high renewable...... energy penetration could be met by an amount of V2G based electric vehicles less than 10% of the total vehicle need in Denmark. The participation of electric vehicle in ancillary services would earn significant revenues to the vehicle owner. The power balancing services of electric vehicles...

  6. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2: Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustine, C.; Bain, R.; Chapman, J.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Hall, D.G.; Lantz, E.; Margolis, R.; Thresher, R.; Sandor, D.; Bishop, N.A.; Brown, S.R.; Cada, G.F.; Felker, F.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  7. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 3: End-Use Electricity Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, D.; Belzer, D.B.; Hadley, S.W.; Markel, T.; Marnay, C.; Kintner-Meyer, M.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  8. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems: Operations and Transmission Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Hein, J.; Schneider, T.; Brinkman, G.; Denholm, P.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  9. Y2K lessons learned for electric grid stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueorguiev, B.; Ianev, I. L.; Purvis, E. E.

    2000-01-01

    Y2K was an example of a worldwide infrastructure threat. Actions to understand infrastructure risks and mitigate infrastructure threats are a continuing and increasing part of the worlds corporate, government, and international organizations systems, and the severe implications of infrastructure failures to the health, safety, and financial well being of people and organizations are the deriving force. The IAEA conducted a number of Y2K related activities in nuclear power and fuel cycle activities. A set of these activities address the interface between electric power generation facilities and electric power grids in the region of Eastern Europe and the countries of the former Soviet Union. This addressed a continuing infrastructure risks and actions to mitigate these risk. The results were shown by events to have made positive contributions. The potential loss of nuclear power plant generation is a significant risk to electric power grids, an important critical infrastructure. Not only does the threat constitute a problem with the potential loss of the grid, loss of the electric power grid increases the probability of accidents in nuclear power plants. Recognizing that these activities addressed only one area of infrastructure risk in one region, there are some key lessons that were learned that could have general applicability

  10. Voltage Support from Electric Vehicles in Distribution Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    The paper evaluates the voltage support functions from electric vehicles (EVs) on a typical Danish distribution grid with high EV penetration. In addition to the popular voltage control modes, such as voltage droop charging (low voltage level leads to low charging power) and reactive power support...

  11. Technical challenges for electric power industries due to grid-integrated electric vehicles in low voltage distributions: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haidar, Ahmed M.A.; Muttaqi, Kashem M.; Sutanto, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Grid-Integrated Vehicles (GIVs) as mobile storage systems are briefly discussed. • Comparative analysis on electric vehicles (EVs) and charging systems are provided. • It is necessary to coordinate the GIVs to minimize its impacts on power grid. • A proper load model of EVs that predicts the realistic system behavior is required. • Offering a dual tariff by grid utilities is needed as a way to reduce peak load. - Abstract: Grid-Integrated Vehicles (GIVs) are promising technologies for future Smart Grid (SG) and offer the potential to reduce the environmental impact of vehicles. The large scale deployment of GIVs without proper control of the time to charge the vehicles can result in unexpected challenges. This can lead to a disruptive impact on the current power distribution systems and in particular its substantial impacts in building power energy systems. Therefore, a proper model that predicts the realistic system behavior is required to analysis the true effects of introducing GIVs in the power grid. This paper presents a review of existing studies on GIV systems, their modeling techniques and their effects on power grids. Following a brief overview of the common types of electric vehicles (EVs) with their charging systems, a review of their impact on the low voltage distribution systems will be analyzed. The comprehensive review presented in this paper reveals that the impact of GIVs on power distribution systems can be quantified using the aspects of EVs, such as vehicle penetration, charging time, charging characteristics, driving patterns, transportation network. GIV studies are expected to be more popular in future years with the development of EV technologies and the government support to electricity utilities. Thereby, these factors will reduce the cost of energy to charge EV and enhance the practical implications of GIVs

  12. Electricity market design of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peek, Markus; Diels, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The transformation of the power generation system, to one in which renewable energies will form a cornerstone, will change the requirements for all market actors. To achieve the goals of the German Energiewende ('energy transition'), greater flexibility in production and consumption is of particular importance. Flexibility enables the cost-effective integration of the fluctuating actual feed-in of renewable energies. On the one hand, the technical options for reducing existing technical inflexibilities are given to a considerable extent. On the other hand, analyses of the transnational compensation effects of load and renewable energy supply (RES) feed-in show that flexibility requirements can be reduced significantly in a common electricity market. Electricity markets in which there is open technological competition are an appropriate instrument for the flexibilization of the power supply system. In the short term, the mechanisms of competitive electricity markets ensure an efficient synchronization of supply and demand. Over the medium and long term, the market creates efficient incentives to adapt the generation system and the behavior of consumers to future needs, resulting from the changes in the residual load structure. But at the same time, in recent years the occurrence of negative electricity prices in situations with significantly positive residual loads show that flexibility restraints exist. The causes of these restraints are at least partly due to the market design or the regulatory framework. On the one hand, there are barriers to market entry and, on the other hand, price signals from the electricity markets do not reach all market actors or reach them distortedly. To enable the cost effective development of the different flexibility options in an open technology competition, restraints resulting from market design and the regulatory framework (e. g. in the framework of grid charges, the market and product design of control power markets

  13. Grid resilience governance of the future: analyzing the role of associations in experimental smart grid projects in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, Imke; Vasenev, Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    Local generation decentralizes urban grids. Soon new actors, such as associations, might enter the traditional energy domain. As electrical grids are critical for society, new actors will need to collaborate with other city-level stakeholders to ensure proper grid functioning in times of crisis.

  14. Assessment of the value of electricity grids - Results of an investigation using enterprise data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaerer, M.; Kaufmann, I.; Flury, R.

    2002-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the effects of different ways of evaluating the transmission fees for the use of electricity grids as foreseen in Swiss legislation on electricity market liberalisation. The study was made using enterprise data supplied by various distribution utilities. The sensitivity analysis made, with the capital costs of the grids as its kernel, is described. Four variants based on different combinations of basic assessment data and rates of interest are presented. The availability and quality of data is discussed, as is the large number of different utility types to be found in Switzerland. For the interpretation of the results of the study, two primary points of view are considered - that of the utility, focussed on future investments and their financing, and that of the consumer, focussed on pricing aspects. The report is concluded with recommendations on which models should be proposed for a future electricity market decree

  15. Vision on Scarcity of Transportation. Policy with regard to scarcity of transportation capacity in the electricity grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruin, K.; Fransen, M.; Kranenburg, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch Competitive Authority NMa established increasing problems that are related to the (possible future) scarcity in transportation capacity in the electricity grid. This vision document aims to inform market parties about the general vision of NMa in relation to the scarcity issue. This document first addresses the problems related to scarcity in transport capacity in the electricity grid. Next policy developments in this area are discussed and NMa's vision is elaborated and explained [nl

  16. Biomass electric technologies: Status and future development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bain, R.L.; Overend, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    At the present time, there axe approximately 6 gigawatts (GWe) of biomass-based, grid-connected electrical generation capacity in the United States. This capacity is primarily combustion-driven, steam-turbine technology, with the great majority of the plants of a 5-50 megawatt (MW) size and characterized by heat rates of 14,770-17,935 gigajoules per kilowatt-hour (GJ/kWh) (14,000-17,000 Btu/kWh or 18%-24% efficiency), and with installed capital costs of $1,300-$1,500/kW. Cost of electricity for existing plants is in the $0.065-$O.08/kWh range. Feedstocks are mainly waste materials; wood-fired systems account for 88% of the total biomass capacity, followed by agricultural waste (3%), landfill gas (8%), and anaerobic digesters (1%). A significant amount of remote, non-grid-connected, wood-fired capacity also exists in the paper and wood products industry. This chapter discusses biomass power technology status and presents the strategy for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Power Program for advancing biomass electric technologies to 18 GWe by the year 2010, and to greater than 100 GWe by the year 2030. Future generation systems will be characterized by process efficiencies in the 35%-40% range, by installed capital costs of $770-$900/kW, by a cost of electricity in the $0.04-$O.05/kWh range, and by the use of dedicated fuel-supply systems. Technology options such as integrated gasification/gas-turbine systems, integrated pyrolysis/gas-turbine systems, and innovative direct-combustion systems are discussed, including present status and potential growth. This chapter also presents discussions of the U.S. utility sector and the role of biomass-based systems within the industry, the potential advantages of biomass in comparison to coal, and the potential environmental impact of biomass-based electricity generation

  17. Aggregated Demand Response Modelling for Future Grid Scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Marzooghi, Hesamoddin; Verbic, Gregor; Hill, David J.

    2015-01-01

    With the increased penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources (RESs) in future grids (FGs), balancing between supply and demand will become more dependent on demand response (DR) and energy storage. Thus, FG feasibility studies will need to consider DR for modelling nett future demand. Against this backdrop, this paper proposes a demand model which integrates the aggregated effect of DR in a simplified representation of the effect of market/dispatch processes aiming at minimising th...

  18. Hawaiian Electric Advanced Inverter Grid Support Function Laboratory Validation and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Austin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nagarajan, Adarsh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prabakar, Kumar [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lundstrom, Blake [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nepal, Shaili [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hoke, Anderson [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Asano, Marc [Hawaiian Electric Company, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ueda, Reid [Hawaiian Electric Company, Honolulu, HI (United States); Shindo, Jon [Hawaiian Electric Company, Honolulu, HI (United States); Kubojiri, Kandice [Hawaiian Electric Company, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ceria, Riley [Hawaiian Electric Company, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ifuku, Earle [Hawaiian Electric Company, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The objective for this test plan was to better understand how to utilize the performance capabilities of advanced inverter functions to allow the interconnection of distributed energy resource (DER) systems to support the new Customer Self-Supply, Customer Grid-Supply, and other future DER programs. The purpose of this project was: 1) to characterize how the tested grid supportive inverters performed the functions of interest, 2) to evaluate the grid supportive inverters in an environment that emulates the dynamics of O'ahu's electrical distribution system, and 3) to gain insight into the benefits of the grid support functions on selected O'ahu island distribution feeders. These goals were achieved through laboratory testing of photovoltaic inverters, including power hardware-in-the-loop testing.

  19. Software-Based Challenges of Developing the Future Distribution Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Emma; Kiliccote, Sila; McParland, Charles

    2014-06-01

    The software that the utility industry currently uses may be insufficient to analyze the distribution grid as it rapidly modernizes to include active resources such as distributed generation, switch and voltage control, automation, and increasingly complex loads. Although planners and operators have traditionally viewed the distribution grid as a passive load, utilities and consultants increasingly need enhanced analysis that incorporates active distribution grid loads in order to ensure grid reliability. Numerous commercial and open-source tools are available for analyzing distribution grid systems. These tools vary in complexity from providing basic load-flow and capacity analysis under steady-state conditions to time-series analysis and even geographical representations of dynamic and transient events. The need for each type of analysis is not well understood in the industry, nor are the reasons that distribution analysis requires different techniques and tools both from those now available and from those used for transmission analysis. In addition, there is limited understanding of basic capability of the tools and how they should be practically applied to the evolving distribution system. The study reviews the features and state of the art capability of current tools, including usability and visualization, basic analysis functionality, advanced analysis including inverters, and renewable generation and load modeling. We also discuss the need for each type of distribution grid system analysis. In addition to reviewing basic functionality current models, we discuss dynamics and transient simulation in detail and draw conclusions about existing software?s ability to address the needs of the future distribution grid as well as the barriers to modernization of the distribution grid that are posed by the current state of software and model development. Among our conclusions are that accuracy, data transfer, and data processing abilities are key to future

  20. Integration of Solar Photovoltaics and Electric Vehicles in Residential Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Huang, Shaojun; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years, there is an increased penetration of solar photovoltaic (SPV) units in low voltage (LV) distribution grids. Also electric vehicles (EVs) are introduced to these LV networks. This has caused the distribution networks to be more active and complex as these local generation...... and load units are characterised by unpredictable and diverse operating characteristics. This paper analyses the combined effect of SPVs and EVs in LV Danish residential grids. The EVs charging needs based on typical driving patterns of passenger cars and SPV power profiles during winter/summer days...

  1. RETHINKING THE FUTURE GRID: INTEGRATED NUCLEAR-RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.M. Bragg-Sitton; R. Boardman

    2014-12-01

    The 2013 electricity generation mix in the United States consisted of ~13% renewables (hydropower, wind, solar, geothermal), 19% nuclear, 27% natural gas, and 39% coal. In the 2011 State of the Union Address, President Obama set a clean energy goal for the nation: “By 2035, 80 percent of America’s electricity will come from clean energy sources. Some folks want wind and solar. Others want nuclear, clean coal and natural gas. To meet this goal we will need them all.” The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Offices of Nuclear Energy (NE) and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) recognize that “all of the above” means that we are called to best utilize all available clean energy sources. To meet the stated environmental goals for electricity generation and for the broader energy sector, there is a need to transform the energy infrastructure of the U.S. and elsewhere. New energy systems must be capable of significantly reducing environmental impacts in an efficient and economically viable manner while utilizing both hydrocarbon resources and clean energy generation sources. The U.S. DOE is supporting research and development that could lead to more efficient utilization of clean energy generation sources, including renewable and nuclear options, to meet both grid demand and thermal energy needs in the industrial sector. A concept being advanced by the DOE-NE and DOE-EERE is tighter coupling of nuclear and renewable energy sources in a manner that better optimizes energy use for the combined electricity, industrial manufacturing, and the transportation sectors. This integration concept has been referred to as a “hybrid system” that is capable of apportioning thermal and electrical energy to first meet the grid demand (with appropriate power conversion systems), then utilizing excess thermal and, in some cases, electrical energy to drive a process that results in an additional product. For the purposes of the present work, the hybrid system would

  2. Electric Boiler and Heat Pump Thermo-Electrical Models for Demand Side Management Analysis in Low Voltage Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz de Cerio Mendaza, Iker; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    The last fifteen years many European countries have integrated large percentage of renewable energy on their electricity generation mix. In Denmark the 21.3% of the electricity consumed nowadays is produced by the wind, and it has planned to be the 50% by 2025. In order to front future challenges...... on the power system control and operation, created by this unstable way of generation, Demand Side Management turns to be a promising solution. The storage capacity from thermo-electric units, like electric boilers and heat pumps, allows operating them with certain freedom. Hence they can be employed under...... certain coordination, to actively respond to the power system fluctuations. The following paper presents two simple thermo-electrical models of an electrical boiler and an air-source CO2 heat pump system. The purpose is using them in low voltage grids analysis to assess their capacity and flexibility...

  3. Vehicle to grid: electric vehicles as an energy storage solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Rodney; Waite, Nicholas; Wells, Nicole; Kiamilev, Fouad E.; Kempton, Willett M.

    2013-05-01

    With increased focus on intermittent renewable energy sources such as wind turbines and photovoltaics, there comes a rising need for large-scale energy storage. The vehicle to grid (V2G) project seeks to meet this need using electric vehicles, whose high power capacity and existing power electronics make them a promising energy storage solution. This paper will describe a charging system designed by the V2G team that facilitates selective charging and backfeeding by electric vehicles. The system consists of a custom circuit board attached to an embedded linux computer that is installed both in the EVSE (electric vehicle supply equipment) and in the power electronics unit of the vehicle. The boards establish an in-band communication link between the EVSE and the vehicle, giving the vehicle internet connectivity and the ability to make intelligent decisions about when to charge and discharge. This is done while maintaining compliance with existing charging protocols (SAEJ1772, IEC62196) and compatibility with standard "nonintelligent" cars and chargers. Through this system, the vehicles in a test fleet have been able to successfully serve as portable temporary grid storage, which has implications for regulating the electrical grid, providing emergency power, or supplying power to forward military bases.

  4. Smart Grid Innovation Management for SME Electricity Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    2011-01-01

    innovation process lies ahead for utility companies in screening, testing, maturing, implementing and operating smart grids. This process is expected to follow the political targets for CO2 reduction stretching forward until 2050. As no proven concepts exists, and as the process is expected to progress many...... years ahead, smart grid represents an excellent case of continuous innovation. The current study use a series of loosely related technological studies of smart grid related technologies in SME electricity companies to highlight critical issues in this innovation process. Major findings...... are that the companies have limited innovation capabilities, they are presented with plenty of technological offerings that eventually have to be rejected, and they suffer from absence of clear objectives....

  5. Strategic Energy Management (SEM) in a micro grid with modern grid interactive electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panwar, Lokesh Kumar; Reddy, K. Srikanth; Kumar, Rajesh; Panigrahi, B.K.; Vyas, Shashank

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • System: Modelling of energy and storage systems for micro grid. • Target: Co-ordination of unitized regenerative fuel cell (URFC) and electric vehicle (EV). • Energy management strategies: Only URFC, URFC–EV charging, URFC-V2G with enabled. • Multi-objective approach: loss, cost minimization, maximization of stored energy. • Proposed Solution: Intelligent co-ordination of URFC and EV with V2G with most effective strategy. - Abstract: In this paper, strategic energy management in a micro grid is proposed incorporating two types of storage elements viz. unitised regenerative fuel cell (URFC) and electric vehicle (EV). Rather than a simple approach of optimizing micro grid operation to minimize line loss in the micro grid, this paper deals with multi objective optimization to minimize line loss, operational cost and maximize the value of stored energy of URFC and EV simultaneously. Apart from URFC, two operation strategies are proposed for EV enabling V2G operation to reduce overall system cost of operation. To address the complexity, non-linearity and multi dimensionality of the objective function, particle swarm optimization-a heuristic approach based solution methodology along with forward and back sweep algorithm based load flow solution technique is developed. Combined with particle swarm optimization (PSO), forward and backward sweep algorithm resolves the complexity and multi dimensionality of the load flow analysis and optimizes the operational cost of micro grid. The simulation results are presented and discussed which are promising with regard to reduction in line loss as well as cost of operation. Scheduling strategy of the micro grid with both URFC and EV enabling V2G operation presents a promising approach to minimize line loss and cost of operation.

  6. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. A.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahim, N. A.; Nahar, A.; Hosenuzzaman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration. PMID:25243201

  7. Global renewable energy-based electricity generation and smart grid system for energy security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M A; Hasanuzzaman, M; Rahim, N A; Nahar, A; Hosenuzzaman, M

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.

  8. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.

  9. Electricity of the future: a worldwide challenge; L'electricite du futur: Un defi mondial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Ladoucette, Ph.; Chevalier, J.M.; Barbaso, F.; Becache, P.; Belmans, P.; Brottes, F.; Chevet, P.F.; Chone, F.; David, A.; Delorme, Ph.; Hadjsaid, N.; Jalabert, M.; Julliard, Y.; Kott, B.; Lenoir, J.C.; Lewiner, C.; Maillard, D.; Moisan, F.; Pelletier, Ph.; Poniatowski, L.; Rozes, St.; Rytoft, C.; Sanchez Jimenez, M.; Seyrling, G.; Vu, A.

    2010-07-01

    The increase of power consumption, the development of renewable energy sources and the emergence of new usages like the electric-powered car are as many challenges that put the reliability and the reactivity of our power grids to the test. These grids have to change to become 'intelligent' thanks to the integration of new information and communication technologies over the overall supply chain, from the energy generation to its end use by consumers. For the first time in France, the actors of this change explain their opinion about this revolution and put it in perspective with its full extent and complexity. Changing power grids to make them intelligent is first of all a technical challenge but also a society challenge: the consumer will become an actor involved in the mastery of his energy demand and a renewable energy producer capable to interact with the grid in an increasing manner. This worldwide change that we are going to be the witnesses comes up against numerous obstacles. The aim of this book is to examine the determining factors of the success of this large scale change through its technical, economical and social dimensions. It shows that the emergence of such an advanced power system cannot be possible neither without the reconciliation between some contradictory goals, nor without a strong coordination between the actors. Content: Part 1 - intelligent power networks to answer the 21. century challenges: 1 - the European and French dimension of the electric power sector; 2 - towards a carbon-free economy; 3 - a power grid facing new challenges; 4 - the pre-figuration of intelligent power grids; 5 - the deployment of intelligent (smart) grids; Part 2 - perspectives of smart grids development: 1 - the future of power networks; 2 - a new industrial era; Part 3 - the consumer's position in the deployment of future grids: 1 - changing behaviours; 2 - making the consumer a 'consum'actor'. Synthesis and conclusion. (J.S.)

  10. Impacts of Severe Space Weather on the Electric Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    human infrastructure are examined, particularly in how they generate geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) in electric grids. The solar origins of...capacitors and AC and HVDC transmission lines all have tripped in prior storms due to relay mis-operations’ (J. Kappenman, Jason Presentation 2011). Over...called quasi-satellite orbits because many large bodies , including the Earth have small "companion" objects in quasi-spacecraft orbits around them

  11. Creating a Smarter U.S. Electricity Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Paul L. Joskow

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on efforts to build what policymakers call the "smart grid," involving 1) improved remote monitoring and automatic and remote control of facilities in high-voltage electricity transmission networks; 2) improved remote monitoring, two-way communications, and automatic and remote control of local distribution networks; and 3) installation of "smart" metering and associated communications capabilities on customer premises so that customers can receive real-time price informati...

  12. From electricity smart grids to smart energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Andersen, Anders N.; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2012-01-01

    , electricitysmartgrids must be coordinated with the utilisation of renewable energy being converted into other forms of carriers than electricity including heat and biofuels as well as energy conservation and efficiency improvements, such as CHP and improved efficiencies e.g. in the form of fuel cells. All such measures...... such measures are combined with energy conservation and system efficiency improvements. This article illustrates why electricitysmartgrids should be seen as part of overall smartenergysystems and emphasises the inclusion of flexible CHP production in the electricity balancing and grid stabilisation. Furthermore...

  13. Eastern Seaboard Electric Grid Fragility Maps Supporting Persistent Availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Kimberly A [ORNL; Weigand, Gilbert G [ORNL; Fernandez, Steven J [ORNL

    2012-11-01

    Persistently available power transmission can be disrupted by weather causing power outages with economic and social consequences. This research investigated the effects on the national power grid from a specific weather event, Hurricane Irene, that caused approximately 5.7 million customer power outages along the Eastern Seaboard in August of 2011. The objective was to describe the geographic differences in the grid s vulnerability to these events. Individual factors, such as wind speed or precipitation, were correlated with the number of outages to determine the greatest mechanism of power failure in hopes of strengthening the future power grid. The resulting fragility maps not only depicted 18 counties that were less robust than the design-standard robustness model and three counties that were more robust, but also drew new damage contours with correlated wind speeds and county features.

  14. Computational Needs for the Next Generation Electric Grid Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birman, Kenneth; Ganesh, Lakshmi; Renessee, Robbert van; Ferris, Michael; Hofmann, Andreas; Williams, Brian; Sztipanovits, Janos; Hemingway, Graham; University, Vanderbilt; Bose, Anjan; Stivastava, Anurag; Grijalva, Santiago; Grijalva, Santiago; Ryan, Sarah M.; McCalley, James D.; Woodruff, David L.; Xiong, Jinjun; Acar, Emrah; Agrawal, Bhavna; Conn, Andrew R.; Ditlow, Gary; Feldmann, Peter; Finkler, Ulrich; Gaucher, Brian; Gupta, Anshul; Heng, Fook-Luen; Kalagnanam, Jayant R; Koc, Ali; Kung, David; Phan, Dung; Singhee, Amith; Smith, Basil

    2011-10-05

    The April 2011 DOE workshop, 'Computational Needs for the Next Generation Electric Grid', was the culmination of a year-long process to bring together some of the Nation's leading researchers and experts to identify computational challenges associated with the operation and planning of the electric power system. The attached papers provide a journey into these experts' insights, highlighting a class of mathematical and computational problems relevant for potential power systems research. While each paper defines a specific problem area, there were several recurrent themes. First, the breadth and depth of power system data has expanded tremendously over the past decade. This provides the potential for new control approaches and operator tools that can enhance system efficiencies and improve reliability. However, the large volume of data poses its own challenges, and could benefit from application of advances in computer networking and architecture, as well as data base structures. Second, the computational complexity of the underlying system problems is growing. Transmitting electricity from clean, domestic energy resources in remote regions to urban consumers, for example, requires broader, regional planning over multi-decade time horizons. Yet, it may also mean operational focus on local solutions and shorter timescales, as reactive power and system dynamics (including fast switching and controls) play an increasingly critical role in achieving stability and ultimately reliability. The expected growth in reliance on variable renewable sources of electricity generation places an exclamation point on both of these observations, and highlights the need for new focus in areas such as stochastic optimization to accommodate the increased uncertainty that is occurring in both planning and operations. Application of research advances in algorithms (especially related to optimization techniques and uncertainty quantification) could accelerate power

  15. Applying an activity based model to explore the potential of electrical vehicles in the smart grid

    OpenAIRE

    De Ridder, Fjo; D'Hulst, Reinhilde; KNAPEN, Luk; JANSSENS, Davy

    2013-01-01

    We have explored to what extent charging electrical vehicles (EVs) can be exploited to stabilize smart grids. Firstly, we discuss the transition to a future with a lot of renewable energy resources. Next, a decentralized coordinated charging schedule for EVs is proposed, taking into account the comfort settings of the consumers and local and temporal flexibility. Based on the vehicle behavior information (trajectories, parking places and duration, etc.) the algorithm assures that all vehicles...

  16. Smart grid strategy - the future intelligent energy system. [Denmark]; Smart grid-strategi - fremtidens intelligente energisystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The Government's Smart Grid Strategy brings Danish consumers a big step closer to managing their own energy consumption. The strategy, combines electricity meters read on an hourly basis with variable tariffs and a data hub. It will make it possible for consumers to use the power when it is least expensive. ''Today we set the course for developing a smart energy network that will reduce the cost of converting to sustainable energy, cut electricity bills and create brand new products consumers will welcome,'' says Minister of Climate, Energy and Building Martin Lidegaard. Encouraging consumers to use energy more efficiently is a key aspect of the strategy. The remote-read electricity meters are crucial if consumers are to play a role in optimising the flexible energy network. (LN)

  17. Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with batteries storage as solution to electrical grid outages in Burkina Faso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdoulaye, D; Koalaga, Z; Zougmore, F

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a key solution for power outages problem experienced by many African countries and this through grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with batteries storage. African grids are characterized by an insufficient power supply and frequent interruptions. Due to this fact, users who especially use classical grid-connected photovoltaic systems are unable to profit from their installation even if there is sun. In this study, we suggest the using of a grid-connected photovoltaic system with batteries storage as a solution to these problems. This photovoltaic system works by injecting the surplus of electricity production into grid and can also deliver electricity as a stand-alone system with all security needed. To achieve our study objectives, firstly we conducted a survey of a real situation of one African electrical grid, the case of Burkina Faso (SONABEL: National Electricity Company of Burkina). Secondly, as study case, we undertake a sizing, a modeling and a simulation of a grid-connected PV system with batteries storage for the LAME laboratory at the University of Ouagadougou. The simulation shows that the proposed grid-connected system allows users to profit from their photovoltaic installation at any time even if the public electrical grid has some failures either during the day or at night.

  18. Global distribution of grid connected electrical energy storage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Buss

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of grid connected electrical energy storage systems worldwide, based on public available data. Technologies considered in this study are pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES, compressed air energy storage (CAES, sodium-sulfur batteries (NaS, lead-acid batteries, redox-flow batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries (NiCd and lithium-ion batteries. As the research indicates, the worldwide installed capacity of grid connected electrical energy storage systems is approximately 154 GW. This corresponds to a share of 5.5 % of the worldwide installed generation capacity. Furthermore, the article gives an overview of the historical development of installed and used storage systems worldwide. Subsequently, the focus is on each considered technology concerning the current storage size, number of plants and location. In summary it can be stated, PHES is the most commonly used technology worldwide, whereas electrochemical technologies are increasingly gaining in importance. Regarding the distribution of grid connected storage systems reveals the share of installed storage capacity is in Europe and Eastern Asia twice as high as in North America.

  19. Analysis of Electric Power Board of Chattanooga Smart Grid Investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ollis, Ben [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Glass, Jim [EPB Electric Power, Chattanooga, TN (United States); Melin, Alex [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Guodong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sharma, Isha [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The deployment of a Smart Grid within the EPB electrical system has brought significant value to EPB customers and to EPB operations. The Smart Grid implementation has permitted the capability to automate many of the existing systems, increasing the overall efficiency and decreasing round trip time for many required operation functions. This has both reduced the cost of operations and increased the reliability of customer service. This boost in performance can be primarily linked to two main components: the communication network and the availability of data. The existence of a fiber communication backbone has opened numerous opportunities for EPB. Large data sets from remote devices can be continuously polled and used to compute numerous metrics. The speed of communication has provided a pathway to sophisticated distribution automation that would not otherwise be possible. The data have been shown to provide a much broader view of the actual electrical system that was not previously available, opening many new opportunities in data analytics. This report documents many of the existing systems and operational features of the EPB system. Many of these systems have seen significant improvement with the deployment of Smart Grid technologies. The research behind this report found that in some cases, the value was directly computable or estimable for these enhancements. Currently, several ongoing research topics are under investigation within EPB. Through a grant from TVA, EPB is currently installing a 1.3MW solar photovoltaic system, which will be the first-generation asset owned by EPB.

  20. 30 CFR 57.12023 - Guarding electrical connections and resistor grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guarding electrical connections and resistor... NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12023 Guarding electrical connections and resistor grids. Electrical connections and resistor grids that are difficult or impractical to insulate shall be...

  1. 30 CFR 56.12023 - Guarding electrical connections and resistor grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guarding electrical connections and resistor... MINES Electricity § 56.12023 Guarding electrical connections and resistor grids. Electrical connections and resistor grids that are difficult or impractical to insulate shall be guarded, unless protection...

  2. The Alberta Electrical Grid: What to Expect in the Next Few Years in Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Livingston

    2018-04-01

    megawatts of new wind capacity at prices below expectations. No solar proposals were accepted in REP 1, a result that may cause the Alberta government to make new proposals (details still to come that may permit solar participation. Two new rounds for 2018 (REP 2 for 300 megawatts and REP 3 for 400 megawatts have requested bids on a similar basis. The one new feature is that REP 2 is limited to investors with an Indigenous equity position of at least 25 per cent. Second, the Alberta government has proposed to introduce a capacity market that would compensate electricity suppliers for merely creating capacity to supply. The capacity market was requested by industry and was announced by the Government of Alberta in November 2016. It is intended to give additional compensation over and above the energy market compensation in order to make it economic for investment in future renewables if the REP guaranteed price structure is terminated, and in future base load and backup gas generation. The paper then describes one possible solution using new storage battery technology as a means of providing backup generation for renewables. Finally, the paper contrasts the proposed Alberta electrical grid with the current Ontario electrical grid. It notes that the current high electricity prices in Ontario have become a high profile political issue there, since consumers are paying all electricity costs. In contrast, the Alberta government has also stated that retail electricity prices will be capped at 6.8 cents per kilowatt hour until 2021. If retail rates exceed that amount, the Alberta government will use carbon tax revenues to pay the difference.

  3. Clean vehicles as an enabler for a clean electricity grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coignard, Jonathan; Saxena, Samveg; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Wang, Dai

    2018-05-01

    California has issued ambitious targets to decarbonize transportation through the deployment of electric vehicles (EVs), and to decarbonize the electricity grid through the expansion of both renewable generation and energy storage. These parallel efforts can provide an untapped synergistic opportunity for clean transportation to be an enabler for a clean electricity grid. To quantify this potential, we forecast the hourly system-wide balancing problems arising out to 2025 as more renewables are deployed and load continues to grow. We then quantify the system-wide balancing benefits from EVs modulating the charging or discharging of their batteries to mitigate renewable intermittency, without compromising the mobility needs of drivers. Our results show that with its EV deployment target and with only one-way charging control of EVs, California can achieve much of the same benefit of its Storage Mandate for mitigating renewable intermittency, but at a small fraction of the cost. Moreover, EVs provide many times these benefits if two-way charging control becomes widely available. Thus, EVs support the state’s renewable integration targets while avoiding much of the tremendous capital investment of stationary storage that can instead be applied towards further deployment of clean vehicles.

  4. The evolution of the electric power grid within the energy transition. Breakfast of 8 February 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prins, Katrien; ); Bendtsen, Bendt; ); Derdevet, Michel; Duerr, Matthias; Laffaye, Herve

    2017-01-01

    This document proposes a synthesis of contributions, questions and answers of a meeting gathering French and Danish representatives of political parties, electric utilities and European bodies which addressed issues related to the evolution of the electric power grid within a context of energy transition. Several issues have been addressed. First, the approach adopted by institutional actors like the European Commission and Parliament with a priority given to grid infrastructures to ensure interconnection between all member States, a financial support for the associated investments, and a European governance. Second, the approach adopted by operators in charge of networks, transport and distribution to face a change in the business model, an increasing financial burden, the issue of acceptability of works, future evolutions and innovations, and a closer collaboration

  5. Electrical system studies for the grid connection of wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arp, K.; Hanson, J.; Hopp, S.; Zimmermann, W.

    2007-01-01

    Wind power is gaining momentum in the world's energy balance. Several issues have to be addressed whenever power-generating devices are connected to the grid. The paper describes studies needed to evaluate the influence of wind farms on the connected transmission system and how faults in the system impact on induction generators in a wind farm. Some generalized results of studies for an offshore wind farm in the North Sea and a Bulgarian wind farm show how studies can influence the layout of the internal network and the electrical equipment. (authors)

  6. Hybrid systems to address seasonal mismatches between electricity production and demand in nuclear renewable electrical grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, Charles

    2013-01-01

    A strategy to enable zero-carbon variable electricity production with full utilization of renewable and nuclear energy sources has been developed. Wind and solar systems send electricity to the grid. Nuclear plants operate at full capacity with variable steam to turbines to match electricity demand with production (renewables and nuclear). Excess steam at times of low electricity prices and electricity demand go to hybrid fuel production and storage systems. The characteristic of these hybrid technologies is that the economic penalties for variable nuclear steam inputs are small. Three hybrid systems were identified that could be deployed at the required scale. The first option is the gigawatt-year hourly-to-seasonal heat storage system where excess steam from the nuclear plant is used to heat rock a kilometer underground to create an artificial geothermal heat source. The heat source produces electricity on demand using geothermal technology. The second option uses steam from the nuclear plant and electricity from the grid with high-temperature electrolysis (HTR) cells to produce hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen is primarily for industrial applications; however, the HTE can be operated in reverse using hydrogen for peak electricity production. The third option uses variable steam and electricity for shale oil production. -- Highlights: •A system is proposed to meet variable hourly to seasonal electricity demand. •Variable solar and wind electricity sent to the grid. •Base-load nuclear plants send variable steam for electricity and hybrid systems. •Hybrid energy systems can economically absorb gigawatts of variable steam. •Hybrid systems include geothermal heat storage, hydrogen, and shale-oil production

  7. LTE delay assessment for real-time management of future smart grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorguseski, L.; Zhang, H.; Chrysalos, M.; Golinski, M.; Toh, Y.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of using Long Term Evolution (LTE), for the real-time state estimation of the smart grids. This enables monitoring and control of future smart grids. The smart grid state estimation requires measurement reports from different nodes in the smart grid and

  8. Vehicle to Grid regulation services of electric delivery trucks: Economic and environmental benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yang; Noori, Mehdi; Tatari, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Potential net present revenues of electric truck based V2G regulation services are investigated. • GHG emission mitigation of V2G regulation services provided by electric trucks are quantified. • The total cost of ownership and the life-cycle GHG emissions of electric trucks are also analyzed. • V2G regulation services for electric trucks could yield considerable revenues and GHG emission savings. - Abstract: Concerns regarding the fuel costs and climate change impacts associated with petroleum combustion are among the main driving factors for the adoption of electric vehicles. Future commercial delivery truck fleets may include Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Extended Range Electric Vehicles (EREVs); in addition to savings on fuel and maintenance costs, the introduction of these grid accessible electric vehicles will also provide fleet owners with possible Vehicle to Grid (V2G) opportunities. This study investigates the potential net present revenues and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission mitigation of V2G regulation services provided by electric trucks in a typical fleet. The total cost of ownership and the life-cycle GHG emissions of electric trucks are also analyzed and compared to those of traditional diesel trucks. To account for uncertainties, possible ranges for key parameters are considered instead of only considering fixed single data values for each parameter. The results of this research indicate that providing V2G regulation services for electric trucks could yield considerable additional revenues ($20,000–50,000) and significant GHG emission savings (approximately 300 ton CO_2) compared to conventional diesel trucks.

  9. Photovoltaic electricity production of a grid-connected urban house in Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojic, Milorad; Blagojevic, Mirko

    2006-01-01

    A technically attractive solution for sustainable present and future is to integrate photovoltaic (PV) panels into building fabric of urban houses as an alternative to grid electricity, however, in Serbia this technology is rarely applied. To contribute to sustainability and create success conditions for renewable energy sources (RES) applications due its wish to join EU, Serbian government currently integrated RES into its new energy policy framework. In the near future in the separate law, the government will identify financial conditions to apply this policy and start RES use. To adequately inform this law, we calculated the electricity revenue during entire life of a two-floor house in Belgrade, Serbia and investment in PV panels (currently available on Serbian market) integrated in its entire envelope. It was discussed what are the current degree of economic viability of this solution and suggested level of state subventions needed to support the solar electricity production either by feed-in tariffs or other financial instruments

  10. Impact of peak electricity demand in distribution grids: a stress test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogsteen, Gerwin; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Schuring, Friso; Kootstra, Ben

    2015-01-01

    The number of (hybrid) electric vehicles is growing, leading to a higher demand for electricity in distribution grids. To investigate the effects of the expected peak demand on distribution grids, a stress test with 15 electric vehicles in a single street is conducted and described in this paper.

  11. Constructing the Colombian electric future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Ceballos, Carlos Arturo

    1997-01-01

    The paper tries about the investments that foreigners and nationals are carrying out in Colombia in the electric industry where a number every time more growing is more interested. It intends to bend the capacity installed for the year 2010 and to allow that the private sector develops 46 projects to arrive to a new capacity of 20.000 MW

  12. Optimal Day-Ahead Scheduling of a Hybrid Electric Grid Using Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    with 214 turbines [22]. In July 2011, the DoD declared that a complete study of 217 wind farm projects proposed in 35 states and Puerto Rico found...14. SUBJECT TERMS Hybrid electric grid , Microgrid , Hybrid renewable energy system , energy management center, optimization, Day...electric grid. In the case of a hybrid electric grid (HEG), or hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) where the microgrid can be connected to the commercial

  13. road-map for smart grids and electricity systems integrating renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebec, Gaelle; Moisan, Francois; Gioria, Michel

    2009-12-01

    The vision of smart grids and electricity systems elaborated in this road-map was drawn up on the basis of consultation and talks with a group of experts from industry (EDF, AREVA, GDF-Suez), public research bodies (SUPELEC, Ecole des Mines, INES, universities), grid operators (ERDF, RTE), local authorities' groups (FNCCR) and ADEME. In the course of these working sessions the experts expressed their opinions intuitu personae. The views outlined in this road-map are not to be assimilated with the official positions of the corporations or research organisations to which the members of the group belong. The visions of smart electricity grids and systems integrating renewable energies in 2020 and in 2050 are in sharp contrast. This contrast was deliberately sought out, for two reasons: - to offer the most exhaustive panorama possible of imaginable futures; - to avoid neglecting a critical technological, organisational or socioeconomic bottleneck that might be associated with a possible scenario left out of the discussion. Accordingly, in seeking contrasting visions the group arrived at extreme representations and even caricatures of the future, which nonetheless help define the outer limit of possibilities, and the scope within which the actual situation will most likely be situated in 2020 and in 2050

  14. CIRCUIT-DESIGN SOLUTIONS AND INFORMATION SUPPORT OF CITY ELECTRIC NETWORKS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE SMART GRID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fursanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure, circuit-design solutions and information support of the city electric networks in the conditions of the SMART GRID have been analyzed. It is demonstrated that the new conditions of functioning of electric power engineering, increasing demands for its technological state and reliability in most countries determined the transition to a restructuring of electrical networks to be based on the SMART GRID (intelligent power networks innovative new structure. The definitions of the SMART GRID, its various attributes and characteristics in most developed countries including Belarus are presented. It is revealed that the existing and future circuit and constructive solutions that can automate the process of managing modes of urban electric networks under the SMART GRID conditions are manifold. At present, the most common in distribution networks are the sources of distributed generation (combustion turbines, wind turbines, photovoltaic installations, mini-hydro, etc.. The patterns and problems of information traceability of a traditional urban networks of the unified energy system of Belarus have been analyzed, and it is demonstrated that in the conditions of the SMART GRID most of the problems of the control mode that are characteristic for traditional distribution networks 6–10 kV and 0.38 kV, lose their relevance. Therefore, the present article presents and features the main directions of development of automatic control modes of the SMART GRID.

  15. Design of High-Fidelity Testing Framework for Secure Electric Grid Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoginath, Srikanth B [ORNL; Perumalla, Kalyan S [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A solution methodology and implementation components are presented that can uncover unwanted, unintentional or unanticipated effects on electric grids from changes to actual electric grid control software. A new design is presented to leapfrog over the limitations of current modeling and testing techniques for cyber technologies in electric grids. We design a fully virtualized approach in which actual, unmodified operational software under test is enabled to interact with simulated surrogates of electric grids. It enables the software to influence the (simulated) grid operation and vice versa in a controlled, high fidelity environment. Challenges in achieving such capability include achieving low-overhead time control mechanisms in hypervisor schedulers, network capture and time-stamping, translation of network packets emanating from grid software into discrete events of virtual grid models, translation back from virtual sensors/actuators into data packets to control software, and transplanting the entire system onto an accurately and efficiently maintained virtual-time plane.

  16. Quantifying the value of hydropower in the electric grid : role of hydropower in existing markets.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loose, Verne W.

    2011-01-01

    The electrical power industry is facing the prospect of integrating a significant addition of variable generation technologies in the next several decades, primarily from wind and solar facilities. Overall, transmission and generation reserve levels are decreasing and power system infrastructure in general is aging. To maintain grid reliability modernization and expansion of the power system as well as more optimized use of existing resources will be required. Conventional and pumped storage hydroelectric facilities can provide an increasingly significant contribution to power system reliability by providing energy, capacity and other ancillary services. However, the potential role of hydroelectric power will be affected by another transition that the industry currently experiences - the evolution and expansion of electricity markets. This evolution to market-based acquisition of generation resources and grid management is taking place in a heterogeneous manner. Some North American regions are moving toward full-featured markets while other regions operate without formal markets. Yet other U.S. regions are partially evolved. This report examines the current structure of electric industry acquisition of energy and ancillary services in different regions organized along different structures, reports on the current role of hydroelectric facilities in various regions, and attempts to identify features of market and scheduling areas that either promote or thwart the increased role that hydroelectric power can play in the future. This report is part of a larger effort led by the Electric Power Research Institute with purpose of examining the potential for hydroelectric facilities to play a greater role in balancing the grid in an era of greater penetration of variable renewable energy technologies. Other topics that will be addressed in this larger effort include industry case studies of specific conventional and hydro-electric facilities, systemic operating constraints

  17. Smart grid. Research project of EON Bayern. Research project ''Grid of the future''; Smart-Grid. Forschungsprojekt der Eon Bayern. Forschungsprojekt ''Netz der Zukunft''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garhamer, Michael [Eon Bayern AG, Regensburg (Germany). Bereich Grundsatzaufgaben, Assetmanagement

    2012-03-12

    In February 2010, several smart-grid investigations were initiated by EON's regional utility companies and the EON Energie AG (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany). The focal points of research were: (1) Integration of an enhanced wind energy supply in the medium and high voltage grids; (2) Intelligent local power station; (3) Longitudinal voltage regulator / voltage conditioner and controllable local power transformers; (4) Configuration and investigation of a district with modern building technology, photovoltaic systems and electric vehicles; (5) Integration of an enhanced solar feeding in low and medium voltage grids. The findings relating to the purchase behaviour and supply behaviour of the grids enable customers to optimize the existing planning fundamentals. Future technical and legal innovations are explored previously in the project area and implemented.

  18. Envisioning a renewable electricity future for the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai, Trieu; Mulcahy, David; Hand, M. Maureen; Baldwin, Samuel F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents high renewable electricity penetration scenarios in the United States using detailed capacity expansion modeling that is designed to properly account for the variability and uncertainty of wind and solar resources. The scenarios focus solely on the electricity system, an important sector within the larger energy sector, and demonstrate long-term visions of a U.S. power system where renewable technologies, including biomass, geothermal, hydropower, solar, and wind, contribute 80% of 2050 annual electricity, including 49–55% from wind and solar photovoltaic generation. We present the integration challenges of achieving this high penetration and characterize the options to increase grid flexibility to manage variability. Four high renewable pathways are modeled and demonstrate the robustness and diversity of renewable options. We estimate 69–82% annual greenhouse gas emission reductions and 3%–30% incremental electricity price increases associated with reaching 80%-by-2050 renewable electricity relative to reference scenarios. This paper affirms and strengthens similar analysis from the Renewable Electricity Futures study by using an improved model and updated data to better reflect investment and dispatch decisions under current outlooks for the U.S. electricity sector. - Highlights: • We model high renewable electricity scenarios for the U.S. electricity sector. • The mix of technologies will depend on future costs and system conditions. • Integration challenges and flexibility options are presented. • We estimate an incremental electricity price increase of 3–30% to achieve 80% RE (renewable electricity). • We estimate 69–82% reduction in annual carbon emissions with 80% RE

  19. Influencing Factors and Development Trend Analysis of China Electric Grid Investment Demand Based on a Panel Co-Integration Model

    OpenAIRE

    Jinchao Li; Lin Chen; Yuwei Xiang; Jinying Li; Dong Peng

    2018-01-01

    Electric grid investment demand analysis is significant to reasonably arranging construction funds for the electric grid and reduce costs. This paper used the panel data of electric grid investment from 23 provinces of China between 2004 and 2016 as samples to analyze the influence between electric grid investment demand and GDP, population scale, social electricity consumption, installed electrical capacity, and peak load based on co-integration tests. We find that GDP and peak load have pos...

  20. Economic aspects of grid connected solar electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pharabod, F.

    1993-01-01

    Experience gained with available solar thermal technologies enlighten on options for research and development on solar electricity generation. The proposed analysis of new solar technologies concerns market, costs and profit viewpoint: - Systems under development have to fit with consumers' needs and utilities' specifications, technology is not the only item to study. - Expense headings depend on technological options and operation procedures such as size of the plant, solar only or hybrid concept. - Anticipation of revenues highly depends on direct insolation quality and on local conditions for introducing the electric power generated into the network: daily direct insolation measurements and annual local load curve are prerequisite data. Strategic advantages regarding environment and sustainable development are to be pointed out, specially in industrialized countries or for projects including financing institutions. As far as generating electric power on the grid is a major challenge in the development of a number of countries in the sun belt, cooperation between industrialized and developing countries, under the auspices of international organization, has to be promoted. (Author) 12 refs

  1. Optimal scheduling for vehicle-to-grid operation with stochastic connection of plug-in electric vehicles to smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, Linni; Zheng, Yanchong; Xiao, Xinping; Chan, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel event-triggered scheduling scheme for vehicle-to-grid (V2G) operation is proposed. • New scheme can handle the uncertainty arising from stochastic connection of electric vehicles. • New scheme aims at minimizing the overall load variance of power grid by V2G operation. • Method to evaluate the performance of proposed scheme is elaborated and demonstrated. - Abstract: Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) operation of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is attracting increasing attention since it can assist to improve the efficiency and reliability of power grid, as well as reduce the operating cost and greenhouse gas emission of electric vehicles. Within the scheme of V2G operation, PEVs are expected to serve as a novel distributed energy storage system (ESS) to help achieve the balance between supply and demand of power grid. One of the key difficulties concerning its practical implementation lies in that the availability of PEVs as ESS for grid remains highly uncertain due to their mobility as transportation tools. To address this issue, a novel event-triggered scheduling scheme for V2G operation based on the scenario of stochastic PEV connection to smart grid is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the mathematical model is formulated. Secondly, the preparation of input data for systematic evaluation is introduced and the case study is conducted. Finally, statistic analysis results demonstrate that our proposed V2G scheduling scheme can dramatically smooth out the fluctuation in power load profiles

  2. Multiport power router and its impact on future smart grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kado, Yuichi; Shichijo, Daiki; Wada, Keiji; Iwatsuki, Katsumi

    2016-07-01

    We propose a Y configuration power router as a unit cell to easily construct a power delivery system that can meet many types of user requirements. The Y configuration power router controls the direction and magnitude of power flows between three ports regardless of DC or AC. We constructed a prototype three-way isolated DC/DC converter that is the core unit of the Y configuration power router. The electrical insulation between three ports assures safety and reliability for power network systems. We then tested the operation of power flow control. The experimental results revealed that our methodology based on a governing equation was appropriate to control the power flow of the three-way DC/DC converter. In addition, a distribution network composed of power routers had the ability to easily enable interchanges of electrical power between autonomous microgrid cells. We also explored the requirements for communication between energy routers to achieve dynamic adjustments of energy flows in a coordinated manner and their impact on resilient power grid systems.

  3. Smart PV grid to reinforce the electrical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Hamad, Mohamed Y.; Qamber, Isa S.

    2017-11-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) became the new competitive energy resources of the planet and needs to be engaged in grid to break up the congestion in both Distribution and Transmission systems. The objective of this research is to reduce the load flow through the distribution and transmission equipment by 20%. This reduction will help in relief networks loaded equipment's in all networks. Many projects are starting to develop in the GCC countries and need to be organized to achieve maximum benefits from involving the Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in the network. The GCC countries have a good location for solar energy with high intensity of the solar radiation and clear sky along the year. The opportunities of the solar energy is to utilize and create a sustainable energy resource for this region. Moreover, the target of this research is to engage the PV technology in such a way to lower the over loaded equipment and increases the electricity demand at the consumer's side.

  4. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in smart grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yin

    In this thesis, in order to investigate the impact of charging load from plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), a stochastic model is developed in Matlab. In this model, two main types of PHEVs are defined: public transportation vehicles and private vehicles. Different charging time schedule, charging speed and battery capacity are considered for each type of vehicles. The simulation results reveal that there will be two load peaks (at noon and in evening) when the penetration level of PHEVs increases continuously to 30% in 2030. Therefore, optimization tool is utilized to shift load peaks. This optimization process is based on real time pricing and wind power output data. With the help of smart grid, power allocated to each vehicle could be controlled. As a result, this optimization could fulfill the goal of shifting load peaks to valley areas where real time price is low or wind output is high.

  5. The Future of Electricity Resource Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahrl, Fredrich [Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lavin, Luke [Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Ryan, Nancy [Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Olsen, Arne [Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-09-14

    Electricity resource planning is the process of identifying longer-term investments to meet electricity reliability requirements and public policy goals at a reasonable cost. Resource planning processes provide a forum for regulators, electric utilities, and electricity industry stakeholders to evaluate the economic, environmental, and social benefits and costs of different investment options. By facilitating a discussion on future goals, challenges and strategies, resource planning processes often play an important role in shaping utility business decisions. Resource planning emerged more than three decades ago in an era of transition, where declining electricity demand and rising costs spurred fundamental changes in electricity industry regulation and structure. Despite significant changes in the industry, resource planning continues to play an important role in supporting investment decision making. Over the next two decades, the electricity industry will again undergo a period of transition, driven by technological change, shifting customer preferences and public policy goals. This transition will bring about a gradual paradigm shift in resource planning, requiring changes in scope, approaches and methods. Even as it changes, resource planning will continue to be a central feature of the electricity industry. Its functions — ensuring the reliability of high voltage (“bulk”) power systems, enabling oversight of regulated utilities and facilitating low-cost compliance with public policy goals — are likely to grow in importance as the electricity industry enters a new period of technological, economic and regulatory change. This report examines the future of electricity resource planning in the context of a changing electricity industry. The report examines emerging issues and evolving practices in five key areas that will shape the future of resource planning: (1) central-scale generation, (2) distributed generation, (3) demand-side resources, (4

  6. An analysis of off grid electrical systems in rural Sub-Saharan Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebitosi, A.B.; Pillay, P.; Khan, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The decade leading up to the end of the last millennium saw systematic unbundling and privatisation of power utility companies in Sub-Saharan Africa. The new profit driven entrepreneurs have swiftly moved to consolidate in urban enclaves and put paid to any remote hope for future rural electrification. Consequently, rural communities have resorted to fending for themselves by adapting to off grid electrification. Most of these emerging installations are individual isolated units. This paper looks at various off gird electric system configurations in rural Kenya and suggests ways in which they could be reconfigured to be more energy efficient

  7. Electricity industry restructuring and distribution Grids' Take-Over. A survey of foreign case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indigenti, S.

    1999-01-01

    The paper surveys some case studies drawn from five foreign countries experience in distribution restructuring and property changes. From transaction prices has been derived the indirect distribution grid evaluation by the investors. The resulting values are widespread and cannot be taken as a sound reference for similar future property transfers in Italy. This paper may be looked at as a methodological guides that will likely shed some light on the possible implementations of the recent electricity bill 79/99 named Decreto Bersani [it

  8. Modeling and simulating an electrical grid subsystem for power balance analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Totu, Luminita Cristiana; Leth, John-Josef; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2012-01-01

    We present an approach for power balance analysis in Smart Grids where the physical behavior of different electrical devices is modeled at unit level, and the collective load and generation curves can later be obtained by aggregation. In this way, new behaviors, flexibilities and intelligent...... strategies for power consumption and generation can be easily introduced at the user-level and the system-level impact analyzed on the aggregated profiles. The future aim is to investigate bottom-up balancing strategies, where units with a flexible energy band can react independently to power balance signals...

  9. Qualitative Description of Electric Power System Future States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, Trevor D.; Corbin, Charles D.

    2018-03-06

    The simulation and evaluation of transactive systems depends to a large extent on the context in which those efforts are performed. Assumptions regarding the composition of the electric power system, the regulatory and policy environment, the distribution of renewable and other distributed energy resources (DERs), technological advances, and consumer engagement all contribute to, and affect, the evaluation of any given transactive system, regardless of its design. It is our position that the assumptions made about the state of the future power grid will determine, to some extent, the systems ultimately deployed, and that the transactive system itself may play an important role in the evolution of the power system.

  10. Managing relationships between electric power industry restructuring and grid reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    The electricity system is a critical infrastructure, and its continued and reliable functioning is essential to the nation's economy and well-being. However, the inter-dependency of electricity networks is not completely understood. The economic impact of outages was discussed in this white paper. It was suggested that moving to a restructured environment has degraded the reliability of the bulk system. New institutional arrangements and approaches to information management are needed. It was suggested that reliability practices caused the 2003 blackout, and not technical failures. Uncertainties in the restructured market were discussed, as well as incentives to maintain system adequacy. Examples of deregulation in other countries were presented. Organizational complexities were reviewed, including the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) requirements and the new layers of complexity that have been added to the decision-making process in the light of restructuring. Planning and connectivity issues were reviewed. The need for design standards in power grid control centres was discussed. Difficulties in collecting data from different control centres were considered. Issues concerning the lack of investment in research and development were discussed, with particular reference to the urgent need for coordinated research programs. The looming manpower crisis in the electric power industry was also discussed. Recommendations included ensuring that the transmission system can support a market structure; building a national reliability centre; solving the manpower crisis; and testing market designs before deploying them. It was concluded that good engineering design principles, including experimental economic testing, should be required of any new electricity market design before authorizing its use. 31 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  11. A spatially and temporally resolved model of the electricity grid – Economic vs environmental dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razeghi, Ghazal; Brouwer, Jack; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A spatially and temporally resolved dispatch model is developed. • MCP and average price of electricity are determined for 2050 base case. • Economic and environmental dispatch strategies are assessed. • Environmental dispatch results in significant NO_x reduction and higher prices. • A combination of economic and environmental strategies is the preferred method. - Abstract: Substantial changes need to occur in the electricity generation sector in order to address greenhouse gas and urban air quality goals. These goals, combined with increasing energy prices, have led to elevated interest in alternative, low to zero carbon and pollutant emission technologies in this sector. The challenge is to assess the impacts of various technologies, policies, and market practices in order to develop a roadmap to meet energy and environmental goals. To this end, a spatially and temporally resolved resource dispatch model is developed that simulates an electricity market while taking into account physical constraints associated with various components of an electricity grid. Multiple technology simulation modules are developed to provide inputs to the model. The model is used to design a market-based grid, and to develop and evaluate different dispatch strategies. To maintain the system cost at acceptable levels and reduce emissions, the results reveal that the best approach is a combination of economic and environmental dispatch strategies. The methodology and the tools developed provide a means to examine various aspects of future scenarios and their impacts on different sectors, and can be used for both decision making and planning.

  12. Primer on electricity futures and other derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoft, S.; Belden, T.; Goldman, C.; Pickle, S.

    1998-01-01

    Increased competition in bulk power and retail electricity markets is likely to lower electricity prices, but will also result in greater price volatility as the industry moves away from administratively determined, cost-based rates and encourages market-driven prices. Price volatility introduces new risks for generators, consumers, and marketers. Electricity futures and other derivatives can help each of these market participants manage, or hedge, price risks in a competitive electricity market. Futures contracts are legally binding and negotiable contracts that call for the future delivery of a commodity. In most cases, physical delivery does not take place, and the futures contract is closed by buying or selling a futures contract on or near the delivery date. Other electric rate derivatives include options, price swaps, basis swaps, and forward contracts. This report is intended as a primer for public utility commissioners and their staff on futures and other financial instruments used to manage price risks. The report also explores some of the difficult choices facing regulators as they attempt to develop policies in this area.

  13. Primer on electricity futures and other derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoft, S.; Belden, T.; Goldman, C.; Pickle, S.

    1998-01-01

    Increased competition in bulk power and retail electricity markets is likely to lower electricity prices, but will also result in greater price volatility as the industry moves away from administratively determined, cost-based rates and encourages market-driven prices. Price volatility introduces new risks for generators, consumers, and marketers. Electricity futures and other derivatives can help each of these market participants manage, or hedge, price risks in a competitive electricity market. Futures contracts are legally binding and negotiable contracts that call for the future delivery of a commodity. In most cases, physical delivery does not take place, and the futures contract is closed by buying or selling a futures contract on or near the delivery date. Other electric rate derivatives include options, price swaps, basis swaps, and forward contracts. This report is intended as a primer for public utility commissioners and their staff on futures and other financial instruments used to manage price risks. The report also explores some of the difficult choices facing regulators as they attempt to develop policies in this area

  14. IEEE 1547 and 2030 Standards for Distributed Energy Resources Interconnection and Interoperability with the Electricity Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, T.

    2014-12-01

    Public-private partnerships have been a mainstay of the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (DOE/NREL) approach to research and development. These partnerships also include technology development that enables grid modernization and distributed energy resources (DER) advancement, especially renewable energy systems integration with the grid. Through DOE/NREL and industry support of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standards development, the IEEE 1547 series of standards has helped shape the way utilities and other businesses have worked together to realize increasing amounts of DER interconnected with the distribution grid. And more recently, the IEEE 2030 series of standards is helping to further realize greater implementation of communications and information technologies that provide interoperability solutions for enhanced integration of DER and loads with the grid. For these standards development partnerships, for approximately $1 of federal funding, industry partnering has contributed $5. In this report, the status update is presented for the American National Standards IEEE 1547 and IEEE 2030 series of standards. A short synopsis of the history of the 1547 standards is first presented, then the current status and future direction of the ongoing standards development activities are discussed.

  15. The electricity grid as a marketplace. Mannheim tests virtual energy market for generators, consumers and grid operators; Das Stromnetz wird zum Marktplatz. Mannheim erprobt virtuellen Energiemarkt fuer Erzeuger, Verbraucher und Netzbetreiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Uwe

    2011-07-01

    In future, electricity grids will have to transport large quantities of electricity from renewable energy sources fed centrally and decentrally. Plus, we need greater reserves, storage facilities and flexibility in the electricity market due to the fluctuating supply. In the ''Modellstadt Mannheim'' project, a virtual energy marketplace is being developed for energy generators, consumers and grid operators. Customers can see the source and price of their electricity and influence them directly via the timing and extent of their consumption and the delivery from their own generation systems. This approach also includes gas, water and district heating. (orig.)

  16. Evaluating congestion management in the Dutch electricity transmission grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blijswijk, Martti J. van; Vries, Laurens J. de

    2012-01-01

    Due to the increase in electricity generation capacity in the Netherlands and a new connection policy, transmission system operator (TSO) TenneT expects a significant increase in congestion in the Dutch transmission grid. To manage this, the Dutch government implemented redispatching, a method which is argued in the literature to potentially impose large congestion costs upon the TSO. A quantitative model of the Dutch electricity system was developed in order to evaluate this method. The outcomes were compared to the performance of three alternative congestion management methods. Regardless of the method, congestion costs were found to be substantially lower than in previous studies. Because combined-cycle gas turbines are the marginal generation technology in almost all cases, the costs of up and down regulation do not differ much. Consequently, the redispatching costs for the TSO are expected to be relatively low, and the opportunities for abuse of market power appear to be limited. While all the evaluated methods are effective and economically efficient, they have significantly different welfare effects. Market splitting creates significantly larger welfare effects than the different varieties of redispatching. - Highlights: ► Congestion management was recently introduced in the Netherlands. ► We quantitatively evaluate the effects of its application. ► We compare this to other congestion management methods. ► Given the specific situation that the marginal cost curve of production is flat, congestion costs are expected to be low.

  17. A multi agent system framework for value focused interactions between buildings and electrical grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aduda, K.O.; Zeiler, W.; Boxem, G.

    2014-01-01

    The electrical smart grid connection requires also services from the buildings. The performance demanded during the interactions between buildings and smart electrical grids are multifaceted, involve attainment of various objectives which are sometimes in conflict with each other and require dynamic

  18. 76 FR 44323 - National Grid Transmission Services Corporation; Bangor Hydro Electric Company; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL11-49-000] National Grid Transmission Services Corporation; Bangor Hydro Electric Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take..., 18 CFR 385.207, National Grid Transmission Services Corporation and Bangor Hydro Electric Company...

  19. Smart and sustainable power systems operations, planning, and economics of insular electricity grids

    CERN Document Server

    Catalão, João P S

    2015-01-01

    The smart grid initiative, integrating advanced sensing technologies, intelligent control methods, and bi-directional communications into the contemporary electricity grid, offers excellent opportunities for energy efficiency improvements and better integration of distributed generation, coexisting with centralized generation units within an active network. A large share of the installed capacity for recent renewable energy sources already comprises insular electricity grids, since the latter are preferable due to their high potential for renewables. However, the increasing share of

  20. On feasibility boundaries of electrical power grids in steady state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, O.; Handschin, E.; Rehtanz, C. [Institute of Power Systems and Power Economicy, Technische Universitaet Dortmund, Emil-Figge-Str. 70, 44227 Dortmund (Germany); Lehnhoff, S.; Wedde, H.F. [Chair 3, School of Computer Science, Technische Universitaet Dortmund, August-Schmidt-Str. 12, 44227 Dortmund (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Both the coordination of international energy transfer and the integration of a rapidly growing number of decentralized energy resources (DER) throughout most countries cause novel problems for avoiding voltage band violations and line overloads. Traditional approaches are typically based on global off-line scheduling under globally available information and rely on iterative procedures that can guarantee neither convergence nor execution time. In this paper, we focus on operational limitation problems in power grids based on widely dispersed (renewable) energy sources. We introduce an extension to the DEZENT algorithm, a multi-agent based coordination system for DER, that allows for the feasibility verification in constant and predetermined time. We give a numerical example showing the legitimacy of our approach and mention ongoing and future work regarding its implementation and utilization. (author)

  1. Electric vehicle fleet management in smart grids: A review of services, optimization and control aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago

    2016-01-01

    Electric vehicles can become integral parts of a smart grid, since they are capable of providing valuable services to power systems other than just consuming power. On the transmission system level, electric vehicles are regarded as an important means of balancing the intermittent renewable energy...... resources such as wind power. This is because electric vehicles can be used to absorb the energy during the period of high electricity penetration and feed the electricity back into the grid when the demand is high or in situations of insufficient electricity generation. However, on the distribution system...... and industries. This paper presents a review and classification of methods for smart charging (including power to vehicle and vehicle-to-grid) of electric vehicles for fleet operators. The study firstly presents service relationships between fleet operators and other four actors in smart grids; then, modeling...

  2. The role of electric grids in the European energy policy. Grids development is necessary to supply cleaner and securer electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlin, A.

    2009-01-01

    The world is actually entering a new energy era where CO 2 emissions must be reduced. Consequently, the European Union policy includes three goals: a) to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fossil energy consumption; b) to improve the security of energy supply; c) to improve interconnection between regions. In this context, electrical grids play a strategic role. While the overall energy consumption in Europe will decrease, the electricity demand will increase by more than 1% per year. A large part of this increase will be covered by renewable energy sources, especially wind energy. In 2020 the total wind power installed in Europe should be ∼1000 GW, leading to a mean power production of 200-250 GW. This makes necessary an adaptation of electrical grids in order to be able to integrate into the system large power sources of intermittent character, and also to improve the solidarity of the different countries. The interconnection of the grids must be improved in order to balance electricity supply and demand. For the transport of electricity over large distances, developments will take place in three different areas; a) high voltage alternative current for most of the grids; b) high voltage direct current where it is necessary to overpass obstacles (mountains, sounds); c) gaseous insulation technology for underground transport. Local (mostly low voltage) grids must also be adapted: so far, they only carry electricity in one direction, to the customers. With the distributed power production, electricity transport in the reverse direction must also be considered

  3. Grid-connected vehicles as the core of future land-based transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, Richard; Perl, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Grid-connected vehicles (GCVs)-e.g., electric trains, metros, trams, and trolley buses-are propelled by electric motors directly connected to remote power sources. Their low at-vehicle energy consumption and ability to use a wide range of renewable energy sources make them strong contenders for urban and interurban transport systems in an era of energy constraints that favours use of renewable fuels, which may lie ahead. Needs for autonomous motorised mobility could be acceptably met in large measure by deployment of personal GCVs, also known as personal rapid transit (PRT). Alternatives, including fuel-cell vehicles and dual-drive vehicles fuelled with ethanol, will be less feasible. The 'car of the future' may not be an automobile so much as a PRT element of a comprehensive GCV-based system that offers at least as much utility and convenience as today's transport systems

  4. The future of fission-electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morowski, J.V.

    1983-06-01

    Future worldwide electricity supply needs dictate the necessity of maintaining a sound capability for electricity and electric power generating facilities, including nuclear, as viable export commodities. A survey of fission-power plant types and the status of worldwide nuclear electric power illustrates the primary emphasis on LWR's and HWR's as two leading types in the export market. This survey examines the factors affecting the market prospects for the next five to fifteen years and provides a discussion on some possible improvements to current market circumstances. A comparative description is provided for some of the types of LWR and CANDU characteristics such as quantities, schedules, constructability factors, and equipment and system. Important factors in the selection process for future nuclear power plants are discussed. Some factors included are seismic design requirements; plant design description and possible site layout; plant protection, control and instrumentation; thermal cycle design and arrangement; and special construction and rigging requirements

  5. High flexible Hydropower Generation concepts for future grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hell, Johann

    2017-04-01

    The ongoing changes in electric power generation are resulting in new requirements for the classical generating units. In consequence a paradigm change in operation of power systems is necessary and a new approach in finding solutions is needed. The presented paper is dealing with the new requirements on current and future energy systems with the focus on hydro power generation. A power generation landscape for some European regions is shown and generation and operational flexibility is explained. Based on the requirements from the Transmission System Operator in UK, the transient performance of a Pumped Storage installation is discussed.

  6. Greenlys, the smart energy of the future. The first full-scale Smart Grid demonstrator in France. Press file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-05-01

    In its first part, this document presents the main characteristics of Greenlys: its role in the evolution towards a new energetic model, an ambitious project which benefits to all types of consumers, is based on two complementary demonstration platforms (in the two metropolitan areas of Lyons and Grenoble). It also discusses its several objectives: assessment of economic viability, identification of benefits for consumers, implementation of a right sizing for tomorrow's grid, exploitation of a communicating infrastructure, anticipation of the deployment of electric vehicles, definition of the aggregative function, development of user participation, experimentation of advanced grid control functions, equipment test and installation. The second part comments the first returns on experience in terms of grid quality and safety, of grid self-healing, of use of the communicating counter, of impact of decentralised production and new usages on the grid, of transformation of the consumer into an aware and responsible actor, of equipment and installations in housing, of services proposed to residential tester-customers, of flexibility aggregation. The third part proposes an overview of future fields of experiment: cost-benefit analysis, innovating solutions for the grid, massive integration of decentralised resources and new usages related to electric vehicles, local experiment in Grenoble and Lyons. The various partners are presented in appendix

  7. Grid integration and smart grid implementation of emerging technologies in electric power systems through approximate dynamic programming

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Jingjie

    2013-01-01

    A key hurdle for implementing real-time pricing of electricity is a lack of con-sumers’ responses. Solutions to overcome the hurdle include the energy management system that automatically optimizes household appliance usage such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging (and discharging with vehicle-to-grid) via a two-way com-munication with the grid. Real-time pricing, combined with household automation devices, has a potential to accommodate an increasing penetration of plug-in hybrid ele...

  8. Nuclear Power and Ghana's Future Electricity Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennison, I.; Dzobo, M.

    2011-01-01

    One of the major challenges facing Ghana in her developmental efforts is the generation of adequate and affordable electricity to meet increasing demand. Problems with the dependency on hydro power has brought insecurity in electricity supply due to periodic droughts. Thermal power systems have been introduced into the electricity generation mix to complement the hydro power supply but there are problems associated with their use. The high price of crude oil on the international market has made them expensive to run and the supply of less expensive gas from Steps are being taken to run the thermal plants on less expensive gas from Nigeria has delayed due to conflicts in the Niger Delta region and other factors. The existing situation has therefore called for the diversification of the electricity generation mix so as to ensure energy security and affordable power supply. This paper presents the nuclear option as a suitable alternative energy source which can be used to address the energy supply problems facing the nation as well the steps being taken towards its introduction in the national energy mix. In addition, electricity demand projections using the MAED model as well as other studies are presented. The expected electricity demand of 350000 GWh (4000MWyr) in 2030, exceeds the total electricity supply capability of the existing hydropower system, untapped hydro resources and the maximum amount of gas that can be imported from Nigeria through the West Africa pipeline. Also presented is a technological assessment on the type of nuclear reactor to be used. The technological assessment which was done based on economics, grid size, technological maturity, passive safety and standardization of reactor design, indicate that a medium sized pressurized water reactor (i.e. a PWR with capacity 300MW to 700MW) is the most favourable type of reactor. In addition the challenges facing the implementation of the nuclear power programme in Ghana are presented. (author)

  9. A Theoretical Secure Enterprise Architecture for Multi Revenue Generating Smart Grid Sub Electric Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Hina

    2013-01-01

    This study is a part of the smart grid initiative providing electric vehicle charging infrastructure. It is a refueling structure, an energy generating photovoltaic system and charge point electric vehicle charging station. The system will utilize advanced design and technology allowing electricity to flow from the site's normal electric service…

  10. Dynamic Line Rating Oncor Electric Delivery Smart Grid Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Justin; Smith, Cale; Young, Mike; Donohoo, Ken; Owen, Ross; Clark, Eddit; Espejo, Raul; Aivaliotis, Sandy; Stelmak, Ron; Mohr, Ron; Barba, Cristian; Gonzalez, Guillermo; Malkin, Stuart; Dimitrova, Vessela; Ragsdale, Gary; Mitchem, Sean; Jeirath, Nakul; Loomis, Joe; Trevino, Gerardo; Syracuse, Steve; Hurst, Neil; Mereness, Matt; Johnson, Chad; Bivens, Carrie

    2013-05-04

    Electric transmission lines are the lifeline of the electric utility industry, delivering its product from source to consumer. This critical infrastructure is often constrained such that there is inadequate capacity on existing transmission lines to efficiently deliver the power to meet demand in certain areas or to transport energy from high-generation areas to high-consumption regions. When this happens, the cost of the energy rises; more costly sources of power are used to meet the demand or the system operates less reliably. These economic impacts are known as congestion, and they can amount to substantial dollars for any time frame of reference: hour, day or year. There are several solutions to the transmission constraint problem, including: construction of new generation, construction of new transmission facilities, rebuilding and reconductoring of existing transmission assets, and Dynamic Line Rating (DLR). All of these options except DLR are capital intensive, have long lead times and often experience strong public and regulatory opposition. The Smart Grid Demonstration Program (SGDP) project co-funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) and Oncor Electric Delivery Company developed and deployed the most extensive and advanced DLR installation to demonstrate that DLR technology is capable of resolving many transmission capacity constraint problems with a system that is reliable, safe and very cost competitive. The SGDP DLR deployment is the first application of DLR technology to feed transmission line real-time dynamic ratings directly into the system operation’s State Estimator and load dispatch program, which optimizes the matching of generation with load demand on a security, reliability and economic basis. The integrated Dynamic Line Rating (iDLR)1 collects transmission line parameters at remote locations on the lines, calculates the real-time line rating based on the equivalent conductor temperature, ambient temperature and influence of wind and solar

  11. Smart regulation of rural electricity grids. Modern communications technology reduces the voltage fluctuations and regulates the storage of surplus electricity; Laendliches Stromnetz smart geregelt. Moderne Kommunikationstechnik reduziert Spannungsschwankungen und regelt die Speicherung ueberschuessigen Stroms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durst, Anna

    2012-07-01

    In the ''Smart Country'' model project, researchers in Bitburg- Pruem were testing out the distribution network of the future. It is designed to respond flexibly to the increasingly decentralised generation of renewable electricity in the grid. For this purpose various operating resources were further developed: an optimised biogas plant, which controls the electricity supplied by the grid, virtually stores surplus electricity with an efficiency of 98 %. In addition, voltage regulators double the usable output capacity in the grid. The Eifel project successfully passed the field test after around one year. (orig.)

  12. Maximized integration of photovoltaics into distribution grids using smart charging strategies for electric vehicles; Maximierte PV-Integration in Niederspannungsnetzen durch intelligente Nutzung von Elektrofahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troeschel, Martin; Scherfke, Stefan; Schuette, Steffen; Appelrath, H Juergen; Sonnenschein, Michael [OFFIS - Institut fuer Informatik, Oldenburg (Germany). Bereich Energie

    2011-07-01

    An ICT-based integration of electric vehicles (EV) offers a promising potential on the distribution grid level, especially regarding synergies with renewable and distributed energy systems. Of special interest are (a) the charging of EV with electric power from renewable energy sources and (b) a preferentially local usage of feed-in from distributed energy systems. Regarding a systemic analysis of electromobility, a stable and reliable operation of the electric power grid is a major constraint for the integration of EV and maximized usage of renewable energy. In the model project GridSurfer, we conducted simulation-based analyses on the integration of EV. In this contribution, we present results from an analysis of future Smart-Grid-scenarios with special regard to rural areas and distribution grids in north-western Germany. (orig.)

  13. Identification of observables for future grids - The framework developed in the ELECTRA project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, K.; Marinelli, M.; Morch, A.Z.; Jakobsen, S.H.

    2015-01-01

    The main subject of this paper is the classification and identification of observables for present and future grids. In order to make an inventory of present and potentially new observables, a systematic classification and identification of observables for future grids is conducted. After first

  14. Estimating the maximum potential revenue for grid connected electricity storage :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Raymond Harry; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto.

    2012-12-01

    The valuation of an electricity storage device is based on the expected future cash flow generated by the device. Two potential sources of income for an electricity storage system are energy arbitrage and participation in the frequency regulation market. Energy arbitrage refers to purchasing (stor- ing) energy when electricity prices are low, and selling (discharging) energy when electricity prices are high. Frequency regulation is an ancillary service geared towards maintaining system frequency, and is typically procured by the independent system operator in some type of market. This paper outlines the calculations required to estimate the maximum potential revenue from participating in these two activities. First, a mathematical model is presented for the state of charge as a function of the storage device parameters and the quantities of electricity purchased/sold as well as the quantities o ered into the regulation market. Using this mathematical model, we present a linear programming optimization approach to calculating the maximum potential revenue from an elec- tricity storage device. The calculation of the maximum potential revenue is critical in developing an upper bound on the value of storage, as a benchmark for evaluating potential trading strate- gies, and a tool for capital nance risk assessment. Then, we use historical California Independent System Operator (CAISO) data from 2010-2011 to evaluate the maximum potential revenue from the Tehachapi wind energy storage project, an American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) energy storage demonstration project. We investigate the maximum potential revenue from two di erent scenarios: arbitrage only and arbitrage combined with the regulation market. Our analysis shows that participation in the regulation market produces four times the revenue compared to arbitrage in the CAISO market using 2010 and 2011 data. Then we evaluate several trading strategies to illustrate how they compare to the

  15. Political electricity: What future for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, T.

    1993-01-01

    Political Electricity first reviews the history of nuclear power development in nine countries (USA, France, Japan, UK, West Germany, Sweden, Italy, Switzerland, Australia). Second the book analyses major issues shaping the future of the industry: nuclear power economincs, nuclear hazards, alternative energy economics, and greenhouse gas constraints

  16. Shaping the future of electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byus, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    On December 14, 1992, Cincinnati Gas ampersand Electric Company (CG ampersand E) and PSI Resources, Inc. announced an agreement to merge the two companies into a newly formed company, CINergy Corp. In announcing the proposed merger, James E. Rogers Jr., chairman, president, and chief executive officer of PSI said, Our companies have chosen to shape our future and our industry. This is an ideal partnership, since our strengths complement each other and our vision of the future is the same. Will this merger be the first of many that will shape the future of the electric utility in the United States? What is the vision of the future for the industry? About five years ago, a well-known Wall Street utility analyst traveled around the country talking about the anticipated consolidation of electric utility companies in the US His motto was Fifty in Five, meaning widespread consolidation that would reduce the number of independent investor-owned utilities from more than 100 to 50 within a five-year period. He even developed a map showing the mergers/consolidations he looked for and actually named names. More than five years have passed, and only a handful of utility mergers have taken place. But, looking forward from 1992, restructuring of the utility industry is very much a vision of the future. What is the driving force? The National Energy Policy Act of 1992 provides the legislative framework for the electric utility industry in the US in future years. While the specific rules that will govern the industry are yet to be promulgated, the intent to allow (even promote) competition is evident in the Act itself. But it appears the vision of the future is market driven

  17. Proceedings of the International Conference: Nuclear option in countries with small and medium electricity grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-31

    The conference of Croatian Nuclear Society ``Nuclear option in countries with small and medium electricity grid`` is based on experience from last conference of Croatian Nuclear Society in Opatija and on the same philosophy of serving the needs of small or medium present or future user countries. Session topics reflect some current emphasis, such as accommodation of Kyoto restriction on CO{sub 2} emission, or liability and insurance for nuclear damage. In order to achieve best safety and operational standards these countries with limited human and material resources must put greater emphasis on their rational and efficient use. Consequently the world wide developments on innovative reactors` systems and improved concepts for fuel utilisation and waste disposal are substantial interest. Appropriate selections of reactor technology, fuel cycle and decommission strategies are of paramount importance. There are very successful examples of achieving safety and good operational records, so the exchange of experience and cooperation amongst that group of countries would be of great value. As in the future of nuclear energy there will be many more countries with only small or medium nuclear systems, collecting specific experience and cooperation between the like countries will be an additional value to the now prevailing equipment supplier - national utility relationships. Here is presented nine sessions: 1. Energy Options in Countries with Small and Medium Grids 2. Reactors for Small and Medium Electricity Grids 3. Operation and Maintenance Experience 4. Deterministic Safety Analysis 5. Probabilistic Safety Analysis 6. Radioactive Waste Management and Decommissioning 7. Public Relations 8. Emergency Preparedness 9. Liability and Insurance for Nuclear Damage

  18. Proceedings of the International Conference: Nuclear option in countries with small and medium electricity grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The conference of Croatian Nuclear Society ''Nuclear option in countries with small and medium electricity grid'' is based on experience from last conference of Croatian Nuclear Society in Opatija and on the same philosophy of serving the needs of small or medium present or future user countries. Session topics reflect some current emphasis, such as accommodation of Kyoto restriction on CO 2 emission, or liability and insurance for nuclear damage. In order to achieve best safety and operational standards these countries with limited human and material resources must put greater emphasis on their rational and efficient use. Consequently the world wide developments on innovative reactors' systems and improved concepts for fuel utilisation and waste disposal are substantial interest. Appropriate selections of reactor technology, fuel cycle and decommission strategies are of paramount importance. There are very successful examples of achieving safety and good operational records, so the exchange of experience and cooperation amongst that group of countries would be of great value. As in the future of nuclear energy there will be many more countries with only small or medium nuclear systems, collecting specific experience and cooperation between the like countries will be an additional value to the now prevailing equipment supplier - national utility relationships. Here is presented nine sessions: 1. Energy Options in Countries with Small and Medium Grids 2. Reactors for Small and Medium Electricity Grids 3. Operation and Maintenance Experience 4. Deterministic Safety Analysis 5. Probabilistic Safety Analysis 6. Radioactive Waste Management and Decommissioning 7. Public Relations 8. Emergency Preparedness 9. Liability and Insurance for Nuclear Damage

  19. Space Weather Effects on Current and Future Electric Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, D.; Dutta, O.; Tandoi, C.; Brandauer, W.; Mohamed, A.; Damas, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    This work addresses the effects of Geomagnetic Disturbances (GMDs) on the present bulk power system as well as the future smart grid, and discusses the mitigation of these geomagnetic impacts, so as to reduce the vulnerabilities of the electric power network to large space weather events. Solar storm characterized by electromagnetic radiation generates geo-electric fields that result in the flow of Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs) through the transmission lines, followed by transformers and the ground. As the ground conductivity and the power network topology significantly vary with the region, it becomes imperative to estimate of the magnitude of GICs for different places. In this paper, the magnitude of GIC has been calculated for New York State (NYS) with the help of extensive modelling of the whole NYS electricity transmission network using real data. Although GIC affects only high voltage levels, e.g. above 300 kV, the presence of coastline in NYS makes the low voltage transmission lines also susceptible to GIC. Besides this, the encroachment of technologies pertaining to smart grid implementation, such as Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs), Microgrids, Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS), and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) have been analyzed for GMD impacts. Inaccurate PMU results due to scintillation of GPS signals that are affected by electromagnetic interference of solar storm, presence of renewable energy resources in coastal areas that are more vulnerable to GMD, the ability of FACTS devices to either block or pave new path for GICs and so on, shed some light on impacts of GMD on smart grid technologies.

  20. Mini-grid based off-grid electrification to enhance electricity access in developing countries: What policies may be required?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.; Palit, Debajit

    2016-01-01

    With 1.2 billion people still lacking electricity access by 2013, electricity access remains a major global challenge. Although mini-grid based electrification has received attention in recent times, their full exploitation requires policy support covering a range of areas. Distilling the experience from a five year research project, OASYS South Asia, this paper presents the summary of research findings and shares the experience from four demonstration activities. It suggests that cost-effective universal electricity service remains a challenge and reaching the universal electrification target by 2030 will remain a challenge for the less developed countries. The financial, organisational and governance weaknesses hinder successful implementation of projects in many countries. The paper then provides 10 policy recommendations to promote mini-grids as a complementary route to grid extension to promote electricity access for successful outcomes. - Highlights: •The academic and action research activities undertaken through OASYS South Asia Project are reported. •Evidence produced through a multi-dimensional participatory framework supplemented by four demonstration projects. •Funding and regulatory challenges militate against universal electrification objectives by 2030. •Innovative business approaches linking local mini-grids and livelihood opportunities exist. •Enabling policies are suggested to exploit such options.

  1. The System of Fast Charging Station for Electric Vehicles with Minimal Impact on the Electrical Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Chlebis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The searching and utilization of new energy sources and technologies is a current trend. The effort to increase the share of electricity production from renewable energy sources is characteristic for economically developed countries. The use of accumulation of electrical energy with a large number of decentralized storage units is most preferred, as well as the focus on the production of energy at the point of its consumption. Modern cogeneration units are a good example. This paper describes the accumulation of electrical energy for equalizing the power balance of electric charging stations with high instantaneous power. The possibility of re-utilization of electrical energy from the charged vehicle in the case of lack of electricity in the power grid is solved at the same time. This paper also deals with the selection of appropriate concept of accumulation system and its cooperation with both renewable and distribution networks. Details of the main power components including the results obtained from the system implementation are also described in this paper.

  2. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles: battery degradation, grid support, emissions, and battery size tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Scott B.

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) may become a substantial part of the transportation fleet in a decade or two. This dissertation investigates battery degradation, and how introducing PHEVs may influence the electricity grid, emissions, and petroleum use in the US. It examines the effects of combined driving and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) usage on lifetime performance of commercial Li-ion cells. The testing shows promising capacity fade performance: more than 95% of the original cell capacity remains after thousands of driving days. Statistical analyses indicate that rapid vehicle motive cycling degraded the cells more than slower, V2G galvanostatic cycling. These data are used to examine the potential economic implications of using vehicle batteries to store grid electricity generated at off-peak hours for off-vehicle use during peak hours. The maximum annual profit with perfect market information and no battery degradation cost ranged from ˜US140 to 250 in the three cities. If measured battery degradation is applied the maximum annual profit decreases to ˜10-120. The dissertation predicts the increase in electricity load and emissions due to vehicle battery charging in PJM and NYISO with the current generators, with a 50/tonne CO2 price, and with existing coal generators retrofitted with 80% CO2 capture. It also models emissions using natural gas or wind+gas. We examined PHEV fleet percentages between 0.4 and 50%. Compared to 2020 CAFE standards, net CO2 emissions in New York are reduced by switching from gasoline to electricity; coal-heavy PJM shows smaller benefits unless coal units are fitted with CCS or replaced with lower CO2 generation. NOX is reduced in both RTOs, but there is upward pressure on SO2 emissions or allowance prices under a cap. Finally the dissertation compares increasing the all-electric range (AER) of PHEVs to installing charging infrastructure. Fuel use was modeled with National Household Travel Survey and Greenhouse Gasses, Regulated

  3. Current Electric Distribution Network Operation and Grid Tariffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei

    2012-01-01

    The aim of EcoGridEU task 1.4 is to extend the real‐time price approach with an integrated optimization of the distribution system operation. This will be achieved by extending the basic real‐time market concept with local location‐dependant prices that reflect the grid operation, especially...

  4. Smart electric vehicle (EV) charging and grid integration apparatus and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadh, Rajit; Mal, Siddhartha; Prabhu, Shivanand; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Sheikh, Omar; Chung, Ching-Yen; He, Lei; Xiao, Bingjun; Shi, Yiyu

    2015-05-05

    An expert system manages a power grid wherein charging stations are connected to the power grid, with electric vehicles connected to the charging stations, whereby the expert system selectively backfills power from connected electric vehicles to the power grid through a grid tie inverter (if present) within the charging stations. In more traditional usage, the expert system allows for electric vehicle charging, coupled with user preferences as to charge time, charge cost, and charging station capabilities, without exceeding the power grid capacity at any point. A robust yet accurate state of charge (SOC) calculation method is also presented, whereby initially an open circuit voltage (OCV) based on sampled battery voltages and currents is calculated, and then the SOC is obtained based on a mapping between a previously measured reference OCV (ROCV) and SOC. The OCV-SOC calculation method accommodates likely any battery type with any current profile.

  5. Contribution of wind energy to future electricity requirements of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harijan, K.; Uqaili, M. A.; Memon, M.

    2007-01-01

    Pakistan is an energy deficit country. About half of the country's population has no access to electricity and per capita supply is only 520 kWh. About 67% of the conventional electricity is generated from fossil fuels with 51% and 16% share of gas and oil respectively. It has been projected that electricity demand in Pakistan would increase at an average annual growth rate of 5% to 12% under different scenarios. The indigenous reserves of oil and gas are limited and the country heavily depends on imported oil. The oil import bill is a serious strain on the country's economy and has been deteriorating the balance of payment situation. Pakistan is becoming increasingly more dependent on a few sources of supply and its energy security often hangs on the fragile threat of imported oil that is subject to supply disruptions and price volatility. The production and consumption of fossil fuels also adversely affects the quality of the environment due to indiscriminate release of toxic substances. Pakistan spends huge amount on the degradation of the environment. This shows that Pakistan must develop alternate, indigenous and environment friendly energy resources such as wind energy to meet its future electricity requirements. This paper presents an overview of wind power generation potential and assessment of its contribution to future electricity requirements of Pakistan under different policy scenarios. The country has about 1050 km long coastline. The technical potential of centralized grid connected wind power and wind home systems in the coastal area of the country has been estimated as about 484 TWh and 0.135 TWh per year respectively. The study concludes that wind power could meet about 20% to 50% of the electricity demand in Pakistan by the year 2030. The development and utilization of wind power would reduce the pressure on oil imports, protect the environment from pollution and improve the socio-economic conditions of the people

  6. Modelling of Hot Water Storage Tank for Electric Grid Integration and Demand Response Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinha, Rakesh; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2017-01-01

    District heating (DH), based on electric boilers, when integrated into electric network has potential of flexible load with direct/indirect storage to increase the dynamic stability of the grid in terms of power production and consumption with wind and solar. The two different models of electric...

  7. Managing high penetration of renewable energy in MV grid by electric vehicle storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kordheili, Reza Ahmadi; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an intelligent algorithm for dealing with high penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs) in the medium voltage by intelligently managing electric vehicles (EVs), as one of the grid flexible loads. The MV grid used in this work is a CIGRE benchmark grid. Different...... residential and industrial loads are considered in this grid. The connection of medium voltage wind turbines to the grid is investigated. The solar panels in this study are residential panels. Also, EVs are located among the buses with residential demand. The study is done for different winter and summer...... scenarios, considering typical load profiles in Denmark. Different scenarios have been studied with different penetration level of RESs in the grid. The results show the capability of the proposed algorithm to reduce voltage deviations among the grid buses, as well as to increase the RES penetration...

  8. Energy storage at the threshold: Smart mobility and the grid of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, George

    2018-01-01

    Energy storage is poised to drive transformations in transportation and the electricity grid that personalize access to mobility and energy services, not unlike the transformation of smart phones that personalized access to people and information. Storage will work with other emerging technologies such as electric vehicles, ride-sharing, self-driving and connected cars in transportation and with renewable generation, distributed energy resources and smart energy management on the grid to create mobility and electricity as services matched to customer needs replacing the conventional one-size-fits-all approach. This survey outlines the prospects, challenges and impacts of the coming mobility and electricity transformations.

  9. A Harmonic Impedance Measurement System for Reduction of Harmonics in the Electricity Grid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heskes, P.J.M.; Myrzik, J.M.A.; Kling, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Complex Harmonic Impedance Measurement system, called the CHIME-system. This system performs on-line impedance measurements in the electricity grid and will be designed for implementation in Digital Signal Processor (DSP) control systems of grid-connected

  10. A harmonic impedance measurement system for reduction of harmonics in the electricity grid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heskes, P.J.M.; Myrzik, J.M.A.; Kling, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Complex Harmonic Impedance Measurement system, called the CHIME-system. This system performs on-line impedance measurements in the electricity grid and will be designed for implementation in Digital Signal Processor (DSP) control systems of grid-connected

  11. Evaluation of the electric vehicle impact in the power demand curve in a smart grid environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago; Vale, Zita; Faria, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Multi-objective optimization of operation costs and load factor. • Contribution of electric vehicles to load diagram leveling. • Use of epigraph variables to transform non-convex functions in convex ones. • Evaluation of the obtained results considering different EVs penetration. - Abstract: Smart grids with an intensive penetration of distributed energy resources will play an important role in future power system scenarios. The intermittent nature of renewable energy sources brings new challenges, requiring an efficient management of those sources. Additional storage resources can be beneficially used to address this problem; the massive use of electric vehicles, particularly of vehicle-to-grid (usually referred as gridable vehicles or V2G), becomes a very relevant issue. This paper addresses the impact of Electric Vehicles (EVs) in system operation costs and in power demand curve for a distribution network with large penetration of Distributed Generation (DG) units. An efficient management methodology for EVs charging and discharging is proposed, considering a multi-objective optimization problem. The main goals of the proposed methodology are: to minimize the system operation costs and to minimize the difference between the minimum and maximum system demand (leveling the power demand curve). The proposed methodology perform the day-ahead scheduling of distributed energy resources in a distribution network with high penetration of DG and a large number of electric vehicles. It is used a 32-bus distribution network in the case study section considering different scenarios of EVs penetration to analyze their impact in the network and in the other energy resources management

  12. Smart grid communication-enabled intelligence for the electric power grid

    CERN Document Server

    Bush, Stephen F

    2014-01-01

    This book bridges the divide between the fields of power systems engineering and computer communication through the new field of power system information theory. Written by an expert with vast experience in the field, this book explores the smart grid from generation to consumption, both as it is planned today and how it will evolve tomorrow. The book focuses upon what differentiates the smart grid from the ""traditional"" power grid as it has been known for the last century. Furthermore, the author provides the reader with a fundamental understanding of both power systems and communication ne

  13. Croatia's rural areas - renewable energy based electricity generation for isolated grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protic Sonja Maria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several Western Balkan states face the consequences of the Yugoslavian war, which left hometowns with dilapidated electricity grid connections, a high average age of power plant capacities and low integration of renewable energy sources, grid bottlenecks and a lack of competition. In order to supply all households with electricity, UNDP Croatia did a research on decentralized supply systems based on renewable energy sources. Decentralized supply systems offer cheaper electricity connections and provide faster support to rural development. This paper proposes a developed methodology to financially compare isolated grid solutions that primarily use renewable energies to an extension of the public electricity network to small regions in Croatia. Isolated grid supply proves to be very often a preferable option. Furthermore, it points out the lack of a reliable evaluation of non-monetizable aspects and promotes a new interdisciplinary approach.

  14. Application of Network-Constrained Transactive Control to Electric Vehicle Charging for Secure Grid Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Yang, Guangya; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2016-01-01

    including power transformer congestion and voltage violations. In this method, a price coordinator is introduced to facilitate the interaction between the distribution system operator (DSO) and aggregators in the smart grid. Electric vehicles are used to illustrate the proposed network...

  15. Potential For Plug-In Electric Vehicles To Provide Grid Support Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, F. G.; Luo, Y.; Mohanpurkar, M.; Hovsapian, R.; Scoffield, D.

    2017-04-01

    Since the modern-day introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), scientists have proposed leveraging PEV battery packs as distributed energy resources for the electric grid. PEV charging can be controlled not only to provide energy for transportation but also to provide grid services and to facilitate the integration of renewable energy generation. With renewable generation increasing at an unprecedented rate, most of which is non-dispatchable and intermittent, the concept of using PEVs as controllable loads is appealing to electric utilities. This additional functionality could also provide value to PEV owners and drive PEV adoption. It has been widely proposed that PEVs can provide valuable grid services, such as load shifting to provide voltage regulation. The objective this work is to address the degree to which PEVs can provide grid services and mutually benefit the electric utilities, PEV owners, and auto manufacturers.

  16. Electric vehicles in low voltage residential grid: a danish case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Huang, Shaojun; Thøgersen, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EVs) have gained large interest in the energy sector as a carrier to support clean transportation and green electricity. The potential to use battery storages of electric vehicles as a sink for excess electricity that may result from large integration of wind power, especially...... in countries like Denmark, is widely discussed and promoted. However, the wide-spread adoption of EVs requires the provision of intelligent grid and EV charging infrastructure. To analyse and understand the amount of EVs that could be integrated in the local distribution grids, within its existing capabilities......, is absolutely essential for the system operators to plan and implement the levels of grid reinforcement and intelligence required. This paper investigates the local grid limitations to accommodate large amount of EVs of sizable power ratings in residential areas. The case study applied in this paper uses...

  17. Suburban Housing Development and Off-Grid Electric Power Supply Assessment for North-Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibikunle Olalekan Ogundari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy infrastructures in North-Central Nigeria are inadequate and grid electricity is unable to meet suburban housing electricity demand. The alternative power-supply options proposed by government for the region require appropriation analysis for selection. Four public housing estates in suburban Abuja are selected for electricity demand analysis under conventional and energy-efficient lighting scenarios; then techno-economic parameters of two off-grid electric power supply systems (PV and Diesel-powered generation to meet these electricity demands are evaluated. An energy techno-economic assessment methodology is used. The study determines the energy-efficient lighting system is appropriate with 40% energy savings relative to the Conventional Lighting Systems. The diesel generator alternative power-supply option has Life Cycle Costs almost 4 times those of the PV option. The study established the PV-energy-efficient lighting system as the most feasible off-grid electric power supply alternative for implementation.

  18. Optimizing electrical load pattern in Kuwait using grid connected photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hasan, A.Y.; Ghoneim, A.A.; Abdullah, A.H.

    2004-01-01

    Grid connected photovoltaic systems is one of the most promising applications of photovoltaic systems. These systems are employed in applications where utility service is already available. In this case, there is no need for battery storage because grid power may be used to supplement photovoltaic systems (PV) when the load exceeds available PV generation. The load receives electricity from both the photovoltaic array and the utility grid. In this system, the load is the total electrical energy consumption. The main objective of the present work is to optimize the electrical load pattern in Kuwait using grid connected PV systems. In this situation, the electric load demand can be satisfied from both the photovoltaic array and the utility grid. The performance of grid connected photovoltaic systems in the Kuwait climate has been evaluated. It was found that the peak load matches the maximum incident solar radiation in Kuwait, which would emphasize the role of using the PV station to minimize the electrical load demand. In addition, a significant reduction in peak load can be achieved with grid connected PV systems

  19. Technical Research on the Electric Power Big Data Platform of Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiguang MA; Haiyan Wang; Quanming Zhang; Yuan Liang

    2017-01-01

    Through elaborating on the associated relationship among electric power big data, cloud computing and smart grid, this paper put forward general framework of electric power big data platform based on the smart grid. The general framework of the platform is divided into five layers, namely data source layer, data integration and storage layer, data processing and scheduling layer, data analysis layer and application layer. This paper makes in-depth exploration and studies the integrated manage...

  20. Overcoming Challenges of Renewable Energy on Future Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawole Joseph Petinrin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing complexity of the conventional grid due to population growth, advancement in technology and infrastructures which contribute immensely to instability, insecurity, and inefficiency and environmental energy sustainability calls for the use of renewable energy for sustainability of power supply. Intermittency and fluctuation of the renewable energy is a great challenge on the smart grid. This paper reveal the potential challenges of renewable energy on the smart grid and proffer solution with the application of high voltage DC (HVDC and Flexible AC transmission system (FACTS devices. The functions and advantages of FACTS devices are presented in this paper. Voltage control and stability control with FACTS application are also discussed. This was achieved because FACTS has fast controllability and capability to exchange active and reactive power independently.

  1. Electric arc discharge damage to ion thruster grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, D. D.; Nakanishi, S.; Finke, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    Arcs representative of those occurring between the grids of a mercury ion thruster were simulated. Parameters affecting an arc and the resulting damage were studied. The parameters investigated were arc energy, arc duration, and grid geometry. Arc attenuation techniques were also investigated. Potentially serious damage occurred at all energy levels representative of actual thruster operating conditions. Of the grids tested, the lowest open-area configuration sustained the least damage for given conditions. At a fixed energy level a long duration discharge caused greater damage than a short discharge. Attenuation of arc current using various impedances proved to be effective in reducing arc damage. Faults were also deliberately caused using chips of sputtered materials formed during the operation of an actual thruster. These faults were cleared with no serious grid damage resulting using the principles and methods developed in this study.

  2. Communication solutions for intelligent electricity grid; Kommunikationsloesungen fuer intelligente Stromnetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fielhauer, Jochen; Wieserner, Gerhard [Siemens AG, Nuernberg (Germany). Business Unit Sensors and Communication

    2013-06-01

    A central role in the construction of power transmission and power distribution systems are solutions that withstand even the harsh environmental conditions and meet performance-critical applications reliably and without interference. This also applies to all ethernet networks in the power generation and power distribution. Secure and robust communication solutions for smart grids which enable a cost-effective remote monitoring and control of smart grids are decisive.

  3. Needs for Constructing and Possibilities of Nuclear Power Plants Interconnection to the Croatian Electricity Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeljko, M.; Bajs, D.

    1998-01-01

    Due to development of electric power system and considering an increase of electrical energy consumption, needs for larger units in new power plants are obvious. Connection of large nuclear power plants to the grid, depending on their power and location, usually requires significant investments in transmission network development and construction. Considering the capacity of the 400 kV transmission network in Croatia, this problem is evident. This paper deals with the possibilities of nuclear power plants construction, as one possible option in electric power system development, and their interconnection to the electricity grid. (author)

  4. Simulation of Electrical Grid with Omnet++ Open Source Discrete Event System Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sőrés Milán

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of electrical networks is very important before development and servicing of electrical networks and grids can occur. There are software that can simulate the behaviour of electrical grids under different operating conditions, but these simulation environments cannot be used in a single cloud-based project, because they are not GNU-licensed software products. In this paper, an integrated framework was proposed that models and simulates communication networks. The design and operation of the simulation environment are investigated and a model of electrical components is proposed. After simulation, the simulation results were compared to manual computed results.

  5. Investing in the electricity and natural gas grids. Movements in the regulation framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Eeuwen, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, an overview is given of the regulation framework for investing in the electricity and natural gas grids. The overview describes which options regulations and regulation practice offer to grid operators for recovering the cost of investing in grids. Attention is paid to possible discrepancies between the European and the Dutch regulation framework. The article illustrates that grid operators currently lack any clarity and hence certainty about the options for recovering their investment costs. At the same time the fact that investments are needed to secure quality and capacity is not under debate. [nl

  6. Grid architecture for future distribution system — A cyber-physical system perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Leonardo Diaz Aldana, Nelson

    2017-01-01

    system need more insight into the system architecture of the grid. In this paper, in light of the start-of-the-art control strategies for microgrids which rely on power electronics systems, a grid architecture model for future distribution system is proposed based on microgrid clusters. Both the physical...

  7. Exploring Distributed Energy Alternatives to Electrical Distribution Grid Expansion in Souhern California Edison Service Territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Kingston, Tim [Gas Technology Institute

    2005-12-01

    Distributed energy (DE) technologies have received much attention for the energy savings and electric power reliability assurances that may be achieved by their widespread adoption. Fueling the attention have been the desires to globally reduce greenhouse gas emissions and concern about easing power transmission and distribution system capacity limitations and congestion. However, these benefits may come at a cost to the electric utility companies in terms of lost revenue and concerns with interconnection on the distribution system. This study assesses the costs and benefits of DE to both consumers and distribution utilities and expands upon a precursory study done with Detroit Edison (DTE)1, by evaluating the combined impact of DE, energy-efficiency, photovoltaics (a use of solar energy), and demand response that will shape the grid of the future. This study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Gas Research Institute (GRI), American Electric Power (AEP), and Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) Distributed Energy Collaborative Program (DECP). It focuses on two real Southern California Edison (SCE) circuits, a 13 MW suburban circuit fictitiously named Justice on the Lincoln substation, and an 8 MW rural circuit fictitiously named Prosper on the Washington Substation. The primary objectives of the study were threefold: (1) Evaluate the potential for using advanced energy technologies, including DE, energy-efficiency (EE), demand response, electricity storage, and photovoltaics (PV), to reshape electric load curves by reducing peak demand, for real circuits. (2) Investigate the potential impact on guiding technology deployment and managing operation in a way that benefits both utilities and their customers by: (a) Improving grid load factor for utilities; (b) Reducing energy costs for customers; and (c) Optimizing electric demand growth. (3) Demonstrate benefits by reporting on a recently installed advanced energy system at a utility customer site

  8. The smart alternative : securing and strengthening our nation's vulnerable electric grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahigian, K.R.

    2008-01-01

    This article explained the concept of the next generation of electrical power grids known as the Smart Grid, which allows the possibility to either reallocate electricity during times of crisis or peak demand or prevent power disruptions through proactive diagnosis. The author examined the security, economic and environmental benefits of implementing the Smart Grid during a time of rising energy prices and desire for energy independence. The Smart Grid uses advanced communications and information technologies to create a modern transmission and distribution network that facilitates the integration of alternative energy sources such as wind and solar power, as well as energy-efficient technologies such as plug-in hybrid vehicles. The author emphasized that implementing the Smart Grid grid is also vital to strengthening America's resilience and security since a more robust energy infrastructure will ensure the reliable flow of electricity in the event of a crisis. In addition to promoting energy efficiency, the Smart Grid offers economic benefits, such as reducing the billions of dollars lost each year by American businesses on power outages. A Smart Grid could also open lucrative new markets for smart technologies. 2 figs

  9. Two-Stage Electric Vehicle Charging Coordination in Low Voltage Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2014-01-01

    ). Being a sizable rated element, electric vehicles (EVs) can offer a great deal of demand flexibility in future intelligent grids. This paper first investigates and analyzes driving pattern and charging requirements of EVs. Secondly, a two-stage charging algorithm, namely local adaptive control...... encompassed by a central coordinative control, is proposed to realize the flexibility offered by EV. The local control enables adaptive charging; whereas the central coordinative control prepares optimized charging schedules. Results from various scenarios show that the proposed algorithm enables significant......Increased environmental awareness in the recent years has encouraged rapid growth of renewable energy sources (RESs); especially solar PV and wind. One of the effective solutions to compensate intermittencies in generation from the RESs is to enable consumer participation in demand response (DR...

  10. Towards future organization of French electricity sector; Vers la future organisation electrique francaise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss-Kahn, Dominique; Pierret, Christian [Ministere de l' Economie, des Finances et de l' Industrie, Paris (France)

    2000-02-07

    This document displays information and questions concerning the future organization of the French electric sector. The directive on the domestic electricity market was adopted in 1996 by the Council of the Ministers of European Union and Parliament. The member states were due to transpose the directive within their national legislation up to 19 February 1999. The directive establishes principles but provides large reaches of maneuver to the member states which can choose the organizational means according to their own expectations. These task is considered as feasible by the authors. It must reinforce the public service by giving added strength to the security of supply and ensuring everybody's access to a well marketed and high quality electric supply. By introduction of certain well controlled elements of competition this evolution should also contribute to cost lowering, boost of the national competitiveness and support of employment. The document contains seven chapters which expose the following items: 1. The objectives of reorganization; 2. The directive and its reach; 3. Strengthening the public service; 4. Revamping the electric service to promote the growth; 5. Preserving the grids for the general benefit; 6. Defining the place of EDF within the new organizational scheme; 7. Developing an efficient regulation. Finally, an appendix is given containing the Directive 96/92/CE of the European Parliament and Council of 19 October 1996, concerning the common rules for domestic electricity market.

  11. Research on the impacts of large-scale electric vehicles integration into power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chuankun; Zhang, Jian

    2018-06-01

    Because of its special energy driving mode, electric vehicles can improve the efficiency of energy utilization and reduce the pollution to the environment, which is being paid more and more attention. But the charging behavior of electric vehicles is random and intermittent. If the electric vehicle is disordered charging in a large scale, it causes great pressure on the structure and operation of the power grid and affects the safety and economic operation of the power grid. With the development of V2G technology in electric vehicle, the study of the charging and discharging characteristics of electric vehicles is of great significance for improving the safe operation of the power grid and the efficiency of energy utilization.

  12. Advanced Power Converter for Universal and Flexible Power Management in Future Electricity Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Bassett, R.

    2007-01-01

    converters for grid connection of renewable sources will be needed. These power converters must be able to provide intelligent power management as well as ancillary services. This paper presents the overall structure and the control aspects of an advanced power converter for universal and flexible power......More "green" power provided by Distributed Generation will enter into the European electricity network in the near future. In order to control the power flow and to ensure proper and secure operation of this future grid, with an increased level of the renewable power, new power electronic...

  13. The importance of nuclear energy for the expansion of Brazil's electricity grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Ricardo Luis Pereira dos; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli; Arouca, Maurício Cardoso; Ribeiro, Alan Emanuel Duailibe

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the thermal energy options available in the country to support the expansion of Brazil's electricity grid capacity. The country's electricity mix consists primarily of renewable sources of energy and this configuration will be maintained throughout the 21st century. However, grid expansion can no longer benefit from hydroelectric power plants with large reservoirs leading to a greater participation of thermal power plants. Among the thermal sources available in the country, nuclear power has important comparative advantages. Recognizing these benefits, the Brazilian government has established that expanding electricity grid capacity will amount to up to 8000 MW through nuclear energy by 2030. The use of nuclear technology for electricity generation has historically been a controversial issue worldwide and some countries have decided to review their nuclear programs in the aftermath of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident. This article shows that increasing the participation of nuclear energy in Brazil's electricity grid will provide important benefits for the country by ensuring energy security, keeping Brazil's electricity mix as one of the cleanest in the world, securing electricity grid reliability and safety and reducing operating costs. - Highlights: • The expansion of the power capacity is essential to support the economic growth. • The increase through hydropower cannot benefit from storage reservoirs. • It will be necessary to increase the capacity thermal power. • Nuclear power has significant comparative advantages in Brazil. • Brazil has institutional base, uranium reserves and nuclear technology

  14. Infrastructure for Integration of Legacy Electrical Equipment into a Smart-Grid Using Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Paulo Régis C; Filho, Raimir Holanda; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Oliveira, João P C M; Braga, Stephanie A

    2018-04-24

    At present, the standardisation of electrical equipment communications is on the rise. In particular, manufacturers are releasing equipment for the smart grid endowed with communication protocols such as DNP3, IEC 61850, and MODBUS. However, there are legacy equipment operating in the electricity distribution network that cannot communicate using any of these protocols. Thus, we propose an infrastructure to allow the integration of legacy electrical equipment to smart grids by using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this infrastructure, each legacy electrical device is connected to a sensor node, and the sink node runs a middleware that enables the integration of this device into a smart grid based on suitable communication protocols. This middleware performs tasks such as the translation of messages between the power substation control centre (PSCC) and electrical equipment in the smart grid. Moreover, the infrastructure satisfies certain requirements for communication between the electrical equipment and the PSCC, such as enhanced security, short response time, and automatic configuration. The paper’s contributions include a solution that enables electrical companies to integrate their legacy equipment into smart-grid networks relying on any of the above mentioned communication protocols. This integration will reduce the costs related to the modernisation of power substations.

  15. Infrastructure for Integration of Legacy Electrical Equipment into a Smart-Grid Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Régis C. de Araújo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, the standardisation of electrical equipment communications is on the rise. In particular, manufacturers are releasing equipment for the smart grid endowed with communication protocols such as DNP3, IEC 61850, and MODBUS. However, there are legacy equipment operating in the electricity distribution network that cannot communicate using any of these protocols. Thus, we propose an infrastructure to allow the integration of legacy electrical equipment to smart grids by using wireless sensor networks (WSNs. In this infrastructure, each legacy electrical device is connected to a sensor node, and the sink node runs a middleware that enables the integration of this device into a smart grid based on suitable communication protocols. This middleware performs tasks such as the translation of messages between the power substation control centre (PSCC and electrical equipment in the smart grid. Moreover, the infrastructure satisfies certain requirements for communication between the electrical equipment and the PSCC, such as enhanced security, short response time, and automatic configuration. The paper’s contributions include a solution that enables electrical companies to integrate their legacy equipment into smart-grid networks relying on any of the above mentioned communication protocols. This integration will reduce the costs related to the modernisation of power substations.

  16. Assessing the stationary energy storage equivalency of vehicle-to-grid charging battery electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarroja, Brian; Zhang, Li; Wifvat, Van; Shaffer, Brendan; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A study has been performed to understand the quantitative impact of key differences between vehicle-to-grid and stationary energy storage systems on renewable utilization, greenhouse gas emissions, and balancing fleet operation, using California as the example. To simulate the combined electricity and light-duty transportation system, a detailed electric grid dispatch model (including stationary energy storage systems) was combined with an electric vehicle charging dispatch model that incorporates conventional smart and vehicle-to-grid capabilities. By subjecting smaller amounts of renewable energy to round-trip efficiency losses and thereby increasing the efficiency of renewable utilization, it was found that vehicle-to-grid energy storage can achieve higher renewable utilization levels and reduced greenhouse gas emissions compared to stationary energy storage systems. Vehicle-to-grid energy storage, however, is not as capable of balancing the power plant fleet compared to stationary energy storage systems due to the constraints of consumer travel patterns. The potential benefits of vehicle-to-grid are strongly dependent on the availability of charging infrastructure at both home and workplaces, with potential benefits being compromised with residential charging availability only. Overall, vehicle-to-grid energy storage can provide benefits over stationary energy storage depending on the system attribute selected for improvement, a finding amenable to managing through policy. - Highlights: • Using vehicle-to-grid-based storage increases the efficiency of renewable energy utilization. • Vehicle-to-grid-based energy storage has less overall flexibility compared to stationary energy storage. • The discharge ability of vehicle-to-grid-based provides a significant benefit over one-way smart charging. • Both workplace and home charging are critical for providing vehicle-to-grid-related benefits. • Increasing charging intelligence reduces stationary energy

  17. Harmonizing electricity markets with physics : real time performance monitoring using grid-3PTM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budhraja, V.S.

    2003-01-01

    The Electric Power Group, LLC provides management and strategic consulting services for the electric power industry, with special emphasis on industry restructuring, competitive electricity markets, grid operations and reliability, power technologies, venture investments and start-ups. The Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions involves national laboratories, universities, and industry partners in researching, developing, and commercializing electric reliability technology solutions to protect and enhance the reliability of the American electric power system under the emerging competitive electricity market structure. Physics differentiate electric markets from other markets: there is real-time balancing, no storage, interconnected network, and power flows governed by physics. Some issues affecting both grid reliability and market issues are difficult to separate, such as security and congestion management, voltage management, reserves, frequency volatility, and others. The author examined the following investment challenges facing the electricity market: grid solutions, market solutions, and technology solutions. The real time performance monitoring and prediction platform, grid-3P was described and applications discussed, such as ACE-frequency monitoring, performance monitoring for automatic generation control (AGC) and frequency response, voltage/VAR monitoring, stability monitoring using phasor technology, and market monitoring. figs

  18. Electricity tariff systems for informatics system design regarding consumption optimization in smart grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Vasilica OPREA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High volume of data is gathered via sensors and recorded by smart meters. These data are processed at the electricity consumer and grid operators' side by big data analytics. Electricity consumption optimization offers multiple advantages for both consumers and grid operators. At the electricity customer level, by optimizing electricity consumption savings are significant, but the main benefits will come from indirect aspects such as avoiding onerous grid investments, higher volume of renewable energy sources' integration, less polluted environment etc. In order to optimize electricity consumption, advanced tariff systems are essential due to the financial incentive they provide for electricity consumers' behaviour change. In this paper several advanced tariff systems are described in details. These systems are applied in England, Spain, Italy, France, Norway and Germany. These systems are compared from characteristics, advantages/disadvantages point of view. Then, different tariff systems applied in Romania are presented. Romanian tariff systems have been designed for various electricity consumers' types. Different tariff systems applied by grid operators or electricity suppliers will be included in the database model that is part of an informatics system for electricity consumption optimization.

  19. Cyber physical systems approach to smart electric power grid

    CERN Document Server

    Khaitan, Siddhartha Kumar; Liu, Chen Ching

    2015-01-01

    This book documents recent advances in the field of modeling, simulation, control, security and reliability of Cyber- Physical Systems (CPS) in power grids. The aim of this book is to help the reader gain insights into working of CPSs and understand their potential in transforming the power grids of tomorrow. This book will be useful for all those who are interested in design of cyber-physical systems, be they students or researchers in power systems, CPS modeling software developers, technical marketing professionals and business policy-makers.

  20. Identification of observables for future grids – the framework developed in the ELECTRA project

    OpenAIRE

    Visscher, Klaas; Marinelli, Mattia; Morch, Andrei Z.; Jakobsson, Sigurd Hofsmo

    2015-01-01

    The main subject of this paper is the classification and identification of observables for present and future grids. In order to make an inventory of present and potentially new observables, a systematic classification and identification of observables for future grids is conducted. After first introducing some fundamental definitions for observables, observables are further classified by the characteristic time scale where they are used in the physical power system. For actual use in control...

  1. Operating the worldwide LHC computing grid: current and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, J Flix; Forti, A; Girone, M; Sciaba, A

    2014-01-01

    The Wordwide LHC Computing Grid project (WLCG) provides the computing and storage resources required by the LHC collaborations to store, process and analyse their data. It includes almost 200,000 CPU cores, 200 PB of disk storage and 200 PB of tape storage distributed among more than 150 sites. The WLCG operations team is responsible for several essential tasks, such as the coordination of testing and deployment of Grid middleware and services, communication with the experiments and the sites, followup and resolution of operational issues and medium/long term planning. In 2012 WLCG critically reviewed all operational procedures and restructured the organisation of the operations team as a more coherent effort in order to improve its efficiency. In this paper we describe how the new organisation works, its recent successes and the changes to be implemented during the long LHC shutdown in preparation for the LHC Run 2.

  2. Grid parity. Holy Grail or hype? Photovoltaic solar electricity on its way to competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinke, W.C.

    2009-05-01

    Solar energy has a huge global and European potential for sustainable generation of electricity, heat and fuels. Photovoltaic solar energy conversion (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) are the two options for electricity generation. In the longer term they may also be used to generate sustainable fuel, especially hydrogen, if that would turn out to be useful in the total energy mix. Because of the different nature of the PV and CSP conversion processes and the related distinctive features, they can be considered largely complementary Clearly, the combination of the two absolutely makes a winning team and may form (or even has to form) the basis of our future sustainable energy system. Grid parity is a rather simplified indicator of the competitiveness of PV. It is nevertheless very useful since it assumes the viewpoint of a potential investor in a PV system and has thus helped to define potential markets. Moreover the concept does roughly illustrate how long it takes PV to reach competitiveness in different segments of the electricity market. It may not be the Holy Grail but it is certainly no hype either. When used with care it is one key to the success of PV.

  3. A Study on Grid-Square Statistics Based Estimation of Regional Electricity Demand and Regional Potential Capacity of Distributed Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takeyoshi; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    We established a procedure for estimating regional electricity demand and regional potential capacity of distributed generators (DGs) by using a grid square statistics data set. A photovoltaic power system (PV system) for residential use and a co-generation system (CGS) for both residential and commercial use were taken into account. As an example, the result regarding Aichi prefecture was presented in this paper. The statistical data of the number of households by family-type and the number of employees by business category for about 4000 grid-square with 1km × 1km area was used to estimate the floor space or the electricity demand distribution. The rooftop area available for installing PV systems was also estimated with the grid-square statistics data set. Considering the relation between a capacity of existing CGS and a scale-index of building where CGS is installed, the potential capacity of CGS was estimated for three business categories, i.e. hotel, hospital, store. In some regions, the potential capacity of PV systems was estimated to be about 10,000kW/km2, which corresponds to the density of the existing area with intensive installation of PV systems. Finally, we discussed the ratio of regional potential capacity of DGs to regional maximum electricity demand for deducing the appropriate capacity of DGs in the model of future electricity distribution system.

  4. Integrating Solar Power onto the Electric Grid - Bridging the Gap between Atmospheric Science, Engineering and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonima, M. S.; Yang, H.; Zhong, X.; Ozge, B.; Sahu, D. K.; Kim, C. K.; Babacan, O.; Hanna, R.; Kurtz, B.; Mejia, F. A.; Nguyen, A.; Urquhart, B.; Chow, C. W.; Mathiesen, P.; Bosch, J.; Wang, G.

    2015-12-01

    One of the main obstacles to high penetrations of solar power is the variable nature of solar power generation. To mitigate variability, grid operators have to schedule additional reliability resources, at considerable expense, to ensure that load requirements are met by generation. Thus despite the cost of solar PV decreasing, the cost of integrating solar power will increase as penetration of solar resources onto the electric grid increases. There are three principal tools currently available to mitigate variability impacts: (i) flexible generation, (ii) storage, either virtual (demand response) or physical devices and (iii) solar forecasting. Storage devices are a powerful tool capable of ensuring smooth power output from renewable resources. However, the high cost of storage is prohibitive and markets are still being designed to leverage their full potential and mitigate their limitation (e.g. empty storage). Solar forecasting provides valuable information on the daily net load profile and upcoming ramps (increasing or decreasing solar power output) thereby providing the grid advance warning to schedule ancillary generation more accurately, or curtail solar power output. In order to develop solar forecasting as a tool that can be utilized by the grid operators we identified two focus areas: (i) develop solar forecast technology and improve solar forecast accuracy and (ii) develop forecasts that can be incorporated within existing grid planning and operation infrastructure. The first issue required atmospheric science and engineering research, while the second required detailed knowledge of energy markets, and power engineering. Motivated by this background we will emphasize area (i) in this talk and provide an overview of recent advancements in solar forecasting especially in two areas: (a) Numerical modeling tools for coastal stratocumulus to improve scheduling in the day-ahead California energy market. (b) Development of a sky imager to provide short term

  5. Distributed Generation Integration in the Electric Grid: Energy Storage System for Frequency Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Delfanti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last few years generation from renewable energy sources (RESs has grown considerably in European electrical networks. Transmission system operators are greatly concerned about the impact of RESs on the operational security and efficiency of their networks and more in general of the ENTSO-E interconnected system. Grid codes are to be revised in order to harmonise the rules regarding the connection of RES power plants. A main issue concerns frequency control: frequency is greatly affected by RESs intermittency and its deviations must be limited as much as possible in order to guarantee a suitable level of power quality. To improve frequency stability, in the future, Grid codes could extend frequency control requirements also to RES units, whereas today they are applied only to conventional power plants. Energy storage systems can be a possible solution to increase the flexibility and performance of RES power plants: they allow generators to modulate their power injections without wasting renewable energy. In this paper, the authors studied the suitability of extending frequency control to RES units integrating them with energy storage systems. In particular, the paper focuses on the impact of frequency control on the storage lifetime by analysing the power charge/discharge in response to real frequency oscillations.

  6. Consumer adoption and grid impact models for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    This proposed study focuses on assessing the demand for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in Wisconsin and its economic : impacts on the States energy market and the electric grid. PHEVs are expected to provide a range of about 40 miles per ...

  7. Power quality issues into a Danish low-voltage grid with electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Jensen, Morten M.; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    An increased interest on electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is dealing with their introduction into low voltage (LV) distribution grids. Lately, analysis on power quality issues has received attention when considering EVs as additional load. The charging of EVs...

  8. Balancing services in smart electricity grids enabled by market-driven software agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmer, C.J.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Hermans, R.M.; Frunt, J.; Jokic, A.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    An important prerequisite for reliable and stable operation of electrical power grids is that supply and demand of power are balanced at all times. In traditional, centrally-controlled electrical power networks, real-time balancing is usually implemented by adjusting large-scale generation to

  9. Optimal design for an electrical hybrid micro grid in Colombia under fuel price variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-álvarez, Semaria; Patiño, Julián; Márquez, Alejandro; Espinosa, Jairo

    2017-01-01

    In many ways, the availability of electrical energy is associated with the degree of development of a society. In spite of the recent technological advancements, many Latin-American countries remain with a wide number of towns isolated from the main grid of their electrical power systems. Colombia

  10. Distributed Optimal Control of Smart Electricity Grids With Congestion Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Dinh Bao; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Bliek, F

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the balancing problem in a hierarchical market-based structure for smart energy grids that is based on the Universal Smart Energy Framework. The large-scale introduction of renewable, intermittent energy sources in the power system can create a mismatch between the

  11. Designing for Wide-Area Situation Awareness in Future Power Grid Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Fiona F.

    Power grid operation uncertainty and complexity continue to increase with the rise of electricity market deregulation, renewable generation, and interconnectedness between multiple jurisdictions. Human operators need appropriate wide-area visualizations to help them monitor system status to ensure reliable operation of the interconnected power grid. We observed transmission operations at a control centre, conducted critical incident interviews, and led focus group sessions with operators. The results informed a Work Domain Analysis of power grid operations, which in turn informed an Ecological Interface Design concept for wide-area monitoring. I validated design concepts through tabletop discussions and a usability evaluation with operators, earning a mean System Usability Scale score of 77 out of 90. The design concepts aim to support an operator's complete and accurate understanding of the power grid state, which operators increasingly require due to the critical nature of power grid infrastructure and growing sources of system uncertainty.

  12. "Can Vehicle-to-Grid Revenue Help Electric Vehicles on the Market?"

    OpenAIRE

    George R. Parsons; Michael K. Hidrue; Willett Kempton; Meryl P. Gardner

    2011-01-01

    Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) electric vehicles can return power stored in their batteries back to the power grid and be programmed to do so at times when power prices are high. Since providing this service can lead to payments to owners of vehicles, it effectively reduces the cost of electric vehicles. Using data from a national stated preference survey (n = 3029), this paper presents the first study of the potential consumer demand for V2G electric vehicles. In our choice experiment, 3029 responden...

  13. Electricity from Wind for Off-Grid Applications in Bangladesh: A Techno-Economic Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mustafizur Rahman

    2017-03-01

      Keywords: GHG emission, cost of electricity, off-grid, wind energy, electricity generation. Article History: Received October 15th 2016; Received in revised form January 26th 2017; Accepted February 4th 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Rahman, M.M., Baky, M.A.H, and Islam, A.K.M.S. (2017 Electricity from Wind for Off-Grid Applications in Bangladesh: A Techno-Economic Assessment. International Journal of Renewable Energy Develeopment, 6(1, 55-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.1.55-64

  14. Electricity market design of the future; Strommarktdesign der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Markus; Diels, Robert [r2b energy consulting GmbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    The transformation of the power generation system, to one in which renewable energies will form a cornerstone, will change the requirements for all market actors. To achieve the goals of the German Energiewende ('energy transition'), greater flexibility in production and consumption is of particular importance. Flexibility enables the cost-effective integration of the fluctuating actual feed-in of renewable energies. On the one hand, the technical options for reducing existing technical inflexibilities are given to a considerable extent. On the other hand, analyses of the transnational compensation effects of load and renewable energy supply (RES) feed-in show that flexibility requirements can be reduced significantly in a common electricity market. Electricity markets in which there is open technological competition are an appropriate instrument for the flexibilization of the power supply system. In the short term, the mechanisms of competitive electricity markets ensure an efficient synchronization of supply and demand. Over the medium and long term, the market creates efficient incentives to adapt the generation system and the behavior of consumers to future needs, resulting from the changes in the residual load structure. But at the same time, in recent years the occurrence of negative electricity prices in situations with significantly positive residual loads show that flexibility restraints exist. The causes of these restraints are at least partly due to the market design or the regulatory framework. On the one hand, there are barriers to market entry and, on the other hand, price signals from the electricity markets do not reach all market actors or reach them distortedly. To enable the cost effective development of the different flexibility options in an open technology competition, restraints resulting from market design and the regulatory framework (e. g. in the framework of grid charges, the market and product design of control power markets

  15. Swiss electricity production into the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmann, Walter

    2008-01-01

    In January 2007 the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's work on energy perspectives up until 2035 were concluded and presented. The results form the basis for political debate on the future direction of Switzerland's energy and climate policies. The energy perspectives point to an increase in demand for electricity in Switzerland by 2035 of around 20% and a deficit of roughly 17 billion kWh if no extra measures are taken. This corresponds to twice the annual production of a Swiss nuclear power station. This development and the unharnessed potential in the areas of efficiency and renewable energies prompted Switzerland's Federal Council to decide on a reorientation of its energy policy in 2007. This is based on four pillars: 1. Improved energy efficiency; 2. Promotion of renewable energy; 3. Targeted extension and construction of large-scale power stations; 4. Intensification of foreign energy policy, particularly in terms of cooperation with the EU. 2008 has got off to a strong start in terms of energy policy - the CO 2 tax on fuels has been introduced and the first package of the new Energy Supply Act (StromVG) has entered into force. The new Electricity Supply Act creates the necessary conditions for a progressive opening of Switzerland's electricity market. From 2009 some 50,000 large customers with an annual electricity consumption of over 100 megawatt hours will be able to benefit from this partial opening and be free to choose their power suppliers. But all other power consumers will benefit right from the start too because their electricity suppliers will also be able to buy in their electricity from the free market and pass on any price savings to their customers. Furthermore, the Electricity Supply Act delivers a clear legal framework for cross-border trade in electricity. In actual fact the opening of the electricity market is already well advanced around Switzerland. Liberalisation also results in cost transparency: As the opening of the electricity market

  16. Economic regulation of electricity grids in Nordic countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, H.B.; EK, G. (Energy Markets Inspectorate, Eskilstuna (Sweden)); Ilonen, M.; Nurmi, S. (Energy Market Authority, Helsinki (Finland)); Moelgaard Jakobsen, N. (Danish Energy Regulatory Authority, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Syvertsen, S.C.; Steinnes, S.H. (Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate, Oslo (Norway))

    2011-12-15

    This report is about the design of economic regulation of electricity companies in the Nordic countries. The purpose is to inform the interested reader on how the regulation of tariffs is designed. The intention is to give a short overview on the current economic regulation with an ambition to focus on differences and similarities. A common feature of the electricity distribution sector is that the industry structure consists of many independent companies with great differences in size and density of customers. This is contrary to what is common in other countries. The regulatory task can be more challenging with many separate utilities to regulate, especially if the industry is very heterogenous. In the appendices, the economic regulation of each country is presented in more detail. In the main text the focus is on differences and similarities. When comparing the regulations one can make two observations. On a superior level there are great similarities. All Nordic countries regulate the network companies by setting revenue caps. The legislation, the goals given to the regulators and the regulators general interpretation of the rules are to a great extent the same. The primary purposes are to prevent the monopolist to overcharge customers and to create a rational network industry. The regulation shall stimulate an effective management resulting in productivity development and optimal quality of the services. The differences in the Nordic economic regulations are in the details - in the setup of the regulatory models and choice of parameters. For instance; the assessment of a reasonable rate-of-return is done in all the regulations. When deciding this rate-of-return some countries use the method of weighted cost of capital (WACC) and capital asset pricing model (CAPM), other do not. Even when using the same method, the inputs in the model are not the same. Common for the regulatory models are the division of costs related to capital costs and operating costs. The

  17. Reducing CO2 emissions on the electric grid through a carbon disincentive policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chiao-Ting; Peng, Huei; Sun, Jing

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the operation of an electric grid with renewable wind generation and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). In particular, PEVs will be the controllable demand that can mitigate the intermittency in wind generation and improve the capacity factors of the non-renewable generation assets on the grid. Optimization problems are formulated to minimize the costs of electricity generation, and two approaches are proposed to address the grid CO 2 emission in the optimization. The first approach directly penalizes CO 2 in the objective function, and the second approach adopts a carbon disincentive policy to alter the dispatch order of power plants, so that expensive low-CO 2 plants can replace cheap high-CO 2 plants. These two approaches result in very different outcomes: the first approach affects only the PEV charging demand on the grid and does not result in significant CO 2 reduction, whereas the second approach controls both the generation and load, and CO 2 can be reduced substantially. In addition, the carbon disincentive policy, unlike a carbon tax, does not collect any revenue; therefore, the increase in electricity cost is minimal. The effect of the proposed algorithms on the grid electricity cost and carbon emission is analyzed in details and reported. - Highlights: • We study the tradeoff between CO 2 emissions and generation cost on an electric grid. • The tradeoff was shown by Pareto fronts obtained from optimizations. • Pareto fronts shows that a carbon disincentive is effective in reducing emissions. • Controlling both supply and demand on the grid is necessary to reduce CO 2 and costs

  18. Transmission grid requirements with scattered and flutuating renewable electricity sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2002-01-01

    Denmark is in a situation with many scattered sources of electricity, that are not controlled by the central load dispatch. At the same time, Denmark is being used as an electricity transit corridor between Norway/Sweden and Germany. Through energy systems analyses and load-flow analyses......, it is determined that if scattered load balancing is introduced, electricity transit is enabled to a higher degree than if central load balancing is maintained....

  19. Electric vehicle charging algorithms for coordination of the grid and distribution transformer levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Muñoz, Edgar; Razeghi, Ghazal; Zhang, Li; Jabbari, Faryar

    2016-01-01

    The need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel consumption has increased the popularity of plug-in electric vehicles. However, a large penetration of plug-in electric vehicles can pose challenges at the grid and local distribution levels. Various charging strategies have been proposed to address such challenges, often separately. In this paper, it is shown that, with uncoordinated charging, distribution transformers and the grid can operate under highly undesirable conditions. Next, several strategies that require modest communication efforts are proposed to mitigate the burden created by high concentrations of plug-in electric vehicles, at the grid and local levels. Existing transformer and battery electric vehicle characteristics are used along with the National Household Travel Survey to simulate various charging strategies. It is shown through the analysis of hot spot temperature and equivalent aging factor that the coordinated strategies proposed here reduce the chances of transformer failure with the addition of plug-in electric vehicle loads, even for an under-designed transformer while uncontrolled and uncoordinated plug-in electric vehicle charging results in increased risk of transformer failure. - Highlights: • Charging algorithm for battery electric vehicles, for high penetration levels. • Algorithm reduces transformer overloading, for grid level valley filling. • Computation and communication requirements are minimal. • The distributed algorithm is implemented without large scale iterations. • Hot spot temperature and loss of life for transformers are evaluated.

  20. Review of DC System Technologies for Large Scale Integration of Wind Energy Systems with Electricity Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Jie Shao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing development and availability of power electronic systems is the underpinning technology that enables large scale integration of wind generation plants with the electricity grid. As the size and power capacity of the wind turbine continues to increase, so is the need to place these significantly large structures at off-shore locations. DC grids and associated power transmission technologies provide opportunities for cost reduction and electricity grid impact minimization as the bulk power is concentrated at single point of entry. As a result, planning, optimization and impact can be studied and carefully controlled minimizing the risk of the investment as well as power system stability issues. This paper discusses the key technologies associated with DC grids for offshore wind farm applications.

  1. Nationwide impact and vehicle to grid application of electric vehicles mobility using an activity based model

    OpenAIRE

    Álvaro, Roberto; González, Jairo; Fraile Ardanuy, José Jesús; Knapen, Luk; Janssens, Davy

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the impact of electric mobility on the transmission grid in Flanders region (Belgium), using a micro-simulation activity based models. These models are used to provide temporal and spatial estimation of energy and power demanded by electric vehicles (EVs) in different mobility zones. The increment in the load demand due to electric mobility is added to the background load demand in these mobility areas and the effects over the transmission substations are analyzed. From t...

  2. Market-based Demand Response via Residential Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Smart Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Rassaei, Farshad; Soh, Wee-Seng; Chua, Kee-Chaing

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility in power demand, diverse usage patterns and storage capability of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) grow the elasticity of residential electricity demand remarkably. This elasticity can be utilized to form the daily aggregated demand profile and/or alter instantaneous demand of a system wherein a large number of residential PEVs share one electricity retailer or an aggregator. In this paper, we propose a demand response (DR) technique to manage vehicle-to-grid (V2G) enabled PEVs' e...

  3. Maximum capacity model of grid-connected multi-wind farms considering static security constraints in electrical grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, W; Oodo, S O; He, H; Qiu, G Y

    2013-01-01

    An increasing interest in wind energy and the advance of related technologies have increased the connection of wind power generation into electrical grids. This paper proposes an optimization model for determining the maximum capacity of wind farms in a power system. In this model, generator power output limits, voltage limits and thermal limits of branches in the grid system were considered in order to limit the steady-state security influence of wind generators on the power system. The optimization model was solved by a nonlinear primal-dual interior-point method. An IEEE-30 bus system with two wind farms was tested through simulation studies, plus an analysis conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed model. The results indicated that the model is efficient and reasonable.

  4. Maximum capacity model of grid-connected multi-wind farms considering static security constraints in electrical grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, W.; Qiu, G. Y.; Oodo, S. O.; He, H.

    2013-03-01

    An increasing interest in wind energy and the advance of related technologies have increased the connection of wind power generation into electrical grids. This paper proposes an optimization model for determining the maximum capacity of wind farms in a power system. In this model, generator power output limits, voltage limits and thermal limits of branches in the grid system were considered in order to limit the steady-state security influence of wind generators on the power system. The optimization model was solved by a nonlinear primal-dual interior-point method. An IEEE-30 bus system with two wind farms was tested through simulation studies, plus an analysis conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed model. The results indicated that the model is efficient and reasonable.

  5. Distributed Energy Systems: Security Implications of the Grid of the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamber, Kevin L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kelic, Andjelka [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Taylor, Robert A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Henry, Jordan M [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stamp, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Distributed Energy Resources (DER) are being added to the nation's electric grid, and as penetration of these resources increases, they have the potential to displace or offset large-scale, capital-intensive, centralized generation. Integration of DER into operation of the traditional electric grid requires automated operational control and communication of DER elements, from system measurement to control hardware and software, in conjunction with a utility's existing automated and human-directed control of other portions of the system. Implementation of DER technologies suggests a number of gaps from both a security and a policy perspective. This page intentionally left blank.

  6. On-grid electricity tariffs in China: Development, reform and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jinlong

    2011-01-01

    With the introduction of market-oriented measures in China's power sector in the mid-1980s, electricity sale prices to the grid companies-on-grid electricity tariffs-became the focus of the energy industry, thus affecting all related stakeholders, including fuel suppliers, power generators and end-use consumers. A number of changes have gradually been undertaken in terms of electricity tariff settings and their implementation to address specific requirements of the expansion of the power industry at each stage of its development. On-grid electricity tariffs had been used as a key lever to attract investment in power generation at an early stage of reform and then to encourage competition in the power industry. In response to the rising concerns about environmental protection and the promotion of clean energy utilisation, tariffs have progressively been developed for renewable electricity generation, which has contributed to massive expansion of the renewable power industry in China. This paper reviews key milestones of the development of on-grid electricity tariffs in China, examines the tariff-setting mechanisms of coal-fired power plants and renewable power generation, analyses the factors associated with the adjustments of the tariff levels and discusses the options for further reform and more effective electricity pricing. - Research highlights: → Pragmatic approaches have been taken to adjust on-grid electricity tariffs. → Current tariff policies of coal-power led to suboptimal resource utilisation. → Further market-oriented reforms are needed. → Feed-in tariffs have gradually been established for renewable electricity.

  7. Risk management and participation planning of electric vehicles in smart grids for demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nezamoddini, Nasim; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Demand response (DR) can serve as an effective tool to better balance the electricity demand and supply in the smart grid. It is defined as 'the changes in electricity usage by end-use customers from their normal consumption patterns' in response to pricing and incentive payments. This paper focuses on new opportunities for DR with electric vehicles (EVs). EVs are potential distributed energy resources that support both the grid-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-grid modes. Their participation in the time-based (e.g., time-of-use) and incentive-based (e.g., regulation services) DR programs helps improve the stability and reduce the potential risks to the grid. Smart scheduling of EV charging and discharging activities also supports high penetration of renewables with volatile energy generation. This paper proposes a novel stochastic model from the Independent System Operator's perspective for risk management and participation planning of EVs in the smart grid for DR. The risk factors considered in this paper involve those caused by uncertainties in renewables (wind and solar), load patterns, parking patterns, and transmission lines' reliability. The effectiveness of the model in response to various settings such as the area type (residential, commercial, and industrial), the EV penetration level, and the risk level has been investigated. - Highlights: • We identify new opportunities for demand response (DR) using electric vehicles (EVs). • We integrate EVs in both grid-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-grid modes in smart grids. • EV participation for both time- and incentive-based DR programs are modelled. • We consider uncertainties in renewables, load, parking, and transmission lines. • Model case studies are demonstrated in residential, commercial, and industrial areas.

  8. Increase in the number of distributed power generation installations in electricity distribution grids - General requirements; Zunahme der dezentralen Energieerzeugungsanlagen in elektrischen Verteilnetzen: Rahmenbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, G.; Mauchle, P.

    2003-07-01

    This is the third part of a ten-part final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) on a project that looked into potential problems relating to the Swiss electricity distribution grid with respect to the increasing number of distributed power generation facilities being put into service. The identification of special conditions for the grid's operation and future development that take increasing decentralised power production into account are discussed. The results of the project activities encompass the analysis and evaluation of various problem areas associated with planning and management of the grid during normal operation and periods of malfunction, as well as required modifications to safety systems and grid configurations. The first part of this second appendix to the main report examines the electrical conditions and requirements that have to be met by distributed production facilities. These include limits for voltage and frequency, synchronisation aspects, protection, reactive power questions and islanding. Also, recommendations are made on the assessment of grid reactions and on the avoidance of non-permissible effects on the grid's audio-frequency remote control apparatus. A second part examines the situation concerning the connection of distributed power units to the grid and grid topologies. The last chapter lists relevant standards and guidelines.

  9. Smart grids, demand-side management and decentralised electricity production: Mounting a national R and D programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report summarises the results of a collective enquiry conducted between May and December 2007 and coordinated by TECHNOFI. This study had four goals: 1) analyse the role of actors in French research, in terms of new knowledge to be acquired regarding electricity networks, in order to optimise operations in the future and bring electricity generation, transmission and distribution to play their full role in policies designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, 2) propose a new conceptual framework for national R and D on electricity networks, complementing work currently pursued by researchers in France, in order to explore in greater detail other possible futures for electricity networks, 3) set up organisational and financial modes for this additional research, based on a list of projects that clearly distinguishes between European and national public funding, 4) link these proposed directions for research, organisation and funding to an industrial vision ensuring that national manufacturers and parts makers will continue to rank among the top global competitors. This analysis objectively demonstrates that France holds a unique position in the European landscape of power-grid research and development. France is one of the EU countries where operators, accompanied by public authorities, continue to invest heavily in the grid, compared to other countries with equivalent GDP (Germany, Italy, Spain, Great Britain). Annual R and D expenditures are on the order of euros 65 M, when those of RTE, ERDF (including EDF-R and D), the CNRS and ADEME are added up. Research subsidies from the CEC obtained competitively by French researchers add another ∼5 M annually to the total. These R and D investments do not include the contribution of industrial groups such as AREVA, SCHNEIDER and NEXANS and other national equipment suppliers who operate world-wide, Europe being only a small part of their activity due to the economic growth of emerging countries. With this high level

  10. The Emerging Interdependence of the Electric Power Grid & Information and Communication Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taft, Jeffrey D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Becker-Dippmann, Angela S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the implications of emerging interdependencies between the electric power grid and Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Over the past two decades, electricity and ICT infrastructure have become increasingly interdependent, driven by a combination of factors including advances in sensor, network and software technologies and progress in their deployment, the need to provide increasing levels of wide-area situational awareness regarding grid conditions, and the promise of enhanced operational efficiencies. Grid operators’ ability to utilize new and closer-to-real-time data generated by sensors throughout the system is providing early returns, particularly with respect to management of the transmission system for purposes of reliability, coordination, congestion management, and integration of variable electricity resources such as wind generation.

  11. Modelling Load Shifing Using Electric Vehicles in a Smart Grid Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) represent both a new demand for electricity and a possible storage medium that could supply power to utilities. The 'load shifting' and 'vehicle-to-grid' concepts could help cut electricity demand during peak periods and prove especially helpful in smoothing variations in power generation introduced to the grid by variable renewable resources such as wind and solar power. This paper proposes a method for simulating the potential benefits of using EVs in load shifting and 'vehicle-to-grid' applications for four different regions -- the United States, Western Europe, China and Japan -- that are expected to have large numbers of EVs by 2050.

  12. A Nodal Pricing Analysis of the Future German Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemir, O.; Hers, J.S.; Bartholomew Fisher, E.; Brunekreeft, G.; Hobbs, B.F.

    2009-05-01

    The electricity market in Germany is likely to undergo several significant structural changes over the years to come. Here one may think of Germany's ambitious renewable agenda, the disputed decommissioning of nuclear facilities, but also unbundling of TSO's as enforced by European regulation. This study is a scenario-based analysis of the impact of different realizations of known investment plans for transmission and generation capacity on the future German power market while accounting for internal congestion. For this analysis the static equilibrium model of the European electricity market COMPETES is deployed, including a 10-node representation of the German highvoltage grid. Results for the multi-node analysis indicate that price divergence and congestion are likely to arise in the German market as renewable additions affecting mainly the North of Germany, the debated decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the South, and the expected decommissioning of coal-fired facilities in Western Germany appear to render current investment plans for transmission capacity insufficient. The current system of singlezone pricing for the German market may therewith be compromised. However, transmission additions would not benefit all market parties, with producers in exporting regions and consumers in importing regions being the main beneficiaries. Vertical unbundling of German power companies could increase the incentive for constructing transmission lines if generation capacity would cause Germany to be a net-importing country. In case Germany remains a net-exporting country, the effects of vertical unbundling on cross-border capacity are less clear cut.

  13. Future electric scenarios for urban logistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-07-01

    This report is produced by the SAFE Urban Logistics project - a Norden Energy and Transport project that aims to study and analyse the prospect of integrating electric vehicles in the goods distribution of urban areas. The goal of the project is to create next practice solutions, offer promising opportunities for urban logistics operations, in order to become both more efficient and more environmentally sustainable. The SAFE Urban Logistics aims to match business models for making the application of electric vehicles within inner city logistics happen. The project will also create proposals for sustainable suitable technical solutions associated with these business models. This is one out of four reports produced by the project. Read more about the project and get access to all the reports on www.safeproject.eu. This report is the final output of the project and describes four scenarios for the future of urban logistics based on the urbanization and potential political interventions. The described scenarios will be evaluated on environmental effects and describe a potential idea that can bring this future one step closer. An array of potential business and logistics models as well as technical solutions that could be applied in order to integrate EV's on a larger basis are added at the end of the document. It is supposed to act as inspiration for the strategic development of logistics companies as well as local and governmental policies. Knowledge and experiences in this report are mainly taken from Denmark, Norway and Sweden. When it comes to logistic recommendations and experiences, influence from other parts of Europe have also been included. (Author)

  14. Future electric scenarios for urban logistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-07-01

    This report is produced by the SAFE Urban Logistics project - a Norden Energy and Transport project that aims to study and analyse the prospect of integrating electric vehicles in the goods distribution of urban areas. The goal of the project is to create next practice solutions, offer promising opportunities for urban logistics operations, in order to become both more efficient and more environmentally sustainable. The SAFE Urban Logistics aims to match business models for making the application of electric vehicles within inner city logistics happen. The project will also create proposals for sustainable suitable technical solutions associated with these business models. This is one out of four reports produced by the project. Read more about the project and get access to all the reports on www.safeproject.eu. This report is the final output of the project and describes four scenarios for the future of urban logistics based on the urbanization and potential political interventions. The described scenarios will be evaluated on environmental effects and describe a potential idea that can bring this future one step closer. An array of potential business and logistics models as well as technical solutions that could be applied in order to integrate EV's on a larger basis are added at the end of the document. It is supposed to act as inspiration for the strategic development of logistics companies as well as local and governmental policies. Knowledge and experiences in this report are mainly taken from Denmark, Norway and Sweden. When it comes to logistic recommendations and experiences, influence from other parts of Europe have also been included. (Author)

  15. Electrical Grid Conditioning For First NPP Integration, a Systems Engineering Approach Incorporating Quality Function Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pwani, Henry; James, J. [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Nuclear power plant has a high potential to cause serious harm to environment as evidenced by effects of Fukushima and Chernobyl accidents. A reliable electrical power is required for a NPP to facilitate cooling after a shutdown. Failure of electrical power supply during shutdown increases core damage probability. Research shows that a total of 39% of LOOP related events in US are electrical grid centered. In Korea, 38% and 29% of all events that led to NPP shutdown at Hanul units 3-6 and at Hanbit units 3-6 respectively were electrical related. Electric grids for both operating and new NPPs must therefore be examined and upgraded for reliability improvement in order to enhance NPP safety.

  16. The future of electric power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    In this interview with a prominent expert of the electric power industry, problems of assuring electricity supply, the economics of nuclear electricity generation, the supply structure, and cogeneration are discussed. (UA) [de

  17. Greening the Grid: Integrating 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid - A Detailed Look at the Western Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Jaquelin

    2017-10-27

    The higher-spatial-resolution model of 'Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid, Vol. II - Regional Study' (the Regional Study), which better represents the impact of congestion on least-cost scheduling and dispatch, provides a deeper understanding of the relationship among renewable energy (RE) location, transmission, and system flexibility with regard to RE integration, compared to 'Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid, Vol. I - National Study.' The Regional Study validates the relative value of mitigation strategies demonstrated in the National Study - namely, coordinated operations among states reduce production costs, and reducing coal minimum generation levels reduces RE curtailment. Significantly, the Regional Study also highlights a potential barrier to realizing the value of these mitigation strategies: when locations of RE development are planned independently of state-level transmission, intrastate congestion can result in undesirable levels of RE curtailment. Therefore a key objective of this study is to illustrate to state-level power system planners and operators, in particular, how a higher-resolution model, inclusive of intrastate granularity, can be used as a planning tool for two primary purposes: -To better anticipate, understand, and mitigate system constraints that could affect RE integration; and - To provide a modeling framework that can be used as part of future transmission studies and planning efforts. The Regional Study is not intended to predict precisely how RE will affect state-level operations. There is considerable uncertainty regarding the locations of the RE development, as well as how contract terms can affect access to the inherent physical flexibility of the system. But the scenarios analyzed identify the types of issues that can arise under various RE and transmission

  18. Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid, Vol. II - Regional Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Jaquelin M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palchak, Joseph D [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McBennett, Brendan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ehlen, Ali [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Deshmukh, Ranjit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Abhyankar, Nikit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Soonee, Sushil Kumar [Power System Operation Corporation Limited (POSOCO), New Delhi (India); Narasimhan, S. R. [Power System Operation Corporation Limited (POSOCO), New Delhi (India); Joshi, Mohit [Power System Operation Corporation Limited (POSOCO), New Delhi (India); Sreedharan, Priya [U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-10-27

    The higher-spatial-resolution model of 'Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid, Vol. II - Regional Study' (the Regional Study), which better represents the impact of congestion on least-cost scheduling and dispatch, provides a deeper understanding of the relationship among renewable energy (RE) location, transmission, and system flexibility with regard to RE integration, compared to 'Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid, Vol. I - National Study.' The Regional Study validates the relative value of mitigation strategies demonstrated in the National Study - namely, coordinated operations among states reduce production costs, and reducing coal minimum generation levels reduces RE curtailment. Significantly, the Regional Study also highlights a potential barrier to realizing the value of these mitigation strategies: when locations of RE development are planned independently of state-level transmission, intrastate congestion can result in undesirable levels of RE curtailment. Therefore a key objective of this study is to illustrate to state-level power system planners and operators, in particular, how a higher-resolution model, inclusive of intrastate granularity, can be used as a planning tool for two primary purposes: -To better anticipate, understand, and mitigate system constraints that could affect RE integration; and - To provide a modeling framework that can be used as part of future transmission studies and planning efforts. The Regional Study is not intended to predict precisely how RE will affect state-level operations. There is considerable uncertainty regarding the locations of the RE development, as well as how contract terms can affect access to the inherent physical flexibility of the system. But the scenarios analyzed identify the types of issues that can arise under various RE and transmission

  19. Greening the Grid: Integrating 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid - A Detailed Look at the Southern Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Jaquelin M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-27

    The higher-spatial-resolution model of 'Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid, Vol. II - Regional Study' (the Regional Study), which better represents the impact of congestion on least-cost scheduling and dispatch, provides a deeper understanding of the relationship among renewable energy (RE) location, transmission, and system flexibility with regard to RE integration, compared to 'Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid, Vol. I - National Study.' The Regional Study validates the relative value of mitigation strategies demonstrated in the National Study - namely, coordinated operations among states reduce production costs, and reducing coal minimum generation levels reduces RE curtailment. Significantly, the Regional Study also highlights a potential barrier to realizing the value of these mitigation strategies: when locations of RE development are planned independently of state-level transmission, intrastate congestion can result in undesirable levels of RE curtailment. Therefore a key objective of this study is to illustrate to state-level power system planners and operators, in particular, how a higher-resolution model, inclusive of intrastate granularity, can be used as a planning tool for two primary purposes: to better anticipate, understand, and mitigate system constraints that could affect RE integration; and to provide a modeling framework that can be used as part of future transmission studies and planning efforts. The Regional Study is not intended to predict precisely how RE will affect state-level operations. There is considerable uncertainty regarding the locations of the RE development, as well as how contract terms can affect access to the inherent physical flexibility of the system. But the scenarios analyzed identify the types of issues that can arise under various RE and transmission

  20. Front-Line Resilience Perspectives: The Electric Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finster, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Phillips, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wallace, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report seeks to summarize how states and local utility companies are approaching all-hazards resilience in planning, construction, operations, and maintenance of the electric system, as well as challenges faced when addressing all-hazards resilience.

  1. Analyzing Potential Grid Impacts from Future In-Motion Roadway Wireless Power Transfer Scenarios: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meintz, Andrew; Gonder, Jeffrey; Jorgenson, Jennie; Brooker, Aaron

    2016-08-01

    This work examines the grid impact of in-motion roadway wireless power transfer through the examination of the electrification of high-capacity roadways inside a metropolitan area. The work uses data from a regional travel study and the Federal Highway Administration's Highway Performance Monitoring System to estimate the electrified roadway's hourly power use throughout a week. The data are then combined with hourly grid load estimates for the same metropolitan area to determine the overlay of traditional grid load with additional load from a future electrified roadway.

  2. Implementation and Demonstration of Grid Frequency Support by V2G Enabled Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenas, Sergejus; Marinelli, Mattia; Andersen, Peter Bach

    2014-01-01

    Safe operation of the electric power system relies on conventional power stations. In addition to providing electrical energy to the network, some power stations also provide a number of ancillary services for the grid stability. These services could potentially be provided by the growing number...... Frequency Regulation. The service is implemented following the technical conditions for ancillary services in the Danish grid. The real life system is developed using web-centric communication technologies between the components. Communication and control functions of the system are validated through...

  3. A multi-agent system for distribution grid congestion management with electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Saleem, Arshad; You, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are widely regarded as valuable assets in the smart grid as distributed energy resources in addition to their primary transportation function. However, connecting EVs to the distribution network and recharging the EV batteries without any control may overload the transform......Electric vehicles (EVs) are widely regarded as valuable assets in the smart grid as distributed energy resources in addition to their primary transportation function. However, connecting EVs to the distribution network and recharging the EV batteries without any control may overload...

  4. Coordinated Charging of Electric Vehicles for Congestion Prevention in the Distribution Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; You, Shi; Lind, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Distributed energy resources (DERs), like electric vehicles (EVs), can offer valuable services to power systems, such as enabling renewable energy to the electricity producer and providing ancillary services to the system operator. However, these new DERs may challenge the distribution grid due...... limits of cables and transformers in a distribution grid capacity market framework. Firstly, a theoretical market framework is described. Within this framework, FOs who represent their customer’s (EV owners) interests will centrally guarantee the EV owners’ driving requirements and procure the energy...

  5. A New Pricing Scheme for Controlling Energy Storage Devices in Future Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of the overall efficiency of energy infrastructure is one of the main anticipated benefits of the deployment of smart grid technology. Advancement in energy storage technology and two-way communication in the electric network are indispensable components to achieve such a vision, while efficient pricing schemes and appropriate storage management are also essential. In this paper, we propose a universal pricing scheme which permits one to indirectly control the energy storage devices in the grid to achieve a more desirable aggregate demand profile that meets a particular target of the grid operator such as energy generation cost minimization and carbon emission reduction. Such a pricing scheme can potentially be applied to control the behavior of energy storage devices installed for integration of intermittent renewable energy sources that have permission to grid connection and will have broader applications as an increasing number of novel and low-cost energy storage technologies emerge.

  6. Solar power from space: the worldwide grid of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Recent interest in the feasibility and prospects for generating large amounts of electricity from space-based solar power systems is reviewed. The interest is generated by reports which suggest that sun-surfacing solar arrays in stationary earth orbit at an altitude 22,300 miles would not only be unaffected by the Earth's day-night cycle, cloud cover and atmospheric dust, but would also receive some eight times as much sunlight as solar collectors at the Earth's surface. The prediction is that relevant technology will be perfected to the point where by the middle of the 21. century a large share of the world's demand for electricity will be met by a series of very large space-based solar photovoltaic arrays. Several billion watts of power could be beamed to the Earth at microwave radio frequencies for collection by wide area rectifying ground antennas for conversion to electricity via transmitters connected to the photovoltaic arrays. A chronological account of development of this concept of beaming solar power from space shows that the idea has been around since the 1880s, gaining more and more credibility with each advance in space science . The moon, too, has been suggested as an ideal site for developing large-scale solar power systems that beam microwave energy to Earth. The lunar soil could supply silicon to build solar arrays, and metals such as iron and aluminum, for support structures and electric wiring. NASA is actively pursuing this line of inquiry, especially since all the problems involved with solar energy generation on earth, are absent on the moon.While a breakthrough is not imminent, the significant progress achieved to date in demonstrating the feasibility of wireless power transmission from space provides good reason for continuing to pursue this line of investigation

  7. CDIO – The steam engine powering the electric grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Træholt, Chresten; Holbøll, Joachim; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius

    2011-01-01

    In building the new DTU B.Eng programme [1] one of the pilots on the 4’th semester is the Design-build project course in Electric Energy Systems. In this course, which is the last Designbuild course many of the CDIO Syllabus bullets [2] are addressed starting with problem identification and formu......In building the new DTU B.Eng programme [1] one of the pilots on the 4’th semester is the Design-build project course in Electric Energy Systems. In this course, which is the last Designbuild course many of the CDIO Syllabus bullets [2] are addressed starting with problem identification...... and formulation, experimental inquiry and modelling, finally leading to planning and solution. The goal is to acquire the skills that are needed for an engineer within electric power engineering to analyse a given task, define the necessary steps to solve the task, organize him/her self and others and finally...... solve the task with success. The concrete work is built up around a miniaturized electric energy system powered by a steam engine. The system mimics an essential sub-section of a real electric power system. The process is realised with a combination of optional lectures, optional exercises, 3 set...

  8. Storage requirement in the electrical grid; Speicherbedarf im Stromnetz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Philipp [Technische Univ. Muenchen (DE). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft und Anwendungstechnik (IfE)

    2011-07-01

    In its energy strategy, the German Government formulates an ambitious goal: the portion of power production from renewable energy sources by 2050 is 80 % of the gross electricity consumption. The necessary expansion of renewable energies increasingly will lead to a supply of renewable energies that exceeds the current demand. The quantification of the economically sensible potential of energy storages for the next few decades depends not only on the expansion of renewable energies but also on the development of frameworks in the area of conventional power generation and the electricity market. The contribution under consideration reports on the potential for large-scale storage in Germany for different paths of development in the electricity industry.

  9. Electrical Grid Stability Enhancement using Smart Home Frequency-response Grid -Friendly Appliance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muawiya A. Kaigama

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Load shedding is a powerful scheme used for corrective and preventive measures; corrective to restore system’s stability and preventive to avoid catastrophic failure. However, the affected end users are deprived of power supply absolutely with no choice. This paper presents the design, development, feasibility and merits of Frequency-response Grid -Friendly Appliance System (FRGFAS in a smart home. FRGFAS is a decentralized Adaptive Load Shaving(ALS device that supports grid’s system stability by sensing grid’s frequency deterioration level and turns ON/OFF loads accordingly. The FRGFAS permits end users to carry out load shaving at their scale of preference in smart homes via flexible demand responses and automates outdoor lighting to optimum operational hours. FRGFAS obviate load shedding by shaving loads whenever the system is in distress and reset loads supply to the normal state when it stabilizes, this Consequently increases the end user comfort zone and averts a blackout.

  10. Modeling of Electric Vehicles (EVs) for EV Grid Integration Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    In order to successfully integrate EVs into power systems, it is necessary to develop a detailed EV model considering both the EV users’ driving requirements and the battery charging and discharging characteristics. A generic EV model was proposed which takes into account charging and discharging...... characteristics of EV batteries, the driving distance per trip and the availability of EVs for charging and providing grid service. The charging and discharging characteristics of EV batteries were used to determine the upper and lower limits of the state of charge (SOC) of EV batteries and to calculate...... the charging and discharging power. The driving distance per trip and availability of EVs were used to reflect the driving requirements and to implement intelligent charging and discharging management....

  11. Potential Analysis of Electric Vehicle (EV) Grid Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) have been considered as distributed energy resources (DER) to handle the fluctuation from renewable energy resources (RES), especially the wind power. The intelligent management of EV charging and discharging can achieve the goal of providing up and down regulating power...

  12. Smart grids - intelligence for sustainable electrical power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slootweg, J.G.; Cordova, C.E.P.; Montes Portela, C.; Morren, J.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the adverse impacts of the consumption of fossil fuels on our environment, the quest for a more sustainable energy supply is increasingly intensifying. Many renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar and tidal power generate electricity. Therefore, the development towards a sustainable

  13. Evaluating penalized logistic regression models to predict Heat-Related Electric grid stress days

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramer, L. M.; Rounds, J.; Burleyson, C. D.; Fortin, D.; Hathaway, J.; Rice, J.; Kraucunas, I.

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the conditions associated with stress on the electricity grid is important in the development of contingency plans for maintaining reliability during periods when the grid is stressed. In this paper, heat-related grid stress and the relationship with weather conditions is examined using data from the eastern United States. Penalized logistic regression models were developed and applied to predict stress on the electric grid using weather data. The inclusion of other weather variables, such as precipitation, in addition to temperature improved model performance. Several candidate models and datasets were examined. A penalized logistic regression model fit at the operation-zone level was found to provide predictive value and interpretability. Additionally, the importance of different weather variables observed at different time scales were examined. Maximum temperature and precipitation were identified as important across all zones while the importance of other weather variables was zone specific. The methods presented in this work are extensible to other regions and can be used to aid in planning and development of the electrical grid.

  14. Grid integration and smart grid implementation of emerging technologies in electric power systems through approximate dynamic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jingjie

    A key hurdle for implementing real-time pricing of electricity is a lack of consumers' responses. Solutions to overcome the hurdle include the energy management system that automatically optimizes household appliance usage such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging (and discharging with vehicle-to-grid) via a two-way communication with the grid. Real-time pricing, combined with household automation devices, has a potential to accommodate an increasing penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. In addition, the intelligent energy controller on the consumer-side can help increase the utilization rate of the intermittent renewable resource, as the demand can be managed to match the output profile of renewables, thus making the intermittent resource such as wind and solar more economically competitive in the long run. One of the main goals of this dissertation is to present how real-time retail pricing, aided by control automation devices, can be integrated into the wholesale electricity market under various uncertainties through approximate dynamic programming. What distinguishes this study from the existing work in the literature is that whole- sale electricity prices are endogenously determined as we solve a system operator's economic dispatch problem on an hourly basis over the entire optimization horizon. This modeling and algorithm framework will allow a feedback loop between electricity prices and electricity consumption to be fully captured. While we are interested in a near-optimal solution using approximate dynamic programming; deterministic linear programming benchmarks are use to demonstrate the quality of our solutions. The other goal of the dissertation is to use this framework to provide numerical evidence to the debate on whether real-time pricing is superior than the current flat rate structure in terms of both economic and environmental impacts. For this purpose, the modeling and algorithm framework is tested on a large-scale test case

  15. SYNCHRONIZATION OF NATIONAL GRID NETWORK WITH THE ELECTRICITY SHIPS NETWORK IN THE "SHORE TO SHIP" SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz TARNAPOWICZ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ‘Shore to ship’ system – ships’ power supply from the local electrical substations – is one of the effective ways to limit the negative impact of the ships lying in ports on the environment. Energy infrastructure of the port installation necessary to provide ships with power supply has to be designed so that different types of ships can use it. The important issue concerning ‘shore to ship’ system is the quality of power supply. This can be achieved via sustaining continuity of power supply while switching from the ships’ electrical network over to the national grid. In this article the author presents the way of synchronizing the national grid with the ships’ electrical network during ship’s lying in port. Such synchronization would allow for uninterruptible work of the ship’s electrical devices.

  16. Distribution Grid Services and Flexibility Provision by Electric Vehicles: a Review of Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knezovic, Katarina; Marinelli, Mattia; Codani, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increasing penetration of distributed generation and new high-power consumption loads – such as electric vehicles (EVs) – distribution system operators (DSO) are facing new grid security challenges. DSOs have historically dealt with such issues by making investments in grid reinforcement...... on current grid conditions. In return, flexibility provision should be remunerated accordingly. In this paper, the authors are interested in making an accurate description of the flexibility services at the distribution level which could be provided by EVs as well as their requirements, e.g. location......, activation time and duration. Market design recommendations for enhancing the provision of DSO grid services by EVs are derived from the conducted analysis....

  17. No energy transition without a change of paradigm for electric grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ober, Thomas; Meunier, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    The authors first indicate the three main levels of the French electric grid operation (a national transmission grid, regional distribution grids, and distribution to the final user) with their radial or tree-like structure. They briefly analyse the characteristics and impact of the integration of renewable energies: low power installations, wind and solar farms, strengths (close to consumption locations, reduction of grid losses, free primary energy) and raised problems (sizing of distribution networks, intermittency, and influence on conventional production planning). They discuss the implementation of new tools and devices such as the smart meter which can transmit various technical data, or a local steering of distribution networks. Renewable energies could then become a regulating element when they have been considered until now as a disturbing element. The authors finally evoke solutions aimed at reducing the use of peak means: a smoothed consumption, and the use of other production sources

  18. Integration of electric vehicles with optimum sized storage for grid connected photo-voltaic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulabh Sachan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of energy storage by means of battery/EV is exceedingly expected in event of energy blackouts. Different advantages incorporate sparing the cash in purchasing top time power and support the grid when grid power is deficit against the load demand. In this paper, ideal size of energy storage in a grid associated photovoltaic (PV framework is proposed. The methodology of energy flow choice is produced with the appraisal on accessibility of PV yield control and the load demand. The energy flow decision is changed by peak and off peak hours to shorten the functional cost of the grid associated PV framework with storage. Naturally, the quantities of electric vehicles that can be associated are resolved.

  19. Design of investment management optimization system for power grid companies under new electricity reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunhui; Su, Zhixiong; Wang, Xin; Liu, Yang; Qi, Yongwei

    2017-03-01

    The new normalization of the economic situation and the implementation of a new round of electric power system reform put forward higher requirements to the daily operation of power grid companies. As an important day-to-day operation of power grid companies, investment management is directly related to the promotion of the company's operating efficiency and management level. In this context, the establishment of power grid company investment management optimization system will help to improve the level of investment management and control the company, which is of great significance for power gird companies to adapt to market environment changing as soon as possible and meet the policy environment requirements. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to construct the investment management optimization system of power grid companies, which includes investment management system, investment process control system, investment structure optimization system, and investment project evaluation system and investment management information platform support system.

  20. Renewable Energy Jobs. Status, prospects and policies. Biofuels and grid-connected electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, H; Ferroukhi, R [et al.; IRENA Policy Advisory Services and Capacity Building Directorate, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2012-01-15

    Over the past years, interest has grown in the potential for the renewable energy industry to create jobs. Governments are seeking win-win solutions to the dual challenge of high unemployment and climate change. By 2010, USD 51 billion had been pledged to renewables in stimulus packages, and by early 2011 there were 119 countries with some kind of policy target and/or support policy for renewable energy, such as feed-in tariffs, quota obligations, favourable tax treatment and public loans or grants, many of which explicitly target job creation as a policy goal. Policy-makers in many countries are now designing renewable energy policies that aim to create new jobs, build industries and benefit particular geographic areas. But how much do we know for certain about the job creation potential for renewable energy? This working paper aims to provide an overview of current knowledge on five questions: (1) How can jobs in renewable energy be characterised?; (2) How are they shared out across the technology value chain and what skill levels are required?; (3) How many jobs currently exist and where are they in the world?; (4) How many renewable energy jobs could there be in the future?; and (5) What policy frameworks can be used to promote employment benefits from renewable energy? This paper focuses on grid-connected electricity generation technologies and biofuels. Since the employment potential of off-grid applications is large, it will be covered by a forthcoming study by IRENA on job creation in the context of energy access, based on a number of case studies.

  1. Combining Market-Based Control with Distribution Grid Constraints when Coordinating Electric Vehicle Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert Deconinck

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The charging of electric vehicles (EVs impacts the distribution grid, and its cost depends on the price of electricity when charging. An aggregator that is responsible for a large fleet of EVs can use a market-based control algorithm to coordinate the charging of these vehicles, in order to minimize the costs. In such an optimization, the operational parameters of the distribution grid, to which the EVs are connected, are not considered. This can lead to violations of the technical constraints of the grid (e.g., under-voltage, phase unbalances; for example, because many vehicles start charging simultaneously when the price is low. An optimization that simultaneously takes the economic and technical aspects into account is complex, because it has to combine time-driven control at the market level with event-driven control at the operational level. Different case studies investigate under which circumstances the market-based control, which coordinates EV charging, conflicts with the operational constraints of the distribution grid. Especially in weak grids, phase unbalance and voltage issues arise with a high share of EVs. A low-level voltage droop controller at the charging point of the EV can be used to avoid many grid constraint violations, by reducing the charge power if the local voltage is too low. While this action implies a deviation from the cost-optimal operating point, it is shown that this has a very limited impact on the business case of an aggregator, and is able to comply with the technical distribution grid constraints, even in weak distribution grids with many EVs.

  2. An electrical betweenness approach for vulnerability assessment of power grids considering the capacity of generators and load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Bu-han; Zhang, Zhe; Yin, Xiang-gen; Wang, Bo

    2011-11-01

    Most existing research on the vulnerability of power grids based on complex networks ignores the electrical characteristics and the capacity of generators and load. In this paper, the electrical betweenness is defined by considering the maximal demand of load and the capacity of generators in power grids. The loss of load, which reflects the ability of power grids to provide sufficient power to customers, is introduced to measure the vulnerability together with the size of the largest cluster. The simulation results of the IEEE-118 bus system and the Central China Power Grid show that the cumulative distributions of node electrical betweenness follow a power-law and that the nodes with high electrical betweenness play critical roles in both topological structure and power transmission of power grids. The results prove that the model proposed in this paper is effective for analyzing the vulnerability of power grids.

  3. Electric Grid Expansion Planning with High Levels of Variable Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, Stanton W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); You, Shutang [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Shankar, Mallikarjun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Yilu [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Renewables are taking a large proportion of generation capacity in U.S. power grids. As their randomness has increasing influence on power system operation, it is necessary to consider their impact on system expansion planning. To this end, this project studies the generation and transmission expansion co-optimization problem of the US Eastern Interconnection (EI) power grid with a high wind power penetration rate. In this project, the generation and transmission expansion problem for the EI system is modeled as a mixed-integer programming (MIP) problem. This study analyzed a time series creation method to capture the diversity of load and wind power across balancing regions in the EI system. The obtained time series can be easily introduced into the MIP co-optimization problem and then solved robustly through available MIP solvers. Simulation results show that the proposed time series generation method and the expansion co-optimization model and can improve the expansion result significantly after considering the diversity of wind and load across EI regions. The improved expansion plan that combines generation and transmission will aid system planners and policy makers to maximize the social welfare. This study shows that modelling load and wind variations and diversities across balancing regions will produce significantly different expansion result compared with former studies. For example, if wind is modeled in more details (by increasing the number of wind output levels) so that more wind blocks are considered in expansion planning, transmission expansion will be larger and the expansion timing will be earlier. Regarding generation expansion, more wind scenarios will slightly reduce wind generation expansion in the EI system and increase the expansion of other generation such as gas. Also, adopting detailed wind scenarios will reveal that it may be uneconomic to expand transmission networks for transmitting a large amount of wind power through a long distance

  4. Modeling Electric Vehicle Benefits Connected to Smart Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Mendes, Goncalo; Kloess, Maximillian; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2011-01-01

    Connecting electric storage technologies to smartgrids will have substantial implications in building energy systems. Local storage will enable demand response. Mobile storage devices in electric vehicles (EVs) are in direct competition with conventional stationary sources at the building. EVs will change the financial as well as environmental attractiveness of on-site generation (e.g. PV, or fuel cells). In order to examine the impact of EVs on building energy costs and CO2 emissions in 2020, a distributed-energy-resources adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program with minimization of annual building energy costs or CO2 emissions. The mixed-integer linear program is applied to a set of 139 different commercial buildings in California and example results as well as the aggregated economic and environmental benefits are reported. The research shows that considering second life of EV batteries might be very beneficial for commercial buildings.

  5. Modeling Electric Vehicle Benefits Connected to Smart Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Mendes, Goncalo; Kloess, Maximillian; Cardoso, Goncalo; M& #233; gel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2011-07-01

    Connecting electric storage technologies to smartgrids will have substantial implications in building energy systems. Local storage will enable demand response. Mobile storage devices in electric vehicles (EVs) are in direct competition with conventional stationary sources at the building. EVs will change the financial as well as environmental attractiveness of on-site generation (e.g. PV, or fuel cells). In order to examine the impact of EVs on building energy costs and CO2 emissions in 2020, a distributed-energy-resources adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program with minimization of annual building energy costs or CO2 emissions. The mixed-integer linear program is applied to a set of 139 different commercial buildings in California and example results as well as the aggregated economic and environmental benefits are reported. The research shows that considering second life of EV batteries might be very beneficial for commercial buildings.

  6. Reducing the Vulnerability of Electric Power Grids to Terrorist Attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross Baldick; Thekla Boutsika; Jin Hur; Manho Joung; Yin Wu; Minqi Zhong

    2009-01-31

    This report describes the development of a cascading outage analyzer that, given an initial disturbance on an electric power system, checks for thermal overloads, under-frequency and over-frequency conditions, and under-voltage conditions that would result in removal of elements from the system. The analyzer simulates the successive tripping of elements due to protective actions until a post-event steady state or a system blackout is reached.

  7. Simulating the value of electric-vehicle-grid integration using a behaviourally realistic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinetz, Michael; Axsen, Jonn; Peters, Jotham; Crawford, Curran

    2018-02-01

    Vehicle-grid integration (VGI) uses the interaction between electric vehicles and the electrical grid to provide benefits that may include reducing the cost of using intermittent renwable electricity or providing a financial incentive for electric vehicle ownerhip. However, studies that estimate the value of VGI benefits have largely ignored how consumer behaviour will affect the magnitude of the impact. Here, we simulate the long-term impact of VGI using behaviourally realistic and empirically derived models of vehicle adoption and charging combined with an electricity system model. We focus on the case where a central entity manages the charging rate and timing for participating electric vehicles. VGI is found not to increase the adoption of electric vehicles, but does have a a small beneficial impact on electricity prices. By 2050, VGI reduces wholesale electricity prices by 0.6-0.7% (0.7 MWh-1, 2010 CAD) relative to an equivalent scenario without VGI. Excluding consumer behaviour from the analysis inflates the value of VGI.

  8. Experimental Evaluation of Electric Power Grid Visualization Tools in the EIOC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Dauenhauer, Peter M.; Wierks, Tamara G.; Podmore, Robin; Dalton, Angela C.

    2009-12-01

    The present study follows an initial human factors evaluation of four electric power grid visualization tools and reports on an empirical evaluation of two of the four tools: Graphical Contingency Analysis, and Phasor State Estimator. The evaluation was conducted within specific experimental studies designed to measure the impact on decision making performance.

  9. The Economics of Storage, Transmission and Drought: Integrating Variable Wind Power into Spatially Separated Electricity Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scora, H.; Sopinka, A.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2012-01-01

    To mitigate the high variability of wind and make it a more viable renewable energy source, observers recommend greater integration of spatially-separated electrical grids, with high transmission lines linking load centers, scattered wind farms and hydro storage sites. In this study, we examine the

  10. Smart grids in the colombian electric system: Current situation and potential opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Mauricio Giral Ramírez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: This paper focuses on providing a functional analysis of smart grids, with the purpose of establishing a framework to identify the main characteristics of the current electric interconnection system in Colombia. It also names the positive incentives proposed by the Colombian government to support both research and development projects that implement non-conventional energy sources and promoting energy management based on efficiency. Method: An architecture model that describes the components interoperability of a smart grid is presented using a descriptive methodology. Results: The results include a list of the objectives established by the Colombian public and private entities related to energy development, specially focusing on the opportunities to provide some kind of artificial intelligence to the current electrical system. Conclusions: It is necessary for the Colombian energy system to supply the energy demand considering electrical safety, social equity, and the minimum environmental impact. These restrictions impose new challenges for the energy system itself: From a technical point of view, the traditional electrical grid must be outfitted with the characteristics of a smart grid, and from a legal perspective, it is essential to generate a clear regulatory framework that promotes the development of this type of technology.

  11. Preventing Distribution Grid Congestion by Integrating Indirect Control in a Hierarchical Electric Vehicles Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Si, Chengyong; Lind, Morten

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a hierarchical management system is proposed to integrate electric vehicles (EVs) into a distribution grid. Three types of actors are included in the system: Distribution system operators (DSOs), Fleet operators (FOs) and EV owners. In contrast to a typical hierarchical control sys...

  12. Energy Management Strategy for Micro-Grids with PV-Battery Systems and Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Torres-Moreno

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact of photovoltaic (PV systems on storage and electric vehicles in micro-grids. As these kinds of systems are becoming increasingly popular in the residential sector, the development of a new generation of equipment, such as more efficient batteries or solar panels, makes further study necessary. These systems are especially interesting in commercial or office buildings, since they have a more repetitive daily pattern of electricity consumption, which usually occurs within the maximum solar radiation hours. Based on this need, a novel control strategy aimed at efficiently managing this kind of micro-grid is proposed. The core of this strategy is a rule-based controller managing the power flows between the grid and the batteries of both the PV system and the electric vehicle. Through experimental data and simulations, this strategy was tested under different scenarios. The selected testbed consisted of the laboratory of a research center, which could be easily scalable to the entire building. Results showed the benefits of using an electric vehicle as an active agent in energy balance, leading to a reduction of the energetic costs of a micro-grid.

  13. A Market Framework for Enabling Electric Vehicles Flexibility Procurement at the Distribution Level Considering Grid Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadea, Ana; Marinelli, Mattia; Zecchino, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    In a context of extensive electrification of the transport sector, the use of flexibility services from electric vehicles (EVs) is becoming of paramount importance. This paper defines a market framework for enabling EVs flexibility at the distribution level, considering grid constraints. The main...... the benefit for DSOs and society, proving a technical and economic feasible solution....

  14. e-Portfolios for Learning and Development: without constant internet or electrical grid access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casey, John; Calverley, Gayle; Greller, Wolfgang; Uhomoibhi, James

    2011-01-01

    Casey, J., Calverley, G., Greller, W., & Uhomoibhi, J. (2010, 26-28 May). e-Portfolios for Learning and Development: without constant internet or electrical grid access. Presentation at the 5th International Conference on ICT for Development, Education, and Training - eLearning Africa, Lusaka,

  15. From smart grid to micro grid. Energy active settlements of the future; Vom Smart Grid zum Micro Grid. Energieaktive Siedlungen der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauner, G. [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Energiesysteme und Elektrische Antriebe

    2012-07-01

    The path to a mainly sustainable energy supply is predetermined by European and national directives. It is to be expected that the sustainable energy supply is growing much faster than the infrastructure can follow. Bottlenecks in the transmission system in particular by the development of onshore and offshore wind energy are probable. Also the expansion of photovoltaics in the settlements demands from the distribution networks. The idea of smart grids to store the excess energy in the superimposed classical energy system is negatively impacted by new problems. The micro grid expands the decentralized technology by allowing for temporary autonomy and energy balance especially if central storage systems and transmission capacities can not be used due to temporary bottlenecks. Concepts of decentralized supply are interesting that offer a temporary opportunity for a restricted island operation with reduced load.

  16. Implementation of the smart grid for Canadian electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, R. [Continental Automated Buildings Association, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The Continental Automated Buildings Association (CABA) provides a knowledge-based forum for the advancement of automation technology and integrated systems in the construction industry. This presentation discussed 2-way communications and advanced control systems designed to enable smart grid applications in buildings. The integration of IT and energy technologies will involve a network of switches, routers, and software devices with unique internet protocol (IP) addresses. Technologies will include sensors, meters, smart components, and power electronics, which will be integrated with building automation systems and building energy management tools. Added benefits of intelligent building technologies will include improved high speed internet and voice communications systems. An oBIX ethernet architecture was proposed to address the many protocols and standards required for smart building applications. Technology usage and purchase plans that consumers are now considering include smart telephony, telepresence, and intelligent bathrooms. It was concluded that the use of intelligent technologies in buildings will reduce energy consumption levels and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. tabs., figs.

  17. Large-scale deployment of electric vehicles in Germany by 2030: An analysis of grid-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-grid concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loisel, Rodica; Pasaoglu, Guzay; Thiel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in the future German power system and makes projections of the BEVs hourly load profile by car size (‘mini’, ‘small’, ‘compact’ and ‘large’). By means of a power plant dispatching optimisation model, the study assesses the optimal BEV charging/discharging strategies in grid-to-vehicle (G2V) and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) schemes. The results show that the 2% rise in power demand required to power these BEVs does not hamper system stability provided an optimal G2V scheme is applied. Moreover, such BEV deployment can contribute to further integrating wind and solar power generation. Applying a V2G scheme would increase the capacity factors of base and mid-load power plants, leading to a higher integration of intermittent renewables and resulting in a decrease in system costs. However, the evaluation of the profitability of BEVs shows that applying a V2G scheme is not a viable economic option due to the high cost of investing in batteries. Some BEV owners would make modest profits (€6 a year), but a higher number would sustain losses, for reasons of scale. For BEVs to become part of the power system, further incentives are necessary to make the business model attractive to car owners. - Highlights: • Optimal strategies for charging/discharging battery electric vehicles are assessed. • G2V scheme improves the stability of the future German power system. • V2G scheme would increase the capacity factors of base and mid-load power plants. • V2G scheme is not a viable economic option due to high batteries investment cost. • Further incentives are necessary to make the business model attractive to car owners

  18. Integrating Demand-Side Resources into the Electric Grid: Economic and Environmental Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Michael J.

    Demand-side resources are taking an increasingly prominent role in providing essential grid services once provided by thermal power plants. This thesis considers the economic feasibility and environmental effects of integrating demand-side resources into the electric grid with consideration given to the diversity of market and environmental conditions that can affect their behavior. Chapter 2 explores the private economics and system-level carbon dioxide reduction when using demand response for spinning reserve. Steady end uses like lighting are more than twice as profitable as seasonal end uses because spinning reserve is needed year-round. Avoided carbon emission damages from using demand response instead of fossil fuel generation for spinning reserve are sufficient to justify incentives for demand response resources. Chapter 3 quantifies the system-level net emissions rate and private economics of behind-the-meter energy storage. Net emission rates are lower than marginal emission rates for power plants and in-line with estimates of net emission rates from grid-level storage. The economics are favorable for many buildings in regions with high demand charges like California and New York, even without subsidies. Future penetration into regions with average charges like Pennsylvania will depend greatly on installation cost reductions and wholesale prices for ancillary services. Chapter 4 outlines a novel econometric model to quantify potential revenues from energy storage that reduces demand charges. The model is based on a novel predictive metric that is derived from the building's load profile. Normalized revenue estimates are independent of the power capacity of the battery holding other performance characteristics equal, which can be used to calculate the profit-maximizing storage size. Chapter 5 analyzes the economic feasibility of flow batteries in the commercial and industrial market. Flow batteries at a 4-hour duration must be less expensive on a dollar per

  19. Driving Pattern Analysis for Electric Vehicle (EV) Grid Integration Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    In order to facilitate the integration of electric vehicles (EVs) into the Danish power system, the driving data in Denmark were analyzed to extract the information of driving distances and driving time periods which were used to represent the driving requirements and the EV unavailability...... from the driving time periods to show how many cars are available for charging and discharging in each time period. The obtained EV availability data are in one hour time periods and one quarter time periods for different study purposes. The EV availability data of one hour time period are to be used...

  20. Electrical Core Transformer for Grid Improvement Incorporating Wire Magnetic Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrie R. Buswell, PhD; Dennis Jacobs, PhD; Steve Meng

    2012-03-26

    The research reported herein adds to the understanding of oil-immersed distribution transformers by exploring and demonstrating potential improvements in efficiency and cost utilizing the unique Buswell approach wherein the unit is redesigned, replacing magnetic sheet with wire allowing for improvements in configuration and increased simplicity in the build process. Exploration of new designs is a critical component in our drive to assure reduction of energy waste, adequate delivery to the citizenry, and the robustness of U.S. manufacturing. By moving that conversation forward, this exploration adds greatly to our base of knowledge and clearly outlines an important avenue for further exploration. This final report shows several advantages of this new transformer type (outlined in a report signed by all of our collaborating partners and included in this document). Although materials development is required to achieve commercial potential, the clear benefits of the technology if that development were a given is established. Exploration of new transformer types and further work on the Buswell design approach is in the best interest of the public, industry, and the United States. Public benefits accrue from design alternatives that reduce the overall use of energy, but it must be acknowledged that new DOE energy efficiency standards have provided some assurance in that regard. Nonetheless the burden of achieving these new standards has been largely shifted to the manufacturers of oil-immersed distribution transformers with cost increasing up to 20% of some units versus 2006 when this investigation was started. Further, rising costs have forced the industry to look closely are far more expensive technologies which may threaten U.S. competitiveness in the distribution transformer market. This concern is coupled with the realization that many units in the nation's grid are beyond their optimal life which suggests that the nation may be headed for an infrastructure

  1. Assessment of the value of electricity grids - Results of an investigation using enterprise data; Bewertung der Elektrizitaetsnetze - Ergebnisse einer Untersuchung von Unternehmensdaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaerer, M. [PricewaterhouseCoopers, Basel (Switzerland); Kaufmann, I. [Nabholz Verwaltungsberatung, Zuerich (Switzerland); Flury, R. [BDO Visura, Lucerne (Switzerland)

    2002-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the effects of different ways of evaluating the transmission fees for the use of electricity grids as foreseen in Swiss legislation on electricity market liberalisation. The study was made using enterprise data supplied by various distribution utilities. The sensitivity analysis made, with the capital costs of the grids as its kernel, is described. Four variants based on different combinations of basic assessment data and rates of interest are presented. The availability and quality of data is discussed, as is the large number of different utility types to be found in Switzerland. For the interpretation of the results of the study, two primary points of view are considered - that of the utility, focussed on future investments and their financing, and that of the consumer, focussed on pricing aspects. The report is concluded with recommendations on which models should be proposed for a future electricity market decree.

  2. The National Opportunity for Interoperability and its Benefits for a Reliable, Robust, and Future Grid Realized Through Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    2016-02-01

    Today, increasing numbers of intermittent generation sources (e.g., wind and photovoltaic) and new mobile intermittent loads (e.g., electric vehicles) can significantly affect traditional utility business practices and operations. At the same time, a growing number of technologies and devices, from appliances to lighting systems, are being deployed at consumer premises that have more sophisticated controls and information that remain underused for anything beyond basic building equipment operations. The intersection of these two drivers is an untapped opportunity and underused resource that, if appropriately configured and realized in open standards, can provide significant energy efficiency and commensurate savings on utility bills, enhanced and lower cost reliability to utilities, and national economic benefits in the creation of new markets, sectors, and businesses being fueled by the seamless coordination of energy and information through device and technology interoperability. Or, as the Quadrennial Energy Review puts it, “A plethora of both consumer-level and grid-level devices are either in the market, under development, or at the conceptual stage. When tied together through the information technology that is increasingly being deployed on electric utilities’ distribution grids, they can be an important enabling part of the emerging grid of the future. However, what is missing is the ability for all of these devices to coordinate and communicate their operations with the grid, and among themselves, in a common language — an open standard.” In this paper, we define interoperability as the ability to exchange actionable information between two or more systems within a home or building, or across and within organizational boundaries. Interoperability relies on the shared meaning of the exchanged information, with agreed-upon expectations and consequences, for the response to the information exchange.

  3. Secure Information Exchange Gateway for Electric Grid Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, F. Russell [Grid Protection Alliance, Chattanooga, TN (United States); Carroll, J. Ritchie [Grid Protection Alliance, Chattanooga, TN (United States); Sanders, William [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Yardley, Timothy [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Heine, Erich [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Hadley, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McKinnon, David [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Motteler, Barbara [Alstom Grid Inc., Levallois-Perret Cedex (France); Giri, Jay [Grid Protection Alliance, Chattanooga, TN (United States); Walker, William [PJM Interconnection (PJM), Norristown, PA (United States); McCartha, Esrick [PJM Interconnection (PJM), Norristown, PA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The major objectives of the SIEGate project were to improve the security posture and minimize the cyber-attack surface of electric utility control centers and to reduce the cost of maintaining control-room-to-control-room information exchange. Major project goals included the design, development, testing, and commercialization of a single security-hardened appliance that could meet industry needs for resisting cyber-attacks while protecting the confidentiality and integrity of a growing volume of real-time information needed to ensure the reliability of the bulk electric system and interoperating with existing data formats and networking technologies. The SIEGate project has achieved its goals and objectives. The SIEGate Design Document, issued in March 2012, presented SIEGate use cases, provided SIEGate requirements, established SIEGate design principles, and prescribed design functionality of SIEGate as well as the components that make up SIEGate. SIEGate Release Version 1.0 was posted in January 2014. Release Version 1.0.83, which was posted on March 28, 2014, fixed many issues discovered by early adopters and added several new features. Release Candidate 1.1, which added additional improvements and bug fixes, was posted in June 2014. SIEGate executables have been downloaded more than 300 times. SIEGate has been tested at PJM, Entergy, TVA, and Southern. Security testing and analysis of SIEGate has been conducted at PNNL and PJM. Alstom has provided a summary of recommended steps for commercialization of the SIEGate Appliance and identified two deployment models with immediate commercial application.

  4. Implementing batteries in electrical grids. Possible operating modes for efficient business cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittlaus, Barnabas; Schreider, Achim; Pour, Adel Hassan [Lahmeyer International GmbH, Bad Vilbel (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    For almost two decades, there has been a global trend towards the deregulation and the liberalisation of electricity markets. Previously, national or regional monopolistic utility companies provided services along the entire supply chain of electricity supply: Beginning with the operation of power plants and thus the generation of electricity, continuing through the development and the operation of transmission and local distribution grids, to the connection points. Since all assets belonged to the utility company, they could easily access generation units in order to provide balancing power for the safe and reliable operation of the electricity networks. With the objective of a more efficient and cheaper electricity supply by enabling competition, European Directive 96/92/EC (repealed by 2003/53/EC) enacted so-called ''unbundling'' which meant the break-up of utility companies as full service suppliers into the three service oriented entities; for electricity generation, transmission and supply. Whereas previously a single utility company provided the balancing of the electricity grid with its own assets, as a consequence of the directive, markets developed for the provision of diverse technical services. As long as the utility companies provided these services on their own, technical rather than economic aspects prevailed in their investment decisions. With the establishment of open markets for primary, secondary and tertiary reserve power, commercial interfaces had been established which force the respective specialised market actor to investment decisions driven primarily by economic aspects. At nearly the same time - around two decades ago, the first renewable energy systems (RES) provided electricity to public grids. In the 1990's their share of the overall electricity mix was negligible, but since the beginning of the new millennium more and more countries recognised the ecological and economic advantages of RES and established incentive systems for their

  5. Resilience of electricity grids against transmission line overloads under wind power injection at different nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiel, Christoph; Lind, Pedro G; Maass, Philipp

    2017-09-14

    A steadily increasing fraction of renewable energy sources for electricity production requires a better understanding of how stochastic power generation affects the stability of electricity grids. Here, we assess the resilience of an IEEE test grid against single transmission line overloads under wind power injection based on the dc power flow equations and a quasi-static grid response to wind fluctuations. Thereby we focus on the mutual influence of wind power generation at different nodes. We find that overload probabilities vary strongly between different pairs of nodes and become highly affected by spatial correlations of wind fluctuations. An unexpected behaviour is uncovered: for a large number of node pairs, increasing wind power injection at one node can increase the power threshold at the other node with respect to line overloads in the grid. We find that this seemingly paradoxical behaviour is related to the topological distance of the overloaded line from the shortest path connecting the wind nodes. In the considered test grid, it occurs for all node pairs, where the overloaded line belongs to the shortest path.

  6. Proceedings of the International conference: Nuclear option in countries with small and medium electricity grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The conference of Croatian Nuclear Society `Nuclear option in countries with small and medium electricity grid` was organized with intention to focus on and discuss the specific needs and interests of the countries with small or medium nuclear systems. In order to achieve best safety and operational standards these countries with limited human and material resources must put greater emphasis on their rational and efficient use. For these countries the world wide developments on innovative reactors` systems and improved concepts for fuel utilisation and waste disposal are substantial interest. Appropriate selections of reactor technology, fuel cycle and decommission strategies are of paramount importance. There are very successful examples of achieving safety and good operational records, so the exchange of experience and cooperation amongst that group of countries would be of great value. As in the future of nuclear energy there will be many more countries with only small or medium nuclear systems, collecting specific experience and cooperation between the like countries will be an additional value to the now prevailing equipment supplier - national utility relationships.

  7. Proceedings of the International conference: Nuclear option in countries with small and medium electricity grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The conference of Croatian Nuclear Society 'Nuclear option in countries with small and medium electricity grid' was organized with intention to focus on and discuss the specific needs and interests of the countries with small or medium nuclear systems. In order to achieve best safety and operational standards these countries with limited human and material resources must put greater emphasis on their rational and efficient use. For these countries the world wide developments on innovative reactors' systems and improved concepts for fuel utilisation and waste disposal are substantial interest. Appropriate selections of reactor technology, fuel cycle and decommission strategies are of paramount importance. There are very successful examples of achieving safety and good operational records, so the exchange of experience and cooperation amongst that group of countries would be of great value. As in the future of nuclear energy there will be many more countries with only small or medium nuclear systems, collecting specific experience and cooperation between the like countries will be an additional value to the now prevailing equipment supplier - national utility relationships

  8. Analysis for Large Scale Integration of Electric Vehicles into Power Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Wang, Xiaoru

    2011-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EVs) provide a significant opportunity for reducing the consumption of fossil energies and the emission of carbon dioxide. With more and more electric vehicles integrated in the power systems, it becomes important to study the effects of EV integration on the power systems......, especially the low and middle voltage level networks. In the paper, the basic structure and characteristics of the electric vehicles are introduced. The possible impacts of large scale integration of electric vehicles on the power systems especially the advantage to the integration of the renewable energies...... are discussed. Finally, the research projects related to the large scale integration of electric vehicles into the power systems are introduced, it will provide reference for large scale integration of Electric Vehicles into power grids....

  9. Strategies, Protections and Mitigations for Electric Grid from Electromagnetic Pulse Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Rita Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Frickey, Steven Jay [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The mission of DOE’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) is to lead national efforts to modernize the electricity delivery system, enhance the security and reliability of America’s energy infrastructure and facilitate recovery from disruptions to the energy supply. One of the threats OE is concerned about is a high-altitude electro-magnetic pulse (HEMP) from a nuclear explosion and eletro-magnetic pulse (EMP) or E1 pulse can be generated by EMP weapons. DOE-OE provides federal leadership and technical guidance in addressing electric grid issues. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was chosen to conduct the EMP study for DOE-OE due to its capabilities and experience in setting up EMP experiments on the electric grid and conducting vulnerability assessments and developing innovative technology to increase infrastructure resiliency. This report identifies known impacts to EMP threats, known mitigations and effectiveness of mitigations, potential cost of mitigation, areas for government and private partnerships in protecting the electric grid to EMP, and identifying gaps in our knowledge and protection strategies.

  10. Assessing the impact of space weather on the electric power grid based on insurance claims for industrial electrical equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, C. J.; Dobbins, R.; Murtagh, W.; Petrinec, S. M.

    2014-07-01

    Geomagnetically induced currents are known to induce disturbances in the electric power grid. Here we perform a statistical analysis of 11,242 insurance claims from 2000 through 2010 for equipment losses and related business interruptions in North American commercial organizations that are associated with damage to, or malfunction of, electrical and electronic equipment. We find that claim rates are elevated on days with elevated geomagnetic activity by approximately 20% for the top 5% and by about 10% for the top third of most active days ranked by daily maximum variability of the geomagnetic field. When focusing on the claims explicitly attributed to electrical surges (amounting to more than half the total sample), we find that the dependence of claim rates on geomagnetic activity mirrors that of major disturbances in the U.S. high-voltage electric power grid. The claim statistics thus reveal that large-scale geomagnetic variability couples into the low-voltage power distribution network and that related power-quality variations can cause malfunctions and failures in electrical and electronic devices that, in turn, lead to an estimated 500 claims per average year within North America. We discuss the possible magnitude of the full economic impact associated with quality variations in electrical power associated with space weather.

  11. Architecture, Voltage, and Components for a Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Electric Grid (AVC-TeDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemin, Paul; Kupiszewski, Tom; Radun, Arthur; Pan, Yan; Lai, Rixin; Zhang, Di; Wang, Ruxi; Wu, Xinhui; Jiang, Yan; Galioto, Steve; hide

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this effort was to advance the selection, characterization, and modeling of a propulsion electric grid for a Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion (TeDP) system for transport aircraft. The TeDP aircraft would constitute a miniature electric grid with 50 MW or more of total power, two or more generators, redundant transmission lines, and multiple electric motors driving propulsion fans. The study proposed power system architectures, investigated electromechanical and solid state circuit breakers, estimated the impact of the system voltage on system mass, and recommended DC bus voltage range. The study assumed an all cryogenic power system. Detailed assumptions within the study include hybrid circuit breakers, a two cryogen system, and supercritical cyrogens. A dynamic model was developed to investigate control and parameter selection.

  12. Electric power: Past, present, and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnetzer, H.

    1994-01-01

    When, at the turn of the century, public electric power supply facilities were created and in 1908, the electric power stations of the Swiss canton of Zurich (EKZ) were built, only a third of the communities in the Zurich area could boast about being the consumers of this new energy. But what did the first electrically powered devices and machines look like? This, and more, is presented in the ''electric power house'' in Burenwisen Glattfelden in the canton of Zurich. Besides a Kaplan turbine and a sample of the most interesting devices from the past and the present, the focus of the exhibition is on the presentation of the new and old sources of light. The EKZ are pleased to be able to present their ''electric power house'' to the public, providing a broad range of information on energy-related questions and the development of electric power supply. (orig.) [de

  13. Modeling of a Photovoltaic-Powered Electric Vehicle Charging Station with Vehicle-to-Grid Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Ul-Haq

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at modelling of a distinct smart charging station for electric vehicles (EVs that is suitable for DC quick EV charging while ensuring minimum stress on the power grid. Operation of the charging station is managed in such a way that it is either supplied by photovoltaic (PV power or the power grid, and the vehicle-to-grid (V2G is also implemented for improving the stability of the grid during peak load hours. The PV interfaced DC/DC converter and grid interfaced DC/AC bidirectional converter share a DC bus. A smooth transition of one operating mode to another demonstrates the effectiveness of the employed control strategy. Modelling and control of the different components are explained and are implemented in Simulink. Simulations illustrate the feasible behaviour of the charging station under all operating modes in terms of the four-way interaction among PV, EVs and the grid along with V2G operation. Additionally, a business model is discussed with comprehensive analysis of cost estimation for the deployment of charging facilities in a residential area. It has been recognized that EVs bring new opportunities in terms of providing regulation services and consumption flexibility by varying the recharging power at a certain time instant. The paper also discusses the potential financial incentives required to inspire EV owners for active participation in the demand response mechanism.

  14. Increase in the number of distributed power generation installations in electricity distribution grids - Literature; Zunahme der dezentralen Energieerzeugungsanlagen in elektrischen Verteilnetzen: Literatur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottsponer, O.; Mauchle, P.

    2003-07-01

    This is the tenth and last part of a final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) on a project that looked into potential problems relating to the Swiss electricity distribution grid with respect to the increasing number of distributed power generation facilities being put into service. The identification of special conditions for the grid's operation and future development that take increasing decentralised power production into account are discussed. The results of the project activities encompass the analysis and evaluation of various problem areas associated with planning and management of the grid during normal operation and periods of malfunction, as well as required modifications to safety systems and grid configurations. This ninth appendix to the main report presents an overview and details of the literature and internet sources used in the project. Also, similar projects that discuss the problem area dealt with are briefly described. These include the Dispower, EDIson, DEMS, AMOEVES and ELSAD projects.

  15. Adoption of energy-efficient televisions for expanded off-grid electricity service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Young Park

    Full Text Available Even though they dominate the global television (TV market, light-emitting diode backlit liquid crystal display (LED-LCD TVs have received little attention for use with off-grid household-scale renewable energy systems, primarily because of high up-front costs. However, technological advances and price declines mean that these TVs can now provide the same level of electricity service as standard LED-LCD TVs offer but at lower total energy cost. Moreover, LED-LCD TVs are inherently direct-current (DC-powered devices and therefore well suited for use with off-grid solar home systems. We estimate that DC-powered energy-efficient LED-LCD TVs can decrease the retail purchase price of solar home systems by about 25% by allowing use of 50% smaller photovoltaics and battery capacities than would be needed for the same energy system to power a standard LED-LCD TV. We recommend that policies such as awards, bulk procurement, incentives, and energy labels be considered to facilitate the adoption of these energy-efficient TVs in off-grid settings. Keywords: DC television, TV energy efficiency, Electricity access, Off-grid electricity service, Cost-benefit analysis

  16. Profitability analysis of grid-connected photovoltaic facilities for household electricity self-sufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmenar-Santos, Antonio; Campíñez-Romero, Severo; Pérez-Molina, Clara; Castro-Gil, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Spain exhibits a high level of energy dependence and has significant solar energy resources. These two facts have given rise to the prominence that renewable energy, particularly solar photovoltaic technology, has enjoyed in recent years, supported by a favorable regulatory framework. Currently, the Spanish Government is providing new ways in energy policy to enhance and accelerate the development of low-power photovoltaic generation facilities for self-consumption by introducing energy policies for feed-in payments of surplus electricity. Such facilities are an example of distributed electrical generation with important benefits for the environment and the rest of the electrical system because, when properly managed, they can help improve the system’s stability and reduce overall losses. By analyzing household demand and solar photovoltaic energy resources, the profitability of such facilities is considered in this article, taking into account the technical and economic impact of storage systems and proposing models for feed-in payments of surplus electricity, in an attempt to assess whether this method of electricity generation versus the method of conventionally supplied power from a grid at a regulated tariff can rival each other economically, in terms of parity. - Highlight: ► The use of grid-connected photovoltaic facilities for household electricity self-sufficiency is presented. ► The need for legal frameworks that include retributive mechanisms for the surplus energy is pointed out. ► Two models are proposed for the remuneration of surplus energy generated. ► Models show economic profitability without feed-in-tariff or compensations. ► Facilities described offer ancillary services for grid stability and smart-grid integration.

  17. Drought and Heat Wave Impacts on Electricity Grid Reliability in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwell, A. S.; Lubega, W. N.

    2016-12-01

    A large proportion of thermal power plants in the United States use cooling systems that discharge large volumes of heated water into rivers and cooling ponds. To minimize thermal pollution from these discharges, restrictions are placed on temperatures at the edge of defined mixing zones in the receiving waters. However, during extended hydrological droughts and heat waves, power plants are often granted thermal variances permitting them to exceed these temperature restrictions. These thermal variances are often deemed necessary for maintaining electricity reliability, particularly as heat waves cause increased electricity demand. Current practice, however, lacks tools for the development of grid-scale operational policies specifying generator output levels that ensure reliable electricity supply while minimizing thermal variances. Such policies must take into consideration characteristics of individual power plants, topology and characteristics of the electricity grid, and locations of power plants within the river basin. In this work, we develop a methodology for the development of these operational policies that captures necessary factors. We develop optimal rules for different hydrological and meteorological conditions, serving as rule curves for thermal power plants. The rules are conditioned on leading modes of the ambient hydrological and meteorological conditions at the different power plant locations, as the locations are geographically close and hydrologically connected. Heat dissipation in the rivers and cooling ponds is modeled using the equilibrium temperature concept. Optimal rules are determined through a Monte Carlo sampling optimization framework. The methodology is applied to a case study of eight power plants in Illinois that were granted thermal variances in the summer of 2012, with a representative electricity grid model used in place of the actual electricity grid.

  18. Short-Term Multiple Forecasting of Electric Energy Loads for Sustainable Demand Planning in Smart Grids for Smart Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeshina Y. Alani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption in the form of fuel or electricity is ubiquitous globally. Among energy types, electricity is crucial to human life in terms of cooking, warming and cooling of shelters, powering of electronic devices as well as commercial and industrial operations. Users of electronic devices sometimes consume fluctuating amounts of electricity generated from smart-grid infrastructure owned by the government or private investors. However, frequent imbalance is noticed between the demand and supply of electricity, hence effective planning is required to facilitate its distribution among consumers. Such effective planning is stimulated by the need to predict future consumption within a short period. Although several interesting classical techniques have been used for such predictions, they still require improvement for the purpose of reducing significant predictive errors when used for short-term load forecasting. This research develops a near-zero cooperative probabilistic scenario analysis and decision tree (PSA-DT model to address the lacuna of enormous predictive error faced by the state-of-the-art models. The PSA-DT is based on a probabilistic technique in view of the uncertain nature of electricity consumption, complemented by a DT to reinforce the collaboration of the two techniques. Based on detailed experimental analytics on residential, commercial and industrial data loads, the PSA-DT model outperforms the state-of-the-art models in terms of accuracy to a near-zero error rate. This implies that its deployment for electricity demand planning will be of great benefit to various smart-grid operators and homes.

  19. Integrating decentralized electrically powered thermal supply systems into a Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Hasselmann, Maike; Beier, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the project “Smart Region Pellworm” is the establishment and operation of a smart grid with a hybrid energy storage system on the German island of Pellworm. One part of the project is the integration of power-to-heat appliances into the smart grid for demand side management purposes. This paper deals with the prerequisites and lessons learned from the integration of electric night storage heaters into Pellworm's energy management system. Special focus lies on the development of a ...

  20. Improving Photovoltaic and Electric Vehicle Penetration in Distribution Grids with Smart Transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Liserre, Marco

    2013-01-01

    High penetration of electrical vehicles (EVs) and photovoltaics (PVs) can cause significant voltage issues in low voltage distribution grids. To certain extent, the transformer with on-load tap changers can regulate its output voltage, thus relieving the voltage issues and improve the hosting...... capacity of the grid. Smart transformer (ST) is a more powerful component providing faster and superior voltage regulation, as it can regulate the voltage, the frequency and the harmonic behavior of each feeder. This paper will discuss the benefit of this new feature offered by ST through simulation......, analysis and comparison with traditional transformer, where load flow analysis, optimization and multiple line drop compensation (MLDC) methods are involved....

  1. Results from the Operational Testing of the General Electric Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Richard Barney [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Scoffield, Don [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bennett, Brion [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the General Electric (GE) smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from GE for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the GE smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  2. National electricity planning in settings with low pre-existing grid coverage: Development of a spatial model and case study of Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parshall, Lily; Pillai, Dana; Mohan, Shashank; Sanoh, Aly; Modi, Vijay

    2009-01-01

    We develop a spatial electricity planning model to guide grid expansion in countries with low pre-existing electricity coverage. The model can be used to rapidly estimate connection costs and compare different regions and communities. Inputs that are modeled include electricity demand, costs, and geographic characteristics. The spatial nature of the model permits accurate representation of the existing electricity network and population distribution, which form the basis for future expansion decisions. The methodology and model assumptions are illustrated using country-specific data from Kenya. Results show that under most geographic conditions, extension of the national grid is less costly than off-grid options. Based on realistic penetration rates for Kenya, we estimate an average connection cost of $1900 per household, with lower-cost connection opportunities around major cities and in denser rural regions. In areas with an adequate pre-existing medium-voltage backbone, we estimate that over 30% of households could be connected for less than $1000 per connection through infilling. The penetration rate, an exogenous factor chosen by electricity planners, is found to have a large effect on household connection costs, often outweighing socio-economic and spatial factors such as inter-household distance, per-household demand, and proximity to the national grid.

  3. Impact of PHEVs Penetration on Ontario’s Electricity Grid and Environmental Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ahmadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs have a large potential to reduce greenhouse gases emissions and increase fuel economy and fuel flexibility. PHEVs are propelled by the energy from both gasoline and electric power sources. Penetration of PHEVs into the automobile market affects the electrical grid through an increase in electricity demand. This paper studies effects of the wide spread adoption of PHEVs on peak and base load demands in Ontario, Canada. Long-term forecasting models of peak and base load demands and the number of light-duty vehicles sold were developed. To create proper forecasting models, both linear regression (LR and non-linear regression (NLR techniques were employed, considering different ranges in the demographic, climate and economic variables. The results from the LR and NLR models were compared and the most accurate one was selected. Furthermore, forecasting the effects of PHEVs penetration is done through consideration of various scenarios of penetration levels, such as mild, normal and aggressive ones. Finally, the additional electricity demand on the Ontario electricity grid from charging PHEVs is incorporated for electricity production planning purposes.

  4. The role of smart metering and decentralized electricity storage for smart grids: The importance of positive externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Römer, Benedikt; Reichhart, Philipp; Kranz, Johann; Picot, Arnold

    2012-01-01

    Because of its fluctuating nature, the feed-in of renewable energy sources into low-voltage distribution grids complicates the balancing of demand and supply. This carries the risk of grid instabilities causing damage to electronic devices and power outages, which eventually lead to deadweight losses. In principle, the problems arising from fluctuating feed-in can be solved by increasing demand elasticity or decoupling generation and consumption; for the first, an advanced metering infrastructure and, for the second, decentralized electricity storage are considered core enablers. However, to date, the diffusion of these future smart grids’ core components is low. The present study provides new insights for understanding and overcoming diffusion barriers. For this purpose, a qualitative research approach was chosen. The most important stakeholders as well as related private costs and benefits are identified. The findings show that both of these smart grid components are widely considered beneficial to society by experts. However, because the numerous private benefits are widely distributed among distinct players, socially desired investments are hampered by positive externalities. The importance of well-designed and consistent regulatory and legal frameworks that provide economic incentives to involved stakeholders is highlighted in the results. - Highlights: ► Smart meters and decentralized storages are important components of smart grids. ► Both components are widely seen as beneficial to society. ► Identification of the most important stakeholders and their investment incentives. ► Omission of societal desirable actions due to positive externalities. ► Measures to foster diffusion of smart grid key components.

  5. A New Pricing Scheme for Controlling Energy Storage Devices in Future Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jingwei; Chen, Michael Z. Q.; Du, Baozhu

    2014-01-01

    Improvement of the overall efficiency of energy infrastructure is one of the main anticipated benefits of the deployment of smart grid technology. Advancement in energy storage technology and two-way communication in the electric network are indispensable components to achieve such a vision, while efficient pricing schemes and appropriate storage management are also essential. In this paper, we propose a universal pricing scheme which permits one to indirectly control the energy storage devic...

  6. Influence of Egyptian electrical grid and nuclear power plants under disturbances based on PSS/E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaat, M. K.; Kotb, S. A.; Mahmoud, H. M.

    2012-12-01

    The capacity of the electrical power system in Egypt will increase rapidly in the coming twenty years. In year 2018, power generation will be connecting to the Egyptian electrical grid. Consequently, the interaction of nuclear power plants and other systems become a very important issue, and a detailed nuclear power model for the medium-term and long-term power system stability should be developed. However, there is no nuclear unit model that can describe the detailed characteristics of the nuclear unit in the available commercial power system simulation software. In this paper, a detailed pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear unit model for medium-term and long-term power system transient stability is proposed. The model is implemented by a user defined program in PSS/E through PSS/E Mat lab Seamanlike interface. Also this paper proposes a design of power plant rector controller for the nuclear power plant. This model can be used to analyze the difference influences between the Egyptian electrical grid and nuclear power plants for examples transient fault on electrical grid and outage of nuclear power plant. The simulation results show that the proposed model is valid. (Author)

  7. Double-section curvature tunable functional actuator with micromachined buckle and grid wire for electricity delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guo-Hua; Hou, Sheng-You

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents an ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC)-driven tentacle-like biocompatible flexible actuator with double-section curvature tunability. This actuator, possessing an embedded electrical transmission ability that mimics skeletal muscle nerves in the human body, affords versatile device functions. Novel micromachined copper buckles and grid wires are fabricated and their superiority in electricity delivery and driving the IPMC component with less flexural rigidity is demonstrated. In addition, soft conductive wires realized on a polydimethylsiloxane structure function as electrical signal transmitters. A light-emitting diode integrated with the developed actuator offers directional guiding light ability while the actuator performs a snake-like motion. The electrical conductivity and Young’s modulus of the key actuator components are investigated, and flexural rigidity and dynamic behavior analyses of the actuator under electrical manipulation are elaborated.

  8. Double-section curvature tunable functional actuator with micromachined buckle and grid wire for electricity delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Guo-Hua; Hou, Sheng-You

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC)-driven tentacle-like biocompatible flexible actuator with double-section curvature tunability. This actuator, possessing an embedded electrical transmission ability that mimics skeletal muscle nerves in the human body, affords versatile device functions. Novel micromachined copper buckles and grid wires are fabricated and their superiority in electricity delivery and driving the IPMC component with less flexural rigidity is demonstrated. In addition, soft conductive wires realized on a polydimethylsiloxane structure function as electrical signal transmitters. A light-emitting diode integrated with the developed actuator offers directional guiding light ability while the actuator performs a snake-like motion. The electrical conductivity and Young’s modulus of the key actuator components are investigated, and flexural rigidity and dynamic behavior analyses of the actuator under electrical manipulation are elaborated. (paper)

  9. Economic costs of managing of an electricity grid with increasing wind power penetration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prescott, R.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the impact of policy choices, including a carbon tax, on the optimal allocation of power across different generation sources and on future investments in generating facilities. The main focus is on the Alberta power grid, as it is heavily dependent on fossil fuels and has only limited

  10. Electricity market design for the future

    OpenAIRE

    robinson, david; Keay, Malcolm

    2017-01-01

    This paper explains why current electricity markets are not fit for purpose and propose a new market design. Electricity markets operating today were designed for the technical and economic conditions of the 1990's. These conditions have changed substantially, especially with increased penetration of intermittent renewables and the growing potential for distributed energy resources and consumer involvement. Today's markets are incompatible with these trends. They do not provide h...

  11. Utilization of the Flexibility Potential of Electric Vehicles - an Alternative to Distribution Grid Reinforcements.

    OpenAIRE

    Ager-Hanssen, Siri Bruskeland; Myhre, Siri Olimb

    2015-01-01

    Today, the transport sector accounts for a large share of global emissions. Electric vehicles have many environmental advantages compared to conventional petrol vehicles. Hence, if electric vehicles can replace petrol vehicles, the transportation sector's total emissions can be significantly reduced. In Norway, due to policy incentives, it is expected that the number of electric vehicles will increase considerably in the near future. Despite the great advantages of electric vehicles, large pe...

  12. The role of domestic biomass in electricity, heat and grid balancing markets in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panos, Evangelos; Kannan, Ramachandran

    2016-01-01

    The Swiss Energy Strategy targets to reduce per capita energy consumption, to decrease the share of fossil energy and to replace nuclear electricity generation by gains in efficiency and renewable energy sources. In view of the above objectives, we evaluated the prospects of biomass in stationary applications and grid balancing from an energy system perspective. We quantify a number of “what-if” scenarios using a cost-optimisation bottom-up model, with detailed representation of biomass production and use pathways, electricity and heat sectors, and grid ancillary services markets. The scenario analysis shows that domestic biomass can contribute 5–7% in electricity and 14–21% in heat production by 2050, depending on natural gas prices and climate policy intensity. Pooling of biogenic driven cogeneration plants can provide about 22–44% of the total secondary control power in 2050. Generally, biogenic technologies complement other assets in heat, electricity and ancillary services markets such as heat pumps, new renewable sources and hydropower. - Highlights: • Development and application of the Swiss TIMES electricity and heat system model. • Bioenergy supplies 5–7% of electricity and 14–21% of heat by 2050. • Biogenic gas driven CHP can provide 22–44% of secondary control power in 2050.

  13. ON THE MANAGEMENT OF URBAN ELECTRIC NETWORKS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE SMART GRID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. А. Fursanov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of prospective operation of the city electric networks in the conditions of the MART GRID, which will be quite different as compared to the traditional understanding and approaches, are under consideration. This requires the selection and application of appropriate analytical criteria and approaches to assessment, analysis and control of the networks. With this regard the following criteria are recommended: in a particular case – the optimal (minimal technological electric power consumption (losses, while in general – economically reasonable (minimal cost value of electric power transmission. It should be also borne in mind that contemporary urban networks are actively saturated with distributed sources of small generation that have radically changed the structure of electrical networks; therefore, account for such sources is an absolutely necessary objective of management regimes of urban electric networks, both traditional and in associated with the SMART GRID. A case of the analysis and control of urban electric 10 kV networks with distributed small sources of generation has been developed and presented according to the theoretical criterion of minimum relative active power losses in the circuit as a control case. The conducted research makes it possible to determine the magnitude of the tolerance network mode from the point of the theoretical minimum. 

  14. Electrical hubs: An effective way to integrate non-dispatchable renewable energy sources with minimum impact to the grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, A.T.D.; Nik, Vahid M.; Mauree, Dasaraden; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel method introduced to optimize Electrical Hubs. • Novel dispatch based on fuzzy control and finite state machines. • Evaluating sensitivity of three performance indices for system autonomy. • Multi objective optimization considering system autonomy-cost. • Electrical Hubs can cover above 60% of the demand using wind and Solar PV. - Abstract: A paradigm change in energy system design tools, energy market, and energy policy is required to attain the target levels in renewable energy integration and in minimizing pollutant emissions in power generation. Integrating non-dispatchable renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy is vital in this context. Distributed generation has been identified as a promising method to integrate Solar PV (SPV) and wind energy into grid in recent literature. Distributed generation using grid-tied electrical hubs, which consist of Internal Combustion Generator (ICG), non-dispatchable energy sources (i.e., wind turbines and SPV panels) and energy storage for providing the electricity demand in Sri Lanka is considered in this study. A novel dispatch strategy is introduced to address the limitations in the existing methods in optimizing grid-integrated electrical hubs considering real time pricing of the electricity grid and curtailments in grid integration. Multi-objective optimization is conducted for the system design considering grid integration level and Levelized Energy Cost (LEC) as objective functions to evaluate the potential of electrical hubs to integrate SPV and wind energy. The sensitivity of grid curtailments, energy market, price of wind turbines and SPV panels on Pareto front is evaluated subsequently. Results from the Pareto analysis demonstrate the potential of electrical hubs to cover more than 60% of the annual electricity demand from SPV and wind energy considering stringent grid curtailments. Such a share from SPV and wind energy is quite significant when compared to direct grid

  15. Optimization and Economic Analysis of Grid-Photovoltaic Electric Boat Charging Station in Kuala Terengganu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salleh N.A. S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the feasibility of developing grid-photovoltaic electric boat charging station in Kuala Terengganu using simulation-based method. The main focus is on reducing the dependency on subsidy spent by the government in fisheries sector and encouraging green technology in commercial sector. All data such as solar radiation, amount of subsidy received by fishermen, and fishing activities were collected for the selected area. Economic analyses of the proposed system are discussed based on payback period and net present cost (NPC. The comparison between the proposed system and the grid-only system is done based on the production and consumption of electricity per year, the NPC and emission of pollutant. The system also generates high income from selling energy to the grid with tariff rates RM 1.49/kWh. It is concluded that the proposed system is feasible to be developed in the selected area with the payback period and the NPC are 8.2 years and RM 759,098, respectively. The results also show that the performance of the proposed system is better than grid-only system in all the interested parameters.

  16. Magnitude and Variability of Controllable Charge Capacity Provided by Grid Connected Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scoffield, Don R [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smart, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Salisbury, Shawn [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    As market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) increases over time, the number of PEVs charging on the electric grid will also increase. As the number of PEVs increases, their ability to collectively impact the grid increases. The idea of a large body of PEVs connected to the grid presents an intriguing possibility. If utilities can control PEV charging, it is possible that PEVs could act as a distributed resource to provide grid services. The technology required to control charging is available for modern PEVs. However, a system for wide-spread implementation of controllable charging, including robust communication between vehicles and utilities, is not currently present. Therefore, the value of controllable charging must be assessed and weighed against the cost of building and operating such as system. In order to grasp the value of PEV charge control to the utility, the following must be understood: 1. The amount of controllable energy and power capacity available to the utility 2. The variability of the controllable capacity from day to day and as the number of PEVs in the market increases.

  17. Modeling Of Components Of A Photovoltaic System With Voltage Inverter For Connection To The Electrical Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Andreza C.; Blasques, Luis C. M.; Galhardo, Marcos A. B.; Pinho, João T.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the modeling of the electrical equipment and control mechanisms used in the power conditioning system of a grid-connected photovoltaic system (GCPVS), such as the photovoltaic generator, the DC/DC converter, the voltage inverter with PWM control, its output filter, as well as the converter controls and their functionalities, and the interconnection of the system with the distribution grid and load. In addition to the modeling of the grid-tie inverter, the main equipment of the power conditioning system, this paper describes the synchronization form of the photovoltaic (PV) generation with the electricity distribution grid, considering the power injection control method, the maximum power point tracking technique for maximizing the energy supplied by the photovoltaic generator, and the complete topology of the proposed PV system. The main objective is to provide a computational model capable of simulating the behavior of the GCPVS elements, varying the climatic conditions and the power demand on the AC side, presenting consistent results for different operating conditions, such as variations of climatic parameters (solar irradiance, wind speed, and ambient temperature) and load. In these cases, it is possible to evaluate the behavior of the system, sometimes supplying both the active and reactive power of the load, according to the need. (author)

  18. Norwegian electricity market liberalisation: questions of cost calculation and price definition by grid operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, J.; Vaterlaus, S.

    2002-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study carried out on the Norwegian electricity market 10 years after its liberalisation. The similarity of the Norwegian market to the Swiss electricity market is discussed. Similarly to the proposed situation in Switzerland, the liberalisation in Norway foresaw no privatisation of public utilities and a model for the regulation of grid access was introduced. The report describes and comments on the various phases in which the liberalisation occurred and examines the various instruments used, e.g. to ensure that individual grid operators did not make undue profits from their monopoly. The methods used for the monitoring of grid operators' costs are described and the mechanisms involved in the definition of prices for grid services are examined, including measures taken when profits were too high or too low. The report is concluded with a discussion of the conclusions that can be drawn from the Norwegian model for Swiss market opening efforts

  19. Improving power grid transient stability by plug-in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajduk, Andrej; Kocarev, Ljupco; Todorovski, Mirko; Kurths, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can serve in discharge mode as distributed energy and power resources operating as vehicle-to-grid (V2G) devices and in charge mode as loads or grid-to-vehicle devices. It has been documented that PEVs serving as V2G systems can offer possible backup for renewable power sources, can provide reactive power support, active power regulation, load balancing, peak load shaving, can reduce utility operating costs and can generate revenue. Here we show that PEVs can even improve power grid transient stability, that is, stability when the power grid is subjected to large disturbances, including bus faults, generator and branch tripping, and sudden large load changes. A control strategy that regulates the power output of a fleet of PEVs based on the speed of generator turbines is proposed and tested on the New England 10-unit 39-bus power system. By regulating the power output of the PEVs we show that (1) speed and voltage fluctuations resulting from large disturbances can be significantly reduced up to five times, and (2) the critical clearing time can be extended by 20–40%. Overall, the PEVs control strategy makes the power grid more robust. (paper)

  20. Grid Computing at GSI for ALICE and FAIR - present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, Kilian; Uhlig, Florian; Karabowicz, Radoslaw; Montiel-Gonzalez, Almudena; Zynovyev, Mykhaylo; Preuss, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    The future FAIR experiments CBM and PANDA have computing requirements that fall in a category that could currently not be satisfied by one single computing centre. One needs a larger, distributed computing infrastructure to cope with the amount of data to be simulated and analysed. Since 2002, GSI operates a tier2 center for ALICE-CERN. The central component of the GSI computing facility and hence the core of the ALICE tier2 centre is a LSF/SGE batch farm, currently split into three subclusters with a total of 15000 CPU cores shared by the participating experiments, and accessible both locally and soon also completely via Grid. In terms of data storage, a 5.5 PB Lustre file system, directly accessible from all worker nodes is maintained, as well as a 300 TB xrootd-based Grid storage element. Based on this existing expertise, and utilising ALICE's middleware ‘AliEn’, the Grid infrastructure for PANDA and CBM is being built. Besides a tier0 centre at GSI, the computing Grids of the two FAIR collaborations encompass now more than 17 sites in 11 countries and are constantly expanding. The operation of the distributed FAIR computing infrastructure benefits significantly from the experience gained with the ALICE tier2 centre. A close collaboration between ALICE Offline and FAIR provides mutual advantages. The employment of a common Grid middleware as well as compatible simulation and analysis software frameworks ensure significant synergy effects.

  1. An analysis of a demand charge electricity grid tariff in the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokke, A. V.; Doorman, G.L.; Ericson, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the demand response from residential electricity consumers to a demand charge grid tariff. The tariff charges the maximum hourly peak consumption in each of the winter months Dec, Jan, and Feb, thus giving incentives to reduce peak consumption. We use hourly electricity consumption data from 443 households, as well as data on their grid and power prices, the local temperature, wind speed, and hours of daylight. The panel data set is analyzed with a fixed effects regression model. The estimates indicate average demand reductions up to 0.37 kWh/h per household in response to the tariff. This is on average a 5% reduction, with a maximum reduction of 12% in hour 8 in Dec. The consumers did not receive any information on their continuous consumption or any reminders when the tariff was in effect. It is likely that the consumption reductions would have been even higher with more information to the consumers.

  2. Robust Multi-Objective PQ Scheduling for Electric Vehicles in Flexible Unbalanced Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knezovic, Katarina; Soroudi, Alireza; Marinelli, Mattia

    2017-01-01

    With increased penetration of distributed energy resources and electric vehicles (EVs), different EV management strategies can be used for mitigating adverse effects and supporting the distribution grid. This paper proposes a robust multi-objective methodology for determining the optimal day...... demand response programs. The method is tested on a real Danish unbalanced distribution grid with 35% EV penetration to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. It is shown that the proposed formulation guarantees an optimal EV cost as long as the price uncertainties are lower than....... The robust formulation effectively considers the errors in the electricity price forecast and its influence on the EV schedule. Moreover, the impact of EV reactive power support on objective values and technical parameters is analysed both when EVs are the only flexible resources and when linked with other...

  3. Integrating PEVs with Renewables and the Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meintz, Andrew; Markel, Tony; Jun, Myungsoo; Zhang, Jiucai

    2016-06-29

    This presentation is an overview of NREL's Electric Vehicle Grid Integration (EVGI) efforts toward integrating Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) with renewable energy and the grid. Efforts include managed charging, local power quality, emergency backup power, and bi-directional power flow. Discussion of future vehicle-related activities under the Grid Modernization Initiative by the Multi-Lab EV Smart Grid Working Group.

  4. The EU Electricity Policy. Outlook for the Smart Grid Roll-Out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure-Schuyer, Aurelie

    2014-01-01

    The energy transition from a socio-economic system based on fossil fuels to a sustainable low-carbon system is a multi-faceted process. This 'transformation' of the energy system, more specifically of the power system, creates several challenges. These concern in particular the connections with the existing electricity infrastructure of new renewable power sources and the distribution of generating systems, together with automated grid assets and smart meters. The European energy transition is based on two different revolutions: i) the 'post-World War II' industrial investment recovery, when electricity systems were built; and ii) the 'Information Technology' revolution that is bringing new communication and connection modes to the grid. There is no unique path towards a de-carbonised electricity system. The implementation of this development depends on the current local configuration of electricity grids, the interaction between grid operators, the generation mix, the availability of backup generation capacities and the level of cross-border interconnections. Moreover, this evolution impacts the roles of all actors of the energy system, in particular those of Transmission System Operators (TSOs), of Distribution System operators (DSOs) and of National Regulatory Authorities (NRAs). Besides the technical challenge, the Energy transition requires the transformation of business models designed as platforms, which are able to integrate different levels of stakeholders, whereas in the past, utilities were based on vertical, public monopoly structures that were often paid based on cost-of-service rules. The traditional utility models were characterised by centralised governance but as a result of technological changes, this system is making way for a more horizontal and multilateral governance. The role of consumers is also changing, with new attributes in particular with regards to demand-response measures. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the key structural

  5. Compounded effects of heat waves and droughts over the Western Electricity Grid: spatio-temporal scales of impacts and predictability toward mitigation and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, N.; Kintner-Meyer, M.; Skaggs, R.; Xie, Y.; Wu, D.; Nguyen, T. B.; Fu, T.; Zhou, T.

    2016-12-01

    Heat waves and droughts are projected to be more frequent and intense. We have seen in the past the effects of each of those extreme climate events on electricity demand and constrained electricity generation, challenging power system operations. Our aim here is to understand the compounding effects under historical conditions. We present a benchmark of Western US grid performance under 55 years of historical climate, and including droughts, using 2010-level of water demand and water management infrastructure, and 2010-level of electricity grid infrastructure and operations. We leverage CMIP5 historical hydrology simulations and force a large scale river routing- reservoir model with 2010-level sectoral water demands. The regulated flow at each water-dependent generating plants is processed to adjust water-dependent electricity generation parameterization in a production cost model, that represents 2010-level power system operations with hourly energy demand of 2010. The resulting benchmark includes a risk distribution of several grid performance metrics (unserved energy, production cost, carbon emission) as a function of inter-annual variability in regional water availability and predictability using large scale climate oscillations. In the second part of the presentation, we describe an approach to map historical heat waves onto this benchmark grid performance using a building energy demand model. The impact of the heat waves, combined with the impact of droughts, is explored at multiple scales to understand the compounding effects. Vulnerabilities of the power generation and transmission systems are highlighted to guide future adaptation.

  6. Electric vehicle charging infrastructure assignment and power grid impacts assessment in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jian

    2012-01-01

    This paper estimates the charging demand of an early electric vehicle (EV) market in Beijing and proposes an assignment model to distribute charging infrastructure. It finds that each type of charging infrastructure has its limitation, and integration is needed to offer a reliable charging service. It also reveals that the service radius of fast charging stations directly influences the final distribution pattern and an infrastructure deployment strategy with short service radius for fast charging stations has relatively fewer disturbances on the power grid. Additionally, although the adoption of electric vehicles will cause an additional electrical load on the Beijing's power grid, this additional load can be accommodated by the current grid's capacity via the charging time management and the battery swap strategy. - Highlight: ► Charging posts, fast charging stations, and battery swap stations should be integrated. ► Charging posts at home parking places will take a major role in a charging network. ► A service radius of 2 km is proposed for fast charging stations deployment. ► The additional charging load from EVs can be accommodated by charging time management.

  7. Trends of the electricity output, power conversion efficiency, and the grid emission factor in North Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, M. J.; Kim, Y. P.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, concerns about the atmospheric environmental problems in North Korea (NK) have been growing. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) (2017), NK was the first ranked country in mortality rate attributed to household and ambient air pollution in 2012. Reliable energy-related data in NK were needed to understand the characteristics of air quality in NK. However, data from the North Korean government were limited. Nevertheless, we could find specific energy-related data produced by NK in the Project Design Documents (PDDs) of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). There were the 6 registered CDM projects hosted by North Korea, developed as small hydropower plants. Several data of each power plant, such as the electricity output, connected to the Eastern Power Grid (EPG) or the Western Power Grid (WPG) in North Korea were provided in the CDM PDDs. We (1) figured out the trends of the electricity output, the `power conversion efficiency' which we defined the amount of generated electricity to the supplied input primary energy for power generation, and fuel mix as grid emission factor in NK as using the data produced by NK between 2005 and 2009, (2) discussed the operating status of the thermal power plants in NK, and (3) discussed the energy/environmental-related policies and the priority issues in NK in this study.

  8. Design of grid tariffs in electricity systems with variable renewable energy and power to heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Klaus; Bergaentzlé, Claire; Soysal, Emilie Rosenlund

    2017-01-01

    electricity market and diminish the business cases for these technologies by increasing the costs of their electricity consumption. With the present tariff structure, only a very small part of the flexibility potential is deployed or operated flexible. In this paper we compare two different grid tariff...... designs that facilitate more flexible energy demand of DH operators. This is illustrated by a case study of Denmark that clearly demonstrates that the introduction of innovative tariffs will improve the business case for flexible P2H technologies and increase the value of VRE. In this way larger...... flexibility potentials can be induced and larger shares of VRE become integrated in the energy systems....

  9. Electrical Power Grid Delivery Dynamic Analysis: Using Prime Mover Engines to Balance Dynamic Wind Turbine Output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diana K. Grauer; Michael E. Reed

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents an investigation into integrated wind + combustion engine high penetration electrical generation systems. Renewable generation systems are now a reality of electrical transmission. Unfortunately, many of these renewable energy supplies are stochastic and highly dynamic. Conversely, the existing national grid has been designed for steady state operation. The research team has developed an algorithm to investigate the feasibility and relative capability of a reciprocating internal combustion engine to directly integrate with wind generation in a tightly coupled Hybrid Energy System. Utilizing the Idaho National Laboratory developed Phoenix Model Integration Platform, the research team has coupled demand data with wind turbine generation data and the Aspen Custom Modeler reciprocating engine electrical generator model to investigate the capability of reciprocating engine electrical generation to balance stochastic renewable energy.

  10. Future demand for electricity in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibitoye, F.I.; Adenikinju, A.

    2007-01-01

    Availability and reliability of electricity supplies have always been vexed issue in Nigeria. With an estimated population of 130 million people in AD 2005, Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and belongs to the group of countries with the lowest electricity consumption per capita in the continent. Nigeria is also ranked among the poorest countries in the world. This paper examines the likely trend in the demand for electricity over the next 25 years under the assumptions that (i) there is a rapid economic development such that Nigeria transforms from low- to middle-income economy during this period, (ii) Nigeria meets the millennium development goals (MDG) in AD 2015, and (iii) the country achieves the status of an industrializing nation. For these to happen, this paper projects that electric-power generation will have to rise from the current capacity of 6500 MW to over 160 GW in AD 2030. This level of supply will be significant enough to increase the per capita electricity consumption to about 5000 kWh per capita by the year 2030. Even then, this just compares with the AD 2003 per capital consumption of some industrializing countries. Analysis of the level of investment required to meet the projected power demand indicates that annual investment cost will rise from US3.8 billion in AD 2006 to a peak of US21 billion in AD 2028. The total investment stream over the 25 year period comes to US262 billion or roughly US10 billion per annum. (author)

  11. Advanced simulation for analysis of critical infrastructure : abstract cascades, the electric power grid, and Fedwire.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Stamber, Kevin Louis; Beyeler, Walter Eugene

    2004-08-01

    and a heterogeneous scale-free (fractal) network. For the stylized electric power grid, our initial simulations demonstrate that the addition of geographically unrestricted random transactions can eventually push a grid to cascading failure, thus supporting the hypothesis that actions of unrestrained power markets (without proper security coordination on market actions) can undermine large scale system stability. We also find that network topology greatly influences system robustness. Homogeneous networks that are 'fish-net' like can withstand many more transaction perturbations before cascading than can scale-free networks. Interestingly, when the homogeneous network finally cascades, it tends to fail in its entirety, while the scale-free tends to compartmentalize failure and thus leads to smaller, more restricted outages. In the case of stylized Fedwire, initial simulations show that as banks adaptively set their individual reserves in response to random transactions, the ratio of the total volume of transactions to individual reserves, or 'turnover ratio', increases with increasing volume. The removal of a bank from interaction within the network then creates a cascade, its speed of propagation increasing as the turnover ratio increases. We also find that propagation is accelerated by patterned transactions (as expected to occur within real markets) and in scale-free networks, by the 'attack' of the most highly connected bank. These results suggest that the time scale for intervention by the Federal Reserve to divert a cascade in Fedwire may be quite short. Ongoing work in our cascade analysis effort is building on both these specific stylized applications to enhance their fidelity as well as embracing new applications. We are implementing markets and additional network interactions (e.g., social, telecommunication, information gathering, and control) that can impose structured drives (perturbations) comparable to those seen in real

  12. Simulation-Based Approach for Studying the Balancing of Local Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhani Latvakoski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is facing great challenges due to pollution and increased carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions. As part of solving these challenges, the use of renewable energy sources and electric vehicles (EVs is rapidly increasing. However, increased dynamics have triggered problems in balancing energy supply and consumption demand in the power systems. The resulting uncertainty and unpredictability of energy production, consumption, and management of peak loads has caused an increase in costs for energy market actors. Therefore, the means for studying the balancing of local smart grids with EVs is a starting point for this paper. The main contribution is a simulation-based approach which was developed to enable the study of the balancing of local distribution grids with EV batteries in a cost-efficient manner. The simulation-based approach is applied to enable the execution of a distributed system with the simulation of a local distribution grid, including a number of charging stations and EVs. A simulation system has been constructed to support the simulation-based approach. The evaluation has been carried out by executing the scenario related to balancing local distribution grids with EV batteries in a step-by-step manner. The evaluation results indicate that the simulation-based approach is able to facilitate the evaluation of smart grid– and EV-related communication protocols, control algorithms for charging, and functionalities of local distribution grids as part of a complex, critical cyber-physical system. In addition, the simulation system is able to incorporate advanced methods for monitoring, controlling, tracking, and modeling behavior. The simulation model of the local distribution grid can be executed with the smart control of charging and discharging powers of the EVs according to the load situation in the local distribution grid. The resulting simulation system can be applied to the study of balancing local smart grids with EV

  13. Distributed Energy Systems Integration and Demand Optimization for Autonomous Operations and Electric Grid Transactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghatikar, Girish [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Greenlots, San Francisco, CA (United States); Mashayekh, Salman [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stadler, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Center for Energy and Innovation Technologies (Austria); Yin, Rongxin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Liu, Zhenhua [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-11-29

    Distributed power systems in the U.S. and globally are evolving to provide reliable and clean energy to consumers. In California, existing regulations require significant increases in renewable generation, as well as identification of customer-side distributed energy resources (DER) controls, communication technologies, and standards for interconnection with the electric grid systems. As DER deployment expands, customer-side DER control and optimization will be critical for system flexibility and demand response (DR) participation, which improves the economic viability of DER systems. Current DER systems integration and communication challenges include leveraging the existing DER and DR technology and systems infrastructure, and enabling optimized cost, energy and carbon choices for customers to deploy interoperable grid transactions and renewable energy systems at scale. Our paper presents a cost-effective solution to these challenges by exploring communication technologies and information models for DER system integration and interoperability. This system uses open standards and optimization models for resource planning based on dynamic-pricing notifications and autonomous operations within various domains of the smart grid energy system. It identifies architectures and customer engagement strategies in dynamic DR pricing transactions to generate feedback information models for load flexibility, load profiles, and participation schedules. The models are tested at a real site in California—Fort Hunter Liggett (FHL). Furthermore, our results for FHL show that the model fits within the existing and new DR business models and networked systems for transactive energy concepts. Integrated energy systems, communication networks, and modeling tools that coordinate supply-side networks and DER will enable electric grid system operators to use DER for grid transactions in an integrated system.

  14. Planning low-carbon electricity systems under uncertainty considering operational flexibility and smart grid technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Rodrigo; Street, Alexandre; Arroyo, José M; Mancarella, Pierluigi

    2017-08-13

    Electricity grid operators and planners need to deal with both the rapidly increasing integration of renewables and an unprecedented level of uncertainty that originates from unknown generation outputs, changing commercial and regulatory frameworks aimed to foster low-carbon technologies, the evolving availability of market information on feasibility and costs of various technologies, etc. In this context, there is a significant risk of locking-in to inefficient investment planning solutions determined by current deterministic engineering practices that neither capture uncertainty nor represent the actual operation of the planned infrastructure under high penetration of renewables. We therefore present an alternative optimization framework to plan electricity grids that deals with uncertain scenarios and represents increased operational details. The presented framework is able to model the effects of an array of flexible, smart grid technologies that can efficiently displace the need for conventional solutions. We then argue, and demonstrate via the proposed framework and an illustrative example, that proper modelling of uncertainty and operational constraints in planning is key to valuing operationally flexible solutions leading to optimal investment in a smart grid context. Finally, we review the most used practices in power system planning under uncertainty, highlight the challenges of incorporating operational aspects and advocate the need for new and computationally effective optimization tools to properly value the benefits of flexible, smart grid solutions in planning. Such tools are essential to accelerate the development of a low-carbon energy system and investment in the most appropriate portfolio of renewable energy sources and complementary enabling smart technologies.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy management: flexibility, risk and optimization'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. CSP electricity cost evolution and grid parities based on the IEA roadmaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Moro, J.; Martínez-Duart, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The main object of this paper consists in the development of a mathematical closed-form expression for the evaluation, in the period 2010–2050, of the levelized costs of energy (LCOE) of concentrating solar power (CSP) electricity. For this purpose, the LCOE is calculated using a life-cycle cost method, based on the net present value, the discounted cash flow technique and the technology learning curve approach. By this procedure, the LCOE corresponding to CSP electricity is calculated as a function of ten independent variables. Among these parameters, special attention has been put on the evaluation of the available solar resource, the analysis of the IEA predicted values for the cumulative installed capacity, the initial (2010) cost of the system, the discount and learning rates, etc. One significant contribution of our work is that the predicted evolution of the LCOEs strongly depend, not only on the particular values of the cumulative installed capacity function in the targeted years, but mainly on the specific curved time-paths which are followed by this function. The results obtained in this work are shown both graphically and numerically. Finally, the implications that the results could have in energy planning policies and grid parity calculations are discussed. - Highlights: ► A mathematical closed expression has been developed for calculating the evolution of CSP electricity costs. ► Our technique for the prediction of CSP electricity costs and grid parities is based on IEA Roadmaps. ► The time-table (2010–2050) of cumulative installed CSP capacity is key to electricity cost predictions. ► CSP grid parities can occur within next decade for sites with proper solar resources.

  16. Solar fired combined RO/MED desalination plant integrated with electrical power grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alrobaei, H.

    2006-01-01

    Currently, there is a strong demand for efficient seawater desalination plants, which can meet the tougher environment regulation and energy saving requirements. From this standpoint the present work was undertaken to include proposed scheme (solar Fired Combined Reverse Osmosis (ROY Multi-Effect Distillation (MED) Seawater desalination Plant (SCDP) integrated with electrical power grid (EPG)) for repowering and modification of the conventional grid connected RO desalination plants. The model of SCDP during sunny periods may be applied to the following modes operation: *Full solar desalination (i.e. solar thermal and electrical power generation in solar plant is elivered to the desalination process and the surplus electricity is fed into EPG). *Hybrid solar desalination (I.e. a small share of the electrical power consumption for desalination process compensated by EPG). During cloudly periods and at night the SCDP operates as a conventional RO desalination plant. To establish the range, in which solar energy for seawater desalination would be competitive to fossil energy and investigates the potential effect of the proposed scheme on the repowering effectiveness, mathematical model has been developed. The repowered effectiveness, mathematical model has been developed.The repowered effectiveness in optaimizing model was characterized by the condition of attaining maximum fuel saving in the EPG. The study result shows the effectiveness of proposed scheme for modification and repowering the RO plant. For the case study. (SCDP with maual share of solar electrical power generation 67.4%) the economical effect amount 138.9 ton fuel/year for each MW design thermal energy of parabolic solar collectors array and the corresponding decrease in exhaust gases emission (Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) 0.55 ton/year.MW, carbon dioxides (CO2) 434.9 ton/year.MW). Moreover, implementation of combined RO/MED design for repowering and modification of conventional grid connected RO plant will

  17. Quantifying climate change impacts on hydropower generation and implications on electric grid greenhouse gas emissions and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarroja, Brian; AghaKouchak, Amir; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Here we translate the impacts of climate change on hydropower generation, and discuss implications on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and operation in California. We integrate a model of major surface-water reservoirs with an electric grid dispatch model, and perturb it by projected runoff based on representative concentration pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). Results show that climate change and variability is expected to decrease the average annual hydropower generation by 3.1% under RCP4.5, but have negligible impact under the RCP8.5. Model simulations indicate more inflow, caused by more future extremes, in the future that does not necessarily translate to more energy production because of reservoir spillage of water. While overall volume of future available water for energy production may be similar or higher, the delivery of this volume is expected to be significantly more variable in the future climate than the historical average, which has many implications for hydropower generation. Our results show that the expected changes in future climate leads to increases in grid GHG emissions, load-following capacity, fuel usage, and costs for the RCP4.5 due to generation shortfall, and very slight increases in the same metrics for the RCP8.5 case due to variability causing decreased efficiencies in load-following power plants. - Highlights: • Climate change caused increased overall volume inflow levels to hydropower reservoirs. • Extreme precipitation events caused reservoir spillage and inability to fully use increased inflow. • Hydropower generation decreased for RCP 4.5 and remained similar to historical for RCP 8.5. • Increased climate variability caused decreased efficiencies in load-following power plants.

  18. Technology Roadmaps: Smart Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The development of Technology Roadmaps: Smart Grids -- which the IEA defines as an electricity network that uses digital and other advanced technologies to monitor and manage the transport of electricity from all generation sources to meet the varying electricity demands of end users -- is essential if the global community is to achieve shared goals for energy security, economic development and climate change mitigation. Unfortunately, existing misunderstandings of exactly what smart grids are and the physical and institutional complexity of electricity systems make it difficult to implement smart grids on the scale that is needed. This roadmap sets out specific steps needed over the coming years to achieve milestones that will allow smart grids to deliver a clean energy future.

  19. Small Modular Reactors for Countries with Small to Medium Electric Grids - An Economically Sensible Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, P.

    2012-01-01

    There has recently been a renewed interest throughout the world in small nuclear units for generating electricity and for other applications. A report by the World Nuclear Association discussing the advantages of small modular nuclear reactors (SMRs) over traditional nuclear reactor designs, states that ''modern small reactors for power generation are expected to have greater simplicity of design, economy of mass production, and reduced siting costs. Many are also designed for a high level of passive or inherent safety in the event of malfunction.'' Since the inception of nuclear power, the size of reactor units has grown from under 100 MWe to more than 1600 MWe. Today, due partly to the high capital cost of large power reactors and partly to the need to service small electricity grids, there is a move to develop smaller units. These may be built individually or as modules in a larger plant. SMRs are a good fit in markets where anticipated electricity demand is projected to increase incrementally, because SMRs could be built in series as needed. SMRs might be particularly attractive in countries that currently rely on diesel generators for producing electricity. Small reactors could make economic sense because of the high cost of diesel generation compared to the low marginal cost of producing electricity from nuclear energy. (Keeping in mind the initial investment costs and the need to establish a national regulatory program.) Some SMR designs are fabricated in a factory and then delivered to the site. This could be a solution for markets that lack the qualified engineers and skilled craft workers needed to construct large reactors on site. This paper will provide an overview of the types and attributes of SMRs in use or under development worldwide, describe the similarities and important differences between designs, discuss potential applications for SMRs, including baseload electricity generation, electricity generation for remote locations and areas with

  20. Smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dong Bae

    2001-11-01

    This book describes press smart grid from basics to recent trend. It is divided into ten chapters, which deals with smart grid as green revolution in energy with introduction, history, the fields, application and needed technique for smart grid, Trend of smart grid in foreign such as a model business of smart grid in foreign, policy for smart grid in U.S.A, Trend of smart grid in domestic with international standard of smart grid and strategy and rood map, smart power grid as infrastructure of smart business with EMS development, SAS, SCADA, DAS and PQMS, smart grid for smart consumer, smart renewable like Desertec project, convergence IT with network and PLC, application of an electric car, smart electro service for realtime of electrical pricing system, arrangement of smart grid.

  1. Microgrid and Plug in Electric Vehicle (PEV) with Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Power Services Capability (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    for public release Microgrid and Plug in Electric Vehicle (PEV) with Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Power Services Capability Shukri Kazbour PEV Lead Engineer...collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 01 SEP 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED...00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Microgrid and Plug in Electric Vehicle (PEV) with Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Power Services Capability

  2. The economics of using plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery packs for grid storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Scott B.; Whitacre, J.F.; Apt, Jay

    2010-01-01

    We examine the potential economic implications of using vehicle batteries to store grid electricity generated at off-peak hours for off-vehicle use during peak hours. Ancillary services such as frequency regulation are not considered here because only a small number of vehicles will saturate that market. Hourly electricity prices in three U.S. cities were used to arrive at daily profit values, while the economic losses associated with battery degradation were calculated based on data collected from A123 Systems LiFePO 4 /Graphite cells tested under combined driving and off-vehicle electricity utilization. For a 16 kWh (57.6 MJ) vehicle battery pack, the maximum annual profit with perfect market information and no battery degradation cost ranged from ∝US$140 to $250 in the three cities. If the measured battery degradation is applied, however, the maximum annual profit (if battery pack replacement costs fall to $5000 for a 16 kWh battery) decreases to ∝10-120. It appears unlikely that these profits alone will provide sufficient incentive to the vehicle owner to use the battery pack for electricity storage and later off-vehicle use. We also estimate grid net social welfare benefits from avoiding the construction and use of peaking generators that may accrue to the owner, finding that these are similar in magnitude to the energy arbitrage profit. (author)

  3. The Future of Centrally-Organized Wholesale Electricity Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glazer, Craig [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morrison, Jay [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Breakman, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Clements, Allison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-21

    The electricity grid in the United States is organized around a network of large, centralized power plants and high voltage transmission lines that transport electricity, sometimes over large distances, before it is delivered to the customer through a local distribution grid. This network of centralized generation and high voltage transmission lines is called the “bulk power system.” Costs relating to bulk power generation typically account for more than half of a customer’s electric bill.1 For this reason, the structure and functioning of wholesale electricity markets have major impacts on costs and economic value for consumers, as well as energy security and national security. Diverse arrangements for bulk power wholesale markets have evolved over the last several decades. The Southeast and Western United States outside of California have a “bilateral-based” bulk power system where market participants enter into long-term bilateral agreements — using competitive procurements through power marketers, direct arrangements among utilities or with other generation owners, and auctions and exchanges.

  4. Identification of Synchronous Generator Electric Parameters Connected to the Distribution Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov M. Yu.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available According to modern trends, the power grids with distributed generation will have an open system architecture. It means that active consumers, owners of distributed power units, including mobile units, must have free access to the grid, like when using internet, so it is necessary to have plug and play technologies. Thanks to them, the system will be able to identify the unit type and the unit parameters. Therefore, the main aim of research, described in the paper, was to develop and research a new method of electric parameters identification of synchronous generator. The main feature of the proposed method is that parameter identification is performed while the generator to the grid, so it fits in the technological process of operation of the machine and does not influence on the connection time of the machine. For the implementation of the method, it is not necessary to create dangerous operation modes for the machine or to have additional expensive equipment and it can be used for salient pole machines and round rotor machines. The parameter identification accuracy can be achieved by more accurate account of electromechanical transient process, and making of overdetermined system with many more numbers of equations. Parameter identification will be made with each generator connection to the grid. Comparing data obtained from each connection, the middle values can be find by numerical method, and thus, each subsequent identification will accurate the machine parameters.

  5. Energy management strategies for combined heat and electric power micro-grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbarić Marina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing energy production from variable renewable energy sources such as wind and solar has resulted in several challenges related to the system reliability and efficiency. In order to ensure the supply-demand balance under the conditions of higher variability the micro-grid concept of active distribution networks arising as a promising one. However, to achieve all the potential benefits that micro-gird concept offer, it is important to determine optimal operating strategies for micro-grids. The present paper compares three energy management strategies, aimed at ensuring economical micro-grid operation, to find a compromise between the complexity of strategy and its efficiency. The first strategy combines optimization technique and an additional rule while the second strategy is based on the pure optimization approach. The third strategy uses model based predictive control scheme to take into account uncertainties in renewable generation and energy consumption. In order to compare the strategies with respect to cost effectiveness, a residential micro-grid comprising photovoltaic modules, thermal energy storage system, thermal loads, electrical loads as well as combined heat and power plant, is considered.

  6. Using System Dynamics to Define, Study, and Implement Smart Control Strategies on the Electric Power Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyle G. Roybal; Robert F Jeffers

    2013-07-01

    The United States electric power grid is the most complex and expansive control system in the world. Local generation control occurs at individual units based on response time and unit economics, larger regional control coordinates unit response to error conditions, and high level large-area regional control is ultimately administered by a network of humans guided by economic and resiliency related factors. Under normal operating conditions, the grid is a relatively slow moving entity that exhibits high inertia to outside stimuli, and behaves along repeatable diurnal and seasonal patterns. However, that paradigm is quickly changing because of the increasing implementation of renewable generation sources. Renewable generators by nature cannot be tightly controlled or scheduled. They appear like a negative load to the system with all of the variability associated with load on a larger scale. Also, grid-reactive loads (i.e. smart devices) can alter their consumption based on price or demand rules adding more variability to system behavior. This paper demonstrates how a systems dynamic modeling approach capable of operating over multiple time scales, can provide valuable insight into developing new “smart-grid” control strategies and devices needed to accommodate renewable generation and regulate the frequency of the grid.

  7. Optimization Strategies for the Vulnerability Analysis of the Electric Power Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinar, A.; Meza, J.; Donde, V.; Lesieutre, B.

    2007-11-13

    Identifying small groups of lines, whose removal would cause a severe blackout, is critical for the secure operation of the electric power grid. We show how power grid vulnerability analysis can be studied as a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem. Our analysis reveals a special structure in the formulation that can be exploited to avoid nonlinearity and approximate the original problem as a pure combinatorial problem. The key new observation behind our analysis is the correspondence between the Jacobian matrix (a representation of the feasibility boundary of the equations that describe the flow of power in the network) and the Laplacian matrix in spectral graph theory (a representation of the graph of the power grid). The reduced combinatorial problem is known as the network inhibition problem, for which we present a mixed integer linear programming formulation. Our experiments on benchmark power grids show that the reduced combinatorial model provides an accurate approximation, to enable vulnerability analyses of real-sized problems with more than 10,000 power lines.

  8. Smart electric grids. Economic and environmental value, general implementation. September 2017. Contribution by RTE - Full report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    This report is the RTE's contribution to studies commissions by public authorities on the social and economic valorisation of smart grids for the different actors. It first proposes an overview of the various considered technical and technological solutions: storage, active management of residential, tertiary and industrial demand, and steerability of renewable energies. After a recall of objectives related to the development of smart grids, the report reviews the methodological framework adopted for a previous study (general principles, modelling principles for the electricity system operation, use of the Flexis model, economic and environmental assessment), and proposes an overview of methodological developments achieved since 2015. It discusses how this study compares with others related to smart grid flexibility published in France and in Europe. Then, after having stated some hypotheses, the report presents the analytical framework for quantitative results, discusses economic and environmental assessments performed for each solution (storage, active management for different sectors, and steerability of wind energy production). The next part presents different global economically relevant scenarios of smart grid deployment, with assessments by 2030

  9. Electricity distribution within the future residence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breeze, J.E.

    1981-11-01

    This study examined present residential wiring systems and identified their shortcomings. A list of the desirable attributes for future wiring systems is proposed. The outlook for the application to wiring systems of solid-state electronic devices is assessed. As further background for a proposed new wiring concept, the residential use of energy today and probable future trends are reviewed. Lastly, the concept of a distributed bus is proposed and developed on a conceptual basis for the residential wiring system of the future. The distributed bus concept can lead to the development of a residential wiring system to meet the following requirements: adaptable to meet probable future energy requirements for residences including alternative energy sources and energy storage; flexibility for servicing loads both in respect to location in the residence and to the size of the load; improved economy in the use of materials; capability for development as a designed or engineered system with factory assembled components and wiring harness; capability for expansion through the attachment of legs or auxillary rings; adaptable to any probable architectural residential development; capability for development to meet the requirements for ease of use and maintenance and with recognition of the growing importance of do-it-yourself repairs and alterations; and adaptable to the full range of solid-state electronics and micro-computer devices and controls including the concept of load control and management through the use of a central control module. 66 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Visions of the Future: Hybrid Electric Aircraft Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is investing continually in improving civil aviation. Hybridization of aircraft propulsion is one aspect of a technology suite which will transform future aircraft. In this context, hybrid propulsion is considered a combination of traditional gas turbine propulsion and electric drive enabled propulsion. This technology suite includes elements of propulsion and airframe integration, parallel hybrid shaft power, turbo-electric generation, electric drive systems, component development, materials development and system integration at multiple levels.

  11. Is the future of mobility electric?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Driscoll, Patrick Arthur; Theodórsdóttir, Ásdis Hlökk; Richardson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Planning for sustainable mobility is a complex and demanding task and the knowledge of how to trade off multiple, often conflicting, goals is not entirely clear. One of the most contentious and confounding issues has been, and continues to be, the place of the automobile within the sustainable...... on automobiles, promotion of walking and biking, and support for public transport. The results of a recent pilot study conducted in the Reykjavik city region suggest that electric vehicles may represent a continuation of the dominant transport engineering approach and may in fact draw scarce financial...

  12. Role of nuclear and other energy sources in the Cuban electricity grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, I.; Perez, D.

    2000-01-01

    Energy options to cover electricity demand in Cuba for next years are limited. Expected increase in the oil companion gas, domestic crude oil production and biomass co-generation can not cover the 3-4% growth of the electricity demand. An important option could be the conclusion of Juragua Nuclear Power Plant. The paper presents the country energy supply situation for electricity generation and how can be covered the electricity demand forecast until 2015. A short description of the methodology, to evaluate the expansion of the electricity system using DECADES tools is presented. Results of the optimal expansion plan considering the introduction of NPP in combination with increase in the use of renewable sources is analyzed in the framework of small country electricity grid from economical and environmental point of view. Finally, in the conclusions the paper shows the role of NPP to cover electricity demand and in the reduction of Greenhouse Gas emissions. The contribution of renewable energy sources to these objectives is also presented. (author)

  13. Solar and the future of Ontario's electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMonagle, R.

    2005-01-01

    The potential contribution of solar energy to Ontario's electricity supply was evaluated in this PowerPoint presentation. Only 3.5 per cent of Canada's photovoltaic (PV) systems are connected to the electricity grid. However, 47 per cent of all homes in Ontario have the potential to install 3 kW PV arrays, and the solar industry has the potential to achieve growth rates of between 50 to 75 per cent, with medium term sustainable growth estimated at 30 to 40 per cent annually. The benefits of grid-connected solar energy include employment and wealth creation in Ontario; reductions in peak demand; and improved grid efficiency. It was noted that the price of solar PV is declining. Various market niches for solar energy technologies were outlined, and the targeting of early adopters was recommended as a first market for PV growth. An overview of the value of PV build-ups in California was presented, as well details of international tariffs and rates. A 10 year program leading to the installation of 15,000 PV systems or 40 MWp of installed capacity in Ontario by 2015 was outlined, as well as a plan for solar financing. It was concluded that priming the market now will mean that solar will be prepared to contribute to Ontario's supply during the 2015-2025 period, when its price will be competitive. refs., tabs., figs

  14. Off-Grid Electricity Access and its Impact on Micro-Enterprises: Evidence from Rural Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhoro, Peter N.

    The history of development shows convincingly that no country has substantially reduced poverty without massively increasing the use of electricity. The development of micro-enterprises in rural areas of Uganda is linked with increased access and use of electricity services. In this study, I combine quantitative and qualitative methods, including informal surveys, intra-business energy allocation studies and historical analysis, to analyze off-grid electricity access among micro-enterprises in rural western Uganda. I explore the linkages between of grid electricity access and the influence it has on micro- enterprises. Data is obtained from 56 micro-enterprises located in 11 village-towns within 3 districts in Uganda. In studying the micro-enterprises. the focus is on the services that are provided by electricity from modern energy carriers. The type of equipment used, forms of transportation, technical support, level of understanding and education of the entrepreneur, financing for energy equipment, and the role of donors are discussed in this thesis. Qualitative methods are used to allow for new insights and prioritization of concepts to emerge from the field rattier than from theory. Micro-enterprises in rural Uganda create income for the poor; they are resources for poverty reduction. With price adjustments, it becomes possible for those who live below the poverty line, nominally less than $1 a day, to afford the products and services and therefore mitigating the vicious cycle of poverty. Energy consumption among the micro-enterprises is at an average of 0.13kWh/day. The cost of accessing this amount of electricity attributes to about 50% of total revenue. I find that the "practices" used in off-grid electricity access lead to situations where the entrepreneurs have to evaluate pricing and output of products and services to generate higher profits. Such numbers indicate the need for appropriate technologies and profitable policies to be implemented. The data

  15. Influence of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on smart grids; Management der Trendwatching Group. Einfluss von Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles auf intelligente Verteilnetze (Smart Grids) - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horbaty, R. [ENCO Energie Consulting AG, Bubendorf (Switzerland); Strub, P. [Pierre Strub, Basel (Switzerland)

    2008-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the influence of plug-in hybrid vehicles on intelligent electricity distribution grids. The work of a trend-watching group which examined the regulatory services at the interface between such 'smart' grids and electrically powered vehicles is reported on. The trend-watching group includes research institutes, energy suppliers, NGOs, the automobile industry and technology companies. Vehicle-to-grid concepts and innovative developments in the Swiss market are commented on and the group's own activities (research, business models, technological development and politics) are discussed. The group will accompany relevant research programs and the implementation of measures as well as accompanying feasibility evaluations concerning current market developments. The Swiss federal strategy is to be discussed and international co-operation (with the IEA) is to be further strengthened.

  16. Evaluation of the Electric Vehicle Impact in the Power Demand Curve in a Smart Grid Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago; Vale, Zita

    2014-01-01

    be beneficially used to address this problem; the massive use of electric vehicles, particularly of vehicle-to-grid (usually referred as gridable vehicles or V2G), becomes a very relevant issue. This paper addresses the impact of Electric Vehicles (EVs) in system operation costs and in power demand curve...... for a distribution network with large penetration of Distributed Generation (DG) units. An efficient management methodology for EVs charging and discharging is proposed, considering a multi-objective optimization problem. The main goals of the proposed methodology are: to minimize the system operation costs...... and to minimize the difference between the minimum and maximum system demand (leveling the power demand curve). The proposed methodology perform the day-ahead scheduling of distributed energy resources in a distribution network with high penetration of DG and a large number of electric vehicles. It is used a 32...

  17. Grid-tied photovoltaic and battery storage systems with Malaysian electricity tariff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subramani, Gopinath; Ramachandaramurthy, Vigna K.; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar

    2017-01-01

    Under the current energy sector framework of electricity tariff in Malaysia, commercial and industrial customers are required to pay the maximum demand (MD) charge apart from the net consumption charges every month. The maximum demand charge will contribute up to 20% of the electricity bill......, and will hence result in commercial and industrial customers focussing on alternative energy supply to minimize the billing cost. This paper aims to review the technical assessment methods of a grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV)-battery storage system-with respect to maximum demand shaving. An effective......, technical, and economic aspects of the solar PV-battery system and the Malaysian electricity tariff for commercial and industrial customers....

  18. Limitation of fusion power plant installation on future power grids under the effect of renewable and nuclear power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Shutaro, E-mail: takeda.shutarou.55r@st.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Advanced Integrated Studies in Human Survivability, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Kyoto (Japan); Sakurai, Shigeki [Graduate School of Advanced Integrated Studies in Human Survivability, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Kyoto (Japan); Yamamoto, Yasushi [Faculty of Engineering Science, Kansai University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Kasada, Ryuta; Konishi, Satoshi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Future power grids would be unstable due to renewable and nuclear power sources. • Output interruptions of fusion plant would cause disturbances to future grids. • Simulation results suggested they would create limitations in fusion installation. • A novel diagram was presented to illustrate this suggested limitation. - Abstract: Future power grids would be unstable because of the larger share of renewable and nuclear power sources. This instability might bring some additional difficulties to fusion plant installation. Therefore, the authors carried out a quantitative feasibility study from the aspect of grid stability through simulation. Results showed that the more renewable and nuclear sources are linked to a grid, the greater disturbance the grid experiences upon a sudden output interruption of a fusion power plant, e.g. plasma disruption. The frequency deviations surpassed 0.2 Hz on some grids, suggesting potential limitations of fusion plant installation on future grids. To clearly show the suggested limitations of fusion plant installations, a novel diagram was presented.

  19. 17. Kassel symposium energy systems technology. Structures and grids for the future energy supply; 17. Kasseler Symposium Energie-Systemtechnik. Strukturen und Netze fuer die Energieversorgung von Morgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the 17th Kassel symposium from 11th to 12th October, 2012, in Kassel (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) E-Energy - the art of flexibilization between market and regulation (Michael Wedler); (2) The model region Harz (Florian Schloegl); (3) The role of IKT at the transformation of the energy supply - Chances for new business ideas (Arnold Picot); (4) Standardized connection of plants to IEC 61850 (Martin Winter); (5) Implementation of a IKT infrastructure for a virtual power plant in the model region Harz (Manuel Wickert); (6) OGEMA2.0 - Smart grid meets smart home (David Nestle); (7) Evaluation of the grid stability of a purely regenerative power supply (Kaspar Knorr); (8) Biogas plants and storage for the integration of renewable energies (Patrick Hochloff); (9) moma Architecture and functions in the intelligent energy system (Andreas Kiessling); (10) Power hub - showing the full potential of the VPP technology (Andreas Bjerre); (11) Implementation of electricity grids, heat grids and traffic grids - Potentials, requirements and efficiencies (Wolfram Wellssow); (12) Exploration of the regional distribution grid as a basis for the implementation of smart grids using the RegModHarz project as an example (Christian Roehrig); (13) New design and works management of distribution grids in decentralized supply structures (Martin Braun); (14) Advantages and challenges of the coupling of natural gas distribution systems and power distribution systems (Herbert Bauer); (15) Acceptance of renewable energies in the region Harz (Amelie Fechner); (16) Business models for a future 100 per cent supply of renewable energies (Peer Ritter).

  20. A transport layer protocol for the future high speed grid computing: SCTP versus fast tcp multihoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arshad, M.J.; Mian, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is designed for reliable data transfer on the global Internet today. One of its strong points is its use of flow control algorithm that allows TCP to adjust its congestion window if network congestion is occurred. A number of studies and investigations have confirmed that traditional TCP is not suitable for each and every type of application, for example, bulk data transfer over high speed long distance networks. TCP sustained the time of low-capacity and short-delay networks, however, for numerous factors it cannot be capable to efficiently deal with today's growing technologies (such as wide area Grid computing and optical-fiber networks). This research work surveys the congestion control mechanism of transport protocols, and addresses the different issues involved for transferring the huge data over the future high speed Grid computing and optical-fiber networks. This work also presents the simulations to compare the performance of FAST TCP multihoming with SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol) multihoming in high speed networks. These simulation results show that FAST TCP multihoming achieves bandwidth aggregation efficiently and outperforms SCTP multihoming under a similar network conditions. The survey and simulation results presented in this work reveal that multihoming support into FAST TCP does provide a lot of benefits like redundancy, load-sharing and policy-based routing, which largely improves the whole performance of a network and can meet the increasing demand of the future high-speed network infrastructures (such as in Grid computing). (author)

  1. Normal return and efficient operation of the electric grid monopolies; Normalavkastning og effektiv drift for nettmonopolene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjeret, Frode Andre

    2001-07-01

    This report deals with the size of the risk premium for electric grid operation in Norway. The size of the companies' risk premium must reflect the market requirements on return compensation (for normal investment risk), adjusted for the return risk for this type of enterprise. The return risk of the grid companies is discussed using two approaches, one theoretical and one empirical. This implies an empirical analysis of comparable foreign companies and an examination of the Norwegian regulatory regime. It is concluded that the regulatory authority is using too small an estimate for the risk premium when determining the capital income of the Norwegian utilities. The report also discusses the principles for valuation of the capital base.

  2. Evaluation of Electric Vehicle Charging Controllability for Provision of Time Critical Grid Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenas, Sergejus; Marinelli, Mattia; Andersen, Peter Bach

    2016-01-01

    Replacement of conventional generation by more stochastic renewable generation sources leads to reduction of inertia and controllability in the power system. This introduces the need for more dynamic regulation services. These faster services could potentially be provided by the growing number...... of electric vehicles. EVs are a fast responding energy resource with high availability. This work evaluates and experimentally shows the limits of EV charging controllability with the focus on its suitability for providing ancillary grid services. Three different series produced EVs are tested....... The experimental testing is done by using charging current controllability of built-in AC charger to provide a primary frequency regulation service with very dynamic input frequency. The results show that most the controllability of most EVs is more than suitable for providing time critical grid services...

  3. The Study on the Communication Network of Wide Area Measurement System in Electricity Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaorong, Cheng; Ying, Wang; Yangdan, Ni

    Wide area measurement system(WAMS) is a fundamental part of security defense in Smart Grid, and the communication system of WAMS is an important part of Electric power communication network. For a large regional network is concerned, the real-time data which is transferred in the communication network of WAMS will affect the safe operation of the power grid directly. Therefore, WAMS raised higher requirements for real-time, reliability and security to its communication network. In this paper, the architecture of WASM communication network was studied according to the seven layers model of the open systems interconnection(OSI), and the network architecture was researched from all levels. We explored the media of WAMS communication network, the network communication protocol and network technology. Finally, the delay of the network were analyzed.

  4. Results from the Operational Testing of the Eaton Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Brion [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the Eaton smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from Eaton for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Eaton smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  5. Results from Operational Testing of the Siemens Smart Grid-Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Brion [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the Siemens smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from Siemens for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Siemens smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  6. Module Embedded Micro-inverter Smart Grid Ready Residential Solar Electric System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agamy, Mohammed [GE Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2015-10-27

    The “Module Embedded Micro-inverter Smart Grid Ready Residential Solar Electric System” program is focused on developing innovative concepts for residential photovoltaic (PV) systems with the following objectives: to create an Innovative micro-inverter topology that reduces the cost from the best in class micro-inverter and provides high efficiency (>96% CEC - California Energy Commission), and 25+ year warranty, as well as reactive power support; integrate micro-inverter and PV module to reduce system price by at least $0.25/W through a) accentuating dual use of the module metal frame as a large area heat spreader reducing operating temperature, and b) eliminating redundant wiring and connectors; and create micro-inverter controller handles smart grid and safety functions to simplify implementation and reduce cost.

  7. Smart electric grids, a market on the edge of energy and domotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faucheux, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    'Intelligence' - a word derived from intelligentia in Latin, made up of the prefix inte- ('between') and the root legere ('choose, pick') or ligare ('link') - refers to all thought processes that enable a living being to adapt to new situations, to learn or understand and, above all, to act. Intelligence without action is futile. Artificial intelligence is now being installed on everyday objects. Everything is becoming 'smart': homes, buildings, grids... and, above all, the energy sector. Using the example of smart electric grids, this article establishes a few links between information and communication technology and the environmental transition in order to show that, if these two trends converge. A new type of economy - perhaps a smart economy - could emerge

  8. Second-Generation High-Temperature Superconductor Wires for the Electric Power Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malozemoff, A. P.

    2012-08-01

    Superconductors offer major advantages for the electric power grid, including high current and power capacity, high efficiency arising from the lossless current flow, and a unique current-limiting functionality arising from a superconductor-to-resistive transition. These advantages can be brought to bear on equipment such as underground power cables, fault current limiters, rotating machinery, transformers, and energy storage. The first round of significant commercial-scale superconductor power-equipment demonstrations, carried out during the past decade, relied on a first-generation high-temperature superconductor (HTS) wire. However, during the past few years, with the recent commercial availability of high-performance second-generation HTS wires, power-equipment demonstrations have increasingly been carried out with these new wires, which bring important advantages. The foundation is being laid for commercial expansion of this important technology into the power grid.

  9. Parameter estimation of electricity spot models from futures prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aihara, ShinIchi; Bagchi, Arunabha; Imreizeeq, E.S.N.; Walter, E.

    We consider a slight perturbation of the Schwartz-Smith model for the electricity futures prices and the resulting modified spot model. Using the martingale property of the modified price under the risk neutral measure, we derive the arbitrage free model for the spot and futures prices. We estimate

  10. Electric energy storage systems for future hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper, Hans; Huelshorst, Thomas [FEV Motorentechnik GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Sauer, Dirk Uwe [Elektrochemische Energiewandlung und Speichersystemtechnik, ISEA, RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Electric energy storage systems play a key role in today's and even more in future hybrid and electric vehicles. They enable new additional functionalities like Start/Stop, regenerative braking or electric boost and pure electric drive. This article discusses properties and requirements of battery systems like power provision, energy capacity, life time as a function of the hybrid concepts and the real operating conditions of the today's and future hybrid drivetrains. Battery cell technology, component sizing, system design, operating strategy safety measures and diagnosis, modularity and vehicle integration are important battery development topics. A final assessment will draw the conclusion that future drivetrain concepts with higher degree of electrician will be significantly dependent on the progress of battery technology. (orig.)

  11. Optimizing Aggregation Scenarios for Integrating Renewable Energy into the U.S. Electric Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, B. A.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2010-12-01

    This study is an analysis of 2006 and 2007 electric load data, wind speed and solar irradiance data, and existing hydroelectric, geothermal, and other power plant data to quantify benefits of aggregating clean electric power from various Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) regions in the contiguous United States. First, various time series, statistics, and probability methods are applied to the electric load data to determine if there are any desirable demand-side results—specifically reducing variability and/or coincidence of peak events, which could reduce the amount of required carbon-based generators—in combining the electricity demands from geographically and temporally diverse areas. Second, an optimization algorithm is applied to determine the least-cost portfolio of energy resources to meet the electric load for a range of renewable portfolio standards (RPS’s) for each FERC region and for various aggregation scenarios. Finally, the installed capacities, ramp rates, standard deviation, and corresponding generator requirements from these optimization test runs are compared against the transmission requirements to determine the most economical organizational structure of the contiguous U.S. electric grid. Ideally, results from this study will help to justify and identify a possible structure of a federal RPS and offer insight into how to best organize regions for transmission planning.

  12. State of the Art and Trends Review of Smart Metering in Electricity Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Uribe-Pérez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change, awareness of energy efficiency, new trends in electricity markets, the obsolescence of the actual electricity model, and the gradual conversion of consumers to prosumer profiles are the main agents of progressive change in electricity systems towards the Smart Grid paradigm. The introduction of multiple distributed generation and storage resources, with a strong involvement of renewable energies, exposes the necessity of advanced metering or Smart Metering systems, able to manage and control those distributed resources. Due to the heterogeneity of the Smart Metering systems and the specific features of each grid, it is easy to find in the related literature a wide range of solutions with different features. This work describes the key elements in a Smart Metering system and compiles the most employed technologies and standards as well as their main features. Since Smart Metering systems can perform jointly with other activities, these growing initiatives are also addressed. Finally, a revision of the main trends in Smart Metering uses and deployments worldwide is included.

  13. Towards future electricity networks - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaemmanouil, A.

    2008-07-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews work done on the development of new power transmission planning tools for restructured power networks. These are needed in order to face the challenges that arise due to economic, environmental and social issues. The integration of transmission, generation and energy policy planning in order to support a common strategy with respect to sustainable electricity networks is discussed. In the first phase of the project the main focus was placed on the definition of criteria and inputs that are most likely to affect sustainable transmission expansion plans. Models, concepts, and methods developed in order to study the impact of the internalisation of external costs in power production are examined. To consider external costs in the planning process, a concurrent software tool has been implemented that is capable of studying possible development scenarios. The report examines a concept that has been developed to identify congested transmission lines or corridors and evaluates the dependencies between the various market participants. The paper includes a set of three appendices that include a paper on the 28{sup th} USAEE North American conference, an abstract from Powertech 2009 and an SFOE report from July 2008.

  14. Towards future electricity networks - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaemmanouil, A.

    2008-01-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews work done on the development of new power transmission planning tools for restructured power networks. These are needed in order to face the challenges that arise due to economic, environmental and social issues. The integration of transmission, generation and energy policy planning in order to support a common strategy with respect to sustainable electricity networks is discussed. In the first phase of the project the main focus was placed on the definition of criteria and inputs that are most likely to affect sustainable transmission expansion plans. Models, concepts, and methods developed in order to study the impact of the internalisation of external costs in power production are examined. To consider external costs in the planning process, a concurrent software tool has been implemented that is capable of studying possible development scenarios. The report examines a concept that has been developed to identify congested transmission lines or corridors and evaluates the dependencies between the various market participants. The paper includes a set of three appendices that include a paper on the 28 th USAEE North American conference, an abstract from Powertech 2009 and an SFOE report from July 2008.

  15. The Theory of Grid Investment and Governance from the Perspective of New Regulation: Enlightenment on China's Electric Power System Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Yong-sheng

    2016-01-01

    The main contents of theoretical studies on grid investment and governance include the business investment patterns,the regulated investment patterns,and the incentive and efficiency issues of the power grid ownership and the operating right under the implementation of the integrated structure and separated structure.The commercial investment mode relies on the assumption of near-perfect competition and the separated structure of the grid ownership and the system operating right,which in reality is prone to distorted incentives for grid investment and easy to generate team moral hazards,thus it is difficult to ensure effective grid investment in the competitive electricity market.By relying on incentive regulation,the integrated structure of the grid ownership and the system operating right under the regulated investment mode can avoid moral hazard in the teams and various distorted investment incentives.Comparatively speaking,the regulated investment mode is a more appropriate one to be the main target pattern for the grid investment during China's power market reform.The power grid governance should focus on the release of the potential efficiency under the integrated structure of the grid ownership and the right to operate the system.The power system reform must take a coordinated promotion of the construction of a competitive market and the reform of the grid management system,so as to avoid becoming a simple interest re-adjustment.

  16. Environmental performance of electricity storage systems for grid applications, a life cycle approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.; Messagie, M.; Mertens, J.; Laget, H.; Coosemans, T.; Van Mierlo, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Large energy storage systems: environmental performance under different scenarios. • ReCiPe midpoint and endpoint impact assessment results are analyzed. • Energy storage systems can replace peak power generation units. • Energy storage systems and renewable energy have the best environmental scores. • Environmental performance of storage systems is application dependent. - Abstract: In this paper, the environmental performance of electricity storage technologies for grid applications is assessed. Using a life cycle assessment methodology we analyze the impacts of the construction, disposal/end of life, and usage of each of the systems. Pumped hydro and compressed air storage are studied as mechanical storage, and advanced lead acid, sodium sulfur, lithium-ion and nickel–sodium-chloride batteries are addressed as electrochemical storage systems. Hydrogen production from electrolysis and subsequent usage in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell are also analyzed. The selected electricity storage systems mimic real world installations in terms of capacity, power rating, life time, technology and application. The functional unit is one kW h of energy delivered back to the grid, from the storage system. The environmental impacts assessed are climate change, human toxicity, particulate matter formation, and fossil resource depletion. Different electricity mixes are used in order to exemplify scenarios where the selected technologies meet specific applications. Results indicate that the performance of the storage systems is tied to the electricity feedstocks used during use stage. Renewable energy sources have lower impacts throughout the use stage of the storage technologies. Using the Belgium electricity mix of 2011 as benchmark, the sodium sulfur battery is shown to be the best performer for all the impacts analyzed. Pumped hydro storage follows in second place. Regarding infrastructure and end of life, results indicate that battery systems

  17. A new load frequency control strategy for micro-grids with considering electrical vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khooban, Mohammad Hassan; Niknam, Taher; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    , by using a recently introduced plane representation, GT2FLS can be regarded as a combination of several interval type-2 fuzzy logic systems (IT2FLS), each with its own corresponding α level and linguistic rules can directly be incorporated into the controller. This paper further presents a new modified...... is working in an island operation mode. Meanwhile, electric vehicles (EVs) are growing in popularity, being used as dispersed energy storage units instead of small batteries in the systems. Accordingly, the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) power control can be applied to compensate for the inadequate LFC capacity...

  18. VOLTTRON™: An Agent Platform for Integrating Electric Vehicles and Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haack, Jereme N.; Akyol, Bora A.; Tenney, Nathan D.; Carpenter, Brandon J.; Pratt, Richard M.; Carroll, Thomas E.

    2013-12-06

    The VOLTTRON™ platform provides a secure environment for the deployment of intelligent applications in the smart grid. VOLTTRON design is based on the needs of control applications running on small form factor devices, namely security and resource guarantees. Services such as resource discovery, secure agent mobility, and interacting with smart and legacy devices are provided by the platform to ease the development of control applications and accelerate their deployment. VOLTTRON platform has been demonstrated in several different domains that influenced and enhanced its capabilities. This paper will discuss the features of VOLTTRON and highlight its usage to coordinate electric vehicle charging with home energy usage

  19. Scenario analysis on future electricity supply and demand in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qi; Ishihara, Keiichi N.; Mclellan, Benjamin C.; Tezuka, Tetsuo

    2012-01-01

    Under continuing policies of CO 2 emissions reduction, it is crucial to consider scenarios for Japan to realize a safe and clean future electricity system. The development plans for nuclear power and renewable energy - particularly solar and wind power - are being reconsidered in light of the Fukushima nuclear accident. To contribute to this, in the present study, three electricity supply scenarios for 2030 are proposed according to different future nuclear power development policies, and the maximum penetration of renewable energy generation is pursued. On the other side of the equation, three electricity demand scenarios are also proposed considering potential energy saving measures. The purpose of the study is to demonstrate quantitatively the technological, economic and environmental impacts of different supply policy selections and demand assumptions on future electricity systems. The scenario analysis is conducted using an input–output hour-by-hour simulation model subject to constraints from technological, economic and environmental perspectives. The obtained installed capacity mix, power generation mix, CO 2 emissions, and generation cost of the scenarios were inter-compared and analyzed. The penetration of renewable energy generation in a future electricity system in Japan, as well as its relationship with nuclear power share was uncovered. -- Highlights: ► Scenario analysis is conducted on future electricity systems under different supply policies and demand assumptions. ► Scenario analysis is conducted using a input–output hour-by-hour simulation model for real-time demand-supply balance. ► The technological, economic and environmental impacts of supply policies and demand assumptions on future electricity systems are studied. ► The maximum penetration of renewable energy generation is pursued in the scenario analysis using the hour-by-hour simulation. ► The relationship between the penetration levels of renewable energy and nuclear power

  20. Perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schaffhauser, A. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This report offers perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry. These perspectives will be used in further research to assess the prospects for Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). The perspectives are developed first by examining economic, political and regulatory, societal, technological, and environmental trends that are (1) national and global in scope and (2) directly related to the electric utility industry. Major national and global trends include increasing global economic competition, increasing political and ethnic strife, rapidly changing technologies, and increasing worldwide concern about the environment. Major trends in the utility industry include increasing competition in generation; changing patterns of electricity demand; increasing use of information technology to control power systems; and increasing implementation of environmental controls. Ways in which the national and global trends may directly affect the utility industry are also explored. The trends are used to construct three global and national scenarios- ``business as usual,`` ``technotopia future,`` and ``fortress state`` -and three electric utility scenarios- ``frozen in headlights,`` ``megaelectric,`` and ``discomania.`` The scenarios are designed to be thought provoking descriptions of potential futures, not predictions of the future, although three key variables are identified that will have significant impacts on which future evolves-global climate change, utility technologies, and competition. While emphasis needs to be placed on understanding the electric utility scenarios, the interactions between the two sets of scenarios is also of interest.

  1. Perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonn, B.; Schaffhauser, A.

    1994-04-01

    This report offers perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry. These perspectives will be used in further research to assess the prospects for Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). The perspectives are developed first by examining economic, political and regulatory, societal, technological, and environmental trends that are (1) national and global in scope and (2) directly related to the electric utility industry. Major national and global trends include increasing global economic competition, increasing political and ethnic strife, rapidly changing technologies, and increasing worldwide concern about the environment. Major trends in the utility industry include increasing competition in generation; changing patterns of electricity demand; increasing use of information technology to control power systems; and increasing implementation of environmental controls. Ways in which the national and global trends may directly affect the utility industry are also explored. The trends are used to construct three global and national scenarios- ''business as usual,'' ''technotopia future,'' and ''fortress state'' -and three electric utility scenarios- ''frozen in headlights,'' ''megaelectric,'' and ''discomania.'' The scenarios are designed to be thought provoking descriptions of potential futures, not predictions of the future, although three key variables are identified that will have significant impacts on which future evolves-global climate change, utility technologies, and competition. While emphasis needs to be placed on understanding the electric utility scenarios, the interactions between the two sets of scenarios is also of interest

  2. Can the BestGrid Process Improve Stakeholder Involvement in Electricity Transmission Projects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadejda Komendantova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has set ambitious targets for deployment of renewable energy sources to reach goals of climate change mitigation and energy security policies. However, the current state of electricity transmission infrastructure is a major bottleneck for further scaling up of renewable energy in the EU. Several thousands of kilometers of new lines have to be constructed and upgraded to accommodate growing volumes of intermittent renewable electricity. In many countries, construction of electricity transmission projects has been delayed for several years due to concerns of local stakeholders. The innovative BESTGRID approach, reported here, brings together transmission system operators (TSOs and non-governmental organizations (NGOs to discuss and understand the nature of stakeholder concerns. This paper has three objectives: (1 to understand stakeholder concerns about the deployment of electricity transmission grids in four pilot projects according to five guiding principles: need, transparency, engagement, environment, and impacts on human health as well as benefits; (2 to understand how these principles can be addressed to provide a basis for better decision-making outcomes; and (3 to evaluate the BESTGRID process based on feedback received from stakeholders and the level of participation achieved according to the ladder of Arnstein. This paper goes beyond a discussion of “measures to mitigate opposition” to understand how dialogue between TSOs and the public—represented mainly by NGOs and policy-makers—might lead to a better decision-making process and more sustainable electricity transmission infrastructure deployment.

  3. End-User Tools Towards AN Efficient Electricity Consumption: the Dynamic Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Fouad; Kist, Alexander A.

    2010-06-01

    Growing uncontrolled electrical demands have caused increased supply requirements. This causes volatile electrical markets and has detrimental unsustainable environmental impacts. The market is presently characterized by regular daily peak demand conditions associated with high electricity prices. A demand-side response system can limit peak demands to an acceptable level. The proposed scheme is based on energy demand and price information which is available online. An online server is used to communicate the information of electricity suppliers to users, who are able to use the information to manage and control their own demand. A configurable, intelligent switching system is used to control local loads during peak events and mange the loads at other times as necessary. The aim is to shift end user loads towards periods where energy demand and therefore also prices are at the lowest. As a result, this will flatten the load profile and avoiding load peeks which are costly for suppliers. The scheme is an endeavour towards achieving a dynamic smart grid demand-side-response environment using information-based communication and computer-controlled switching. Diffusing the scheme shall lead to improved electrical supply services and controlled energy consumption and prices.

  4. Disintegration of power grid as part of the task of increasing functionality of electric system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukatov Bekzhan

    2017-01-01

    operation is inevitable with reduced reliability or, otherwise, with incomplete functionality where functionality is the set of functions provided by the power system and the quality of their performance. With the mass input of distributed small generation in grids of almost all voltage classes it is necessary to solve the problem of ensuring stability in previously passive distribution networks. The traditional approach based on the “struggle” to maintain synchronism between power plants in the distribution networks is associated with a number of difficulties, which causes to apply another approach to control modes in distribution networks. Complication of the power grid, automatic devices, increase in possible variations of modes, and tendency to maximize the use of production assets lead to an increase in the complexity of tasks solved by dispatch centers. In this regard, it is important to note that availability of cascade failures in power systems speaks of the urgency of the task of ensuring the survivability of energy supply systems both globally and locally. The paper shows how disintegration of the power grid can solve the task of ensuring the functionality of traditional power systems and help to create favorable conditions for distributed small generation integration into the integrated electric power system.

  5. Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Evaluation of PV Inverter Grid Support on Hawaiian Electric Feeders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Austin A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prabakar, Kumaraguru [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nagarajan, Adarsh [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nepal, Shaili [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hoke, Anderson F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Asano, Marc [Hawaiian Electric Company; Ueda, Reid [Hawaiian Electric Company; Ifuku, Earle [Hawaiian Electric Company

    2017-10-03

    As more grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) inverters become compliant with evolving interconnections requirements, there is increased interest from utilities in understanding how to best deploy advanced grid-support functions (GSF) in the field. One efficient and cost-effective method to examine such deployment options is to leverage power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) testing methods, which combine the fidelity of hardware tests with the flexibility of computer simulation. This paper summarizes a study wherein two Hawaiian Electric feeder models were converted to real-time models using an OPAL-RT real-time digital testing platform, and integrated with models of GSF capable PV inverters based on characterization test data. The integrated model was subsequently used in PHIL testing to evaluate the effects of different fixed power factor and volt-watt control settings on voltage regulation of the selected feeders using physical inverters. Selected results are presented in this paper, and complete results of this study were provided as inputs for field deployment and technical interconnection requirements for grid-connected PV inverters on the Hawaiian Islands.

  6. Battery charging and discharging research based on the interactive technology of smart grid and electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingyang

    2018-06-01

    To further study the bidirectional flow problem of V2G (Vehicle to Grid) charge and discharge motor, the mathematical model of AC/DC converter and bi-directional DC/DC converter was established. Then, lithium battery was chosen as the battery of electric vehicle and its mathematical model was established. In order to improve the service life of lithium battery, bidirectional DC/DC converter adopted constant current and constant voltage control strategy. In the initial stage of charging, constant current charging was adopted with current single closed loop control. After reaching a certain value, voltage was switched to constant voltage charging controlled by voltage and current. Subsequently, the V2G system simulation model was built in MATLAB/Simulink. The simulation results verified the correctness of the control strategy and showed that when charging, constant current and constant voltage charging was achieved, the grid side voltage and current were in the same phase, and the power factor was about 1. When discharging, the constant current discharge was applied, and the grid voltage and current phase difference was r. To sum up, the simulation results are correct and helpful.

  7. Transactive-Market-Based Operation of Distributed Electrical Energy Storage with Grid Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nazif Faqiry

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In a transactive energy market, distributed energy resources (DERs such as dispatchable distributed generators (DGs, electrical energy storages (EESs, distribution-scale load aggregators (LAs, and renewable energy sources (RESs have to earn their share of supply or demand through a bidding process. In such a market, the distribution system operator (DSO may optimally schedule these resources, first in a forward market, i.e., day-ahead, and in a real-time market later on, while maintaining a reliable and economic distribution grid. In this paper, an efficient day-ahead scheduling of these resources, in the presence of interaction with wholesale market at the locational marginal price (LMP, is studied. Due to inclusion of EES units with integer constraints, a detailed mixed integer linear programming (MILP formulation that incorporates simplified DistFlow equations to account for grid constraints is proposed. Convex quadratic line and transformer apparent power flow constraints have been linearized using an outer approximation. The proposed model schedules DERs based on distribution locational marginal price (DLMP, which is obtained as the Lagrange multiplier of the real power balance constraint at each distribution bus while maintaining physical grid constraints such as line limits, transformer limits, and bus voltage magnitudes. Case studies are performed on a modified IEEE 13-bus system with high DER penetration. Simulation results show the validity and efficiency of the proposed model.

  8. Perception of barriers for expansion of electricity grids in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglini, Antonella; Komendantova, Nadejda; Brtnik, Patricia; Patt, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Many of the scenarios for decarbonising the European energy system involve the integration of large-scale and decentralised renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar power. However, such integration requires substantial and rapid improvements to the existing transmission grids. Using a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods, we analysed the opinions and views of stakeholders concerning the main barriers and solutions to this problem. The results suggest two conclusions. The first is that primary barriers to the currently needed level of grid expansion are not technical or financial, but the lack of appropriate regulatory frameworks and public acceptance. The second is that major changes are needed in the overall regulatory process, rather than simply minor modifications or improved implementation of existing regulations. - Highlights: ► Estimations of perceptions on barriers for expansion of electricity grids in Europe. ► Recommendations on political process and level of acceptance among European population. ► Needs for better, simplified and standardized regulations. ► Strong and transparent consultation process in all stages.

  9. Electric vehicle charging to support renewable energy integration in a capacity constrained electricity grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearre, Nathaniel S.; Swan, Lukas G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Examination of EV charging in a wind rich area with transmission constraints. • Multiple survey instruments to determine transportation needs, when charging occurs. • Simple charging, time-of-day scheduled, and ideal smart charging investigated. • Export power peaks reduced by 2% with TOD, 10% with smart charging 10% of fleet. • Smart charging EVs enables enough added wind capacity to power the fleet. - Abstract: Digby, Nova Scotia, is a largely rural area with a wealth of renewable energy resources, principally wind and tidal. Digby’s electrical load is serviced by an aging 69 kV transmission line that often operates at the export capacity limit because of a local wind energy converter (WEC) field. This study examines the potential of smart charging of electric vehicles (EVs) to achieve two objectives: (1) add load so as to increase export capacity; (2) charge EVs using renewable energy. Multiple survey instruments were used to determine transportation energy needs and travel timing. These were used to create EV charging load timeseries based on “convenience”, “time-of-day”, and idealized “smart” charging. These charging scenarios were evaluated in combination with high resolution data of generation at the wind field, electrical flow through the transmission system, and electricity load. With a 10% adoption rate of EVs, time-of-day charging increased local renewable energy usage by 20% and enables marginal WEC upgrading. Smart charging increases charging by local renewable energy by 73%. More significantly, it adds 3 MW of load when power exports face constraints, allowing enough additional renewable electricity generation capacity to fully power those vehicles.

  10. Modelling electricity futures prices using seasonal path-dependent volatility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanelli, Viviana; Maddalena, Lucia; Musti, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A no-arbitrage term structure model is applied to the electricity market. • Volatility parameters of the HJM model are estimated by using German data. • The model captures the seasonal price behaviour. • Electricity futures prices are forecasted. • Call options are evaluated according to different strike prices. - Abstract: The liberalization of electricity markets gave rise to new patterns of futures prices and the need of models that could efficiently describe price dynamics grew exponentially, in order to improve decision making for all of the agents involved in energy issues. Although there are papers focused on modelling electricity as a flow commodity by using Heath et al. (1992) approach in order to price futures contracts, the literature is scarce on attempts to consider a seasonal volatility as input to models. In this paper, we propose a futures price model that allows looking into observed stylized facts in the electricity market, in particular stochastic price variability, and periodic behavior. We consider a seasonal path-dependent volatility for futures returns that are modelled in Heath et al. (1992) framework and we obtain the dynamics of futures prices. We use these series to price the underlying asset of a call option in a risk management perspective. We test the model on the German electricity market, and we find that it is accurate in futures and option value estimates. In addition, the obtained results and the proposed methodology can be useful as a starting point for risk management or portfolio optimization under uncertainty in the current context of energy markets.

  11. Local Adaptive Control of Solar Photovoltaics and Electric Water Heaters for Real-time Grid Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Mendaza, Iker Diaz de Cerio; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    Overvoltage (OV) in a low voltage distribution network is one of the foremost issues observed even under moderate penetration of rooftop solar photovoltaics (PVs). Similarly, grid under-voltage (UV) is foreseen as a potential issue resulting from increased integration of large flexible loads......, such as electric vehicles, electric water heaters (EWHs) etc. An adaptive control using only local measurements for the EWHs and PVs is proposed in this study to alleviate OV as well as UV issues. The adaptive control is designed such that it monitors the voltage at the point of connection and adjusts active...... and reactive power injection/consumptions of the EWHs and PVs following the voltage violations. To effectively support the network in real-time, the controller allows EWHs to operate prior to PVs in OV and after the PVs in UV violations. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is demonstrated...

  12. Novel wind powered electric vehicle charging station with vehicle-to-grid (V2G) connection capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathabadi, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The only wind powered EV charging station reported in the literature. • The charging station maximally converts wind energy into electric energy. • Novel fast and highly accurate MPPT technique implemented in the EV charging station. • The charging station is grid-connected type with vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology. • The charging station balances load demand in the grid connected to it. - Abstract: In this study, a novel grid-connected wind powered electric vehicle (EV) charging station with vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology is designed and constructed. The wind powered EV charging station consists of a wind energy conversion system (WECS), a unidirectional DC/DC converter connected to the WECS, a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller, 15 bidirectional DC/DC converters dedicated to 15 charging stations provided for charging EVs, and a three-phase bidirectional DC/AC inverter connected to the grid. The contribution of this work is that the grid-connected wind powered EV charging station presented in this work is the only constructed EV charging station reported in the literature that uses wind energy as a renewable resource to produce electric energy for charging EVs, and moreover, it maximally converts wind energy into electric energy because it uses a novel fast and highly accurate MPPT technique proposed in this study. Other works are only simulated models without any new MPPT consideration. It is demonstrated that the constructed wind powered EV charging station is a perfect charging station that not only produces electric energy to charge EVs but also balances load demand in the grid connected to it.

  13. Increase in the number of distributed power generation installations in electricity distribution grids - Storage technologies; Zunahme der dezentralen Energieerzeugungsanlagen in elektrischen Verteilnetzen: Grundlagen der Speicher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luechinger, P.

    2003-07-01

    This is the fifth part of a ten-part final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) on a project that looked into potential problems relating to the Swiss electricity distribution grid with respect to the increasing number of distributed power generation facilities being put into service. The identification of special conditions for the grid's operation and future development that take increasing decentralised power production into account are discussed. The results of the project activities encompass the analysis and evaluation of various problem areas associated with planning and management of the grid during normal operation and periods of malfunction, as well as required modifications to safety systems and grid configurations. This fourth appendix to the main report describes six ways of storing electricity, including accumulators, super caps, super-conducting magnetic and flywheel energy storage units. The accumulator technologies discussed include lead-acid, nickel-cadmium and sodium-sulphur batteries. Each of these types of power storage technologies is briefly described. The characteristics of these various types of storage are compared.

  14. Hybrid optimal online-overnight charging coordination of plug-in electric vehicles in smart grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoum, Mohammad A. S.; Nabavi, Seyed M. H.

    2016-10-01

    Optimal coordinated charging of plugged-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in smart grid (SG) can be beneficial for both consumers and utilities. This paper proposes a hybrid optimal online followed by overnight charging coordination of high and low priority PEVs using discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) that considers the benefits of both consumers and electric utilities. Objective functions are online minimization of total cost (associated with grid losses and energy generation) and overnight valley filling through minimization of the total load levels. The constraints include substation transformer loading, node voltage regulations and the requested final battery state of charge levels (SOCreq). The main challenge is optimal selection of the overnight starting time (toptimal-overnight,start) to guarantee charging of all vehicle batteries to the SOCreq levels before the requested plug-out times (treq) which is done by simultaneously solving the online and overnight objective functions. The online-overnight PEV coordination approach is implemented on a 449-node SG; results are compared for uncoordinated and coordinated battery charging as well as a modified strategy using cost minimizations for both online and overnight coordination. The impact of toptimal-overnight,start on performance of the proposed PEV coordination is investigated.

  15. Identification and Ranking of Critical Assets within an Electrical Grid under Threat of Cyber Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Blake R.

    This paper examines the ranking of critical assets within an electrical grid under threat of cyber attack.1 Critical to this analysis is the assumption of zero hour exploits namely, the threat of an immediate attack as soon as a vulnerability is discovered. Modeling shows that over time load fluctuations as well as other system variations will change the importance of each asset in the delivery of bulk power. As opposed to classic stability studies where risk can be shown to be greatest during high load periods, the zero hour exploit-cyber-risk assumes that vulnerabilities will be attacked as soon as they are discovered. The probability of attacks is made uniform over time to include any and all possible attacks. Examining the impact of an attack and how the grid reacts immediately following an attack will identify and determine the criticality of each asset. This work endeavors to fulfill the NERC Critical Infrastructure Protection Requirements CIP-001-1 through CIP-009-2, cyber security requirements for the reliable supply of bulk power to customers throughout North America. 1Critical assets will here refer to facilities, systems, and equipment, which, if destroyed, degraded, or otherwise rendered unavailable, would affect the reliability or operability of the Bulk Electric System, NERC Glossary of Terms Used in Reliability Standards, 2009

  16. Towards a greener tomorrow: the future for solar electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartford, John

    1998-01-01

    A typical photovoltaic (PV) system consisting of an array of photovoltaic cells which convert sunlight directly into DC electricity silently and without pollution is simple and reliable, easy to install and requires little maintenance and no refuelling. However, there are a number of technical, economic and structural problems to be overcome before photovoltaics achieve significant penetration in the energy market. The main technical barrier is the low energy density of sunlight and its uneven distribution. Furthermore, photovoltaics cannot produce electricity at night and although battery storage can be provided or PV systems can be connected to the grid, this adds to the cost. Cost is the major barrier to penetration of the market but this is continually being cut. Advances in solar cell design are discussed which are bringing down the cost of fabrication and this added to economics of scale as market share develops will eventually make PV systems more competitive. So far, PV systems have found their largest market in powering isolated devices and in the infrastructure of remote rural communities in developing countries but grid connected systems, both centralised power generation plants and building integrated systems, are expected to take over the largest share of the PV market by 2010. (UK)

  17. Effectively utilizing NYMEX contracts for natural gas electricity futures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, L.M.

    1996-01-01

    NYMEX (New York Mercantile Exchange) is one of the United States' largest commodity exchanges. The primary role of commodity exchanges were summarized as well as the characteristics of an effective exchange. The concept of commoditization, price risk and price volatility were explained. The evolution of world and domestic regulated energy markets, the characteristics of the futures market, NYMEX electricity futures contract specifications, natural gas and crude futures contract development, and the nature of hedging were reviewed. Differences of risk management practices in cash markets and futures markets were illustrated. tabs., figs

  18. Accurate calibration of steam turbine speed control system and its influence on primary regulation at electric grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irrazabal Bohorquez, Washington Orlando; Barbosa, Joao Roberto [Technological Institute of Aeronautics (ITA/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Center for Reference on Gas Turbine and Energy], E-mail: barbosa@ita.br

    2010-07-01

    In an interconnected electric system there are two very important parameters: the field voltage and the frequency system. The frequency system is very important for the primary regulation of the electric grid. Each turbomachine actuating as generator interconnected to the grid has an automatic speed regulator to keep the rotational speed and mechanical power of the prime machine operating at the set conditions and stable frequency. The electric grid is a dynamical system and in every moment the power units are exposed to several types of disturbances, which cause unbalance of the mechanical power developed by prime machine and the consumed electric power at the grid. The steam turbine speed control system controls the turbine speed to support the electric grid primary frequency at the same time it controls the frequency of the prime machine. Using a mathematical model for the speed control system, the transfer functions were calculated, as well as the proportionality constants of each element of the steam turbine automatic speed regulator. Among other parameters, the droop characteristic of steam turbine and the dynamic characteristics of the automatic speed regulator elements were calculated. Another important result was the determination of the behavior of the speed control when disturbances occur with the improvement of the calibration precision of the control system. (author)

  19. Electrically Driven Thermal Management: Flight Validation, Experiment Development, Future Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didion, Jeffrey R.

    2018-01-01

    Electrically Driven Thermal Management is an active research and technology development initiative incorporating ISS technology flight demonstrations (STP-H5), development of Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) flight experiment, and laboratory-based investigations of electrically based thermal management techniques. The program targets integrated thermal management for future generations of RF electronics and power electronic devices. This presentation reviews four program elements: i.) results from the Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) Long Term Flight Demonstration launched in February 2017 ii.) development of the Electrically Driven Liquid Film Boiling Experiment iii.) two University based research efforts iv.) development of Oscillating Heat Pipe evaluation at Goddard Space Flight Center.

  20. Improved grid operation through power smoothing control strategies utilizing dedicated energy storage at an electric vehicle charging station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Thomas; Holjevac, Ninoslav; Bremdal, Bernt A.

    2016-01-01

    project (Flex-ChEV) supported by the ERA-Net Smart Grid FP7 program. The principal asset of the proposed charging station (CS) is a dedicated Energy Storage System (ESS) to compensate for adverse effects on the grid caused by peak charging demand and which could impose severe trials for the local DSO....... Furthermore, CS of this kind could serve multiple business purposes in a smart grid. It can serve as a hub for seamless integration of local renewable and distributed energy resources, it can provide added flexibility for the local grid through different ancillary services and it can act as an efficient......This paper addresses the principal service aspects for electric vehicles (EV), as well as issues related to energy storage design, charging station integration into power system and load management issues. It builds on the research conducted in the Flexible Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure...

  1. Dealing with Demand in Electric Grids with an Adaptive Consumption Management Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego M. Jiménez-Bravo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of consumption in homes and workplaces is an increasingly important aspect if we consider the growing popularity of smart cities, the increasing use of renewable energies, and the policies of the European Union on using energy in an efficient and clean way. These factors make it necessary to have a system that is capable of predicting what devices are connected to an electrical network. For demand management, the system must also be able to control the power supply to these devices. To this end, we propose the use of a multiagent system that includes agents with advanced reasoning and learning capacities. More specifically, the agents incorporate a case-based reasoning system and machine learning techniques. Besides, the multiagent system includes agents that are specialized in the management of the data acquired and the electrical devices. The aim is to adjust the consumption of electricity in networks to the electrical demand, and this will be done by acting automatically on the detected devices. The proposed system provides promising results; it is capable of predicting what devices are connected to the power grid at a high success rate. The accuracy of the system makes it possible to act according to the device preferences established in the system. This allows for adjusting the consumption to the current demand situation, without the risk of important home appliances being switched off.

  2. Smart Energy 2011. Smart Grid or the future of power industry; Smart Energy 2011. Smart Grid oder die Zukunft der Energiewirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossmann, Uwe; Kunold, Ingo (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    The demand for smart grids, energy information networks, smart metering, new tariffs offering incentives for load shifting to household customers and load reduction options to energy providers are discussed increasingly. The privacy protection of customers being threatened by detailed consumption profiles also needs attention. Practitioners and researches from enterprises and research institutions present results from their field of work in nine papers. This book mainly focusses on three topics: 'Energy 2020', 'Data protection and data security within smart grids' and 'Smart grid and energy information networks'. On the one hand this volume addresses researchers and practitioners from enterprises and research institutions, on the other hand teachers and students dealing with questions concerning the energy market of the future. (orig.)

  3. VersiCharge-SG - Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) for Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Dong [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haas, Harry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Terricciano, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-30

    In his 2011 State of the Union address, President Obama called for one million electric vehicles on the road by 2015 [1]. With large-scale Electric Vehicle (EV) or Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV or EV for short) or Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) penetration into the US market, there will be drastic reduction in fossil fuel consumption, thus significantly reducing our dependency on foreign oil [2-6]. There will also be significant reduction on Green House Gas (GHG) emissions and smog in the major US cities [3, 7, 8]. Similar studies have also been done other industrial counties [9]. For the fuel cost, with the home electricity rate around $0.13 per kWh, it would cost about $0.05 per mile for DC operation and $0.03 cents per mile for AC operation. But, assuming 25 miles per gallon for a typical vehicle and $4 per gallon, fossil fuel will cost $0.16 per mile [10]. The overall lifecycle cost of PEVs will be several folds lower than the existing fossil fueled vehicles. Despite the above advantages of the EVs, the current cost of EVSE is not affordable for the average consumer. Presently, the cost of installing state-of-the-art residential EVSE ranges from $1500 to $2500 [11]. Low priced EVSE technology, which is easy to install, and affordable to operate and maintain by an average consumer, is essential for the large-scale market penetration of EVs. In addition, the long-term success of this technology is contingent on the PEVs having minimal excessive load and shift impact on the grid, especially at peak times. In a report [2] published by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the exiting electric power generation infrastructure, if used at its full capacity 24 hours a day, would support up to 84% of the nation’s cars, pickup trucks and SUVs for an average daily drive of 33 miles. This mileage estimate is certainly much below what an average driver would drive his/her vehicle per day. Another report [3] by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

  4. Grid tied PV/battery system architecture and power management for fast electric vehicle charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Mohamed O.

    The prospective spread of Electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) arises the need for fast charging rates. Higher charging rates requirements lead to high power demands, which cant be always supported by the grid. Thus, the use of on-site sources alongside the electrical grid for EVs charging is a rising area of interest. In this dissertation, a photovoltaic (PV) source is used to support the high power EVs charging. However, the PV output power has an intermittent nature that is dependable on the weather conditions. Thus, battery storage are combined with the PV in a grid tied system, providing a steady source for on-site EVs use in a renewable energy based fast charging station. Verily, renewable energy based fast charging stations should be cost effective, efficient, and reliable to increase the penetration of EVs in the automotive market. Thus, this Dissertation proposes a novel power flow management topology that aims on decreasing the running cost along with innovative hardware solutions and control structures for the developed architecture. The developed power flow management topology operates the hybrid system at the minimum operating cost while extending the battery lifetime. An optimization problem is formulated and two stages of optimization, i.e online and offline stages, are adopted to optimize the batteries state of charge (SOC) scheduling and continuously compensate for the forecasting errors. The proposed power flow management topology is validated and tested with two metering systems, i.e unified and dual metering systems. The results suggested that minimal power flow is anticipated from the battery storage to the grid in the dual metering system. Thus, the power electronic interfacing system is designed accordingly. Interconnecting bi-directional DC/DC converters are analyzed, and a cascaded buck boost (CBB) converter is chosen and tested under 80 kW power flow rates. The need to perform power factor correction (PFC) on

  5. Single-Phase Boost Inverter-Based Electric Vehicle Charger With Integrated Vehicle to Grid Reactive Power Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickramasinghe Abeywardana, Damith Buddika; Acuna, Pablo; Hredzak, Branislav

    2018-01-01

    Vehicle to grid (V2G) reactive power compensation using electric vehicle (EV) onboard chargers helps to ensure grid power quality by achieving unity power factor operation. However, the use of EVs for V2G reactive power compensation increases the second-order harmonic ripple current component...... from the grid, exposes the EV battery to these undesirable ripple current components for a longer period and discharges the battery due to power conversion losses. This paper presents a way to provide V2G reactive power compensation through a boost inverter-based single stage EV charger and a DC...

  6. Phase-wise enhanced voltage support from electric vehicles in a Danish low-voltage distribution grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knezovic, Katarina; Marinelli, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    High deployment of electric vehicles (EVs) imposes great challenges for the distribution grids, especially in unbalanced systems with notable voltage variations which detrimentally affect security of supply. On the other hand, with development of Vehicle-to-Grid technology, EVs may be able...... to provide numerous services for grid support, e.g., voltage control. Implemented electronic equipment will allow them to exchange reactive power for autonomous voltage support without communicating with the distribution system operator or influencing the available active power for primary transportation...

  7. Simultaneous day-ahead forecasting of electricity price and load in smart grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shayeghi, H.; Ghasemi, A.; Moradzadeh, M.; Nooshyar, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents a novel MIMO-based support vector machine for forecasting. • Considered uncertainties for better simulation for filtering in input data. • Used LSSVM technique for learning. • Proposed a new modification for standard artificial bee colony algorithm to optimize LSSVM engine. - Abstract: In smart grids, customers are promoted to change their energy consumption patterns by electricity prices. In fact, in this environment, the electricity price and load consumption are highly corrected such that the market participants will have complex model in their decisions to maximize their profit. Although the available forecasting mythologies perform well in electricity market by way of little or no load and price interdependencies, but cannot capture load and price dynamics if they exist. To overcome this shortage, a Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) model is presented which can consider the correlation between electricity price and load. The proposed model consists of three components known as a Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT) to make valuable subsets, Generalized Mutual Information (GMI) to select best input candidate and Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) based on MIMO model, called LSSVM-MIMO, to make simultaneous load and price forecasts. Moreover, the LSSVM-MIMO parameters are optimized by a novel Quasi-Oppositional Artificial Bee Colony (QOABC) algorithm. Some forecasting indices based on error factor are considered to evaluate the forecasting accuracy. Simulations carried out on New York Independent System Operator, New South Wales (NSW) and PJM electricity markets data, and showing that the proposed hybrid algorithm has good potential for simultaneous forecasting of electricity price and load

  8. The Westinghouse AP600 an advanced nuclear option for small or medium electricity grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruschi, H. J.; Novak, V.

    1996-01-01

    During the early days of commercial nuclear power, many countries looking to add nuclear power to their energy mix required large plants to meet the energy needs of rapidly growing populations and large industrial complexes. The majority of plants worldwide are in the range of 100 megawatts and beyond. During the 1970s, it became apparent that a smaller nuclear plants would appeal to utilities looking to add additional power capacity to existing grids, or to utilities in smaller countries which were seeking efficient, new nuclear generation capacity for the first time. For instance, the Westinghouse-designed 600 megawatt Krsko plant in Slovenia began operation in 1980, providing electricity to inhabitants of relatively small, yet industrial populations of Slovenia and Croatia. This plant design incorporated the best, proven technology available at that time, based on 20 years of Westinghouse PWR pioneering experience. Beginning in the early 1980s, Westinghouse began to build further upon that experience - in part through the advanced light water reactor programs established by the Electric Power Research institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - to design a simplified, advanced nuclear reactor in the 600 megawatt range. Originally, Westinghouse's development of its AP600 (advanced, passive 600-megawatt) plants was geared towards the needs of U.S. utilities which specified smaller, simplified nuclear options for the decades ahead. It soon became evident that the small and medium sized electricity grids of international markets could benefit from this new reactor. From the earliest days of Westinghouse's AP600 development, the corporation invited members of the international nuclear community to take part in the design, development and testing of the AP600 - with the goal of designing a reactor that would meet the diverse needs of an international industry composed of countries with similar, yet different, concerns. (author)

  9. Optimal Dispatch of Unreliable Electric Grid-Connected Diesel Generator-Battery Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D.; Kang, L.

    2015-06-01

    Diesel generator (DG)-battery power systems are often adopted by telecom operators, especially in semi-urban and rural areas of developing countries. Unreliable electric grids (UEG), which have frequent and lengthy outages, are peculiar to these regions. DG-UEG-battery power system is an important kind of hybrid power system. System dispatch is one of the key factors to hybrid power system integration. In this paper, the system dispatch of a DG-UEG-lead acid battery power system is studied with the UEG of relatively ample electricity in Central African Republic (CAR) and UEG of poor electricity in Congo Republic (CR). The mathematical models of the power system and the UEG are studied for completing the system operation simulation program. The net present cost (NPC) of the power system is the main evaluation index. The state of charge (SOC) set points and battery bank charging current are the optimization variables. For the UEG in CAR, the optimal dispatch solution is SOC start and stop points 0.4 and 0.5 that belong to the Micro-Cycling strategy and charging current 0.1 C. For the UEG in CR, the optimal dispatch solution is of 0.1 and 0.8 that belongs to the Cycle-Charging strategy and 0.1 C. Charging current 0.1 C is suitable for both grid scenarios compared to 0.2 C. It makes the dispatch strategy design easier in commercial practices that there are a few very good candidate dispatch solutions with system NPC values close to that of the optimal solution for both UEG scenarios in CAR and CR.

  10. Optimal grid design and logistic planning for wind and biomass based renewable electricity supply chains under uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmani, Atif; Zhang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the grid design and optimal allocation of wind and biomass resources for renewable electricity supply chains under uncertainties is studied. Due to wind intermittency, generation of wind electricity is not uniform and cannot be counted on to be readily available to meet the demand. Biomass represents a type of stored energy and is the only renewable resource that can be used for producing biofuels and generating electricity whenever required. However, amount of biomass resources are finite and might not be sufficient to meet the demand for electricity and biofuels. Potential of wind and biomass resources is therefore jointly analyzed for electricity generation. Policies are proposed and evaluated for optimal allocation of finite biomass resources for electricity generation. A stochastic programming model is proposed that optimally balances the electricity demand across the available supply from wind and biomass resources under uncertainties in wind speed and electricity sale price. A case study set in the American Midwest is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model by determining the optimal decisions for generation and transmission of renewable electricity. Sensitivity analysis shows that level of subsidy for renewable electricity production has a major impact on the decisions. - Highlights: • Stochastic optimization model for wind/biomass renewable electricity supply chain. • Multiple uncertainties in wind speeds and electricity sale price. • Proposed stochastic model outperforms the deterministic model under uncertainties. • Uncertainty affects grid connectivity and allocation of power generation capacity. • Location of wind farms is found to be insensitive to the stochastic environment

  11. IRIS: A Comprehensive Approach to Implementing Nuclear Power in Countries with Smaller Electric Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, B.; Carelli, M. D.; Sandell, L.; Storrick, G. D.; Cavlina, N.

    2008-01-01

    Many emerging markets and smaller size countries are considering the nuclear option and the deployment of their first nuclear reactor(s). However, some of their requirements and available infrastructure are quite different from those of larger countries currently employing nuclear power. Specific considerations might include: a small size electrical grid, in some cases on the order of a few GWe; limited financial resources; no nuclear experience; inadequate availability of necessary material and people infrastructure. Large nuclear power plants of 1000 MWe or greater do not provide best fit. The IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) reactor, under development by an international team of eighteen organizations from nine countries led by Westinghouse specifically addresses these needs. IRIS is an advanced PWR with integral configuration that yields a simple design with enhanced safety. The IRIS size is 335 MWe and may be deployed in single or multiple modules. It can fit almost any grid, or a small utility within a larger grid; moreover, it allows incremental power additions as needed. The capital outlay is of the order of hundreds of millions rather than a few billions dollars. Successive construction and operation of multiple modules significantly reduces the required capital resources and capital at risk with generation income from earlier plants offsetting the construction outlays of subsequent ones. This is highly desirable in both developed and emerging markets, but it may be of critical importance to the latter. IRIS safety characteristics allow for licensing with a significantly reduced size of emergency zone, a critical feature for small countries and when cogeneration is desired. In fact, IRIS is designed to produce steam for district heating, water desalination and bio-fuel generation in addition to electricity. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has announced in February 2008 its intention to contribute to funding the licensing of a 'Grid

  12. Uncertain Environmental Footprint of Current and Future Battery Electric Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Brian; Mutel, Christopher L; Bauer, Christian; Mendoza Beltran, Angelica; van Vuuren, Detlef P

    2018-04-17

    The future environmental impacts of battery electric vehicles (EVs) are very important given their expected dominance in future transport systems. Previous studies have shown these impacts to be highly uncertain, though a detailed treatment of this uncertainty is still lacking. We help to fill this gap by using Monte Carlo and global sensitivity analysis to quantify parametric uncertainty and also consider two additional factors that have not yet been addressed in the field. First, we include changes to driving patterns due to the introduction of autonomous and connected vehicles. Second, we deeply integrate scenario results from the IMAGE integrated assessment model into our life cycle database to include the impacts of changes to the electricity sector on the environmental burdens of producing and recharging future EVs. Future EVs are expected to have 45-78% lower climate change impacts than current EVs. Electricity used for charging is the largest source of variability in results, though vehicle size, lifetime, driving patterns, and battery size also strongly contribute to variability. We also show that it is imperative to consider changes to the electricity sector when calculating upstream impacts of EVs, as without this, results could be overestimated by up to 75%.

  13. Electricity Futures Prices : Time Varying Sensitivity to Fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S-E. Fleten (Stein-Erik); R. Huisman (Ronald); M. Kilic (Mehtap); H.P.G. Pennings (Enrico); S. Westgaard (Sjur)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis paper provides insight in the time-varying relation between electricity futures prices and fundamentals in the form of prices of contracts for fossil fuels. As supply curves are not constant and different producers have different marginal costs of production, we argue that the

  14. Connections beyond the margins of the power grid Information technology and the evolution of off-grid solar electricity in the developing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstone, Peter Michael

    This work explores the intersections of information technology and off-grid electricity deployment in the developing world with focus on a key instance: the emergence of pay-as-you-go (PAYG) solar household-scale energy systems. It is grounded in detailed field study by my research team in Kenya between 2013-2014 that included primary data collection across the solar supply chain from global businesses through national and local distribution and to the end-users. We supplement the information with business process and national survey data to develop a detailed view of the markets, technology systems, and individuals who interact within those frameworks. The findings are presented in this dissertation as a series of four chapters with introductory, bridging, and synthesis material between them. The first chapter, Decentralized Energy Systems for Clean Electricity Access, presents a global view of the emerging off-grid power sector. Long-run trends in technology create "a unique moment in history" for closing the gap between global population and access to electricity, which has stubbornly held at 1-2 billion people without power since the initiation of the electric utility business model in the late 1800's. We show the potential for widespread near-term adoption of off-grid solar, which could lead to ten times less inequality in access and also ten times lower household-level climate impacts. Decentralized power systems that replace fuel-based incumbent lighting can advance the causes of climate stabilization, economic and social freedom and human health. Chapters two and three are focused on market and institutional dynamics present circa 2014 in for off-grid solar with a focus on the Kenya market. Chapter 2, "Off-grid Power and Connectivity", presents our findings related to the widespread influence of information technology across the supply chain for solar and in PAYG approaches. Using digital financing and embedded payment verification technology, PAYG

  15. Grid Integration Research | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grid Integration Research Grid Integration Research Researchers study grid integration of wind three wind turbines with transmission lines in the background. Capabilities NREL's grid integration electric power system operators to more efficiently manage wind grid system integration. A photo of

  16. Current and future greenhouse gas emissions associated with electricity generation in China: implications for electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Han, Weijian; Wallington, Timothy J

    2014-06-17

    China's oil imports and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have grown rapidly over the past decade. Addressing energy security and GHG emissions is a national priority. Replacing conventional vehicles with electric vehicles (EVs) offers a potential solution to both issues. While the reduction in petroleum use and hence the energy security benefits of switching to EVs are obvious, the GHG benefits are less obvious. We examine the current Chinese electric grid and its evolution and discuss the implications for EVs. China's electric grid will be dominated by coal for the next few decades. In 2015 in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, EVs will need to use less than 14, 19, and 23 kWh/100 km, respectively, to match the 183 gCO2/km WTW emissions for energy saving vehicles. In 2020, in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou EVs will need to use less than 13, 18, and 20 kWh/100 km, respectively, to match the 137 gCO2/km WTW emissions for energy saving vehicles. EVs currently demonstrated in China use 24-32 kWh/100 km. Electrification will reduce petroleum imports; however, it will be very challenging for EVs to contribute to government targets for GHGs emissions reduction.

  17. Surface electric fields and geomagnetically induced currents in the Scottish Power grid during the 30 October 2003 geomagnetic storm

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Alan W.P.; McKay, Allan J.; Clarke, Ellen; Reay, Sarah J.

    2005-01-01

    A surface electric field model is used to estimate the UK surface E field during the 30 October 2003 severe geomagnetic storm. This model is coupled with a power grid model to determine the flow of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) through the Scottish part of the UK grid. Model data are compared with GIC measurements at four sites in the power network. During this storm, measured and modeled GIC levels exceeded 40 A, and the surface electric field reached 5 V/km at sites in ...

  18. Estimation of the cost savings from participation of electric vehicles in Vehicle to Grid (V2G) schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Kiaee, Mahdi; Cruden, Andrew; Sharkh, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    The storage capacity of the batteries in an electric vehicle (EV) could be utilised to store electrical energy and give it back to the grid when needed by participating in vehicle to grid (V2G) schemes. This participation could be a source of revenue for vehicle owners thus reducing the total charging cost of their EVs. A V2G simulator has been developed using MATLAB to find out the potential cost saving from participation of EVs in V2G schemes. A standard IEEE30 network has been modelled in ...

  19. Transmission pricing in privately-owned electricity grids: An illustration from the Argentine electricity pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdala, Manuel A.

    2008-01-01

    The Argentine electricity reform of 1992 offers an interesting example of decentralized transmission pricing arrangements within a competitive system. This paper is a shortened version of an original analysis made in 1994 of the regulation of the Argentine transmission system, with emphasis on investment cost allocation rules. To make up for the limitation of short-run marginal cost (SRMC) pricing, incentives on service quality were put in place, including penalties for lack of line availability. The mechanism for capacity expansion, based on ad-hoc rules for allocations of investment costs, had the potential to produce non-optimal investment outcomes, as such rules ignored beneficiaries on the demand side. For fine tuning of this system, I proposed an alternative rule based on traditional welfare analysis that broadens the universe of identified beneficiaries, and thus can be expected to produce a fairer outcome on investment cost allocation, reducing the potential risks of non-optimal investment. A brief postscript comments on the paper from the perspective of 2007. (author)

  20. Carbon dioxide emissions effects of grid-scale electricity storage in a decarbonizing power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Michael T.; Jaramillo, Paulina; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2018-01-01

    While grid-scale electricity storage (hereafter ‘storage’) could be crucial for deeply decarbonizing the electric power system, it would increase carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in current systems across the United States. To better understand how storage transitions from increasing to decreasing system CO2 emissions, we quantify the effect of storage on operational CO2 emissions as a power system decarbonizes under a moderate and strong CO2 emission reduction target through 2045. Under each target, we compare the effect of storage on CO2 emissions when storage participates in only energy, only reserve, and energy and reserve markets. We conduct our study in the Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) system and use a capacity expansion model to forecast generator fleet changes and a unit commitment and economic dispatch model to quantify system CO2 emissions with and without storage. We find that storage would increase CO2 emissions in the current ERCOT system, but would decrease CO2 emissions in 2025 through 2045 under both decarbonization targets. Storage reduces CO2 emissions primarily by enabling gas-fired generation to displace coal-fired generation, but also by reducing wind and solar curtailment. We further find that the market in which storage participates drives large differences in the magnitude, but not the direction, of the effect of storage on CO2 emissions.

  1. Power for the future : towards a sustainable electricity system for Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, M.S.; Horne, M.; McClenaghan, T.; Peters, R.

    2004-05-01

    Ontario's electricity system has undergone major changes since 1998, when the Hydro-Electric Power Commission was divided into four separate entities, Ontario Power Generation, Hydro One, the Ontario Electricity Financial Corporation, and the Electrical Safety Authority. In addition, retail and wholesale electricity markets were introduced in 2002 under the supervision of the Ontario Energy Board. The removal from service of several nuclear generating facilities in the province led to greater reliance on coal-fired generation to meet energy demands. In 2003, the newly elected provincial government made a commitment to phase out coal-fired plants by 2007 for environmental reasons. It is estimated that all the the existing nuclear facilities will reach their projected operational lifetimes by 2018. Given the province's growing electricity demand, several options have been proposed as to how future energy needs could be met. The options range from investment into low-impact renewable energy sources such as small-scale hydro, solar, biomass and wind, to the construction of new nuclear generating facilities. The Pembina Institute and the Canadian Environmental Law Association examined the following four key issues regarding Ontario's future direction in electricity generation, transmission and distribution: (1) by how much can electricity demand be reduced through the adoption of energy efficient technologies, fuel switching, cogeneration and demand response measures, (2) how much electricity supply can be obtained from low-impact renewable energy sources, (3) how should the grid demand be met once the electricity system has maximized the technically and economically feasible contributions from energy efficiency, fuel switching, cogeneration, response management measures (RMM) and renewable energy sources, and (4) what public policies should the province adopt to maximize energy efficiency, fuel switching, cogeneration, RMM and renewable energy sources. The Canadian

  2. Basic rules for defining price of use for the electricity grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iten, R.; Vettori, A.; Ott, W.; Wild, J.

    2003-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project that was to make suggestions on the basic rules that are to be used in defining the prices for the third-party use of the electricity grid for the transport of power. The report discusses the aims of these basic rules and the requirements placed on them. The rules are to help fulfil goals in the economic efficiency and energy policy areas, be transparent and cost-oriented and not be discriminatory. Also, theoretical fundamentals and experience gained in other countries are discussed. Comparisons are made between possible solutions and the suggestion already made by the Swiss Association of Power Utilities. Recommendations are made on the definition of grid price structures that contain energy and power components as well as an optional basic charge. The report also discusses the questions of charges for initial connection to the mains and those made when the supplier is changed

  3. Grid-connected solar electricity in France : the example of Martinique, a French overseas department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melle, Y. [Tenesol (France)

    2006-07-01

    Tenesol has specialized in photovoltaic (PV) solar energy since 1983 with experience in grid connections, professional applications, decentralized rural electrification and solar pumping. The company's operations include the manufacture of solar panels, system design and turnkey installations backed by a comprehensive after sales service through a global network of subsidiaries. Half of Tenesol's group shareholdings belong to Electricite de France and half belong to Total. The 2 specialized subsidiaries of Tenesol are Tenesa Manufacturing and Tenesol Technologies. This presentation focused Tenesol's operations in Martinique and its financial environment of grid-connected photovoltaics. It presented Tenesol's approach for technical and economic validation of roof suitability in terms of the disc orientation of PV panels. The key figures of installing a 300 square metre 40 kWp PV system were presented along with photographs of installations in Martinique. The installations have a total installed capacity of 2.5 MWp and an annual solar electricity production of 3,375,000 kWhs, resulting in a reduction of 3,000 tons of carbon dioxide annually. figs.

  4. Secure Plug-in Electric Vehicle PEV Charging in a Smart Grid Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Shuaib

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Charging of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs exposes smart grid systems and their users to different kinds of security and privacy attacks. Hence, a secure charging protocol is required for PEV charging. Existing PEV charging protocols are usually based on insufficiently represented and simplified charging models that do not consider the user’s charging modes (charging at a private location, charging as a guest user, roaming within one’s own supplier network or roaming within other suppliers’ networks. However, the requirement for charging protocols depends greatly on the user’s charging mode. Consequently, available solutions do not provide complete protocol specifications. Moreover, existing protocols do not support anonymous user authentication and payment simultaneously. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive end-to-end charging protocol that addresses the security and privacy issues in PEV charging. The proposed protocol uses nested signatures to protect users’ privacy from external suppliers, their own suppliers and third parties. Our approach supports anonymous user authentication, anonymous payment, as well as anonymous message exchange between suppliers within a hierarchical smart grid architecture. We have verified our protocol using the AVISPA software verification tool and the results showed that our protocol is secure and works as desired.

  5. Integration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) with grid connected residential photovoltaic energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Adarsh; Shireen, Wajiha

    2013-06-01

    This paper proposes an approach for integrating Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) to an existing residential photovoltaic system, to control and optimize the power consumption of residential load. Control involves determining the source from which residential load will be catered, where as optimization of power flow reduces the stress on the grid. The system built to achieve the goal is a combination of the existing residential photovoltaic system, PHEV, Power Conditioning Unit (PCU), and a controller. The PCU involves two DC-DC Boost Converters and an inverter. This paper emphasizes on developing the controller logic and its implementation in order to accommodate the flexibility and benefits of the proposed integrated system. The proposed controller logic has been simulated using MATLAB SIMULINK and further implemented using Digital Signal Processor (DSP) microcontroller, TMS320F28035, from Texas Instruments

  6. The Perspective of Small and Medium Size Nuclear Power Reactors in the Brazilian Isolated Electricity Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutinho dos Santos, E.

    1998-01-01

    As a consequence of the international crisis that has shaken the nuclear industry almost all over the world during the late 1980s, new academic contributions, which could settle a new basis for the nuclear energy in Brazil, have been scarce. This paper aims to partially fulfill this gap. We discuss some perspectives for the nuclear option to regain some prominence in the Brazilian energy matrix. Recent developments in the nuclear industry, including advances in plant design, have been opening interesting markets for small and medium nuclear power reactors (SMNPRs). We access the suitability and feasibility of such new technology in the Brazilian isolated electricity grids. We conclude by saying that, although the difficulties are still huge, SMNPRs may be a good strategy for Brazil to revitalize its nuclear policy. (author)

  7. Day-ahead tariffs for the alleviation of distribution grid congestion from electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    An economically efficient day-ahead tariff (DT) is proposed with the purpose of preventing the distribution grid congestion resulting from electric vehicle (EV) charging scheduled on a dayahead basis. The DT concept developed herein is derived from the locational marginal price (LMP), in particular...... the congestion cost component of the LMP. A step-wise congestion management structure has been developed whereby the distribution system operator (DSO) predicts congestion for the coming day and publishes DTs prior to the clearing of the day-ahead market. EV fleet operators (FOs) optimize their EV charging...... schedules with respect to the predicted day-ahead prices and the published DTs, thereby avoiding congestion while still minimizing the charging cost. A Danish 400V distribution network is used to carry out case studies to illustrate the effectiveness of the developed concept for the prevention...

  8. A Comprehensive Study of Key Electric Vehicle (EV Components, Technologies, Challenges, Impacts, and Future Direction of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad Un-Noor

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles (EV, including Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV, Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV, Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV, are becoming more commonplace in the transportation sector in recent times. As the present trend suggests, this mode of transport is likely to replace internal combustion engine (ICE vehicles in the near future. Each of the main EV components has a number of technologies that are currently in use or can become prominent in the future. EVs can cause significant impacts on the environment, power system, and other related sectors. The present power system could face huge instabilities with enough EV penetration, but with proper management and coordination, EVs can be turned into a major contributor to the successful implementation of the smart grid concept. There are possibilities of immense environmental benefits as well, as the EVs can extensively reduce the greenhouse gas emissions produced by the transportation sector. However, there are some major obstacles for EVs to overcome before totally replacing ICE vehicles. This paper is focused on reviewing all the useful data available on EV configurations, battery energy sources, electrical machines, charging techniques, optimization techniques, impacts, trends, and possible directions of future developments. Its objective is to provide an overall picture of the current EV technology and ways of future development to assist in future researches in this sector.

  9. When energy grids become intelligent: smart grid standardisation in the starting-blocks; interconnection in Europe: 50 billions Euros to boost all networks; smart electric grids feed new projects; The United States and Europe connect standards on smart electric grids; smart metering: standards place their marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedey, Fabienne; Tourneur, Jean-Claude; Barthet, Marie-Claire

    2012-01-01

    As talking about smart grids has became a leitmotiv, their development appears to be complex as it requires all the actors (carriers, dealers, providers, decentralised producers, consumers, equipment manufacturers, and so on) to share a same transverse vision. A European cooperation group has been set up which gathers representatives of the European electrical and telecommunication industry. Beside, the European Commission has presented a plan which comprises 50 billions Euros of investments to improve all networks in the fields of transports, energy and digital technology. In France, six projects on smart grids gathered 115 millions Euros. At the international level, the NIST and SGCG have been asked to cooperatively elaborate a standard framework for smart grids. But smart metering concerns other fields than electricity...

  10. Analysis of breakdown on thermal and electrical measurements for SPIDER accelerating grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesce, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.pesce@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX - Associazione EURATOM-ENEA per la fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Pomaro, Nicola [Consorzio RFX - Associazione EURATOM-ENEA per la fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    The PRIMA test facility, under realization in Padova, includes a full size plasma source prototype for ITER, called SPIDER (Source for the Production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from Radio Frequency plasma). The effects of breakdown in the electrical insulation inside the ion source are analyzed with particular care to the embedded diagnostic system, i.e. the thermal and electrical measurements installed on the grids and ion source case and transferred by multipolar cables to the acquisition system, located inside the 100 kV insulated deck and hosting the ion source power supply, the signal conditioning and the acquisition cubicles. The breakdown affects strongly the measurements, so it has to be mitigated in order to guarantee adequate reliability of the whole measurement set. A parametric study has been carried out on a detailed circuital model for fast transients, implemented using SimPowerSystems{sup TM} tool of Matlab Simulink code. The model includes all the relevant conductors of the subsystems downstream the insulating transformer of the Accelerating Grids Power Supply (AGPS), i.e. the AGPS rectifier, the multipolar transmission line, the 100 kV High Voltage Deck, the ion source power supply and the ion source itself. In particular all the magnetic and capacitive couplings have been computed by a proper 2D fem model. The optimization of the cabling layout, of the wire screening and of the protection devices, like surge arresters and resistors, has been carried out through the accurate modeling of the circuit. The energy dissipated on each ion source surge arrester is estimated and adequate TSD (transient suppression devices) are selected. A peculiar and difficult to satisfy requirement is the high number of surges that the TSD has to withstand. Breakdowns between components polarized at different voltages have been considered, in order to inspect the worst condition during a breakdown.

  11. The promotion of green electricity in Europe: present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, Pablo del [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Facultad de Ciencias Juridicas y Sociales, Toledo (Spain); Gual, Miguel [Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Sevilla (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    Public support schemes for electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E) are undergoing a period of change. Two interrelated processes can be discerned at both the EU and member state (MS) levels. On the one hand, the RES-E Directive sets targets for consump